Science.gov

Sample records for activity occurs predominantly

  1. Complement activation by apoptotic cells occurs predominantly via IgM and is limited to late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Bas; Ciurana, Caroline; Rensink, Irma; Manoe, Rishi; Hack, C Erik; Aarden, Lucien A

    2004-03-01

    Apoptotic cells activate complement via various molecular mechanisms. It is not known which of these mechanisms predominate in a physiological environment. Using Jurkat cells as a model, we investigated complement deposition on vital, early and late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells in a physiological medium, human plasma, and established the main molecular mechanism involved in this activation. Upon incubation with recalcified plasma, binding of C3 and C4 to early apoptotic cells was similar to background binding on vital cells. In contrast, late apoptotic (secondary necrotic) cells consistently displayed substantial binding of C4 and C3 and low, but detectable, binding of C1q. Binding of C3 and C4 to the apoptotic cells was abolished by EDTA or Mg-EGTA, and also by C1-inhibitor or a monoclonal antibody that inhibits C1q binding, indicating that complement fixation by the apoptotic cells was mainly dependent on the classical pathway. Late apoptotic cells also consistently bound IgM, in which binding significantly correlated with that of C4 and C3. Depletion of plasma for IgM abolished most of the complement fixation by apoptotic cells, which was restored by supplementation with purified IgM. We conclude that complement binding by apoptotic cells in normal human plasma occurs mainly to late apoptotic, secondary necrotic cells, and that the dominant mechanism involves classical pathway activation by IgM.

  2. Microbial Toluene Removal in Hypoxic Model Constructed Wetlands Occurs Predominantly via the Ring Monooxygenation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Lavanchy, P. M.; Chen, Z.; Lünsmann, V.; Marin-Cevada, V.; Vilchez-Vargas, R.; Pieper, D. H.; Reiche, N.; Kappelmeyer, U.; Imparato, V.; Junca, H.; Nijenhuis, I.; Müller, J. A.; Kuschk, P.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, microbial toluene degradation in controlled constructed wetland model systems, planted fixed-bed reactors (PFRs), was queried with DNA-based methods in combination with stable isotope fractionation analysis and characterization of toluene-degrading microbial isolates. Two PFR replicates were operated with toluene as the sole external carbon and electron source for 2 years. The bulk redox conditions in these systems were hypoxic to anoxic. The autochthonous bacterial communities, as analyzed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, were mainly comprised of the families Xanthomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Burkholderiaceae, plus Rhodospirillaceae in one of the PFR replicates. DNA microarray analyses of the catabolic potentials for aromatic compound degradation suggested the presence of the ring monooxygenation pathway in both systems, as well as the anaerobic toluene pathway in the PFR replicate with a high abundance of Rhodospirillaceae. The presence of catabolic genes encoding the ring monooxygenation pathway was verified by quantitative PCR analysis, utilizing the obtained toluene-degrading isolates as references. Stable isotope fractionation analysis showed low-level of carbon fractionation and only minimal hydrogen fractionation in both PFRs, which matches the fractionation signatures of monooxygenation and dioxygenation. In combination with the results of the DNA-based analyses, this suggests that toluene degradation occurs predominantly via ring monooxygenation in the PFRs. PMID:26150458

  3. Microbial Toluene Removal in Hypoxic Model Constructed Wetlands Occurs Predominantly via the Ring Monooxygenation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lavanchy, P M; Chen, Z; Lünsmann, V; Marin-Cevada, V; Vilchez-Vargas, R; Pieper, D H; Reiche, N; Kappelmeyer, U; Imparato, V; Junca, H; Nijenhuis, I; Müller, J A; Kuschk, P; Heipieper, H J

    2015-09-01

    In the present study, microbial toluene degradation in controlled constructed wetland model systems, planted fixed-bed reactors (PFRs), was queried with DNA-based methods in combination with stable isotope fractionation analysis and characterization of toluene-degrading microbial isolates. Two PFR replicates were operated with toluene as the sole external carbon and electron source for 2 years. The bulk redox conditions in these systems were hypoxic to anoxic. The autochthonous bacterial communities, as analyzed by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons, were mainly comprised of the families Xanthomonadaceae, Comamonadaceae, and Burkholderiaceae, plus Rhodospirillaceae in one of the PFR replicates. DNA microarray analyses of the catabolic potentials for aromatic compound degradation suggested the presence of the ring monooxygenation pathway in both systems, as well as the anaerobic toluene pathway in the PFR replicate with a high abundance of Rhodospirillaceae. The presence of catabolic genes encoding the ring monooxygenation pathway was verified by quantitative PCR analysis, utilizing the obtained toluene-degrading isolates as references. Stable isotope fractionation analysis showed low-level of carbon fractionation and only minimal hydrogen fractionation in both PFRs, which matches the fractionation signatures of monooxygenation and dioxygenation. In combination with the results of the DNA-based analyses, this suggests that toluene degradation occurs predominantly via ring monooxygenation in the PFRs.

  4. Recombination of homologous DNA fragments transfected into mammalian cells occurs predominantly by terminal pairing.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, R A; Eliason, S L

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism by which double-strand cleavages stimulate the joining of plasmid DNA fragments introduced into cultured mammalian cells was investigated by cotransfecting pairs of plasmids encoding deletion mutations in a dominant selectable gene into LMtk- cells. Plasmid recombination substrates were produced by creating deletions of different sizes within the neo coding region of the pSV2neo plasmid. Complementing pairs of deleted plasmid DNAs were linearized at specific unique sites before cotransfection into mouse LMtk- cells by the calcium phosphate precipitation method. Cleaving one donor plasmid produced a 4- to 10-fold stimulation in the production of colonies able to survive in medium containing G-418. The linearization of the second plasmid further increased the efficiency by another factor of 6 to 15 when the cut was made on the opposite side of the homology, approximately equidistant from the center of the overlap. Fifty-seven individual G-418-resistant colonies representing the products of individual crosses were isolated, and the genomic DNAs containing the presumably integrated, functional recombinant neo genes were analyzed on Southern blots. A band consistent with the exchange of markers flanking the neo gene was present in 90% of the DNAs examined. In only one case was the pattern indicative of either a double crossover or a gene conversion event. These results support the idea that homologous extrachromosomal DNA fragments are joined through annealing of overlapping single-stranded ends. This DNA-joining phenomenon may represent the activity of cellular DNA repair enzymes; its relationship to genetic recombination occurring at the chromosomal level remains to be determined. Images PMID:3023971

  5. Dermatologic conditions in skin of color: part II. Disorders occurring predominately in skin of color.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Roopal V; Patterson, Stavonnie

    2013-06-15

    Several skin conditions are more common in persons with skin of color, including dermatosis papulosa nigra, pseudofolliculitis barbae, acne keloidalis nuchae, and keloids. Dermatosis papulosa nigra is a common benign condition characterized by skin lesions that do not require treatment, although several options are available for removal to address cosmetic concerns. Pseudofolliculitis barbae occurs as a result of hair removal. Altering shaving techniques helps prevent lesions from recurring. In acne keloidalis nuchae, keloidal lesions are found on the occipital scalp and posterior neck. Early treatment with steroids, antibiotics, and retinoids prevents progression. A key part of the management of keloids is prevention. First-line medical therapy includes intralesional steroid injections. The distinct structure of the hair follicle in blacks results in hair care practices that can lead to common scalp disorders. For example, chemical relaxers decrease the strength of hair and may cause breakage. Better patient education, with early diagnosis and treatment, often leads to better outcomes.

  6. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  7. Naturally occurring cobalamins have antimalarial activity.

    PubMed

    Chemaly, Susan M; Chen, Chien-Teng; van Zyl, Robyn L

    2007-05-01

    The acquisition of resistance by malaria parasites towards existing antimalarials has necessitated the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. The effect of vitamin B(12) derivatives on the formation of beta-haematin (synthetic haemozoin) was determined under conditions similar to those in the parasitic food vacuole (using chloroquine, a known inhibitor of haemozoin formation for comparison). Adenosylcobalamin (Ado-cbl), methylcobalamin (CH(3)-cbl) and aquocobalamin (H(2)O-cbl) were approximately forty times more effective inhibitors of beta-haematin formation than chloroquine, cyanocobalamin (CN-cbl) was slightly more inhibitory than chloroquine, while dicyanocobinamide had no effect. It is proposed that the cobalamins exert their inhibitory effect on beta-haematin formation by pi-interactions of their corrin ring with the Fe(III)-protoporphyrin ring and by hydrogen-bonding using their 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole/ribose/sugar side-chain. The antimalarial activity for the cobalamins (Ado-cbl>CH(3)-cbl>H(2)O-cbl>CN-cbl) was found to be less than that for chloroquine or quinine. Ado-cbl, CH(3)-cbl and CN-cbl do not accumulate in the parasite food vacuole by pH trapping, but H(2)O-cbl does. Unlike humans, the malaria parasite has only one enzyme that uses cobalamin as a cofactor, namely methionine synthase, which is important for growth and metabolism. Thus cobalamins in very small amounts are necessary for Plasmodium falciparum growth but in larger amounts they display antimalarial properties. PMID:17343914

  8. School Counselors' Activities in Predominantly African American Urban Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Lacretia

    2014-01-01

    A total of 102 school counselors who worked in predominantly African American urban schools in Michigan were surveyed to ascertain how frequently they engaged in school counseling activities as conceptualized by the American School Counseling Association. Additionally, this exploratory study sought to determine whether there were differences in…

  9. 32 CFR 716.6 - Death occurring after active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Death occurring after active service. 716.6 Section 716.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.6 Death occurring after...

  10. 32 CFR 716.6 - Death occurring after active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Death occurring after active service. 716.6 Section 716.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.6 Death occurring after...

  11. 32 CFR 716.6 - Death occurring after active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Death occurring after active service. 716.6 Section 716.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.6 Death occurring after...

  12. 32 CFR 716.6 - Death occurring after active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Death occurring after active service. 716.6 Section 716.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.6 Death occurring after...

  13. 32 CFR 716.6 - Death occurring after active service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Death occurring after active service. 716.6 Section 716.6 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.6 Death occurring after...

  14. Predominant bacteria in an activated sludge reactor for the degradation of cutting fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, C.A.; Claus, G.W.; Taylor, P.A.

    1983-01-01

    For the first time, an activated sludge reactor, established for the degradation of cutting fluids, was examined for predominant bacteria. In addition, both total and viable numbers of bacteria in the reactor were determined so that the percentage of each predominant type in the total reactor population could be determined. Three samples were studied, and a total of 15 genera were detected. In each sample, the genus Pseudomonas and the genus Microcyclus were present in high numbers. Three other genera, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, and Corynebacterium, were also found in every sample but in lower numbers. In one sample, numerous appendage bacteria were present, and one of these, the genus Seliberia, was the most predominant organism in that sample. However, in the other two samples no appendage bacteria were detected. Six genera were found in this reactor which have not been previously reported in either cutting fluids in use or in other activated sludge systems. These genera were Aeromonas, Hyphomonas, Listeria, Microcyclus, Moraxella, and Spirosoma. None of the predominant bacterial belonged to groups of strict pathogens. 22 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  15. Physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age birth among predominantly Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Gollenberg, Audra L; Pekow, Penelope; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R; Freedson, Patty S; Markenson, Glenn; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the association between multiple domains of physical activity and risk of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. We utilized data from 1,040 participants in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of predominantly Puerto Rican prenatal care patients in Massachusetts. Physical activity was assessed by bilingual interviewers using a modified version of the Kaiser physical activity survey in early (mean = 15 weeks) and mid pregnancy (mean = 28 weeks). Physical activity (i.e., sports/exercise, household, occupational, and active living) in pre, early and mid pregnancy was categorized in quartiles. SGA was classified as <10th percentile of birth weight for gestational age. Pre- and early-pregnancy physical activity were not associated with SGA. In multivariable analyses, women with high total activity in mid-pregnancy had a decreased risk of SGA [risk ratio (RR) = 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21-0.82; p(trend) = 0.003] as compared to those with low total activity. Findings were similar for high household activity (RR = 0.69; 95% CI = 0.34-1.40; p(trend) = 0.26), active living (RR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.35-1.13; p(trend) = 0.04), and occupational activity (RR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.47-1.34; p(trend) = 0.26). High levels of sports/exercise were associated with an increased SGA risk without a significant dose-response association (RR = 2.14, 95% CI 1.04-4.39; p(trend) = 0.33). Results extend prior studies of physical activity and SGA to the Hispanic population.

  16. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  17. Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

  18. An update on antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades.

  19. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted.

  20. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted. PMID:27433836

  1. Active experiments, magnetospheric modification, and a naturally occurring analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Recently, a scheme has been proposed which would modify the magnetosphere by injecting plasma near the equator beyond the plasmapause and initiating wave-particle instabilities. The expected effects have been examined theoretically. Injection of plasma into this region is also a naturally occurring phenomenon produced by the cross-tail electric fields which are associated with geomagnetic activity. For further investigation of magnetospheric instabilities, the advantages of examining artificially injected plasma (control of time and location of injection and of the volume of plasma injected) contrast with the advantages of studying natural enhancements (no extra payload, frequent occurrence). Thus, the two types of experiments are complementary. In preliminary studies of natural plasma enhancements both ULF and ELF emissions have been observed. The ELF noise is consistent with generation by the electron cyclotron instability.

  2. The predominance of alternatively activated macrophages following challenge with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide after prior infection with Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Alegranci, Pamela; de Abreu Ribeiro, Livia Carolina; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Negrini, Thais de Cássia; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Tansini, Aline; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This disease generally occurs within the skin and subcutaneous tissues, causing lesions that can spread through adjacent lymphatic vessels and sometimes leading to systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages are crucial for proper immune responses against a variety of pathogens. Furthermore, macrophages can play different roles in response to different microorganisms and forms of activation, and they can be divided into "classic" or "alternatively" activated populations, as also known as M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 cells can lead to tissue injury and contribute to pathogenesis, whereas M2 cells promote angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in a sporotrichosis model. Toward this end, we performed phenotyping of peritoneal exudate cells and evaluated the concomitant production of several immunomediators, including IL-12, IL-10, TGF-β, nitric oxide, and arginase-I activity, which were stimulated ex vivo with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide. Our results showed the predominance of the M2 macrophage population, indicated by peaks of arginase-I activity as well as IL-10 and TGF-β production during the 6th and 8th weeks after infection. These results were consistent with cellular phenotyping that revealed increases in CD206-positive cells over this period. This is the first report of the participation of M2 macrophages in sporotrichosis infections.

  3. Clostridium difficile flagella predominantly activate TLR5-linked NF-κB pathway in epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Batah, Jameel; Denève-Larrazet, Cécile; Jolivot, Pierre-Alain; Kuehne, Sarah; Collignon, Anne; Marvaud, Jean-Christophe; Kansau, Imad

    2016-04-01

    Clostridium difficile has become the most common enteropathogen responsible for intestinal nosocomial post-antibiotic infections. This has coincided with the appearance of serious cases related to the emergence of hypervirulent strains. The toxins are the main virulence factors and elicit an inflammatory response during C. difficile infection. However, other bacterial components appear to be involved in the inflammatory process. In some pathogens, flagella play a role in pathogenesis through abnormal stimulation of the TLR5-mediated host immune response. To date, few studies have addressed this role for C. difficile flagella. In the current study, we confirm in two different epithelial cell models that C. difficile thanks to its FliC flagellin interacts with TLR5. In addition, thanks to inhibition and transcriptomic studies we demonstrate that the interaction of flagellin and TLR5 predominantly activates the NF-κB and, in a lesser degree, the MAPK pathways, via TLR5, leading to up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression and synthesis of pro-inflammatory mediators. These results suggest a role for C. difficile flagella in contributing to inflammatory response in host intestinal cells. PMID:26790921

  4. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug. PMID:26974691

  5. 33 CFR 330.3 - Activities occurring before certain dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waters of the United States outside the limits of navigable waters of the United States that occurred before the phase-in dates which extended Section 404 jurisdiction to all waters of the United States. The phase-in dates were: After July 25, 1975, discharges into navigable waters......

  6. 33 CFR 330.3 - Activities occurring before certain dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... waters of the United States outside the limits of navigable waters of the United States that occurred before the phase-in dates which extended Section 404 jurisdiction to all waters of the United States. The phase-in dates were: After July 25, 1975, discharges into navigable waters......

  7. 33 CFR 330.3 - Activities occurring before certain dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waters of the United States outside the limits of navigable waters of the United States that occurred before the phase-in dates which extended Section 404 jurisdiction to all waters of the United States. The phase-in dates were: After July 25, 1975, discharges into navigable waters......

  8. 33 CFR 330.3 - Activities occurring before certain dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... waters of the United States outside the limits of navigable waters of the United States that occurred before the phase-in dates which extended Section 404 jurisdiction to all waters of the United States. The phase-in dates were: After July 25, 1975, discharges into navigable waters......

  9. Predominant Microbial Assemblages and Enzyme Activities during Record Drought and Heat in Agricultural Soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification of microbial assemblages predominant under natural extreme climatic events will aid in our understanding of the resilience and resistance of microbial communities to climate change. From November 2010 to August 2011, the Southern High Plains (SHP) of Texas, U.S., received only 39.6 mm...

  10. Facile synthesis and antibacterial activity of naturally occurring 5-methoxyfuroflavone.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohammad Sayed; Lee, Dong-Ung

    2010-12-01

    A convenient synthesis of 5-methoxyfuroflavone (6, pongaglabol methyl ether), a constituent of some Pongamia or Millettia genus, was achieved by starting from 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone via a chalcone precursor, followed by treatment with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). This five-step reaction (total yield: 21.6%) is more facile with that of previously utilized procedures using each different starting material. Antibacterial activities of the above compound and its precursor chalcones, which also belongs to the class of furoflavonoids, were tested by the disc diffusion method against Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, Streptococcus-β-haemolyticus, and Staphylococcus aureus. 5-Methoxyfuroflavone showed moderate bactericidal activity against all tested bacterial strains, whereas its corresponding chalcone compound revealed a selective activity. PMID:21139271

  11. Insulin-induced hypoglycemia activates the release of adrenocorticotropin predominantly via central and propranolol insensitive mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Jezová, D; Kvetnanský, R; Kovács, K; Oprsalová, Z; Vigas, M; Makara, G B

    1987-01-01

    The dynamic patterns of pituitary-adrenocortical and sympatho-adrenal hormone responses to insulin hypoglycemia as well as the relative importance of central vs. peripheral control of hypoglycemia-induced ACTH secretion were evaluated. In conscious rats bearing indwelling cannulae, the changes in hormone concentrations after insulin injection were dependent on the changes in blood glucose levels with respect to both time course and magnitude. ACTH, corticosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine levels were found to be maximal at 60 min after 2.5 IU kg-1 insulin injected ip, whereas earlier (20 min) but smaller increases were obtained in response to 0.5 IU kg-1 insulin injected iv. In rats 6-7 days after lesions of the medial basal hypothalamus (MBH), the rise of ACTH during insulin hypoglycemia was markedly inhibited and corticosterone levels were significantly reduced. Simultaneously, the hypoglycemia-induced increase in plasma epinephrine was unchanged and that in plasma norepinephrine was significantly enhanced in rats with the MBH destroyed. The beta-adrenoreceptor blocker propranolol did not inhibit ACTH and corticosterone responses to hypoglycemia in either sham-operated or MBH-lesioned animals. We conclude that the main factors triggering ACTH release during insulin-induced hypoglycemia are of central rather than peripheral origin. The high concentrations of circulating catecholamines occurring during insulin hypoglycemia are not responsible for pituitary-adrenocortical activation by direct, beta-adrenoreceptor mediated action at the pituitary level. PMID:3023036

  12. Functional heterogeneity of rat hepatocytes: predominance of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activity in perivenular zone.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, J; Endou, H; Sato, A; Hasumura, Y; Takeuchi, J

    1988-06-01

    To elucidate the hepatic intralobular distribution of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity biochemically, periportal (PP) and perivenular hepatocytes (PV) from male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated by a fluorescence-activated cell sorter after labeling the PP zone with fluorescein diacetate and the perivenular zone with fluorescein isothiocyanate. AHH activity was higher in PV than in PP. The enzyme activity was induced about 6-fold in hepatocytes of rats pretreated with 3-methyl-cholanthrene, and the induction was more prominent in PP than in PV. Neither phenobarbital pretreatment nor altered lipid content of the diet induced the change in the enzyme activity.

  13. Predominance of modern Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains and active transmission of Beijing sublineage in Jayapura, Indonesia Papua.

    PubMed

    Chaidir, Lidya; Sengstake, Sarah; de Beer, Jessica; Oktavian, Antonius; Krismawati, Hana; Muhapril, Erfin; Kusumadewi, Inri; Annisa, Jessi; Anthony, Richard; van Soolingen, Dick; Achmad, Tri Hanggono; Marzuki, Sangkot; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van Crevel, Reinout

    2016-04-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotype distribution is different between West and Central Indonesia, but there are no data on the most Eastern part, Papua. We aimed to identify the predominant genotypes of M. tuberculosis responsible for tuberculosis in coastal Papua, their transmission, and the association with patient characteristics. A total of 199 M. tuberculosis isolates were collected. Spoligotyping was applied to describe the population structure of M. tuberculosis, lineage identification was performed using a combination of lineage-specific markers, and genotypic clusters were identified using a combination of 24-locus-MIRU-VNTR and spoligotyping. A high degree of genetic diversity was observed among isolates based on their spoligopatterns. Strains from modern lineage 4 made up almost half of strains (46.9%), being more abundant than the ancient lineage 1 (33.7%), and modern lineage 2 (19.4%). Thirty-five percent of strains belonged to genotypic clusters, especially strains in the Beijing genotype. Previous TB treatment and mutations associated with drug resistance were more common in patients infected with strains of the Beijing genotype. Papua shows a different distribution of M. tuberculosis genotypes compared to other parts of Indonesia. Clustering and drug resistance of modern strains recently introduced to Papua may contribute to the high tuberculosis burden in this region.

  14. The Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggest at least 30 min of moderate physical activity at least 5 days a week or 20 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 days a week. The overall aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of a web-based intervention--one that relied on…

  15. 12 CFR 242.3 - Nonbank companies “predominantly engaged” in financial activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... a financial activity. (5) Intangible assets. Intangible assets are treated in the same manner as the transaction or asset that gives rise to the intangible asset. ...(k) of the BHC Act. (2) Effect of other authority. Any activity described in the appendix...

  16. Arabidopsis Protein Repair L-Isoaspartyl Methyltransferases: Predominant Activities at Lethal Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Villa, Sarah T; Xu, Qilong; Downie, A Bruce; Clarke, Steven G

    2006-12-01

    Protein L-isoaspartyl (D-aspartyl) O-methyltransferases (EC 2.1.1.77; PIMT or PCMT) are enzymes that initiate the full or partial repair of damaged L-aspartyl and L-asparaginyl residues, respectively. These enzymes are found in most organisms and maintain a high degree of sequence conservation. Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis L. Heynh.) is unique among eukaryotes in that it contains two genes, rather than one, that encode PIMT isozymes. We describe a novel Arabidopsis PIMT isozyme, designated AtPIMT2αω, encoded by the PIMT2 gene (At5g50240). We characterized the enzymatic activity of the recombinant AtPIMT2αω in comparison to the other AtPIMT2 isozymes, AtPIMT1, and to the human PCMT ortholog, to better understand its role in Arabidopsis. All Arabidopsis PIMT isozymes are active over a relatively wide pH range. For AtPIMT2αω maximal activity is observed at 50 °C (a lethal temperature for Arabidopsis); this activity is almost ten times greater than the activity at the growth temperature of 25 °C. Interestingly, enzyme activity decreases after pre-incubation at temperatures above 30°C. A similar situation is found for the recombinant AtPIMT2ψ and the AtPIMT2ω isozymes, as well as for the AtPIMT1 and human PCMT1 enzymes. These results suggest that the short-term ability of these methyltransferases to initiate repair under extreme temperature conditions may be a common feature of both the plant and animal species.

  17. EVALUATION OF ESTROGENIC ACTIVITY FROM A MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT WITH PREDOMINANTLY DOMESTIC INPUT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study was to survey estrogenic releases from two primarily domestic wastewater treatment plants over three seasons (1996-1999). Mature male channel catfish were maintained at two sites within each WWTP and a reference site for 21 days. Estrogenic activity of e...

  18. Overweight, Obesity and Strong Attitudes: Predicting Participation in Physical Activity in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Thompson, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is the leading cause of preventable death and conveys risk for diabetes, hypertension, heart disease and stroke. Overweight and obesity are common among college students, with surveys showing 35 per cent of college students to be overweight. Unhealthy diets and low physical activity are the major causes. Objective: To examine…

  19. Human activities predominate in determining changing incidence of tick-borne encephalitis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Randolph, S E

    2010-07-01

    Explanations for the dynamics of tick-borne disease systems usually focus on changes in the transmission potential in natural enzootic cycles. These are undoubtedly important, but recent analyses reveal that they may not be quantitatively the most significant side of the interaction between infected ticks and humans. Variation in human activities that may impact inadvertently but positively on both the enzootic cycles and the degree of human exposure to those cycles, provide more robust explanations for recent upsurges in tick-borne encephalitis in Europe. This can account for long-term increases in incidence that coincided with post-soviet political independence, for small-scales spatial variation in incidence within a country, and for short-scale fluctuations such as annual spikes in incidence. The patterns of relevant human activities, typically those related to the use of forest resources, are evidently driven and/or constrained by the cultural and socio-economic circumstances of each population, resulting in contrasting national epidemiological outcomes.

  20. In vitro activities of Ro 40-6890 against 164 predominantly intestinal members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae.

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, P; Zollinger-Iten, J; von Graevenitz, A

    1992-01-01

    The in vitro activities of Ro 40-6890, the active metabolite of a novel orally absorbable cephalosporin ester, Ro 41-3399, against 164 nonfastidious aerobic gram-negative rods of predominantly intestinal origin from patients with diarrhea were evaluated by the agar dilution method recommended by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Ro 40-6890 was inhibitory (MIC for 90% of isolates [MIC90], 0.12 micrograms/ml) against the majority of intestinal members of the families Enterobacteriaceae and Vibrionaceae (Vibrio spp., Aeromonas spp., and Plesiomonas shigelloides). The potency of Ro 40-6890 was very similar to that of cefotaxime (MIC90, 0.12 micrograms/ml) and distinctly higher than those of cefadroxil (MIC90, > or = 128 micrograms/ml) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (MIC90, 32 micrograms/ml-2 micrograms/ml). PMID:1482154

  1. Frontal predominance of a relative increase in sleep delta and theta EEG activity after sleep loss in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cajochen, C.; Foy, R.; Dijk, D. J.; Czeisler, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of sleep deprivation (40 h) on topographic and temporal aspects of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during sleep was investigated by all night spectral analysis in six young volunteers. The sleep-deprivation-induced increase of EEG power density in the delta and theta frequencies (1-7 Hz) during nonREM sleep, assessed along the antero-posterior axis (midline: Fz, Cz, Pz, Oz), was significantly larger in the more frontal derivations (Fz, Cz) than in the more parietal derivations (Pz, Oz). This frequency-specific frontal predominance was already present in the first 30 min of recovery sleep, and dissipated in the course of the 8-h sleep episode. The data demonstrate that the enhancement of slow wave EEG activity during sleep following extended wakefulness is most pronounced in frontal cortical areas.

  2. The isolation and identification of two compounds with predominant radical scavenging activity in hempseed (seed of Cannabis sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Chen, Tianpeng; He, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jianchun; Li, Xiaohui; Zhang, Hua; Hao, Jianxiong; Li, Lite

    2012-09-15

    Forty samples were extracted from defatted kernels and hulls of two varieties of hempseed (Bama and Yunma No. 1) using 10 different polar solvent systems. The radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-pikrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) assays and the total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu's phenol reagent. The correlation analysis indicated that the antioxidants in hempseed belonged to phenolic and DPPH() assay was suitable for evaluating the radical scavenging activity. Two compounds, with predominant antiradical activity, were isolated in 60% ethanol extract of hempseed hull using macroporous resin absorption, LH-20 gel chromatography, and high performance liquid chromatography methods, which were identified as N-trans-caffeoyltyramine and cannabisin B by high-resolution mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and ultraviolet data. The two compounds exhibited significant high DPPH() scavenging activity and protective effect against in vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein compared with extracts from flaxseed, grape seed, and soybean. This suggests that hempseed hull extract is a potential source of natural antioxidants, which could be added to dietary supplements to help prevent oxidative stress.

  3. Lack of metabolic activation and predominant formation of an excreted metabolite of nontoxic platynecine-type pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jianqing; Liao, Cangsong; Ye, Yang; Lin, Ge

    2014-01-21

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (PA) poisoning is well-known because of the intake of PA-containing plant-derived natural products and PA-contaminated foodstuffs. Based on different structures of the necine bases, PAs are classified into three types: retronecine, otonecine, and platynecine type. The former two type PAs possessing an unsaturated necine base with a 1,2-double bond are hepatotoxic due to the P450-mediated metabolic activation to generate reactive pyrrolic ester, which interacts with cellular macromolecules leading to toxicity. With a saturated necine base, platynecine-type PAs are reported to be nontoxic and their nontoxicity was hypothesized to be due to the absence of metabolic activation; however, the metabolic pathway responsible for their nontoxic nature is largely unknown. In the present study, to prove the absence of metabolic activation in nontoxic platynecine-type PAs, hepatic metabolism of platyphylline (PLA), a representative platynecine-type PA, was investigated and directly compared with the representatives of two toxic types of PAs in parallel. By determining the pyrrolic ester-derived glutathione conjugate, our results confirmed that the major metabolic pathway of PLA did not lead to formation of the reactive pyrrolic ester. More interestingly, having a metabolic rate similar to that of toxic PAs, PLA also underwent oxidative metabolisms mediated by P450s, especially P450 3A4, the same enzyme that catalyzes metabolic activation of two toxic types of PAs. However, the predominant oxidative dehydrogenation pathway of PLA formed a novel metabolite, dehydroplatyphylline carboxylic acid, which was water-soluble, readily excreted, and could not interact with cellular macromolecules. In conclusion, our study confirmed that the saturated necine bases determine the absence of metabolic activation and thus govern the metabolic pathway responsible for the nontoxic nature of platynecine-type PAs. PMID:24308637

  4. Targeting CD9 produces stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects predominantly in activated endothelial cells during angiogenesis: A novel antiangiogenic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamisasanuki, Taro; Tokushige, Saori; Terasaki, Hiroto; Khai, Ngin Cin; Wang, Yuqing; Sakamoto, Taiji; Kosai, Ken-ichiro

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} CD9 plays stimulus-independent roles in angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression is effective in an angiogenic disease model. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression predominantly affects activated endothelial cells. {yields} CD9 is involved in endothelial cell proliferation, but not survival. {yields} CD9 is part of angiogenic machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. -- Abstract: The precise roles of tetraspanin CD9 are unclear. Here we show that CD9 plays a stimulus-independent role in angiogenesis and that inhibiting CD9 expression or function is a potential antiangiogenic therapy. Knocking down CD9 expression significantly inhibited in vitro endothelial cell migration and invasion induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Injecting CD9-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA-CD9) markedly inhibited HGF- or VEGF-induced subconjunctival angiogenesis in vivo. Both results revealed potent and stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects of targeting CD9. Furthermore, intravitreous injections of siRNA-CD9 or anti-CD9 antibodies were therapeutically effective for laser-induced retinal and choroidal neovascularization in mice, a representative ocular angiogenic disease model. In terms of the mechanism, growth factor receptor and downstream signaling activation were not affected, whereas abnormal localization of integrins and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed during angiogenesis, by knocking down CD9 expression. Notably, knocking down CD9 expression did not induce death and mildly inhibited proliferation of quiescent endothelial cells under conditions without an angiogenic stimulus. Thus, CD9 does not directly affect growth factor-induced signal transduction, which is required in angiogenesis and normal vasculature, but is part of the angiogenesis machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In conclusion, targeting CD9 produced stimulus

  5. Cellulase occurs in multiple active forms in ripe avocado fruit mesocarp.

    PubMed

    Kanellis, A K; Kalaitzis, P

    1992-02-01

    The existence of multiple forms of avocado (Persea americana Mill. cv Hass) cellulase in crude protein extracts of ripe avocado fruit is reported. Cellulase was separated into at least 11 multiple forms by native isoelectric focusing in the pH range between 4 and 7 and visualized by both activity staining using Congo red and immunostaining. The enzyme components were acidic proteins with isoelectric points in the range of pH 5.10 to 6.80, the predominant forms having isoelectric points of 5.60, 5.80, 5.95, and 6.20. All 11 forms were immunologically related with molecular masses of 54 kilodaltons.

  6. Functional MRI approach for assessing hemispheric predominance of regions activated by a phonological and a semantic task.

    PubMed

    Cousin, Emilie; Peyrin, Carole; Pichat, Cédric; Lamalle, Laurent; Le Bas, Jean-François; Baciu, Monica

    2007-08-01

    This fMRI study performed in healthy subjects aimed at using a statistical approach in order to determine significant functional differences between hemispheres and to assess specialized regions activated during a phonological and during a semantic task. This approach ("flip" method and subsequent statistical analyses of the parameter estimates extracted from regions of interest) allows identifying: (a) hemispheric specialized regions for each language task [semantic (living categorization) and phonological (rhyme detection)] and (b) condition-specific regions with respect to paradigm conditions (task and control). Our results showed that the rhyme-specific task regions were the inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and left inferior parietal (BA 40, 39) lobules. Furthermore, within the inferior parietal lobule, the angular gyrus was specific to target (rhyming) items (related to successfully grapho-phonemic processing). The categorization-specific task regions were the left inferior frontal (sub-region of BA 44, 45) and superior temporal (BA 22) cortices. Furthermore, the superior temporal gyrus was related to non-target (non-living) items (correlated to task difficulty). The relatively new approach used in this study has the advantage of providing: (a) statistical significance of the hemispheric specialized regions for a given language task and (b) supplementary information in terms of paradigm condition-specificity of the activated regions. The results (standard hemispheric specialized regions for a semantic and for a phonological task) obtained in healthy subjects may constitute a basement for mapping language and assessing hemispheric predominance in epileptic patients before surgery and avoiding post-surgical impairments of language. PMID:17339089

  7. Bone morphogenetic protein-7 expression and activity in the human adult normal kidney is predominantly localized to the distal nephron.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, P; Haag, J; Câmpean, V; Goldschmeding, R; Atalla, A; Amann, K; Aigner, T

    2006-08-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP)-7 plays an important role during fetal kidney development. In the adult, BMP-7 is most strongly expressed in the kidney compared to other organs, but the exact expression pattern as well as the function of BMP-7 is unclear. The major aim of the present study was to define which parts of the human kidney do physiologically express BMP-7 and which cells appear to be targets of BMP activity by showing phosphorylated BMP-receptor-associated Smads 1, 5, or 8 and inhibitor of differentiation factor 1 (ID1) expression. BMP-7 expression was localized by immunohistology to the epithelia of the distal tubule as well as the collecting ducts (CDs). Phospho-Smads 1/5/8 and ID1 expression largely colocalized with BMP-7 and was also localized in the epithelia of the distal tubule and the CDs. This was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction-based mRNA expression analysis. In vitro, proximal tubular cells (PTCs) expressed BMP receptors and BMP-receptor-associated Smads and were reactive to BMP-7. Our data indicate that BMP-7 expression in the adult human kidney appears to be more restricted than in the fetal situation and predominantly found in the distal nephron. Also, evidence of in vivo BMP signalling (i.e. phospho-Smads and ID1 expression) was found there. These findings suggest that BMP-7 plays a physiological role mostly in this part of the kidney. Still, as reported previously, PTCs are responsive to BMP-7, but presumably not in an autocrine or paracrine mode in normal adult kidneys. PMID:16807538

  8. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape.

    PubMed

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  9. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape

    PubMed Central

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  10. Extraction and evaluation of natural occurring bioactive compounds and change in antioxidant activity during red winemaking.

    PubMed

    Ivanova-Petropulos, Violeta; Durakova, Sanja; Ricci, Arianna; Parpinello, Giuseppina P; Versari, Andrea

    2016-06-01

    Phenolic composition of red wines from Stanušina, a grape variety indigenous of the Republic of Macedonia, was compared with the regional Vranec and the international Cabernet Sauvignon. The extent of skin contact (i.e. maceration time) on levels of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of wines was evaluated. A total of 19 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Among these malvidin-3-glucoside and its derivatives were the major compounds, while caftaric acid was the predominant cinnamic acid derivative, followed by catechin, the main flavan-3-ol. The concentration of hydroxycinnamic acids, anthocyanins and (+)-catechin ranged from 224 to 511 mg/L, 22 to 360 mg/L and 26 20 to 375 mg/L, respectively and peaked at 3rd, 6th and 9th day of maceration, respectively. However, prolong maceration slightly decreased their concentration. Stanušina wines presented high levels of hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity. PMID:27478219

  11. A naturally occurring human/hepatitis E recombinant virus predominates in serum but not in faeces of a chronic hepatitis E patient and has a growth advantage in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, H T; Torian, U; Faulk, K; Mather, K; Engle, R E; Thompson, E; Bonkovsky, H L; Emerson, S U

    2012-03-01

    Hepatitis E virus is the aetiological agent of acute hepatitis E, a self-limiting disease prevalent in developing countries. Molecular analysis of viral genomic RNA from a chronically infected patient confirmed the recent discovery that chronic infection correlated with extensive diversification of the virus quasispecies: the hypervariable region of some virus genomes in this USA patient contained large continuous deletions and a minor proportion of genomes in faeces and serum had acquired a mammalian sequence that encoded 39 aa of S19 ribosomal protein fused to the virus non-structural protein. Genomes with this insert were selected during virus passage in cultured cells to become the predominant species, suggesting that the inserted sequence promoted virus growth. The results demonstrated that hepatitis E virus can mutate dramatically during a prolonged infection and suggests it may be important to prevent or cure chronic infections before new variants with unpredictable properties arise.

  12. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells.

  13. Activation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide (eNOS) Occurs through Different Membrane Domains in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jason; Magenau, Astrid; Rodriguez, Macarena; Rentero, Carles; Royo, Teresa; Enrich, Carlos; Thomas, Shane R; Grewal, Thomas; Gaus, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial cells respond to a large range of stimuli including circulating lipoproteins, growth factors and changes in haemodynamic mechanical forces to regulate the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and maintain blood pressure. While many signalling pathways have been mapped, the identities of membrane domains through which these signals are transmitted are less well characterized. Here, we manipulated bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) with cholesterol and the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC). Using a range of microscopy techniques including confocal, 2-photon, super-resolution and electron microscopy, we found that sterol enrichment had differential effects on eNOS and caveolin-1 (Cav1) colocalisation, membrane order of the plasma membrane, caveolae numbers and Cav1 clustering. We found a correlation between cholesterol-induced condensation of the plasma membrane and enhanced high density lipoprotein (HDL)-induced eNOS activity and phosphorylation suggesting that cholesterol domains, but not individual caveolae, mediate HDL stimulation of eNOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced and shear stress-induced eNOS activity was relatively independent of membrane order and may be predominantly controlled by the number of caveolae on the cell surface. Taken together, our data suggest that signals that activate and phosphorylate eNOS are transmitted through distinct membrane domains in endothelial cells. PMID:26977592

  14. Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Furukawa, H; Hirono, I

    1995-03-01

    Cycasin, methylazoxymethanol-beta-glucoside, is a naturally occurring carcinogenic compound. The genotoxicity of cycasin was assayed in the Drosophila wing spot test. Cycasin induced small single and large single spots on feeding at 10 mumol/g medium. The presence of these spots indicates that cycasin is genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. Microorganisms which showed beta-glucosidase activity for cleaving cycasin to toxic aglycon were isolated from gut flora of the Drosophila larvae. Consequently, the Drosophila wing spot test would be useful for mutagenicity screening of other naturally occurring glucosides.

  15. Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Adriano; Costante, Roberto; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Mathieu, Veronique; Kiss, Robert; Epifano, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    Three naturally occurring oxyprenylated diketopiperazines were synthesized and preliminarily tested as growth inhibitory agents in vitro against various cancer cell lines. The compounds were tested on six human cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli using the MTT colorimetric assay. The data revealed that of the chemicals under study only deoxymicelianamide (11) displayed the highest activity, recording mean IC50 growth inhibitory values ranging from 2 to 23 μM. A comparative study with the non-geranylated saturated derivative of (11) revealed the importance of the presence of the geranyloxy side chain and the exocyclic 2,5-DPK double bond moiety for the observed activity.

  16. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  17. Liver Fibrosis Occurs Through Dysregulation of MyD88-dependent Innate B cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Thapa, Manoj; Chinnadurai, Raghavan; Velazquez, Victoria M.; Tedesco, Dana; Elrod, Elizabeth; Han, Jin-Hwan; Sharma, Prachi; Ibegbu, Chris; Gewirtz, Andrew; Anania, Frank; Pulendran, Bali; Suthar, Mehul S.; Grakoui, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Chronic liver disease mediated by activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) leads to liver fibrosis. Here, we postulated that the immune regulatory properties of HSCs might promote the profibrogenic activity of B cells. Fibrosis is completely attenuated in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-treated B cell deficient μMT mice showing that B cells are required. The retinoic acid produced by HSCs augmented B cell survival, plasma cell marker CD138 expression, and IgG production. These activities were reversed following the addition of the retinoic acid inhibitor, LE540. Transcriptional profiling of fibrotic liver B cells revealed an increased expression of genes related to NF-κB activation, proinflammatory cytokine production and CD40 signaling suggesting that these B cells are activated and may be acting as inflammatory cells. Biological validation experiments also revealed increased activation (CD44 and CD86 expressions), constitutive IgG production and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, MCP-1 and MIP1-α. Likewise targeted deletion of B-cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling, an innate adaptor with involvement in RA signaling, resulted in reduced infiltration of migratory CD11c+ dendritic cells and Ly6C++ monocytes, and hence reduced liver pathology. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that liver fibrosis occurs through a mechanism of HSC-mediated augmentation of innate B cell activity and highlight B cells as an important ‘first responders’ of the intrahepatic immune environment. PMID:25711908

  18. Anti-inflammatory activities of eleven Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin.

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezső; Widowitz, Ute; Blazsó, Gábor; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Tatsimo, Joel S N; Balogh, Agnes; Boros, Klára; Dankó, Balázs; Bauer, Rudolf; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed at the identification of anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions of C. sadleriana extract after per os administration in rats, the identification of the active compounds of the plant and the investigation of the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Centaurea species native to or cultivated in the Carpathian Basin. The aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka have been used in Hungarian folk medicine to treat the wounds of sheep. Methanol extract of C. sadleriana was fractioned by solvent-solvent partitioning. The n-hexane fraction was further fractionated and the anti-inflammatory activities of certain subfractions were confirmed in vivo in rats. The n-hexane and chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of C. sadleriana exhibited remarkable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibiting effects in vitro. Chromatographic separation of the fractions led to the identification of the active subfractions and 11 compounds (α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, vanillin, pectolinarigenin, salvigenin, hispidulin, chrysoeriol and apigenin). The in vitro screening for anti-inflammatory activities of further Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin (C. adjarica, C. bracteata, C. cataonica, C. cynaroides, C. dealbata, C. indurata, C. macrocephala, C. melitensis, C. nigrescens, C. ruthenica) revealed considerable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities. Because C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of more prevalent species is reasonable. PMID:22674731

  19. Poly(anhydride-esters) Comprised Exclusively of Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials and EDTA: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

  20. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

  1. Antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and total phenol of exotic fruits occurring in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; Vellosa, José Carlos Rebuglio; Brunetti, Iguatemy Lourenço; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Leite, Kátia Maria da Silva Cerqueira; Martins, Antonio Baldo Geraldo; Oliveira, Olga Maria Mascarenhas de Faria

    2009-08-01

    The antioxidant activity, ascorbic acid and phenolic content were studied in 10 exotic fruits from Brazil: abiu, acerola, wax jambu, cashew, mamey sapote, carambola or star fruit, Surinam cherry, longan, sapodilla and jaboticaba. The ascorbic acid was determined by 2,6-dichloroindophenol titrimetic methods and total phenols were measured colorimetrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. The antioxidant activity was investigated with three different methods: hypochlorous acid scavenging activity, 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical cation decolorization assay, and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. The highest content of vitamin C (1,525.00 mg/100 g pulp) occurred in acerola. The total phenol content was higher in abiu, acerola, Surinam cherry and sapodilla. In relation to antioxidant activity, acerola has showed the great values in all three different methods tested. It was found that the fruits have a significant antioxidant effect when tested by each method, respectively, and these antioxidant capacities are promising. The sample concentration also influenced its antioxidant power.

  2. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on soils that developed on serpentinite-metabasite bedrocks, which could potentially be rich in asbestos minerals and, as a consequence, have a negative impact on agricultural activity and on environmental quality. In order to investigate the natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) on the surface of the soil formed from serpentinites and metabasite, we selected a study area located in Sila Piccola (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy), where previous studies highlighted the presence of asbestiform minerals within the large ophiolitic sequences that crop out (Punturo et al., 2015; Bloise et al., 2015). Agricultural soil samples have been collected mainly close to urban centres and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Results pointed out as all the collected soil samples contain serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile), asbestos amphiboles, clays, chlorite, muscovite, plagioclase and iron oxides in various amounts. Electron microscope images of the soils show that their contain a variety of aggregating agents such as organic matter and clay in which individual fibres of chrysotile and tremolite-actinolite are trapped. The investigation showed that both serpentinite and metabasite rocks act as a perennial source of contamination for the agriculture lands because of the high amount of tremolite-actinolite found in the studied soil samples developed on such lithotypes. Even if asbestiform minerals usually occur in aggregates which cannot be suspended in the air, agricultural activities such as plowing can destroy these soil aggregates with the creation of dust containing inhalable asbestos fibres that evolve into airborne increasing the exposure of population to them. Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with

  3. Seizure activity occurring in two dogs after S-ketamine-induction.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Spadavecchia, C; Casoni, D

    2013-10-01

    Two healthy dogs were anaesthetized to undergo elective orthopaedic procedures. After premedication with methadone and acepromazine, general anaesthesia was induced with midazolam and S-ketamine. Immediately after anaesthetic induction, seizures occurred in both dogs. In the first dog the syndrome was characterized by tonic and clonic motor activity, muscular hypertone, hypersalivation, urination, defecation and hyperthermia. In the second dog muscular twitches of the temporal and masseter regions were observed, followed by increased skeletal muscles tone, hypersalivation, spontaneous urination and increase in body temperature. Recoveries from anaesthesia were uneventful and no seizures were observed. Considering the temporal association between anaesthetic induction and occurrence of seizures, and the fact that other causative factors could not be identified, it is hypothesized that S-ketamine played a role in determining the convulsive phenomena observed in these patients. S-ketamine might carry the potential for inducing seizures in otherwise healthy dogs, despite the concomitant use of GABA-ergic drugs.

  4. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis. PMID:21425681

  5. 77 FR 36194 - Definition of “Predominantly Engaged in Activities That Are Financial in Nature or Incidental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... such activities under Title II of the Act. \\1\\ 76 FR 16324 (March 23, 2011). \\2\\ Dodd-Frank Wall Street... on July 15, 2011.\\3\\ \\3\\ 76 FR 41626 (July 15, 2011). Section 201(a)(11) of the Act defines... I of the Act.\\8\\ \\7\\ 76 FR 7731 (February 11, 2011). \\8\\ Under section 113 of the Act, the...

  6. L-tryptophan reacts with naturally occurring and food-occurring phenolic aldehydes to give phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids: activity as antioxidants and free radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomas; Galisteo, Juan; Chamorro, Cristina

    2003-04-01

    The reaction between the essential amino acid l-tryptophan and flavoring or naturally occurring phenyl and phenolic aldehydes was studied, and the alkaloidal reaction products were characterized by NMR and HPLC-MS. Benzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and anisaldehyde condensed with l-tryptophan in aqueous-acidic media affording the corresponding phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as two diastereoisomers, 1S,3S-cis and 1R,3S-trans. With the exception of benzaldehyde, the rest of the aldehydes needed heating conditions (70 degrees C) to significantly form tetrahydro-beta-carbolines over time with the cyclization highly favored at low pH. This suggests a likely formation of these compounds under conditions that may occur in foods, food processing, or cooking. The new phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids were assayed, for the first time, for their activity as free radical scavengers and antioxidants and showed good antioxidant properties with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values much higher than those of ascorbic acid and the water soluble vitamin E analogue, Trolox, in the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay.

  7. Set-up of a passive Bonner sphere system for neutron spectrometry at mixed fields with predominant photon component based on activation detector.

    PubMed

    Amgarou, K; Lacoste, V; Muller, H; Fernández, F

    2007-01-01

    A passive Bonner sphere system (BSS), based on thermal neutron activation detectors, was developed to perform neutron spectrometry in pulsed and very intense (n-gamma) fields with predominant photon component, as those produced by high energy (>10 MV) medical linear electron accelerators. In this paper, a description of the new system is presented together with an experimental characterisation of a portable Sodium Iodide (NaI) detector and a fixed high-purity Germanium one, both used to measure the induced gamma-activity of the activated materials, respectively, in situ and in the laboratory. The choice of the activated materials is justified according to pre-established practical considerations and physical criteria. The response functions of the entire passive BSS were calculated using the MCNPX code. A preliminary experimental validation with a bare (252)Cf source is given as well.

  8. B Cell Receptor Activation Predominantly Regulates AKT-mTORC1/2 Substrates Functionally Related to RNA Processing

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Dara K.; Ali, Raja H.; Turunen, Janne J.; Nore, Beston F.; Smith, C. I. Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylates numerous substrates on the consensus motif RXRXXpS/T, a docking site for 14-3-3 interactions. To identify novel AKT-induced phosphorylation events following B cell receptor (BCR) activation, we performed proteomics, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses. Phosphorylated consensus motif-specific antibody enrichment, followed by tandem mass spectrometry, identified 446 proteins, containing 186 novel phosphorylation events. Moreover, we found 85 proteins with up regulated phosphorylation, while in 277 it was down regulated following stimulation. Up regulation was mainly in proteins involved in ribosomal and translational regulation, DNA binding and transcription regulation. Conversely, down regulation was preferentially in RNA binding, mRNA splicing and mRNP export proteins. Immunoblotting of two identified RNA regulatory proteins, RBM25 and MEF-2D, confirmed the proteomics data. Consistent with these findings, the AKT-inhibitor (MK-2206) dramatically reduced, while the mTORC-inhibitor PP242 totally blocked phosphorylation on the RXRXXpS/T motif. This demonstrates that this motif, previously suggested as an AKT target sequence, also is a substrate for mTORC1/2. Proteins with PDZ, PH and/or SH3 domains contained the consensus motif, whereas in those with an HMG-box, H15 domains and/or NF-X1-zinc-fingers, the motif was absent. Proteins carrying the consensus motif were found in all eukaryotic clades indicating that they regulate a phylogenetically conserved set of proteins. PMID:27487157

  9. B Cell Receptor Activation Predominantly Regulates AKT-mTORC1/2 Substrates Functionally Related to RNA Processing.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Dara K; Ali, Raja H; Turunen, Janne J; Nore, Beston F; Smith, C I Edvard

    2016-01-01

    Protein kinase B (AKT) phosphorylates numerous substrates on the consensus motif RXRXXpS/T, a docking site for 14-3-3 interactions. To identify novel AKT-induced phosphorylation events following B cell receptor (BCR) activation, we performed proteomics, biochemical and bioinformatics analyses. Phosphorylated consensus motif-specific antibody enrichment, followed by tandem mass spectrometry, identified 446 proteins, containing 186 novel phosphorylation events. Moreover, we found 85 proteins with up regulated phosphorylation, while in 277 it was down regulated following stimulation. Up regulation was mainly in proteins involved in ribosomal and translational regulation, DNA binding and transcription regulation. Conversely, down regulation was preferentially in RNA binding, mRNA splicing and mRNP export proteins. Immunoblotting of two identified RNA regulatory proteins, RBM25 and MEF-2D, confirmed the proteomics data. Consistent with these findings, the AKT-inhibitor (MK-2206) dramatically reduced, while the mTORC-inhibitor PP242 totally blocked phosphorylation on the RXRXXpS/T motif. This demonstrates that this motif, previously suggested as an AKT target sequence, also is a substrate for mTORC1/2. Proteins with PDZ, PH and/or SH3 domains contained the consensus motif, whereas in those with an HMG-box, H15 domains and/or NF-X1-zinc-fingers, the motif was absent. Proteins carrying the consensus motif were found in all eukaryotic clades indicating that they regulate a phylogenetically conserved set of proteins. PMID:27487157

  10. ATP-mediated vasodilatation occurs via activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in humans.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2012-11-01

    Circulating ATP possesses unique vasomotor properties in humans and has been hypothesized to play a role in vascular control under a variety of physiological conditions. However, the primary downstream signalling mechanisms underlying ATP-mediated vasodilatation remain unclear. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether ATP-mediated vasodilatation is independent of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and occurs primarily via the activation of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and inwardly rectifying potassium (K(IR)) channels in humans. In all protocols, young healthy adults were studied and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from forearm blood flow (measured via venous occlusion plethysmography) and intra-arterial blood pressure to quantify local vasodilatation. Vasodilator responses (%FVC) during intra-arterial ATP infusions were unchanged following combined inhibition of NO and PGs (n = 8; P > 0.05) whereas the responses to KCl were greater (P < 0.05). Combined infusion of ouabain (to inhibit Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase) and barium chloride (BaCl(2); to inhibit K(IR) channels) abolished KCl-mediated vasodilatation (n = 6; %FVC = 134 ± 13 vs. 4 ± 5%; P < 0.05), demonstrating effective blockade of direct vascular hyperpolarization. The vasodilator responses to three different doses of ATP were inhibited on average 56 ± 5% (n = 16) following combined ouabain plus BaCl(2) infusion. In follow-up studies, BaCl(2) alone inhibited the vasodilator responses to ATP on average 51 ± 3% (n = 6), which was not different than that observed for combined ouabain plus BaCl(2) administration. Our novel results indicate that the primary mechanism of ATP-mediated vasodilatation is vascular hyperpolarization via activation of K(IR) channels. These observations translate in vitro findings to humans in vivo and may help explain the unique vasomotor properties of intravascular ATP in the human circulation.

  11. ATP-mediated vasodilatation occurs via activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels in humans

    PubMed Central

    Crecelius, Anne R; Kirby, Brett S; Luckasen, Gary J; Larson, Dennis G; Dinenno, Frank A

    2012-01-01

    Circulating ATP possesses unique vasomotor properties in humans and has been hypothesized to play a role in vascular control under a variety of physiological conditions. However, the primary downstream signalling mechanisms underlying ATP-mediated vasodilatation remain unclear. The purpose of the present experiment was to determine whether ATP-mediated vasodilatation is independent of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis and occurs primarily via the activation of Na+/K+-ATPase and inwardly rectifying potassium (KIR) channels in humans. In all protocols, young healthy adults were studied and forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was calculated from forearm blood flow (measured via venous occlusion plethysmography) and intra-arterial blood pressure to quantify local vasodilatation. Vasodilator responses (%ΔFVC) during intra-arterial ATP infusions were unchanged following combined inhibition of NO and PGs (n= 8; P > 0.05) whereas the responses to KCl were greater (P < 0.05). Combined infusion of ouabain (to inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase) and barium chloride (BaCl2; to inhibit KIR channels) abolished KCl-mediated vasodilatation (n= 6; %ΔFVC = 134 ± 13 vs. 4 ± 5%; P < 0.05), demonstrating effective blockade of direct vascular hyperpolarization. The vasodilator responses to three different doses of ATP were inhibited on average 56 ± 5% (n= 16) following combined ouabain plus BaCl2 infusion. In follow-up studies, BaCl2 alone inhibited the vasodilator responses to ATP on average 51 ± 3% (n= 6), which was not different than that observed for combined ouabain plus BaCl2 administration. Our novel results indicate that the primary mechanism of ATP-mediated vasodilatation is vascular hyperpolarization via activation of KIR channels. These observations translate in vitro findings to humans in vivo and may help explain the unique vasomotor properties of intravascular ATP in the human circulation. PMID:22777673

  12. The competition plot: a simple test of whether two reactions occur at the same active site.

    PubMed Central

    Chevillard, C; Cárdenas, M L; Cornish-Bowden, A

    1993-01-01

    The competition plot is a method for determining whether or not two enzyme-catalysed reactions occur at the same active site. It is a plot of total rate against p, where p varies from 0 to 1 and specifies the concentrations (1-p)a0 and pb0 of two substrates in terms of reference concentrations a0 and b0 chosen so as to give the same rates at p = 0 and p = 1. If the two substrates react at the same site, the competition plot gives a horizontal straight line, i.e. the total rate is independent of p. Independent reactions at two separate sites give a curve with a maximum; separate reactions with cross-inhibition generate curves with either maxima or minima according to whether the Michaelis constants of the two substrates are smaller or larger than their inhibition constants in the other reactions. Although ambiguous results can sometimes arise, experimental strategies exist for avoiding them, for example working as close as possible to the lower of the two limiting rates. When tested with yeast hexokinase, the plot indicated phosphorylation of glucose and fructose at the same site. Conversely, with a mixture of yeast hexokinase and galactokinase it indicated phosphorylation of glucose and galactose at different sites. In both cases the observed behaviour agreed with the known properties of the enzymes. A slight modification to the definition of this plot allows it to be applied also to enzymes that deviate from Michaelis-Menten kinetics. PMID:8424801

  13. How Did a Major Confined Flare Occur in Super Solar Active Region 12192?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chaowei; Wu, S. T.; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Wang, Haiming; Feng, Xueshang; Hu, Qiang

    2016-09-01

    We study the physical mechanism of a major X-class solar flare that occurred in the super NOAA active region (AR) 12192 using data-driven numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modeling complemented with observations. With the evolving magnetic fields observed at the solar surface as bottom boundary input, we drive an MHD system to evolve self-consistently in correspondence with the realistic coronal evolution. During a two-day time interval, the modeled coronal field has been slowly stressed by the photospheric field evolution, which gradually created a large-scale coronal current sheet, i.e., a narrow layer with intense current, in the core of the AR. The current layer was successively enhanced until it became so thin that a tether-cutting reconnection between the sheared magnetic arcades was set in, which led to a flare. The modeled reconnecting field lines and their footpoints match well the observed hot flaring loops and the flare ribbons, respectively, suggesting that the model has successfully “reproduced” the macroscopic magnetic process of the flare. In particular, with simulation, we explained why this event is a confined eruption—the consequence of the reconnection is a shared arcade instead of a newly formed flux rope. We also found a much weaker magnetic implosion effect compared to many other X-class flares.

  14. On the Total Energy Deposition Between Periodically Occurring Activations of the Aurora

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James F., Jr.; Germany, G. A.; Parks, G. K.; Brittnacher, M. J.; Winglee, R. W.

    1998-01-01

    Total energy deposition in the northern latitudes is used in models to determine the state of the magnetosphere. It is known that on occasion, a series of intensifications of the aurora occur that are regularly spaced. The energy profile of the total energy deposited reflects this occurance. What can be said of the state of the magnetosphere based on these profiles. We present the result of a study which looks at several of these periods when a series of intensifications occur. Conclusions as to what the magnetosphere may be doing are presented.

  15. Xylosyltransferase II is the predominant isoenzyme which is responsible for the steady-state level of xylosyltransferase activity in human serum.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Joachim; Götting, Christian; Beahm, Brendan J; Bertozzi, Carolyn R; Faust, Isabel; Kuzaj, Patricia; Knabbe, Cornelius; Hendig, Doris

    2015-04-10

    In mammals, two active xylosyltransferase isoenzymes (EC 2.4.2.16) exist. Both xylosyltransferases I and II (XT-I and XT-II) catalyze the transfer of xylose from UDP-xylose to select serine residues in the proteoglycan core protein. Altered XT activity in human serum was found to correlate directly with various diseases such as osteoarthritis, systemic sclerosis, liver fibrosis, and pseudoxanthoma elasticum. To interpret the significance of the enzyme activity alteration observed in disease states it is important to know which isoenzyme is responsible for the XT activity in serum. Until now it was impossible for a specific measurement of XT-I or XT-II activity, respectively, because of the absence of a suitable enzyme substrate. This issue has now been solved and the following experimental study demonstrates for the first time, via the enzyme activity that XT-II is the predominant isoenzyme responsible for XT activity in human serum. The proof was performed using natural UDP-xylose as the xylose donor, as well as the artificial compound UDP-4-azido-4-deoxyxylose, which is a selective xylose donor for XT-I.

  16. Diversity Education at a Predominately White Catholic College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandrin, Julie R.; French, James Joss; DeLeon, Wanda

    2008-01-01

    This article discussed the successes that have occurred in a graduate and an undergraduate course in diversity education and English language acquisition at a small, predominantly white college. The activities and assignments that are discussed in this article have been refined by the four professors who teach the courses to enable candidates to…

  17. Naturally occurring plant isoquinoline N-oxide alkaloids: their pharmacological and SAR activities.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M; Gloriozova, Tatyana A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2015-01-15

    The present review describes research on novel natural isoquinoline alkaloids and their N-oxides isolated from different plant species. More than 200 biological active compounds have shown confirmed antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, origins, and reported biological activities of a selection of isoquinoline N-oxides alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional SAR (structure-activity relationship) activities are also predicted, which point toward new possible applications of these compounds. This review emphasizes the role of isoquinoline N-oxides alkaloids as an important source of leads for drug discovery.

  18. Human holocarboxylase synthetase with a start site at methionine-58 is the predominant nuclear variant of this protein and has catalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Baolong; Wijeratne, Subhashinee S.K.; Rodriguez-Melendez, Rocio; Zempleni, Janos

    2011-08-19

    Highlights: {yields} Unambiguous evidence is provided that methionine-58 serves as an in-frame alternative translation site for holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS58). {yields} Full-length HLCS and HLCS58 enter the nucleus, but HLCS58 is the predominant variant. {yields} HLCS58 has biological activity as biotin protein ligase. -- Abstract: Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) catalyzes the covalent binding of biotin to both carboxylases in extranuclear structures and histones in cell nuclei, thereby mediating important roles in intermediary metabolism, gene regulation, and genome stability. HLCS has three putative translational start sites (methionine-1, -7, and -58), but lacks a strong nuclear localization sequence that would explain its participation in epigenetic events in the cell nucleus. Recent evidence suggests that small quantities of HLCS with a start site in methionine-58 (HLCS58) might be able to enter the nuclear compartment. We generated the following novel insights into HLCS biology. First, we generated a novel HLCS fusion protein vector to demonstrate that methionine-58 is a functional translation start site in human cells. Second, we used confocal microscopy and western blots to demonstrate that HLCS58 enters the cell nucleus in meaningful quantities, and that full-length HLCS localizes predominantly in the cytoplasm but may also enter the nucleus. Third, we produced recombinant HLCS58 to demonstrate its biological activity toward catalyzing the biotinylation of both carboxylases and histones. Collectively, these observations are consistent with roles of HLCS58 and full-length HLCS in nuclear events. We conclude this report by proposing a novel role for HLCS in epigenetic events, mediated by physical interactions between HLCS and other chromatin proteins as part of a larger multiprotein complex that mediates gene repression.

  19. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring phenolic and related compounds: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant (DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities), and cytotoxic (in tumor, Jurkat, PC-3, Colon 205, HepG2, and normal PBMCs cells) activities of 16 plant phenolic or related compounds were evaluated in vitro. Different categories compounds corresponding to 10 flavonoids, three lignans, two phenolic acids, and a catechin showed significant mean differences in antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Particularly, the flavonols, quercetin (3) and tiliroside (11) possess significant antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic activity against Jurkat; and Jurkat and HepG2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the flavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (7), and homoisoflavonoid, isobonducellin (10) shown to have no significant antioxidant activity, but exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, while moderate growth inhibition against Colon205 cells. Interestingly, none of these derivatives shown to have toxicity toward normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, over the concentration range tested (5-200 microM). Cytotoxic activities of some natural flavonoids identified in the medicinal plants were evaluated for the first time.

  20. Activation of ATM depends on chromatin interactions occurring before induction of DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Chul; Gerlitz, Gabi; Furusawa, Takashi; Catez, Frédéric; Nussenzweig, Andre; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Kraemer, Kenneth H; Shiloh, Yosef; Bustin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Efficient and correct responses to double-stranded breaks (DSB) in chromosomal DNA are crucial for maintaining genomic stability and preventing chromosomal alterations that lead to cancer. The generation of DSB is associated with structural changes in chromatin and the activation of the protein kinase ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a key regulator of the signalling network of the cellular response to DSB. The interrelationship between DSB-induced changes in chromatin architecture and the activation of ATM is unclear. Here we show that the nucleosome-binding protein HMGN1 modulates the interaction of ATM with chromatin both before and after DSB formation, thereby optimizing its activation. Loss of HMGN1 or ablation of its ability to bind to chromatin reduces the levels of ionizing radiation (IR)-induced ATM autophosphorylation and the activation of several ATM targets. IR treatments lead to a global increase in the acetylation of Lys 14 of histone H3 (H3K14) in an HMGN1-dependent manner and treatment of cells with histone deacetylase inhibitors bypasses the HMGN1 requirement for efficient ATM activation. Thus, by regulating the levels of histone modifications, HMGN1 affects ATM activation. Our studies identify a new mediator of ATM activation and demonstrate a direct link between the steady-state intranuclear organization of ATM and the kinetics of its activation after DNA damage. PMID:19079244

  1. Evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and caspase-4 activation occur in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Binet, François; Chiasson, Sonia; Girard, Denis

    2010-01-01

    Apoptosis can result from activation of three major pathways: the extrinsic, the intrinsic, and the most recently identified endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated pathway. While the two former pathways are known to be operational in human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), the existence of the ER stress-mediated pathway, generally involving caspase-4, has never been reported in these cells. Recently, we have documented that arsenic trioxide (ATO) induced apoptosis in human PMNs by a mechanism that needs to be further investigated. In this study, using immunofluorescence and electron microscopy, we present evidence of ER alterations in PMNs activated by the ER stress inducer arsenic trioxide (ATO). Several key players of the unfolded protein response, including GRP78, GADD153, ATF6, XBP1 and eIF2alpha are expressed and activated in PMNs treated with ATO or other ER stress inducers. Although caspase-4 is expressed and activated in neutrophils, treatment with a caspase-4 inhibitor did not attenuate the pro-apoptotic effect of ATO at a concentration that reverses caspase-4 processing and activation. Our results demonstrate for the first time that the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway operates in human neutrophils.

  2. Wasp recruitment to the T cell:APC contact site occurs independently of Cdc42 activation.

    PubMed

    Cannon, J L; Labno, C M; Bosco, G; Seth, A; McGavin, M H; Siminovitch, K A; Rosen, M K; Burkhardt, J K

    2001-08-01

    Cdc42 and WASP are critical regulators of actin polymerization whose function during T cell signaling is poorly understood. Using a novel reagent that specifically detects Cdc42-GTP in fixed cells, we found that activated Cdc42 localizes to the T cell:APC contact site in an antigen-dependent manner. TCR signaling alone was sufficient to induce localization of Cdc42-GTP, and functional Lck and Zap-70 kinases were required. WASP also localized to the T cell:APC contact site in an antigen-dependent manner. Surprisingly, WASP localization was independent of the Cdc42 binding domain but required the proline-rich domain. Our results indicate that localized WASP activation requires the integration of multiple signals: WASP is recruited via interaction with SH3 domain-containing proteins and is activated by Cdc42-GTP concentrated at the same site. PMID:11520460

  3. Dynamo model for grand maxima of solar activity: can superflares occur on the Sun?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.; Olemskoy, S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Recent data on superflares on Sun-like stars and radiocarbon data on solar activity in the past are both indicative of transient epochs of unusually high magnetic activity. We propose an explanation for the grand activity maxima in the framework of a solar dynamo model with fluctuating parameters. Solar-type dynamos are oscillatory because of the combination of the solar-type differential rotation with positive (in the Northern hemisphere) alpha-effect. An artificial reversal of the sign in the alpha-effect changes the dynamo to a steady regime with hundreds of times larger magnetic energy compared to the amplitude of the cyclic dynamo. Sufficiently large and durable fluctuations reversing the sign of the alpha-effect during the growth phase of a magnetic cycle can, therefore, cause a transient change to a steady dynamo with considerably increased magnetic energy. This qualitative scenario for grand activity maxima is supported by computations of the dynamo model with a fluctuating alpha-effect. The computed statistics of several thousand magnetic cycles gives examples of cycles with very high magnetic energy. Our preliminary estimations, however, suggest that the probability of solar superflares is extremely low.

  4. Chlorine-Susceptible and Chlorine-Resistant Type 021N Bacteria Occurring in Bulking Activated Sludges

    PubMed Central

    Séka, M. A.; Kalogo, Y.; Hammes, F.; Kielemoes, J.; Verstraete, W.

    2001-01-01

    Two filamentous bacteria causing bulking in two activated sludges were examined. Investigations using morphological features, staining techniques, and fluorescent in situ hybridization identified both filaments as type 021N. However, an examination of the effect of chlorine on the sludges revealed a chlorine-susceptible type 021N in one sludge and a chlorine-resistant type 021N in the other. PMID:11679359

  5. DSL ligand endocytosis physically dissociates Notch1 heterodimers before activating proteolysis can occur.

    PubMed

    Nichols, James T; Miyamoto, Alison; Olsen, Samantha L; D'Souza, Brendan; Yao, Christine; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2007-02-12

    Cleavage of Notch by furin is required to generate a mature, cell surface heterodimeric receptor that can be proteolytically activated to release its intracellular domain, which functions in signal transduction. Current models propose that ligand binding to heterodimeric Notch (hNotch) induces a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM) proteolytic release of the Notch extracellular domain (NECD), which is subsequently shed and/or endocytosed by DSL ligand cells. We provide evidence for NECD release and internalization by DSL ligand cells, which, surprisingly, did not require ADAM activity. However, losses in either hNotch formation or ligand endocytosis significantly decreased NECD transfer to DSL ligand cells, as well as signaling in Notch cells. Because endocytosis-defective ligands bind hNotch, but do not dissociate it, additional forces beyond those produced through ligand binding must function to disrupt the intramolecular interactions that keep hNotch intact and inactive. Based on our findings, we propose that mechanical forces generated during DSL ligand endocytosis function to physically dissociate hNotch, and that dissociation is a necessary step in Notch activation.

  6. Daily activity patterns of two co-occurring tropical satyrine butterflies.

    PubMed

    Enrique Cardoso Peixoto, Paulo; Benson, Woodruff W

    2009-01-01

    Adult males and females of many insect species are expected to adjust their daily activity pattern in order to avoid stressful climatic conditions and increase the chances to encounter sexual partners. Using scan sampling methods associated with focal individual observations it was found that two satyrine butterflies of similar size and morphology, Hermeuptychia hermes (Fabricius) (Leptidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Paryphthimoides phronius (Godart), show completely different daily activity patterns on forest edges in southeastern Brazil. Hermeuptychia hermes presents one abundance peak in the morning and another in the late afternoon, while P. phronius abundance peaks in the mid-day, remaining stable until 1700 h. This difference is probably due to the occurrence of territorial behavior in the later species. The beginning of territorial defense by P. phronius males coincided with the time of new-born female activity. However, newly hatched females were not sexually receptive. The afternoon territoriality in male P. phronius may be in part related to mate acquisition. However, why the abundance of H. hermes decreases when the abundance of P. phronius increases is less clear.

  7. Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.

  8. Amino acid substitutions in naturally occurring variants of ail result in altered invasion activity.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, K B; Miller, V L

    1992-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the causative agent of a variety of gastrointestinal syndromes ranging from acute enteritis to mesenteric lymphadenitis. In addition, systemic infections resulting in high mortality rates can occur in elderly and immunocompromised patients. More than 50 serotypes of Y. enterocolitica have been identified, but only a few of them commonly cause disease in otherwise healthy hosts. Those serotypes that cause disease have been divided into two groups, American and non-American, based on their geographical distributions, biotypes, and pathogenicity. We have been studying two genes, inv and ail, from Y. enterocolitica that confer in tissue culture assays an invasive phenotype that strongly correlates with virulence. Some differences between the American and non-American serotypes at the ail locus were noted previously and have been investigated further in this report. The ail locus was cloned from seven Y. enterocolitica strains (seven different serotypes). Although the different clones produced similar amounts of Ail, the product of the ail gene from non-American serotypes (AilNA) was less able to promote invasion by Escherichia coli than was the product of the ail gene from American serotypes (AilA). This difference is probably due to one or more of the eight amino acid changes found in the derived amino acid sequence for the mature form of AilNA compared with that of AilA. Seven of these changes are predicted to be in cell surface domains of the protein (a model for the proposed folding of Ail within the outer membrane is presented). These results are discussed in relation to the growing family of outer membrane proteins, which includes Lom from bacteriophage lambda, PagC from salmonella typhimurium, and OmpX from Enterobacter cloacae. Images PMID:1370953

  9. NEW STRATEGIES FOR THE ISOLATION AND ACTIVITY DETERMINATION OF NATURALLY OCCURRING TYPE-4 GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE

    PubMed Central

    Kernstock, Robert M.; Girotti, Albert W.

    2008-01-01

    Type 4 glutathione peroxidase (GPx4) is a widely expressed mammalian selenoenzyme known to play a vital role in cytoprotection against lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH)-mediated oxidative stress and regulation of oxidative signaling cascades. Since prokaryotes are not equipped to express mammalian selenoproteins, preparation of recombinant GPx4 via commonly used bacterial transformation is not feasible. A published procedure for isolating the enzyme from rat testis employs affinity chromatography on bromosulfophthalein-glutathione-linked agarose as the penultimate step in purification. Since this resin is no longer commercially available and preparing it in satisfactory operational form is tedious, we have developed an alternative purification approach based on sequential anion exchange, size exclusion, and cation exchange chromatography. Final preparations were found to be essentially homogeneous in GPx4 (Mr ∼20 kDa), as demonstrated by SDS-PAGE with protein staining and immunoblotting. Specific enzymatic activity was determined using a novel thin layer chromatographic approach in which the kinetics of phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide loss or cholesterol-7α-hydroperoxide loss were monitored. A >400-fold purification of active enzyme has been attained. The relatively straightforward isolation procedure described should prove valuable for further functional studies on GPx4, e.g. how its ability to catalyze LOOH reduction compares with that of other LOOH detoxifying enzymes. PMID:18723092

  10. Complement activation by necrotic cells in normal plasma environment compares to that by late apoptotic cells and involves predominantly IgM.

    PubMed

    Ciurana, Caroline L F; Zwart, Bas; van Mierlo, Gerard; Hack, C Erik

    2004-09-01

    Necrotic cells are generally considered to stimulate inflammation, whereas apoptotic cells should not. However, apoptotic cells have pro-inflammatory properties since they can activate complement. To what extent this activation compares to that by necrotic cells is not known. We compared complement activation by necrotic cells and apoptotic cells in plasma. Jurkat cells were made apoptotic or necrotic by incubation with etoposide or by heat shock, respectively. Cells incubated in recalcified plasma were tested for C3 and C4 fixation and fluid phase generation of complement activation products. Fixation of C3 and C4 to necrotic cells occurred mainly via the classical pathway, independent from the method of necrosis induction and the cell type. Depletion of IgM from plasma almost completely abrogated complement fixation by necrotic cells, which was restored by supplementation with purified IgM. Complement activation by late apoptotic cells was comparable to that by necrotic cells regarding the extent and dependence on IgM. Moreover, incubation of plasma with necrotic or late apoptotic cells led to the generation of comparable amounts of complement activation products. These results indicate that late apoptotic and necrotic cells employ similar complement activation mechanisms in the plasma environment.

  11. Cis-Golgi cisternal assembly and biosynthetic activation occur sequentially in plants and algae

    PubMed Central

    Donohoe, Bryon S.; Kang, Byung-Ho; Gerl, Mathias J.; Gergely, Zachary R.; McMichael, Colleen M.; Bednarek, Sebastian Y.; Staehelin, L. Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The cisternal progression/maturation model of Golgi trafficking predicts that cis-Golgi cisternae are formed de novo on the cis-side of the Golgi. Here we describe structural and functional intermediates of the cis cisterna assembly process in high-pressure frozen algae (Scherffelia dubia, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and plants (Arabidopsis thaliana, Dionaea muscipula; Venus Flytrap) as determined by electron microscopy, electron tomography and immuno-electron microscopy techniques. Our findings are as follows: (1) The cis-most (C1) Golgi cisternae are generated de novo from cisterna initiators produced by the fusion of 3–5 COPII vesicles in contact with a C2 cis cisterna. (2) COPII vesicles fuel the growth of the initiators, which then merge into a coherent C1 cisterna. (3) When a C1 cisterna nucleates its first cisterna initiator it becomes a C2 cisterna. (4) C2-Cn cis cisternae grow through COPII vesicle fusion. (5) ER-resident proteins are recycled from cis cisternae to the ER via COPIa-type vesicles. (6) In S. dubia the C2 cisternae are capable of mediating the self-assembly of scale protein complexes. (7) In plants, ~90% of native α-mannosidase I localizes to medial Golgi cisternae. (8) Biochemical activation of cis cisternae appears to coincide with their conversion to medial cisternae via recycling of medial cisterna enzymes. We propose how the different cis cisterna assembly intermediates of plants and algae may actually be related to those present in the ERGIC and in the pre-cis Golgi cisterna layer in mammalian cells. PMID:23369235

  12. Cis-Golgi cisternal assembly and biosynthetic activation occur sequentially in plants and algae.

    PubMed

    Donohoe, Bryon S; Kang, Byung-Ho; Gerl, Mathias J; Gergely, Zachary R; McMichael, Colleen M; Bednarek, Sebastian Y; Staehelin, L Andrew

    2013-05-01

    The cisternal progression/maturation model of Golgi trafficking predicts that cis-Golgi cisternae are formed de novo on the cis-side of the Golgi. Here we describe structural and functional intermediates of the cis cisterna assembly process in high-pressure frozen algae (Scherffelia dubia, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii) and plants (Arabidopsis thaliana, Dionaea muscipula; Venus flytrap) as determined by electron microscopy, electron tomography and immuno-electron microscopy techniques. Our findings are as follows: (i) The cis-most (C1) Golgi cisternae are generated de novo from cisterna initiators produced by the fusion of 3-5 COPII vesicles in contact with a C2 cis cisterna. (ii) COPII vesicles fuel the growth of the initiators, which then merge into a coherent C1 cisterna. (iii) When a C1 cisterna nucleates its first cisterna initiator it becomes a C2 cisterna. (iv) C2-Cn cis cisternae grow through COPII vesicle fusion. (v) ER-resident proteins are recycled from cis cisternae to the ER via COPIa-type vesicles. (vi) In S. dubia the C2 cisternae are capable of mediating the self-assembly of scale protein complexes. (vii) In plants, ∼90% of native α-mannosidase I localizes to medial Golgi cisternae. (viii) Biochemical activation of cis cisternae appears to coincide with their conversion to medial cisternae via recycling of medial cisterna enzymes. We propose how the different cis cisterna assembly intermediates of plants and algae may actually be related to those present in the ERGIC and in the pre-cis Golgi cisterna layer in mammalian cells.

  13. Lipotoxicity in steatohepatitis occurs despite an increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle activity.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Rainey E; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Williams, Caroline M; Nautiyal, Manisha; Mathew, Justin T; Martinez, Janie; Reinhard, Mary K; McDougall, Danielle J; Rocca, James R; Yost, Richard A; Cusi, Kenneth; Garrett, Timothy J; Sunny, Nishanth E

    2016-04-01

    The hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is central to integrating macronutrient metabolism and is closely coupled to cellular respiration, free radical generation, and inflammation. Oxidative flux through the TCA cycle is induced during hepatic insulin resistance, in mice and humans with simple steatosis, reflecting early compensatory remodeling of mitochondrial energetics. We hypothesized that progressive severity of hepatic insulin resistance and the onset of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) would impair oxidative flux through the hepatic TCA cycle. Mice (C57/BL6) were fed a high-trans-fat high-fructose diet (TFD) for 8 wk to induce simple steatosis and NASH by 24 wk. In vivo fasting hepatic mitochondrial fluxes were determined by(13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based isotopomer analysis. Hepatic metabolic intermediates were quantified using mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance preceded alterations in mitochondrial metabolism, since TCA cycle fluxes remained normal during simple steatosis. However, mice with NASH had a twofold induction (P< 0.05) of mitochondrial fluxes (μmol/min) through the TCA cycle (2.6 ± 0.5 vs. 5.4 ± 0.6), anaplerosis (9.1 ± 1.2 vs. 16.9 ± 2.2), and pyruvate cycling (4.9 ± 1.0 vs. 11.1 ± 1.9) compared with their age-matched controls. Induction of the TCA cycle activity during NASH was concurrent with blunted ketogenesis and accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerols (DAGs), ceramides (Cer), and long-chain acylcarnitines, suggesting inefficient oxidation and disposal of excess free fatty acids (FFA). Sustained induction of mitochondrial TCA cycle failed to prevent accretion of "lipotoxic" metabolites in the liver and could hasten inflammation and the metabolic transition to NASH.

  14. Lipotoxicity in steatohepatitis occurs despite an increase in tricarboxylic acid cycle activity.

    PubMed

    Patterson, Rainey E; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Williams, Caroline M; Nautiyal, Manisha; Mathew, Justin T; Martinez, Janie; Reinhard, Mary K; McDougall, Danielle J; Rocca, James R; Yost, Richard A; Cusi, Kenneth; Garrett, Timothy J; Sunny, Nishanth E

    2016-04-01

    The hepatic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is central to integrating macronutrient metabolism and is closely coupled to cellular respiration, free radical generation, and inflammation. Oxidative flux through the TCA cycle is induced during hepatic insulin resistance, in mice and humans with simple steatosis, reflecting early compensatory remodeling of mitochondrial energetics. We hypothesized that progressive severity of hepatic insulin resistance and the onset of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) would impair oxidative flux through the hepatic TCA cycle. Mice (C57/BL6) were fed a high-trans-fat high-fructose diet (TFD) for 8 wk to induce simple steatosis and NASH by 24 wk. In vivo fasting hepatic mitochondrial fluxes were determined by(13)C-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based isotopomer analysis. Hepatic metabolic intermediates were quantified using mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolomics. Hepatic triglyceride accumulation and insulin resistance preceded alterations in mitochondrial metabolism, since TCA cycle fluxes remained normal during simple steatosis. However, mice with NASH had a twofold induction (P< 0.05) of mitochondrial fluxes (μmol/min) through the TCA cycle (2.6 ± 0.5 vs. 5.4 ± 0.6), anaplerosis (9.1 ± 1.2 vs. 16.9 ± 2.2), and pyruvate cycling (4.9 ± 1.0 vs. 11.1 ± 1.9) compared with their age-matched controls. Induction of the TCA cycle activity during NASH was concurrent with blunted ketogenesis and accumulation of hepatic diacylglycerols (DAGs), ceramides (Cer), and long-chain acylcarnitines, suggesting inefficient oxidation and disposal of excess free fatty acids (FFA). Sustained induction of mitochondrial TCA cycle failed to prevent accretion of "lipotoxic" metabolites in the liver and could hasten inflammation and the metabolic transition to NASH. PMID:26814015

  15. B2 kinin receptor activation is the predominant mechanism by which trypsin mediates endothelium-dependent relaxation in bovine coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Grant R; Selemidis, Stavros; Cocks, Thomas M

    2008-07-01

    The roles of kinin and protease-activated receptors (PAR) in endothelium-dependent relaxations to the serine protease, trypsin, were examined in rings of bovine left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Trypsin (0.01-30 U/ml) caused biphasic, endothelium-dependent relaxations-a high potency (0.01-0.3 U/ml), low efficacy relaxation [maximum relaxation (R (max)), 9.0 +/- 5.1%] followed by a lower potency (1-30 U/ml) but high efficacy (R (max), 90.4 +/- 5.5%) relaxation, which was abolished by aprotinin. Captopril (10 microM) caused an approximately 10-fold leftward shift of the second phase response such that the first phase was masked. The second phase relaxation to trypsin was inhibited in a concentration-dependent, non-surmountable manner by the B2 antagonist, HOE-140. At 3 nM HOE-140, the second phase response to trypsin was abolished unmasking the first phase. Kallikrein (0.0003-0.3 U/ml) caused monophasic, endothelium-dependent relaxations (R (max), 33.7 +/- 14.6%), which were potentiated by captopril (R (max), 94.2 +/- 1.0%) and abolished by HOE-140. In the presence of captopril, the second phase relaxation to trypsin was only minimally inhibited by either N(G)-nitro-L: -arginine (100 microM) or 67 mM [K(+)](o) alone but markedly reduced when these two treatments were combined (R (max), 26.1 +/- 11.6% versus 98.6 +/- 2.9% in controls). The PAR1-activating peptide, SFLLRN (0.1-30 microM), but not the PAR2-activating peptide, SLIGRL, caused concentration-dependent relaxations (pEC(50), 5.9 +/- 0.0%; R (max), 43.3 +/- 8.3%). In conclusion, trypsin causes endothelium-dependent relaxations in the bovine LAD predominantly via release of endogenous BK, which in turn activates endothelial B2 receptors. Only a minor role for PAR1-like receptors was evident in this tissue. PMID:18458878

  16. N-terminal cleavage of proTGFα occurs at the cell surface by a TACE-independent activity

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    ProTGFα (transforming growth factor α precursor) maturation and conversion into soluble TGFα is a complex process that involves three proteolytic steps. One, that occurs co-translationally, eliminates the signal sequence. Another, occurring at the juxtamembrane domain, solubilizes TGFα. A third cleavage removes the N-terminal extension of proTGFα. This latter step has been poorly studied, mainly because of the rapid kinetics of this cleavage. In the present study, we have designed a strategy to analyse several aspects regarding this N-terminal cleavage. In vivo treatment with the hydroxamate-based metalloprotease inhibitors BB3103 or TAPI-2 (tumour necrosis factor-α protease inhibitor 2) reversibly induced accumulation of forms of proTGFα that included the N-terminal extension. N-terminal shedding was rapid, and occurred at the cell surface. However, the machinery responsible for the N-terminal cleavage was inactive in other cellular sites, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Experiments of proTGFα expression and maturation in cells deficient in TACE (tumour-necrosis-factor-α-converting enzyme) activity indicated that this protease was dispensable for N-terminal processing of proTGFα in vivo, but was required for regulated cleavage at the C-terminus. These findings indicate that TACE is not involved in N-terminal processing of proTGFα, and suggest differences in the machineries that control the cleavage at both ends of TGFα within its precursor. PMID:15777285

  17. Phosphatase production and activity in Citrobacter freundii and a naturally occurring, heavy-metal-accumulating Citrobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D M; Dean, A C; Wiffen, P; Macaskie, L E

    1995-10-01

    The ability of a naturally occurring Citrobacter sp. to accumulate cadmium has been attributed to cellular precipitation of CdHPO4, utilizing HPO4(2-) liberated via the activity of an overproduced, Cd-resistant acid-type phosphatase. Phosphatase production and heavy metal accumulation by batch cultures of this strain (N14) and a phosphatase-deficient mutant were compared with two reference strains of Citrobacter freundii. Only strain N14 expressed a high level of acid phosphatase and accumulated lanthanum and uranyl ion enzymically. Acid phosphatase is regulated via carbon-starvation; although the C. freundii strains overexpressed phosphatase activity in carbon-limiting continuous culture, this was approximately 20-fold less than the activity of strain N14 grown similarly. Citrobacter strain N14 was originally isolated from a metal-contaminated soil environment; phosphatase overproduction and metal accumulation were postulated as a detoxification mechanism. However, application of Cd-stress, and enrichment for Cd-resistant C. freundii ('training'), reduced the phosphatase activity of this organism by about 50% as compared to Cd-unstressed cultures. The acid phosphatase of C. freundii and Citrobacter N14 had a similar pattern of resistance to some diagnostic reagents. The enzyme of the latter is similar to the PhoN acid phosphatase of Salmonella typhimurium described by other workers; the results are discussed with respect to the known phosphatases of the enterobacteria.

  18. Cardiovascular events occur independently of high on-aspirin platelet reactivity and residual COX-1 activity in stable cardiovascular patients.

    PubMed

    Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Miyata, Shigeki; Kada, Akiko; Kawamura, Atsushi; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Furui, Eisuke; Takiuchi, Shin; Taomoto, Katsushi; Kario, Kazuomi; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Saito, Kozue; Nagao, Takehiko; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Hosomi, Naohisa; Tanaka, Keiji; Kaikita, Koichi; Katayama, Yasuo; Abumiya, Takeo; Nakane, Hiroshi; Wada, Hideo; Hattori, Akira; Kimura, Kazumi; Isshiki, Takaaki; Nishikawa, Masakatsu; Yamawaki, Takemori; Yonemoto, Naohiro; Okada, Hiromi; Ogawa, Hisao; Minematsu, Kazuo; Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2016-08-01

    Several studies have indicated that approximately 25 % of patients treated with aspirin exhibit high on-treatment platelet reactivity (HTPR), which is potentially associated with cardiovascular events (CVEs). However, this association is still controversial, since the mechanisms by which HTPR contributes to CVEs remain unclear and a no standardised definition of HTPR has been established. To determine whether HTPR is associated with CVE recurrence and what type of assay would best predict CVE recurrence, we conducted a multicentre prospective cohort study of 592 stable cardiovascular outpatients treated with aspirin monotherapy for secondary prevention. Their HTPR was determined by arachidonic acid- or collagen-induced aggregation assays using two different agonist concentrations. Residual cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 activity was assessed by measuring serum thromboxane (TX)B2 or urinary 11-dehydro TXB2. Shear-induced platelet thrombus formation was also examined. We followed all patients for two years to evaluate how these seven indexes were related to the recurrence of CVEs (cerebral infarction, transient ischaemic attack, myocardial infarction, unstable angina, revascularisation, other arterial thrombosis, or cardiovascular death). Of 583 patients eligible for the analysis, CVEs occurred in 69 (11.8 %). A Cox regression model identified several classical risk factors associated with CVEs. However, neither HTPR nor high residual COX-1 activity was significantly associated with CVEs, even by applying cut-off values suggested in previous reports or a receiver-operating characteristic analysis. In conclusion, recurrence of CVEs occurred independently of HTPR and residual COX-1 activity. Thus, our findings do not support the use of platelet or COX-1 functional testing for predicting clinical outcomes in stable cardiovascular patients. PMID:27098431

  19. A Recently Established Murine Model of Nasal Polyps Demonstrates Activation of B Cells, as Occurs in Human Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Young; Lee, Sun Hye; Carter, Roderick G; Kato, Atsushi; Schleimer, Robert P; Cho, Seong H

    2016-08-01

    Animal model systems are invaluable for examining human diseases. Our laboratory recently established a mouse model of nasal polyps (NPs) and investigated similarities and differences between this mouse model and human NPs. We especially focus on the hypothesis that B cell activation occurs during NP generation in the murine model. After induction of ovalbumin-induced allergic rhinosinusitis, 6% ovalbumin and Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (10 ng) were instilled into the nasal cavity of mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The development of structures that somewhat resemble NPs (which we will refer to as NPs) was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The mRNA and protein levels of various inflammatory cell markers and mediators were measured by real-time PCR in nasal tissue and by ELISA in nasal lavage fluid (NLF), respectively. Total Ig isotype levels in NLF were also quantitated using the Mouse Ig Isotyping Multiplex kit (EMD Millipore, Billerica, MA) on a Luminex 200 instrument (Life Technologies, Grand Island, NY). Similar to human NPs, there were significant increases in gene expression of inflammatory cell markers, such as CD19, CD138, CD11c, and mast cell protease-6 in nasal tissue samples of the NP group compared with those of the control group. In further investigations of B cell activation, mRNA expressions of B cell activating factor and a proliferation-inducing ligand were found to be significantly increased in mouse NP tissue. B cell-activating factor protein concentration and IgA and IgG1 levels in NLF were significantly higher in the NP group compared with the control group. In this study, the NP mouse model demonstrated enhanced B cell responses, which are reminiscent of B cell responses in human NPs. PMID:27163839

  20. K-ras activation occurs frequently in mucinous adenocarcinomas and rarely in other common epithelial tumors of the human ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, T.; Weghorst, C. M.; Inoue, M.; Tanizawa, O.; Rice, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the role of mutational activation of members of the ras family of cellular protooncogenes in the development of human ovarian neoplasms, a series of 37 ovarian tumors from Japanese patients was studied. These included 30 common epithelial tumors (1 mucinous tumor of borderline malignancy, 7 mucinous adenocarcinomas, and 22 nonmucinous carcinomas: 10 serous, 3 clear cell, 8 endometrioid, and 1 undifferentiated), 5 tumors of germ cell origin, and 2 sex cord/stromal cell tumors. Polymerase chain reaction was performed from selected areas of deparaffinized sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and the presence of activating point mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 of the H-, N-, and K-ras genes was probed by dot-blot hybridization analysis with mutation specific oligonucleotides. Mutations in K-ras were also looked for by direct genomic sequencing. The overall frequency of ras gene mutations was 10/37 (27%). Mutations were detected only in K-ras, and were found in most of the mucinous tumors, including the one such tumor of borderline malignancy (6/8; 75%). In one mucinous adenocarcinoma, two mutations were detected in paraffin-embedded material that had not previously been found in high molecular weight DNA isolated from frozen tissue from the same case. K-ras mutations occurred significantly more frequently in mucinous tumors (6/8, 75%) than in serous carcinomas (2/10, 20%; P = 0.031) or in all nonmucinous types of epithelial ovarian tumors combined (3/22, 14%; P = 0.0031). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1656759

  1. Expression of a naturally occurring angiotensin AT1 receptor cleavage fragment elicits caspase-activation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akannsha; deHaro, Dawn; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    Several transmembrane receptors are documented to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. Our prior studies indicate that a population of the 7-transmembrane angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT1R) is cleaved in a ligand-augmented manner after which the cytoplasmic, carboxy-terminal cleavage fragment (CF) traffics to the nucleus. In the present report, we determine the precise cleavage site within the AT1R by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. Cleavage occurs between Leu(305) and Gly(306) at the junction of the seventh transmembrane domain and the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal domain. To evaluate the function of the CF distinct from the holoreceptor, we generated a construct encoding the CF as an in-frame yellow fluorescent protein fusion. The CF accumulates in nuclei and induces apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. All cell types show nuclear fragmentation and disintegration, as well as evidence for phosphotidylserine displacement in the plasma membrane and activated caspases. RASMCs specifically showed a 5.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in CF-induced active caspases compared with control and a 7.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in cleaved caspase-3 (Asp174). Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was upregulated 4.8-fold (P < 0.001) in CF expressing cardiomyoblasts and colocalized with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). CF expression also induces DNA laddering, the gold-standard for apoptosis in all cell types studied. CF-induced apoptosis, therefore, appears to be a general phenomenon as it is observed in multiple cell types including smooth muscle cells and cardiomyoblasts. PMID:21813711

  2. Expression of a naturally occurring angiotensin AT(1) receptor cleavage fragment elicits caspase-activation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Cook, Julia L; Singh, Akannsha; DeHaro, Dawn; Alam, Jawed; Re, Richard N

    2011-11-01

    Several transmembrane receptors are documented to accumulate in nuclei, some as holoreceptors and others as cleaved receptor products. Our prior studies indicate that a population of the 7-transmembrane angiotensin type-1 receptor (AT(1)R) is cleaved in a ligand-augmented manner after which the cytoplasmic, carboxy-terminal cleavage fragment (CF) traffics to the nucleus. In the present report, we determine the precise cleavage site within the AT(1)R by mass spectrometry and Edman sequencing. Cleavage occurs between Leu(305) and Gly(306) at the junction of the seventh transmembrane domain and the intracellular cytoplasmic carboxy-terminal domain. To evaluate the function of the CF distinct from the holoreceptor, we generated a construct encoding the CF as an in-frame yellow fluorescent protein fusion. The CF accumulates in nuclei and induces apoptosis in CHO-K1 cells, rat aortic smooth muscle cells (RASMCs), MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells, and H9c2 rat cardiomyoblasts. All cell types show nuclear fragmentation and disintegration, as well as evidence for phosphotidylserine displacement in the plasma membrane and activated caspases. RASMCs specifically showed a 5.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in CF-induced active caspases compared with control and a 7.2-fold increase (P < 0.001) in cleaved caspase-3 (Asp174). Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase was upregulated 4.8-fold (P < 0.001) in CF expressing cardiomyoblasts and colocalized with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). CF expression also induces DNA laddering, the gold-standard for apoptosis in all cell types studied. CF-induced apoptosis, therefore, appears to be a general phenomenon as it is observed in multiple cell types including smooth muscle cells and cardiomyoblasts.

  3. Influence of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter, colloids, and cations on nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Sadmani, A H M Anwar; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the rejection of selected pharmaceutically active (PhAC) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) when using nanofiltration as a function of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM), colloidal particles, cations and their interactions. Lake Ontario water served as a source of natural DOM and colloidal particles. PhAC/EDC rejection experiments were conducted using raw Lake Ontario water and Lake Ontario water that was pre-treated with either ultrafiltration to remove colloidal particles, or fluidized ion exchange resins to remove DOM. Additionally, the concentration of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+)) in the raw and pre-treated water matrices was varied. While ionic PhACs and EDCs exhibited high rejections from all the water matrices examined, neutral compounds were most effectively rejected in water containing DOM and no colloids, and least effectively rejected from colloid-containing water with increased cations but no DOM. The presence of DOM significantly improved compound rejection and the increase in cation concentration significantly decreased rejection. The presence of colloids had comparatively little effect except to mitigate the impact of increased cation concentration, apparently providing some cation-buffering capacity. The sequence in which constituents are removed from waters during treatment may significantly impact PhAC and EDC removal, especially of neutral compounds.

  4. Secretion of monocyte chemotactic activity by cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells in response to PDGF is due predominantly to the induction of JE/MCP-1.

    PubMed Central

    Poon, M.; Hsu, W. C.; Bogdanov, V. Y.; Taubman, M. B.

    1996-01-01

    Inflammation is a critical feature of atherosclerosis and is characterized in part by the migration of circulating monocytes to the atherosclerotic plaque. These monocytes, together with macrophages, are a source of cytokines, growth factors, proteases, and procoagulants, which contribute to the progression of the atherosclerosis lesion. This study employed a modified Boyden chamber to examine the secretion of monocyte chemotactic activity by cultured rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in response to growth factors and cytokines. The induction of monocyte chemotactic activity showed a surprising specificity for platelet-derived growth factor-BB. This activity was blocked by actinomycin D and cycloheximide and thus required de novo transcription and protein synthesis. The ability to stimulate monocyte migration appeared to be solely due to the secretion of the monocyte chemoattractant protein JE/MCP-1 and was completely blocked by antisense oligonucleotides and antibodies to JE/MCP-1. The induction of chemotactic activity was also blocked by dexamethasone, an inhibitor of JE mRNA accumulation. This study suggests that the secretion of monocyte chemotactic activity by vascular smooth muscle cells is a highly regulatable and specific event and underscores the importance of JE/MCP-1 in the inflammatory response of the vessel wall. Images Figure 5 PMID:8686755

  5. Variability in In Vitro Macrophage Activation by Commercially Diverse Bulk Echinacea Plant Material is Predominantly Due to Bacterial Lipoproteins and Lipopolysaccharides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We previously reported that the majority of in vitro monocyte/macrophage activation exhibited by extracts of Echinacea and other botanicals depends upon bacterial lipopolysaccharides and Braun-type bacterial lipoproteins. We determined the contribution made by these bacterial components to the overa...

  6. Cometary coma ions. [water predominance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.

    1974-01-01

    For comets whose nuclei are composed of water ice conglomerates it is shown that the ion H3O(+) can predominate to distances of 5000 km in the subsolar direction. Beyond this distance H2O(+) is the most important ion. The crossover point is a sensitive function of the rate of evaporation from the nucleus. The presence of ammonia or metals such as sodium, in concentrations greater than 0.1% H2O, can lead to NH4(+) and Na(+) ions.

  7. Control of activation of liver RNA polymerase I occurring after re-feeding of protein-depleted mice.

    PubMed Central

    Haim, L; Iapalucci-Espinoza, S; Conde, R; Franze-Fernández, M T

    1983-01-01

    Shortly after feeding protein-depleted mice with a meal containing protein, the RNA polymerase I activity in isolated liver nuclei shows a 2-fold increase over the values in the nuclei of either normal or protein-depleted mice. The activity of the RNA polymerase I solubilized from nuclei of re-fed mice was slightly enhanced, probably reflecting an increase in enzyme amount. However, this increase only accounts for about 30% of the stimulation of transcription in the intact nuclei. Administration of pactamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, to normal or protein-depleted mice has almost no inhibitory effect on the RNA polymerase I activity in the isolated nuclei. On the contrary, within 15 min after treatment with the drug, the stimulated activity in nuclei from re-fed mice declines towards the values in normal or protein-depleted mice and then remains constant. The activity of the solubilized enzyme remains slightly elevated for at least 2 1/2 h after re-fed mice are treated with pactamycin. These observations indicate that the stimulation of the RNA polymerase I activity in the intact nuclei after re-feeding is controlled by mechanisms other than an increase in the enzyme amount and suggest the presence of short-lived proteins required for inducing an activated state of transcription. PMID:6870809

  8. Inhibition of lysine acetyltransferase KAT3B/p300 activity by a naturally occurring hydroxynaphthoquinone, plumbagin.

    PubMed

    Ravindra, Kodihalli C; Selvi, B Ruthrotha; Arif, Mohammed; Reddy, B A Ashok; Thanuja, Gali R; Agrawal, Shipra; Pradhan, Suman Kalyan; Nagashayana, Natesh; Dasgupta, Dipak; Kundu, Tapas K

    2009-09-01

    Lysine acetyltransferases (KATs), p300 (KAT3B), and its close homologue CREB-binding protein (KAT3A) are probably the most widely studied KATs with well documented roles in various cellular processes. Hence, the dysfunction of p300 may result in the dysregulation of gene expression leading to the manifestation of many disorders. The acetyltransferase activity of p300/CREB-binding protein is therefore considered as a target for new generation therapeutics. We describe here a natural compound, plumbagin (RTK1), isolated from Plumbago rosea root extract, that inhibits histone acetyltransferase activity potently in vivo. Interestingly, RTK1 specifically inhibits the p300-mediated acetylation of p53 but not the acetylation by another acetyltransferase, p300/CREB-binding protein -associated factor, PCAF, in vivo. RTK1 inhibits p300 histone acetyltransferase activity in a noncompetitive manner. Docking studies and site-directed mutagenesis of the p300 histone acetyltransferase domain suggest that a single hydroxyl group of RTK1 makes a hydrogen bond with the lysine 1358 residue of this domain. In agreement with this, we found that indeed the hydroxyl group-substituted plumbagin derivatives lost the acetyltransferase inhibitory activity. This study describes for the first time the chemical entity (hydroxyl group) required for the inhibition of acetyltransferase activity.

  9. GATA Factor Regulation in Excess Nitrogen Occurs Independently of Gtr-Ego Complex-Dependent TorC1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Tate, Jennifer J; Georis, Isabelle; Rai, Rajendra; Vierendeels, Fabienne; Dubois, Evelyne; Cooper, Terrance G

    2015-05-29

    The TorC1 protein kinase complex is a central component in a eukaryotic cell's response to varying nitrogen availability, with kinase activity being stimulated in nitrogen excess by increased intracellular leucine. This leucine-dependent TorC1 activation requires functional Gtr1/2 and Ego1/3 complexes. Rapamycin inhibition of TorC1 elicits nuclear localization of Gln3, a GATA-family transcription activator responsible for the expression of genes encoding proteins required to transport and degrade poor nitrogen sources, e.g., proline. In nitrogen-replete conditions, Gln3 is cytoplasmic and Gln3-mediated transcription minimal, whereas in nitrogen limiting or starvation conditions, or after rapamycin treatment, Gln3 is nuclear and transcription greatly increased. Increasing evidence supports the idea that TorC1 activation may not be as central to nitrogen-responsive intracellular Gln3 localization as envisioned previously. To test this idea directly, we determined whether Gtr1/2- and Ego1/3-dependent TorC1 activation also was required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration and repressed GATA factor-mediated transcription by abolishing the Gtr-Ego complex proteins. We show that Gln3 is sequestered in the cytoplasm of gtr1Δ, gtr2Δ, ego1Δ, and ego3Δ strains either long term in logarithmically glutamine-grown cells or short term after refeeding glutamine to nitrogen-limited or -starved cells; GATA factor-dependent transcription also was minimal. However, in all but a gtr1Δ, nuclear Gln3 localization in response to nitrogen limitation or starvation was adversely affected. Our data demonstrate: (i) Gtr-Ego-dependent TorC1 activation is not required for cytoplasmic Gln3 sequestration in nitrogen-rich conditions; (ii) a novel Gtr-Ego-TorC1 activation-independent mechanism sequesters Gln3 in the cytoplasm; (iii) Gtr and Ego complex proteins participate in nuclear Gln3-Myc(13) localization, heretofore unrecognized functions for these proteins; and (iv) the importance of

  10. Naturally Occurring Changes in Time Spent Watching Television Are Inversely Related to Frequency of Physical Activity during Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motl, Robert W.; McAuley, Edward; Birnbaum, Amanda S.; Lytle, Leslie A.

    2006-01-01

    In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between changes in time spent watching television and playing video games with frequency of leisure-time physical activity across a 2-year period among adolescent boys and girls (N=4594). Latent growth modelling indicated that a decrease in time spent watching television was associated with…

  11. A VIN1 GUS::GFP fusion reveals activated sucrose metabolism programming occurring in interspersed cells during tomato fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Estornell, Leandro Hueso; Pons, Clara; Martínez, Alicia; O'Connor, José Enrique; Orzaez, Diego; Granell, Antonio

    2013-08-15

    The tomato is a model for fleshy fruit development and ripening. Here we report on the identification of a novel unique cell autonomous/cellular pattern of expression that was detected in fruits of transgenic tomato lines carrying a GFP GUS driven by the fruit specific vacuolar invertase promoter VIN1. The VIN1 promoter sequence faithfully reproduced the global endogenous VIN expression by conferring a biphasic pattern of expression with a second phase clearly associated to fruit ripening. A closer view revealed a salt and pepper pattern of expression characterized by individual cells exhibiting a range of expression levels (from high to low) surrounded by cells with no expression. This type of pattern was detected across different fruit tissues and cell types with some preferences for vascular, sub-epidermal layer and the inner part of the fruit. Cell ability to show promoter activity was neither directly associated with overall ripening - as we find VIN+ and - VIN- cells at all stages of ripening, nor with cell size. Nevertheless the number of cells with active VIN-driven expression increased with ripening and the activity of the VIN promoter seems to be inversely correlated with cell size in VIN+ cells. Gene expression analysis of FACS-sorted VIN+ cells revealed a transcriptionally distinct subpopulation of cells defined by increased expression of genes related to sucrose metabolism, and decreased activity in protein synthesis and chromatin remodeling. This finding suggests that local micro heterogeneity may underlie some aspects (i.e. the futile cycles involving sucrose metabolism) of an otherwise more uniform looking ripening program.

  12. Mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for the behavioural desensitization that occurs after repeated injections of angiotensin II.

    PubMed

    Vento, Peter J; Daniels, Derek

    2012-12-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) acts on central angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptors to increase water and saline intake. Prolonged exposure to Ang II in cell culture models results in a desensitization of the AT(1) receptor that is thought to involve receptor internalization, and a behavioural correlate of this desensitization has been shown in rats after repeated central injections of Ang II. Specifically, rats given repeated injections of Ang II drink less water than control animals after a subsequent test injection of Ang II. In the same conditions, however, repeated injections of Ang II have no effect on Ang II-induced saline intake. Given earlier studies indicating that separate intracellular signalling pathways mediate Ang II-induced water and saline intake, we hypothesized that the desensitization observed in rats may be incomplete, leaving the receptor able to activate mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases (ERK1/2), which play a role in Ang II-induced saline intake without affecting water intake. In support of this hypothesis, we found no difference in MAP kinase phosphorylation after an Ang II test injection in rats given prior treatment with repeated injections of vehicle, Ang II or Sar(1),Ile(4),Ile(8)-Ang II (SII), an Ang II analogue that activates MAP kinase without G protein coupling. In addition, we found that pretreatment with the MAP kinase inhibitor U0126 completely blocked the desensitizing effect of repeated Ang II injections on water intake. Furthermore, Ang II-induced water intake was reduced to a similar extent by repeated injections of Ang II or SII. The results suggest that G protein-independent signalling is sufficient to produce behavioural desensitization of the angiotensin system and that the desensitization requires MAP kinase activation.

  13. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R

    2016-07-04

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic.

  14. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    Green, Benedict T.; Lee, Stephen T.; Welch, Kevin D.; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R.

    2016-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic. PMID:27384586

  15. Activation and Inhibition of the Receptor Histidine Kinase AgrC Occurs Through Opposite Helical Transduction Motions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Boyuan; Zhao, Aishan; Novick, Richard; Muir, Tom W.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Staphylococcus aureus virulence is regulated when secreted autoinducing peptides (AIPs) are recognized by a membrane-bound receptor histidine kinase (RHK), AgrC. Some AIPs are agonists of virulence gene expression, while others are antagonists. It is unclear how AIP binding regulates AgrC activity. Here, we reconstitute an AgrC family member, AgrC-I, using nanometer-scale lipid bilayer discs. We show that AgrC-I requires membranes rich in anionic lipids to function. The agonist, AIP-I, binds AgrC-I non-cooperatively in a 2:2 stoichiometry, while an antagonist ligand, AIP-II, functions as an inverse agonist of the kinase activity. We also demonstrate the kinase and sensor domains in AgrC are connected by a helical linker whose conformational state exercises rheostat-like control over the kinase activity. Binding of agonist or inverse-agonist peptides results in twisting of the linker in different directions. These two observations provide a view of the molecular motions triggered by ligand binding in an intact membrane-bound RHK. PMID:24656130

  16. Activation and Desensitization of Peripheral Muscle and Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors by Selected, Naturally-Occurring Pyridine Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Green, Benedict T; Lee, Stephen T; Welch, Kevin D; Cook, Daniel; Kem, William R

    2016-01-01

    Teratogenic alkaloids can cause developmental defects due to the inhibition of fetal movement that results from desensitization of fetal muscle-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We investigated the ability of two known teratogens, the piperidinyl-pyridine anabasine and its 1,2-dehydropiperidinyl analog anabaseine, to activate and desensitize peripheral nAChRs expressed in TE-671 and SH-SY5Y cells. Activation-concentration response curves for each alkaloid were obtained in the same multi-well plate. To measure rapid desensitization, cells were first exposed to five potentially-desensitizing concentrations of each alkaloid in log10 molar increments from 10 nM to 100 µM and then to a fixed concentration of acetylcholine (ACh), which alone produces near-maximal activation. The fifty percent desensitization concentration (DC50) was calculated from the alkaloid concentration-ACh response curve. Agonist fast desensitization potency was predicted by the agonist potency measured in the initial response. Anabaseine was a more potent desensitizer than anabasine. Relative to anabaseine, nicotine was more potent to autonomic nAChRs, but less potent to the fetal neuromuscular nAChRs. Our experiments have demonstrated that anabaseine is more effective at desensitizing fetal muscle-type nAChRs than anabasine or nicotine and, thus, it is predicted to be more teratogenic. PMID:27384586

  17. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Bullón, Pedro; Giampieri, Francesca; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ), mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26783837

  18. Non-Nutrient, Naturally Occurring Phenolic Compounds with Antioxidant Activity for the Prevention and Treatment of Periodontal Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Varela-López, Alfonso; Bullón, Pedro; Giampieri, Francesca; Quiles, José L.

    2015-01-01

    One of the main factors able to explain the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory conditions that occur in periodontal disease is oxidative stress. Given the emerging understanding of this relationship, host-modulatory therapies using antioxidants could be interesting to prevent or slow the breakdown of soft and hard periodontal tissues. In this context, non-nutrient phenolic compounds of various foods and plants have received considerable attention in the last decade. Here, studies focusing on the relationship between different compounds of this type with periodontal disease have been collected. Among them, thymoquinone, coenzyme Q (CoQ), mangiferin, resveratrol, verbascoside and some flavonoids have shown to prevent or ameliorate periodontal tissues damage in animal models. However evidence regarding this effect in humans is poor and only limited to topical treatments with CoQ and catechins. Along with animal experiments, in vitro studies indicate that possible mechanisms by which these compounds might exert their protective effects include antioxidative properties, oxygen and nitrogen scavenging abilities, and also inhibitory effects on cell signaling cascades related to inflammatory processes which have an effect on RNS or ROS production as well as on antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26783837

  19. Diindolylmethane, a naturally occurring compound, induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression by activating human PXR

    PubMed Central

    Pondugula, Satyanarayana R.; Flannery, Patrick C.; Abbott, Kodye L.; Coleman, Elaine S.; Mani, Sridhar; Samuel, Temesgen; Xie, Wen

    2015-01-01

    Activation of human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-regulated expression of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) plays an important role in mediating adverse drug interactions. Given the common use of natural products as part of adjunct human health behavior, there is a growing concern about natural products for their potential to induce undesired drug interactions through the activation of hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1. Here, we studied whether 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM), a natural health supplement, could induce hPXR-mediated regulation of CYP3A4 and MDR1 in human hepatocytes and intestinal cells. DIM, at its physiologically relevant concentrations, not only induced hPXR transactivation of CYP3A4 promoter activity but also induced gene expression of CYP3A4 and MDR1. DIM decreased intracellular accumulation of MDR1 substrate rhodamine 123, suggesting that DIM induces the functional expression of MDR1. Pharmacologic inhibition or genetic knockdown of hPXR resulted in attenuation of DIM induced CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression, suggesting that DIM induces CYP3A4 and MDR1 in an hPXR-dependent manner. Together, these results support our conclusion that DIM induces hPXR-regulated CYP3A4 and MDR1 gene expression. The inductive effects of DIM on CYP3A4 and MDR1 expression caution the use of DIM in conjunction with other medications metabolized and transported via CYP3A4 and MDR1, respectively. PMID:25542144

  20. Where does brain neural activation in aesthetic responses to visual art occur? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Piccardi, L; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F; Giannini, A M; Zaidel, D W

    2016-01-01

    Here we aimed at finding the neural correlates of the general aspect of visual aesthetic experience (VAE) and those more strictly correlated with the content of the artworks. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 47 fMRI experiments described in 14 published studies. We also performed four separate ALE analyses in order to identify the neural substrates of reactions to specific categories of artworks, namely portraits, representation of real-world-visual-scenes, abstract paintings, and body sculptures. The general ALE revealed that VAE relies on a bilateral network of areas, and the individual ALE analyses revealed different maximal activation for the artworks' categories as function of their content. Specifically, different content-dependent areas of the ventral visual stream are involved in VAE, but a few additional brain areas are involved as well. Thus, aesthetic-related neural responses to art recruit widely distributed networks in both hemispheres including content-dependent brain areas of the ventral visual stream. Together, the results suggest that aesthetic responses are not independent of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive processes.

  1. Where does brain neural activation in aesthetic responses to visual art occur? Meta-analytic evidence from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Boccia, M; Barbetti, S; Piccardi, L; Guariglia, C; Ferlazzo, F; Giannini, A M; Zaidel, D W

    2016-01-01

    Here we aimed at finding the neural correlates of the general aspect of visual aesthetic experience (VAE) and those more strictly correlated with the content of the artworks. We applied a general activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis to 47 fMRI experiments described in 14 published studies. We also performed four separate ALE analyses in order to identify the neural substrates of reactions to specific categories of artworks, namely portraits, representation of real-world-visual-scenes, abstract paintings, and body sculptures. The general ALE revealed that VAE relies on a bilateral network of areas, and the individual ALE analyses revealed different maximal activation for the artworks' categories as function of their content. Specifically, different content-dependent areas of the ventral visual stream are involved in VAE, but a few additional brain areas are involved as well. Thus, aesthetic-related neural responses to art recruit widely distributed networks in both hemispheres including content-dependent brain areas of the ventral visual stream. Together, the results suggest that aesthetic responses are not independent of sensory, perceptual, and cognitive processes. PMID:26619805

  2. Subchronic oral toxicity and cardiovascular safety pharmacology studies of resveratrol, a naturally occurring polyphenol with cancer preventive activity

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, W.D.; Morrissey, R.L.; Usborne, A.L.; Kapetanovic, I.; Crowell, J.A.; Muzzio, M.; McCormick, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    To characterize the subchronic oral toxicity of resveratrol, CD rats received daily gavage doses of 0, 200, 400, or 1000 mg resveratrol/kg/day, and beagle dogs received daily capsule doses of 0, 200, 600, or 1200 mg resveratrol/kg/day for 90 days. Resveratrol induced only minimal toxicity, consisting of dose-related reductions in body weight gain in female rats and both sexes of dogs, and a statistically significant increase in bilirubin levels in rats at the 1000 mg/kg/day dose. Clinical observations, hematology, ophthalmology, neurotoxicity evaluations (functional observational batteries), organ weights, and gross pathology provided no biologically significant evidence of resveratrol toxicity in either species. In rats, the high dose of resveratrol reduced the incidence of cardiomyopathy; no other microscopic changes were seen. Histopathologic changes in dogs were limited to minimal inflammatory infiltrates in the kidney and urinary bladder, which were not considered toxicologically significant. A cardiovascular safety pharmacology (telemetry) study in dogs revealed no evidence of resveratrol toxicity. Based on body weight effects, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for resveratrol was 200 mg/kg/day in rats and 600 mg/kg/day in dogs. The apparent cardioprotective activity of resveratrol in rats demonstrates that its potentially beneficial activities may extend beyond efficacy in cancer prevention. PMID:21939727

  3. Selective phthalate activation of naturally occurring human constitutive androstane receptor splice variants and the pregnane X receptor.

    PubMed

    DeKeyser, Joshua G; Laurenzana, Elizabeth M; Peterson, Eric C; Chen, Tao; Omiecinski, Curtis J

    2011-04-01

    Phthalates and other endocrine-disruptive chemicals are manufactured in large quantities for use as plasticizers and other commercial applications, resulting in ubiquitous human exposure and thus, concern regarding their toxicity. Innate defense against small molecule exposures is controlled in large part by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR). The human CAR gene undergoes multiple alternative splicing events resulting in the CAR2 and CAR3 variant receptors. Recent studies from our laboratory show that CAR2 is potently and specifically activated by di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). We hypothesized that alternative splicing is a mechanism for increasing CAR's functional diversity, broadening the human receptors' repertoire of response to environmental xenobiotics. In these studies, we examine the interaction of alternatively spliced CARs and PXR with a range of suspected endocrine disruptors, including phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA), and 4-N-nonylphenol (NP). Transactivation and two-hybrid studies in COS-1 cells revealed differential selectivity of endocrine-disrupting chemicals for the variant CAR and PXR. Ex vivo studies showed DEHP and di-isononyl phthalate potently induced CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 expression in human hepatocytes. Mutation analysis of CAR2, in silico modeling, and ligand docking studies suggested that the SPTV amino acid insertion of CAR2 creates a unique ligand-binding pocket. Alternative gene splicing results in variant CAR receptors that selectively recognize phthalates and BPA. The interaction of phthalates with CAR and PXR suggests a xenobiotic response that is complex and biologically redundant.

  4. CXCR2 Inhibition in Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Induces Predominant Differentiation to Mesoderm and Endoderm Through Repression of mTOR, β-Catenin, and hTERT Activities

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ji-Hye; Kang, Ka-Won; Kim, Jihea; Hong, Soon-Chul; Park, Yong

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of our previous report verifying that chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2) ligands in human placenta-derived cell conditioned medium (hPCCM) support human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) propagation without exogenous basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), this study was designed to identify the effect of CXCR2 manipulation on the fate of hPSCs and the underlying mechanism, which had not been previously determined. We observed that CXCR2 inhibition in hPSCs induces predominant differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm with concomitant loss of hPSC characteristics and accompanying decreased expression of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), β-catenin, and human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). These phenomena are recapitulated in hPSCs propagated in conventional culture conditions, including bFGF as well as those in hPCCM without exogenous bFGF, suggesting that the action of CXCR2 on hPSCs might not be associated with a bFGF-related mechanism. In addition, the specific CXCR2 ligand growth-related oncogene α (GROα) markedly increased the expression of ectodermal markers in differentiation-committed embryoid bodies derived from hPSCs. This finding suggests that CXCR2 inhibition in hPSCs prohibits the propagation of hPSCs and leads to predominant differentiation to mesoderm and endoderm owing to the blockage of ectodermal differentiation. Taken together, our results indicate that CXCR2 preferentially supports the maintenance of hPSC characteristics as well as facilitates ectodermal differentiation after the commitment to differentiation, and the mechanism might be associated with mTOR, β-catenin, and hTERT activities. PMID:27188501

  5. Naturally occurring insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, S B

    1976-01-01

    Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed. PMID:789058

  6. Conditional mutations occur predominantly in highly conserved residues of RNA polymerase II subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Scafe, C; Martin, C; Nonet, M; Podos, S; Okamura, S; Young, R A

    1990-01-01

    Conditional mutations in the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RNA polymerase II large subunit, RPB1, were obtained by introducing a mutagenized RPB1 plasmid into yeast cells, selecting for loss of the wild-type RPB1 gene, and screening the cells for heat or cold sensitivity. Sequence analysis of 10 conditional RPB1 mutations and 10 conditional RPB2 mutations revealed that the amino acid residues altered by these distinct mutations are nearly always invariant among eucaryotic RPB1 and RPB2 homologs. These results suggest that RNA polymerase mutants might be obtained in other eucaryotic organisms by alteration of these invariant residues. Images PMID:2406567

  7. A graphical method to evaluate predominant geochemical processes occurring in groundwater systems for radiocarbon dating

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, Liang-Feng; Plummer, L. Niel; Aggarwal, Pradeep

    2012-01-01

    A graphical method is described for identifying geochemical reactions needed in the interpretation of radiocarbon age in groundwater systems. Graphs are constructed by plotting the measured 14C, δ13C, and concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon and are interpreted according to specific criteria to recognize water samples that are consistent with a wide range of processes, including geochemical reactions, carbon isotopic exchange, 14C decay, and mixing of waters. The graphs are used to provide a qualitative estimate of radiocarbon age, to deduce the hydrochemical complexity of a groundwater system, and to compare samples from different groundwater systems. Graphs of chemical and isotopic data from a series of previously-published groundwater studies are used to demonstrate the utility of the approach. Ultimately, the information derived from the graphs is used to improve geochemical models for adjustment of radiocarbon ages in groundwater systems.

  8. Loss of heterozygosity occurs predominantly, but not exclusively, in the epithelial compartment of pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Poetsch, Micaela; Zimmermann, Anett; Wolf, Eduard; Kleist, Britta

    2005-07-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA), being the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands, is composed of epithelial and mesenchymal compartments. In this study, we analyzed 19 microsatellite markers from chromosomal arms 6q, 8q, 9p, 12q, and 17p in 31 PAs and 3 carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenomas (CXPAs) as well as 11 other non-PA-related carcinomas of the salivary gland for comparison. In our analysis, we differentiated between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in PAs was most often found in 8q (32%) and 12q (29%). Two of the three CXPAs displayed allelic loss at all chromosomal arms investigated, whereas the results of the non-PA-related carcinomas were rather heterogeneous. LOH could not only be detected in the epithelial, but also in the mesenchymal, compartments of a subset of PAs, especially at chromosomal arm 8q. Concerning the CXPAs, we were able to demonstrate allelic losses not only in the malignant epithelial compartment, but also in the residual adenoma parts. Our data give further evidence that alterations in 8q may be an early event in PA tumorigenesis, whereas LOH in 12q may characterize cells with the potential to transform in CXPAs.

  9. Thrombin-mediated activation of endogenous factor XI in plasma in the presence of physiological glycosaminoglycans occurs only with high concentrations of thrombin.

    PubMed

    Wuillemin, W A; Mertens, K; ten Cate, H; Hack, C E

    1996-02-01

    The variable bleeding tendency associated with a genetic deficiency of factor XI (FXI) and the lack of bleeding disorders in individuals with a genetic deficiency of factor XII (FXII) suggest an alternative mechanism for FXI activation in vivo. Recently, thrombin has been shown to activate FXI. However, in plasma this activation has been shown to occur only with exogenous FXI and a non-physiological cofactor (sulphatides), and the occurrence of this reaction in a plasma environment has been questioned. Using recently developed sensitive assays for FXIa-inhibitor complexes we found thrombin-mediated and FXII-dependent activation of endogenous FXI in plasma in the presence of heparan sulphate, heparin, dermatan sulphate or dextran sulphate. Using heparan sulphate, which is present in the human vascular system, activation of about 1-2% of plasma FXI was observed, however, only after addition of very high amounts (500 nmol/l) of human alpha-thrombin to FXII-deficient plasma (at a 1 to 4 final dilution). We conclude that endogenous FXI in plasma can be activated by thrombin in the presence of various glycosaminoglycans, including the physiological compounds heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate, but only at very high concentrations of thrombin, corresponding to 100% prothrombin activation in undiluted plasma.

  10. A single naturally occurring 2'-O-methylation converts a TLR7- and TLR8-activating RNA into a TLR8-specific ligand.

    PubMed

    Jung, Stephanie; von Thülen, Tina; Laukemper, Viktoria; Pigisch, Stephanie; Hangel, Doris; Wagner, Hermann; Kaufmann, Andreas; Bauer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    TLR7 and TLR8 recognize RNA from pathogens and lead to subsequent immune stimulation. Here we demonstrate that a single naturally occurring 2'-O-methylation within a synthetic 18s rRNA derived RNA sequence prevents IFN-α production, however secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 is not impaired. By analysing TLR-deficient plasmacytoid dendritic cells and performing HEK293 genetic complementation assays we could demonstrate that the single 2'-O-methylation containing RNA still activated TLR8 but not TLR7. Therefore this specific 2'-O-ribose methylation in rRNA converts a TLR7/TLR8 ligand to an exclusively TLR8-specific ligand. Interestingly, other modifications at this position such as 2'-O-deoxy or 2'-fluoro had no strong modulating effect on TLR7 or TLR8 activation suggesting an important role of 2'-O-methylation for shaping differential TLR7 or TLR8 activation. PMID:25785446

  11. COMPONENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OCCURRING IN THEM: Quasiperiodic fluctuations and chaos in a gas-discharge laser with active mode locking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel'nikov, L. A.; Rabinovich, É. M.; Tuchin, Valerii V.

    1988-09-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the processes occurring on transition from active mode locking to chaotic free running of an He-Ne laser (1.15 μm). The appearance of quasiperiodic fluctuations and chaos was due to the formation of supermodes observed experimentally. A reduction of the depth of modulation induced higher supermodes. An asymmetry of the bifurcation diagram was observed as a result of a change in the sign of the mismatch between the modulation and beat frequencies. The nature of the processes occurring as a result of suppression of mode locking was fairly complex, but the following bifurcations could be identified: period doubling, tangential bifurcation, appearance of tori. A mapping relationship was obtained to describe changes in the pulse profile from one pass to the next during propagation in the laser resonator.

  12. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  13. Role of predominant rumen bacteria in the cause of polioencephalomalacia (cerebrocortical necrosis) in cattle.

    PubMed

    Haven, T R; Caldwell, D R; Jensen, R

    1983-08-01

    Rumen contents of 2 heifers with acute polioencephalomalacia (cerebrocortical necrosis) were compared with rumen contents from a healthy steer fed a fibrous diet. Also examined were (i) the quantitative nature of the predominant rumen microflora, (ii) the distribution of morphologic types of bacteria in the rumen contents, (iii) the extent that morphologic groups produced or degraded thiamine, and (iv) the cumulative effects of metabolic activities of the predominant rumen bacteria concerning the net production or degradation of thiamine. The differences in the frequency of occurrence of particular bacterial morphologic groups, the extent of growth, and the amount of thiamine metabolism in relationship to growth were also evaluated. The cumulative thiamine metabolism of the predominant bacteria associated with the rumen of polioencephalomalacia-affected heifers led to substantial net thiamine destruction, whereas metabolism associated with the rumen of a normal steer led to thiamine production. Polioencephalomalacia may occur as a consequence of alteration of the metabolic activities of the predominant resident ruminal bacteria associated with diseased cattle.

  14. Systemic endothelial activation occurs in both mild and severe malaria. Correlating dermal microvascular endothelial cell phenotype and soluble cell adhesion molecules with disease severity.

    PubMed

    Turner, G D; Ly, V C; Nguyen, T H; Tran, T H; Nguyen, H P; Bethell, D; Wyllie, S; Louwrier, K; Fox, S B; Gatter, K C; Day, N P; Tran, T H; White, N J; Berendt, A R

    1998-06-01

    Fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria is accompanied by systemic endothelial activation. To study endothelial activation directly during malaria and sepsis in vivo, the expression of cell adhesion molecules on dermal microvascular endothelium was examined in skin biopsies and correlated with plasma levels of soluble (circulating) ICAM-1, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Skin biopsies were obtained from 61 cases of severe malaria, 42 cases of uncomplicated malaria, 10 cases of severe systemic sepsis, and 17 uninfected controls. Systemic endothelial activation, represented by the up-regulation of inducible cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on endothelium and increased levels of soluble CAMs (sCAMs), were seen in both severe and uncomplicated malaria and sepsis when compared with uninfected controls. Plasma levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin correlated positively with the severity of malaria whereas TNF-alpha was raised nonspecifically in malaria and sepsis. Immunohistochemical evidence of endothelial activation in skin biopsies did not correlate with sCAM levels or disease severity. This indicates a background of systemic endothelial activation, which occurs in both mild and severe malaria and sepsis. The levels of sCAMs in malaria are thus not an accurate reflection of endothelial cell expression of CAMs in a particular vascular bed, and other factors must influence their levels during disease.

  15. Systemic endothelial activation occurs in both mild and severe malaria. Correlating dermal microvascular endothelial cell phenotype and soluble cell adhesion molecules with disease severity.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, G. D.; Ly, V. C.; Nguyen, T. H.; Tran, T. H.; Nguyen, H. P.; Bethell, D.; Wyllie, S.; Louwrier, K.; Fox, S. B.; Gatter, K. C.; Day, N. P.; Tran, T. H.; White, N. J.; Berendt, A. R.

    1998-01-01

    Fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria is accompanied by systemic endothelial activation. To study endothelial activation directly during malaria and sepsis in vivo, the expression of cell adhesion molecules on dermal microvascular endothelium was examined in skin biopsies and correlated with plasma levels of soluble (circulating) ICAM-1, E-selectin, and VCAM-1 and the cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Skin biopsies were obtained from 61 cases of severe malaria, 42 cases of uncomplicated malaria, 10 cases of severe systemic sepsis, and 17 uninfected controls. Systemic endothelial activation, represented by the up-regulation of inducible cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) on endothelium and increased levels of soluble CAMs (sCAMs), were seen in both severe and uncomplicated malaria and sepsis when compared with uninfected controls. Plasma levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, and sE-selectin correlated positively with the severity of malaria whereas TNF-alpha was raised nonspecifically in malaria and sepsis. Immunohistochemical evidence of endothelial activation in skin biopsies did not correlate with sCAM levels or disease severity. This indicates a background of systemic endothelial activation, which occurs in both mild and severe malaria and sepsis. The levels of sCAMs in malaria are thus not an accurate reflection of endothelial cell expression of CAMs in a particular vascular bed, and other factors must influence their levels during disease. Images Figure 1 PMID:9626052

  16. Zephycandidine A, the First Naturally Occurring Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine Alkaloid from Zephyranthes candida, Exhibits Significant Anti-tumor and Anti-acetylcholinesterase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Guanqun; Qu, Xiaolan; Liu, Junjun; Tong, Qingyi; Zhou, Junfei; Sun, Bin; Yao, Guangmin

    2016-01-01

    Zephycandidine A (1), the first naturally occurring imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine alkaloid, was isolated from Zephyranthes candida (Amaryllidaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and NMR calculation, and a plausible biogenetic pathway for zephycandidine A (1) was proposed. Zephycandidine A (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.98 to 7.03 μM with selectivity indices as high as 10 when compared to the normal Beas-2B cell. Further studies suggested that zephycandidine A (1) induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by the activation of caspase-3, upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, and degradation of PARP expression. In addition, zephycandidine A (1) showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the docking studies of zephycandidine A (1) and galanthamine (2) with AChE revealed that interactions with W286 and Y337 are necessary. PMID:27658482

  17. Zephycandidine A, the First Naturally Occurring Imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine Alkaloid from Zephyranthes candida, Exhibits Significant Anti-tumor and Anti-acetylcholinesterase Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Guanqun; Qu, Xiaolan; Liu, Junjun; Tong, Qingyi; Zhou, Junfei; Sun, Bin; Yao, Guangmin

    2016-09-01

    Zephycandidine A (1), the first naturally occurring imidazo[1,2-f]phenanthridine alkaloid, was isolated from Zephyranthes candida (Amaryllidaceae). The structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analyses and NMR calculation, and a plausible biogenetic pathway for zephycandidine A (1) was proposed. Zephycandidine A (1) exhibited significant cytotoxicity against five cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 1.98 to 7.03 μM with selectivity indices as high as 10 when compared to the normal Beas-2B cell. Further studies suggested that zephycandidine A (1) induces apoptosis in leukemia cells by the activation of caspase-3, upregulation of Bax, downregulation of Bcl-2, and degradation of PARP expression. In addition, zephycandidine A (1) showed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, and the docking studies of zephycandidine A (1) and galanthamine (2) with AChE revealed that interactions with W286 and Y337 are necessary.

  18. An Examination of the Differences in Background, Special Needs, Extra-Curricular Activities, and Special Ability Areas of Black and White Freshman Applicants to a Predominantly White University. AIR Forum 1979 Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichard, Donald J.; And Others

    Differences in selected characteristics of black and white freshman applicants to the University of North Carolina at Greensboro, a predominantly white university, were examined using data from the Student Descriptive Questionnaire developed by the College Entrance Examination Board. Background characteristics, special needs, extracurricular…

  19. The influences of impact interface, muscle activity, and knee angle on impact forces and tibial and femoral accelerations occurring after external impacts.

    PubMed

    Potthast, Wolfgang; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Lundberg, Arne; Arndt, Anton

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify relative contributions of impact interface, muscle activity, and knee angle to the magnitudes of tibial and femoral accelerations occurring after external impacts. Impacts were initiated with a pneumatically driven impacter under the heels of four volunteers. Impact forces were quantified with a force sensor. Segmental accelerations were measured with bone mounted accelerometers. Experimental interventions were hard and soft shock interfaces, different knee angles (0 degrees, 20 degrees, 40 degrees knee flexion), and muscular preactivation (0%, 30%, 60% of maximal voluntary contraction) of gastrocnemii, hamstrings, and quadriceps. Greater knee flexion led to lower impact forces and higher tibial accelerations. Increased muscular activation led to higher forces and lower tibial accelerations. The softer of the two shock interfaces under study reduced both parameters. The effects on accelerations and forces through the activation and knee angle changes were greater than the effect of interface variations. The hardness of the two shock interfaces explained less than 10% of the variance of accelerations and impact forces, whereas knee angle changes explained 25-29%, and preactivation changes explained 35-48% of the variances. It can be concluded that muscle force and knee joint angle have greater effects in comparison with interface hardness on the severity of shocks on the lower leg.

  20. Structure-activity relationship studies of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones as naturally occurring inhibitors of cell proliferation in human leukemia HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Ninomiya, Masayuki; Nishida, Kyohei; Tanaka, Kaori; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2013-07-01

    Flavonoids are widely occurring polyphenols that are found in plants. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationships of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones, with a focus on the effect of B ring structure substitution on the antiproliferative effects of the compounds in human leukemia HL-60 cells. We prepared a series of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones and evaluated their ability to inhibit the proliferation of HL-60 cells by using the MTT assay. The apoptosis- and cell differentiation-inducing ability of the most potent flavones were investigated using staining and morphological analyses. This study explored the antileukemic and chemopreventive potency of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones, particularly diosmetin and chrysoeriol, which have both hydroxy and methoxy groups on the B ring.

  1. SUMOylation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 occurs at multiple nonconsensus sites within the B domain and is linked to its activity cycle

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Romero, Claudia; Iñiguez-Lluhí, Jorge A.; Stadler, Julia; Chang, Chuang-Rung; Arnoult, Damien; Keller, Peter J.; Hong, Yu; Blackstone, Craig; Feldman, Eva L.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamin-related protein (Drp) 1 is a key regulator of mitochondrial fission and is composed of GTP-binding, Middle, insert B, and C-terminal GTPase effector (GED) domains. Drp1 associates with mitochondrial fission sites and promotes membrane constriction through its intrinsic GTPase activity. The mechanisms that regulate Drp1 activity remain poorly understood but are likely to involve reversible post-translational modifications, such as conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins. Through a detailed analysis, we find that Drp1 interacts with the SUMO-conjugating enzyme Ubc9 via multiple regions and demonstrate that Drp1 is a direct target of SUMO modification by all three SUMO isoforms. While Drp1 does not harbor consensus SUMOylation sequences, our analysis identified2 clusters of lysine residues within the B domain that serve as noncanonical conjugation sites. Although initial analysis indicates that mitochondrial recruitment of ectopically expressed Drp1 in response to staurosporine is unaffected by loss of SUMOylation, we find that Drp1 SUMOylation is enhanced in the context of the K38A mutation. This dominant-negative mutant, which is deficient in GTP binding and hydrolysis, does not associate with mitochondria and prevents normal mitochondrial fission. This finding suggests that SUMOylation of Drp1 is linked to its activity cycle and is influenced by Drp1 localization.—Figueroa-Romero, C., Iñiguez-Lluhí, J. A., Stadler, J., Chang, C.-R., Arnoult, D., Keller, P. J., Hong, Y., Blackstone, C., Feldman, E. L. SUMOylation of the mitochondrial fission protein Drp1 occurs at multiple nonconsensus sites within the B domain and is linked to its activity cycle. PMID:19638400

  2. [Photoreactivating Activity of Bioluminescence: Repair of UV-damaged DNA of Escherichia coli Occurs with Assistance of lux-Genes of Marine Bacteria].

    PubMed

    Zavilgelsky, G B; Melkina, O E; Kotova, V Yu; Konopleva, M N; Manukhov, I V; Pustovoit, K Ss

    2015-01-01

    The UV resistance of luminescent bacteria Escherichia coli AB1886 uvrA6 (pLeo1) containing the plasmid with luxCDABE genes of marine bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi is approximately two times higher than the UV resistance of non-luminous bacteria E. coli AB1886 uvrA6. Introduction of phr::kan(r) mutations (a defect in the functional activity of photolyase) into the genome of E. coli AB1886 uvrA6 (pLeo1) completely removes the high UV resistance of the cells. Therefore, photoreactivation that involves bacterial photolyase contributes mainly to the bioluminescence-induced DNA repair. It is shown that photoreactivating activity of bioluminescence of P. leiognathi is about 2.5 times lower compared with that one induced by a light source with λ > 385 nm. It is also shown that an increase in the bioluminescence intensity, induced by UV radiation in E. coli bacterial cells with a plasmid containing the luxCD ABE genes under RecA-LexA-regulated promoters, occurs only 25-30 min later after UV irradiation of cells and does not contribute to DNA repair. A quorum sensing regulatory system is not involved in the DNA repair by photolyase.

  3. Predominant cartilaginous hamartoma: an unusual variant of chondromatous hamartoma.

    PubMed

    Seda, Gilbert; Amundson, Dennis; Lin, Mercury Y

    2010-02-01

    Chondromatous hamartomas are the most common benign lung tumors and the third most common pulmonary nodule. Histologically, they are characteristically composed of hyaline cartilage mixed with fibromyxoid stroma and adipose tissue surrounded by epithelial cells. We report the case of a healthy, 60-year-old woman with an incidentally discovered chondromatous hamartoma that was thorascopically excised. Her pulmonary hamartoma was predominantly cartilaginous, which only occurs in 1% of hamartomas.

  4. SARS coronavirus spike protein-induced innate immune response occurs via activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in human monocyte macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dosch, Susan F; Mahajan, Supriya D; Collins, Arlene R

    2009-06-01

    A purified recombinant spike (S) protein was studied for its effect on stimulating human peripheral blood monocyte macrophages (PBMC). We examined inflammatory gene mRNA abundances found in S protein-treated PBMC using gene arrays. We identified differential mRNA abundances of genes with functional properties associated with antiviral (CXCL10) and inflammatory (IL-6 and IL-8) responses. We confirmed cytokine mRNA increases by real-time quantitative(q) RT-PCR or ELISA. We further analyzed the sensitivity and specificity of the prominent IL-8 response. By real-time qRT-PCR, S protein was shown to stimulate IL-8 mRNA accumulation in a dose dependent manner while treatment with E protein did not. Also, titration of S protein-specific production and secretion of IL-8 by ELISA showed that the dose of 5.6nM of S produced a significant increase in IL-8 (p=0.003) compared to mock-treated controls. The increase in IL-8 stimulated by a concentration of 5.6nM of S was comparable to concentrations seen for S protein binding to ACE2 or to neutralizing monoclonal antibody suggesting a physiological relevance. An NF-kappaB inhibitor, TPCK (N-Tosyl-L-Phenylalanine Chloromethyl Ketone) could suppress IL-8 production and secretion in response to S protein in PBMC and THP-1 cells and in HCoV-229E virus-infected PBMC. Activation and translocation of NF-kappaB was shown to occur rapidly following exposure of PBMC or THP-1 cells to S protein using a highly sensitive assay for active nuclear NF-kappaB p65 transcription factor. The results further suggested that released or secreted S protein could activate blood monocytes through recognition by toll-like receptor (TLR)2 ligand.

  5. Co-Occurring Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care of You Top Ten Freshman Year Issues Alcohol, Substance Abuse and Depression Winter Break Survival Tips for College Students Implementing ... supporters and consumers in the mental health field. Alcohol and Drug Abuse, Addiction and Co-occurring Disorders: Co-occurring ... In Crisis? Call ...

  6. Research Development Workshop for Faculty from Predominantly Black Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

    In response to the need to bolster research skills and research activity of faculty members in predominantly black colleges, the Mental Health Research and Development Center at Howard University began a three-year research and grantsmanship training program in 1978. The program has been funded by the National Institute of Education. Over 60…

  7. Activity of 3-Ketosteroid 9α-Hydroxylase (KshAB) Indicates Cholesterol Side Chain and Ring Degradation Occur Simultaneously in Mycobacterium tuberculosis*

    PubMed Central

    Capyk, Jenna K.; Casabon, Israël; Gruninger, Robert; Strynadka, Natalie C.; Eltis, Lindsay D.

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), a significant global pathogen, contains a cholesterol catabolic pathway. Although the precise role of cholesterol catabolism in Mtb remains unclear, the Rieske monooxygenase in this pathway, 3-ketosteroid 9α-hydroxylase (KshAB), has been identified as a virulence factor. To investigate the physiological substrate of KshAB, a rhodococcal acyl-CoA synthetase was used to produce the coenzyme A thioesters of two cholesterol derivatives: 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-22-oic acid (forming 4-BNC-CoA) and 3-oxo-23,24-bisnorchola-1,4-dien-22-oic acid (forming 1,4-BNC-CoA). The apparent specificity constant (kcat/Km) of KshAB for the CoA thioester substrates was 20–30 times that for the corresponding 17-keto compounds previously proposed as physiological substrates. The apparent KmO2 was 90 ± 10 μm in the presence of 1,4-BNC-CoA, consistent with the value for two other cholesterol catabolic oxygenases. The Δ1 ketosteroid dehydrogenase KstD acted with KshAB to cleave steroid ring B with a specific activity eight times greater for a CoA thioester than the corresponding ketone. Finally, modeling 1,4-BNC-CoA into the KshA crystal structure suggested that the CoA moiety binds in a pocket at the mouth of the active site channel and could contribute to substrate specificity. These results indicate that the physiological substrates of KshAB are CoA thioester intermediates of cholesterol side chain degradation and that side chain and ring degradation occur concurrently in Mtb. This finding has implications for steroid metabolites potentially released by the pathogen during infection and for the design of inhibitors for cholesterol-degrading enzymes. The methodologies and rhodococcal enzymes used to generate thioesters will facilitate the further study of cholesterol catabolism. PMID:21987574

  8. Pathogenic Triad in Bacterial Meningitis: Pathogen Invasion, NF-κB Activation, and Leukocyte Transmigration that Occur at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifu; Peng, Liang; Gai, Zhongtao; Zhang, Lehai; Jong, Ambrose; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs): pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). This review outlines the progression of these early inter-correlated events contributing to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and injury during the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. A better understanding of these issues is not only imperative to elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial meningitis, but may also provide the in-depth insight into the development of novel therapeutic interventions against this disease. PMID:26925035

  9. Pathogenic Triad in Bacterial Meningitis: Pathogen Invasion, NF-κB Activation, and Leukocyte Transmigration that Occur at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shifu; Peng, Liang; Gai, Zhongtao; Zhang, Lehai; Jong, Ambrose; Cao, Hong; Huang, Sheng-He

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial meningitis remains the leading cause of disabilities worldwide. This life-threatening disease has a high mortality rate despite the availability of antibiotics and improved critical care. The interactions between bacterial surface components and host defense systems that initiate bacterial meningitis have been studied in molecular and cellular detail over the past several decades. Bacterial meningitis commonly exhibits triad hallmark features (THFs): pathogen penetration, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) activation in coordination with type 1 interferon (IFN) signaling and leukocyte transmigration that occur at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which consists mainly of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMEC). This review outlines the progression of these early inter-correlated events contributing to the central nervous system (CNS) inflammation and injury during the pathogenesis of bacterial meningitis. A better understanding of these issues is not only imperative to elucidating the pathogenic mechanism of bacterial meningitis, but may also provide the in-depth insight into the development of novel therapeutic interventions against this disease.

  10. Adrenergic activation of melatonin secretion in ovine pineal explants in short-term superfusion culture occurs via protein synthesis independent and dependent phenomena.

    PubMed

    Lewczuk, Bogdan; Ziółkowska, Natalia; Prusik, Magdalena; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The ovine pineal is generally considered as an interesting model for the study on adrenergic regulation of melatonin secretion due to some functional similarities with this gland in the human. The present investigations, performed in the superfusion culture of pineal explants, demonstrated that the norepinephrine-induced elevation of melatonin secretion in ovine pinealocytes comprised of two subsequent periods: a rapid increase phase and a slow increase phase. The first one included the quick rise in release of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, occurring parallel to elevation of NE concentration in the medium surrounding explants. This rapid increase phase was not affected by inhibition of translation. The second, slow increase phase began after NE level had reached the maximum concentration in the culture medium and lasted about two hours. It was completely abolished by the treatment with translation inhibitors. The obtained results showed for the first time that the regulation of N-acetylserotonin synthesis in pinealocytes of some species like the sheep involves the on/off mechanism, which is completely independent of protein synthesis and works very fast. They provided strong evidence pointing to the need of revision of the current opinion that arylalkylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in pinealocytes is controlled exclusively by changes in enzyme abundance.

  11. Adrenergic Activation of Melatonin Secretion in Ovine Pineal Explants in Short-Term Superfusion Culture Occurs via Protein Synthesis Independent and Dependent Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The ovine pineal is generally considered as an interesting model for the study on adrenergic regulation of melatonin secretion due to some functional similarities with this gland in the human. The present investigations, performed in the superfusion culture of pineal explants, demonstrated that the norepinephrine-induced elevation of melatonin secretion in ovine pinealocytes comprised of two subsequent periods: a rapid increase phase and a slow increase phase. The first one included the quick rise in release of N-acetylserotonin and melatonin, occurring parallel to elevation of NE concentration in the medium surrounding explants. This rapid increase phase was not affected by inhibition of translation. The second, slow increase phase began after NE level had reached the maximum concentration in the culture medium and lasted about two hours. It was completely abolished by the treatment with translation inhibitors. The obtained results showed for the first time that the regulation of N-acetylserotonin synthesis in pinealocytes of some species like the sheep involves the on/off mechanism, which is completely independent of protein synthesis and works very fast. They provided strong evidence pointing to the need of revision of the current opinion that arylalkylamines N-acetyltransferase activity in pinealocytes is controlled exclusively by changes in enzyme abundance. PMID:25133175

  12. Inhibition of the mutagenicity of bay-region diol epoxides of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by naturally occurring plant phenols: Exceptional activity of ellagic acid

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Alexander W.; Huang, Mou-Tuan; Chang, Richard L.; Newmark, Harold L.; Lehr, Roland E.; Yagi, Haruhiko; Sayer, Jane M.; Jerina, Donald M.; Conney, Allan H.

    1982-01-01

    Ferulic, caffeic, chlorogenic, and ellagic acids, four naturally occurring plant phenols, inhibit the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of (±)-7β,8α-dihydroxy-9α, 10α-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2), the only known ultimate carcinogenic metabolite of benzo[a]pyrene. The mutagenicity of 0.05 nmol of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in strain TA100 of Salmonella typhimurium is inhibited 50% by incubation of the bacteria and the diol epoxide with 150 nmol of ferulic acid, 75 nmol of caffeic acid, 50 nmol of chlorogenic acid or, most strikingly, 1 nmol of ellagic acid in the 0.5-ml incubation mixture. A 3-nmol dose of ellagic acid inhibits mutation induction by 90%. Ellagic acid is also a potent antagonist of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 in Chinese hamster V79 cells. Mutations to 8-azaguanine resistance induced by 0.2 μM diol epoxide are reduced by 50% when tissue culture media also contains 2 μM ellagic acid. Similar to results obtained with the bacteria, ferulic, caffeic, and chlorogenic acids are approximately two orders of magnitude less active than ellagic acid in the mammalian cell assay. The antimutagenic effects of the plant phenols result from their direct interaction with B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2, because a concentration-dependent increase in the rate of diol epoxide disappearance in cell-free solutions of 1:9 dioxane/water, pH 7.0, is observed with all four phenols. In parallel with the mutagenicity studies, ellagic acid is 80-300 times more effective than the other phenols in accelerating the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2. Ellagic acid at 10 μM increases the disappearance of B[a]P 7,8-diol-9,10-epoxide-2 by approximately 20-fold relative to the spontaneous and hydronium ion-catalyzed hydrolysis of the diol epoxide at pH 7.0. Ellagic acid is a highly potent inhibitor of the mutagenic activity of bay-region diol epoxides of benzo[a]pyrene, dibenzo[a,h]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,i]pyrene, but higher

  13. Neutrophil priming occurs in a sequential manner and can be visualized in living animals by monitoring IL-1β promoter activation

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yi; Matsushima, Hironori; Ohtola, Jennifer A.; Geng, Shuo; Lu, Ran; Takashima, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Rapid enhancement of phagocyte functionality is a hallmark of neutrophil priming. GeneChip analyses unveiled elevated CD54, dectin-2, and IL-1β mRNA expression by neutrophils isolated from inflammatory sites. In fact, CD54 and dectin-2 protein expression was detected on neutrophils recovered from skin, peritoneal and lung inflammation lesions, but not on those in bone marrow or peripheral blood. Neutrophils elevated CD54 and dectin-2 mRNA during migration in Boyden chambers and acquired CD54 and dectin-2 surface expression after subsequent exposure to GM-CSF. Neutrophils purified from IL-1β promoter-driven DsRed transgenic mice acquired DsRed signals during cell migration or exposure to GM-CSF. CD54 and dectin-2 were expressed by DsRed+ (but not DsRed–) neutrophils in GM-CSF-supplemented culture, and neutrophils recovered from inflammatory sites exhibited strong DsRed signals. The dynamic process of neutrophil priming was then studied in chemically induced inflammatory skin lesions by monitoring DsRed expression under confocal microscopy. A majority (>80%) of Ly6G+ neutrophils expressed DsRed, and those DsRed+/Ly6G+ cells exhibited crawling motion with a higher velocity compared to the DsRed–/Ly6G+ counterpart. This is the first report showing motile behaviors of primed neutrophils in living animals. We propose that neutrophil priming occurs in a sequential manner with rapid enhancement of phagocyte functionality followed by CD54 and dectin-2 mRNA and protein expression, IL-1β promoter activation, and accelerated motility. Not only do these findings provide a new conceptual framework for our understanding of the process of neutrophil priming, they also unveil new insights into the pathophysiology of many inflammatory disorders characterized by neutrophil infiltration. PMID:25527787

  14. Influence of load and stretch shortening cycle on the kinematics, kinetics and muscle activation that occurs during explosive upper-body movements.

    PubMed

    Newton, R U; Murphy, A J; Humphries, B J; Wilson, G J; Kraemer, W J; Häkkinen, K

    1997-01-01

    Although explosive power in lower-body movements has been extensively studied, there is a paucity of research examining such movements in the upper body. This study aimed to investigate the influence of load and the stretch shortening cycle (SSC) on the kinematics, kinetics, and muscle activation that occurs during maximal effort throws. A total of 17 male subjects performed SSC and concentric only (CO) bench throws using loads of 15%, 30%, 45%, 60%, 75%, 90% and 100% of their previously determined one repetition maximum bench press. The displacement, velocity, acceleration, force and power output as well as the electromyogram (EMG) from pectoralis major, anterior deltoid, and triceps brachii were recorded for each throw. The results were compared using multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures. A criterion alpha level of P < or = 0.05 was used. Similar force velocity power relationships were determined for this multijoint upper-body movement as has been found for isolated muscles, single joint movements, and vertical jumping. The highest power output was produced at the 30% [563 (104) W] and 45% [560 (86) W] loads during the SSC throws. Force output increased as a function of load; however, even the lighter loads resulted in considerable force due to the high accelerations produced. Average velocity, average and peak force, and average and peak power output were significantly higher for the SSC throws compared to the CO throws. However, peak velocity and height thrown were not potentiated by performing the pre-stretch because the duration and range of movement allowed the ability of the muscle to generate force at high shortening velocities to dominate the resulting throw. As such, explosive movements involving longer concentric actions than experienced during brief SSC movements may be limited by the ability of the muscle to produce force during fast contraction velocities.

  15. Characteristics of Entering Black Freshmen in Predominately Black and Predominately White Institutions: A Normative Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astin, Helen S.; Cross, Patricia H.

    Data tables are compiled on the characteristics of black freshmen entering a representative sanple of 393 predominately black and predominately white academic institutions. Using a ten percent random subsample of original data compiled by Alexander W. Astin for the Cooperative Institutional Research program, the researchers present extensive…

  16. Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Savage, Kerry J; Mottok, Anja; Fanale, Michelle

    2016-07-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma with distinct clinicopathologic features. It is typified by the presence of lymphocyte predominant (LP) cells, which are CD20(+) but CD15(-) and CD30(-) and are found scattered amongst small B lymphocytes arranged in a nodular pattern. Despite frequent and often late or multiple relapses, the prognosis of NLPHL is very favorable. There is an inherent risk of secondary aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and studies support that risk is highest in those with splenic involvement at presentation. Given disease rarity, the optimal management is unclear and opinions differ as to whether treatment paradigms should be similar to or differ from those for classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL). This review provides an overview of the existing literature describing pathological subtypes, outcome and treatment approaches for NLPHL. PMID:27496311

  17. [Anesthetic management for pheochromocytoma resection: a comparison of epinephrine predominant and norepinephrine predominant pheochromocytoma].

    PubMed

    Doi, M; Ikeda, K

    1994-04-01

    Eleven patients with pheochromocytoma were divided into two groups; epinephrine predominant group (n = 4) and norepinephrine predominant group (n = 7). In each case, anesthesia was given using only inhalational anesthetics and adenosine triphosphate (ATP); and the same strategy was used to control cardiovascular variables. If arterial blood pressure, pulmonary artery pressure, central venous pressure or heart rate failed to be controlled with the strategy before the tumor resection, phentolamine, trinitroglycerine or propranolol was used. After the tumor resection, if decreasing the anesthetic concentration, cessation of ATP infusion and rapid intravenous infusion could not maintain the systolic arterial blood pressure above 80 mmHg, norepinephrine was infused. Maximum heart rate and arterial blood pressure during the tumor exploration were similar in both groups. No ventricular arrhythmias were recognized in any case. The frequency of usage of the cardiovascular depressants was not different between the two groups. In the norepinephrine predominant group, five cases required norepinephrine infusion after the tumor resection, but in the epinephrine predominant group, none required the norepinephrine infusion. Desensitization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptor induced by continuous high plasma norepinephrine concentration, was considered to decrease vascular resistance. In conclusion, except for the hypotension after the tumor resection in the norepinephrine predominant pheochromocytoma, both epinephrine predominant and norepinephrine predominant pheochromocytoma could be managed with similar anesthetic risks. PMID:8189622

  18. Identification of GATA2 and AP-1 activator elements within the enhancer VNTR occurring in intron 5 of the human SIRT3 gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human SIRT3 gene contains an intronic VNTR enhancer. A T > C transition occurring in the second repeat of each VNTR allele implies the presence/absence of a putative GATA binding motif. A partially overlapping AP-1 site, not affected by the transition, was also identified. Aims of the present study ...

  19. Predominant fatty variant of myofibroblastoma of breast

    PubMed Central

    Baxendine-Jones, J; Theaker, J; Baldwin, L

    2001-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma of the breast is an uncommon but well defined benign stromal tumour. This report describes a case in which the predominant histological component was mature adipose tissue and two further cases with a major adipocytic component. Although small foci of adipose tissue are a recognised feature of this tumour, the dominance of the histological pattern by fat has not been described previously, and the recognition of this variant is important to allow confident diagnosis and avoid confusion with other primary adipocytic or stromal lesions, especially in the setting of potential needle core biopsy of such a lesion. Key Words: myofibroblastoma • variant • fatty PMID:11429434

  20. Sympathetic sprouting near sensory neurons after nerve injury occurs preferentially on spontaneously active cells and is reduced by early nerve block

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Wenrui; Strong, Judith Ann; Li, Huiqing; Zhang, Jun-Ming

    2006-01-01

    Some chronic pain conditions are maintained or enhanced by sympathetic activity. In animal models of pathological pain, abnormal sprouting of sympathetic fibers around large- and medium-size sensory neurons is observed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Large and medium size cells are also more likely to be spontaneously active, suggesting that sprouting may be related to neuron activity. We previously showed that sprouting could be reduced by systemic or locally applied lidocaine. In the complete sciatic nerve transection model in rats, spontaneous activity initially originates in the injury site; later, the DRG become the major source of spontaneous activity. In this study, spontaneous activity reaching the DRG soma was reduced by early nerve blockade (local perfusion of the transected nerve with TTX for the first 7 days after injury). This significantly reduced sympathetic sprouting. Conversely, increasing spontaneous activity by local nerve perfusion with K+ channel blockers increased sprouting. The hyperexcitability and spontaneous activity of DRG neurons observed in this model were also significantly reduced by early nerve blockade. These effects of early nerve blockade on sprouting, excitability, and spontaneous activity were all observed 4 to 5 weeks after the end of early nerve blockade, indicating that the early period of spontaneous activity in the injured nerve is critical for establishing the more long-lasting pathologies observed in the DRG. Individual spontaneously active neurons, labeled with fluorescent dye, were 5–6 times more likely than quiescent cells to be co-localized with sympathetic fibers, suggesting a highly localized correlation of activity and sprouting. PMID:17065247

  1. The predominant bacteria isolated from radicular cysts

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To detect predominant bacteria associated with radicular cysts and discuss in light of the literature. Material and methods Clinical materials were obtained from 35 radicular cysts by aspiration. Cultures were made from clinical materials by modern laboratory techniques, they underwent microbiologic analysis. Results The following are microorganisms isolated from cultures: Streptococcus milleri Group (SMG) (23.8%) [Streptococcus constellatus (19.1%) and Streptococcus anginosus (4.7%)], Streptococcus sanguis (14.3%), Streptococcus mitis (4.7%), Streptococcus cremoris (4.7%), Peptostreptococcus pevotii (4.7%), Prevotella buccae (4.7%), Prevotella intermedia (4.7%), Actinomyces meyeri (4.7%), Actinomyces viscosus (4.7%), Propionibacterium propionicum (4.7%), Bacteroides capillosus (4.7%), Staphylococcus hominis (4.7%), Rothia denticariosa (4.7%), Gemella haemolysans (4.7%), and Fusobacterium nucleatum (4.7%). Conclusions Results of this study demonstrated that radicular cysts show a great variety of anaerobic and facultative anaerobic bacterial flora. It was observed that all isolated microorganisms were the types commonly found in oral flora. Although no specific microorganism was found, Streptococcus spp. bacteria (47.5%) – especially SMG (23.8%) – were predominantly found in the microorganisms isolated. Furthermore, radicular cysts might be polymicrobial originated. Although radicular cyst is an inflammatory cyst, some radicular cyst fluids might be sterile. PMID:24011184

  2. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  3. Gypenoside XLIX, a naturally occurring gynosaponin, PPAR-alpha dependently inhibits LPS-induced tissue factor expression and activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Van Hoan Tran; Roufogalis, Basil D.; Li Yuhao . E-mail: yuhao@pharm.usyd.edu.au

    2007-01-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is involved not only in the progression of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, but is also associated with tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis and hence may be an attractive target for directed cancer therapeutics. Gynostemma pentaphyllum (GP) is widely used in the treatment of various cardiovascular diseases including atherosclerosis, as well as cancers. Gypenoside (Gyp) XLIX, a dammarane-type glycoside, is one of the prominent components in GP. We have recently reported Gyp XLIX to be a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha activator. Here we demonstrate that Gyp XLIX (0-300 {mu}M) concentration dependently inhibited TF promoter activity after induction by the inflammatory stimulus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in human monocytic THP-1 cells transfected with promoter reporter constructs pTF-LUC. Furthermore, Gyp XLIX inhibited LPS-induced TF mRNA and protein overexpression in THP-1 monocyte cells. Its inhibition of LPS-induced TF hyperactivity was further confirmed by chromogenic enzyme activity assay. The activities of Gyp XLIX reported in this study were similar to those of Wy-14643, a potent synthetic PPAR-alpha activator. Furthermore, the Gyp XLIX-induced inhibitory effect on TF luciferase activity was completely abolished in the presence of the PPAR-alpha selective antagonist MK-886. The present findings suggest that Gyp XLIX inhibits LPS-induced TF overexpression and enhancement of its activity in human THP-1 monocytic cells via PPAR-alpha-dependent pathways. The data provide new insights into the basis of the use of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine G. pentaphyllum for the treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, as well as cancers.

  4. Effectiveness of a Walking Group Intervention to Promote Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health in Predominantly Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic Urban Neighborhoods: Findings from the Walk Your Heart to Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz, Amy J.; Israel, Barbara A.; Mentz, Graciela B.; Bernal, Cristina; Caver, Deanna; DeMajo, Ricardo; Diaz, Gregoria; Gamboa, Cindy; Gaines, Causandra; Hoston, Bernadine; Opperman, Alisha; Reyes, Angela G.; Rowe, Zachary; Sand, Sharon L.; Woods, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the "Walk Your Heart to Health" ("WYHH") intervention, one component of the multilevel Community Approaches to Cardiovascular Health: Pathways to Heart Health (CATCH:PATH) intervention designed to promote physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk…

  5. Retinoic acid inhibits induction of c-Jun protein by ultraviolet radiation that occurs subsequent to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fisher, G J; Talwar, H S; Lin, J; Lin, P; McPhillips, F; Wang, Z; Li, X; Wan, Y; Kang, S; Voorhees, J J

    1998-03-15

    Human skin is exposed daily to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. UV induces the matrix metalloproteinases collagenase, 92-kD gelatinase, and stromelysin, which degrade skin connective tissue and may contribute to premature skin aging (photoaging). Pretreatment of skin with all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) inhibits UV induction of matrix metalloproteinases. We investigated upstream signal transduction pathways and the mechanism of tRA inhibition of UV induction of matrix metalloproteinases in human skin in vivo. Exposure of human skin in vivo to low doses of UV activated EGF receptors, the GTP-binding regulatory protein p21Ras, and stimulated mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. Both JNK and p38 phosphorylated, and thereby activated transcription factors c-Jun and activating transcription factor 2 (ATF-2), which bound to the c-Jun promoter and upregulated c-Jun gene expression. Elevated c-Jun, in association with constitutively expressed c-Fos, formed increased levels of transcription factor activator protein (AP) 1, which is required for transcription of matrix metalloproteinases. Pretreatment of human skin with tRA inhibited UV induction of c-Jun protein and, consequently, AP-1. c-Jun protein inhibition occurred via a posttranscriptional mechanism, since tRA did not inhibit UV induction of c-Jun mRNA. These data demonstrate, for the first time, activation of MAP kinase pathways in humans in vivo, and reveal a novel posttranscriptional mechanism by which tRA antagonizes UV activation of AP-1 by inhibiting c-Jun protein induction. Inhibition of c-Jun induction likely contributes to the previously reported prevention by tRA of UV induction of AP-1-regulated matrix-degrading metalloproteinases in human skin.

  6. Aucubin, a naturally occurring iridoid glycoside inhibits TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses through suppression of NF-κB activation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Park, Kyoung Sik

    2013-06-01

    Obesity is closely associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation characterized by abnormal cytokine production and activation of inflammatory signaling pathways in adipose tissue. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α is chronically elevated in adipose tissues of obese rodents and humans. Increased levels of TNF-α are implicated in the induction of atherogenic adipokines, such as plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, adipose-tissue-derived monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interleukin (IL)-6. Aucubin, an iridoid glycoside existing in medicinal plants, has been reported to show an anti-inflammatory activity by suppression of TNF-α production in murine macrophages. The present study is aimed to investigate the effects of aucubin on TNF-α-induced atherogenic changes of the adipokines in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells. Aucubin significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced secretion and mRNA synthesis of the atherogenic adipokines including PAI-1, MCP-1, and IL-6. Further investigation of the molecular mechanism revealed that pretreatment with aucubin suppressed extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, inhibitory kappa Bα (IκBα) degradation, and subsequent nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation. These findings suggest that aucubin may improve obesity-induced atherosclerosis by attenuating TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses.

  7. Naturally occurring polyphenol, morin hydrate, inhibits enzymatic activity of N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase, a DNA repair enzyme with various roles in human disease.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Monica; Woodrick, Jordan; Gupta, Suhani; Karmahapatra, Soumendra Krishna; Devito, Stephen; Vasudevan, Sona; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Adhikari, Sanjay; Yenugonda, Venkata M; Roy, Rabindra

    2015-03-01

    Interest in the mechanisms of DNA repair pathways, including the base excision repair (BER) pathway specifically, has heightened since these pathways have been shown to modulate important aspects of human disease. Modulation of the expression or activity of a particular BER enzyme, N-methylpurine DNA glycosylase (MPG), has been demonstrated to play a role in carcinogenesis and resistance to chemotherapy as well as neurodegenerative diseases, which has intensified the focus on studying MPG-related mechanisms of repair. A specific small molecule inhibitor for MPG activity would be a valuable biochemical tool for understanding these repair mechanisms. By screening several small molecule chemical libraries, we identified a natural polyphenolic compound, morin hydrate, which inhibits MPG activity specifically (IC50=2.6μM). Detailed mechanism analysis showed that morin hydrate inhibited substrate DNA binding of MPG, and eventually the enzymatic activity of MPG. Computational docking studies with an x-ray derived MPG structure as well as comparison studies with other structurally-related flavonoids offer a rationale for the inhibitory activity of morin hydrate observed. The results of this study suggest that the morin hydrate could be an effective tool for studying MPG function and it is possible that morin hydrate and its derivatives could be utilized in future studies focused on the role of MPG in human disease.

  8. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory markers in primary bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages by naturally occurring flavonoids: analysis of the structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Comalada, Mònica; Ballester, Isabel; Bailón, Elvira; Sierra, Saleta; Xaus, Jordi; Gálvez, Julio; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2006-10-16

    Flavonoids possess several biological/pharmacological activities including anticancer, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antioxidant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of flavonoids on macrophage physiology. For this purpose we selected some flavonoids belonging to the most common and abundant groups (flavonols--quercetin and kaempferol; flavones--diosmetin, apigenin, chrysin and luteolin; isoflavones--genistein and daidzein and flavanones--hesperetin). We decided to use primary bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) as cellular model, since they represent a homogenous, non-transformed population of macrophages that can be stimulated in vitro to proliferate by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) or activated by LPS. In this regard, we demonstrated that most of the flavonoids assayed reduce macrophage M-CSF-induced proliferation without affecting cellular viability. Moreover, some flavonoids also inhibit TNFalpha production as well as iNOS expression and NO production in LPS-activated macrophages, an effect that has been associated with the inhibition of the NF-kappaB pathway. We also found that luteolin and quercetin are able to stimulate the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at low concentrations (<50microM). Analysis of the structure-activity relationship showed that four hydroxylations at positions 5, 7, 3' and 4', together with the double bond at C(2)-C(3) and the position of the B ring at 2, seem to be necessary for the highest anti-inflammatory effect.

  9. Drought Stress Predominantly Endures Arabidopsis thaliana to Pseudomonas syringae Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Aarti; Dixit, Sandeep K.; Senthil-Kumar, Muthappa

    2016-01-01

    Plant responses to a combination of drought and bacterial pathogen infection, an agronomically important and altogether a new stress, are not well-studied. While occurring concurrently, these two stresses can lead to synergistic or antagonistic effects on plants due to stress-interaction. It is reported that plant responses to the stress combinations consist of both strategies, unique to combined stress and those shared between combined and individual stresses. However, the combined stress response mechanisms governing stress interaction and net impact are largely unknown. In order to study these adaptive strategies, an accurate and convenient methodology is lacking even in model plants like Arabidopsis thaliana. The gradual nature of drought stress imposition protocol poses a hindrance in simultaneously applying pathogen infection under laboratory conditions to achieve combined stress. In present study we aimed to establish systematic combined stress protocol and to study physiological responses of the plants to various degrees of combined stress. Here, we have comprehensively studied the impact of combined drought and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 infection on A. thaliana. Further, by employing different permutations of drought and pathogen stress intensities, an attempt was made to dissect the contribution of each individual stress effects during their concurrence. We hereby present two main aspects of combined stress viz., stress interaction and net impact of the stress on plants. Mainly, this study established a systematic protocol to assess the impact of combined drought and bacterial pathogen stress. It was observed that as a result of net impact, some physiological responses under combined stress are tailored when compared to the plants exposed to individual stresses. We also infer that plant responses under combined stress in this study are predominantly influenced by the drought stress. Our results show that pathogen multiplication was reduced by

  10. SUMOylation of the inducible (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex occurs on target promoters to limit transcriptional activation.

    PubMed

    Tempé, D; Vives, E; Brockly, F; Brooks, H; De Rossi, S; Piechaczyk, M; Bossis, G

    2014-02-13

    The inducible proto-oncogenic (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 transcription complex binds 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-responsive elements (TRE) in its target genes. It is tightly controlled at multiple levels to avoid the deleterious effects of its inappropriate activation. In particular, SUMOylation represses its transactivation capacity in transient reporter assays using constitutively expressed proteins. This led to the presumption that (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation would be required to turn-off transcription of its target genes, as proposed for various transcription factors. Instead, thanks to the generation of an antibody specific for SUMO-modified c-Fos, we provide here direct evidence that SUMOylated c-Fos is present on a stably integrated reporter TPA-inducible promoter at the onset of transcriptional activation and colocalizes with RNA polymerase II within chromatin. Interestingly, (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 SUMOylation limits reporter gene induction, as well as the appearance of active transcription-specific histone marks on its promoter. Moreover, non-SUMOylatable mutant (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 dimers accumulate to higher levels on their target promoter, suggesting that SUMOylation might facilitate the release of (c-Fos:c-Jun)/AP-1 from promoters. Finally, activation of GADD153, an AP-1 target gene, is also associated with a rapid increase in SUMOylation at the level of its TRE and c-Fos SUMOylation dampens its induction by TPA. Taken together, our data suggest that SUMOylation could serve to buffer transcriptional activation of AP-1 target genes.

  11. cis-Isomers of Cytokinins Predominate in Chickpea Seeds throughout Their Development1

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Robert Joseph Neil; Leport, Laurent; Barton, Joanne Edith; Turner, Neil Clifford; Atkins, Craig Anthony

    1998-01-01

    Trans-isomers of cytokinins (CK) are thought to predominate and have greater biological activity than corresponding cis-isomers in higher plants. However, this study demonstrates a system within which the predominant CK are cis-isomers. CK were measured at four developmental stages in developing chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. cultivar Kaniva) seeds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentrations were highest at an early endospermic fluid stage and fell considerably when the cotyledons expanded. The cis-isomers of zeatin nucleotide ([9R-MP]Z), zeatin riboside ([9R]Z), and zeatin (Z) were present in greater concentrations than those of corresponding trans-isomers: (trans)[9R-MP]Z, (trans)[9R]Z, (trans)Z, or dihydrozeatin riboside. Dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin nucleotide, and the isopentenyl-type CK concentrations were either low or not detectable. Root xylem exudates also contained predominantly cis-isomers of [9R-MP]Z and [9R]Z. Identities of (cis)[9R]Z and (cis)Z were confirmed by comparison of ion ratios and retention indices, and a full spectrum was obtained for (cis)[9R]Z. Tissues were extracted under conditions that minimized the possibility of RNase hydrolysis of tRNA following tissue disruption, being a significant source of the cis-CK. Since no isomerization of (trans)[2H]CK internal standards occurred, it is unlikely that the cis-CK resulted from enzymic or nonenzymic isomerization during extraction. Although quantities of total CK varied, similar CK profiles were found among three different chickpea cultivars and between adequately watered and water-stressed plants. Developing chickpea seeds will be a useful system for investigating the activity of cis-CK or determining the origin and metabolism of free CK. PMID:9701607

  12. Characterization of cultivar differences in beta-1,3 glucanase gene expression, glucanase activity and fruit pulp softening rates during fruit ripening in three naturally occurring banana cultivars.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Swarup; Roy, Sujit; Sengupta, Dibyendu N

    2009-11-01

    beta-1,3 glucanase (E.C.3.2.1.39) is the key enzyme involved in the hydrolytic cleavage of 1,3 beta-D glucosidic linkages in beta-1,3 glucans. This work describes a comparative analysis of expression patterns of beta-1,3 glucanase gene in relation to changes in fruit pulp softening rates in three banana cultivars, Rasthali (AAB), Kanthali (AB), and Monthan (ABB). Analysis of transcript and protein levels of beta-1,3 glucanase gene during ripening revealed differential timing in expression of the gene which correlated well with the variation in enzymatic activity of glucanase and fruit pulp softening rates in the three cultivars. Exogenously applied ethylene strongly induced beta-1,3 glucanase expression during the early ripening days in Rasthali, while the expression of the gene was marginally stimulated following ethylene treatment in preclimacteric Kanthali fruit. Conversely, in Monthan, beta-1,3 glucanase expression was very low throughout the ripening stages, and ethylene treatment did not induce the expression of the gene in this cultivar. Analysis of glucanase activity using protein extracts from unripe and ripe fruit of Monthan with crude cell wall polysaccharide fractions (used as substrate) indicated that the natural substrate for glucanase remained almost unutilized in this cultivar due to low in vivo glucanase activity. Furthermore, the recombinant beta-1,3 glucanase protein, overexpressed in E. coli, showed requirement for substrates with contiguous beta-1,3 linkages for optimal activity. Overall, our results provide new information on the expression profile of beta-1,3 glucanase gene in connection with the pattern of changes in fruit firmness at the physiological and molecular levels during ripening in three banana cultivars. PMID:19697038

  13. Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of extracts prepared from different tissues of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi that occurs in the coast of Bahia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    D’Sousa’ Costa, Cinara Oliveira; Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Loureiro, Marta Bruno; Simões, Rafael Conceição; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schinus terebinthifolius is widely used in traditional medicine by Brazilian quilombola and indigenous communities for treatment of several diseases. Extracts from different tissues are being used to produce creams to treat cervicitis and cervicovaginitis. However, most studies are limited to the assessment of the essential oils and extracts obtained from the leaves. Objective: The aim was to evaluate antioxidant and antibacterial activities, to assess the phytochemical profile and to quantify total phenolic compounds of various extracts prepared from S. terebinthifolius grown in the coast of Bahia, Brazil. Materials and Methods: Extracts were obtained by hot continuous extraction (soxhlet) and by maceration. Quantification of phenolic compounds was performed using the Folin-Ciocalteu method and antioxidant properties were assessed by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay. Phytochemical screening was performed as described by in the literature and antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) was determined by the microdilution broth assay. Results: Extraction method greatly affected the metabolite profile of the extracts. Antioxidant activity varied between 21.92% and 85.76%, while total phenols ranged between 5.44 and 309.03 mg EAG/g of extract. Leaf extract obtained with soxhlet showed minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 15.62 μg/mL, while stem extract obtained by maceration was able to inhibit the growth of E. faecalis at 62.5 μg/mL. Stem bark extracts showed a MIC of 500 μg/mL for both extraction methods, while no inhibition was observed for fruit extracts. Conclusion: In general, total phenolic content, antioxidant and antibacterial activities were higher in samples obtained by soxhlet. Our results provide important clues in order to identify alternative sources of bioactive compounds that can be used to develop new drugs. PMID:26246739

  14. Synergistic activity between the delta-opioid agonist SNC80 and amphetamine occurs via a glutamatergic NMDA-receptor dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Bosse, Kelly E.; Jutkiewicz, Emily M.; Schultz, Kristin N.; Mabrouk, Omar S.; Kennedy, Robert T.; Gnegy, Margaret E.; Traynor, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate is known to cause the release of dopamine through a Ca2+-sensitive mechanism that involves activation of NMDA ionotropic glutamate receptors. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the delta opioid agonist SNC80 acts indirectly, via the glutamatergic system, to enhance both amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux from striatal preparations and amphetamine-stimulated locomotor activity. SNC80 increased extracellular glutamate content, which was accompanied by a concurrent decrease in GABA levels. Inhibition of NMDA signaling with the selective antagonist MK801 blocked the enhancement of both amphetamine-induced dopamine efflux and hyperlocomotion observed with SNC80 pretreatment. Addition of exogenous glutamate also potentiated amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux in a Mg2+- and MK801-sensitive manner. After removal of Mg2+ to relieve the ion conductance inhibition of NMDA receptors, SNC80 both elicited dopamine release alone and produced a greater enhancement of amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux. The action of SNC80 to enhance amphetamine-evoked dopamine efflux was mimicked by the GABAB antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen. These cumulative findings suggest SNC80 modulates amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux through an intra-striatal mechanism involving inhibition of GABA transmission leading to the local release of glutamate followed by subsequent activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:24035916

  15. Photosynthetic carbon assimilation in the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta): Evidence for the predominant operation of the c3 cycle and the contribution of {beta}-carboxylases to the active anaplerotic reaction.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Iwane; Shiraiwa, Yoshihiro

    2009-02-01

    The coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi (Haptophyta) is a representative and unique marine phytoplankton species that fixes inorganic carbon by photosynthesis and calci-fication. We examined the initial process of photosynthetic carbon assimilation by analyses of metabolites, enzymes and genes. When the cells were incubated with a radioactive substrate (2.3 mM NaH(14)CO(3)) for 10 s under illumination, 70% of the (14)C was incorporated into the 80% methanol-soluble fraction. Eighty-five and 15% of (14)C in the soluble fraction was incorporated into phosphate esters (P-esters), including the C(3) cycle intermediates and a C(4) compound, aspartate, respectively. A pulse-chase experiment showed that (14)C in P-esters was mainly transferred into lipids, while [(14)C]aspartate, [(14)C]alanine and [(14)C]glutamate levels remained almost constant. These results indicate that the C(3) cycle functions as the initial pathway of carbon assimilation and that beta-carboxylation contributes to the production of amino acids in subsequent metabolism. Transcriptional analysis of beta-carboxylases such as pyruvate carboxylase (PYC), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) revealed that PYC and PEPC transcripts were greatly increased under illumination, whereas the PEPCK transcript decreased remarkably. PEPC activity was higher in light-grown cells than in dark-adapted cells. PYC activity was detected in isolated chloroplasts of light-grown cells. According to analysis of their deduced N-terminal sequence, PYC and PEPC are predicted to be located in the chloroplasts and mitochondria, respectively. These results suggest that E. huxleyi possesses unique carbon assimila-tion mechanisms in which beta-carboxylation by both PYC and PEPC plays important roles in different organelles.

  16. Predominant bacteria diversity in Chinese traditional sourdough.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohua; He, Guoqing

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major bacteria in Chinese traditional sourdough (CTS). Five CTS samples (Hn-87, Sx-91, Gs-107, Hf-112, and Hr-122) were collected from different Chinese steamed breads shops or private households. The total bacterial DNA was extracted from sourdough samples and sequenced using Illumina Hiseq 2000 system. Illumina tags were assigned to BLASTN server based on 16S rRNA libraries to reveal a genetic profile. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the bacteria in traditional sourdough samples were dominated by the genera Leuconostoc and Lactobacillus. Beta diversity analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis compared the bacterial differences in traditional sourdough samples. The results showed that Leuconostoc, Lactobacillus, and Weissella were the predominant genera among the 5 samples. This differentiated the sourdoughs into 3 typologies, namely, 1) Gs-107 and Sx-91, 2) Hr-122 and Hn-87, and 3) Hf-112. This study identified 3 unique major bacteria genus in CTS bread ecosystems.

  17. Predominance of sperm motion in corners.

    PubMed

    Nosrati, Reza; Graham, Percival J; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sinton, David

    2016-01-01

    Sperm migration through the female tract is crucial to fertilization, but the role of the complex and confined structure of the fallopian tube in sperm guidance remains unknown. Here, by confocal imaging microchannels head-on, we distinguish corner- vs. wall- vs. bulk-swimming bull sperm in confined geometries. Corner-swimming dominates with local areal concentrations as high as 200-fold that of the bulk. The relative degree of corner-swimming is strongest in small channels, decreases with increasing channel size, and plateaus for channels above 200 μm. Corner-swimming remains predominant across the physiologically-relevant range of viscosity and pH. Together, boundary-following sperm account for over 95% of the sperm distribution in small rectangular channels, which is similar to the percentage of wall swimmers in circular channels of similar size. We also demonstrate that wall-swimming sperm travel closer to walls in smaller channels (~100 μm), where the opposite wall is within the hydrodynamic interaction length-scale. The corner accumulation effect is more than the superposition of the influence of two walls, and over 5-fold stronger than that of a single wall. These findings suggest that folds and corners are dominant in sperm migration in the narrow (sub-mm) lumen of the fallopian tube and microchannel-based sperm selection devices. PMID:27211846

  18. Predominance of sperm motion in corners

    PubMed Central

    Nosrati, Reza; Graham, Percival J.; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sinton, David

    2016-01-01

    Sperm migration through the female tract is crucial to fertilization, but the role of the complex and confined structure of the fallopian tube in sperm guidance remains unknown. Here, by confocal imaging microchannels head-on, we distinguish corner- vs. wall- vs. bulk-swimming bull sperm in confined geometries. Corner-swimming dominates with local areal concentrations as high as 200-fold that of the bulk. The relative degree of corner-swimming is strongest in small channels, decreases with increasing channel size, and plateaus for channels above 200 μm. Corner-swimming remains predominant across the physiologically-relevant range of viscosity and pH. Together, boundary-following sperm account for over 95% of the sperm distribution in small rectangular channels, which is similar to the percentage of wall swimmers in circular channels of similar size. We also demonstrate that wall-swimming sperm travel closer to walls in smaller channels (~100 μm), where the opposite wall is within the hydrodynamic interaction length-scale. The corner accumulation effect is more than the superposition of the influence of two walls, and over 5-fold stronger than that of a single wall. These findings suggest that folds and corners are dominant in sperm migration in the narrow (sub-mm) lumen of the fallopian tube and microchannel-based sperm selection devices. PMID:27211846

  19. Predominance of sperm motion in corners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosrati, Reza; Graham, Percival J.; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sinton, David

    2016-05-01

    Sperm migration through the female tract is crucial to fertilization, but the role of the complex and confined structure of the fallopian tube in sperm guidance remains unknown. Here, by confocal imaging microchannels head-on, we distinguish corner- vs. wall- vs. bulk-swimming bull sperm in confined geometries. Corner-swimming dominates with local areal concentrations as high as 200-fold that of the bulk. The relative degree of corner-swimming is strongest in small channels, decreases with increasing channel size, and plateaus for channels above 200 μm. Corner-swimming remains predominant across the physiologically-relevant range of viscosity and pH. Together, boundary-following sperm account for over 95% of the sperm distribution in small rectangular channels, which is similar to the percentage of wall swimmers in circular channels of similar size. We also demonstrate that wall-swimming sperm travel closer to walls in smaller channels (~100 μm), where the opposite wall is within the hydrodynamic interaction length-scale. The corner accumulation effect is more than the superposition of the influence of two walls, and over 5-fold stronger than that of a single wall. These findings suggest that folds and corners are dominant in sperm migration in the narrow (sub-mm) lumen of the fallopian tube and microchannel-based sperm selection devices.

  20. Synergism between insecticides permethrin and propoxur occurs through activation of presynaptic muscarinic negative feedback of acetylcholine release in the insect central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Corbel, Vincent; Stankiewicz, Maria; Bonnet, Julien; Grolleau, Françoise; Hougard, Jean Marc; Lapied, Bruno

    2006-07-01

    Although synergism between pesticides has been widely documented, the physiological mechanisms by which an insecticide synergizes another remains unclear. Toxicological and electrophysiological studies were carried out on two susceptible pest species (the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus and the cockroach Periplaneta americana) to understand better the physiological process involved in pyrethroid and carbamate interactions. Larval bioassays were conducted with the susceptible reference strain SLAB of C. quinquefasciatus to assess the implication of multi-function oxidases and non-specific esterases in insecticide detoxification and synergism. Results showed that the general theory of synergism (competition between pesticides for a common detoxification enzyme) was unlikely to occur in the SLAB strain since the level of synergy recorded between permethrin and propoxur was unchanged in the presence of piperonyl butoxide and tribufos, two inhibitors of oxidases and esterases, respectively (synergism ratios were similar with and without synergists). We also showed that addition of a sub-lethal concentration of nicotine significantly increased the toxicity of permethrin and propoxur at the lower range of the dose-mortality regression lines, suggesting the manifestation of important physiological disruptions at synaptic level. The effects of both permethrin and propoxur were studied on the cercal-afferent giant-interneuron synapses in the terminal abdominal ganglion of the cockroach P. americana using the single-fibre oil-gap method. We demonstrated that permethrin and propoxur increased drastically the ACh concentration within the synaptic cleft, which thereby stimulated a negative feedback of ACh release. Atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, reversed the effect of permethrin and propoxur mixtures. This demonstrates the implication of the presynaptic muscarinic receptors in the negative feedback regulation process and in synergism. Based on these findings, we

  1. The ESA-Facility MATROSHKA: A human phantom for dose measurements occurring in men being exposed during an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, G.

    The Matroshka facility basically consists of the upper part of a body phantom, com- posed of various tissue substitutes simulating the human body with respect to size, shape, position, mass density and nuclear interactions. At the site of the organs of interest, spaces are provided at the surface and in different depths inside the phan- tom to accommodate active and passive dosimeter packages for measurements of any radiation type. The phantom is mounted on a base structure containing the facility electronics and surrounded by a Carbon Fiber container providing structural support and fixation of the phantom and providing shielding thickness comparable to the EVA suit. The container and the base structure build up a sealed compartment. The objective of the proposed facility is to determine the empirical relations between measurable absorbed doses and the required tissue absorbed doses in a realistic hu- man phantom exposed to the concrete radiation field to be monitored. The radiation field during extravehicular activities (EVA) is that of the free space environment mod- ified only by the space suit. Since EVAs will form a substantial fraction of the work- schedule in the space station scenario, such measurements have highest priority. Once the ratios for the tissue absorbed doses and surface absorbed doses are known for a given radiation field around the human body, these values may be used in future expo- sures to determine the required tissue absorbed doses from measurements of surface absorbed doses, only. This technical presentation will describe the design of the MATROSHKA facility which is expected to be launched late 2003.

  2. Depletion of Intracellular Thiols and Increased Production of 4-Hydroxynonenal that Occur During Cryopreservation of Stallion Spermatozoa Lead to Caspase Activation, Loss of Motility, and Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Martin Muñoz, Patricia; Ortega Ferrusola, Cristina; Vizuete, Guillermo; Plaza Dávila, Maria; Rodriguez Martinez, Heriberto; Peña, Fernando J

    2015-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been linked to sperm death and the accelerated senescence of cryopreserved spermatozoa. However, the molecular mechanisms behind this phenomenon remain poorly understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered relevant signaling molecules for sperm function, only becoming detrimental when ROS homeostasis is lost. We hereby hypothesize that a major component of the alteration of ROS homeostasis in cryopreserved spermatozoa is the exhaustion of intrinsic antioxidant defense mechanisms. To test this hypothesis, semen from seven stallions was frozen using a standard technique. The parameters of sperm quality (motility, velocity, and membrane integrity) and markers of sperm senescence (caspase 3, 4-hydroxynonenal, and mitochondrial membrane potential) were assessed before and after cryopreservation. Changes in the intracellular thiol content were also monitored. Cryopreservation caused significant increases in senescence markers as well as dramatic depletion of intracellular thiols to less than half of the initial values (P < 0.001) postthaw. Interestingly, very high and positive correlations were observed among thiol levels with sperm functionality postthaw: total motility (r = 0.931, P < 0.001), progressive motility (r = 0.904, P < 0.001), and percentage of live spermatozoa without active caspase 3 (r = 0.996, P < 0.001). In contrast, negative correlations were detected between active caspase 3 and thiol content both in living (r = -0.896) and dead (r = -0.940) spermatozoa; additionally, 4-hydroxynonenal levels were negatively correlated with thiol levels (r = -0.856). In conclusion, sperm functionality postthaw correlates with the maintenance of adequate levels of intracellular thiols. The accelerated senescence of thawed spermatozoa is related to oxidative and electrophilic stress induced by increased production of 4-hydroxynoneal in thawed samples once intracellular thiols are depleted.

  3. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced cell cycle progression occurs via ERK-induced Chk1 pathway activation in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bing-Yen; Wu, Sung-Yu; Tang, Sheau-Chung; Lai, Chien-Hung; Ou, Chu-Chyn; Wu, Ming-Fang; Hsiao, Yi-Min; Ko, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a potent lung carcinogen derived from tobacco smoking and environmental contamination. This study aimed to investigate the signal transduction pathway responsible for B[a]P-induced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) development. We exposed the human NSCLC cell lines Calu-1, CL3, H1299, CH27, H23, and H1355 to B[a]P and assessed cell cycle progression using flow cytometry. Expression of cell cycle mediators was measured using Western blot analyses and electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs). B[a]P exposure dramatically induced S-phase accumulation in H1355 cells. Phospho-p53 (Ser15 and Ser20), phospho-ERK, phospho-p38, and Bax were significantly increased in H1355 cells whereas phospho-Rb was decreased in these cells. In addition, B[a]P induced phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase-1 (Chk1) but not Chk2. EMSA experiments revealed a slower migrating band after c-Myc bound the E-box in response to B[a]P treatment, which was abolished upon the addition of the ERK inhibitor PD98059 in H1355 cells. Phospho-ERK inhibition and dominant negative mutant Chk1 expression reversed B[a]P-induced S phase accumulation and downregulated phospho-Chk1 and phospho-ERK expression. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of ERK and its downstream mediator Chk1 may contribute to B[a]P-induced S phase accumulation in H1355 cells. The results could help in the development of lung cancer treatments that target the Chk1 pathway through ERK.

  4. A Comparative Oncology Study of Iniparib Defines Its Pharmacokinetic Profile and Biological Activity in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Cancer Model.

    PubMed

    Saba, Corey; Paoloni, Melissa; Mazcko, Christina; Kisseberth, William; Burton, Jenna H; Smith, Annette; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Allstadt, Sara; Vail, David; Henry, Carolyn; Lana, Susan; Ehrhart, E J; Charles, Brad; Kent, Michael; Lawrence, Jessica; Burgess, Kristine; Borgatti, Antonella; Suter, Steve; Woods, Paul; Gordon, Ira; Vrignaud, Patricia; Khanna, Chand; LeBlanc, Amy K

    2016-01-01

    Development of iniparib as an anti-cancer agent was hindered in part by lingering questions regarding its mechanism of action, the activity of its metabolites, and their potential accumulation in tumors. Due to strong similarities in metabolism of iniparib between humans and dogs, a veterinary clinical trial in pet dogs with spontaneous cancers was designed to answer specific questions pertaining to pharmacokinetic exposures and tolerability of iniparib. Dogs were treated with iniparib alone and in combination with carboplatin chemotherapy. Iniparib doses ranged between 10-70 mg/kg intravenously (IV). Plasma, tumor and normal tissue samples were collected before and at various time points scheduled after exposure for pharmacokinetic and biologic analysis. The primary endpoints included characterization of dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and determination of the drug exposures that could be achieved in both normal and tumor tissues. Nineteen dogs were treated. DLT included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia; most effects were attributable to carboplatin based on the timing of adverse event onset. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of iniparib was not identified. Moderate to high variability in plasma exposure was noted for iniparib and all metabolites between animals. When quantifiable, iniparib and metabolite plasma:tumor ratios were < 0.088 and <1.7, respectively. In this study, iniparib was well tolerated as a single agent and in combination with carboplatin over a range of doses. However, clinically relevant concentrations of the parent drug and selected metabolites were not detectable in canine tumor tissues at any studied dose, thus eliminating expectations for clinical responses in dogs or humans. Negative clinical trials in humans, and the uncertainties of its mechanism of action, ultimately led to the decision to stop clinical development of the drug. Nevertheless, the questions that can be asked and answered within the comparative

  5. A Comparative Oncology Study of Iniparib Defines Its Pharmacokinetic Profile and Biological Activity in a Naturally-Occurring Canine Cancer Model

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Corey; Paoloni, Melissa; Mazcko, Christina; Kisseberth, William; Burton, Jenna H.; Smith, Annette; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Allstadt, Sara; Vail, David; Henry, Carolyn; Lana, Susan; Ehrhart, E. J.; Charles, Brad; Kent, Michael; Lawrence, Jessica; Burgess, Kristine; Borgatti, Antonella; Suter, Steve; Woods, Paul; Gordon, Ira; Vrignaud, Patricia; Khanna, Chand; LeBlanc, Amy K.

    2016-01-01

    Development of iniparib as an anti-cancer agent was hindered in part by lingering questions regarding its mechanism of action, the activity of its metabolites, and their potential accumulation in tumors. Due to strong similarities in metabolism of iniparib between humans and dogs, a veterinary clinical trial in pet dogs with spontaneous cancers was designed to answer specific questions pertaining to pharmacokinetic exposures and tolerability of iniparib. Dogs were treated with iniparib alone and in combination with carboplatin chemotherapy. Iniparib doses ranged between 10–70 mg/kg intravenously (IV). Plasma, tumor and normal tissue samples were collected before and at various time points scheduled after exposure for pharmacokinetic and biologic analysis. The primary endpoints included characterization of dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and determination of the drug exposures that could be achieved in both normal and tumor tissues. Nineteen dogs were treated. DLT included fever, anorexia, diarrhea, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia; most effects were attributable to carboplatin based on the timing of adverse event onset. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of iniparib was not identified. Moderate to high variability in plasma exposure was noted for iniparib and all metabolites between animals. When quantifiable, iniparib and metabolite plasma:tumor ratios were < 0.088 and <1.7, respectively. In this study, iniparib was well tolerated as a single agent and in combination with carboplatin over a range of doses. However, clinically relevant concentrations of the parent drug and selected metabolites were not detectable in canine tumor tissues at any studied dose, thus eliminating expectations for clinical responses in dogs or humans. Negative clinical trials in humans, and the uncertainties of its mechanism of action, ultimately led to the decision to stop clinical development of the drug. Nevertheless, the questions that can be asked and answered within the comparative

  6. Systematic identification and integrative analysis of novel genes expressed specifically or predominantly in mouse epididymis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jungsu; Lee, Jiae; Woo, Jong-Min; Choi, Eunyoung; Park, Inju; Han, Cecil; Baek, Namhoe; Lee, Hoyong; Kim, Do Han; Cho, Chunghee

    2006-01-01

    Background Maturation of spermatozoa, including development of motility and the ability to fertilize the oocyte, occurs during transit through the microenvironment of the epididymis. Comprehensive understanding of sperm maturation requires identification and characterization of unique genes expressed in the epididymis. Results We systematically identified 32 novel genes with epididymis-specific or -predominant expression in the mouse epididymis UniGene library, containing 1505 gene-oriented transcript clusters, by in silico and in vitro analyses. The Northern blot analysis revealed various characteristics of the genes at the transcript level, such as expression level, size and the presence of isoform. We found that expression of the half of the genes is regulated by androgens. Further expression analyses demonstrated that the novel genes are region-specific and developmentally regulated. Computational analysis showed that 15 of the genes lack human orthologues, suggesting their implication in male reproduction unique to the mouse. A number of the novel genes are putative epididymal protease inhibitors or β-defensins. We also found that six of the genes have secretory activity, indicating that they may interact with sperm and have functional roles in sperm maturation. Conclusion We identified and characterized 32 novel epididymis-specific or -predominant genes by an integrative approach. Our study is unique in the aspect of systematic identification of novel epididymal genes and should be a firm basis for future investigation into molecular mechanisms underlying sperm maturation in the epididymis. PMID:17166261

  7. Predictive Ability and Stability of Adolescents’ Pregnancy Intentions in a Predominantly Latino Community

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Corinne H.; Hubbard, Alan E.; Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer; Padian, Nancy S.; Minnis, Alexandra M.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort of 555 adolescent girls and boys from a predominantly Latino neighborhood of San Francisco, we examined how well four survey questionnaire items measuring pregnancy intentions predicted the incidence of pregnancy. We also compared consistency of responses among items and assessed how intentions fluctuated over time. Girls experienced 72 pregnancies over two years (six-month cumulative incidence = 8 percent), and boys reported being responsible for 50 pregnancies (six-month cumulative incidence = 10 percent). Although the probability of becoming pregnant generally increased with higher intention to do so, the risk of becoming pregnant was elevated only at the highest response categories for each item. Most pregnancies occurred among teenagers reporting the lowest levels of intention: for instance, 73 percent of pregnancies occurred among girls who reported that they definitely did not want to become pregnant. Considerable change in respondents’ intentions were found over short periods of time: 18 percent and 41 percent of responses to the wantedness and happiness items, respectively, changed between six-month survey visits. The development of appropriate strategies to reduce pregnancy among adolescents would benefit from a more nuanced understanding of how teenagers view the prospect of pregnancy and what determines whether they actively protect themselves from unintended pregnancy. PMID:21469271

  8. Predictive ability and stability of adolescents' pregnancy intentions in a predominantly Latino community.

    PubMed

    Rocca, Corinne H; Hubbard, Alan E; Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer; Padian, Nancy S; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2010-09-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort of 555 adolescent girls and boys from a predominantly Latino neighborhood of San Francisco, we examined how well four survey questionnaire items measuring pregnancy intentions predicted the incidence of pregnancy. We also compared consistency of responses among items and assessed how intentions fluctuated over time. Girls experienced 72 pregnancies over two years (six-month cumulative incidence = 8 percent), and boys reported being responsible for 50 pregnancies (six-month cumulative incidence = 10 percent). Although the probability of becoming pregnant generally increased with higher intention to do so, the risk of becoming pregnant was elevated only at the highest response categories for each item. Most pregnancies occurred among teenagers reporting the lowest levels of intention: for instance, 73 percent of pregnancies occurred among girls who reported that they definitely did not want to become pregnant. Considerable change in respondents' intentions were found over short periods of time: 18 percent and 41 percent of responses to the wantedness and happiness items, respectively, changed between six-month survey visits. The development of appropriate strategies to reduce pregnancy among adolescents would benefit from a more nuanced understanding of how teenagers view the prospect of pregnancy and what determines whether they actively protect themselves from unintended pregnancy. PMID:21469271

  9. Activation of heat shock gene transcription by heat shock factor 1 involves oligomerization, acquisition of DNA-binding activity, and nuclear localization and can occur in the absence of stress.

    PubMed Central

    Sarge, K D; Murphy, S P; Morimoto, R I

    1993-01-01

    The existence of multiple heat shock factor (HSF) genes in higher eukaryotes has promoted questions regarding the functions of these HSF family members, especially with respect to the stress response. To address these questions, we have used polyclonal antisera raised against mouse HSF1 and HSF2 to examine the biochemical, physical, and functional properties of these two factors in unstressed and heat-shocked mouse and human cells. We have identified HSF1 as the mediator of stress-induced heat shock gene transcription. HSF1 displays stress-induced DNA-binding activity, oligomerization, and nuclear localization, while HSF2 does not. Also, HSF1 undergoes phosphorylation in cells exposed to heat or cadmium sulfate but not in cells treated with the amino acid analog L-azetidine-2-carboxylic acid, indicating that phosphorylation of HSF1 is not essential for its activation. Interestingly, HSF1 and HSF2 overexpressed in transfected 3T3 cells both display constitutive DNA-binding activity, oligomerization, and transcriptional activity. These results demonstrate that HSF1 can be activated in the absence of physiological stress and also provide support for a model of regulation of HSF1 and HSF2 activity by a titratable negative regulatory factor. Images PMID:8441385

  10. Epistasis in natural populations of a predominantly selfing plant

    PubMed Central

    Volis, S; Shulgina, I; Zaretsky, M; Koren, O

    2011-01-01

    Populations of predominantly selfing plant species often show spatial genetic structure but little is known whether epistatic gene interactions are spatially structured. To detect a possible epistatic effect and a spatial scale at which it operates, we created artificial crosses between plants spanning a range of fixed distances from 1 to 400 m in three populations of wild barley. The self-pollinated and crossed progeny (F1) and two generations of segregated progeny (F2 and F3) were tested in experimentally simulated population environments for relative performance (RP). The measured fitness traits included number of seeds, total seed weight and seed germination. For any of these traits, there was no association between RP of F1, F2 and F3 plants and either pairwise kinship coefficients or crossing distance. In contrast, in all three populations, we found lower seed viability of outcrossed as compared with self-pollinated genotypes in the first generation of segregation. However, in the F3 generation this outbreeding effect disappeared in the two populations and greatly decreased in the third population. For seed production, heterosis in F1 and outbreeding depression in F2 were observed only in the population with unusually high number of heterozygotes. Our findings support the view that in selfing species a spatial mosaic of various locally abundant genotypes represents not randomly fixed combinations of alleles but the co-adapted gene complexes that were sieved by selection, while heterozygotes are characteristic for the transient phase of this process, when segregation and purging of maladaptive genotypes have not yet occurred. PMID:20551977

  11. Predominance of single bacterial cells in composting bioaerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galès, Amandine; Bru-Adan, Valérie; Godon, Jean-Jacques; Delabre, Karine; Catala, Philippe; Ponthieux, Arnaud; Chevallier, Michel; Birot, Emmanuel; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Wéry, Nathalie

    2015-04-01

    Bioaerosols emitted from composting plants have become an issue because of their potential harmful impact on public or workers' health. Accurate knowledge of the particle-size distribution in bioaerosols emitted from open-air composting facilities during operational activity is a requirement for improved modeling of air dispersal. In order to investigate the aerodynamic diameter of bacteria in composting bioaerosols this study used an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor for sampling and quantitative real-time PCR for quantification. Quantitative PCR results show that the size of bacteria peaked between 0.95 μm and 2.4 μm and that the geometric mean diameter of the bacteria was 1.3 μm. In addition, total microbial cells were counted by flow cytometry and revealed that these qPCR results corresponded to single whole bacteria. Finally, the enumeration of cultivable thermophilic microorganisms allowed us to set the upper size limit for fragments at an aerodynamic diameter of ∼0.3 μm. Particle-size distributions of microbial groups previously used to monitor composting bioaerosols were also investigated. In collected the bioaerosols, the aerodynamic diameter of the actinomycetes Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula-and-relatives and also of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, appeared to be consistent with a majority of individual cells. Together, this study provides the first culture-independent data on particle-size distribution of composting bioaerosols and reveals that airborne single bacteria were emitted predominantly from open-air composting facilities.

  12. Predominance of 2-hydroxymelatonin over melatonin in plants.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Yeong; Tan, Dun-Xian; Reiter, Russel J; Back, Kyoungwhan

    2015-11-01

    The cloning of the gene encoding melatonin 2-hydroxylase (M2H), which is responsible for the synthesis of 2-hydroxymelatonin, has expanded the study of melatonin metabolism in plants. Kinetic analysis of M2H enzymatic activity demonstrated that the catalytic efficiency of M2H is much higher than those of other melatonin biosynthetic enzymes such as serotonin N-acetyltransferase (SNAT) and N-acetylserotonin O-methyltransferase (ASMT), suggesting that melatonin metabolism is rapid in plants. To test this prediction, we selected 24 plant species belonging to 16 families and quantified the levels of melatonin and 2-hydroxymelatonin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The melatonin levels in most of the species were <1 ng/g fresh weight (FW), while those in leaves from radish and feverfew were 3.5 and 3.3 ng/g FW, respectively. In contrast, the average levels of 2-hydroxymelatonin were much higher at 6.2 ng/g FW. The average ratio of 2-hydroxymelatonin to melatonin in plants was approximately 368:1, indicating that the accumulation of 2-hydroxymelatonin predominates over that of melatonin. These data were consistent with previous results on the kinetics of the corresponding enzymes, as well as with in vivo melatonin conversion data. Among several melatonin metabolites in plants, the most abundant metabolite was found to be 2-hydroxymelatonin (99%) followed by 4-hydroxymelatonin (0.05%), but 6-hydroxymelatonin was not detected in rice seedlings.

  13. Predominant Runoff Components During Heavy Rainfall Events on Cultivated Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeřábek, J.; Zumr, D.; Strouhal, L.

    2015-12-01

    The fact that flash floods initiated in arable catchments are often accompanied by massive sediment and nutrient loads often leads to the assumption that surface runoff is the principle pathway by which runoff reaches watercourses. But the hydrology of cultivated catchments has its specific features due to the temporary variable topsoil properties and a sharp divide between topsoil and compacted subsoil. Under various conditions the prevailing runoff mechanisms may vary from surface runoff to subsurface runoff or deep percolation. On the basis of an evaluation of several rainfall-runoff events in a representative agricultural catchment (Nucice, Czech Republic), we show that runoff from cultivated land may be generated in a way similar to that seen on forested slopes, where shallow subsurface runoff is the predominant pathway. To identify the predominant runoff pathway, we employed a combination of turbidity measurements and stream discharge data. Although we observed temporal variability of topsoil properties attributable to seasonal weather changes and agricultural activities, e.g. bulk density and porosity, runoff generation was mainly driven by precipitation characteristics and the initial catchment saturation. The concept of the runoff formation was also observed during plot scale experiments with rainfall simulator. Various initial soil moisture conditions, and vegetation stages delimited the simulations. Variable proportions of both monitored runoff components were observed in relation to rainfall intensity and duration, ranging from zero surface runoff to a distinct dominance of surface runoff. Even with the highest tested precipitation intensities, surface runoff always formed due to saturation excess of the topsoil, irrespective of the topsoil properties and crops. The experiments were numerically modelled and analysed to understand the effect of temporal variability in the macropores and intra-aggregate voids ratio within the topsoil. We used a

  14. Predominant mania course in Indian patients with bipolar I disorder.

    PubMed

    Rangappa, Sushma Bilichodu; Munivenkatappa, Shashidhara; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Jain, Sanjeev; Reddy, Y C Janardhan

    2016-08-01

    Many long-term follow-up studies suggest that bipolar disorder (BD) is highly recurrent and that depressive episodes are commoner than hypomania/manic episodes. However, some studies from tropical countries including India suggest that the patients experience a greater proportion of manic episodes than depressive episodes. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of BD type 1 (BD I) in a sample of hospitalized Indian subjects. We examined the clinical course of 285 BD I subjects with at least 5 years of illness using standard life charting method. These subjects were hospitalized between October 2010 and October 2012. The predominant polarity (having at least two-thirds of their lifetime episodes at one polarity) was mania (79%). Unipolar mania (≥ 3 mania episodes and no episodes of depression) was observed in 48% of the subjects. The frequency of rapid cycling course was noted in 2.5% of the subjects. Predominant manic polarity group had the illness onset mostly with a manic episode (88.9%) and the predominant depressive polarity group with a depressive episode (73.8%). Mania was the predominant polarity with a high rate of unipolar mania and a majority of the subjects had greater number of manic episodes than depressive/mixed episodes. The onset polarity determined the predominant polarity during the course of illness. Predominantly, mania course could have significant implications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:27520890

  15. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  16. Foliicolous microfungi occurring on Encephalartos.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wood, A R; Okada, G; Groenewald, J Z

    2008-12-01

    Species of Encephalartos, commonly known as bread trees, bread palms or cycads are native to Africa; the genus encompasses more than 60 species and represents an important component of the indigenous African flora. Recently, a leaf blight disease was noted on several E. altensteinii plants growing at the foot of Table Mountain in the Kirstenbosch Botanical Gardens of South Africa. Preliminary isolations from dead and dying leaves of E. alten-steinii, E. lebomboensis and E. princeps, collected from South Africa, revealed the presence of several novel microfungi on this host. Novelties include Phaeomoniella capensis, Saccharata kirstenboschensis, Teratosphaeria altensteinii and T. encephalarti. New host records of species previously only known to occur on Proteaceae include Cladophialophora proteae and Catenulostroma microsporum, as well as a hyperparasite, Dactylaria leptosphaeriicola, occurring on ascomata of T. encephalarti. PMID:20396583

  17. IgG-Mediated Immune Suppression to Erythrocytes by Polyclonal Antibodies Can Occur in the Absence of Activating or Inhibitory Fcγ Receptors in a Full Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Lidice; Yu, Honghui; Amash, Alaa; Zimring, James C; Lazarus, Alan H

    2015-09-01

    Polyclonal anti-D has been used to prevent RhD-negative mothers from becoming immunized against RhD positive fetal erythrocytes, and this mechanism has been referred as Ab or IgG-mediated immune suppression (AMIS). Although anti-D has been highly successful, the inhibitory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Two major theories behind AMIS involve the binding of IgG to activating or inhibitory FcγR, which can induce either erythrocyte clearance or immune inhibition, respectively. In this work, we explored the absolute role of activating and inhibitory FcγR in the AMIS mechanism using the HOD mouse model of RBC immunization. HOD mice contain a RBC-specific recombinant protein composed of hen egg lysozyme (HEL), OVA and human transmembrane Duffy Ag, and erythrocytes from HOD mice can stimulate an immune response to HEL. To assess the contribution of activating and inhibitory FcγR to AMIS, C57BL/6 versus FcRγ-chain(-/-) or FcγRIIB(-/-) mice were used as recipients of HOD-RBC alone or together with anti-HEL Abs (i.e., AMIS) and the resulting immune response to HEL evaluated. We show that anti-HEL polyclonal Abs induce the same degree of AMIS effect in mice lacking these IgG binding receptors as compared with wild-type mice. In agreement with this, F(ab')2 fragments of the AMIS Ab also significantly reduced the Ab response to the HOD cells. In conclusion, successful inhibition of in vivo Ab responses to HOD-RBC by polyclonal IgG can occur independently of activating or inhibitory FcγR involvement. These results may have implications for the understanding of RhD prophylaxis.

  18. IgG-Mediated Immune Suppression to Erythrocytes by Polyclonal Antibodies Can Occur in the Absence of Activating or Inhibitory Fcγ Receptors in a Full Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Bernardo, Lidice; Yu, Honghui; Amash, Alaa; Zimring, James C; Lazarus, Alan H

    2015-09-01

    Polyclonal anti-D has been used to prevent RhD-negative mothers from becoming immunized against RhD positive fetal erythrocytes, and this mechanism has been referred as Ab or IgG-mediated immune suppression (AMIS). Although anti-D has been highly successful, the inhibitory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Two major theories behind AMIS involve the binding of IgG to activating or inhibitory FcγR, which can induce either erythrocyte clearance or immune inhibition, respectively. In this work, we explored the absolute role of activating and inhibitory FcγR in the AMIS mechanism using the HOD mouse model of RBC immunization. HOD mice contain a RBC-specific recombinant protein composed of hen egg lysozyme (HEL), OVA and human transmembrane Duffy Ag, and erythrocytes from HOD mice can stimulate an immune response to HEL. To assess the contribution of activating and inhibitory FcγR to AMIS, C57BL/6 versus FcRγ-chain(-/-) or FcγRIIB(-/-) mice were used as recipients of HOD-RBC alone or together with anti-HEL Abs (i.e., AMIS) and the resulting immune response to HEL evaluated. We show that anti-HEL polyclonal Abs induce the same degree of AMIS effect in mice lacking these IgG binding receptors as compared with wild-type mice. In agreement with this, F(ab')2 fragments of the AMIS Ab also significantly reduced the Ab response to the HOD cells. In conclusion, successful inhibition of in vivo Ab responses to HOD-RBC by polyclonal IgG can occur independently of activating or inhibitory FcγR involvement. These results may have implications for the understanding of RhD prophylaxis. PMID:26188060

  19. Naturally occurring secoiridoids and bioactivity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. A review, part 2.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Naturally occurring new secoiridoids published during 1994-2005 are reviewed with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha](D), UV, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and plant source. The works on biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids reported during 1998-2005 are also reviewed. Bioactivities like antiallergic, antiarthritis, antibacterial, anticancer, anticoagulant, anticomplement, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antiviral, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, nerve growth factor potentiating and wound healing activities are highlighted.

  20. Experimental study of possible involvement of some apoptosis mechanisms in pathogenesis of the HIV infection: 2. The CD4+ T lymphocytes depletion in the HIV infection occurs through activation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Topârceanu, F; Bârnaure, F; Iucu, C T; Spulbăr, E; Pătru, C

    1999-01-01

    The present work is a part of a complex experimental study aimed at the demonstration of the two previously published hypotheses regarding the involvement of apoptosis in general in the viral infection and especially in HIV infection (1). Our researches have shown that the significant lowering of the number of peripheral CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-infected children is associated with a marked increase of the soluble interleukin 2-receptor (sIL2-R)# concentration, in comparison with HIV-negative, healthy or acute infections exhibiting controls. As sIL-2R is a circulating marker of cell activation, we investigated the role of monocytes (antigen-presenting cells) in the viability of peripheral lymphocytes isolated from HIV-infected children in comparison with the controls. Lymphocytes cultivation in the absence and in the presence of autologous monocytes led to the following conclusions: 1) freshly isolated lymphocytes from HIV-positive individuals undergo an accelerated spontaneous apoptosis in comparison with that of lymphocytes isolated from HIV-negative individuals: 2) the normal antiapoptotic effect of monocytes on lymphocytes diminishes gradually in the HIV infection, changing into a proapoptotic effect, corresponding to the sIL-2R augmentation to increasingly higher values. Our results show that peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in HIV infection occurs through apoptosis and the activation-induced cell death is one of the possible apoptosis mechanisms.

  1. Enhanced thyroid iodine metabolism in patients with triiodothyronine-predominant Graves' disease

    SciTech Connect

    Takamatsu, J.; Hosoya, T.; Naito, N.; Yoshimura, H.; Kohno, Y.; Tarutani, O.; Kuma, K.; Sakane, S.; Takeda, K.; Mozai, T.

    1988-01-01

    Some patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease have increased serum T3 and normal or even low serum T4 levels during treatment with antithyroid drugs. These patients with elevated serum T3 to T4 ratios rarely have a remission of their hyperthyroidism. The aim of this study was to investigate thyroid iodine metabolism in such patients, whom we termed T3-predominant Graves' disease. Mean thyroid radioactive iodine uptake was 51.0 +/- 18.1% ( +/- SD) at 3 h, and it decreased to 38.9 +/- 20.1% at 24 h in 31 patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease during treatment. It was 20.0 +/- 11.4% at 3 h and increased to 31.9 +/- 16.0% at 24 h in 17 other patients with hyperthyroid Graves' disease who had normal serum T3 and T4 levels and a normal serum T3 to T4 ratio during treatment (control Graves' disease). The activity of serum TSH receptor antibodies was significantly higher in the patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in control Graves' disease patients. From in vitro studies of thyroid tissue obtained at surgery, both thyroglobulin content and iodine content in thyroglobulin were significantly lower in patients with T3-predominant Graves' disease than in the control Graves' disease patients. Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity determined by a guaiacol assay was 0.411 +/- 0.212 g.u./mg protein in the T3-predominant Graves' disease patients, significantly higher than that in the control Graves' disease patients. Serum TPO autoantibody levels determined by immunoprecipitation also were greater in T3-predominant Graves' disease patients than in control Graves' disease patients. Binding of this antibody to TPO slightly inhibited the enzyme activity of TPO, but this effect of the antibody was similar in the two groups of patients.

  2. A Naturally Occurring Mutation K220T in the Pleiotropic Activator PrfA of Listeria Monocytogenes Results in a Loss of Virulence Due to Decreasing DNA-Binding Affinity

    SciTech Connect

    Velge,P.; Herler, M.; Johansson, J.; Roches, S.; Temoin, S.; Fedorov, A.; Gracieux, P.; Almo, S.; Goebel, W.; Cossart, P.

    2007-01-01

    The sequencing of prfA, encoding the transcriptional regulator of virulence genes, in 26 low-virulence field Listeria monocytogenes strains showed that eight strains exhibited the same single amino-acid substitution: PrfAK220T. These strains exhibited no expression of PrfA-regulated proteins and thus no virulence. This substitution inactivated PrfA, since expression of the PrfAK220T mutant gene in an EGD{Delta}prfA strain did not restore the haemolytic and phosphatidylcholine phospholipase C activities, in contrast to the wild-type prfA gene. The substitution of the lysine at position 220 occurred in the helix H. However, the data showed that the PrfAK220T protein is dimerized just as well as its wild-type counterpart, but does not bind to PrfA-boxes. PrfAK220T did not form a PrfA-DNA complex in electrophoretic mobility shift assays, but low concentrations of CI complexes (PrfAK220T-RNA polymerase-DNA complex) were formed by adding RNA polymerase, suggesting that PrfA interacted with RNA polymerase in solution in the absence of DNA. Formation of some transcriptionally active complexes was confirmed by in vitro runoff transcription assays and quantitative RT-PCR. Crystallographic analyses described the structure of native PrfA and highlighted the key role of allosteric changes in the activity of PrfA and especially the role of the Lys220 in the conformation of the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif.

  3. Redox cycling of a copper complex with benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone contributes to its enhanced antitumor activity, but no change in the mechanism of action occurs after chelation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinli; Li, Cuiping; Fu, Yun; Liu, Youxun; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Zhou, Pingxin; Yuan, Yanbin; Zhou, Sufeng; Li, Shaoshan; Li, Changzheng

    2016-03-01

    Many anticancer drugs used in the clinical have potent metal chelating ability. The formed metal complex(es) may exhibit improved (or antagonistic) antitumor activity. However, the underlying mechanism has received limited attention. Therefore, investigation of the mechanism involved in the change upon chelation is required to extend our understanding of the effects of various drugs. In the present study, the proliferation inhibition effect of benzaldehyde nitrogen mustard-2-pyridine carboxylic acid hydrazone (BNMPH) and its copper complex on tumor cell lines was investigated. The copper chelate exhibited almost a 10-fold increase in antitumor activity (with IC50 <5 µM). The results showed that both BNMPH and its copper complex induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and caused upregulation of caspase 8 and Bax as well as the downregulation of Bcl-2, indicating that apoptosis was involved in the cytotoxic effects. DNA fragmentation noted in the comet assay further supported ROS involvement. The present study indicated that BNMPH and its copper complex effectively induced S phase arrest and the cell cycle arrest was associated with the downregulation of cyclin D1. The formation of acidic vesicular organelles (AVOs) and an increase in cleaved LC3-II demonstrated that autophagy occurred in the HepG2 cells treated with the agents. Taken together, BNMPH and its copper complex exhibited proliferation inhibition via apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and autophagy, which was dependent on ROS. The enhanced antitumor activity of the copper complex was due to its redox-cycling ability, but the mechanism was not altered compared to BNMPH. Our findings may significantly contribute to the understanding of the anti-proliferative effect of BNMPH and its copper complex.

  4. T-cell-predominant lymphoid hyperplasia in a tattoo*

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Erica Sales; Rocha, Bruno de Oliveira; Batista, Everton da Silva; de Oliveira, Rodrigo Ferreira; Farre, Lourdes; Bittencourt, Achilea Lisboa

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH) can be idiopathic or secondary to external stimuli, and is considered rare in tattoos. The infiltrate can be predominantly of B or T-cells, the latter being seldom reported in tattoos. We present a case of a predominantly T CLH, secondary to the black pigment of tattooing in a 35-year-old patient, with a dense infiltrate of small, medium and scarce large T-cells. Analysis of the rearrangement of T-cells receptor revealed a polyclonal proliferation. Since the infiltrate of CLH can simulate a T lymphoma, it is important to show that lesions from tattoos can have a predominance of T-cells. PMID:25387518

  5. Career Advice: Finding a Job at a Predominantly Undergraduate Institution

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Julio J.

    2016-01-01

    Seeking a teaching job at a predominantly undergraduate college or university can be a daunting proposition. Although reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest that the job market for teaching positions at postsecondary institutions will be healthy over the coming decade, competition for these positions will likely be intense. This essay explores the profiles of predominantly undergraduate institutions (PUIs), the nature of faculty positions at PUIs, the elements that make for a competitive job applicant, and strategies to consider during negotiations. Seeking a position at a PUI may be arduous at times, but the rewards reaped from a successful search for a PUI position are well worth the investment. PMID:27385929

  6. Career Advice: Finding a Job at a Predominantly Undergraduate Institution.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Julio J

    2016-01-01

    Seeking a teaching job at a predominantly undergraduate college or university can be a daunting proposition. Although reports from the Bureau of Labor Statistics suggest that the job market for teaching positions at postsecondary institutions will be healthy over the coming decade, competition for these positions will likely be intense. This essay explores the profiles of predominantly undergraduate institutions (PUIs), the nature of faculty positions at PUIs, the elements that make for a competitive job applicant, and strategies to consider during negotiations. Seeking a position at a PUI may be arduous at times, but the rewards reaped from a successful search for a PUI position are well worth the investment.

  7. Xerotolerant Cladosporium sphaerospermum Are Predominant on Indoor Surfaces Compared to Other Cladosporium Species

    PubMed Central

    Segers, Frank J. J.; Meijer, Martin; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor fungi are a major cause of cosmetic and structural damage of buildings worldwide and prolonged exposure of these fungi poses a health risk. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium species are the most predominant fungi in indoor environments. Cladosporium species predominate under ambient conditions. A total of 123 Cladosporium isolates originating from indoor air and indoor surfaces of archives, industrial factories, laboratories, and other buildings from four continents were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and a part of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF) and actin gene (ACT). Species from the Cladosporium sphaerospermum species complex were most predominant representing 44.7% of all isolates, while the Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum species complexes represented 33.3% and 22.0%, respectively. The contribution of the C. sphaerospermum species complex was 23.1% and 58.2% in the indoor air and isolates from indoor surfaces, respectively. Isolates from this species complex showed growth at lower water activity (≥ 0.82) when compared to species from the C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum species complexes (≥ 0.85). Together, these data indicate that xerotolerance provide the C. sphaerospermum species complex advantage in colonizing indoor surfaces. As a consequence, C. sphaerospermum are proposed to be the most predominant fungus at these locations under ambient conditions. Findings are discussed in relation to the specificity of allergy test, as the current species of Cladosporium used to develop these tests are not the predominant indoor species. PMID:26690349

  8. Xerotolerant Cladosporium sphaerospermum Are Predominant on Indoor Surfaces Compared to Other Cladosporium Species.

    PubMed

    Segers, Frank J J; Meijer, Martin; Houbraken, Jos; Samson, Robert A; Wösten, Han A B; Dijksterhuis, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Indoor fungi are a major cause of cosmetic and structural damage of buildings worldwide and prolonged exposure of these fungi poses a health risk. Aspergillus, Penicillium and Cladosporium species are the most predominant fungi in indoor environments. Cladosporium species predominate under ambient conditions. A total of 123 Cladosporium isolates originating from indoor air and indoor surfaces of archives, industrial factories, laboratories, and other buildings from four continents were identified by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and a part of the translation elongation factor 1α gene (TEF) and actin gene (ACT). Species from the Cladosporium sphaerospermum species complex were most predominant representing 44.7% of all isolates, while the Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium herbarum species complexes represented 33.3% and 22.0%, respectively. The contribution of the C. sphaerospermum species complex was 23.1% and 58.2% in the indoor air and isolates from indoor surfaces, respectively. Isolates from this species complex showed growth at lower water activity (≥ 0.82) when compared to species from the C. cladosporioides and C. herbarum species complexes (≥ 0.85). Together, these data indicate that xerotolerance provide the C. sphaerospermum species complex advantage in colonizing indoor surfaces. As a consequence, C. sphaerospermum are proposed to be the most predominant fungus at these locations under ambient conditions. Findings are discussed in relation to the specificity of allergy test, as the current species of Cladosporium used to develop these tests are not the predominant indoor species.

  9. Identifiers of Predominantly Spanish-Speaking Children with Language Impairment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida

    1998-01-01

    A study found four measures that would discriminate 31 predominantly Spanish-speaking children (ages 5 to 7) with normal language from 31 children with language impairments. The measures were: parental report of the child's speech and language skills, number of errors per terminable units, mean length per terminable units, and family history of…

  10. Caffeine, a naturally occurring acaricide.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Fernández-Caldas, E; Swanson, M C; Seleznick, M J; Trudeau, W L; Lockey, R F

    1991-01-01

    Since caffeine is a plant alkaloid that has been described as a naturally occurring insecticide, its acaricidal effect on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) was investigated. Twelve cultures were established by adding 30 Dp to 200 mg of Tetramin fish food and brewer's yeast (8:2 ratio); six cultures were treated with 20 mg of finely ground caffeine. All 12 cultures were incubated at 75% relative humidity, 25 degrees C, and observed during 8 weeks. Live mites were then counted under a stereoscope, cultures were extracted, and supernatants were analyzed for Der p I and Der f I allergen content with a two-site monoclonal RIA. Live mite counts in untreated cultures varied from 146 to 274 (215 +/- 47.1), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 0 to 3 (1 +/- 1.2; p less than or equal to 0.0001). Der p I concentrations in untreated cultures varied from 588 to 9000 ng/gm (3138.3 +/- 2990.8 ng/gm), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 52 to 117 ng/gm (78 +/- 23.8 ng/gm; p less than or equal to 0.01). Der p I was not detected in the food media or caffeine; Der f I was not detected in any of the cultures. Results demonstrate that caffeine inhibits mite growth and allergen production.

  11. Nonrapid Eye Movement-Predominant Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Detection and Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Motoo; Fujita, Yukio; Kumamoto, Makiko; Yoshikawa, Masanori; Ohnishi, Yoshinobu; Nakano, Hiroshi; Strohl, Kingman P.; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be severe and present in higher numbers during rapid eye movement (REM) than nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep; however, OSA occurs in NREM sleep and can be predominant. In general, ventilation decreases an average 10% to 15% during transition from wakefulness to sleep, and there is variability in just how much ventilation decreases. As dynamic changes in ventilation contribute to irregular breathing and breathing during NREM sleep is mainly under chemical control, our hypothesis is that patients with a more pronounced reduction in ventilation during the transition from wakefulness to NREM sleep will have NREM- predominant rather than REM-predominant OSA. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 451 consecutive patients (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] > 5) undergoing diagnostic polysomnography was performed, and breath-to-breath analysis of the respiratory cycle duration, tidal volume, and estimated minute ventilation before and after sleep onset were examined. Values were calculated using respiratory inductance plethysmography. The correlation between the percent change in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions and the percentage of apnea-hypopneas in NREM sleep (%AHI in NREM; defined as (AHI-NREM) / [(AHI-NREM) + (AHI-REM)] × 100) was the primary outcome. Results: The decrease in estimated minute ventilation during wake-sleep transitions was 15.0 ± 16.6% (mean ± standard deviation), due to a decrease in relative tidal volume. This decrease in estimated minute ventilation was significantly correlated with %AHI in NREM (r = −0.222, p < 0.01). Conclusions: A greater dynamic reduction in ventilation back and forth from wakefulness to sleep contributes to the NREM predominant OSA phenotype via induced ventilatory instability. Citation: Yamauchi M, Fujita Y, Kumamoto M, Yoshikawa M, Ohnishi Y, Nakano H, Strohl KP, Kimura H. Nonrapid eye movement-predominant obstructive sleep apnea: detection and

  12. Mitral valve involvement as a predominant feature of cardiac amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Viswanathan, Girish; Williams, James; Slinn, Simon; Campbell, Philip

    2010-01-01

    Cardiac involvement in systemic amyloidosis carries poor prognosis with a median survival of 5 months.1 The authors report an unusual presentation of cardiac amyloidosis in the form of predominant mitral regurgitation. The patient responded very well to medical therapy with subsequent improvement of mitral valve dysfunction. The authors would like to highlight this multisystem involvement and the presence of a complex overlap of systemic features. PMID:22767536

  13. Elevation of Alanine Aminotransferase Activity Occurs after Activation of the Cell-Death Signaling Initiated by Pattern-Recognition Receptors ‎but before Activation of Cytolytic Effectors in NK or CD8+ T Cells in the Liver During Acute HCV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Youkyung H.; Jin, Nancy; Kelly, Fiona; Sakthivel, SenthilKumar K.; Yu, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    Pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) promote host defenses against HCV infection by binding to their corresponding adapter molecules leading to the initiation of innate immune responses including cell death. We investigated the expression of PRR genes, biomarkers of liver cell-death, and T cell and NK cell activation/inhibition-related genes in liver and serum obtained from three experimentally infected chimpanzees with acute HCV infection, and analyzed the correlation between gene expression levels and clinical profiles. Our results showed that expression of hepatic RIG-I, TLR3, TLR7, 2OAS1, and CXCL10 mRNAs was upregulated as early as 7 days post-inoculation and peaked 12 to 83 days post-inoculation. All of the three HCV infected chimpanzees exhibited significant elevations of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity between 70 and 95 days after inoculation. Elevated levels of serum cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) and caspases 3 and 7 activity coincided closely with the rise of ALT activity, and were preceded by significant increases in levels of caspase 3 and caspase 7 mRNAs in the liver. Particularly we found that significant positive auto-correlations were observed between RIG-I, TLR3, CXCL10, 2OAS1, and PD-L1 mRNA and ALT activity at 3 to 12 days before the peak of ALT activity. However, we observed substantial negative auto-correlations between T cell and NK cell activation/inhibition-related genes and ALT activity at 5 to 32 days after the peak of ALT activity. Our results indicated cell death signaling is preceded by early induction of RIG-I, TLR3, 2OAS1, and CXCL10 mRNAs which leads to elevation of ALT activity and this signaling pathway occurs before the activation of NK and T cells during acute HCV infection. Our study suggests that PRRs and type I IFN response may play a critical role in development of liver cell injury related to viral clearance during acute HCV infection. PMID:27788241

  14. Could a megaquake occur in the Himalayas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2011-12-01

    GPS measurements of crustal deformation are showing that a magnitude 9 earthquake could occur in the Himalayas. Roger Bilham of the University of Colorado at Boulder reported at the AGU Fall Meeting that the region, known to be seismically active, could produce a much larger earthquake than previously thought. Bilham and colleagues used GPS to monitor rates of crustal deformation in the Himalayas. They found that the potential rupture zone is larger than scientists had believed—the region where strain is building is twice as wide as expected. Previous estimates, which were based on the historical earthquake record, suggested that the largest earthquake that would occur in the region would have a magnitude in the low 8s. Such an earthquake could be devastating—the Kashmir valley region alone is home to 6 million people.

  15. Identification of predominant aroma components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds.

    PubMed

    Erten, Edibe S; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-02-15

    Volatile components of raw, dry roasted and oil roasted almonds were isolated by solvent extraction/solvent-assisted flavor evaporation and predominant aroma compounds identified by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GCO) and aroma extract dilutions analysis (AEDA). Selected odorants were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry and odor-activity values (OAVs) determined. Results of AEDA indicated that 1-octen-3-one and acetic acid were important aroma compounds in raw almonds. Those predominant in dry roasted almonds were methional, 2- and 3-methylbutanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and 2,3-pentanedione; whereas, in oil roasted almonds 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2,3-pentanedione, methional and 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline were the predominant aroma compounds. Overall, oil roasted almonds contained a greater number and higher abundance of aroma compounds than either raw or dry roasted almonds. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of lipid-derived volatile compounds in raw almond aroma. Meanwhile, in dry and oil roasted almonds, the predominant aroma compounds were derived via the Maillard reaction, lipid degradation/oxidation and sugar degradation. PMID:27664632

  16. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704

  17. Pleural effusion associated with rheumatoid arthritis: what cell predominance to anticipate?

    PubMed

    Avnon, L Sølling; Abu-Shakra, M; Flusser, D; Heimer, D; Sion-Vardy, N

    2007-08-01

    Pleural involvement is the most frequent manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the chest. We report here two patients who presented with large exudative pleural effusions and subsequently developed sero-positive RA. In both cases, the differential cell count of the pleural effusion suggested empyema. A literature review identified that RA-associated pleural effusion afflicts more men than women and 95% of the patients have high titers of rheumatoid factor (RF). In 46% of cases, RA-associated pleural effusion is diagnosed in close temporal relationship with the diagnosis of RA. The effusion is an exudate and is characterized by low pH and glucose level, and high lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell count. At diagnosis there is a tendency for predominant neutrophils to occur consistent with an empyema and 7-11 days later, the cells in the pleural effusion are replaced by lymphocytes. Pleural effusion with predominant eosinophilia is rare. RA patients with acidic effusion and low glucose content with neutrophils predominance should be treated with thoracic drainage and antibiotics until an infection is ruled out. The histo-pathologic findings in pleural fluid of tadpole cells and multinucleated giant cells and the replacement of the mesothelial cells on the parietal pleural surface with a palisade of macrophage derived cells are described as pathogonomic for RA. Treatment with systemic steroids and intra-pleural steroids are effective in most cases. PMID:17294192

  18. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors. PMID:26560960

  19. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm(3), bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  20. [A Case of Musicophilia with Right Predominant Temporal Lobe Atrophy].

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Shunichiro; Nakayama, Kazuhiko

    2015-11-01

    A 68-year-old woman exhibiting musicophilia with right predominant temporal lobe atrophy happened to visit our clinic. She had no musical background, but beginning two years ago, she acquired a strong preference for especially popular music and sometimes sang at home. She did not exhibit obvious semantic aphasia or facial agnosia, and showed only mild behavioral changes including apathy. Her musicophilia can be explained as an instance of stereotypical behavior. Her right temporal lobe atrophy may have caused changes in her emotional and reward systems, resulting in her music specific behaviors.

  1. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm3, bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  2. Differential dormancy of co-occurring copepods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohman, Mark D.; Drits, Aleksandr V.; Elizabeth Clarke, M.; Plourde, Stéphane

    1998-08-01

    Four species of planktonic calanoid copepods that co-occur in the California Current System ( Eucalanus californicus Johnson, Rhincalanus nasutus Giesbrecht, Calanus pacificus californicus Brodsky, and Metridia pacifica Brodsky) were investigated for evidence of seasonal dormancy in the San Diego Trough. Indices used to differentiate actively growing from dormant animals included developmental stage structure and vertical distribution; activity of aerobic metabolic enzymes (Citrate Synthase and the Electron Transfer System complex); investment in depot lipids (wax esters and triacylglycerols); in situ grazing activity from gut fluorescence; and egg production rates in simulated in situ conditions. None of the 4 species exhibited a canonical calanoid pattern of winter dormancy - i.e., synchronous developmental arrest as copepodid stage V, descent into deep waters, reduced metabolism, and lack of winter reproduction. Instead, Calanus pacificus californicus has a biphasic life history in this region, with an actively reproducing segment of the population in surface waters overlying a deep dormant segment in winter. Eucalanus californicus is dormant as both adult females and copepodid V's, although winter females respond relatively rapidly to elevated food and temperature conditions; they begin feeding and producing eggs within 2-3 days. Rhincalanus nasutus appears to enter dormancy as adult females, although the evidence is equivocal. Metridia pacifica shows no evidence of dormancy, with sustained active feeding, diel vertical migration behavior, and elevated activity of metabolic enzymes in December as well as in June. The four species also differ markedly in water content, classes of storage lipids, and specific activity of Citrate Synthase. These results suggest that copepod dormancy traits and structural composition reflect diverse adaptations to regional environmental conditions rather than a uniform, canonical series of traits that remain invariant among taxa

  3. The Use of Multiple Slate Devices to Support Active Reading Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Nicholas Yen-Cherng

    2012-01-01

    Reading activities in the classroom and workplace occur predominantly on paper. Since existing electronic devices do not support these reading activities as well as paper, users have difficulty taking full advantage of the affordances of electronic documents. This dissertation makes three main contributions toward supporting active reading…

  4. Picophytoplankton predominance in hypersaline lakes (Transylvanian Basin, Romania).

    PubMed

    Somogyi, Boglárka; Vörös, Lajos; Pálffy, Károly; Székely, Gyöngyi; Bartha, Csaba; Keresztes, Zsolt Gyula

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence and importance of photoautotrophic picoplankton (PPP, cells with a diameter <2 μm) was studied along a trophic and salinity gradient in hypersaline lakes of the Transylvanian Basin (Romania). The studied lakes were found to be rich in PPP, with abundances (maximum 7.6 × 10(6) cells mL(-1)) higher than in freshwater and marine environments of similar trophic conditions. The contribution of PPP to the total phytoplankton biovolume did not decrease with increasing trophic state as it was generally found in other aquatic environments. Regardless of the trophic conditions, the contribution of PPP could reach 90-100 % in these hypersaline lakes. We hypothesized that the PPP predominance might be the result of the low grazing pressure, since heterotrophic nanoflagellates (the main grazers of PPP) were absent in the studied samples. There were significant differences in community composition among the lakes along the salinity gradient. CyPPP predominated in less saline waters (mainly below 5 %), while EuPPP were present along the entire salinity range (up to 18.7 %), dominating the phytoplankton between 3 and 13 % salinity. Above 13 % salinity, the phytoplankton was composed mainly of Dunaliella species.

  5. Predominant enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere packaged meat and poultry.

    PubMed

    Säde, Elina; Murros, Anna; Björkroth, Johanna

    2013-06-01

    Enterobacteria on modified-atmosphere (MA) packaged meat (n = 54) and poultry (n = 32) products were enumerated, and 899 isolates were picked and ribotyped. For identification, 16S rRNA genes of representative strains were sequenced and analyzed. Altogether 54 (60%) of the samples contained enterobacteria >10(4) CFU/g. In 34% of the poultry samples, enterobacteria counts were >10(6) CFU/g suggesting that enterobacteria may contribute to spoilage of MA packaged poultry. The enterobacteria identified were predominantly Hafnia spp. (40%) and Serratia spp. (42%) with Hafnia alvei, Hafnia paralvei, Serratia fonticola, Serratia grimesii, Serratia liquefaciens, Serratia proteamaculans, and Serratia quinivorans being the species identified. In addition, 6% of the isolates were identified as Rahnella spp., 3% as Yersinia spp., and 1% as Buttiauxella spp. Percentage distributions of the predominant genera in different products showed that 89% of the Serratia spp. were from products packaged under a high-O2 MA containing CO2 (25-35%), whereas most (76%) isolates of Hafnia originated from anaerobically packaged red meat and poultry. These findings suggest that the gas mixture used for MA packaging influence the selection of enterobacteria growing on meat and poultry. PMID:23541191

  6. Predominant bacteria isolated from moribund Fusconaia ebena ebonyshells experiencing die-offs in Pickwick Reservoir, Tennessee River, Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Starliper, C.E.; Powell, J.; Garner, J.T.; Schill, W.B.

    2011-01-01

    Mussel die-offs have been noted in recent years in Pickwick Reservoir, Tennessee River, Alabama. The primary affected species was Fusconaia ebena, but also affected to lesser degrees were Ellipsaria lineolata, Quadrula pustulosa, and Quadrula quadrula. These events were characterized by large numbers of empty shells—fresh-dead and live individuals that were presumed to be diseased because of weak and slow valve closure responses to external stimuli. Anecdotal evidence suggested the possible involvement of an etiological agent, such as a bacterial pathogen. The die-offs have occurred in Pickwick Reservoir (river miles 236–256) in sequential years during the past approximately 10 y. These timeframes have coincided with reduced basin inflows and warmer water temperatures. The majority of the moribund and freshly dead F. ebena were females possibly predisposed to infection and disease from ongoing reproductive activity. Affected and healthy-cohort mussels were collected to characterize the bacterial flora prior to, during, and after a July 2006 die-off, and during a subsequent die-off in September 2008. The numbers of total bacteria from both the 2006 and 2008 die-offs were significantly greater from the diseased specimens. For example, from the September 2008 die-off, the mean count from diseased F. ebena soft tissues was 9.75 × 106 cfu/g, which was more than 100 times greater (P = 0.025) than the mean from healthy cohorts (6.74 × 104 cfu/g). The predominant bacteria from affected F. ebena from July 2006 were Hafnia alvei and Aeromonas sobria, whereas from September 2008 the predominant bacteria were Enterobacter spp., Aeromonas schubertii, Aeromonas veronii bv. veronii, and Aeromonas veronii bv. sobria.

  7. 76 FR 10014 - Predominantly Black Institutions Competitive Grant Program; Office of Postsecondary Education...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Predominantly Black Institutions Competitive Grant Program; Office of Postsecondary Education; Overview Information; Predominantly Black Institutions Competitive Grant Program; Notice Inviting Applications for New... Opportunity Description Purpose of Program: The purpose of the Predominantly Black Institutions (PBI)...

  8. Enterotoxin B is the predominant toxin involved in staphylococcal scarlet fever in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chih-Chien; Lo, Wen-Tsung; Hsu, Chen-Fang; Chu, Mong-Ling

    2004-05-15

    This study retrospectively reviewed all pediatric cases of staphylococcal scarlet fever (SSF) that occurred during a 10-year period in a 1400-bed tertiary medical center in northern Taiwan. All 20 cases of SSF occurred in previously healthy individuals. Skin and soft-tissue infections predominated among children from whom Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Polymerase chain reaction testing was used to detect known staphylococcal toxin genes, and of the isolates studied, most (18 [90%] of 20) contained only the staphylococcal enterotoxin B. One of the other strains was positive for staphylococcal enterotoxin A only, and the last strain was positive for both staphylococcal enterotoxin G and staphylococcal enterotoxin I. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis identified a small cluster of isolates (6 [30%] of 20) that were genetically related, but these strains came from epidemiologically unrelated patients during a 3-year period.

  9. Mass spectrometry locates local and allosteric conformational changes that occur on cofactor binding.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, Rebecca; Migas, Lukasz G; Payne, Karl A P; Scrutton, Nigel S; Leys, David; Barran, Perdita E

    2016-07-15

    Fdc1 is a decarboxylase enzyme that requires the novel prenylated FMN cofactor for activity. Here, we use it as an exemplar system to show how native top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry can measure the structural effect of cofactor binding by a protein. For Fdc1(Ubix), the cofactor confers structural stability to the enzyme. IM-MS shows the holo protein to exist in four closely related conformational families, the populations of which differ in the apo form; the two smaller families are more populated in the presence of the cofactor and depopulated in its absence. These findings, supported by MD simulations, indicate a more open structure for the apo form. HDX-MS reveals that while the dominant structural changes occur proximal to the cofactor-binding site, rearrangements on cofactor binding are evident throughout the protein, predominantly attributable to allosteric conformational tightening, consistent with IM-MS data.

  10. Mass spectrometry locates local and allosteric conformational changes that occur on cofactor binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveridge, Rebecca; Migas, Lukasz G.; Payne, Karl A. P.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Leys, David; Barran, Perdita E.

    2016-07-01

    Fdc1 is a decarboxylase enzyme that requires the novel prenylated FMN cofactor for activity. Here, we use it as an exemplar system to show how native top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry can measure the structural effect of cofactor binding by a protein. For Fdc1Ubix, the cofactor confers structural stability to the enzyme. IM-MS shows the holo protein to exist in four closely related conformational families, the populations of which differ in the apo form; the two smaller families are more populated in the presence of the cofactor and depopulated in its absence. These findings, supported by MD simulations, indicate a more open structure for the apo form. HDX-MS reveals that while the dominant structural changes occur proximal to the cofactor-binding site, rearrangements on cofactor binding are evident throughout the protein, predominantly attributable to allosteric conformational tightening, consistent with IM-MS data.

  11. Mass spectrometry locates local and allosteric conformational changes that occur on cofactor binding

    PubMed Central

    Beveridge, Rebecca; Migas, Lukasz G.; Payne, Karl A. P.; Scrutton, Nigel S.; Leys, David; Barran, Perdita E.

    2016-01-01

    Fdc1 is a decarboxylase enzyme that requires the novel prenylated FMN cofactor for activity. Here, we use it as an exemplar system to show how native top-down and bottom-up mass spectrometry can measure the structural effect of cofactor binding by a protein. For Fdc1Ubix, the cofactor confers structural stability to the enzyme. IM–MS shows the holo protein to exist in four closely related conformational families, the populations of which differ in the apo form; the two smaller families are more populated in the presence of the cofactor and depopulated in its absence. These findings, supported by MD simulations, indicate a more open structure for the apo form. HDX-MS reveals that while the dominant structural changes occur proximal to the cofactor-binding site, rearrangements on cofactor binding are evident throughout the protein, predominantly attributable to allosteric conformational tightening, consistent with IM–MS data. PMID:27418477

  12. Nodular lymphocyte predominant hodgkin lymphoma: biology, diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Goel, Anupama; Fan, Wen; Patel, Amit A; Devabhaktuni, Madhuri; Grossbard, Michael L

    2014-08-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL) is an uncommon variant of classical Hodgkin lymphoma. It is characterized histologically by presence of lymphohistiocytic cells which have B-cell phenotype, are positive for CD19, CD20, CD45, CD79a, BOB.1, Oct.2, and negative for CD15 and CD30. Patients often present with early stage of disease and do not have classical B symptoms. The clinical behavior appears to mimic that of an indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma more than that of classical Hodgkin disease. The purpose of the present report is to define the biology of NLPHL, review its clinical presentation, and summarize the available clinical data regarding treatment. PMID:24650975

  13. Nipah virus entry can occur by macropinocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Pernet, Olivier; Pohl, Christine; Ainouze, Michelle; Kweder, Hasan; Buckland, Robin

    2009-12-20

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a zoonotic biosafety level 4 paramyxovirus that emerged recently in Asia with high mortality in man. NiV is a member, with Hendra virus (HeV), of the Henipavirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although NiV entry, like that of other paramyxoviruses, is believed to occur via pH-independent fusion with the host cell's plasma membrane we present evidence that entry can occur by an endocytic pathway. The NiV receptor ephrinB2 has receptor kinase activity and we find that ephrinB2's cytoplasmic domain is required for entry but is dispensable for post-entry viral spread. The mutation of a single tyrosine residue (Y304F) in ephrinB2's cytoplasmic tail abrogates NiV entry. Moreover, our results show that NiV entry is inhibited by constructions and drugs specific for the endocytic pathway of macropinocytosis. Our findings could potentially permit the rapid development of novel low-cost antiviral treatments not only for NiV but also HeV.

  14. Unusual Features of the Planetary Wave Predominance of Zonal Wavenumber Two in the Boreal Winter 2013/2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirooka, T.; Harada, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The boreal winter 2013/2014 can be characterized by continuous strong activity of planetary waves of zonal wavenumber 2 (wave 2) in the stratosphere almost throughout the season, in spite of no major stratospheric sudden warming (SSW) occurrence. The purpose of this study is to compare features of the planetary wave propagation in boreal winters and discuss causation mechanisms of the predominance of wave 2 in the winter 2013/2014 using three reanalysis data (JRA-55, MERRA and ERA-Interim) along with satellite data retrieved from the Aura-MLS observations. We first investigate interannual changes of the vertical component of Eliassen-Palm (EP) flux averaged over 30-90N at 100 hPa integrated during each boreal winter since 1958/1959. As a result, we find that the upward EP flux of wave 2 during the winter of 2013/14 was almost equal to the highest value during the winter 2008/2009. In addition, the ratio of the wave 2 contribution to the sum of wave 1 and wave 2 largely surpassed 0.75 in only these two winters. Note that no major SSWs occurred in the winter 2013/14 while a remarkable major SSW occurred in the winter 2008/09. However, on the basis of wave activity flux analyses, both the upward propagation over Western Russia (around 60E) and the downward propagation over Northern Canada (around 120W) of planetary wave packets were the strongest in recent 34 winters since 1980/1981; similar structural features could not be seen in the winter 2008/09.

  15. Predominant Corticospinal Tract Involvement in a Late Infant with Krabbe Disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Ayumi; Kibe, Tetsuya; Irahara, Kaori; Sakai, Norio; Yokochi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A case of late-infantile Krabbe disease in a patient who presented with developmental regression and spastic quadriplegia in late infancy is reported. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 11 months of age showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement, which usually appears in adult Krabbe disease. Galactocerebrosidase activity in lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts was very low. Genetic testing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene, c.635_646 delinsCTC and c.1901T>C [p.L618S], both of which are known pathogenic mutations. It has been reported that the c.1901T>C [p.L618S] mutation is associated with the late-onset phenotype and, in a past case, a homozygous mutation at this location showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. Although further analysis is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanism, this combination of mutations is likely to be associated with this unusual MRI finding in late-infantile Krabbe disease. Because these types of mutations are common for Japanese patients, it is possible that there are more undiagnosed and late-diagnosed patients of late-infantile Krabbe disease who display limited lesions on MRI. Pediatricians should be aware that patients with late-infantile Krabbe disease can present with predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. PMID:27679535

  16. Predominant Corticospinal Tract Involvement in a Late Infant with Krabbe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Ayumi; Kibe, Tetsuya; Irahara, Kaori; Sakai, Norio; Yokochi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A case of late-infantile Krabbe disease in a patient who presented with developmental regression and spastic quadriplegia in late infancy is reported. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 11 months of age showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement, which usually appears in adult Krabbe disease. Galactocerebrosidase activity in lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts was very low. Genetic testing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene, c.635_646 delinsCTC and c.1901T>C [p.L618S], both of which are known pathogenic mutations. It has been reported that the c.1901T>C [p.L618S] mutation is associated with the late-onset phenotype and, in a past case, a homozygous mutation at this location showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. Although further analysis is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanism, this combination of mutations is likely to be associated with this unusual MRI finding in late-infantile Krabbe disease. Because these types of mutations are common for Japanese patients, it is possible that there are more undiagnosed and late-diagnosed patients of late-infantile Krabbe disease who display limited lesions on MRI. Pediatricians should be aware that patients with late-infantile Krabbe disease can present with predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. PMID:27679535

  17. Culture-Dependent and -Independent Methods to Investigate the Predominant Microorganisms Associated with Wet Processed Coffee.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaomin; Dong, Honghong; Yang, Pan; Yang, Ruijuan; Lu, Jun; Lv, Jie; Sheng, Jun

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation process of Yunnan arabica coffee is a typical wet fermentation. Its excellent quality is closely related to microbes in the process of fermentation. The purpose of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms in the wet method of coffee processing in Yunnan Province, China. Microbial community structure and dominant bacterial species were evaluated by traditional cultivated separation method and PCR-DGGE technology, and were further analyzed in combination with the changes of organic acid content, activity of pectinase, and physical parameters (pH and temperature). A large number of microorganisms which can produce pectinase were found. Among them, Enterobacter cowanii, Pantoea agglomerans, Enterobacteriaceae bacterium, and Rahnella aquatilis were the predominant gram-negative bacteria, Bacillus cereus was the predominant gram-positive bacterium, Pichia kluyveri, Hanseniaspora uvarum, and Pichia fermentans were the predominant yeasts, and all those are pectinase-producing microorganisms. As for the contents of organic acids, oxalic was the highest, followed by acetic and lactic acids. Butyrate and propionate, which were unfavorable during the fermentation period, were barely discovered. PMID:27113591

  18. Predominant Corticospinal Tract Involvement in a Late Infant with Krabbe Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimura, Ayumi; Kibe, Tetsuya; Irahara, Kaori; Sakai, Norio; Yokochi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    A case of late-infantile Krabbe disease in a patient who presented with developmental regression and spastic quadriplegia in late infancy is reported. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 11 months of age showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement, which usually appears in adult Krabbe disease. Galactocerebrosidase activity in lymphocytes and skin fibroblasts was very low. Genetic testing revealed compound heterozygous mutations of the galactocerebrosidase (GALC) gene, c.635_646 delinsCTC and c.1901T>C [p.L618S], both of which are known pathogenic mutations. It has been reported that the c.1901T>C [p.L618S] mutation is associated with the late-onset phenotype and, in a past case, a homozygous mutation at this location showed predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI. Although further analysis is needed to identify the pathophysiological mechanism, this combination of mutations is likely to be associated with this unusual MRI finding in late-infantile Krabbe disease. Because these types of mutations are common for Japanese patients, it is possible that there are more undiagnosed and late-diagnosed patients of late-infantile Krabbe disease who display limited lesions on MRI. Pediatricians should be aware that patients with late-infantile Krabbe disease can present with predominant corticospinal tract involvement on MRI.

  19. Inhibition of formyl peptide-stimulated superoxide anion generation by Fal-002-2 occurs mainly through the blockade of the p21-activated kinase and protein kinase C signaling pathways in ratneutrophils.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ya-Ru; Huang, Li-Jiau; Lin, Hui-Yi; Hung, Yun-Jie; Lee, Miau-Rong; Kuo, Sheng-Chu; Hsu, Mei-Feng; Wang, Jih-Pyang

    2013-02-15

    In formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP)-stimulated rat neutrophils, a synthetic compound, 6-chloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylate (Fal-002-2), inhibited superoxide anion (O2(•-)) generation with an IC50 value of about 11μM, which was not mediated by scavenging the generated O2(•-) or by a cytotoxic effect on neutrophils. Fal-002-2 effectively attenuated the phosphorylation of Ser residues in p47(phox) and the association between p47(phox) and p22(phox) in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. The interaction of p47(phox) with protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms (α, βI, βII, δ and ζ) was attenuated by Fal-002-2 with a similar IC50 value to that required for inhibition of O2(•-) generation, whereas Fal-002-2 had no prominent effect on PKC isoform membrane translocation and did not affect the kinase activity. Moreover, Fal-002-2 had no effect on the phosphorylation of Akt and downstream glycogen synthase kinase-3β, only slightly affected the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but effectively attenuated the downstream MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 phosphorylation. The interaction of p21-activated kinase (PAK) 1with p47(phox), phosphorylation of PAK1 (Thr423/Ser144) and the membrane recruitment of PAK1 were effectively inhibited by Fal-002-2. Fal-002-2 also blocked the activation of Rac1 and Cdc42 in a concentration range that effectively inhibited PAK activation. Taken together, these results suggest that Fal-002-2 inhibits fMLP-stimulated O2(•-) generation in neutrophils mainly through the blockade of PKC and PAK signaling pathways and partly through p38 MAPK signaling.

  20. Activation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Transcription Factor X Box-Binding Protein-1 Occurs in a Subset of Normal Germinal-Center B Cells and in Aggressive B-Cell Lymphomas with Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Balague, Olga; Mozos, Ana; Martinez, Daniel; Hernandez, Luis; Colomo, Lluis; Mate, Jose Luis; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Lin, Oscar; Campo, Elias; Lopez-Guillermo, Armando; Martinez, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    X box-binding protein 1 (Xbp-1) is a transcription factor that is required for the terminal differentiation of B lymphocytes into plasma cells. The Xbp-1 gene is activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress signals, which generate a 50-kDa nuclear protein that acts as a potent transactivator and regulates the expression of genes related to the unfolded protein response. Activated Xbp-1 is essential for cell survival in plasma-cell tumors but its role in B-cell lymphomas is unknown. We analyzed the expression of activated Xbp-1 in reactive lymphoid tissues, 411 lymphomas and plasma-cell neoplasms, and 24 B-cell lines. In reactive tissues, Xbp-1 was only found in nuclear extracts. Nuclear expression of Xbp-1 was observed in occasional reactive plasma cells and in a subpopulation of Irf-4+/Bcl-6−/Pax-5− B cells in the light zones of reactive germinal centers, probably representing cells committed to plasma-cell differentiation. None of the low-grade lymphomas showed evidence of Xbp-1 activation; however, Xbp-1 activation was found in 28% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, independent of germinal or postgerminal center phenotype, as well as in 48% of plasmablastic lymphomas and 69% of plasma-cell neoplasms. Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas with nuclear Xbp-1 expression had a significantly worse response to therapy and shorter overall survival compared with negative tumors. These findings suggest that Xbp-1 activation may play a role in the pathogenesis of aggressive B-cell lymphomas. PMID:19389935

  1. High expression of podoplanin in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue occurs predominantly in patients ≤40 years but does not correlate with tumour spread.

    PubMed

    Sgaramella, Nicola; Lindell Jonsson, Eva; Boldrup, Linda; Califano, Luigi; Coates, Philip J; Tartaro, Gianpaolo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fåhraeus, Robin; Colella, Giuseppe; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Loljung, Lotta; Santagata, Mario; Rossiello, Riccardo; Wilms, Torben; Danielsson, Karin; Laurell, Göran; Nylander, Karin

    2016-01-01

    More than 30% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mobile tongue have clinically undetectable lymph node metastasis. Tumour cells can spread as single cells or collectively. A protein known to play a role in both processes is podoplanin, which is expressed in endothelial cells not only in lymph vessels but also in some aggressive tumours with high invasive and metastatic potential. Here we studied samples from 129 patients with primary SCC of the tongue for expression of podoplanin using immunohistochemistry. mRNA levels were analysed in another 27 cases of tongue SCC with adjacent clinically tumour-free tongue tissue and 14 tongue samples from healthy donors. Higher levels of podoplanin were seen in tumours compared to both normal tongue and clinically normal tongue in the tumour vicinity. No association was found between levels of podoplanin, presence of lymph node metastases or other clinical factors. Patients aged 40 or less were more likely to express high levels of podoplanin protein compared to older patients (p = 0.027). We conclude that levels of podoplanin in primary tongue SCCs are not associated with lymph node metastases. However, tongue SCCs arising in young patients (≤40 years of age) are more likely to express high levels of podoplanin than tongue SCCs that arise in the more elderly. The data suggest that podoplanin has a distinctive role in young patients, who are known to have a poor prognosis: these patients may, therefore, benefit from podoplanin inhibitory therapies.

  2. High expression of podoplanin in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue occurs predominantly in patients ≤40 years but does not correlate with tumour spread

    PubMed Central

    Lindell Jonsson, Eva; Boldrup, Linda; Califano, Luigi; Coates, Philip J; Tartaro, Gianpaolo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fåhraeus, Robin; Colella, Giuseppe; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Loljung, Lotta; Santagata, Mario; Rossiello, Riccardo; Wilms, Torben; Danielsson, Karin; Laurell, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Abstract More than 30% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mobile tongue have clinically undetectable lymph node metastasis. Tumour cells can spread as single cells or collectively. A protein known to play a role in both processes is podoplanin, which is expressed in endothelial cells not only in lymph vessels but also in some aggressive tumours with high invasive and metastatic potential. Here we studied samples from 129 patients with primary SCC of the tongue for expression of podoplanin using immunohistochemistry. mRNA levels were analysed in another 27 cases of tongue SCC with adjacent clinically tumour‐free tongue tissue and 14 tongue samples from healthy donors. Higher levels of podoplanin were seen in tumours compared to both normal tongue and clinically normal tongue in the tumour vicinity. No association was found between levels of podoplanin, presence of lymph node metastases or other clinical factors. Patients aged 40 or less were more likely to express high levels of podoplanin protein compared to older patients (p = 0.027). We conclude that levels of podoplanin in primary tongue SCCs are not associated with lymph node metastases. However, tongue SCCs arising in young patients (≤40 years of age) are more likely to express high levels of podoplanin than tongue SCCs that arise in the more elderly. The data suggest that podoplanin has a distinctive role in young patients, who are known to have a poor prognosis: these patients may, therefore, benefit from podoplanin inhibitory therapies. PMID:27499910

  3. High expression of podoplanin in squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue occurs predominantly in patients ≤40 years but does not correlate with tumour spread.

    PubMed

    Sgaramella, Nicola; Lindell Jonsson, Eva; Boldrup, Linda; Califano, Luigi; Coates, Philip J; Tartaro, Gianpaolo; Lo Muzio, Lorenzo; Fåhraeus, Robin; Colella, Giuseppe; Dell'Aversana Orabona, Giovanni; Loljung, Lotta; Santagata, Mario; Rossiello, Riccardo; Wilms, Torben; Danielsson, Karin; Laurell, Göran; Nylander, Karin

    2016-01-01

    More than 30% of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the mobile tongue have clinically undetectable lymph node metastasis. Tumour cells can spread as single cells or collectively. A protein known to play a role in both processes is podoplanin, which is expressed in endothelial cells not only in lymph vessels but also in some aggressive tumours with high invasive and metastatic potential. Here we studied samples from 129 patients with primary SCC of the tongue for expression of podoplanin using immunohistochemistry. mRNA levels were analysed in another 27 cases of tongue SCC with adjacent clinically tumour-free tongue tissue and 14 tongue samples from healthy donors. Higher levels of podoplanin were seen in tumours compared to both normal tongue and clinically normal tongue in the tumour vicinity. No association was found between levels of podoplanin, presence of lymph node metastases or other clinical factors. Patients aged 40 or less were more likely to express high levels of podoplanin protein compared to older patients (p = 0.027). We conclude that levels of podoplanin in primary tongue SCCs are not associated with lymph node metastases. However, tongue SCCs arising in young patients (≤40 years of age) are more likely to express high levels of podoplanin than tongue SCCs that arise in the more elderly. The data suggest that podoplanin has a distinctive role in young patients, who are known to have a poor prognosis: these patients may, therefore, benefit from podoplanin inhibitory therapies. PMID:27499910

  4. Contribution of synthetic and naturally occurring organobromine compounds to bromine mass in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve; Chang, Hong; Chorney, Dave; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zhang, Kun; Hu, Jian-Ying; Khim, Jong Seong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Lam, Michael H W; Giesy, John P

    2010-08-15

    An extraction, separation, and purification method was developed for the identification and quantification of total bromine (TBr), extractable organobromine (EOBr), and five classes of identified EOBrs. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was utilized to quantify EOBr and TBr. The method was then applied to liver samples of tuna, albatross, and polar bear collected from remote marine locations. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), bromophenols (BRPs), hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs were analyzed as identified EOBr. The majority of the bromine in these marine organisms was nonextractable or inorganic, with EOBr accounting for 10-28% of the TBr. Of the identified EOBr, in tuna and albatross, naturally occurring compounds, including MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, and BPRs, were prevalent. However, the identifiable EOBr in polar bears consisted primarily of synthetic compounds, including PBDEs and PBBs. Overall, 0.08-0.11% and 0.008-0.012% of EOBr and TBr, respectively, were identified. The proportion of EOBr that was identified in marine organisms was relatively small compared to the proportions for organofluorine and organochlorine compounds. This could be related to the great diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds in the environment. Naturally occurring brominated fatty acids were estimated to be the predominant compounds in the EOBr fraction. PMID:20704201

  5. Tissue protein nitration and peripheral blood endotoxin activity are indicative of the severity of systemic organ compromise in naturally-occurring clinical cases of bacterial mastitis in Holstein dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this survey study was to determine a relationship between the intensity of tissue protein tyrosine nitration measured in samples of mammary gland, liver, pancreas and lung compared to estimated blood endotoxin (LPS) activity. Blood was collected from nine multiparous Holstein cows...

  6. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  8. Identification of the Predominant Volatile Compounds Produced by Aspergillus flavus

    PubMed Central

    Kaminśki, E.; Libbey, L. M.; Stawicki, S.; Wasowicz, E.

    1972-01-01

    A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH2Cl2, and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth. PMID:4629700

  9. Mandibular dysfunction in an institutionalized and predominantly elderly population.

    PubMed

    MacEntee, M I; Weiss, R; Morrison, B J; Waxler-Morrison, N E

    1987-11-01

    Oral health problems were identified among 653 residents of 40 long-term care institutions in Vancouver, using a personal interview and a dental examination. Information on jaw function was analysed as part of this investigation to identify associations between the clinical signs of mandibular dysfunction and the complaints of the subjects, their occlusal instability, and the quality of their dentures. The sample population were predominantly female and over 75 years of age, and 42% had some natural teeth. Complaints of jaw dysfunction, usually sore muscles, were heard from 13% of the 488 subjects interviewed. The examination was performed on all of the subjects and revealed that 43% had unstable occlusal contacts, 37% were using loose or unstable dentures, and 20% had one or more clinical signs of jaw dysfunction. Joint noise was the most frequent sign detected and it was heard in a greater percentage of the women than men, while deviation of the mandible during mouth opening was observed with great frequency in the younger age groups. There was no apparent association found between the clinical signs of jaw dysfunction and the complaints of the subjects or the condition of their teeth or dentures. The study demonstrated that complaints and clinical signs of jaw dysfunction, with the exception of joint noises, were uncommon in this population.

  10. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 in rural communities, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Lee, I L; Tan, T C; Tan, P C; Nanthiney, D R; Biraj, M K; Surendra, K M; Suresh, K G

    2012-04-01

    Blastocystis sp. is a common intestinal parasite. To date, there have been sporadic and scanty studies on Blastocystis sp. carried out in rural communities in Nepal. We surveyed the prevalence of Blastocystis sp. and its possible associated risk factors, and reported the predominant Blastocystis sp. subtype in two rural communities, Bolde Phediche and Bahunipati, in Nepal. Human faecal samples were collected from 241 participants, cultured using in vitro cultivation and examined for Blastocystis sp. The presence of Blastocystis sp. in faecal samples was further confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subsequently genotyped using subtype-specific sequence tagged site (STS) primers. There were 26.1% (63/241) of the participants that were infected by Blastocystis sp. We detected 84.1% (53/63) of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 infections in these rural communities. The unusually high prevalence of Blastocystis sp. subtype 4 can be attributed to the rearing of family-owned animals in barns built close to their houses. Eighty one percent (51/63) of the Blastocystis sp. infected participants drank not boiled or unfiltered water. The present study revealed that Blastocystis sp. could pose a health concern to the communities and travellers to the hilly area in Nepal. Infection may be transmitted through human-to-human, zoonotic and waterborne transmissions. We provide recommendations to ensure good public health practices.

  11. Diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Brian E

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. The economic impact of IBS on the health care system is substantial, as is the personal impact on patients. Patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) comprise a substantial proportion of the overall IBS population. Primary care providers are often the first point of contact for patients with IBS-D and can accurately diagnose IBS after a careful history and examination without extensive diagnostic tests. Several pharmacologic treatments (eg, loperamide, alosetron, and antidepressants) and non-pharmacologic treatments (eg, dietary modification and probiotics) are available for IBS-D, but restrictions on use (eg, alosetron) or the lack of controlled trial data showing reductions in both global and individual IBS-D symptoms (eg, bloating, pain and stool frequency) emphasize the need for alternative treatment options. Two newer medications (eluxadoline and rifaximin) were approved in May 2015 for the treatment of IBS-D, and represent new treatment options for this common gastrointestinal condition. PMID:26929659

  12. Hepatocellular hypertrophy and cell proliferation in Sprague-Dawley rats following dietary exposure to ammonium perfluorooctanoate occurs through increased activation of the xenosensor nuclear receptors PPARα and CAR/PXR.

    PubMed

    Elcombe, Clifford R; Elcombe, Barbara M; Foster, John R; Farrar, David G; Jung, Reinhard; Chang, Shu-Ching; Kennedy, Gerald L; Butenhoff, John L

    2010-10-01

    Ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO), a processing aid used in the production of fluoropolymers, produces hepatomegaly and hepatocellular hypertrophy in rodents. In mice, APFO-induced hepatomegaly is associated with increased activation of the xenosensor nuclear receptors, PPARα and CAR/PXR. Although non-genotoxic, chronic dietary treatment of Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats with APFO produced an increase in benign tumours of the liver, acinar pancreas, and testicular Leydig cells. Most of the criteria for establishing a PPARα-mediated mode of action for the observed hepatocellular tumours have been previously established with the exception of the demonstration of increased hepatocellular proliferation. The present study evaluates the potential roles for APFO-induced activation of PPARα and CAR/PXR with respect to liver tumour production in the S-D rat and when compared to the specific PPARα agonist, 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid (Wy 14,643). Male S-D rats were fed APFO (300 ppm in diet) or Wy 14,643 (50 ppm in diet) for either 1, 7, or 28 days. Effects of treatment with APFO included: decreased body weight; hepatomegaly, hepatocellular hypertrophy, hepatocellular hyperplasia (microscopically and by BrdU labelling index), and hepatocellular glycogen loss; increased activation of PPARα (peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal CYP4A1 protein); decreased plasma triglycerides, cholesterol, and glucose; increased activation of CAR (CYP2B1/2 protein) and CAR/PXR (CYP3A1 protein). Responses to treatment with Wy 14,643 were consistent with increased activation of PPARα, specifically: increased CYP4A1 and peroxisomal β-oxidation; increased hepatocellular hypertrophy and cell proliferation; decreased apoptosis; and hypolipidaemia. With the exception of decreased apoptosis, the effects observed with Wy 14,643 were noted with APFO, and APFO was less potent. These data clearly demonstrate an early hepatocellular proliferative response to APFO

  13. Repeating microearthquake sequences interact predominantly through postseismic slip

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Lapusta, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Studying small repeating earthquakes enables better understanding of fault physics and characterization of fault friction properties. Some of the nearby repeating sequences appear to interact, such as the ‘San Francisco' and ‘Los Angeles' repeaters on the creeping section of the San Andreas Fault. It is typically assumed that such interactions are induced by static stress changes due to coseismic slip. Here we present a study of the interaction of repeating earthquakes in the framework of rate-and-state fault models using state-of-the-art simulation methods that reproduce both realistic seismic events and long-term earthquake sequences. Our simulations enable comparison among several types of stress transfer that occur between the repeating events. Our major finding is that postseismic creep dominates the interaction, with earthquake triggering occurring at distances much larger than typically assumed. Our results open a possibility of using interaction of repeating sequences to constrain friction properties of creeping segments. PMID:27703151

  14. Repeating microearthquake sequences interact predominantly through postseismic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lui, Semechah K. Y.; Lapusta, Nadia

    2016-10-01

    Studying small repeating earthquakes enables better understanding of fault physics and characterization of fault friction properties. Some of the nearby repeating sequences appear to interact, such as the `San Francisco' and `Los Angeles' repeaters on the creeping section of the San Andreas Fault. It is typically assumed that such interactions are induced by static stress changes due to coseismic slip. Here we present a study of the interaction of repeating earthquakes in the framework of rate-and-state fault models using state-of-the-art simulation methods that reproduce both realistic seismic events and long-term earthquake sequences. Our simulations enable comparison among several types of stress transfer that occur between the repeating events. Our major finding is that postseismic creep dominates the interaction, with earthquake triggering occurring at distances much larger than typically assumed. Our results open a possibility of using interaction of repeating sequences to constrain friction properties of creeping segments.

  15. Interaction between Late Holocene bottom water conditions in Skagerrak and Kattegat and predominant atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risebrobakken, B.; Kabel, K.; Jentzen, A.; Moros, M.; Jansen, E.

    2011-12-01

    The brackish and anoxic Baltic Sea is episodically ventilated when major inflow of Atlantic water occurs, Atlantic water that enters the Baltic Sea through Skagerrak and Kattegat. Periods with a stronger flux of Atlantic water increases the bottom water temperatures in Skagerrak, and temperatures and salinities in Kattegat. A tight connection between the major inflow events and the predominant atmospheric forcing over the North Atlantic and Nordic Seas are suggested in literature. How the atmospheric forcing and the inflow events are mechanistically connected is however discussed. To detect how periods of stronger inflow of Atlantic water through Skagerrak and Kattegat are related to the predominant atmospheric forcing at longer time scales, we investigate new high-resolution stable isotope, Mg/Ca and foraminiferal assemblage records documenting bottom water conditions in Skagerrak and Kattegat since approximately 1700 AD. Close to annual resolution through the last 30 years enables validation of our reconstructions towards local instrumental records of bottom water conditions and documented changes in atmospheric forcing. High-resolution stable isotope records covering the last 4000 years supplements the 300-year long records so that changes in climatic conditions in the Skagerrak/Kattegat area at longer time-scales through late Holocene are detected and the dynamical forcing behind these climatic changes investigated.

  16. Predominant Campylobacter jejuni Sequence Types Persist in Finnish Chicken Production

    PubMed Central

    Llarena, Ann-Katrin; Huneau, Adeline; Hakkinen, Marjaana; Hänninen, Marja-Liisa

    2015-01-01

    Consumption and handling of chicken meat are well-known risk factors for acquiring campylobacteriosis. This study aimed to describe the Campylobacter jejuni population in Finnish chickens and to investigate the distribution of C. jejuni genotypes on Finnish chicken farms over a period of several years. We included 89.8% of the total C. jejuni population recovered in Finnish poultry during 2004, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2012 and used multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to characterize the 380 isolates. The typing data was combined with isolate information on collection-time and farm of origin. The C. jejuni prevalence in chicken slaughter batches was low (mean 3.0%, CI95% [1.8%, 4.2%]), and approximately a quarter of Finnish chicken farms delivered at least one positive chicken batch yearly. In general, the C. jejuni population was diverse as represented by a total of 63 sequence types (ST), but certain predominant MLST lineages were identified. ST-45 clonal complex (CC) accounted for 53% of the isolates while ST-21 CC and ST-677 CC covered 11% and 9% of the isolates, respectively. Less than half of the Campylobacter positive farms (40.3%) delivered C. jejuni-contaminated batches in multiple years, but the genotypes (ST and PFGE types) generally varied from year to year. Therefore, no evidence for a persistent C. jejuni source for the colonization of Finnish chickens emerged. Finnish chicken farms are infrequently contaminated with C. jejuni compared to other European Union (EU) countries, making Finland a valuable model for further epidemiological studies of the C. jejuni in poultry flocks. PMID:25700264

  17. Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor-Mediated Vomiting Occurs via the Activation of Ca2+/CaMKII-Dependent ERK1/2 Signaling in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Weixia; Hutchinson, Tarun E.; Chebolu, Seetha; Darmani, Nissar A.

    2014-01-01

    Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors (5-HT3Rs) by 2-methylserotonin (2-Me-5-HT), a selective 5-HT3 receptor agonist, can induce vomiting. However, downstream signaling pathways for the induced emesis remain unknown. The 5-HT3R channel has high permeability to extracellular calcium (Ca2+) and upon stimulation allows increased Ca2+ influx. We examined the contribution of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (Ca2+/CaMKIIα), interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) signaling to 2-Me-5-HT-induced emesis in the least shrew. Using fluo-4 AM dye, we found that 2-Me-5-HT augments intracellular Ca2+ levels in brainstem slices and that the selective 5-HT3R antagonist palonosetron, can abolish the induced Ca2+ signaling. Pre-treatment of shrews with either: i) amlodipine, an antagonist of L-type Ca2+ channels present on the cell membrane; ii) dantrolene, an inhibitor of ryanodine receptors (RyRs) Ca2+-release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); iii) a combination of their less-effective doses; or iv) inhibitors of CaMKII (KN93) and ERK1/2 (PD98059); dose-dependently suppressed emesis caused by 2-Me-5-HT. Administration of 2-Me-5-HT also significantly: i) enhanced the interaction of 5-HT3R with calmodulin in the brainstem as revealed by immunoprecipitation, as well as their colocalization in the area postrema (brainstem) and small intestine by immunohistochemistry; and ii) activated CaMKIIα in brainstem and in isolated enterochromaffin cells of the small intestine as shown by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. These effects were suppressed by palonosetron. 2-Me-5-HT also activated ERK1/2 in brainstem, which was abrogated by palonosetron, KN93, PD98059, amlodipine, dantrolene, or a combination of amlodipine plus dantrolene. However, blockade of ER inositol-1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptors by 2-APB, had no significant effect on the discussed behavioral and biochemical parameters. This study demonstrates

  18. When co-colonizing the nasopharynx haemophilus influenzae predominates over Streptococcus pneumoniae except serotype 19A strains to cause acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qingfu; Casey, Janet R; Chang, Arthur; Pichichero, Michael E

    2012-06-01

    Of 368 acute otitis media (AOM) cases among 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate-vaccinated children, 43.5% were colonized by multiple otopathogens in the nasopharynx but only 7.1% experienced polymicrobial AOM. When co-colonization occurred, Haemophilus influenzae predominated over all Streptococcus pneumoniae strains except 19A strains to cause AOM. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae both predominated over Moraxella catarrhalis to cause AOM.

  19. Primary histiocytic sarcoma arising in the head and neck with predominant spindle cell component

    PubMed Central

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Sailey, Charles J; McClure, Shawn A; Ord, Robert A; Zhao, XF; Papadimitriou, John C

    2007-01-01

    This is the first case report of Histiocytic Sarcoma (HS) with predominant spindle cell component occurring in the head and neck region of a 41-year-old man. The tumor was composed of sheets of large round to oval cells with pleomorphic vesicular nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Multinucleated forms, numerous mitoses, and tumor necrosis were also noted. Sheets, fascicles, and whorls of spindle cells with spindled to ovoid vesicular nuclei, small to medium-sized distinct nucleoli, and eosinophilic cytoplasm were frequently observed. Immunohistochemical staining in the tumor cells was positive for CD163, CD68, lysozyme, CD45, and NSE. Focal expression of CD4 and S-100 was also noted. Electron microscopy demonstrated an abundance of lysosomes in the cytoplasm of tumor cells. Chromosome study revealed a 57–80 hyperdiploid [7]/46, XY [13] karyotype, including 3 to 4 copies of various chromosomes. The immunohistochemical and ultrastructural findings confirmed the diagnosis of HS. PMID:17324277

  20. Rickettsia raoultii, the predominant Rickettsia found in Dermacentor silvarum ticks in China-Russia border areas.

    PubMed

    Wen, Jing; Jiao, Dan; Wang, Jian-Hua; Yao, De-Hai; Liu, Zhi-Xiang; Zhao, Gang; Ju, Wen-Dong; Cheng, Cheng; Li, Yi-Jing; Sun, Yi

    2014-08-01

    Since the year 2000, clinical patterns resembling tick-borne rickettsioses have been noticed in China-Russia border areas. Epidemiological data regarding species of the aetiological agent, tick vector prevalence and distribution as well as incidence of human cases in the areas are still sparse to date. In order to identify Rickettsia species occurring in the areas, we investigated Dermacentor silvarum collected in the selected areas. Rickettsia raoultii was the predominant Rickettsia found in D. silvarum evident with ompA, ompB, gltA and 17 kDa protein genes. The Rickettsia prevalence in D. silvarum appeared to be 32.25 % with no sex difference. The results extend the common knowledge about the geographic distribution of R. raoultii and its candidate vector tick species, which suggest an emerged potential threat of human health in the areas.

  1. Naturally occurring contamination in the Mancos Shale.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Stan J; Goodknight, Craig S; Tigar, Aaron D; Bush, Richard P; Gil, April

    2012-02-01

    Some uranium mill tailings disposal cells were constructed on dark-gray shale of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Shale of this formation contains contaminants similar to those in mill tailings. To establish the contributions derived from the Mancos, we sampled 51 locations in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Many of the groundwater samples were saline with nitrate, selenium, and uranium concentrations commonly exceeding 250, 000, 1000, and 200 μg/L, respectively. Higher concentrations were limited to groundwater associated with shale beds, but were not correlated with geographic area, stratigraphic position, or source of water. The elevated concentrations suggest that naturally occurring contamination should be considered when evaluating groundwater cleanup levels. At several locations, seep water was yellow or red, caused in part by dissolved organic carbon concentrations up to 280 mg/L. Most seeps had (234)U to (238)U activity ratios greater than 2, indicating preferential leaching of (234)U. Seeps were slightly enriched in (18)O relative to the meteoric water line, indicating limited evaporation. Conceptually, major ion chemical reactions are dominated by calcite dissolution following proton release from pyrite oxidation and subsequent exchange by calcium for sodium residing on clay mineral exchange sites. Contaminants are likely released from organic matter and mineral surfaces during weathering.

  2. Classroom Management Training for Teachers in Urban Environments Serving Predominately African American Students: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Kristine E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…

  3. The equation of state of predominant detonation products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaug, Joseph; Crowhurst, Jonathan; Bastea, Sorin; Fried, Laurence

    2009-06-01

    The equation of state of detonation products, when incorporated into an experimentally grounded thermochemical reaction algorithm can be used to predict the performance of explosives. Here we report laser based Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering measurements of the speed of sound from a variety of polar and nonpolar detonation product supercritical fluids and mixtures. The speed of sound data are used to improve the exponential-six potentials employed within the Cheetah thermochemical code. We will discuss the improvements made to Cheetah in terms of predictions vs. measured performance data for common polymer blended explosives. Accurately computing the chemistry that occurs from reacted binder materials is one important step forward in our efforts.

  4. Daily Rhythm of Mutualistic Pollinator Activity and Scent Emission in Ficus septica: Ecological Differentiation between Co-Occurring Pollinators and Potential Consequences for Chemical Communication and Facilitation of Host Speciation

    PubMed Central

    Conchou, Lucie; Cabioch, Léa; Rodriguez, Lillian J. V.; Kjellberg, Finn

    2014-01-01

    The mutualistic interaction between Ficus and their pollinating agaonid wasps constitutes an extreme example of plant-insect co-diversification. Most Ficus species are locally associated with a single specific agaonid wasp species. Specificity is ensured by each fig species emitting a distinctive attractive scent. However, cases of widespread coexistence of two agaonid wasp species on the same Ficus species are documented. Here we document the coexistence of two agaonid wasp species in Ficus septica: one yellow-colored and one black-colored. Our results suggest that their coexistence is facilitated by divergent ecological traits. The black species is longer-lived (a few more hours) and is hence active until later in the afternoon. Some traits of the yellow species must compensate for this advantage for their coexistence to be stable. In addition, we show that the composition of the scent emitted by receptive figs changes between sunrise and noon. The two species may therefore be exposed to somewhat different ranges of receptive fig scent composition and may consequently diverge in the way they perceive and/or respond to scents. Whether such situations may lead to host plant speciation is an open question. PMID:25105796

  5. Head injury predominance: pedal-cyclists vs motor-cyclists.

    PubMed

    McDermott, F T; Klug, G L

    1985-09-16

    A study of the pattern of head injuries in pedal- and motor-cyclist casualties treated at four teaching hospitals in Melbourne was undertaken to determine whether significant differences occurred between the two groups. The injuries were coded according to the 1980 revision of the Abbreviated Injury Scale of the American Association for Automotive Medicine and the data subjected to statistical analysis. Although motor-cyclist casualties sustained more severe injuries to the body, the results show that pedal-cyclist casualties sustained more frequent and severe head injuries. It is considered that the differences are due, at least in part, to a far lower use of protective helmets among pedal-cyclists. Education to increase community awareness of this safety measure followed by legislation for the compulsory wearing of approved safety helmets is urged.

  6. Hot water epilepsy occurring at temperature below the core temperature.

    PubMed

    Auvin, Stéphane; Lamblin, Marie-Dominique; Pandit, Florence; Bastos, Maria; Derambure, Philippe; Vallée, Louis

    2006-05-01

    A 6-year-old girl had water reflex epilepsy occurring at lower temperature than the core temperature. Seizures episodes consisted of a loss of consciousness absence followed by left predominant hypotonia with right fronto-temporal high voltage slow waves on the ictal-EEG. Seizures were only observed when the water was poured on scalp or face. Neuropsychological evaluation showed frontal dysfunction (Rey's figure). MRI study was normal. Oxcarbazepine permitted the disappearance of seizures and an improvement of executive disorders. In this case, the pathophysiological mechanism cannot be a hyperthermic related event. The temperature control as treatment of hot-water epilepsy could be used after the exploration of its implication in seizure induction.

  7. The Soul of Leadership: African American Students' Experiences in Historically Black and Predominantly White Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…

  8. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  9. Recent microbiological shifts in perianal bacterial dermatitis: Staphylococcus aureus predominance.

    PubMed

    Heath, Candrice; Desai, Nina; Silverberg, Nanette B

    2009-01-01

    Traditionally, bacterial infections of the anal skin have been found to be caused by Streptococcus. The aim of this study was to determine the breakdown of bacterial isolates and the current presentation of bacterial diseases involving the perineum. From the chart review of children who had bacterial cultures of the anus from 2005 to 2008 in a pediatric dermatology practice population in New York City, 26 pediatric patients (ages 5 months to 12 yrs) who had the indications of anal erythema or recurrent buttocks dermatitis were identified. Bacterial cultures of 17 patients grew pathogens, that of 14 (82% of identifiably infected patients) grew Staphylococcus aureus, in 11 as a solo pathogen (6 MSSA and 5 MRSA in 2 family clusters). Streptococcus was identified in three patients, two on culture and one on latex agglutination test; and two patients were identified as having both group A beta hemolytic Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (2 MSSA and 1 MRSA). In patients with S. aureus perianally, concurrent small papules and pustules of the buttocks or extension of the erythema to adjacent buttock skin was the primary clinical feature distinguishing this condition from isolated streptococcal disease. Whereas Streptococcal infections of the anus and buttocks occur commonly, Staphylococcus aureus has become the leading cause of anal bacterial infection in the setting of skin involvement; therefore, antibacterial therapy for anal and buttock bacterial infections should be tailored accordingly. PMID:20199443

  10. 5-Hydroxymethylcytosine is a predominantly stable DNA modification.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Martin; Uribe-Lewis, Santiago; Yang, Xiaoping; Williams, Michael; Murrell, Adele; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-12-01

    5-Hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) is an oxidation product of 5-methylcytosine which is present in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of most mammalian cells. Reduction of hmC levels in DNA is a hallmark of cancers. Elucidating the dynamics of this oxidation reaction and the lifetime of hmC in DNA is fundamental to understanding hmC function. Using stable isotope labelling of cytosine derivatives in the DNA of mammalian cells and ultrasensitive tandem liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry, we show that the majority of hmC is a stable modification, as opposed to a transient intermediate. In contrast with DNA methylation, which occurs immediately during replication, hmC forms slowly during the first 30 hours following DNA synthesis. Isotopic labelling of DNA in mouse tissues confirmed the stability of hmC in vivo and demonstrated a relationship between global levels of hmC and cell proliferation. These insights have important implications for understanding the states of chemically modified DNA bases in health and disease.

  11. Charge structure analysis of a severe hailstorm with predominantly positive cloud-to-ground lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pineda, Nicolau; Rigo, Tomeu; Montanyà, Joan; van der Velde, Oscar A.

    2016-09-01

    The present study makes use of cloud-to-ground lightning, three-dimensional mapping from a Lightning Mapping Array and Doppler C-band radar observations to analyze the lightning trends and the underlying electrical charge structure of a large-hail bearing storm that produced important damages on the local agriculture. The analysis reported an extremely active storm, evolving through distinct phases, which stood out from a multicell structure to finally become a supercell. The onset of newer regions of convective development interacting with the main cell made the charge structure to be rather complex during some stages of this long-lived hailstorm. Evidence suggests the presence of regions with the charge layer being inverted from that of normal, non-severe convective storms, producing predominantly positive cloud-to-ground lightning. The analysis also suggests that strong cloud signals were misclassified as low peak current single-stroke negative cloud-to-ground flashes, masking the predominant positive nature of the storm.

  12. Dark microglia: A new phenotype predominantly associated with pathological states.

    PubMed

    Bisht, Kanchan; Sharma, Kaushik P; Lecours, Cynthia; Sánchez, Maria Gabriela; El Hajj, Hassan; Milior, Giampaolo; Olmos-Alonso, Adrián; Gómez-Nicola, Diego; Luheshi, Giamal; Vallières, Luc; Branchi, Igor; Maggi, Laura; Limatola, Cristina; Butovsky, Oleg; Tremblay, Marie-Ève

    2016-05-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in our understanding of microglia. These immune cells were shown to actively remodel neuronal circuits, leading to propose new pathogenic mechanisms. To study microglial implication in the loss of synapses, the best pathological correlate of cognitive decline across chronic stress, aging, and diseases, we recently conducted ultrastructural analyses. Our work uncovered the existence of a new microglial phenotype that is rarely present under steady state conditions, in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, amygdala, and hypothalamus, but becomes abundant during chronic stress, aging, fractalkine signaling deficiency (CX3 CR1 knockout mice), and Alzheimer's disease pathology (APP-PS1 mice). Even though these cells display ultrastructural features of microglia, they are strikingly distinct from the other phenotypes described so far at the ultrastructural level. They exhibit several signs of oxidative stress, including a condensed, electron-dense cytoplasm and nucleoplasm making them as "dark" as mitochondria, accompanied by a pronounced remodeling of their nuclear chromatin. Dark microglia appear to be much more active than the normal microglia, reaching for synaptic clefts, while extensively encircling axon terminals and dendritic spines with their highly ramified and thin processes. They stain for the myeloid cell markers IBA1 and GFP (in CX3 CR1-GFP mice), and strongly express CD11b and microglia-specific 4D4 in their processes encircling synaptic elements, and TREM2 when they associate with amyloid plaques. Overall, these findings suggest that dark microglia, a new phenotype that we identified based on their unique properties, could play a significant role in the pathological remodeling of neuronal circuits, especially at synapses. PMID:26847266

  13. Evolution of haploid selection in predominantly diploid organisms

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Sarah P.; Scott, Michael F.; Immler, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Diploid organisms manipulate the extent to which their haploid gametes experience selection. Animals typically produce sperm with a diploid complement of most proteins and RNA, limiting selection on the haploid genotype. Plants, however, exhibit extensive expression in pollen, with actively transcribed haploid genomes. Here we analyze models that track the evolution of genes that modify the strength of haploid selection to predict when evolution intensifies and when it dampens the “selective arena” within which male gametes compete for fertilization. Considering deleterious mutations, evolution leads diploid mothers to strengthen selection among haploid sperm/pollen, because this reduces the mutation load inherited by their diploid offspring. If, however, selection acts in opposite directions in haploids and diploids (“ploidally antagonistic selection”), mothers evolve to reduce haploid selection to avoid selectively amplifying alleles harmful to their offspring. Consequently, with maternal control, selection in the haploid phase either is maximized or reaches an intermediate state, depending on the deleterious mutation rate relative to the extent of ploidally antagonistic selection. By contrast, evolution generally leads diploid fathers to mask mutations in their gametes to the maximum extent possible, whenever masking (e.g., through transcript sharing) increases the average fitness of a father’s gametes. We discuss the implications of this maternal–paternal conflict over the extent of haploid selection and describe empirical studies needed to refine our understanding of haploid selection among seemingly diploid organisms. PMID:26669442

  14. Naturally occurring organic osmolytes: from cell physiology to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shagufta H; Ahmad, Nihal; Ahmad, Faizan; Kumar, Raj

    2010-12-01

    Osmolytes are naturally occurring organic compounds, which represent different chemical classes including amino acids, methylamines, and polyols. By accumulating high concentrations of osmolytes, organisms adapt to perturbations that can cause structural changes in their cellular proteins. Osmolytes shift equilibrium toward natively-folded conformations by raising the free energy of the unfolded state. As osmolytes predominantly affect the protein backbone, the balance between osmolyte-backbone interactions and amino acid side chain-solvent interactions determines protein folding. Abnormal cell volume regulation significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of several disorders, and cells respond to these changes by importing, exporting, or synthesizing osmolytes to maintain volume homeostasis. In recent years, it has become quite evident that cells regulate many biological processes such as protein folding, protein disaggregation, and protein-protein interactions via accumulation of specific osmolytes. Many genetic diseases are attributed to the problems associated with protein misfolding/aggregation, and it has been shown that certain osmolytes can protect these proteins from misfolding. Thus, osmolytes can be utilized as therapeutic targets for such diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of naturally occurring osmolytes in protein stability, underlying mechanisms, and their potential use as therapeutic molecules. PMID:21190292

  15. Adverse events occurring after smallpox vaccination.

    PubMed

    Lane, J Michael; Goldstein, Joel

    2003-07-01

    We reviewed the literature on adverse events reported to occur after smallpox vaccination. Nearly one-half of the United States population is vaccinia-naïve and may be at risk for development of serious adverse events. We describe the clinical features of postvaccinial central nervous system disease, progressive vaccinia, eczema vaccinatum, accidental implantations, "generalized vaccinia," and the common erythematous and/or urticarial rashes. In the 1960s, death occurred approximately once in every million primary vaccinations, with fatalities resulting from progressive vaccinia, postvaccinial encephalitis, and eczema vaccinatum. Death in revaccinees occurred less commonly and almost entirely from progressive vaccinia. In today's population, death rates might be higher because of the increased prevalence of immune deficiency and atopic dermatitis.

  16. The enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated pulp fibers predominantly involves “peeling/erosion” modes of action

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is still considerable debate regarding the actual mechanism by which a “cellulase mixture” deconstructs cellulosic materials, with accessibility to the substrate at the microscopic level being one of the major restrictions that limits fast, complete cellulose hydrolysis. In the work reported here we tried to determine the predominant mode of action, at the fiber level, of how a cellulase mixture deconstructs pretreated softwood and hardwood pulp fibers. Quantitative changes in the pulp fibers derived from different pretreated biomass substrates were monitored throughout the course of enzymatic hydrolysis to see if the dominant mechanisms involved either the fragmentation/cutting of longer fibers to shorter fibers or their “peeling/delamination/erosion,” or if both cutting and peeling mechanisms occurred simultaneously. Results Regardless of the source of biomass, the type of pretreatment and the chemical composition of the substrate, under typical hydrolysis conditions (50°C, pH 4.8, mixing) longer pulp fibers (fiber length >200 μm) were rapidly broken down until a relatively constant fiber length of 130 to 160 μm was reached. In contrast, shorter fibers with an initial average fiber length of 130 to 160 μm showed no significant change in length despite their substantial hydrolysis. The fragmentation/cutting mode of deconstruction was only observed on longer fibers at early stages of hydrolysis. Although the fiber fragmentation mode of deconstruction was not greatly influenced by enzyme loading, it was significantly inhibited by glucose and was mainly observed during initial mixing of the enzyme and substrate. In contrast, significant changes in the fiber width occurred throughout the course of hydrolysis for all of the substrates, suggesting that fiber width may limit the rate and extent of cellulose hydrolysis. Conclusion It appears that, at the fiber level, pretreated pulp fibers are hydrolyzed through a two-step mode of action

  17. Young Children's Reports of when Learning Occurred

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about…

  18. Naturally occurring iridoids. A review, part 1.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2007-02-01

    A compilation of new naturally occurring iridoid glycosides, iridoid aglycones, iridoid derivatives and bis-iridoids reported during 1994-2005 is provided with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha]D, UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR as well as natural source with family and references. 418 compounds with 202 references are cited.

  19. Phonetic Recalibration Only Occurs in Speech Mode

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vroomen, Jean; Baart, Martijn

    2009-01-01

    Upon hearing an ambiguous speech sound dubbed onto lipread speech, listeners adjust their phonetic categories in accordance with the lipread information (recalibration) that tells what the phoneme should be. Here we used sine wave speech (SWS) to show that this tuning effect occurs if the SWS sounds are perceived as speech, but not if the sounds…

  20. Preferential flow occurs in unsaturated conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Because it commonly generates high-speed, high-volume flow with minimal exposure to solid earth materials, preferential flow in the unsaturated zone is a dominant influence in many problems of infiltration, recharge, contaminant transport, and ecohydrology. By definition, preferential flow occurs in a portion of a medium – that is, a preferred part, whether a pathway, pore, or macroscopic subvolume. There are many possible classification schemes, but usual consideration of preferential flow includes macropore or fracture flow, funneled flow determined by macroscale heterogeneities, and fingered flow determined by hydraulic instability rather than intrinsic heterogeneity. That preferential flow is spatially concentrated associates it with other characteristics that are typical, although not defining: it tends to be unusually fast, to transport high fluxes, and to occur with hydraulic disequilibrium within the medium. It also has a tendency to occur in association with large conduits and high water content, although these are less universal than is commonly assumed. Predictive unsaturated-zone flow models in common use employ several different criteria for when and where preferential flow occurs, almost always requiring a nearly saturated medium. A threshold to be exceeded may be specified in terms of the following (i) water content; (ii) matric potential, typically a value high enough to cause capillary filling in a macropore of minimum size; (iii) infiltration capacity or other indication of incipient surface ponding; or (iv) other conditions related to total filling of certain pores. Yet preferential flow does occur without meeting these criteria. My purpose in this commentary is to point out important exceptions and implications of ignoring them. Some of these pertain mainly to macropore flow, others to fingered or funneled flow, and others to combined or undifferentiated flow modes.

  1. Predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Czepula, Alexandra I.; Bottacin, Wallace E.; Hipólito, Edson; Baptista, Deise R.; Pontarolo, Roberto; Correr, Cassyano J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Learning styles are cognitive, emotional, and physiological traits, as well as indicators of how learners perceive, interact, and respond to their learning environments. According to Honey-Mumford, learning styles are classified as active, reflexive, theoretical, and pragmatic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant learning styles among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná, Brazil. Methods: An observational, cross-sectional, and descriptive study was conducted using the Honey-Alonso Learning Style Questionnaire. Students in the Bachelor of Pharmacy program were invited to participate in this study. The questionnaire comprised 80 randomized questions, 20 for each of the four learning styles. The maximum possible score was 20 points for each learning style, and cumulative scores indicated the predominant learning styles among the participants. Honey-Mumford (1986) proposed five preference levels for each style (very low, low, moderate, high, and very high), called a general interpretation scale, to avoid student identification with one learning style and ignoring the characteristics of the other styles. Statistical analysis was performed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Results: This study included 297 students (70% of all pharmacy students at the time) with a median age of 21 years old. Women comprised 77.1% of participants. The predominant style among pharmacy students at the Federal University of Paraná was the pragmatist, with a median of 14 (high preference). The pragmatist style prevails in people who are able to discover techniques related to their daily learning because such people are curious to discover new strategies and attempt to verify whether the strategies are efficient and valid. Because these people are direct and objective in their actions, pragmatists prefer to focus on practical issues that are validated and on problem situations. There was no

  2. A Minor Subset of Super Elongation Complexes Plays a Predominant Role in Reversing HIV-1 Latency

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zichong; Lu, Huasong

    2016-01-01

    Promoter-proximal pausing by RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a key rate-limiting step in HIV-1 transcription and latency reversal. The viral Tat protein recruits human super elongation complexes (SECs) to paused Pol II to overcome this restriction. Despite the recent progress in understanding the functions of different subsets of SECs in controlling cellular and Tat-activated HIV transcription, little is known about the SEC subtypes that help reverse viral latency in CD4+ T cells. Here, we used the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing tool to knock out the gene encoding the SEC subunit ELL2, AFF1, or AFF4 in Jurkat/2D10 cells, a well-characterized HIV-1 latency model. Depletion of these proteins drastically reduced spontaneous and drug-induced latency reversal by suppressing HIV-1 transcriptional elongation. Surprisingly, a low-abundance subset of SECs containing ELL2 and AFF1 was found to play a predominant role in cooperating with Tat to reverse latency. By increasing the cellular level/activity of these Tat-friendly SECs, we could potently activate latent HIV-1 without using any drugs. These results implicate the ELL2/AFF1-SECs as an important target in the future design of a combinatorial therapeutic approach to purge latent HIV-1. PMID:26830226

  3. Young children's reports of when learning occurred.

    PubMed

    Tang, Connie M; Bartsch, Karen; Nunez, Narina

    2007-06-01

    This study investigated young children's reports of when learning occurred. A total of 96 4-, 5-, and 6-year-olds were recruited from suburban preschools and elementary schools. The children learned an animal fact and a body movement. A week later, children learned another animal fact and another body movement and then answered questions about when the different learning events occurred. Responses of children who responded correctly to control questions about time supported the hypothesis that temporal distance questions would elicit more correct responses than would temporal location questions. Partial support was also found for the hypothesis that behavior learning would generate more correct reports than would fact learning. Implications for characterizations of children's developing understanding of knowledge and for applications of those characterizations in education and eyewitness testimony are discussed. PMID:17346740

  4. The Unexplained Female Predominance of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Clues from Genetic and Cytokine Studies

    PubMed Central

    Weckerle, Corinna E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent progress in the understanding of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), the striking 9:1 female to male ratio of disease incidence remains largely unexplained. In addition, peak SLE incidence rates occur during the early reproductive years in women. Studies which illuminate potential causes underlying this sex difference and characteristic onset during the reproductive years have the potential to fundamentally advance our understanding of disease pathogenesis in SLE. Similarly, progress in this area will likely inform human reproductive immunology. Studies of sex hormone function in the immune system are of obvious importance; however, it seems likely that many other types of sex-related genetic and immunological differences will contribute to SLE. In this review, we will focus on recent work in sex-related differences in cytokine pathways and genetics of these pathways as they relate to SLE pathogenesis. It seems quite possible that many of these sex-related differences could be important to reproductive fitness, which may explain the conservation of these immune system features and the observed female predominance of SLE. PMID:20063186

  5. Acid-base balance and temperature in a predominantly skin-breathing salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis.

    PubMed

    Moalli, R; Meyers, R S; Ultsch, G R; Jackson, D C

    1981-01-01

    Blood gases and pH and plasma [Na+], [K+], [Cl-] and [lactate] were measured on arterial blood of the large predominantly skin-breathing salamander, the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis), at 5, 15 and 25 degrees C, both with and without access to air. Access to air had no effect of any of the acid-base variables, but temperature had significant effects on both pH and PCO2. Blood pH decreased with temperature by about 0.016 unit/degrees C both in vivo and in vitro (over the range studied) which is similar to the change previously observed on other ectotherms. Blood PCO2 rose significantly with temperature while plasma [HCO-3] rose slightly but insignificantly. Other ions were unaffected by temperature. This is the first demonstration that the characteristics ectothermic acid-base response to temperature occurs in a vertebrate respiring exclusively through its skin. We suggest that the response in this animal is essentially passive and uncontrolled and is due to: (1) the proportional effects of temperature upon metabolic CO2 production and blood PCO2, and (2) the temperature-independent CO2 conductance of the skin. PMID:6787680

  6. Percutaneous Treatment of Heterogenous Predominantly Solid Echopattern Echinococcal Cysts of the Liver

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, Maurice C.; Sammak, Bassam M.; Al-Karawi, Mohammad

    2000-03-15

    Purpose: We report our technique for and results of percutaneous treatment of heterogenous, predominantly solid echopattern hepatic hydatid cysts (HHC), i.e., complex type IV cysts according to Gharbi's sonographic classification of HHC.Methods: Eight patients with nine complex type IV HHC were treated by percutaneous aspiration followed by hypertonic saline ablation, using a 14 Fr van Sonnenberg sump drainage catheter under sonographic and fluoroscopic guidance.Results: Successful drainage of cysts contents was achieved in all eight patients. No major complications, such as anaphylaxis, abdominal dissemination, cyst recurrence, or death, occurred. Minor complications including pain (n = 4), mild fever (n = 5), right reactive pleural effusion (n = 4), and transient hypernatremia (n = 2) were observed and managed conservatively. Follow-up imaging studies for an average period of 15 months (range 1-48 months) showed either complete healing (n 3) or significant reduction in the size of the cyst with solidification (n 6).Conclusion: Nine complex type IV HHC were effectively treated by suction of the membranes and hypertonic saline ablation using a 14 Fr sump drainage catheter, without major complications.

  7. Separator reconnection at the magnetopause for predominantly northward and southward IMF: Techniques and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glocer, A.; Dorelli, J.; Toth, G.; Komar, C. M.; Cassak, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate how to track magnetic separators in three-dimensional simulated magnetic fields with or without magnetic nulls, apply these techniques to enhance our understanding of reconnection at the magnetopause. We present three methods for locating magnetic separators and apply them to 3-D resistive MHD simulations of the Earth's magnetosphere using the Block-Adaptive-Tree Solar-wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme code. The techniques for finding separators and determining the reconnection rate are insensitive to interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) clock angle and can in principle be applied to any magnetospheric model. Moreover, the techniques have a number of advantages over prior separator finding techniques applied to the magnetosphere. The present work examines cases of high and low resistivity for two clock angles. We go beyond previous work examine the separator during Flux Transfer Events (FTEs). Our analysis of reconnection on the magnetopause yields a number of interesting conclusions: Reconnection occurs all along the separator even during predominately northward IMF cases. Multiple separators form in low-resistivity conditions, and in the region of an FTE the separator splits into distinct branches. Moreover, the local contribution to the reconnection rate, as determined by the local parallel electric field, drops in the vicinity of the FTE with respect to the value when there are none.

  8. Human T cells expressing V beta 8 do not predominantly recognize DR2 alloantigen.

    PubMed

    Christmas, S E; Brew, R; Crosby, I; Gecim, I E; Sells, R A

    1992-06-01

    A panel of seven monoclonal antibodies recognizing human T-cell antigen receptor (TcR) V alpha or V beta subsets has been used to measure TcR gene expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes and mixed lymphocyte culture responses (MLR) between DR2- and DR2+ (DRw15+) donors. There were no significant differences between DR2- and DR2+ donors in per cent T cells in fresh peripheral blood labelled with any of these antibodies, which included an antibody recognizing V beta 8. This indicates strongly that increased negative selection of V beta 8+ T cells does not occur in DR2+ compared with DR2- individuals. In MLR between DR2- and DR2+ donors the only significant change compared with fresh peripheral lymphocytes was that T cells expressing V beta 5.1 were decreased in DR2- lymphocyte populations responding to DR2 alloantigen. No changes in levels of V beta 8+ T cells were detected in MLR between DR2- and DR2+ donors. This suggests that V beta 8+ T cells are not predominantly reactive against DR2 (DRw15). The data support the concept that alloreactivity against a single class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) mismatch is mediated by T cells expressing a range of different TcR V beta molecules.

  9. One Year Post Collaborative Depression Care Trial Outcomes among Predominantly Hispanic Diabetes Safety Net Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Xie, Bin; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Kapetanovic, Suad; Guterman, Jeffery; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine sustained effectiveness in reducing depression symptoms and improving depression care one year following intervention completion. Method Of 387 low-income, predominantly Hispanic diabetes patients with major depression symptoms randomized to 12-month socio-culturally adapted collaborative care (psychotherapy and/or antidepressants, telephone symptom monitoring/relapse prevention) or enhanced usual care, 264 patients completed two-year follow-up. Depression symptoms (SCL-20, PHQ-9), treatment receipt, diabetes symptoms, and quality of life were assessed 24 months post-enrollment using intent-to-treat analyses. Results At 24 months, more intervention patients received ongoing antidepressant treatment (38% v 25%, chi-square=5.11, df=1, P=0.02); sustained depression symptom improvement (SCL-20<0.5 (adjusted OR=2.06, 95%CI=1.09–3.90, P=0.03), SCL-20 score (adjusted mean difference −0.22, P=0.001), and PHQ-9 ≥50% reduction (adjusted OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.05–3.32, P=0.03). Over 2 years, improved effects were found in significant study group by time interaction for SF-12 mental health, SDS functional impairment, diabetes symptoms, anxiety, and socioeconomic stressors (P=0.02 for SDS, P<0.0001 for all others); however, group differences narrowed over time and were no longer significant at 24 months. Conclusions Socio-culturally tailored collaborative care that included maintenance antidepressant medication, ongoing symptom monitoring and behavioral activation relapse prevention was associated with depression improvement over 24 months for predominantly Hispanic patients in primary safety net care. PMID:21774987

  10. Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Tropones and Tropolones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Song, Wangze; Schienebeck, Casi M.; Zhang, Min; Tang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Tropones and tropolones are an important class of seven-membered non-benzenoid aromatic compounds. They can be prepared directly by oxidation of seven-membered rings. They can also be derived from cyclization or cycloaddition of appropriate precursors followed by elimination or rearrangement. This review discusses the types of naturally occurring tropones and tropolones and outlines important methods developed for the synthesis of tropone and tropolone natural products. PMID:25400298

  11. Social and academic impairment in youth with ADHD, predominately inattentive type and sluggish cognitive tempo.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Stephen A; Evans, Steven W; Eiraldi, Ricardo B; Becker, Stephen P; Power, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) was originally identified as a construct that characterized the inattention problems of some children with attention deficit disorder (ADD). Research has indicated that using SCT symptoms to identify a subset of youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, predominately inattentive type (ADHD-IT) may elucidate distinct patterns of impairment and thereby improve the external validity of ADHD subtypes. The objective of the current study was to investigate whether youth with clinically-assessed ADHD-IT and high levels of SCT exhibit unique social and academic impairments. In a clinic-referred sample of youth (N = 209; 23 % female) aged 6 to 17 years, participants who met criteria for three different groups were identified: ADHD, Combined Type (ADHD-CT; n = 80), ADHD-IT with low SCT symptoms (n = 74), and ADHD-IT with high SCT symptoms (n = 55). These groups were compared on indicators of social and academic functioning while considering the effects of co-occurring internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Youth with ADHD-IT high in SCT exhibited uniquely elevated withdrawal, as well as low leadership and low peer-directed relational and overt aggression, which were not accounted for by co-occurring disorders. This high-SCT group was also the only group to have more homework problems than the ADHD-CT group, but only when other disruptive behavior disorders were absent. The distinctiveness of the high-SCT group, which was primarily evident in social as opposed to academic functioning, provides partial support for the external validity and clinical utility of SCT.

  12. A new paradigm for the predominance of standing Central Pacific Warming after the late 1990s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Baoqiang; Wang, Bin; Li, Tim

    2013-07-01

    Canonical El Niño has a warming center in the eastern Pacific (EP), but in recent decades, El Niño warming center tends to occur more frequently in the central Pacific (CP). The definitions and names of this new type of El Niño, however, have been notoriously diverse, which makes it difficult to understand why the warming center shifts. Here, we show that the new type of El Niño events is characterized by: 1) the maximum warming standing and persisting in the CP and 2) the warming extending to the EP only briefly during its peak phase. For this reason, we refer to it as standing CP warming (CPW). Global warming has been blamed for the westward shift of maximum warming as well as more frequent occurrence of CPW. However, we find that since the late 1990s the standing CPW becomes a dominant mode in the Pacific; meanwhile, the epochal mean trade winds have strengthened and the equatorial thermocline slope has increased, contrary to the global warming-induced weakening trades and flattening thermocline. We propose that the recent predominance of standing CPW arises from a dramatic decadal change characterized by a grand La Niña-like background pattern and strong divergence in the CP atmospheric boundary layer. After the late 1990s, the anomalous mean CP wind divergence tends to weaken the anomalous convection and shift it westward from the underlying SST warming due to the suppressed low- level convergence feedback. This leads to a westward shift of anomalous westerly response and thus a zonally in-phase SST tendency, preventing eastward propagation of the SST anomaly. We anticipate more CPW events will occur in the coming decade provided the grand La Niña-like background state persists.

  13. spin pumping occurred under nonlinear spin precession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hengan; Fan, Xiaolong; Ma, Li; Zhou, Shiming; Xue, Desheng

    Spin pumping occurs when a pure-spin current is injected into a normal metal thin layer by an adjacent ferromagnetic metal layer undergoing ferromagnetic resonance, which can be understood as the inverse effect of spin torque, and gives access to the physics of magnetization dynamics and damping. An interesting question is that whether spin pumping occurring under nonlinear spin dynamics would differ from linear case. It is known that nonlinear spin dynamics differ distinctly from linear response, a variety of amplitude dependent nonlinear effect would present. It has been found that for spin precession angle above a few degrees, nonlinear damping term would present and dominated the dynamic energy/spin-moment dissipation. Since spin pumping are closely related to the damping process, it is interesting to ask whether the nonlinear damping term could be involved in spin pumping process. We studied the spin pumping effect occurring under nonlinear spin precession. A device which is a Pt/YIG microstrip coupled with coplanar waveguide was used. High power excitation resulted in spin precession entering in a nonlinear regime. Foldover resonance lineshape and nonlinear damping have been observed. Based on those nonlinear effects, we determined the values of the precession cone angles, and the maximum cone angle can reach a values as high as 21.5 degrees. We found that even in nonlinear regime, spin pumping is still linear, which means the nonlinear damping and foldover would not affect spin pumping process.

  14. Clinical and Laboratory Differences between Lymphocyte- and Neutrophil-Predominant Pleural Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang; Kim, Sukyeon; Oh, Ki-Jong; Jeong, Suk Hyeon; Jung, Woo Jin; Shin, Beomsu; Jhun, Byung Woo; Lee, Hyun; Park, Hye Yun; Koh, Won-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Pleural tuberculosis (TB), a form of extrapulmonary TB, can be difficult to diagnose. High numbers of lymphocytes in pleural fluid have been considered part of the diagnostic criteria for pleural TB; however, in many cases, neutrophils rather than lymphocytes are the predominant cell type in pleural effusions, making diagnosis more complicated. Additionally, there is limited information on the clinical and laboratory characteristics of neutrophil-predominant pleural effusions caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). To investigate clinical and laboratory differences between lymphocyte- and neutrophil-predominant pleural TB, we retrospectively analyzed 200 patients with the two types of pleural TB. Of these patients, 9.5% had neutrophil-predominant pleural TB. Patients with lymphocyte-predominant and neutrophil-predominant pleural TB showed similar clinical signs and symptoms. However, neutrophil-predominant pleural TB was associated with significantly higher inflammatory serum markers, such as white blood cell count (P = 0.001) and C-reactive protein (P = 0.001). Moreover, MTB was more frequently detected in the pleural fluid from patients in the neutrophil-predominant group than the lymphocyte-predominant group, with the former group exhibiting significantly higher rates of positive results for acid-fast bacilli in sputum (36.8 versus 9.4%, P = 0.003), diagnostic yield of MTB culture (78.9% versus 22.7%, P < 0.001) and MTB detected by polymerase chain reaction (31.6% versus 5.0%, P = 0.001). Four of seven patients with repeated pleural fluid analyses revealed persistent neutrophil-predominant features, which does not support the traditional viewpoint that neutrophil-predominant pleural TB is a temporary form that rapidly develops into lymphocyte-predominant pleural TB. In conclusion, neutrophil-predominant pleural TB showed a more intense inflammatory response and a higher positive rate in microbiological testing compared to lymphocyte-predominant pleural TB

  15. Iron chelators and free radical scavengers in naturally occurring polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Ivanova, Marina V; Levitsky, Dmitri O

    2008-01-01

    The cardioprotective effect of polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinones on the experimental model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion has been demonstrated previously. In this study, using different models, such as bulk organic phase, liposomes and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, we have shown the ability of naturally occurring polyhydroxynaphthoquinones, echinochrome (Ech), spinochromes C, D and E (SpC, SpD and SpE) to inhibit free-radical oxidation induced by heme iron (hemin) or by free iron ions (in ferrous/ascorbate system). The polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones (PHNQs) were more effective in inhibiting the phosphatidyl choline liposome peroxidation induced by ferrous/ascorbate than that induced by hemin. The iron chelating ability of PHNQs was determined spectrophotometrically. Prevention of the ferrous/ascorbate-induced leakage of calcium by Ech was demonstrated in isolated SR vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle. The PHNQs displayed high scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. We concluded that iron chelation predominates in the overall antioxidant potential of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinones. PMID:18274994

  16. Naturally occurring antimicrobials for minimally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P Michael; Critzer, Faith J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Natural antimicrobials are gaining increased interest from researchers and food manufacturers alike seeking to discover label-friendly alternatives to the widely implemented synthetic compounds. Naturally occurring antimicrobials can be applied directly to food to protect food quality, extend food shelf life by inhibiting or inactivating spoilage microorganisms, and improve food safety by inhibiting or inactivating food-borne pathogens. There are a great number of natural antimicrobials derived from animal, plant, and microbial sources. This manuscript reviews their efficacy against spoilage and pathogenic organisms, their methods of evaluation, and their application in various foods as well as the development of novel delivery systems and incorporation with other hurdles.

  17. Burnout Is Associated with Reduced Parasympathetic Activity and Reduced HPA Axis Responsiveness, Predominantly in Males

    PubMed Central

    de Vente, Wieke; van Amsterdam, Jan G. C.; Olff, Miranda; Kamphuis, Jan H.; Emmelkamp, Paul M. G.

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that burnout is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Stress-related dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis may explain the enhanced risk for CVD. To test this hypothesis, 55 patients (34 males and 21 females) with burnout on sickness absence and 40 healthy participants (16 males and 24 females) were exposed to a psychosocial stressor consisting of mental arithmetic and public speech. Physiological variables (i.e., blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, vascular resistance, cortisol, and alpha-amylase) were measured. Basal levels, reactivity, and recovery were compared between groups. In male patients, baseline systolic blood pressure was higher, whereas basal alpha-amylase and cortisol reactivity were lower than in healthy males. In female patients, a tendency for lower basal cortisol was found as compared to healthy females. Furthermore, reduced basal heart rate variability and a trend for elevated basal cardiac output were observed in both male and female patients. Burnout is characterised by dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis, which was more pronounced in males than in females. This study further supports burnout as being a risk factor for CVD through dysregulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic system and the HPA axis. PMID:26557670

  18. 12 CFR 380.8 - Predominantly engaged in activities that are financial or incidental thereto.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... feasibility studies; 5 5 Feasibility studies do not include assisting management with the planning or... on individual financial management matters; and (6) Providing tax-planning and tax-preparation... also the Board of Governors' interpretation of bank management consulting advice (12 CFR 225.131)....

  19. Antennally active macrolide from the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis emitted predominantly by females.

    PubMed

    Bartelt, Robert J; Cossé, Allard A; Zilkowski, Bruce W; Fraser, Ivich

    2007-07-01

    The macrocyclic lactone (3Z)-dodecen-12-olide was identified from the emissions of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, feeding on ash foliage. The compound was detected from both sexes but was ca. 10 times more abundant from females. It was readily sensed by antennae of both males and females. Identification was confirmed by synthesis. The behavioral effects of the lactone remain unstudied in A. planipennis, but a verified pheromonal function could lead to improved monitoring for this invasive pest. The lactone is part of the pheromone of Cryptolestes pusillus, an unrelated beetle species.

  20. Clinical potential of eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Storr, Martin; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) belongs to the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders and is characterized by abdominal pain in conjunction with diarrhea. The incidence of IBS-D is currently increasing, leading to a heavy economic burden for patients and health care systems worldwide. Recent studies suggest eluxadoline as an attractive new tool for the treatment of patients with IBS-D. Eluxadoline is an orally active μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, with powerful antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. Eluxadoline is believed to act locally in the enteric nervous system, and has no adverse effects in the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the mechanism of action of eluxadoline and the results of the clinical trials in patients with IBS-D. We also discuss possible side effects and analyze the potential of eluxadoline to be used in the treatment of IBS-D. PMID:27257381

  1. Clinical potential of eluxadoline in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewska-Włodarczyk, Aleksandra; Włodarczyk, Marcin; Storr, Martin; Fichna, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) belongs to the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders and is characterized by abdominal pain in conjunction with diarrhea. The incidence of IBS-D is currently increasing, leading to a heavy economic burden for patients and health care systems worldwide. Recent studies suggest eluxadoline as an attractive new tool for the treatment of patients with IBS-D. Eluxadoline is an orally active μ- and κ-opioid receptor agonist and δ-opioid receptor antagonist, with powerful antidiarrheal and analgesic activity. Eluxadoline is believed to act locally in the enteric nervous system, and has no adverse effects in the central nervous system. In this review, we discuss the most recent findings on the mechanism of action of eluxadoline and the results of the clinical trials in patients with IBS-D. We also discuss possible side effects and analyze the potential of eluxadoline to be used in the treatment of IBS-D. PMID:27257381

  2. What's in a Name? A Comparison of Methods for Classifying Predominant Type of Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lau, A.S.; Leeb, R.T.; English, D.; Graham, J.C.; Briggs, E.C.; Brody, K.E.; Marshall, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The primary aim of the study was to identify a classification scheme, for determining the predominant type of maltreatment in a child's history that best predicts differences in developmental outcomes. Method:: Three different predominant type classification schemes were examined in a sample of 519 children with a history of alleged…

  3. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet were studied using the modal frequency technique. The evolution of the modal spectrum was obtained for a jet with a Reynolds number based on a diameter of 400,000 for both laminar and turbulent nozzle boundary layers. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing rapidly but dominating only the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal was observed closer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Target modes for efficient excitation of the jet were determined and two cases of excitation were studied. First, a jet was excited simultaneously by two helical modes, m equals plus 1 and m equals minus 1 at a Strouhal number based on jet diameter of 0.15 and the axisymmetric mode, m equals 0 at a jet diameter of 0.6. Second, m equals plus one and m equals minus 1 at jet diameter equals 0.3 and m equals 0 at jet diameter equals 0.6 were excited simultaneously. The downstream evolution of the hydrodynamic modes and the spreading rate of the jet were documented for each case. Higher jet spreading rates, accompanied by distorted jet cross sections were observed for the cases where combinations of axisymmetric and helical forcings were applied.

  4. Relative predominance of azo and hydrazone tautomers of 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes in binary solvent mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adegoke, Olajire A.

    2011-12-01

    Azo-hydrazone tautomerism is a phenomenon that occurs in azo dyes possessing substituents conjugated to the azo linkage which has labile proton that can be exchanged intramolecularly. Thus the predominance of one tautomer over another is a function of many factors among which are solvent polarity, solvent type, solute-solvent interactions and the structure of the dye molecule itself. The 4-carboxyl-2,6-dinitrophenylazohydroxynaphthalenes, previously shown to exhibit azo-hydrazone tautomerism, were studied for the relative predominance of one form over another based on interaction at the microenvironment of binary solvent mixtures containing DMF and non-hydrogen bonding (CCl 4), hydrogen bond donor (toluene, chloroform), hydrogen bond acceptor (acetonitrile, acetone) and the alcohols; ethanol and methanol as solvent pairs. The three dyes gave two main bands in the 50:50 mixture of DMF with these solvents consisting of a high energy band at 250-382 nm while the low energy bands for the dyes occurred at 415-485 nm. Spectral shifts in the binary solvent mixtures were related to the solvent dipolarity, basicity of the less polar component relative to DMF, substituent type, molar transition energy, formation constant for the hydrogen-bonding solvated complexes and the standard free energy change for hydrogen bonding with DMF. The relative predominance of the hydrazone tautomer bears a direct relationship to the basicity of the solvent, presence of hydrogen bond donor substituent and was associated with high molar transition energies and low formation constant. The microenvironment surrounding the dye molecules played a major role in the stability of one tautomer relative to the other.

  5. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  6. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution. PMID:16303218

  7. Atypical Mycobacterium furunculosis occurring after pedicures.

    PubMed

    Redbord, Kelley Pagliai; Shearer, David A; Gloster, Hugh; Younger, Bruce; Connelly, Beverly L; Kindel, Susan E; Lucky, Anne W

    2006-03-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum complex are rapidly-growing nontuberculous mycobacteria found ubiquitously in the environment including, water, soil, dust, and biofilms. M fortuitum has been reported to cause skin and soft-tissue infections in association with nail salon footbath use during pedicures. Four cases of M fortuitum complex furunculosis are reported that occurred after pedicures in the Cincinnati, Ohio/Northern Kentucky area. Dermatologists and clinicians should consider mycobacterial infections from the M fortuitum complex when patients present with nonhealing furuncles on the lower legs and should inquire about recent pedicures. Early recognition and institution of appropriate therapy are critical. Public health measures should be explored to protect against such infections, given the recent popularity of the nail care industry.

  8. A Study of Media Use and Reliance Patterns, Interest Levels, Attitudes and Preferences of Black Students at a Predominantly White and a Predominantly Black University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morah, Tanya M.

    A study was conducted to examine the relationship between American mass media and the black community. Subjects were two groups of black midwestern college students--one group studying at a predominantly black university and the other at a mostly white university--with similar social and economic backgrounds. It was hypothesized that black…

  9. Angiotensin II formation in the intact human heart. Predominance of the angiotensin-converting enzyme pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Zisman, L S; Abraham, W T; Meixell, G E; Vamvakias, B N; Quaife, R A; Lowes, B D; Roden, R L; Peacock, S J; Groves, B M; Raynolds, M V

    1995-01-01

    It has been proposed that the contribution of myocardial tissue angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin II (Ang II) formation in the human heart is low compared with non-ACE pathways. However, little is known about the actual in vivo contribution of these pathways to Ang II formation in the human heart. To examine angiotensin II formation in the intact human heart, we administered intracoronary 123I-labeled angiotensin I (Ang I) with and without intracoronary enalaprilat to orthotopic heart transplant recipients. The fractional conversion of Ang I to Ang II, calculated after separation of angiotensin peptides by HPLC, was 0.415 +/- 0.104 (n = 5, mean +/- SD). Enalaprilat reduced fractional conversion by 89%, to a value of 0.044 +/- 0.053 (n = 4, P = 0.002). In a separate study of explanted hearts, a newly developed in vitro Ang II-forming assay was used to examine cardiac tissue ACE activity independent of circulating components. ACE activity in solubilized left ventricular membrane preparations from failing hearts was 49.6 +/- 5.3 fmol 125I-Ang II formed per minute per milligram of protein (n = 8, +/- SE), and 35.9 +/- 4.8 fmol/min/mg from nonfailing human hearts (n = 7, P = 0.08). In the presence of 1 microM enalaprilat, ACE activity was reduced by 85%, to 7.3 +/- 1.4 fmol/min/mg in the failing group and to 4.6 +/- 1.3 fmol/min/mg in the nonfailing group (P < 0.001). We conclude that the predominant pathway for angiotensin II formation in the human heart is through ACE. Images PMID:7657820

  10. Ultrafast colorimetric determination of predominant protein structure evolution with gold nanoplasmonic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hye Young; Choi, Inhee

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular and extracellular accumulation of disordered proteins and aggregated proteins occurs in many protein conformational diseases, such as aging-related neurodegeneration and alcoholic liver diseases. However, the conventional methods to study protein structural changes are limited for the rapid detection and monitoring of protein aggregation because of long incubation times (i.e., usually several days), complicated sample pretreatment steps, and expensive instrumentation. Here, we describe an ultrafast colorimetric method for the real-time monitoring of protein structure evolution and the determination of predominant structures via nanoparticle-assisted protein aggregation. During the aggregation process, nanoparticles act as nucleation cores, which form networks depending on the structures of the protein aggregates, and accelerate the kinetics of the protein aggregation. Simultaneously, these nanoparticles exhibit colorimetric responses according to their embedded shapes (e.g., fibrillar and amorphous) on the protein aggregates. We observed distinct spectral shifts and concomitant colorimetric responses of concentration- and type-dependent protein aggregation with the naked eye within a few minutes (<2 min) under acidic conditions. Moreover, the morphological transitions from small aggregates to larger aggregates of nanoparticle-assisted protein aggregates were visualized with dark-field microscope imaging, which show a similar trend with that of protein aggregates formed without the aid of nanoparticles. Finally we show that our proposed method can be utilized to screen the protein aggregation propensity under a variety of conditions such as different pH levels, high temperature, and chemicals. These findings suggest that the proposed method is an easy way to study the molecular biophysics of protein aggregation and to rapidly screen anti-aggregation drugs for protein conformational diseases.The intracellular and extracellular accumulation of

  11. Identifying the predominant peak diameter of high-density and low-density lipoproteins by electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Williams, P T; Krauss, R M; Nichols, A V; Vranizan, K M; Wood, P D

    1990-06-01

    Particle size distributions of high-density (HDL) and low-density (LDL) lipoproteins, obtained by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis, exhibit apparent predominant and minor peaks within characteristic subpopulation migration intervals. In the present report, we show that identification of such peaks as predominant or minor depends on whether the particle size distribution is analyzed according to migration distance or particle size. The predominant HDL peak on the migration distance scale is frequently not the predominant HDL peak when the distribution is transformed to the particle size scale. The potential physiologic importance of correct identification of the predominant HDL peak within a gradient gel electrophoresis profile is suggested by our cross-sectional study of 97 men, in which diameters associated with the predominant peak, determined using migration distance and particle size scales, were correlated with plasma lipoprotein and lipid parameters. Plasma concentrations of HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and apolipoproteins A-I and B correlated more strongly with the predominant peak obtained using the particle size scale than the migration distance scale. The mathematical transformation from migration distance to particle diameter scale had less effect on the LDL distribution. The additional computational effort required to transform the HDL-distribution into the particle size scale appears warranted given the substantial changes it produces in the gradient gel electrophoresis profile and the strengthening of correlations with parameters relevant to lipoprotein metabolism.

  12. Chronic poisoning by copper in tap water: I. Copper intoxications with predominantly gastointestinal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Eife, R; Weiss, M; Barros, V; Sigmund, B; Goriup, U; Komb, D; Wolf, W; Kittel, J; Schramel, P; Reiter, K

    1999-06-28

    Copper can induce acute and chronic intoxications in humans. Copper in tap water has caused a series of severe systemic diseases in Germany in recent years (copper induced liver cirrhosis). Besides cirrhosis, another type of disease with predominantly gastrointestinal symptoms has occurred which likewise appeared to be induced by copper in tap water. - In a retrospective investigation we looked for additional indications and proof that chronic copper poisoning has been the cause of the observed gastrointestinal diseases. All patients suffering from this type of disease had copper plumbing in their houses. - The patients (children and adults) suffered from nausea, vomiting, colic, and diarrhoea. In the group of infants, one refused formula milk (prepared with tap water) and the others suffered from persistent restlessness, unexplainable screaming (especially at night) and/or long lasting diaper rash. - We accept the diagnosis of chronic copper intoxication as the cause of the gastrointestinal symptoms when at least one of the following criteria were fulfilled: 1. first manifestation, remission and relapse of the disease depend on intake and a non-intake of water containing copper, respectively. 2. hypercupric state of the patients (i.e. pathological high concentrations of the non-ceruloplasmin-bound copper in serum and/or elevated copper levels in urine) 3. signs of systemic copper intoxication in the same patient 4. signs of systemic copper intoxication or hypercupric states in members of the patient s family or in his neighbourhood (non-relatives) - We found that the disease can even be caused by copper concentrations below the allowed concentration given by the German Guidelines for Drinking Water (Trinkwasserverordnung). - The data prove that copper in drinking water can cause gastrointestinal diseases and not only the better known systemic diseases (i.e. copper induced liver cirrhosis). Copper poisoning must be considered as a possible cause of chronic

  13. Albumin synthesis is diminished in men consuming a predominantly vegetarian diet.

    PubMed

    Caso, G; Scalfi, L; Marra, M; Covino, A; Muscaritoli, M; McNurlan, M A; Garlick, P J; Contaldo, F

    2000-03-01

    Albumin synthesis was calculated in healthy male volunteers consuming diets differing in the relative contribution of protein from animal or vegetable sources. In one study (Study 1, n = 4) two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets were consumed for a period of 10 d each. One diet (diet A) was animal protein rich (74%), the other one (diet V) contained 67% of vegetable protein. Albumin synthesis rate was measured from L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine incorporation (43 mg/kg) at the end of each dietary period. Both albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR) (5.7 +/- 0.6 vs. 6.7 +/- 0. 8%/d, P = 0.04) and absolute synthesis rate (ASR) (123 +/- 6 vs. 143 +/- 8 mg. kg(-1). d(-1), P = 0.05) were reduced after diet V. In a second study (Study 2, n = 8) a third dietary treatment was added (Diet VS). This was similar to diet V but supplemented with soy protein (18g/d). The results of study 2 confirmed that albumin synthesis was reduced after diet V (FSR: 5.9 +/- 0.3 vs. 6.7 +/- 0. 5%/d, P = 0.015; ASR: 126 +/- 7 vs. 146 +/- 9 mg. kg(-1). d(-1), P = 0.007), but it also showed that the drop could be prevented by adding supplemental protein to the predominantly vegetarian diet (Diet VS) (FSR: 6.4 +/- 0.3%/d, P = 0.08; ASR: 140 +/- 7 mg. kg(-1). d(-1), P = 0.03). Albumin synthesis appears to be modulated by changes in the proportion of animal vs. vegetable protein occurring in the diet. The mechanism might be related to differences in digestibility and consequently in net amino acid availability between diets.

  14. FACTORS RELATED TO ABDOMINAL PAIN IN GASTROPARESIS: CONTRAST TO PATIENTS WITH PREDOMINANT NAUSEA AND VOMITING

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Factors associated with abdominal pain in gastroparesis are incompletely evaluated and comparisons of pain versus other symptoms are limited. This study related pain to clinical factors in gastroparesis and contrasted pain/discomfort- with nausea/vomiting-predominant disease. Methods Clinical and scintigraphy data were compared in 393 patients from 7 centers of the NIDDK Gastroparesis Clinical Research Consortium with moderate-severe (Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Disorders Symptoms [PAGI-SYM] score ≥3) vs. none-mild (PAGI-SYM <3) upper abdominal pain and predominant pain/discomfort vs. nausea/vomiting. Key Results Upper abdominal pain was moderate-severe in 261 (66%). Pain/discomfort was predominant in 81 (21%); nausea/vomiting was predominant in 172 (44%). Moderate-severe pain was more prevalent with idiopathic gastroparesis and with lack of infectious prodrome (P≤0.05) and correlated with scores for nausea/vomiting, bloating, lower abdominal pain/discomfort, bowel disturbances, and opiate and antiemetic use (P<0.05) but not gastric emptying or diabetic neuropathy or control. Gastroparesis severity, quality of life, and depression and anxiety were worse with moderate-severe pain (P≤0.008). Factors associated with moderate-severe pain were similar in diabetic and idiopathic gastroparesis. Compared to predominant nausea/vomiting, predominant pain/discomfort was associated with impaired quality of life, greater opiate, and less antiemetic use (P<0.01), but similar severity and gastric retention. Conclusions & Inferences Moderate-severe abdominal pain is prevalent in gastroparesis, impairs quality of life, and is associated with idiopathic etiology, lack of infectious prodrome, and opiate use. Pain is predominant in one fifth of gastroparetics. Predominant pain has at least as great an impact on disease severity and quality of life as predominant nausea/vomiting. PMID:23414452

  15. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Commonly Occurring Cancers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is a collection of very complex diseases that share many traits while differing in many ways as well. This makes a universal cure difficult to attain, and it highlights the importance of understanding each type of cancer at a molecular level. Although many strides have been made in identifying the genetic causes for some cancers, we now understand that simple changes in the primary DNA sequence cannot explain the many steps that are necessary to turn a normal cell into a rouge cancer cell. In recent years, some research has shifted to focusing on detailing epigenetic contributions to the development and progression of cancer. These changes occur apart from primary genomic sequences and include DNA methylation, histone modifications, and miRNA expression. Since these epigenetic modifications are reversible, drugs targeting epigenetic changes are becoming more common in clinical settings. Daily discoveries elucidating these complex epigenetic processes are leading to advances in the field of cancer research. These advances, however, come at a rapid and often overwhelming pace. This review specifically summarizes the main epigenetic mechanisms currently documented in solid tumors common in the United States and Europe. PMID:22519822

  16. Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induces a Predominantly Necrotic Cell Death via the Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Cousty, Sarah; Cambus, Jean-Pierre; Valentin, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cold plasma is a partially ionized gas generated by an electric field at atmospheric pressure that was initially used in medicine for decontamination and sterilization of inert surfaces. There is currently growing interest in using cold plasma for more direct medical applications, mainly due to the possibility of tuning it to obtain selective biological effects in absence of toxicity for surrounding normal tissues,. While the therapeutic potential of cold plasma in chronic wound, blood coagulation, and cancer treatment is beginning to be documented, information on plasma/cell interaction is so far limited and controversial. Methods and Results Using normal primary human fibroblast cultures isolated from oral tissue, we sought to decipher the effects on cell behavior of a proprietary cold plasma device generating guided ionization waves carried by helium. In this model, cold plasma treatment induces a predominantly necrotic cell death. Interestingly, death is not triggered by a direct interaction of the cold plasma with cells, but rather via a transient modification in the microenvironment. We show that modification of the microenvironment redox status suppresses treatment toxicity and protects cells from death. Moreover, necrosis is not accidental and seems to be an active response to an environmental cue, as its execution can be inhibited to rescue cells. Conclusion These observations will need to be taken into account when studying in vitro plasma/cell interaction and may have implications for the design and future evaluation of the efficacy and safety of this new treatment strategy. PMID:26275141

  17. Autotrophy as a predominant mode of carbon fixation in anaerobic methane-oxidizing microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Kellermann, Matthias Y.; Wegener, Gunter; Elvert, Marcus; Yoshinaga, Marcos Yukio; Lin, Yu-Shih; Holler, Thomas; Mollar, Xavier Prieto; Knittel, Katrin; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The methane-rich, hydrothermally heated sediments of the Guaymas Basin are inhabited by thermophilic microorganisms, including anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea (mainly ANME-1) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (e.g., HotSeep-1 cluster). We studied the microbial carbon flow in ANME-1/ HotSeep-1 enrichments in stable-isotope–probing experiments with and without methane. The relative incorporation of 13C from either dissolved inorganic carbon or methane into lipids revealed that methane-oxidizing archaea assimilated primarily inorganic carbon. This assimilation is strongly accelerated in the presence of methane. Experiments with simultaneous amendments of both 13C-labeled dissolved inorganic carbon and deuterated water provided further insights into production rates of individual lipids derived from members of the methane-oxidizing community as well as their carbon sources used for lipid biosynthesis. In the presence of methane, all prominent lipids carried a dual isotopic signal indicative of their origin from primarily autotrophic microbes. In the absence of methane, archaeal lipid production ceased and bacterial lipid production dropped by 90%; the lipids produced by the residual fraction of the metabolically active bacterial community predominantly carried a heterotrophic signal. Collectively our results strongly suggest that the studied ANME-1 archaea oxidize methane but assimilate inorganic carbon and should thus be classified as methane-oxidizing chemoorganoautotrophs. PMID:23129626

  18. Female graduates of a predominantly black college of medicine: their characteristics and challenges.

    PubMed

    Titus-Dillon, P Y; Johnson, D G

    1989-01-01

    To obtain detailed information about the general characteristics of and the special challenges faced by its predominantly black female graduates. Howard University College of Medicine included an oversampling of women in an extensive 1985-1986 follow-up survey of alumni. Women were asked specific questions about their experiences as women medical students and physicians. Comparative results for the 168 female and 560 male respondents show interesting similarities and differences. Male and female respondents serve the same large proportion of black and female patients, while a higher proportion of the women practice in large cities, provide primary care, and serve younger and poorer patients. Special challenges of being women in medicine include lack of support from faculty, spouses, and colleagues, especially in the areas of child rearing and household management. Although comparisons of earlier (1924-1969) and later (1970-1980) women graduates reveal some improvements, findings include a continuing need to eliminate the dual problems of sexism and racism that have historically faced black women medical students and physicians. Suggestions for continued improvement include support groups, consciousness raising activities, and further research related to women in medicine.

  19. Modern Interpretation of Giant Cell Tumor of Bone: Predominantly Osteoclastogenic Stromal Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yuhree; Nizami, Saqib; Goto, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Owing to striking features of numerous multinucleated cells and bone destruction, giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone, often called as osteoclastoma, has drawn major attractions from orthopaedic surgeons, pathologists, and radiologists. The name GCT or osteoclastoma gives a false impression of a tumor comprising of proliferating osteoclasts or osteoclast precursors. The underlying mechanisms for excessive osteoclastogenesis are intriguing and GCT has served as an exciting disease model representing a paradigm of osteoclastogenesis for bone biologists. The modern interpretation of GCT is predominantly osteoclastogenic stromal cell tumors of mesenchymal origin. A diverse array of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines disrupts osteoblastic differentiation and promotes the formation of excessive multi-nucleated osteoclastic cells. Pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines such as receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), interleukin (IL)-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as well as monocyte-recruiting chemokines such as stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 participate in unfavorable osteoclastogenesis and bone destruction. This model represents a self-sufficient osteoclastogenic paracrine loop in a localized area. Consistent with this paradigm, a recombinant RANK-Fc protein and bisphosphonates are currently being tried for GCT treatment in addition to surgical excision and conventional topical adjuvant therapies. PMID:22662295

  20. Myxobacterial community is a predominant and highly diverse bacterial group in soil niches.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiu-wen; Li, Shu-guang; Li, Wei; Jiang, De-ming; Han, Kui; Wu, Zhi-hong; Li, Yue-zhong

    2014-02-01

    Although many molecular ecological surveys have been conducted, there is little concerning the details of specific bacterial groups, resulting in an incomplete understanding of the microorganismal composition and community structures in the environment. Myxobacteria are micropredators that are metabolically active in the soil microbial food web and have typically been considered minority components of soil bacterial communities. In this study, we surveyed the percentage of myxobacteria in a single soil sample via pyrosequencing on combined universal libraries of the V3-V4 and V6-V8 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. Surprisingly, myxobacteria accounted for 4.10% of the bacterial community and 7.5% of the total operational taxonomic units at the 3% similarity level in the soil, containing almost all of the cultivated myxobacterial families or genera. To testify the appearance of myxobacteria in soil niches, we retrieved myxobacteria-related 16S rRNA gene sequences of 103 high-throughput sequencing data sets obtained from public databases. The results indicated that myxobacteria-related sequences were among the predominant groups in these data sets accounting for 0.4-4.5% of bacterial communities. The abundance of myxobacterial communities were correlated with site temperature, carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and pH values. Based on these results, we discussed the survival strategies of myxobacterial community in soil.

  1. Breast Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging: Semi-Automatic Detection of Vascular Map and Predominant Feeding Vessel

    PubMed Central

    Petrillo, Antonella; Fusco, Roberta; Filice, Salvatore; Granata, Vincenza; Catalano, Orlando; Vallone, Paolo; Di Bonito, Maurizio; D’Aiuto, Massimiliano; Rinaldo, Massimo; Capasso, Immacolata; Sansone, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To obtain breast vascular map and to assess correlation between predominant feeding vessel and tumor location with a semi-automatic method compared to conventional radiologic reading. Methods 148 malignant and 75 benign breast lesions were included. All patients underwent bilateral MR imaging. Written informed consent was obtained from the patients before MRI. The local ethics committee granted approval for this study. Semi-automatic breast vascular map and predominant vessel detection was performed on MRI, for each patient. Semi-automatic detection (depending on grey levels threshold manually chosen by radiologist) was compared with results of two expert radiologists; inter-observer variability and reliability of semi-automatic approach were assessed. Results Anatomic analysis of breast lesions revealed that 20% of patients had masses in internal half, 50% in external half and the 30% in subareolar/central area. As regards the 44 tumors in internal half, based on radiologic consensus, 40 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (61% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 14% by lateral thoracic vessels, 16% by both thoracic vessels and 9% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01), based on semi-automatic detection, 38 tumors demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (66% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 11% by lateral thoracic vessels, 9% by both thoracic vessels and 14% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01). As regards the 111 tumors in external half, based on radiologic consensus, 91 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (25% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 39% by lateral thoracic vessels, 18% by both thoracic vessels and 18% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01), based on semi-automatic detection, 94 demonstrated a predominant feeding vessel (27% were supplied by internal thoracic vessels, 45% by lateral thoracic vessels, 4% by both thoracic vessels and 24% had no predominant feeding vessel—p<0.01). An

  2. A Nucleolus-Predominant piggyBac Transposase, NP-mPB, Mediates Elevated Transposition Efficiency in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ku, Amy T.; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3–4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells. PMID:24586748

  3. A nucleolus-predominant piggyBac transposase, NP-mPB, mediates elevated transposition efficiency in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jin-Bon; Chou, Fu-Ju; Ku, Amy T; Fan, Hsiang-Hsuan; Lee, Tung-Lung; Huang, Yung-Hsin; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Su, I-Chang; Yu, I-Shing; Lin, Shu-Wha; Chien, Chung-Liang; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Chen, You-Tzung

    2014-01-01

    PiggyBac is a prevalent transposon system used to deliver transgenes and functionally explore the mammalian untouched genomic territory. The important features of piggyBac transposon are the relatively low insertion site preference and the ability of seamless removal from genome, which allow its potential uses in functional genomics and regenerative medicine. Efforts to increase its transposition efficiency in mammals were made through engineering the corresponding transposase (PBase) codon usage to enhance its expression level and through screening for mutant PBase variants with increased enzyme activity. To improve the safety for its potential use in regenerative medicine applications, site-specific transposition was achieved by using engineered zinc finger- and Gal4-fused PBases. An excision-prone PBase variant has also been successfully developed. Here we describe the construction of a nucleolus-predominant PBase, NP-mPB, by adding a nucleolus-predominant (NP) signal peptide from HIV-1 TAT protein to a mammalian codon-optimized PBase (mPB). Although there is a predominant fraction of the NP-mPB-tGFP fusion proteins concentrated in the nucleoli, an insertion site preference toward nucleolar organizer regions is not detected. Instead a 3-4 fold increase in piggyBac transposition efficiency is reproducibly observed in mouse and human cells.

  4. Naturally occurring anti-Salmonella agents.

    PubMed

    Kubo, I; Fujita, K

    2001-12-01

    Polygodial and (2E)-hexenal were found to possess antibacterial activity against Salmonella choleraesuis with the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of 50 microg/mL (0.17 mM) and 100 microg/mL (0.98 mM), respectively. The time kill curve study showed that these two alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes were bactericidal against this food-borne bacterium at any stage of growth. However, they showed different effects on the growth of S. choleraesuis. The combination of polygodial and anethole exhibited strong synergism on their bacteriostatic action but only marginal synergism on their bactericidal action. PMID:11743758

  5. Naturally occurring toxic substances in foods.

    PubMed

    Gross, R L; Newberne, P M

    1977-11-01

    Numerous chemical toxins, including normal components of natural foods, e.g., mycotoxins, and toxic chemicals as contaminants such as pesticides, fertilizers, food additives, and preservatives, which are potentially toxic to humans, are discussed. Potential toxicity, the hazard to man represented by most of these chemicals, may be low because the concentration in food may be low. The gap in our knowledge of long-term effects makes rational decisions as to allowable levels of these substances a major problem. On the other hand, nitrosamines and aflatoxins are toxins for which there exists a voluminous literature documentaing extreme biologic activity in experimental animals and indirect evidence for activity in man. Epidemiologic evidence has linked them to human cancers, and because of increasing evidence of long-term human exposure to these toxins either as inadvertent contaminants during food preparation or as the metabolites of mycotic infestation this possible hazard demands intensive investigation. An exhaustive review of data from epidemiologic surveys in various parts of the world, as well as from long-term laboratory studies, represents an impressive start in this direction.

  6. Early inflammatory damage to intestinal neurons occurs via inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Venkataramana, Shriram; Lourenssen, S; Miller, K G; Blennerhassett, M G

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal inflammation affects the enteric nervous system (ENS) that lies adjacent to the smooth muscle layers. Previously, we showed that the loss of ENS neurons in animal models such as tri-nitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis was a limited and early event despite progressive worsening of inflammation. Here, we demonstrated that the rapid appearance of activated immune cells in the intestinal wall is selectively neurotoxic via iNOS-derived NO, using TNBS-induced colitis in both rats and mice, and a co-culture model of ENS neurons and smooth muscle. An influx of neutrophils and macrophages occurred within hours of initiation of rat colitis, correlating with iNOS expression, acutely elevated NO and neuronal death. In vitro, chemical donors of NO selectively caused axonal damage and neuronal death. These outcomes were similar to those seen with combined culture with either activated peritoneal immune cells or the immune cell lines RAW-264 and RBL-2H3. Immune cell-mediated neurotoxicity was blocked by the iNOS inhibitor L-NIL, and neuronal death was inhibited by the RIP-1 kinase inhibitor necrostatin. In a mouse model, the stereotypic loss of myenteric neurons by Day 4 post-TNBS was abrogated by the selective iNOS inhibitors L-NIL or 1400W without effect on other parameters of intestinal inflammation. Preservation of ENS neurons also ameliorated the hyperplasia of smooth muscle that is characteristic of intestinal inflammation, in line with prior work showing neural regulation of smooth muscle phenotype. This identifies a predominant pathway of immune cell damage to the ENS, where early, acute elevation of NO from iNOS can be cytotoxic to myenteric neurons.

  7. "Unsettling Relations": Racism and Sexism Experienced by Faculty of Color in a Predominantly White Canadian University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuel, Edith; Wane, Njoki

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative investigation of the experiences of nine women of color in a predominantly White Canadian university is presented. This study emphasizes racism and sexism pervading in some contexts, situations, and relationships for women of color in academe.

  8. The Use of Chemical Probes for the Characterization of the Predominant Abiotic Reductants in Anaerobic Sediments

    EPA Science Inventory

    Identifying the predominant chemical reductants and pathways for electron transfer in anaerobic systems is paramount to the development of environmental fate models that incorporate pathways for abiotic reductive transformations. Currently, such models do not exist. In this chapt...

  9. Information Needs While A Disaster Is Occurring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    that rainfall intensity at their homes might be less than the intensity up in the mountains where the debris flows would start. Nor did they know that debris flows travel too quickly to be outrun. These and many other examples indicate need for social and natural scientists to increase awareness of what to expect when the disaster strikes. This information must be solidly understood before the event occurs - while a disaster is unfolding there are no teachable moments. Case studies indicate that even those who come into a disaster well educated about the phenomenon can struggle to apply what they know when the real situation is at hand. In addition, psychological studies confirm diminished ability to comprehend information at times of stress.

  10. Co-occurring disorders: policy and practice in Germany.

    PubMed

    Hintz, Thomas; Mann, Karl

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of substance use disorders (SUD) with other mental disorders-what is often referred to as co-occurring disorders (COD)-is a common phenomenon, but for a long time, little attention has been paid to this problem in Germany. During the last 25 years, however, COD awareness has increased due to a shift toward community-based services. Scientific research has also demonstrated the significance and clinical relevance of COD. High prevalence rates and evidence of poor clinical outcomes were found in German studies. Many practitioners as well as policymakers acknowledge that changes in systems of care are necessary to meet the requirements of COD patients. The traditional German system is currently divided into addiction services and mental health services (predominantly in inpatient settings), often resulting in ineffective sequential treatment for COD patients. Research demonstrates that integrative treatment models are more appropriate, and the division of services should be reorganized to help COD patients appropriately. Efforts have already been made to restructure healthcare systems toward a more flexible approach with improved networking between in- and outpatient services. A further issue is the general attitude toward SUD patients. Many practitioners continue to hold negative opinions (eg, "SUD patients are only weak-minded") or feel insecure when confronted with SUD. This results in SUD problems being frequently ignored or depreciated. Educational programs have been intensive over recent years to address this problem (eg, Fachkunde Sucht, an advanced training program on SUD). In general, treatment conditions for COD patients are improving, but further efforts are necessary. Guidelines and treatment strategies for COD patients have been recently published in Germany.

  11. Predominant role of neutrophils in the inactivation of alpha 2-macroglobulin in arthritic joints.

    PubMed

    Abbink, J J; Kamp, A M; Nieuwenhuys, E J; Nuijens, J H; Swaak, A J; Hack, C E

    1991-09-01

    We studied the state of alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M), an important inhibitor of cartilage-degrading proteinases, in relation to activation of neutrophils in 82 patients with several types of arthritis, including 52 with rheumatoid arthritis and 11 with osteoarthritis. Levels of total inactive alpha 2M (i alpha 2M), which comprises alpha 2M complexed to proteinases and alpha 2M inactivated by oxidation or hydrolysis, were measured with a monoclonal antibody specific for i alpha 2M. In addition, levels of alpha 2M complexed to proteinases were quantitated with specific assays. Neutrophil activation was assessed by measuring elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes and lactoferrin. In 83% of the 82 patients tested, the synovial fluid (SF) to plasma ratio of i alpha 2M exceeded 1, indicating an intraarticular generation. Levels of i alpha 2M significantly correlated with neutrophil numbers (P less than 0.0005) and with levels of elastase-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexes and of lactoferrin (P less than 0.00001 for both). Moreover, part of i alpha 2M consisted of alpha 2M complexed to elastase-like and chymotrypsin-like proteinases, presumably, neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G, respectively. However, the amount of i alpha 2M was approximately 10-fold larger than the amount complexed to these proteinases. In vitro inactivation of alpha 2M by activated neutrophils was only partly inhibitable by eglin C, a specific inhibitor of both elastase and cathepsin G. Release of reactive oxygen species was presumably responsible for the additional inactivation of alpha 2M, because eglin C completely abolished the inactivation of alpha 2M by cell-free supernatant of activated neutrophils. Thus, our results suggest a predominant role of neutrophils in the inactivation of alpha 2M in the SF of patients with inflammatory joint diseases. However, this inactivation could be explained only in part by the release of neutrophilic proteinases. We propose that the inactivation of alpha 2M in

  12. Where and when does reconnection occur in the tail?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherron, Robert L.

    2016-05-01

    We comment on the question of when and where reconnection begins in the tail and how it is related to the onset of auroral expansion. This question was addressed in a workshop dedicated to Unsolved Problems in Magnetospheric Physics held in Scarborough, UK, in September 2015. The answer is that it typically occurs first in the midtail a little beyond 20 Re somewhat before midnight about 55 min after a southward turning of the solar wind magnetic field. It appears to be a consequence of plasma sheet thinning down to the scale of an ion gyroradius. The onset of the activation and expansion of auroral activity and accompanying magnetic signatures typically occur within 1 or 2 min of the appearance of signatures of midtail reconnection. The unanswered question is which comes first and whether reconnection is the cause of the auroral expansion. We point out that older observations clearly established that plasmoids (flux ropes) are released from near 20 Re within a few minutes of the usual signatures of expansion onset. This is only possible if reconnection occurs close to the Earth. More detailed observations with modern spacecraft have led to the development of new explanations for the cause of the substorm expansion that appear to neglect older observations. We conclude that it is essential to carefully define the various terms used in the study of substorms and to develop quantitative methods that enable statistical studies of the various processes associated with auroral expansion onset.

  13. Rapid emergence and predominance of a broadly recognizing and fast-evolving norovirus GII.17 variant in late 2014

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Martin C. W.; Lee, Nelson; Hung, Tin-Nok; Kwok, Kirsty; Cheung, Kelton; Tin, Edith K. Y.; Lai, Raymond W. M.; Nelson, E. Anthony S.; Leung, Ting F.; Chan, Paul K. S.

    2015-01-01

    Norovirus genogroup II genotype 4 (GII.4) has been the predominant cause of viral gastroenteritis since 1996. Here we show that during the winter of 2014–2015, an emergent variant of a previously rare norovirus GII.17 genotype, Kawasaki 2014, predominated in Hong Kong and outcompeted contemporary GII.4 Sydney 2012 in hospitalized cases. GII.17 cases were significantly older than GII.4 cases. Root-to-tip and Bayesian BEAST analyses estimate GII.17 viral protein 1 (VP1) evolves one order of magnitude faster than GII.4 VP1. Residue substitutions and insertion occur in four of five inferred antigenic epitopes, suggesting immune evasion. Sequential GII.4-GII.17 infections are noted, implicating a lack of cross-protection. Virus bound to saliva of secretor histo-blood groups A, B and O, indicating broad susceptibility. This fast-evolving, broadly recognizing and probably immune-escaped emergent GII.17 variant causes severe gastroenteritis and hospitalization across all age groups, including populations who were previously less vulnerable to GII.4 variants; therefore, the global spread of GII.17 Kawasaki 2014 needs to be monitored. PMID:26625712

  14. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  15. Stress fractures of the second metatarsal base occur in nondancers.

    PubMed

    Chuckpaiwong, Bavornrit; Cook, Chad; Nunley, James A

    2007-08-01

    Stress fractures of the base of the second metatarsal are common in ballet dancers and essentially are unreported in nondancers. We presumed base of the second metatarsal stress fractures in nondancers occur in a wide variety of individuals regardless of demographics, are highly associated with athletic activities, and have specific examination findings and poor clinical outcomes. Using a retrospective chart review, we identified 12 stress fractures at the base of the second metatarsal (nine patients) in nondancers. Our review suggests second metatarsal base stress fractures occur in nondancers in a diverse population, and nonoperative treatment provides limited success. Advanced radiographic study, specifically MRI, is useful to assist the early diagnosis and prognostication. All of the stress fractures were treated nonoperatively; six fractures (50%) developed nonunion and five underwent subsequent surgery. The surgery for nonunion provided successful outcomes; however, risk factors such as low bone mass and comorbidities may have played important roles in the prognosis.

  16. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Magni, Chiara; Bonti, Viola; Diciotti, Stefano; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema) and severity (mild and severe diseases) were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide %) and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively). IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed significantly in predominant emphysema, and ischemic heart disease and PVD prevailed in mild COPD. All cardiovascular comorbidities prevailed significantly in predominant airway phenotype of COPD and mild COPD severity. Conclusion Specific comorbidities prevail in different phenotypes of COPD; this fact may be relevant to identify patients at risk for specific, phenotype-related comorbidities. The highest prevalence of comorbidities in patients with mild disease indicates that these patients should be investigated for coexisting diseases or syndromes even in the less severe, pauci-symptomatic stages of COPD. The simple method employed to phenotype and

  17. Prevalence of comorbidities according to predominant phenotype and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Camiciottoli, Gianna; Bigazzi, Francesca; Magni, Chiara; Bonti, Viola; Diciotti, Stefano; Bartolucci, Maurizio; Mascalchi, Mario; Pistolesi, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    Background In addition to lung involvement, several other diseases and syndromes coexist in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our purpose was to investigate the prevalence of idiopathic arterial hypertension (IAH), ischemic heart disease, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease (PVD), diabetes, osteoporosis, and anxious depressive syndrome in a clinical setting of COPD outpatients whose phenotypes (predominant airway disease and predominant emphysema) and severity (mild and severe diseases) were determined by clinical and functional parameters. Methods A total of 412 outpatients with COPD were assigned either a predominant airway disease or a predominant emphysema phenotype of mild or severe degree according to predictive models based on pulmonary functions (forced expiratory volume in 1 second/vital capacity; total lung capacity %; functional residual capacity %; and diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide %) and sputum characteristics. Comorbidities were assessed by objective medical records. Results Eighty-four percent of patients suffered from at least one comorbidity and 75% from at least one cardiovascular comorbidity, with IAH and PVD being the most prevalent ones (62% and 28%, respectively). IAH prevailed significantly in predominant airway disease, osteoporosis prevailed significantly in predominant emphysema, and ischemic heart disease and PVD prevailed in mild COPD. All cardiovascular comorbidities prevailed significantly in predominant airway phenotype of COPD and mild COPD severity. Conclusion Specific comorbidities prevail in different phenotypes of COPD; this fact may be relevant to identify patients at risk for specific, phenotype-related comorbidities. The highest prevalence of comorbidities in patients with mild disease indicates that these patients should be investigated for coexisting diseases or syndromes even in the less severe, pauci-symptomatic stages of COPD. The simple method employed to phenotype and

  18. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-01

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  19. Occurence of ore metals in some terrestrial geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, P.

    1984-02-01

    Drilling programs and the study of active geothermal systems have shown that the reservoir rocks in many fields contain minor quantities of base and precious metals. Commonly, base-metal sulfides occur in the subsurface but, where present, Au, Ag, Hg, As, Tl and Sb rich precipitates deposit near, or at, the surface. Although in some fields (Geysers, Larderello, Tongonan) some of the ore minerals (and others) are relict, there is evidence that they are now depositing in a few systems. Recent work on active hydrothermal systems in New Zealand shows that: (1) Sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite (forming veins and disseminated discrete crystals) plus rare pentlandite, cobaltite and arsenopyrite, occur at Broadlands, NZ. Rare quantities of base-metal sulfides also occur in cores and cuttings from the geothermal fields of Waiotapu, Kawerau, Tauhara, and Ngawha. Further, Kakimoto (1983) has identified cassiterite, native silver, and trace gold in cores from Tauhara, in the south-eastern part of the Wairakei field. Bore temperatures at the depths from which these minerals were recovered are mostly between 220/sup 0/ and 300/sup 0/C, but at Broadlands are locally as low as 120/sup 0/C. The host rocks are Quaternary calc-alkali, silicic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, andesites, dacite and deep Mesozoic greywackes and argillites; however, there is no obvious relationship between mineralization and stratigraphy, permeability or well output. The deposition of amorphous precious metal precipitates (Au, Ag, Hg, As, Sb, Tl) from hot springs and well discharges has taken place at Broadlands, Waiotapu and Rotokawa; it also occurs at Kawerau. Water discharging from Frying Pan Lake, Waimangu, is presently depositing siliceous sinter containing up to 4.1% tungsten.

  20. Sensory-motor transformations for speech occur bilaterally.

    PubMed

    Cogan, Gregory B; Thesen, Thomas; Carlson, Chad; Doyle, Werner; Devinsky, Orrin; Pesaran, Bijan

    2014-03-01

    Historically, the study of speech processing has emphasized a strong link between auditory perceptual input and motor production output. A kind of 'parity' is essential, as both perception- and production-based representations must form a unified interface to facilitate access to higher-order language processes such as syntax and semantics, believed to be computed in the dominant, typically left hemisphere. Although various theories have been proposed to unite perception and production, the underlying neural mechanisms are unclear. Early models of speech and language processing proposed that perceptual processing occurred in the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (Wernicke's area) and motor production processes occurred in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). Sensory activity was proposed to link to production activity through connecting fibre tracts, forming the left lateralized speech sensory-motor system. Although recent evidence indicates that speech perception occurs bilaterally, prevailing models maintain that the speech sensory-motor system is left lateralized and facilitates the transformation from sensory-based auditory representations to motor-based production representations. However, evidence for the lateralized computation of sensory-motor speech transformations is indirect and primarily comes from stroke patients that have speech repetition deficits (conduction aphasia) and studies using covert speech and haemodynamic functional imaging. Whether the speech sensory-motor system is lateralized, like higher-order language processes, or bilateral, like speech perception, is controversial. Here we use direct neural recordings in subjects performing sensory-motor tasks involving overt speech production to show that sensory-motor transformations occur bilaterally. We demonstrate that electrodes over bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal, superior temporal, premotor and somatosensory cortices exhibit robust sensory-motor neural

  1. The first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, rapalexins A and B, are cruciferous phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Zheng, Qing-An; Gadagi, Ravi S

    2007-01-28

    The discovery of the first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, indole-3-isothiocyanates, their first synthesis, antimicrobial activity and proposed biogenetic origin in canola plants are reported.

  2. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  3. Increased serum free tryptophan in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christmas, David M; Badawy, Abdulla A-B; Hince, Dana; Davies, Simon J C; Probert, Christopher; Creed, Tom; Smithson, John; Afzal, Muhammad; Nutt, David J; Potokar, John P

    2010-10-01

    Irregularities of serotonin function in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be due to changes in the metabolism of the serotonin precursor l-tryptophan. Dietary alteration of tryptophan intake may impact upon the mood and bowel symptoms of IBS. We hypothesized that diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (d-IBS) patients would exhibit an increase in plasma tryptophan due to alterations in tryptophan metabolism. We also hypothesized that a diet low in tryptophan would reverse this change and reduce symptoms. Thirteen patients with d-IBS had fasting serum free and total tryptophan, large neutral amino acids, and 6 kynurenine metabolites measured before and after 2 weeks of a strict dairy-free diet. Baseline tryptophan parameters were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Changes in the specific tryptophan parameters before and after dairy-free diet were correlated with symptoms of IBS and mood. Compared with the control group, d-IBS patients at baseline exhibited significantly higher free serum tryptophan (10.5 ± 4.35 vs 4.75 ± 2.43 μmol/L [means ± standard deviation], P = .006) and significantly lower tryptophan dioxygenase and total tryptophan oxidation as measured by the kynurenine to free tryptophan and total kynurenines to free tryptophan ratios (23.37 ± 10.12 vs 55.33 ± 16.02, P < .001 and 49.34 ± 17.84 vs 258.46 ± 98.67, P < .001, respectively). Dairy-free diet did not modulate metabolites of the kynurenine pathway or symptoms. Tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway is inhibited in d-IBS, and a dairy-free diet does not alter this. Our findings are consistent with possible enhanced serotonin activity in d-IBS.

  4. Chronic Constipation and Constipation-Predominant IBS: Separate and Distinct Disorders or a Spectrum of Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Kewin T. H.; Wong, Reuben K.

    2016-01-01

    Rome III diagnostic criteria separate patients with idiopathic chronic constipation into mutually exclusive categories of constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C) or functional constipation (FC). However, several experts think that these conditions are not different disorders, but parts of a continuum. To shed light on this issue, we examined studies that compared IBS-C with FC with respect to symptoms, pathophysiologic mechanisms, and treatment response. When the Rome III requirement that patients meeting criteria for IBS cannot also be given a diagnosis of FC is suspended, most patients meet criteria for both, and, contrary to expectation, IBS-C patients have more symptoms of constipation than patients with FC. No symptoms reliably separate IBS-C from FC. Physiologic tests are not reliably associated with diagnosis, but visceral pain hypersensitivity tends to be more strongly associated with IBS-C than with FC, and delayed colonic transit tends to be more common in FC. Although some treatments are effective for both IBS-C and FC, such as prosecretory agents, other treatments are specific to IBS-C (eg, antidepressants, antispasmodics, cognitive behavior therapy) or FC (eg, prucalopride, biofeedback). Future studies should permit IBS-C and FC diagnoses to overlap. Physiologic tests comparing these disorders should include visceral pain sensitivity, colonic transit time, time to evacuate a water-filled balloon, and anal pressures or electromyographic activity from the anal canal. To date, differential responses to treatment provide the strongest evidence that IBS-C and FC may be different disorders, rather than parts of a spectrum. PMID:27231446

  5. Modulation of renin angiotensin system predominantly alters sclerotic phenotype of glomeruli in HIVAN.

    PubMed

    Plagov, Andrei; Lan, Xiqian; Rai, Partab; Kumar, Dileep; Lederman, Rivka; Rehman, Shabina; Malhotra, Ashwani; Ding, Guohua; Chander, Praveen N; Singhal, Pravin C

    2014-12-01

    HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a common complication of HIV-1 infection in patients with African ancestry in general and with APOL1 gene risk variants in particular. Although collapsing glomerulopathy is considered a hallmark of HIVAN, significant numbers of glomeruli in patients with HIVAN also display other variants of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). We propose that collapsed glomeruli as well as glomeruli with other variants of FSGS are manifestations of HIVAN and their prevalence depends on associated host factors. We explored the role of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the manifestation of any specific glomerular phenotype in HIVAN. To evaluate the role of the RAS we have used a genetically engineered mouse model of HIVAN (Tg26) with two and four copies of angiotensinogen (Agt) gene (Tg26/Agt2 and Tg26/Agt4). In Tg26/Agt2, 1 out of 6 glomeruli exhibited sclerosed phenotype, whereas 1 out of 25 glomeruli displayed collapsed phenotype; on the other hand, in Tg26/Agt4, 1 out of 3 glomeruli exhibited sclerotic phenotype and only 1 out of 7 glomeruli showed collapsed phenotype. To inhibit the effect of RAS, Tg26/Agt2 were administered captopril, aliskiren, aliskiren plus captopril or aliskiren plus telmisartan by miniosmotic pumps for 4 weeks. In all experimental groups there was a significant reduction in percentage of sclerosed glomeruli and only minimal reduction in collapsed glomeruli compared to normal saline receiving Tg26/Agt2. These findings suggest that the manifestation of the sclerosed phenotype in HIVAN is predominantly dependent on activation of the RAS. PMID:24892944

  6. A computer simulation of the afterburning processes occurring within solid rocket motor plumes in the troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomberg, R. I.; Stewart, R. B.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a continuing study of the environmental effects of solid rocket motor (SRM) operations in the troposphere, a numerical model was used to simulate the afterburning processes occurring in solid rocket motor plumes and to predict the quantities of potentially harmful chemical species which are created. The calculations include the effects of finite-rate chemistry and turbulent mixing. It is found that the amount of NO produced is much less than the amount of HCl present in the plume, that chlorine will appear predominantly in the form of HCl although some molecular chlorine is present, and that combustion is complete as is evident from the predominance of carbon dioxide over carbon monoxide.

  7. [Chronic and predominantly sensory polyneuropathy in Toroku Valley where a mining company produced arsenic].

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Yazawa, Shogo; Ohnishi, Akio; Ohi, Takekazu

    2002-06-01

    We report 9 patients (5 males, 4 females, ages 63-77) with chronic polyneuropathy. They were exposed to arsenic for about 15-40 years in Toroku Valley, Takachiho-Town, Miyazaki Prefecture, Japan, where a mining company produced arsenic from 1920-1962. Predominantly sensory polyneuropathy was the most significant neurological finding. In 5 of them, superficial and deep sensation was equally affected over the entire body, including head, face, and mucous membranes of the mouth. The corneal reflexes were absent or sluggish. Pin-prick and light-touch perception was absent in their hands and legs. Another sensory disorder such as glove and stocking-type was seen in 4 of them. All 9 patients were comfortable with extremely hot water in their beverages, their baths, and their wash basins compared with controls. But these patients felt that their temperature sensation was normal. Motor involvement was minimal. Although motor-nerve conduction velocities were normal or reduced minimally, sensory-nerve conduction velocities were moderately reduced. Sural-nerve biopsy revealed reduction of both small myelinated and unmyelinated fibers, which occurs with axonal degeneration of peripheral nerves. Other main symptoms and signs were tension-type headaches, non-painful tonic spasms of limbs, and losses or significantly decreased sensations of taste and smell. Dantrolene-sodium was effective for the treatment of their non-painful tonic spasms of limbs. As for the general medical condition of these patients, all of them had suffered from chronic bronchitis and skin eruption during childhood or in their early life or in their young adulthood when the mine was producing arsenic. At the time of this study only four of them suffered from chronic bronchitis and none of them had skin eruptions or discoloration of the skin, 37 years after closure of the mine. These 9 patients were diagnosed as having chronic arsenic poisoning and arsenic polyneuropathy. The multiplicity of symptoms found in

  8. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  9. Establishment of polychlorinated biphenyl-degrading enrichment culture with predominantly meta dechlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, P J; Mohn, W W; Quensen, J F; Tiedje, J M; Boyd, S A

    1992-01-01

    Enrichment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-dechlorinating microorganisms from PCB-contaminated sediments from the Upper Hudson River, N.Y., was attempted. The enrichment strategy was to use pyruvate as the electron donor and dechlorination of Aroclor 1242 as the electron acceptor. The enrichment medium also contained non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments, which were required for the PCB-dechlorinating activity. An enrichment culture (that had stable PCBT-dechlorinating activity over nine serial transfers during 1 year) was established under these conditions; however, the rate of dechlorination did not increase after the second serial transfer. Dechlorination occurred primarily from the meta positions of the biphenyl molecule. Hydrogen could be substituted for pyruvate as the electron donor with equal activity, but when acetate was used as the electron donor a delay in dechlorination was observed. Sulfate and bromethane sulfonate inhibited dechlorination activity. The pyruvate-Aroclor 1242 enrichment also dechlorinated Aroclors 1248, 1254, and 1260; the extent of chlorine removed was the greatest for Aroclor 1254. For comparison, nonautoclaved non-PCB-contaminated Hudson River sediments used in the assay also dechlorinated Aroclors, but only after 12 to 16 weeks of incubation. This suggests that PCB-dechlorinating organisms were also present in these sediments but in numbers lower than those in the enrichment culture. PMID:1444423

  10. Predominant and substoichiometric isomers of the plastid genome coexist within Juniperus plants and have shifted multiple times during cupressophyte evolution.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Cobo-Clark, Amie; Fan, Weishu; Duan, Zelin; Adams, Robert P; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2014-03-01

    Most land plant plastomes contain two copies of a large inverted repeat (IR) that promote high-frequency homologous recombination to generate isomeric genomic forms. Among conifer plastomes, this canonical IR is highly reduced in Pinaceae and completely lost from cupressophytes. However, both lineages have acquired short, novel IRs, some of which also exhibit recombinational activity to generate genomic structural diversity. This diversity has been shown to exist between, and occasionally within, cupressophyte species, but it is not known whether multiple genomic forms coexist within individual plants. To examine the recombinational potential of the novel cupressophyte IRs within individuals and between species, we sequenced the plastomes of four closely related species of Juniperus. The four plastomes have identical gene content and genome organization except for a large 36 kb inversion between approximately 250 bp IR containing trnQ-UUG. Southern blotting showed that different isomeric versions of the plastome predominate among individual junipers, whereas polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput read-pair mapping revealed the substoichiometric presence of the alternative isomeric form within each individual plant. Furthermore, our comparative genomic studies demonstrate that the predominant and substoichiometric arrangements of this IR have changed several times in other cupressophytes as well. These results provide compelling evidence for substoichiometric shifting of plastomic forms during cupressophyte evolution and suggest that substoichiometric shifting activity in plastid genomes may be adaptive.

  11. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A; Marks, Christopher R; Stamps, Blake W; Harriman, Brian H; Stevenson, Bradley S; Duncan, Kathleen E; Suflita, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O3 (2-), SO4 (2-), and HS(-)). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure. PMID:27446028

  12. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A; Marks, Christopher R; Stamps, Blake W; Harriman, Brian H; Stevenson, Bradley S; Duncan, Kathleen E; Suflita, Joseph M

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O3 (2-), SO4 (2-), and HS(-)). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure.

  13. Metabolic Capability of a Predominant Halanaerobium sp. in Hydraulically Fractured Gas Wells and Its Implication in Pipeline Corrosion

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Renxing; Davidova, Irene A.; Marks, Christopher R.; Stamps, Blake W.; Harriman, Brian H.; Stevenson, Bradley S.; Duncan, Kathleen E.; Suflita, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Microbial activity associated with produced water from hydraulic fracturing operations can lead to gas souring and corrosion of carbon-steel equipment. We examined the microbial ecology of produced water and the prospective role of the prevalent microorganisms in corrosion in a gas production field in the Barnett Shale. The microbial community was mainly composed of halophilic, sulfidogenic bacteria within the order Halanaerobiales, which reflected the geochemical conditions of highly saline water containing sulfur species (S2O32-, SO42-, and HS-). A predominant, halophilic bacterium (strain DL-01) was subsequently isolated and identified as belonging to the genus Halanaerobium. The isolate could degrade guar gum, a polysaccharide polymer used in fracture fluids, to produce acetate and sulfide in a 10% NaCl medium at 37°C when thiosulfate was available. To mitigate potential deleterious effects of sulfide and acetate, a quaternary ammonium compound was found to be an efficient biocide in inhibiting the growth and metabolic activity of strain DL-01 relative to glutaraldehyde and tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium sulfate. Collectively, our findings suggest that predominant halophiles associated with unconventional shale gas extraction could proliferate and produce sulfide and acetate from the metabolism of polysaccharides used in hydraulic fracturing fluids. These metabolic products might be returned to the surface and transported in pipelines to cause pitting corrosion in downstream infrastructure. PMID:27446028

  14. Abdominal Pain-Predominant Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Jordanian School Children

    PubMed Central

    Altamimi, Eyad M.; Al-Safadi, Mohammad H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recurrent abdominal pain (RAP) is a common complaint in children. Significant portion of them are of functional origin. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID) and its types in Jordanian school children. Methods This is a school-based survey at south Jordan. Information using the self-reporting form of the Questionnaire on Pediatric Gastrointestinal Symptoms-Rome III Version (QPGS-RIII) - the official Arabic translation - was collected. Classes from academic years (grades) 6 - 8 were selected. SPSS Statistical Package Version 17 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA) was used. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test, and continuous data were analyzed using t-test. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Five hundred questionnaires were distributed, and 454 returned answered (91%). Two hundred twenty-nine (50.8%) were males. The average age of participants was 12.7 years (11 - 15 years). One hundred sixteen (25.7%) had abdominal pain-predominant FGID. Seventy-nine (68%) of them were females. Forty-seven (10.6%) had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Thirty-six (8%), 17 (3.8%), 11 (2.4%) and five (1.1%) had abdominal migraine, functional abdominal pain, functional abdominal pain syndrome and functional dyspepsia, respectively. Conclusion Abdominal pain-predominant FGID has become a major health issue in Jordanian children. One of four children between the ages of 11 and 15 years exhibits at least one abdominal pain-predominant FGID. The most common form of abdominal pain-predominant FGID in our children was IBS. Females are affected more often than males. Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms are seen regularly with abdominal pain-predominant FGIDs.

  15. Inactivation of phospholipase A2 by naturally occurring biflavonoid, ochnaflavone.

    PubMed

    Chang, H W; Baek, S H; Chung, K W; Son, K H; Kim, H P; Kang, S S

    1994-11-30

    Ochnaflavone, a medicinal herb product isolated from Lonicera japonica, strongly inhibited rat platelet phospholipase A2 (IC50, about 3 microM). Inactivation was concentration and pH dependent (maximum inactivation occurred between pH 9.0 and 10.0). Ochnaflavone inhibited the enzyme by a noncompetitive manner, with the apparent Ki value of 3 x 10(-5) M. Reversibility was studied directly by dialysis method; the inhibition was irreversible. In addition, the inhibitory activity of ochnaflavone is rather specific against group II phospholipase A2 than group I phospholipase A2 (IC50, about 20 microM). Addition of excess Ca2+ concentration up to 8 mM did not antagonize the inhibitory activity of ochnaflavone. These results indicate that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 by ochnaflavone may result from direct interaction with the enzyme.

  16. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. PMID:25816274

  17. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Mara; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the antimicrobial activity of eight selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results showed a moderate antimicrobial activity. The most active compounds were 3-(4-geranyloxyphenyl)-1-ethanol (4) and 3-(4-isopentenyloxyphenyl)-1-propanol (5) that were tested on mature and in-formation biofilms of all micro-organisms, moreover the cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Except for S. epidermidis, both compounds reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the microbial biofilm formation at 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, in particular, compounds 4 and 5 at each concentration, inhibited E. coli biofilm formation to a greater extent, the biofilm formation was never more than 44% in respect to the control, moreover both compounds showed a low cytotoxic effect. Oxyprenylated derivatives may be of great interest for the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies and the synthesis of semi-synthetic analogues with anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:27498831

  18. Black African Immigrant College Students' Perceptions of Belonging at a Predominately White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.

    2016-01-01

    A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…

  19. Success Factors of Black Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics Faculty at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michelle A.

    2012-01-01

    Black faculty at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) have historically been underrepresented and made to endure with academic isolation, scholarship marginalization and other challenges to the tenure process. When it comes to science, technology, engineering and math, also known as STEM, as it relates to race and success, little is known of…

  20. Undergraduate Survey of Black Undergraduate Students Attending Predominantly White, State-Supported Universities. Preliminary Report: 1982.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.; And Others

    This report discusses the results of a survey of the characteristics and the social and academic experiences of black undergraduates at eight predominantly white and regionally diverse State college campuses. The majority of the students sampled were freshmen. Major findings are that: (1) black undergraduates did not report markedly unpleasant or…

  1. Identity, Age, Proportion of Online Classes, and Success among Students in a Predominantly Online Degree Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlsen-Landy, Bev

    2012-01-01

    Most colleges and universities in the US offer at least some classes online, and a significant number of colleges and universities offer degree programs either all online or predominantly online. Many of the distance learning courses and programs emerge from traditional courses and programs; however, in the past decade we have seen the emergence…

  2. Balancing Survival and Resistance: Experiences of Faculty of Color in Predominantly Euro American Schools of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Kristin F.; Hassouneh, Dena; Akeroyd, Jen; Beckett, Ann K.

    2013-01-01

    This report of findings from a grounded theory study conducted with 23 faculty of color (FOC) in predominately Euro American schools of nursing presents the central process used by FOC as they navigate academic careers as persons of color. As FOC struggled to progress in their careers and influence their academic environments they engaged in a…

  3. Fighting through Resistance: Challenges Faced by African American Women Principals in Predominately White School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Alicia D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…

  4. Black Male College Achievers and Resistant Responses to Racist Stereotypes at Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2015-01-01

    In this article, Shaun R. Harper investigates how Black undergraduate men respond to and resist the internalization of racist stereotypes at predominantly White colleges and universities. Prior studies consistently show that racial stereotypes are commonplace on many campuses, that their effects are usually psychologically and academically…

  5. How High-Achieving African American Undergraduate Men Negotiate Cultural Challenges at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Elva Elaine

    2010-01-01

    In this study I examine the manner in which high-achieving African American undergraduate men negotiate cultural challenges in a predominantly White institution (PWI). Cultural theory underpins the conceptual framework of this case study. Basing the study in cultural theory provided a lens through which to view the lived experiences of the twenty…

  6. Black Female Voices: Self-Presentation Strategies in Doctoral Programs at Predominately White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…

  7. Coloring the Academic Landscape: Faculty of Color Breaking the Silence in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Christine A.

    2006-01-01

    This article, based on a larger, autoethnographic qualitative research project, focuses on the first-hand experiences of 27 faculty of color teaching in predominantly White colleges and universities. The 27 faculty represented a variety of institutions, disciplines, academic titles, and ranks. They identified themselves as African American,…

  8. Do Black Students Learn More at Historically Black or Predominantly White Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Louise; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Study investigated the relative freshman-year cognitive impacts on black students enrolled in 2 historically black and 16 predominantly white colleges. Results indicated general parity in standardized measures of reading comprehension, mathematics, critical thinking, and composite achievement between black students attending black colleges and…

  9. Do Black Students Learn More at Historically Black or Predominantly White Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Louise; And Others

    This study investigated the relative freshman-year cognitive impacts of 2 historically black and 16 predominantly white colleges on black students. Of these institutions, 5 were 2-year institutions and the rest were 4-year colleges. The data were taken from a pool of 2,416 freshmen students who participated in the National Study of Student…

  10. A genetic analysis of male-predominant pheromones in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Scott, D; Richmond, R C

    1988-07-01

    Chemical signals from males play an important role in stimulating Drosophila melanogaster females to mate, and male-predominant pheromones may influence a female's choice of mates. Male-predominant pheromones also inhibit courtship, thereby functioning as antiaphrodisiacs. Interstrain variation in the ratio of two male-predominant pheromones (7-tricosene and 7-pentacosene) has been reported, but the genetic basis for this potentially important variation has not been examined. In a series of crosses between strains that differ radically in the amounts of 7-tricosene and 7-pentacosene, we have identified both X-linked and autosomal contributions to interstrain variation in the amounts of these compounds. The X-linked loci act as enhancers for production of the compound predominant in the strain from which the X chromosome originated. Autosomal factors for each of the two compounds appear to segregate as high vs. low, with incomplete dominance of high 7-tricosene over low, and low 7-pentacosene over high. A significant negative correlation between the quantities of 7-pentacosene and 7-tricosene in the F2 and backcross progeny, but not in the F1s or parentals, indicates linkage between autosomal loci regulating the expression of each compound. However, the phenotypic distributions of the backcross progeny indicate that additional unlinked loci are also directly involved in the production of these two hydrocarbons.

  11. Proteome-wide identification of predominant subcellular protein localizations in a bacterial model organism

    SciTech Connect

    Stekhoven, Daniel J.; Omasits, Ulrich; Quebatte, Maxime; Dehio, Christoph; Ahrens, Christian H.

    2014-03-01

    Proteomics data provide unique insights into biological systems, including the predominant subcellular localization (SCL) of proteins, which can reveal important clues about their functions. Here we analyzed data of a complete prokaryotic proteome expressed under two conditions mimicking interaction of the emerging pathogen Bartonella henselae with its mammalian host. Normalized spectral count data from cytoplasmic, total membrane, inner and outer membrane fractions allowed us to identify the predominant SCL for 82% of the identified proteins. The spectral count proportion of total membrane versus cytoplasmic fractions indicated the propensity of cytoplasmic proteins to co-fractionate with the inner membrane, and enabled us to distinguish cytoplasmic, peripheral innermembrane and bona fide inner membrane proteins. Principal component analysis and k-nearest neighbor classification training on selected marker proteins or predominantly localized proteins, allowed us to determine an extensive catalog of at least 74 expressed outer membrane proteins, and to extend the SCL assignment to 94% of the identified proteins, including 18% where in silico methods gave no prediction. Suitable experimental proteomics data combined with straightforward computational approaches can thus identify the predominant SCL on a proteome-wide scale. Finally, we present a conceptual approach to identify proteins potentially changing their SCL in a condition-dependent fashion.

  12. 76 FR 51011 - Applications for New Awards; Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... Applications for New Awards; Predominantly Black Institutions Formula Grant Program AGENCY: Office of... Institutions (PBI) Formula Grant Program. Notice inviting applications for new awards for fiscal year (FY) 2011... application a sum that bears the same ratio to one-half of that amount as the number of Federal Pell...

  13. Sociocultural Influences on Undergraduate Students' Conversations on Race at a Predominantly White Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edvalson, Sherri Ivy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the sociocultural influences on dialogues about race of undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a Predominantly White Institution (PWI). This qualitative study included 16 undergraduate students from various racial backgrounds at a small, private university in the Midwest who participated…

  14. Racial Microaggressions: The Narratives of African American Faculty at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Chavella T.

    2012-01-01

    What role does race play in the lives of fourteen African American (7 women, 7 men) faculty on a predominantly White campus? This case study focuses on their narratives which revealed that racial microaggressions were a common and negative facet of their lives on campus. Specifically, their narratives suggest interactions of microinvalidations…

  15. Mentoring 101: Advancing African-American Women Faculty and Doctoral Student Success in Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…

  16. The Benefits of a Comprehensive Retention Program for African American Students at a Predominately White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Lakitta

    2013-01-01

    Since the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the retention of African American students at predominately White colleges and universities continues to be problematic. Although many of these institutions have implemented retention programs for African American students, few have incorporated a comprehensive program that utilizes multi-program…

  17. African American Faculty Expressing Concerns: Breaking the Silence at Predominantly White Research Oriented Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…

  18. Public Platitudes and Hidden Tensions: Racial Climates at Predominantly White Liberal Arts Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Katherine E.

    1990-01-01

    Theories of intergroup attitudes suggest that the period of relative calm on college campuses was only superficial. Theories are supported by a study of a "quiet" predominantly White liberal arts college. Findings indicate significant differences between Blacks and Whites on a variety of measures of interracial attitudes and interaction patterns.…

  19. A Comparison of College Park Black Freshmen with Black Freshmen Nationally in Predominantly White Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Mary A.; And Others

    The purpose of the study was to compare selected characteristics of College Park black freshmen with those of black freshmen nationally. Summer 1972 orientation black freshmen and Fall 1971 national black freshmen in predominantly white universities were the subjects of the study. The responses of 194 black freshmen on the University Student…

  20. A Comparison of College Park Black Freshmen with Black Freshmen Nationally in Predominantly White Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strader, Mary A.; And Others

    The purpose of the study was to compare selected characteristics of University of Maryland College Park black freshmen with those of black freshmen nationally. Summer 1972 orientation black freshmen and Fall 1971 national black freshmen in predominantly white universities were the subjects of the study. The responses of 194 black freshmen on the…

  1. The Black Student Experience at Predominantly White Colleges: Implications for School and College Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.

    2010-01-01

    Research from higher education and cultural studies that has examined the Black college student experience at predominantly White institutions (PWIs) is presented to assist counselors in understanding how Black college students' relationships with faculty, family, friends from home, and peers in Black student organizations can become assets or…

  2. African American and White Adolescents' Strategies for Managing Cultural Diversity in Predominantly White High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Jill V.; Coleman, Hardin L. K.

    2001-01-01

    Examined 3 strategies used by 77 African American and 138 White high school students to manage cultural diversity: multicultural, separation, and assimilation strategies. Discusses results in relation to forces supporting adolescents' strategy development and the implications of strategy use for adjustment in predominantly white schools. (SLD)

  3. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Integrated Home-School Behavioral Treatment for ADHD, Predominantly Inattentive Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Mikami, Amori Yee; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia; Easterlin, Barbara; Zalecki, Christine; McBurnett, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a behavioral psychosocial treatment integrated across home and school (Child Life and Attention Skills Program) with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I). Method: Sixty-nine children ages 7 to 11 years were randomized to the Child Life and Attention Skills…

  4. Neurocognitive Functioning in AD/HD, Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Gilbert, Sharone N.; Raj, Anu; Zhu, John; Pope-Boyd, Sa'brina; Stepak, Brenda; Vail, Lucia; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2007-01-01

    The Predominantly Inattentive (PI) and Combined (CB) subtypes of AD/HD differ in cognitive tempo, age of onset, gender ratio, and comorbidity, yet a differentiating endophenotype has not been identified. The aim of this study was to test rigorously diagnosed PI, CB, and typical children on measures selected for their potential to reveal…

  5. Experiences of Black Women Who Persist to Graduation at Predominantly White Schools of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Francine Simms

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the experiences of Black women who attended predominantly White nursing schools. A phenomenological design was used to investigate eight nurses who persisted through to graduation from their nursing programs in the 21st century. The study examined persistence through the lens of academic involvement, alienation,…

  6. Racial Microaggressions in the Residence Halls: Experiences of Students of Color at a Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harwood, Stacy A.; Huntt, Margaret Browne; Mendenhall, Ruby; Lewis, Jioni A.

    2012-01-01

    Students of color often perceive the campus climate more negatively than do their White counterparts. Our study begins to uncover what students of color experience in residence halls. Using focus group data from a larger study exploring racial microaggressions at a predominantly White institution (PWI), we identified over 70 racial…

  7. Latina "Testimonios": A Reflexive, Critical Analysis of a "Latina Space" at a Predominantly White Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Judith; Garcia, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    Judith Flores and Silvia Garcia (University of Utah) draw from the work of their mentor, Rina Benmayor and "Telling to live: Latina feminist testimonios" to establish an organization for Latinas who are staff, faculty, students, alumni, and community members at a predominantly White institution (PWI). Critical race feminism (CRF), Latina/o…

  8. Social Functioning in Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solanto, Mary V.; Pope-Boyd, Sabrina A.; Tryon, Warren W.; Stepak, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to compare the social functioning of children with the Combined (CB) and Predominantly Inattentive (PI) subtypes of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), controlling for comorbidity and medication-status, which may have confounded the results of previous research. Method: Parents and teachers…

  9. Research Administration Training and Compliance at the Department Level for a Predominantly Undergraduate Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temples, Beryline; Simons, Paula; Atkinson, Timothy N.

    2012-01-01

    By providing training from the Central Sponsored Programs Office (SPO), departments, and colleges at Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions (PUIs) can increase compliance with grant requirements. PUIs usually do not focus on department- or college-level grants administration and lack monetary resources to support this function. However, at the…

  10. "I Never Hear It Talked About": Exploring Discourses of Whiteness in a Predominantly White Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuschkel, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    Much is known about the practices, beliefs, assumptions, and discourses of teachers as they look at issues of racial, ethnic, and cultural diversity but little has been done to understand how racial injustice is sustained in these school settings and how whiteness operates in predominantly white educational contexts. White elementary school…

  11. The Relationship among Social Support, Victimization, and Student Adjustment in a Predominantly Latino Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malecki, Christine Kerres; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick; Davidson, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study is a preliminary investigation of the potential mediating role in the relationship between levels of victimization and students' adjustment for a sample of urban, predominantly Latino middle school students. A sample of 142 sixth through eighth grade students completed self-report measures including: (a) the Child and Adolescent…

  12. From "Middle Class" to "Trailer Trash: " Teachers' Perceptions of White Students in a Predominately Minority School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward W.

    2005-01-01

    This article explores how teachers perceived and interacted with white students in a predominately racial/ethnic minority school in Texas. On the basis of ethnographic data, the author found that different teachers expressed different views of the family and class backgrounds of white students in this setting, which ranged from "middle class" to…

  13. Parental Involvement and Perceived At-Risk Student Performance: Views from Predominantly Hispanic Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braley, Richard; Slate, John R.; Cavazos, Jose

    2009-01-01

    These researchers analyzed the perceptions of parents of students determined to be at-risk about their involvement with their children. Parents (n = 229), predominantly Hispanic, were surveyed from elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools in a district in South Texas near the Texas-Mexico border. Quantitative data obtained from the…

  14. African American College Students at a Predominantly White Institution: Patterns of Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Clover

    This study investigated factors affecting the success of African American students at a large, predominantly white, Catholic commuter institution, with approximately 10 percent African American enrollment. The study examined how students perceived campus climate; environmental factors impeding success and contributing to success; the effect of…

  15. Issues and Problems in the Retention of Black Students in Predominantly White Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Barbara J.

    1993-01-01

    Examines issues in the retention of African-American students in predominantly white institutions of higher learning. Factors affecting retention are cataloged, and the responsiveness of existing retention programs to these factors is analyzed. Focus on African-American students who do persist is needed to create a climate of inclusion. (SLD)

  16. How Faculty at Predominantly Undergraduate Institutions Incorporate Undergraduate Research in Their Work Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magee, Frances Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study examines why and how science and social science faculty at predominantly undergraduate colleges engage in undergraduate research (UR) while successfully attending to their scholarly and professional responsibilities. Given the increase in attention to UR as an innovative practice enhancing undergraduate education, most studies have…

  17. Causal Predominance of Cognitions in Disturbed Affects among Finnish Primary School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajala, Raimo

    1990-01-01

    A putative causal relationship of cognitions to affects in different phases of teachers' stress cycles was studied for 414 elementary school teachers in Finland. Results provide only negligible support for the causal predominance of cognitions in disturbed affects; the opposite seemed to prevail. Implications for teacher satisfaction are…

  18. African American and Hispanic Student Engagement at Minority Serving and Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson Laird, Thomas F.; Bridges, Brian K.; Morelon-Quainoo, Carla L.; Williams, Julie M.; Holmes, Michelle Salinas

    2007-01-01

    Although scholars have examined historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in terms of their educational effectiveness for African American students compared to predominantly white institutions (PWIs), there is a lack of similar research on Hispanic students at Hispanic-serving institutions (HSIs) and PWIs. This study uses data from the…

  19. Helpful Hints for Advising and Counseling Minority Students in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, George A.

    Advice about advising and counseling minority students at predominantly white colleges and data about the enrollment and majors of minorities are provided. Included are a list of hints concerning: personal relations and student retention, educational development, financial assistance, and career planning. A list of words and phrases that offend…

  20. Predominant Teaching Strategies in Schools: Implications for Curriculum Implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achuonye, Keziah Akuoma

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive survey is hinged on predominant teaching strategies in schools, implications for curriculum implementation in Mathematics, Science and Technology. Target population consisted of teachers in primary, secondary and tertiary schools. However, purposive sample of 900 respondents was drawn from the six BRACED states namely Bayelsa,…

  1. The Impact of "Colorblind" Ideologies on Students of Color: Intergroup Relations at a Predominantly White University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Amanda E.; Chesler, Mark; Forman, Tyrone A.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the experiences of minority students with their white peers on predominantly white campuses. Focus groups revealed how white students' purported color-blindness regarding race often blinded them to their own color conscious behavior and the subsequent stereotyping effects. Participants' discussions examined stereotyping, assimilation,…

  2. The Effects of Predominant Neonatal State Upon the Neonate-Mother Feeding Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arco, Christina M.; Self, Patricia A.

    This paper explores the effects of infant predominant state of arousal upon very early mother-infant interaction, through observation of a group of 20 healthy 3-day-old nursery roommates and their mothers during hospital feeding sessions. In an experimental procedure involving a modified time-sampling technique, two observers simultaneously…

  3. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320–1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234–0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  4. Predominant Bacteria Detected from the Middle Ear Fluid of Children Experiencing Otitis Media: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Chinh C.; Massa, Helen M.; Thornton, Ruth B.; Cripps, Allan W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Otitis media (OM) is amongst the most common childhood diseases and is associated with multiple microbial pathogens within the middle ear. Global and temporal monitoring of predominant bacterial pathogens is important to inform new treatment strategies, vaccine development and to monitor the impact of vaccine implementation to improve progress toward global OM prevention. Methods A systematic review of published reports of microbiology of acute otitis media (AOM) and otitis media with effusion (OME) from January, 1970 to August 2014, was performed using PubMed databases. Results This review confirmed that Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae, remain the predominant bacterial pathogens, with S. pneumoniae the predominant bacterium in the majority reports from AOM patients. In contrast, H. influenzae was the predominant bacterium for patients experiencing chronic OME, recurrent AOM and AOM with treatment failure. This result was consistent, even where improved detection sensitivity from the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) rather than bacterial culture was conducted. On average, PCR analyses increased the frequency of detection of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae 3.2 fold compared to culture, whilst Moraxella catarrhalis was 4.5 times more frequently identified by PCR. Molecular methods can also improve monitoring of regional changes in the serotypes and identification frequency of S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae over time or after vaccine implementation, such as after introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Conclusions Globally, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae remain the predominant otopathogens associated with OM as identified through bacterial culture; however, molecular methods continue to improve the frequency and accuracy of detection of individual serotypes. Ongoing monitoring with appropriate detection methods for OM pathogens can support development of improved vaccines to provide protection from the

  5. Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma: a Lymphoma Study Association retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lazarovici, Julien; Dartigues, Peggy; Brice, Pauline; Obéric, Lucie; Gaillard, Isabelle; Hunault-Berger, Mathilde; Broussais-Guillaumot, Florence; Gyan, Emmanuel; Bologna, Serge; Nicolas-Virelizier, Emmanuelle; Touati, Mohamed; Casasnovas, Olivier; Delarue, Richard; Orsini-Piocelle, Frédérique; Stamatoullas, Aspasia; Gabarre, Jean; Fornecker, Luc-Matthieu; Gastinne, Thomas; Peyrade, Fréderic; Roland, Virginie; Bachy, Emmanuel; André, Marc; Mounier, Nicolas; Fermé, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma represents a distinct entity from classical Hodgkin lymphoma. We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the management of patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical characteristics, treatment and outcome of adult patients with nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma were collected in Lymphoma Study Association centers. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed, and the competing risks formulation of a Cox regression model was used to control the effect of risk factors on relapse or death as competing events. Among 314 evaluable patients, 82.5% had early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Initial management consisted in watchful waiting (36.3%), radiotherapy (20.1%), rituximab (8.9%), chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy (21.7%), combined modality treatment (12.7%), or radiotherapy plus rituximab (0.3%). With a median follow-up of 55.8 months, the 10-year PFS and OS estimates were 44.2% and 94.9%, respectively. The 4-year PFS estimates were 79.6% after radiotherapy, 77.0% after rituximab alone, 78.8% after chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy, and 93.9% after combined modality treatment. For the whole population, early treatment with chemotherapy or radiotherapy, but not rituximab alone (Hazard ratio 0.695 [0.320-1.512], P=0.3593) significantly reduced the risk of progression compared to watchful waiting (HR 0.388 [0.234-0.643], P=0.0002). Early treatment appears more beneficial compared to watchful waiting in terms of progression-free survival, but has no impact on overall survival. Radiotherapy in selected early stage nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, and combined modality treatment, chemotherapy or immuno-chemotherapy for other patients, are the main options to treat adult patients with a curative intent. PMID:26430172

  6. Nerve growth factor and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D): a potential therapeutic target?*

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao-juan; Liu, Liang; Yao, Shu-kun

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with abnormal bowel habits. Diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D) is a major subtype of IBS, the predominant manifestations of which are abdominal pain and diarrhea. The pathogenesis of IBS-D remained unknown until recently. The effects of psychosocial stress, central hypervigilance, neuroendocrine abnormality, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, mucosal immune activation, intestinal barrier dysfunction, visceral hypersensitivity (VH), altered gut flora, and genetic susceptibility may be involved in its development. Recently, increased attention has been placed on the neural-immune-endocrine network mechanism in IBS-D, especially the role of various neuroendocrine mediators. As a member of the neurotrophin family, nerve growth factor (NGF) has diverse biological effects, and participates in the pathogenesis of many diseases. Basic studies have demonstrated that NGF is associated with inflammatory- and stress-related VH, as well as stress-related intestinal barrier dysfunction. The aim of this study is to summarize recent literature and discuss the role of NGF in the pathophysiology of IBS-D, especially in VH and intestinal barrier dysfunction, as well as its potential as a therapeutic target in IBS-D. PMID:26739521

  7. IncHI2 Plasmids Are Predominant in Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonella Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenyao; Fang, Tingzi; Zhou, Xiujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Shi, Xianming; Shi, Chunlei

    2016-01-01

    The wide usage of antibiotics contributes to the increase in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella. Plasmids play a critical role in horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance markers in Salmonella. This study aimed to screen and characterize plasmid profiles responsible for antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and ultimately to clarify the molecular mechanism of transferable plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance. A total of 226 Salmonella isolates were examined for antimicrobial susceptibility by a disk diffusion method. Thirty-two isolates (14.2%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic. The presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes and β-lactamase genes were established by PCR amplification. PCR-based replicon typing revealed that these 32 isolates represented seven plasmid incompatibility groups (IncP, HI2, A/C, FIIs, FIA, FIB, and I1), and the IncHI2 (59.4%) was predominant. Antibiotic resistance markers located on plasmids were identified through plasmid curing. Fifteen phenotypic variants were obtained with the curing efficiency of 46.9% (15/32). The cured plasmids mainly belong to the HI2 incompatibility group. The elimination of IncHI2 plasmids correlated with the loss of β-lactamase genes (blaOXA-1 and blaTEM-1) and PMQR genes (qnrA and aac(6′)-Ib-cr). Both IncHI2 and IncI1 plasmids in a S. enterica serovar Indiana isolate SJTUF 10584 were lost by curing. The blaCMY -2-carrying plasmid pS10584 from SJTUF 10584 was fully sequenced. Sequence analysis revealed that it possessed a plasmid scaffold typical for IncI1 plasmids with the unique genetic arrangement of IS1294-ΔISEcp1-blaCMY -2-blc-sugE-ΔecnR inserted into the colicin gene cia. These data suggested that IncHI2 was the major plasmid lineage contributing to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and the activity of multiple mobile genetic elements may contribute to antibiotic resistance evolution and dissemination between different plasmid

  8. The influences and experiences of African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blockus, Linda Helen

    The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models

  9. Metabolic adaptation and in situ attenuation of chlorinated ethenes by naturally occurring microorganisms in a fractured dolomite aquifer near Niagara Falls, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yager, R.M.; Bilotta, S.E.; Mann, C.L.; Madsen, E.L.

    1997-01-01

    A combination of hydrogeological, geochemical, and microbiological methods was used to document the biotransformation of trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene, a completely dechlorinated and environmentally benign compound, by naturally occurring microorganisms within a fractured dolomite aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples showed that three microbially produced TCE breakdown products (cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and ethene) were present in the contaminant plume. Hydrogen (H2) concentrations in groundwater indicated that iron reduction was the predominant terminal electron-accepting process in the most contaminated geologic zone of the site. Laboratory microcosms prepared with groundwater demonstrated complete sequential dechlorination of TCE to ethene. Microcosm assays also revealed that reductive dechlorination activity was present in waters from the center but not from the periphery of the contaminant plume. This dechlorination activity indicated that naturally occurring microorganisms have adapted to utilize chlorinated ethenes and suggested that dehalorespiring rather than cometabolic, microbial processes were the cause of the dechlorination. The addition of pulverized dolomite to microcosms enhanced the rate of reductive dechlorination, suggesting that hydrocarbons in the dolomite aquifer may serve as electron donors to drive microbially mediated reductive dechlorination reactions. Biodegradation of the chlorinated ethenes appears to contribute significantly to decontamination of the site.A combination of hydrogeological, geochemical, and microbiological methods was used to document the biotransformation of trichloroethene (TCE) to ethene, a completely dechlorinated and environmentally benign compound, by naturally occurring microorganisms within a fractured dolomite aquifer. Analyses of groundwater samples showed that three microbially produced TCE breakdown products (cis-1,2-dichloroethene, vinyl chloride, and ethene) were present in the

  10. Short communication: predominance of beta-casein (CSN2) C allele in goat breeds reared in Italy.

    PubMed

    Chessa, S; Budelli, E; Chiatti, F; Cito, A M; Bolla, P; Caroli, A

    2005-05-01

    A protocol for the rapid and simultaneous genotyping of A, C, and 0 'CSN2 alleles in goat was developed by single strand conformational polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (SSCP-PCR) technique. Screening the CSN2 variability in 7 goat breeds reared in Italy validated the genotyping test. The SSCP-PCR technique was also suitable for monitoring CSN2 polymorphism. In particular, the discrimination between CSN2*A and CSN2*C is important because the 2 corresponding protein variants cannot be separated by standard typing techniques. The monitoring of CSN2 variability in the goat breeds indicates the predominance of the C allele. In most breeds, CSN2*C occurred with the highest frequency, except in Saanen where CSN2*A and CSN2*C showed similar frequencies. Variant CSN2*C occurred with a frequency of 0.68 (Camosciata), 0.70 (Jonica), 0.71 (Garganica), 0.82 (Maltese), 0.87 (Cilentana), and 0.97 (Orobica). The alignment among the mature CSN2 sequences of different species suggests that CSN2*A is the ancestral allele compared with CSN2*C. Interestingly, the CSN2*A goat variant showed higher frequencies in selected breeds (Saanen and Camosciata).

  11. Induction of predominant tenogenic phenotype in human dermal fibroblasts via synergistic effect of TGF-β and elongated cell shape.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbo; Li, Jie; Wang, Keyun; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Ye, Mingliang; Zou, Hanfa; Liu, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Micropattern topography is widely investigated for its role in mediating stem cell differentiation, but remains unexplored for phenotype switch between mature cell types. This study investigated the potential of inducing tenogenic phenotype in human dermal fibroblasts (hDFs) by artificial elongation of cultured cells. Our results showed that a parallel microgrooved topography could convert spread hDFs into an elongated shape and induce a predominant tenogenic phenotype as the expression of biomarkers was significantly enhanced, such as scleraxis, tenomodulin, collagens I, III, VI, and decorin. It also enhanced the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, but not α-smooth muscle actin. Elongated hDFs failed to induce other phenotypes, such as adiopogenic, chondrogenic, neurogenic, and myogenic lineages. By contrast, no tenogenic phenotype could be induced in elongated human chondrocytes, although chondrogenic phenotype was inhibited. Exogenous TGF-β1 could enhance the tenogenic phenotype in elongated hDFs at low dose (2 ng/ml), but promoted myofibroblast transdifferentiation of hDFs at high dose (10 ng/ml), regardless of cell shape. Elongated shape also resulted in decreased RhoA activity and increased Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) activity. Antagonizing TGF-β or inhibiting ROCK activity with Y27632 or depolymerizing actin with cytochalasin D could all significantly inhibit tenogenic phenotype induction, particularly in elongated hDFs. In conclusion, elongation of cultured dermal fibroblasts can induce a predominant tenogenic phenotype likely via synergistic effect of TGF-β and cytoskeletal signaling. PMID:26632599

  12. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2014-01-01

    Background Directly Acting Antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C (HCV) therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV positive and negative individuals with recent HCV. Methods The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from fifty genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Results Twelve percent of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (ie < 20%) but above a threshold of 1%. Resistance variants (< 1%) were observed at most sites associated with DAA resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Conclusions Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites, and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. PMID:25105742

  13. Leaching of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Chruściel, Edward

    2007-08-01

    A form of waste associated with mining activities is related to the type of deposit being mined and to the procedure of exploitation and enrichment adopted. The wastes usually contain relatively large amounts of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). The TENORM are often stored on the surface. Consequently, they can be leached as a result of interaction with aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. This further leads to pollution of water and soil in the vicinity of the stored wastes. The paper presents the results of laboratory investigation aimed at quantifying the leaching process of samples originating from uranium dumps and storage reservoirs associated with brine pumped from coal mines. The leaching process was investigated with respect to selected elements: uranium isotopes, radium isotopes, iron, barium and sodium. The samples were exposed to aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. The experiments revealed that TENORM in form of sulphate compounds are the most resistant against leaching. The leaching coefficient for radium isotopes varies from a few thousandth percent to a few hundredth percent. On the other hand, for TENORM occurring in sand or sludge, the leaching coefficient for uranium and radium isotopes ranged from a few hundredth percent to a few percent. PMID:17482828

  14. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

  15. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  16. Switching predominance of organic versus inorganic carbon exports from an intermediate-size subarctic watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dornblaser, Mark M.; Striegl, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Hydrologic exports of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon (DIC, DOC) reflect permafrost conditions in arctic and subarctic river basins. DIC yields in particular, increase with decreased permafrost extent. We investigated the influence of permafrost extent on DIC and DOC yield in a tributary of the Yukon River, where the upper watershed has continuous permafrost and the lower watershed has discontinuous permafrost. Our results indicate that DIC versus DOC predominance switches with interannual changes in water availability and flow routing in intermediate-size watersheds having mixed permafrost coverage. Large water yield and small concentrations from mountainous headwaters and small water yield and high concentrations from lowlands produced similar upstream and downstream carbon yields. However, DOC export exceeded DIC export during high-flow 2011 while DIC predominated during low-flow 2010. The majority of exported carbon derived from near-surface organic sources when landscapes were wet or frozen and from mineralized subsurface sources when infiltration increased.

  17. Origin of predominance of cementite among iron carbides in steel at elevated temperature.

    PubMed

    Fang, C M; Sluiter, M H F; van Huis, M A; Ande, C K; Zandbergen, H W

    2010-07-30

    A long-standing challenge in physics is to understand why cementite is the predominant carbide in steel. Here we show that the prevalent formation of cementite can be explained only by considering its stability at elevated temperature. A systematic highly accurate quantum mechanical study was conducted on the stability of binary iron carbides. The calculations show that all the iron carbides are unstable relative to the elemental solids, α-Fe and graphite. Apart from a cubic Fe23C6 phase, the energetically most favorable carbides exhibit hexagonal close-packed Fe sublattices. Finite-temperature analysis showed that contributions from lattice vibration and anomalous Curie-Weis magnetic ordering, rather than from the conventional lattice mismatch with the matrix, are the origin of the predominance of cementite during steel fabrication processes.

  18. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    PubMed

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies. PMID:27263232

  19. The Workplace Environment for African-American Faculty Employed in Predominately White Institutions.

    PubMed

    Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such

    2016-01-01

    Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.

  20. Penicillium salamii, a new species occurring during seasoning of dry-cured meat.

    PubMed

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Samson, Robert A; Frisvad, Jens C; Susca, Antonia; Gunde-Cimerman, Nina; Epifani, Filomena; Houbraken, Jos

    2015-01-16

    Fungi have an important role in the production of dry-cured meat products, especially during the seasoning period. In general, both industrially and handmade salami are quickly colonized by a composite mycobiota during seasoning, often with a strong predominance of Penicillium species. These species are involved in the improvement of the characteristics and taste, and in the prevention of the growth of pathogenic, toxigenic or spoilage fungi. During the survey of fungal species occurring on the salami surface and in the air of the seasoning and storage areas of a salami plant (Calabria, Italy), two Penicillium species were predominantly present. One species was identified as Penicillium nalgiovense, and the other was related to, but distinct from, Penicillium olsonii. Further molecular and biochemical analyses showed that this strain has high homology with the not yet described species named "Penicillium milanense" isolated in Denmark and Slovenia on cured meats. The taxonomic position of these strains in Penicillium was investigated using calmodulin, β tubulin and ITS sequences, phenotypic characters and extrolite patterns, and resulted in the discovery of a new Penicillium species, described here as P. salamii. A literature search showed that this species occurs on (cured) meat products worldwide. In our study, P. salamii predominated the salami and capocollo surface in levels similar to the commonly known starter culture P. nalgiovense, irrespective of the room or age of seasoning. Preliminary inoculation trials with P. salamii showed that it was able to colonize salami during seasoning, indicating that this species could be used as a fungal starter for dry-cured meat.

  1. Huntington disease in the South African population occurs on diverse and ethnically distinct genetic haplotypes.

    PubMed

    Baine, Fiona K; Kay, Chris; Ketelaar, Maria E; Collins, Jennifer A; Semaka, Alicia; Doty, Crystal N; Krause, Amanda; Greenberg, L Jacquie; Hayden, Michael R

    2013-10-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder resulting from the expansion of a CAG trinucleotide repeat in the huntingtin (HTT) gene. Worldwide prevalence varies geographically with the highest figures reported in populations of European ancestry. HD in South Africa has been reported in Caucasian, black and mixed subpopulations, with similar estimated prevalence in the Caucasian and mixed groups and a lower estimate in the black subpopulation. Recent studies have associated specific HTT haplotypes with HD in distinct populations. Expanded HD alleles in Europe occur predominantly on haplogroup A (specifically high-risk variants A1/A2), whereas in East Asian populations, HD alleles are associated with haplogroup C. Whether specific HTT haplotypes associate with HD in black Africans and how these compare with haplotypes found in European and East Asian populations remains unknown. The current study genotyped the HTT region in unaffected individuals and HD patients from each of the South African subpopulations, and haplotypes were constructed. CAG repeat sizes were determined and phased to haplotype. Results indicate that HD alleles from Caucasian and mixed patients are predominantly associated with haplogroup A, signifying a similar European origin for HD. However, in black patients, HD occurs predominantly on haplogroup B, suggesting several distinct origins of the mutation in South Africa. The absence of high-risk variants (A1/A2) in the black subpopulation may also explain the reported low prevalence of HD. Identification of haplotypes associated with HD-expanded alleles is particularly relevant to the development of population-specific therapeutic targets for selective suppression of the expanded HTT transcript.

  2. Inflammatory Cytokine Production Predominates in Early Lyme Disease in Patients with Erythema Migrans

    PubMed Central

    Glickstein, Lisa; Moore, Brian; Bledsoe, Tara; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay; Steere, Allen C.

    2003-01-01

    In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was negligible. Thus, B. burgdorferi antigens in early Lyme disease often induce a strong inflammatory response. PMID:14500528

  3. Inflammatory cytokine production predominates in early Lyme disease in patients with erythema migrans.

    PubMed

    Glickstein, Lisa; Moore, Brian; Bledsoe, Tara; Damle, Nitin; Sikand, Vijay; Steere, Allen C

    2003-10-01

    In a study of cytokine production ex vivo by Borrelia burgdorferi-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 27 patients with culture-positive erythema migrans, production of inflammatory cytokines predominated, particularly gamma interferon and, to a lesser degree, tumor necrosis factor alpha. In contrast, with the exception of interleukin-13, anti-inflammatory cytokine production was negligible. Thus, B. burgdorferi antigens in early Lyme disease often induce a strong inflammatory response.

  4. Predominance and Distribution of a Persistent Listeria monocytogenes Clone in a Commercial Fresh Mushroom Processing Environment.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, Latha; Kucerova, Zuzana; Knabel, Stephen J; LaBorde, Luke F

    2015-11-01

    A longitudinal study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Listeria spp. in a commercial fresh mushroom slicing and packaging environment. Samples were collected at three different sampling periods within a 13-month time interval. Of the 255 environmental samples collected, 18.8% tested positive for L. monocytogenes, 4.3% for L. innocua, and 2.0% for L. grayi. L. monocytogenes was most often found on wet floors within the washing and slicing and packaging areas. Each of the 171 L. monocytogenes isolates found in the environment could be placed into one of three different serotypes; 1/2c was predominant (93.6%), followed by 1/2b (3.5%) and 1/2a (2.9%). Of 58 isolates subtyped using multi-virulence-locus sequence typing, all 1/2c isolates were identified as virulence type (VT) 11 (VT11), all 1/2b isolates were VT105, and 1/2a isolates were either VT107 or VT56. VT11 was designated as the predominant and persistent clone in the environment because it was isolated repeatedly at numerous locations throughout the study. The overall predominance and persistence of VT11 indicates that it likely colonized the mushroom processing environment. Areas adjacent to the trench drain in the washing and slicing area and a floor crack in the packaging area may represent primary harborage sites (reservoirs) for VT11. Improvements made to sanitation procedures by company management after period 2 coincided with a significant (P ≤ 0.001) reduction in the prevalence of L. monocytogenes from 17.8% in period 1 and 30.7% in period 2 to 8.5% in period 3. This suggests that targeted cleaning and sanitizing procedures can be effective in minimizing the occurrence of L. monocytogenes contamination in processing facilities. Additional research is needed to understand why VT11 was predominant and persistent in the mushroom processing environment.

  5. The Predominance of Type I Oligosaccharides Is a Feature Specific to Human Breast Milk123

    PubMed Central

    Urashima, Tadasu; Asakuma, Sadaki; Leo, Fiame; Fukuda, Kenji; Messer, Michael; Oftedal, Olav T.

    2012-01-01

    Human milk and colostrum contain ∼12–13 g/L and ∼22–24 g/L of oligosaccharides, respectively. The chemical structures of >100 human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) have been characterized to date. We determined the concentrations of 10 neutral and 9 acidic colostrum HMO collected during the first 3 d of lactation by using reverse phase HPLC after derivatization with 2-aminopyridine or 1-methyl-3-phenyl-5-pyrazolon. The predominant oligosaccharides were Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-4Glc (2′-FL), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (LNFP I), Fuc(α1-2)Gal(β1-3)[Fuc(α1-4)]GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (LNDFH I), and Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc(β1-3)Gal(β1-4)Glc (LNT), the concentration of each of which was ∼1–3 g/L. Because these HMO, other than 2′-FL, all contain the Lacto-N-biose type I structure [Gal(β1-3)GlcNAc], we conclude that HMO containing the type I structure predominate over those containing the N-acetyllactosamine type II structure [Gal(β1-4)GlcNAc]. This appears to be a feature that is specific to humans, because the milk and colostrum of other species, including apes and monkeys, either contain only type II oligosaccharides or type II predominate over type I. It is possible that type I HMO may have importance as substrates for beneficial bifidobacteria in breast-fed infants. The biological importance of type I HMO predominance warrants further study, both in relation to human health and to human evolution. PMID:22585927

  6. Long-term efficacy and safety of ramosetron in the treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Toshimi; Yamamoto, Kazunari; Sato, Shoko; Suzuki, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disease with persisting gastrointestinal symptoms that has been classified into four subtypes. Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) plays important physiological roles in the contraction and relaxation of smooth muscle. Intraluminal distension of the intestine is known to stimulate the release of endogenous 5-HT from enterochromaffin cells, activating 5-HT3 receptors located on primary afferent neurons and leading to increases in intestinal secretions and peristaltic activity. Ramosetron, a potent and selective 5-HT3-receptor antagonist, has been in development for use in patients suffering from diarrhea-predominant IBS. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study of 418 patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS-D, once-daily 5 μg and 10 μg doses of ramosetron increased the monthly responder rates of IBS symptoms compared to placebo. In a 12-week randomized controlled trial of 539 patients, a positive response to treatment was reported by 47% of a once-daily 5 μg dose of ramosetron-treated individuals compared to 27% of patients receiving placebo (P<0.001). Furthermore, the responder rate was increased in the oral administration of 5 μg of ramosetron for at least 28 weeks (up to 52 weeks), and long-term efficacy for overall improvement of IBS symptoms was also demonstrated. The rate was further increased subsequently. Adverse events were reported by 7% in ramosetron treatment. No serious adverse events, eg, severe constipation or ischemic colitis, were reported for long-term treatment with ramosetron. In conclusion, further studies to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of ramosetron are warranted in the form of randomized controlled trials. PMID:23922505

  7. Predominance of cross-predation between lateral morphs in a largemouth bass and a freshwater goby.

    PubMed

    Yasugi, Masaki; Hori, Michio

    2011-12-01

    The predator-prey relationship between largemouth bass, Micropterus salmoides, and freshwater goby, Rhinogobius spp., in Lake Biwa, Japan, was examined with respect to their morphological antisymmetry (laterality). Largemouth bass and Rhinogobius gobies exhibited lateral dimorphism in the height of the mandible and the length of the dentary, respectively. Populations of both species were composed of both left-developed and right-developed individuals. Each predation event was categorized as either cross-predation (a predator caught prey of the opposite morph) or parallel-predation (a predator caught prey of the same morph). Stomach contents analysis revealed that cross-predation events predominated over parallel-predation. Annual sampling for eight years demonstrated that in both largemouth bass and Rhinogobius gobies, the ratio of right-developed individuals in the population fluctuated temporally around 0.5. As the predominance of cross-predation was found in the relationship between the exotic largemouth bass and an endemic goby, the predominance may be caused by a kinematical interplay at each predation event. PMID:22132783

  8. [Non-arthrosic geodes in the femur head. Isolated or predominant geodes].

    PubMed

    Lequesne, M; Castaing, N; Lamotte, J

    1985-04-01

    The isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head without signs of coxarthritis or coxitis, seem to form in response to: osteochondritis dissecans in 9 cases where the sequester was only visible in profile films or oblique images for 5 cases, and only at time of operation in 2 cases; incipient necrosis in 3 adult cases, not evidenced in frontal films and only seen in profile films with the patient under axial traction; femoral head dysmorphia in 6 cases among which were 4 polyepiphyseal dysplasias and 2 coxa plana without radiographically apparent sequesters; induced increased pressure caused by congenital subluxation or a major disorder of posture and locomotion of lower limbs in 3 cases. In 2 cases no classification could be assigned to isolated or predominant geodes of the femoral head in spite of anatomic examination. The diagnosis of these isolated or predominant geodes of the head of the femur necessitates excellent films made from different angles of view (profile, "false" profile, usual profile, sometimes oblique shots, tomograms) and often enough a biopsy which must be obtained directly through the joint, not transcervically through the neck if a reliable specimen is desired. The surgical treatment indicated is voiding and packing to a maximum the geodes possibly correcting the former increased pressure discordance. But, in lots of cases the intensity of pain and discomfort remains moderate for years, so indication for surgery arises late after onset.

  9. Job satisfaction and importance of work aspects related to predominant values and reactivity.

    PubMed

    Zalewska, A M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the study is to answer whether 2 predominant values--achievement or social relations--and reactivity influence (a) the importance of work aspects, (b) satisfaction with them and overall job satisfaction, (c) connections between overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with work aspects. Bank employees were investigated with the Strelau Temperament Inventory-Revised by Strelau, Angleitner, Bantelman, and Ruch (1990, reactivity), Orientation to Work Values Inventory by Seifert and Bergmann (1983, values), and Work Description Inventory by Neuberger and Allerbeck (1978; importance and satisfaction with work aspects, overall job satisfaction). Predominant values, reactivity, and their interaction influence the importance of work aspects. The values affect overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with Conditions. Reactivity does not affect overall job satisfaction, but it strongly influences the structure of satisfaction with work aspects, and low-reactives compared to high-reactives are more satisfied with 4 out of the 7 considered aspects. Among the high-reactives, connections between overall job satisfaction and satisfaction with work aspects depend on their predominant values. It was concluded that reactivity can modify regulative functions of personal values towards overall job satisfaction: The values have a rather declarative character for low-reactives, but meeting aspirations connected with their values is very important for high-reactives' job satisfaction. PMID:10657923

  10. Predominant contribution of cis-regulatory divergence in the evolution of mouse alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qingsong; Sun, Wei; Ballegeer, Marlies; Libert, Claude; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Divergence of alternative splicing represents one of the major driving forces to shape phenotypic diversity during evolution. However, the extent to which these divergences could be explained by the evolving cis-regulatory versus trans-acting factors remains unresolved. To globally investigate the relative contributions of the two factors for the first time in mammals, we measured splicing difference between C57BL/6J and SPRET/EiJ mouse strains and allele-specific splicing pattern in their F1 hybrid. Out of 11,818 alternative splicing events expressed in the cultured fibroblast cells, we identified 796 with significant difference between the parental strains. After integrating allele-specific data from F1 hybrid, we demonstrated that these events could be predominately attributed to cis-regulatory variants, including those residing at and beyond canonical splicing sites. Contrary to previous observations in Drosophila, such predominant contribution was consistently observed across different types of alternative splicing. Further analysis of liver tissues from the same mouse strains and reanalysis of published datasets on other strains showed similar trends, implying in general the predominant contribution of cis-regulatory changes in the evolution of mouse alternative splicing. PMID:26134616

  11. Event-related fMRI of inhibitory control in the Predominantly Inattentive and Combined Subtypes of AD/HD

    PubMed Central

    Solanto, Mary V.; Schulz, Kurt P.; Fan, Jin; Tang, Cheuk Y.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose To examine the neurophysiological basis for the pronounced differences in hyperactivity and impulsiveness that distinguish the Predominantly Inattentive type of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD-PI) from the combined type of the disorder (ADHD-C). Methods Event-related brain responses to a go/no-go test of inhibitory control were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 11 children with ADHD-C and nine children with ADHD-PI, aged 7 to 13 years, who were matched for age, sex, and intelligence. Results There were no significant group differences in task performance. Children with ADHD-C and ADHD-PI activated overlapping regions of right inferior frontal gyrus, right superior temporal lobe, and left inferior parietal lobe during inhibitory control. However, the magnitude of the activation in the temporal and parietal regions, as well as in the bilateral middle frontal gyrus, was greater in children with ADHD-PI than those with ADHD-C. Conversely, children with ADHD-C activated bilateral medial occipital lobe to a greater extent than children with ADHD-PI. Conclusions The results provide preliminary evidence that phenotypic differences between the ADHD-C and ADHD-PI subtypes are associated with differential activation of regions that have previously been implicated in the pathophysiology of ADHD and are thought to mediate executive and attentional processes. PMID:19594667

  12. Learning as a phenomenon occurring in a critical state

    PubMed Central

    de Arcangelis, Lucilla; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent physiological measurements have provided clear evidence about scale-free avalanche brain activity and EEG spectra, feeding the classical enigma of how such a chaotic system can ever learn or respond in a controlled and reproducible way. Models for learning, like neural networks or perceptrons, have traditionally avoided strong fluctuations. Conversely, we propose that brain activity having features typical of systems at a critical point represents a crucial ingredient for learning. We present here a study that provides unique insights toward the understanding of the problem. Our model is able to reproduce quantitatively the experimentally observed critical state of the brain and, at the same time, learns and remembers logical rules including the exclusive OR, which has posed difficulties to several previous attempts. We implement the model on a network with topological properties close to the functionality network in real brains. Learning occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths and exhibits universal features. We find that the learning performance and the average time required to learn are controlled by the strength of plastic adaptation, in a way independent of the specific task assigned to the system. Even complex rules can be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow. PMID:20160107

  13. Ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurs in serotonin-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Olson, E B

    1987-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that serotonin mediated respiratory activity is involved in ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia, rats were treated with parachlorophenylalanine (PCPA), a potent, long-acting inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. In normoxia, a single, intraperitoneal injection of 300 mg PCPA/kg body weight decreased the Paco2 from a control level at 39.1 +/- 0.6 Torr (mean +/- 95% confidence limits) to 34.0 +/- 0.6 Torr measured during a period from 1 to 48 h following PCPA treatment. This PCPA-produced hyperventilation corresponds to an increase of 3.7 +/- 0.5 in the VA (BTPS)/Vco2 (STPD) ratio. Hyperventilation during ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia (PIO2 approximately equal to 90 Torr) was superimposed in an additive fashion on the underlying hyperventilation due to PCPA pretreatment. Specifically, PCPA pretreatment caused an average 3.5 +/- 1.2 increase in the VA/VCO2 ratio determined in acute (1 h) hypoxia, chronic (24 h) hypoxia and acute return to normoxia following chronic hypoxia. Since ventilatory adaptation to hypoxia occurred in rats treated with PCPA, the prolonged, serotonin mediated respiratory activity described by Millhorn et al. (1980b) is probably not important in ventilatory acclimatization to - or deacclimatization from - hypoxia. PMID:2957766

  14. Causes and Outcomes of Pediatric Injuries Occurring at School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Scala, Carla; Gallagher, Susan Scavo; Schneps, Sue E.

    1997-01-01

    Used the National Pediatric Trauma Registry, which collects data on child injuries requiring hospitalization, to examine causes and outcomes of injuries occurring at school. Analysis of 1,558 cases indicated that most injuries were unintentional and occurred among students age 10-14 years. Nearly half occurred in recreational areas. Falls and…

  15. Synaptic Activation of Ribosomal Protein S6 Phosphorylation Occurs Locally in Activated Dendritic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pirbhoy, Patricia Salgado; Farris, Shannon; Steward, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) induces phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6) in postsynaptic neurons, but the functional significance of rpS6 phosphorylation is poorly understood. Here, we show that synaptic stimulation that induces perforant path LTP triggers phosphorylation of rpS6 (p-rpS6)…

  16. Different characteristics of tuberculous pleural effusion according to pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehee; Lim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) exhibits different characteristics according to pleural fluid cellular predominance or whether the pleural fluid is free-flowing or loculated. However, its categorization based on either of these factors alone may be insufficient to properly reflect the heterogeneous manifestation of TPE. We evaluated the characteristics of the four TPE groups classified according to cellular predominance and whether the fluid is free-flowing or loculated. Methods A cohort of 375 patients with TPE was retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings were compared between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE, and between free-flowing and loculated effusion for both neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE. Results Lymphocytic TPE and neutrophilic TPE were observed in 336 (90%) and 39 (10%) patients, respectively. Pleural fluid loculation was present in 36% and 31% of the patients in the lymphocytic and neutrophilic groups, respectively. A few parameters of the laboratory findings between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE patients showed significant differences. However, these significant differences were prominently observed when comparing free-flowing and loculated subgroups of the respective neutrophilic and lymphocytic groups. Pleural fluid pH, lactate dehydrogenase, and adenosine deaminase levels were significantly different among the four subgroups. The neutrophilic loculated subgroup exhibited the most intense pleural inflammation and the highest mycobacterial yields when compared to the other subgroups. However, the percentage of neutrophils in the pleural fluid was not positively associated with the probability of culture-positive effusion. Conclusions The heterogeneous manifestation of TPE would be better characterized by using a classification system based on combined pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation, with the neutrophilic loculated subgroup contributing to most of the clinically significant

  17. Different characteristics of tuberculous pleural effusion according to pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehee; Lim, Jae Kwang; Yoo, Seung Soo; Lee, Shin Yup; Cha, Seung Ick; Park, Jae Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) exhibits different characteristics according to pleural fluid cellular predominance or whether the pleural fluid is free-flowing or loculated. However, its categorization based on either of these factors alone may be insufficient to properly reflect the heterogeneous manifestation of TPE. We evaluated the characteristics of the four TPE groups classified according to cellular predominance and whether the fluid is free-flowing or loculated. Methods A cohort of 375 patients with TPE was retrospectively reviewed. Clinical, radiological, and laboratory findings were compared between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE, and between free-flowing and loculated effusion for both neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE. Results Lymphocytic TPE and neutrophilic TPE were observed in 336 (90%) and 39 (10%) patients, respectively. Pleural fluid loculation was present in 36% and 31% of the patients in the lymphocytic and neutrophilic groups, respectively. A few parameters of the laboratory findings between neutrophilic and lymphocytic TPE patients showed significant differences. However, these significant differences were prominently observed when comparing free-flowing and loculated subgroups of the respective neutrophilic and lymphocytic groups. Pleural fluid pH, lactate dehydrogenase, and adenosine deaminase levels were significantly different among the four subgroups. The neutrophilic loculated subgroup exhibited the most intense pleural inflammation and the highest mycobacterial yields when compared to the other subgroups. However, the percentage of neutrophils in the pleural fluid was not positively associated with the probability of culture-positive effusion. Conclusions The heterogeneous manifestation of TPE would be better characterized by using a classification system based on combined pleural fluid cellular predominance and loculation, with the neutrophilic loculated subgroup contributing to most of the clinically significant

  18. Experiences of African Students in Predominantly White Institutions: A Literature Overview

    PubMed Central

    McCauley, Kay

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine research conducted on the experiences of African health sciences students in predominantly white higher education institutions/environments. The main elements of cross-cultural adaptation models were adopted to discuss the amalgamated themes under the auspices of adjustment, integration, and conditioning. The overview revealed that African students encounter unique experiences, with isolation and “feeling different” being commonly mentioned. Recommendations for future research are presented, including programmatic implications for higher education and student affairs professionals. PMID:27525115

  19. On the predominance of the radial component of the magnetic field in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, S. R.; Woo, R.; Arnaud, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the polarized intensity measurements of the Fe XIII 10747 A line described by Arnaud are placed, for the first time, in the context of the corresponding pB images from the HAO Mauna Loa MkIII K-Coronameter, which first became available in 1980. It is shown how the predominance of the radial direction of the coronal magnetic field at solar maximum is consistent with radially expanding magnetic field lines coexisting with the large-scale structures associated with streamers.

  20. About 3He Ions Predominant Acceleration During the January 20, 2005 Solar Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, E. V.; Arkhangelskaja, I. V.; Arkhangelskiy, A. I.

    We have studied some properties of the powerful solar flare of January 20, 2005 by methods of nuclear lines analysis. The results of temporal profiles investigation in corresponding to neutron capture energy bands allow the supposition about predominant acceleration of 3He ions in the corona, their subsequent propagation to the low chromosphere and the photosphere where the area of 2.223 MeV γ-line effective productions is located. The characteristics of accelerated 3He ions propagation processes and the basic explanation of observable properties of this solar flare due to the variations of 3He content are discussed in the presented article.

  1. Naturally occurring iridoids, secoiridoids and their bioactivity. An updated review, part 3.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Chowdhury, Debashis Roy; Mohanta, Bikas Chandra

    2009-08-01

    Naturally occurring new iridoids and secoiridoids published during 2005-2008 are reviewed with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha](D), UV, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and plant source. The works on biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids reported during 2005-2008 are also reviewed. Bioactivities like antibacterial, anticancer, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities are highlighted.

  2. The time-of-day that breaks occur between consecutive duty periods affects the sleep strategies used by shiftworkers.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Dawson, Drew; Reid, Kathryn J; Darwent, David; Sargent, Charli

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the sleep strategies used in breaks between consecutive shifts. For two weeks, 253 shiftworkers collected data regarding the timing of all shifts and sleeps. The final dataset included 395 between-shift breaks that had a standard duration (i.e. ~16 h). If a break included an entire night, participants had a single sleep on 80-93% of occasions, but if a break occurred predominantly during the daytime, participants had more than one sleep on 41-50% of occasions. These data indicate that the sleep strategy employed is influenced by the time-of-day that a break occurs. PMID:27082460

  3. Effect of multidimensional lifestyle intervention on fitness and adiposity in predominantly migrant preschool children (Ballabeina): cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Marques-Vidal, P; Schindler, C; Zahner, L; Niederer, I; Bürgi, F; Ebenegger, V; Nydegger, A; Kriemler, S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the effect of a multidimensional lifestyle intervention on aerobic fitness and adiposity in predominantly migrant preschool children. Design Cluster randomised controlled single blinded trial (Ballabeina study) over one school year; randomisation was performed after stratification for linguistic region. Setting 40 preschool classes in areas with a high migrant population in the German and French speaking regions of Switzerland. Participants 652 of the 727 preschool children had informed consent and were present for baseline measures (mean age 5.1 years (SD 0.7), 72% migrants of multicultural origins). No children withdrew, but 26 moved away. Intervention The multidimensional culturally tailored lifestyle intervention included a physical activity programme, lessons on nutrition, media use (use of television and computers), and sleep and adaptation of the built environment of the preschool class. It lasted from August 2008 to June 2009. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes were aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run test) and body mass index (BMI). Secondary outcomes included motor agility, balance, percentage body fat, waist circumference, physical activity, eating habits, media use, sleep, psychological health, and cognitive abilities. Results Compared with controls, children in the intervention group had an increase in aerobic fitness at the end of the intervention (adjusted mean difference: 0.32 stages (95% confidence interval 0.07 to 0.57; P=0.01) but no difference in BMI (−0.07 kg/m2, −0.19 to 0.06; P=0.31). Relative to controls, children in the intervention group had beneficial effects in motor agility (−0.54 s, −0.90 to −0.17; P=0.004), percentage body fat (−1.1%, −2.0 to −0.2; P=0.02), and waist circumference (−1.0 cm, −1.6 to −0.4; P=0.001). There were also significant benefits in the intervention group in reported physical activity, media use, and eating habits, but not in the remaining secondary outcomes. Conclusions A

  4. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices.

  5. Predominance and Circulation of Enteric Viruses in the Region of Greater Cairo, Egypt▿

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Aziza H.; Ali, Mohamed A.; El-Nady, Hala G.; de Rougemont, Alexis; Pothier, Pierre; Belliot, Gaël

    2009-01-01

    The circulation of enteric viruses among the population of Cairo, Egypt, between March 2006 and February 2007 was studied. At least one virus was detected in 50% of fecal samples, 57.4% of which were positive for rotavirus, 26% for norovirus, 10.4% for adenovirus, and 1.7% for astrovirus. Over 10% of infections were mixed infections. Rotavirus typing showed that G1P[8] and G2P[4] were predominant but that the unusual G12P[4] and G12P[6] reassortants were also present. Among the noroviruses, half belonged to the predominant GGII.4 cluster. The phylogenetic analysis of the capsid gene suggested that GGII.4 strains from Cairo were similar to those circulating elsewhere. It also showed the emergence of new GGII.4 variants that were not associated with any previously known GGII.4 isolate. Further studies are required to assess the disease burden of enteric viruses in Egypt and the impact of atypical strains. PMID:19193841

  6. Predominance of large LDL and reduced HDL2 cholesterol in normolipidemic men with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Campos, H; Roederer, G O; Lussier-Cacan, S; Davignon, J; Krauss, R M

    1995-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a predominance of small, dense LDL particles is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study we examined the LDL peak particle diameter (determined by lipid-stained 2% to 16% gradient gel electrophoresis) in 92 normolipidemic men with CAD (total cholesterol < 200 mg/dL and triglyceride < 250 mg/dL) and 92 matched healthy controls. Plasma triglyceride, LDL cholesterol, and apo B levels were similar in subjects with CAD and in control subjects, whereas subjects with CAD had decreased HDL2 cholesterol levels (mean +/- SEM, 10 +/- 0.7 compared with 15 +/- 0.7 mg/dL in control subjects; P < .0002). Mean LDL particle diameter (+/- SEM) was increased in the subjects with CAD compared with control subjects (26.8 +/- 0.08 and 26.4 +/- 0.08 nm, respectively; P < .001). The association between large LDL size and CAD was significant (P < .0001) after adjustments were made for age, body mass index, HDL cholesterol levels, and VLDL cholesterol levels. An LDL particle size distribution characterized by a predominance of the largest of three classes of LDL particles (> 26.8 nm) was more prevalent among subjects with CAD (43%) than among control subjects (25%) (P < .002). Among subjects with this LDL size profile, subjects with CAD had significantly higher (P < .05) VLDL triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol, and VLDL apo B levels and significantly lower (P < .0001) HDL2 cholesterol levels than controls.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Predominant bacteria associated with red snapper from the Northern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Arias, Covadonga R; Koenders, Kevin; Larsen, Andrea M

    2013-12-01

    Since the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010, anecdotal observations of Red Snapper Lutjanus campechanus from the northern Gulf of Mexico exhibiting unusual external lesions have been reported. Two opportunistic bacterial fish pathogens, Vibrio vulnificus and Photobacterium damselae, were recovered from the fish and were deemed responsible for the abnormalities. However, the culturable microbiota of healthy Red Snapper has not yet been characterized. We analyzed the heterotrophic bacteria associated with healthy Red Snapper caught off the Louisiana coast. In total, 179 isolates from 60 fish were recovered from skin and mucus, and 43 isolates were obtained from anterior kidney. All isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. The Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in both external and internal samples, followed by the Firmicutes and the Actinobacteria. Within the Proteobacteria, most isolates were members of the genera Vibrio and Photobacterium, and V. natriegens and P. damselae were the predominant species. The results of this study suggest that both Vibrio spp. and Photobacterium spp. are associated with the normal microbiota of healthy Red Snapper. Thus, the opportunistic fish pathogens recovered in previous studies cannot be deemed lesion-forming until Koch's postulates are fulfilled.

  8. Predominance of outcrossing in Lymnaea stagnalis despite low apparent fitness costs of self-fertilization.

    PubMed

    Puurtinen, M; Emily Knott, K; Suonpää, S; Nissinen, K; Kaitala, V

    2007-05-01

    We have quantified the natural mating system in eight populations of the simultaneously hermaphroditic aquatic snail Lymnaea stagnalis, and studied the ecological and genetic forces that may be directing mating system evolution in this species. We investigated whether the natural mating system can be explained by the availability of mates, by the differential survival of self- and cross-fertilized snails in nature, and by the effects of mating system on parental fecundity and early survival. The natural mating system of L. stagnalis was found to be predominantly cross-fertilizing. Density of snails in the populations had no relationship with the mating system, suggesting that outcrossing rates are not limited by mate availability at the population densities observed. Contrary to expectations for outcrossing species, we detected no evidence for inbreeding depression in survival in nature with inferential population genetic methods. Further, experimental manipulations of mating system in the laboratory revealed that self-fertilization had no effect on parental fecundity, and only minor effects on offspring survival. Predominance of cross-fertilization despite low apparent fitness costs of self-fertilization is at odds with the paradigm that high self-fertilization depression is necessary for maintenance of cross-fertilization in self-compatible hermaphrodites.

  9. The predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in French organic sourdoughs and its impact on related bread characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lhomme, Emilie; Orain, Servane; Courcoux, Philippe; Onno, Bernard; Dousset, Xavier

    2015-11-20

    Fourteen bakeries located in different regions of France were selected. These bakers use natural sourdough and organic ingredients. Consequently, different organic sourdoughs used for the manufacture of French bread were studied by the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and 16S rRNA sequencing of the isolates. In addition, after DNA extraction the bacterial diversity was assessed by pyrosequencing of the 16S rDNA V1-V3 region. Although LAB counts showed significant variations (7.6-9.5log10CFU/g) depending on the sourdough studied, their identification through a polyphasic approach revealed a large predominance of Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis in all samples. In ten sourdoughs, both culture and independent methods identified L. sanfranciscensis as the dominant LAB species identified. In the remaining sourdoughs, culture methods identified 30-80% of the LAB as L. sanfranciscensis whereas more than 95% of the reads obtained by pyrosequencing belonged to L. sanfranciscensis. Other sub-dominant species, such as Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus hammesii, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, and Lactobacillus sakei, were also identified. Quantification of L. sanfranciscensis by real-time PCR confirmed the predominance of this species ranging from 8.24 to 10.38log10CFU/g. Regarding the acidification characteristics, sourdough and related bread physico-chemical characteristics varied, questioning the involvement of sub-dominant species or L. sanfranciscensis intra-species diversity and/or the role of the baker's practices. PMID:26051957

  10. Body lateropulsion as an isolated or predominant symptom of a pontine infarction

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Hyon‐Ah; Kim, Hyun‐Ah; Lee, Hyung; Baloh, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Background Lateropulsion of the body—that is, falling to one side—is a well‐known clinical feature of stroke in the posterior circulation. Body lateropulsion as an isolated or predominant manifestation of a pontine stroke has not been reported previously. Objective To elucidate the possible mechanisms of patients presenting with body lateropulsion as an isolated or predominant symptom of an isolated pontine infarction. Methods Between May 2004 and February 2006, out of 134 patients admitted with an isolated pontine stroke, we identified 8 (6%) consecutive patients in the Keimyung University Stroke Registry who had body lateropulsion as the main presenting symptom. Results All lesions were localised to the paramedian tegmentum just ventral to the fourth ventricle. All except one showed a uniform pattern of body lateropulsion, in which the direction of falling was away from the side of an infarct. In two patients body lateropulsion was the sole clinical manifestation, whereas the other patients had other neurological signs. All but one patient had contraversive tilting of the subjective visual vertical (SVV). In all cases, the direction of SVV tilt corresponded to the direction of body lateropulsion. The mean net tilt angle was 6.1°. Conclusions Based on the known anatomy of ascending vestibular pathways, SVV tilting and MRI findings, it is concluded that body lateropulsion probably results from damage to the graviceptive pathway ascending through the paramedian pontine tegmentum. PMID:17119007

  11. Maple sap predominant microbial contaminants are correlated with the physicochemical and sensorial properties of maple syrup.

    PubMed

    Filteau, Marie; Lagacé, Luc; Lapointe, Gisèle; Roy, Denis

    2012-03-01

    Maple sap processing and microbial contamination are significant aspects that affect maple syrup quality. In this study, two sample sets from 2005 and 2008 were used to assess the maple syrup quality variation and its relationship to microbial populations, with respect to processing, production site and harvesting period. The abundance of maple sap predominant bacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens group and two subgroups, Rahnella spp., Janthinobacterium spp., Leuconostoc mesenteroides) and yeast (Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp.,Guehomyces pullulans) was assessed by quantitative PCR. Maple syrup properties were analyzed by physicochemical and sensorial methods. Results indicate that P. fluorescens, Mrakia spp., Mrakiella spp. G. pullulans and Rahnella spp. are stable contaminants of maple sap, as they were found for every production site throughout the flow period. Multiple factor analysis reports a link between the relative abundance of P. fluorescens group and Mrakia spp. in maple sap with maple and vanilla odor as well as flavor of maple syrup. This evidence supports the contribution of these microorganisms or a consortium of predominant microbial contaminants to the characteristic properties of maple syrup.

  12. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding—the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery—does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration—the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration—did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study. PMID:26890366

  13. Mass transfer trends occurring in engineered ex vivo tissue scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Moore, Marc; Sarntinoranont, Malisa; McFetridge, Peter

    2012-08-01

    In vivo the vasculature provides an effective delivery system for cellular nutrients; however, artificial scaffolds have no such mechanism, and the ensuing limitations in mass transfer result in limited regeneration. In these investigations, the regional mass transfer properties that occur through a model scaffold derived from the human umbilical vein (HUV) were assessed. Our aim was to define the heterogeneous behavior associated with these regional variations, and to establish if different decellularization technologies can modulate transport conditions to improve microenvironmental conditions that enhance cell integration. The effect of three decellularization methods [Triton X-100 (TX100), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and acetone/ethanol (ACE/EtOH)] on mass transfer, cellular migration, proliferation, and metabolic activity were assessed. Results show that regional variation in tissue structure and composition significantly affects both mass transfer and cell function. ACE/EtOH decellularization was shown to increase albumin mass flux through the intima and proximate-medial region (0-250 μm) when compared with sections decellularized with TX100 or SDS; although, mass flux remained constant over all regions of the full tissue thickness when using TX100. Scaffolds decellularized with TX100 were shown to promote cell migration up to 146% further relative to SDS decellularized samples. These results show that depending on scaffold derivation and expectations for cellular integration, specificities of the decellularization chemistry affect the scaffold molecular architecture resulting in variable effects on mass transfer and cellular response.

  14. Does Temporal Integration Occur for Unrecognizable Words in Visual Crowding?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jifan; Lee, Chia-Lin; Li, Kuei-An; Tien, Yung-Hsuan; Yeh, Su-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Visual crowding-the inability to see an object when it is surrounded by flankers in the periphery-does not block semantic activation: unrecognizable words due to visual crowding still generated robust semantic priming in subsequent lexical decision tasks. Based on the previous finding, the current study further explored whether unrecognizable crowded words can be temporally integrated into a phrase. By showing one word at a time, we presented Chinese four-word idioms with either a congruent or incongruent ending word in order to examine whether the three preceding crowded words can be temporally integrated to form a semantic context so as to affect the processing of the ending word. Results from both behavioral (Experiment 1) and Event-Related Potential (Experiment 2 and 3) measures showed congruency effect in only the non-crowded condition, which does not support the existence of unconscious multi-word integration. Aside from four-word idioms, we also found that two-word (modifier + adjective combination) integration-the simplest kind of temporal semantic integration-did not occur in visual crowding (Experiment 4). Our findings suggest that integration of temporally separated words might require conscious awareness, at least under the timing conditions tested in the current study.

  15. Neurodegeneration in Lurcher mice occurs via multiple cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Doughty, M L; De Jager, P L; Korsmeyer, S J; Heintz, N

    2000-05-15

    Lurcher (Lc) is a gain-of-function mutation in the delta2 glutamate receptor (GRID2) that results in the cell-autonomous death of cerebellar Purkinje cells in heterozygous lurcher (+/Lc) mice. This in turn triggers the massive loss of afferent granule cells during the first few postnatal weeks. Evidence suggests that the death of Purkinje cells as a direct consequence of GRID2(Lc) activation and the secondary death of granule cells because of target deprivation occur by apoptosis. We have used mice carrying null mutations of both the Bax and p53 genes to examine the roles of these genes in cell loss in lurcher animals. The absence of Bax delayed Purkinje cell death in response to the GRID2(Lc) mutation and permanently rescued the secondary death of granule cells. In contrast, the p53 deletion had no effect on either cell death pathway. Our results demonstrate that target deprivation induces a Bax-dependent, p53-independent cell death response in cerebellar granule cells in vivo. In contrast, Bax plays a minor role in GRID2(Lc)-mediated Purkinje cell death.

  16. A snapshot of the predominant single nucleotide polymorphism cluster groups of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates in Delhi, India.

    PubMed

    Varma-Basil, Mandira; Narang, Anshika; Chakravorty, Soumitesh; Garima, Kushal; Gupta, Shraddha; Kumar Sharma, Naresh; Giri, Astha; Zozio, Thierry; Couvin, David; Hanif, Mahmud; Bhatnagar, Anuj; Menon, Balakrishnan; Niemann, Stefan; Rastogi, Nalin; Alland, David; Bose, Mridula

    2016-09-01

    Several attempts have been made to associate phylogenetic differences among Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to variations in the clinical outcome of the disease and to drug resistance. We genotyped 139 clinical isolates of M. tuberculosis obtained from patients of pulmonary tuberculosis in North Delhi region. The isolates were analyzed using nine Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTRs; and the results were correlated with their drug susceptibility profile. Results of SNP cluster group (SCG) analysis (available for 138 isolates) showed that the most predominant cluster was SCG 3a, observed in 58.7% (81/138) of the isolates with 44.4% (36/81) of these being drug susceptible, while 16% (13/81) were multidrug resistant (MDR). Of the ancestral cluster SCG 1 observed in 19.5% (27/138) of the isolates, 14.8% (4/27) were MDR while 44.4% (12/27) were drug susceptible. SCG 2 formed 5.79% (8/138) of the isolates and 50% (4/8) of these were multidrug resistant (MDR). Spoligotyping subdivided the strains into 45 shared types (n = 125) and 14 orphan strains. The orphan strains were mostly associated with SCG 3a or SCG 1, reflecting the principal SCGs found in the Indian population. SCG 1 and SCG 2 genotypes were concordant with the East African Indian (EAI) and Beijing families respectively. Central Asian (CAS) clade and its sublineages were predominantly associated with SCG 3a. No consistent association was seen between the SCGs and Harlem, T or X clades. The 15 loci MIRU-VNTR typing revealed 123/136 isolates to be unclustered, while 13 isolates were present in 6 clusters of 2-3 isolates each. However, correlating the cluster analysis with patient details did not suggest any evidence of recent transmission. In conclusion, though our study revealed the preponderance of SCG 1 and 3a in the M. tuberculosis population circulating in the region, the diversity of strains highlights the changes occurring within lineages and reemphasizes the

  17. Novel humanized anti-CD3 antibodies induce a predominantly immunoregulatory profile in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Hernandez M; Vieira, Pedro M M M; Costa, Patricia L N; Pimentel, Bárbara M S; Moro, Ana M; Kalil, Jorge; Maranhão, Andrea Q; Coelho, Verônica; Brigido, Marcelo M

    2009-08-15

    Strategies to minimize the immunogenicity and toxicity of murine anti-CD3 antibodies (e.g. OKT3) are of special interest for organ transplantation and for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. In the present work, we have developed two humanized anti-CD3 antibodies. These molecules were shown to bind to human CD3, though less efficiently, and display less mitogenic activity than OKT3. These results prompted us to investigate whether this reduced mitogenic potential was associated with the development of anti-inflammatory properties. Indeed, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), the humanized antibody versions induced a predominantly anti-inflammatory cytokine profile, in contrast with the pro-inflammatory profile induced by OKT3. Neither OKT3 nor the humanized versions induced the expression of IL-4, IL-2 or TGF-beta. Both humanized antibodies induced significantly lower production of IFN-gamma and IL-5 and slightly higher production of IL-10 than OKT3. This immunomodulatory profile was most evident by the 80-fold higher ratio of IL-10/IFN-gamma production in PBMCs cultured in the presence of the humanized antibodies, compared to those stimulated with OKT3. Furthermore, these humanized anti-CD3 antibodies induced a late FOXP3 gene expression while OKT3 led to a more transient expression of FOXP3. Taken our results, we suggest that these humanized anti-CD3 antibodies may promote the development of T cells with immunoregulatory activity.

  18. The solution structure of ZNF593 from Homo sapiens reveals a zinc finger in a predominately unstructured protein

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Paulette L.; Lytle, Betsy L.; Volkman, Brian F.; Peterson, Francis C.

    2008-01-01

    Here, we report the solution structure of ZNF593, a protein identified in a functional study as a negative modulator of the DNA-binding activity of the Oct-2 transcription factor. ZNF593 contains a classic C2H2 zinc finger domain flanked by about 40 disordered residues on each terminus. Although the protein contains a high degree of intrinsic disorder, the structure of the zinc finger domain was resolved by NMR spectroscopy without a need for N- or C-terminal truncations. The tertiary structure of the zinc finger domain is composed of a β-hairpin that positions the cysteine side chains for zinc coordination, followed by an atypical kinked α-helix containing the two histidine side chain ligands. The structural topology of ZNF593 is similar to a fragment of the double-stranded RNA-binding protein Zfa and the C-terminal zinc finger of MBP-1, a human enhancer binding protein. The structure presented here will provide a guide for future functional studies of how ZNF593 negatively modulates the DNA-binding activity of Oct-2, a POU domain-containing transcription factor. Our work illustrates the unique capacity of NMR spectroscopy for structural analysis of folded domains in a predominantly disordered protein. PMID:18287285

  19. Predominantly night-time feeding and maternal glycaemic levels during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Colega, Marjorelee T.; Cheung, Yin Bun; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang Mei; Chong, Yap-Seng; Padmapriya, Natarajan; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Lek, Ngee; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Chan, Jerry Kok Yen

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of meal timing and caloric consumption patterns throughout the day on glucose regulation during pregnancy. We examined the association of maternal feeding patterns with glycaemic levels among lean and overweight pregnant women. In a prospective cohort study in Singapore, maternal 24-hour dietary recalls, fasting glucose (FG) and 2-hour postprandial glucose (2HPPG) concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks’ gestation. Women (n=985) were classified into lean (BMI<23 kg/m2) or overweight (BMI≥23 kg/m2) group. They were further categorized as predominantly day-time (pDT) or predominantly night-time (pNT) feeders according to consumption of greater proportion of calories from 0700 to 1859h or from 1900 to 0659h respectively. On stratification by weight status, lean pNT feeders were found to have higher FG than lean pDT feeders (4.36±0.38mmol/l vs 4.22±0.35mmol/l, p=0.002); however, such difference was not observed between overweight pDT and pNT feeders (4.49±0.60mmol/l vs 4.46±0.45mmol/l, p=0.717). Using multiple linear regression with confounders adjustment, pNT feeding was associated with higher FG in the lean group (β = 0.16mmol/l; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.05 to 0.26; p=0.003), but not in the overweight group (β = 0.02mmol/l; CI = −0.17 to 0.20; p=0.879). No significant association was found between maternal feeding pattern and 2HPPG in both lean and overweight groups. In conclusion, predominantly night-time feeding was associated with higher FG concentration in lean but not in overweight pregnant women, suggesting there may be an adiposity-dependent effect of maternal feeding patterns on glucose tolerance during pregnancy. PMID:26949026

  20. Culturing of the first 37:4 predominant lacustrine haptophyte: Geochemical, biochemical, and genetic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toney, Jaime L.; Theroux, Susanna; Andersen, Robert A.; Coleman, Annette; Amaral-Zettler, Linda; Huang, Yongsong

    2012-02-01

    Long chain alkenones (LCAs) are potential biomarkers for quantitative paleotemperature reconstructions from lacustrine environments. However, progress in this area has been hindered, because the conditions necessary for the growth of haptophytes responsible for alkenone distributions in lake sediments: the predominance of C 37:4 LCA are not known. Here we report the first enrichment culturing of a novel haptophyte phylotype (Hap-A) from Lake George, ND that produces predominantly C 37:4-LCA. Hap-A was enriched from its resting phase collected from deep sediments rather than from water column samples. In contrast, enrichments from near surface water yielded a different haptophyte phylotype (Hap-B), closely related to Chrysotila lamellosa and Pseudoisochrysis paradoxa, which does not display C 37:4-LCA predominance (similar enrichments have been reported previously). The LCA profile in sediments resembles that of enrichments containing Hap-A, suggesting that Hap-A is the dominant alkenone producer of the sedimentary LCAs. In enrichments, increased lighting appeared to be crucial for triggering alkenone production. Both U37K and U38K indices show a promising, positive relationship with temperature for Hap-A in enrichments, but the offset from the environmental calibration suggests that other factors (e.g., the growth stage or nutrients) may influence the absolute U37K value. Based on 18S rRNA gene analyses, several lakes from the Northern Great Plains, as well as Pyramid Lake, NV and Tso Ur, Tibetan Plateau, China contain the same two haptophyte phylotypes. Analysis of surface sediment from the Great Plains lakes show the Hap-A-type LCA distribution, whereas Pyramid and Tso Ur show the Hap-B type distribution. Waters of the Great Plain lakes are dominated by sulfate ions, whereas those Pyramid and Tso Ur are dominated by carbonate ions, suggesting that the sulfate to carbonate ratio may be a determining factor for the dominance of the Hap-A and Hap-B phylotypes in

  1. The alpha-tubulin of the growth cone is predominantly in the tyrosinated form.

    PubMed

    Gordon-Weeks, P R; Lang, R D

    1988-07-01

    Growth cone cytoskeletons were prepared by detergent extraction of growth cones isolated from neonatal rat forebrain by the method of Gordon-Weeks and Lockerbie (Neuroscience, 13 (1984) 119-136). SDS-PAGE analysis of growth cone cytoskeletons revealed the presence of several major bands, identified by their mobility as actin (43 kDa Mr), myosin heavy chain (195 kDa Mr), spectrin (235 and 240 kDa Mr), and tubulin (51-54 kDa Mr). The identity of these proteins was confirmed by immunoblot analysis using specific antibodies to these proteins which further revealed that the predominant form of alpha-tubulin in the growth cone cytoskeleton and in the soluble pool of tubulin is tyrosinated at the C-terminal.

  2. Predominance of dfrG as determinant of trimethoprim resistance in imported Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Nurjadi, D; Schäfer, J; Friedrich-Jänicke, B; Mueller, A; Neumayr, A; Calvo-Cano, A; Goorhuis, A; Molhoek, N; Lagler, H; Kantele, A; Van Genderen, P J J; Gascon, J; Grobusch, M P; Caumes, E; Hatz, C; Fleck, R; Mockenhaupt, F P; Zanger, P

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the global occurrence of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistance and the genetic mechanisms of trimethoprim resistance, we analysed Staphylococcus aureus from travel-associated skin and soft-tissue infections treated at 13 travel clinics in Europe. Thirty-eight per cent (75/196) were trimethoprim-resistant and 21% (41/196) were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Among methicillin-resistant S. aureus, these proportions were 30% (7/23) and 17% (4/23), respectively. DfrG explained 92% (69/75) of all trimethoprim resistance in S. aureus. Travel to South Asia was associated with the highest risk of acquiring trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-resistant S. aureus. We conclude that globally dfrG is the predominant determinant of trimethoprim resistance in human S. aureus infection.

  3. Analysis of renewable energy sources and electric vehicle penetration into energy systems predominantly based on lignite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dedinec, A.; Jovanovski, B.; Gajduk, A.; Markovska, N.; Kocarev, L.

    2016-05-01

    We consider an integration of renewable energy into transport and electricity sectors through vehicle to grid (V2G) technologies for an energy system that is predominantly based on lignite. The national energy system of Macedonia is modeled using EnergyPLAN which integrates energy for electricity, transport and heat, and includes hourly fluctuations in human needs and the environment. We show that electric-vehicles can provide the necessary storage enabling a fully renewable energy profile for Macedonia that can match the country's growing demand for energy. Furthermore, a large penetration of electric vehicles leads to a dramatic reduction of 47% of small particles and other air pollutants generated by car traffic in 2050.

  4. The population genetics of Trypanosoma cruzi revisited in the light of the predominant clonal evolution model.

    PubMed

    Tibayrenc, Michel; Ayala, Francisco J

    2015-11-01

    Comparing the population structure of Trypanosoma cruzi with that of other pathogens, including parasitic protozoa, fungi, bacteria and viruses, shows that the agent of Chagas disease shares typical traits with many other species, related to a predominant clonal evolution (PCE) pattern: statistically significant linkage disequilibrium, overrepresented multilocus genotypes, near-clades (genetic subdivisions somewhat blurred by occasional genetic exchange/hybridization) and "Russian doll" patterns (PCE is observed, not only at the level of the whole species, but also, within the near-clades). Moreover, T. cruzi population structure exhibits linkage with the diversity of several strongly selected genes, with gene expression profiles, and with some major phenotypic traits. We discuss the evolutionary significance of these results, and their implications in terms of applied research (molecular epidemiology/strain typing, analysis of genes of interest, vaccine and drug design, immunological diagnosis) and of experimental evolution. Lastly, we revisit the long-term debate of describing new species within the T. cruzi taxon.

  5. Predominance of Gram-negative bacilli among patients with catheter-related bloodstream infections.

    PubMed

    Braun, E; Hussein, K; Geffen, Y; Rabino, G; Bar-Lavie, Y; Paul, M

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated changes in the epidemiology of catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) between 1996 and 2012 in a tertiary care centre in Israel. The cohort included 1754 episodes of CRBSI. The incidence of CRBSIs decreased throughout the study period, whereas 30-day mortality following bacteraemia increased. There was a linear shift toward predominance of Gram-negative bacilli throughout the study period (p for trend<0.001). In 1996, 68% (68/100) of CRBSIs were caused by Gram-positive cocci, whereas in 2012 77.8% (28/26) were caused by Gram-negative bacilli. The shift towards Gram-negative CRBSIs and the associated mortality mandates that empirical treatment for CRBSIs be directed by local epidemiology.

  6. Identification of PN1, a Predominant Voltage-Dependent Sodium Channel Expressed Principally in Peripheral Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo-Aral, Juan J.; Moss, Brenda L.; He, Zhi-Jun; Koszowski, Adam G.; Whisenand, Teri; Levinson, Simon R.; Wolf, John J.; Silos-Santiago, Inmaculada; Halegoua, Simon; Mandel, Gail

    1997-02-01

    Membrane excitability in different tissues is due, in large part, to the selective expression of distinct genes encoding the voltage-dependent sodium channel. Although the predominant sodium channels in brain, skeletal muscle, and cardiac muscle have been identified, the major sodium channel types responsible for excitability within the peripheral nervous system have remained elusive. We now describe the deduced primary structure of a sodium channel, peripheral nerve type 1 (PN1), which is expressed at high levels throughout the peripheral nervous system and is targeted to nerve terminals of cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. Studies using cultured PC12 cells indicate that both expression and targeting of PN1 is induced by treatment of the cells with nerve growth factor. The preferential localization suggests that the PN1 sodium channel plays a specific role in nerve excitability.

  7. Recurrent attacks of status epilepticus as predominant symptom in 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dirik, Eray; Yiş, Uluç; Paşaoğlu, Güven; Chambaz, Céline; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2008-03-01

    A patient with isolated 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase (MCC) deficiency with an unusual clinical presentation is described. The patient presented with clusters of seizures with two or three months disease free interval in the first year of life which then evolved into attacks of status epilepticus after the age of 12 months. MCC deficiency was suspected because of elevated C5-OH-carnitine in tandem mass spectrometry and elevated 3-hydroxy-isovaleric acid in urine organic acid analysis. Deficiency of MCC was confirmed in cultured fibroblasts and mutation analysis revealed a novel mutation in MCCB, p.S39F. Attacks of status epilepticus as a predominant symptom have not been described before in isolated MCC deficiency.

  8. Experiences Gained Creating a Biophysics Major at a Predominately Undergraduate Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Link, Justin; Herbert, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Xavier University, a liberal arts predominately undergraduate institution (PUI) located in Cincinnati, OH, implemented a Biophysics major in the Department of Physics in spring 2012. The program is built upon foundational physics courses and is unique due to the possible selection of upper-division courses that students elect to take towards their undergraduate degree. A capstone course is offered to bring all prior knowledge in the fundamental sciences together to approach complex problems in biology. Due to the flexibility of the program, it serves students well who are interested in pursuing advanced degrees in Biophysics or Biomedical Engineering. It also offers students interested in the health professions an alternate path towards medical school which can be advantageous in the application process. This session will express some of the advantages and challenges to creating such a program at a liberal arts PUI and discuss the capstone course within the major.

  9. Acculturation, Depression, and Function in Individuals Seeking Pain Management in a Predominantly Hispanic Southwestern Border Community

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Kristynia M.; Monsivais, Jose J.

    2011-01-01

    Synopsis Acculturation is a construct beyond its prime. It does not inform practice in the acute or primary care setting; nor does it explain ethnic disparities in the recognition and treatment of chronic diseases, particularly chronic pain. It is a variable, like gender or ethnicity that cannot be influenced through nursing or medical practice. As clinicians, it is imperative that we recognize contributing factors, co-morbid conditions, and the impact of chronic pain on individuals and families. The purposes of this article are to present evidence that exemplifies the non-significant role acculturation plays in expression of pain and function of a predominantly Hispanic population on the border; and to identify more meaningful perspectives of culture that may lessen health disparities and improve pain management. PMID:21501730

  10. Pediatric Nodular Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin Lymphoma: Treatment Recommendations of the GPOH-HD Study Group.

    PubMed

    Mauz-Körholz, C; Lange, T; Hasenclever, D; Burkhardt, B; Feller, A C; Dörffel, W; Kluge, R; Vordermark, D; Körholz, D

    2015-11-01

    Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (nLPHL) is a very rare disease in childhood and adolescence. In Germany, about 15 newly diagnosed patients present with this disease annually; this number comprises less than 10% of all pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma cases. Since the EuroNet-PHL-LP1 trial for early stage nLPHL patients stopped recruiting in Germany in October 2014, the GPOH-HD writing committee reviewed the literature and decided to deliver treatment recommendations for childhood and adolescent nLPHL patients. These guidelines shall be applicable to young nLPHL patients in European countries that will no longer be able to participate in nLPHL trials for young patients. Therefore, the EuroNet-PHL-nLPHL-registry will be installed to provide quality assured central review of staging and response assessment for registered patients by the Central Review Board of EuroNet-PHL in Halle/Leipzig, Germany. PMID:26356319

  11. Stereospecific potentiation of opiate analgesia by cocaine: predominant role of noradrenaline.

    PubMed

    Misra, A L; Pontani, R B; Vadlamani, N L

    1987-01-01

    Cocaine hydrochloride (50 mg) pellets implanted subcutaneously in male Wistar rats potentiated the analgesia of morphine, levorphanol, methadone and buprenorphine as measured by the tail-withdrawal test. Potentiated opiate analgesia was abolished by naloxone and further enhanced by desipramine and phenoxybenzamine. Yohimbine, alpha-methyl p-tyrosine, haloperidol, zimelidine, methysergide, p-chlorophenylalanine produced no significant effect on potentiated opiate analgesia. Pseudo-cocaine (dextro-cocaine), which is several-fold less potent than cocaine as an inhibitor of noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake in the CNS, had no significant effect on opiate analgesia. Analgesia produced by low doses of baclofen, a GABA agonist, was also not potentiated by cocaine. This study suggests a predominant role for noradrenaline in the stereospecific potentiation of opiate analgesia by cocaine. PMID:3822492

  12. Leishmania major, the predominant Leishmania species responsible for cutaneous leishmaniasis in Mali.

    PubMed

    Paz, Carlos; Samake, Sibiry; Anderson, Jennifer M; Faye, Ousmane; Traore, Pierre; Tall, Koureishi; Cisse, Moumine; Keita, Somita; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Doumbia, Seydou

    2013-03-01

    Leishmania major is the only species of Leishmania known to cause cutaneous leishmanisis (CL) in Mali. We amplified Leishmania DNA stored on archived Giemsa-stained dermal scraping slides obtained from self-referral patients with clinically suspected CL seen in the Center National d'Appui A La Lutte Contre La Maladie (CNAM) in Bamako, Mali, to determine if any other Leishmania species were responsible for CL in Mali and evaluate its geographic distribution. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification was performed using a Leishmania species-specific primer pair that can amplify DNA from L. major, L. tropica, L. infantum, and L. donovani parasites, possible causative agents of CL in Mali. L. major was the only species detected in 41 microscopically confirmed cases of CL from five regions of Mali (Kayes, Koulikoro, Ségou, Mopti, and Tombouctou). These results implicate L. major as the predominant, possibly exclusive species responsible for CL in Mali.

  13. Identification of predominant SNPs as a novel method for genotyping bovine Staphylococcus aureus isolates.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey W; Ji, Yinduo

    2012-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a formidable pathogen of both human and animal. Infection often gives rise to an economic loss resulting from the extended cost of treatment and hospitalization for humans, and loss of usable agriculture animal products from infected animals and treatment regiments. We describe here a protocol for the amplification and sequencing of predominant single nucleotide polymorphisms within the promoter region of hla (encoding α-toxin) that confers a hyper-producing α-toxin phenotype to S. aureus isolates associated with chronic and severe bovine mastitis infections. We validated our findings with a second round of analysis, confirming the SNPs as a valid genotypic marker for α-toxin hyper-producing bovine isolates. The identification of highly virulent isolates will allow for aggressive treatment of the infection and limit the disease and economic impact. With readily available reagents and facilities, this protocol can be completed in as little as 72 h once samples are isolated. PMID:22286701

  14. Circulation of HRSV in Belgium: from multiple genotype circulation to prolonged circulation of predominant genotypes.

    PubMed

    Houspie, Lieselot; Lemey, Philippe; Keyaerts, Els; Reijmen, Eva; Vergote, Valentijn; Vankeerberghen, Anne; Vaeyens, Freya; De Beenhouwer, Hans; Van Ranst, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Molecular surveillance of HRSV in Belgium for 15 consecutive seasons (1996-2011) revealed a shift from a regular 3-yearly cyclic pattern, into a yearly alternating periodicity where HRSV-B is replaced by HRSV-A. Phylogenetic analysis for HRSV-A demonstrated the stable circulation of GA2 and GA5, with GA2 being dominant over GA5 during 5 consecutive seasons (2006-2011). We also identified 2 new genotype specific amino acid mutations of the GA2 genotype (A122 and Q156) and 7 new GA5 genotype specific amino acid mutations (F102, I108, T111, I125, D161, S191 and L217). Several amino acid positions, all located in the second hypervariable region of HRSV-A were found to be under positive selection. Phylogenetic analysis of HRSV-B showed the circulation of GB12 and GB13, where GB13 represented 100% of the isolated strains in 4 out of 5 consecutive seasons (2007-2011). Amino acids under positive selection were all located in the aminoterminal hypervariable region of HRSV-B, except one amino acid located in the conserved region. The genotype distribution within the HRSV-B subgroup has evolved from a co-circulation of multiple genotypes to the circulation of a single predominant genotype. The Belgian GB13 strains circulating since 2006, all clustered under the BAIV branch and contained several branch specific amino acid substitutions. The demographic history of genotypes GA2, GA5 and GB13 demonstrated a decrease in the total GA2 and GA5 population size, coinciding with the global expansion of the GB13 population. The emergence of the GB13 genotype resulted in a newly established balance between the predominant genotypes. PMID:23577109

  15. Shotgun metagenomics indicates novel family A DNA polymerases predominate within marine virioplankton.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Helen F; Sakowski, Eric G; Williamson, Shannon J; Polson, Shawn W; Wommack, K Eric

    2014-01-01

    Virioplankton have a significant role in marine ecosystems, yet we know little of the predominant biological characteristics of aquatic viruses that influence the flow of nutrients and energy through microbial communities. Family A DNA polymerases, critical to DNA replication and repair in prokaryotes, are found in many tailed bacteriophages. The essential role of DNA polymerase in viral replication makes it a useful target for connecting viral diversity with an important biological feature of viruses. Capturing the full diversity of this polymorphic gene by targeted approaches has been difficult; thus, full-length DNA polymerase genes were assembled out of virioplankton shotgun metagenomic sequence libraries (viromes). Within the viromes novel DNA polymerases were common and found in both double-stranded (ds) DNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA libraries. Finding DNA polymerase genes in ssDNA viral libraries was unexpected, as no such genes have been previously reported from ssDNA phage. Surprisingly, the most common virioplankton DNA polymerases were related to a siphovirus infecting an α-proteobacterial symbiont of a marine sponge and not the podoviral T7-like polymerases seen in many other studies. Amino acids predictive of catalytic efficiency and fidelity linked perfectly to the environmental clades, indicating that most DNA polymerase-carrying virioplankton utilize a lower efficiency, higher fidelity enzyme. Comparisons with previously reported, PCR-amplified DNA polymerase sequences indicated that the most common virioplankton metagenomic DNA polymerases formed a new group that included siphoviruses. These data indicate that slower-replicating, lytic or lysogenic phage populations rather than fast-replicating, highly lytic phages may predominate within the virioplankton. PMID:23985748

  16. The Evaluation of Syncope in a Predominantly Black Population: Focus on Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Gebreselassie, Agazi G.; Bekele, Delamo I.; Paul, Yonette; Ngwa, Julius S.; Larbi, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current guidelines do not support the routine use of computed tomography (CT) scan of the head in the diagnostic workup of syncope. There is a lack of research to support whether these guidelines apply to the Black population. Aims: This study aims to evaluate the yield of neuroimaging in the evaluation of Syncope in a predominantly Black patient population and to test whether current guidelines based on studies conducted in other populations hold true in this group. Material and Methods: A retrospective review of records of 151 patients admitted to a University Hospital with Syncope from 2011 to 2014 was performed. Data collected include CT head, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, magnetic resonance angiogram, electroencephalogram, and orthostatic vital signs. Demographic data, admitting service, and comorbid conditions were identified. Syncope was classified as cardiogenic, orthostatic, vasovagal, situational, or undetermined. Statistical analysis was performed to determine which diagnostic tools were useful in identifying the potential causes of syncope. Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Analysis System software 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) and Statistical Analysis and Graphics (NCSS 9.0.7, Kaysville, UT). Results: One hundred and twenty eight (84.8%) of the patients were Black. The average age was 56.62 ± 18.78 standard deviation and 68.2% (103) were female. One hundred and fourteen patients (75.5%) had a CT brain. Five out of 114 patients had an acute abnormality on CT (4.4%). Only 1 of these 5 patients had an abnormality that was related to syncope. CT brain (P = 0.978) was not found to be predictive of underlying etiology of syncope despite high frequency of use. Conclusions: CT head was not useful in determining the etiology of syncope in a predominantly Black population. Current guidelines and studies conducted in other populations have detected similar findings. PMID:27583235

  17. Computerized nuclear morphometry in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominant follicular pattern

    PubMed Central

    Aiad, HA; Abdou, AG; Bashandy, MA; Said, AN; Ezz-Elarab, SS; Zahran, AA

    2009-01-01

    Background: Differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominantly follicular pattern is one of the most common problems in thyroid pathology. Development of more objective and reproducible tools for diagnosis is needed. This work is aimed at studying the role of nuclear morphometry in differential diagnosis of different thyroid lesions having predominant follicular pattern. Material and methods: Semiautomatic image analysis system was used to measure a total of 8 nuclear parameters in 48 thyroid lesions including seven nodular goiter (NG), 14 follicular adenoma (FA), 14 follicular carcinoma (FC) and 13 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC). Results: The parameters related to nuclear size (area, perimeter, MaxD, MinD, nuclear size) and shape (L/S ratio, Form_AR) were significantly higher in neoplastic group (FA, FC, FVPC) when compared to non-neoplastic group (NG) P<0.05. The perimeter was the most reliable parameter (area under the cure (AUC)=97%) followed by area, MaxD, and size (all have AUC= 96%) then form-AR (90%), LS ratio (86%) and the least reliable was Min D (79%). Within the neoplastic group, most parameters related to size and shape of the nuclei was significantly higher in FVPC than in FA and FC (p ≤ 0.05). Nuclear area and size (AUC 77%) were the most reliable parameters for differentiation between FVPC and FA. The best cut off values for diagnosing FVPC are nuclear area ≥39.9μm2 and nuclear size ≥27.7μm2. However, there was no quantitative difference between FC and FA. Conclusion: Nuclear morphometric parameters may help in the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions and between FVPC and follicular neoplasms (FC and FA) but they have no value in the differentiation between FC and FA. PMID:22276011

  18. Attentional Profiles and White Matter Correlates in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Type

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Adriana Suzart Ungaretti; de Moura, Luciana Monteiro; de Mello, Claudia Berlim; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Muszkat, Mauro; Bueno, Orlando Francisco Amodeo

    2015-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a widely studied neurodevelopmental disorder. It is a highly heterogeneous condition, encompassing different types of expression. The predominantly inattentive type is the most prevalent and the most stable over the lifetime, yet it is the least-studied presentation. To increase understanding of its cognitive profile, 29 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder of predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-I) and 29 matched controls, aged 7–15 years, had their attentional abilities assessed through the Conners’ continuous performance test. Diffusion tensor imaging data were collected for all of the participants using a 3.0-T MRI system. Fractional anisotropy (FA) values were obtained for 20 fiber tracts, and brain-behavior correlations were calculated for 42 of the children. The ADHD-I children differed significantly from the typically developing (TD) children with respect to attentional measures, such as the ability to maintain response-time consistency throughout the task (Hit RT SE and Variability), vigilance (Hit RT ISI and Hit RT ISI SE), processing speed (Hit RT), selective attention (Omissions), sustained attention (Hit RT Block Change), error profile (Response Style), and inhibitory control (Perseverations). Evidence of significant differences between the ADHD-I and the TD participants was not found with respect to the mean FA values in the fiber tracts analyzed. Moderate and strong correlations between performance on the attention indicators and the tract-average FA values were found for the ADHD-I group. Our results contribute to a better characterization of the attentional profile of ADHD-I individuals and suggest that in children and adolescents with ADHD-I, attentional performance is mainly associated with the white matter structure of the long associative fibers that connect anterior–posterior brain areas. PMID:26441684

  19. Candidate Cell and Matrix Interaction Domains on the Collagen Fibril, the Predominant Protein of Vertebrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, Shawn M.; Orgel, Joseph P.; Fertala, Andrzej; McAuliffe, Jon D.; Turner, Kevin R.; Di Lullo, Gloria A.; Chen, Steven; Antipova, Olga; Perumal, Shiamalee; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Forlinoi, Antonella; Cabral, Wayne A.; Barnes, Aileen M.; Marini, Joan C.; San Antonio, James D.

    2008-07-18

    Type I collagen, the predominant protein of vertebrates, polymerizes with type III and V collagens and non-collagenous molecules into large cable-like fibrils, yet how the fibril interacts with cells and other binding partners remains poorly understood. To help reveal insights into the collagen structure-function relationship, a data base was assembled including hundreds of type I collagen ligand binding sites and mutations on a two-dimensional model of the fibril. Visual examination of the distribution of functional sites, and statistical analysis of mutation distributions on the fibril suggest it is organized into two domains. The 'cell interaction domain' is proposed to regulate dynamic aspects of collagen biology, including integrin-mediated cell interactions and fibril remodeling. The 'matrix interaction domain' may assume a structural role, mediating collagen cross-linking, proteoglycan interactions, and tissue mineralization. Molecular modeling was used to superimpose the positions of functional sites and mutations from the two-dimensional fibril map onto a three-dimensional x-ray diffraction structure of the collagen microfibril in situ, indicating the existence of domains in the native fibril. Sequence searches revealed that major fibril domain elements are conserved in type I collagens through evolution and in the type II/XI collagen fibril predominant in cartilage. Moreover, the fibril domain model provides potential insights into the genotype-phenotype relationship for several classes of human connective tissue diseases, mechanisms of integrin clustering by fibrils, the polarity of fibril assembly, heterotypic fibril function, and connective tissue pathology in diabetes and aging.

  20. Organic Matter Remineralization Predominates Phosphorus Cycling in the Mid-Bay Sediments in the Chesapeake Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Sunendra, Joshi R.; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Burdige, David J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Sparks, Donald L.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-05-19

    The Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the US, suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and non–point source nutrient sources. Restoration of the bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs and hydrological conditions, and complex interacting factors including climate forcing. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics enables one to identify the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment- water interface and aid to better constrain mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between the sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18Op) in concert with sediment chemistry, XRD, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on the sediment retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the meso-haline portion of the mid-bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedback effect on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Isotope data indicate that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-bay sediments. We interpret that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any bottom-water and/or pore-water P derived from other sources or biogeochemical processes and exceeded saturation with respect to authigenic P precipitation. It is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway against remobilization (coupled Fe-P cycling) pathway in the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results are expected to have significant implications for the current understanding of P cycling and benthic-pelagic coupling in the bay, particularly on the

  1. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  2. Hydrogen concentrations as an indicator of the predominant terminal electron-accepting reactions in aquatic sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovley, D.R.; Goodwin, S.

    1988-01-01

    Factors controlling the concentration of dissolved hydrogen gas in anaerobic sedimentary environments were investigated. Results, presented here or previously, demonstrated that, in sediments, only microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of H2 coupled to the reduction of nitrate, Mn(IV), Fe(III), sulfate, or carbon dioxide. Theoretical considerations suggested that, at steady-state conditions, H2 concentrations are primarily dependent upon the physiological characteristics of the microorganism(s) consuming the H2 and that organisms catalyzing H2 oxidation, with the reduction of a more electrochemically positive electron acceptor, can maintain lower H2 concentrations than organisms using electron acceptors which yield less energy from H2 oxidation. The H2 concentrations associated with the specified predominant terminal electron-accepting reactions in bottom sediments of a variety of surface water environments were: methanogenesis, 7-10 nM; sulfate reduction, 1-1.5 nM; Fe(III) reduction, 0.2 nM; Mn(IV) or nitrate reduction, less than 0.05 nM. Sediments with the same terminal electron acceptor for organic matter oxidation had comparable H2 concentrations, despite variations in the rate of organic matter decomposition, pH, and salinity. Thus, each terminal electron-accepting reaction had a unique range of steady-state H2 concentrations associated with it. Preliminary studies in a coastal plain aquifer indicated that H2 concentrations also vary in response to changes in the predominant terminal electron-accepting process in deep subsurface environments. These studies suggest that H2 measurements may aid in determining which terminal electron-accepting reactions are taking place in surface and subsurface sedimentary environments. ?? 1988.

  3. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population.

    PubMed

    Barcelona de Mendoza, Veronica; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = -0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = -0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population. PMID:26694041

  4. Organic matter remineralization predominates phosphorus cycling in the mid-Bay sediments in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sunendra R; Kukkadapu, Ravi K; Burdige, David J; Bowden, Mark E; Sparks, Donald L; Jaisi, Deb P

    2015-05-19

    Chesapeake Bay, the largest and most productive estuary in the U.S., suffers from varying degrees of water quality issues fueled by both point and nonpoint nutrient sources. Restoration of the Bay is complicated by the multitude of nutrient sources, their variable inputs, and complex interaction between imported and regenerated nutrients. These complexities not only restrict formulation of effective restoration plans but also open up debates on accountability issues with nutrient loading. A detailed understanding of sediment phosphorus (P) dynamics provides information useful in identifying the exchange of dissolved constituents across the sediment-water interface as well as helps to better constrain the mechanisms and processes controlling the coupling between sediments and the overlying waters. Here we used phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O(P)) in concert with sediment chemistry, X-ray diffraction, and Mössbauer spectroscopy on sediments retrieved from an organic rich, sulfidic site in the mesohaline portion of the mid-Bay to identify sources and pathway of sedimentary P cycling and to infer potential feedbacks on bottom water hypoxia and surface water eutrophication. Authigenic phosphate isotope data suggest that the regeneration of inorganic P from organic matter degradation (remineralization) is the predominant, if not sole, pathway for authigenic P precipitation in the mid-Bay sediments. This indicates that the excess inorganic P generated by remineralization should have overwhelmed any pore water and/or bottom water because only a fraction of this precipitates as authigenic P. This is the first research that identifies the predominance of remineralization pathway and recycling of P within the Chesapeake Bay. Therefore, these results have significant implications on the current understanding of sediment P cycling and P exchange across the sediment-water interface in the Bay, particularly in terms of the sources and pathways of P that sustain hypoxia

  5. Acculturation and Adverse Birth Outcomes in a Predominantly Puerto Rican Population

    PubMed Central

    de Mendoza, Veronica Barcelona; Harville, Emily; Theall, Katherine; Buekens, Pierre; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Latinas in the United States on average have poorer birth outcomes than Whites, yet considerable heterogeneity exists within Latinas. Puerto Ricans have some of the highest rates of adverse outcomes and are understudied. The goal of this study was to determine if acculturation was associated with adverse birth outcomes in a predominantly Puerto Rican population. Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study conducted from 2006 to 2011. A convenience sample of pregnant Latina women were recruited from a tertiary care hospital in Massachusetts. Acculturation was measured in early pregnancy; directly via the Psychological Acculturation Scale, and via proxies of language preference and generation in the United States. Birth outcomes (gestational age and birthweight) were abstracted from medical records (n = 1362). Results After adjustment, psychological acculturation, language preference, and generation was not associated with odds of preterm birth. However, every unit increase in psychological acculturation score was associated with an increase in gestational age of 0.22 weeks (SE = 0.1, p = 0.04) among all births. Women who preferred to speak Spanish (β = −0.39, SE = 0.2, p = 0.02) and who were first generation in the US (β = −0.33, SE = 0.1, p = 0.02) had significantly lower gestational ages than women who preferred English or who were later generation, respectively. Similarly, women who were first generation had babies who weighed 76.11 g less (SE = 35.2, p = 0.03) than women who were later generation. Discussion We observed a small, but statistically significant adverse impact of low acculturation on gestational age and birthweight in this predominantly Puerto Rican population. PMID:26694041

  6. Predominance of Blastocystis sp. Infection among School Children in Peninsular Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. Methods and Principal Findings A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent’s education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). Conclusion It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children. PMID:26914483

  7. Microbiological contamination and resistance genes in biofilms occurring during the drinking water treatment process.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Anca; Butiuc-Keul, Anca; Ciatarâş, Dorin; Neamţu, Călin; Crăciunaş, Cornelia; Podar, Dorina; Drăgan-Bularda, Mihail

    2013-01-15

    Biofilms are the predominant mode of microbial growth in drinking water systems. A dynamic exchange of individuals occurs between the attached and planktonic populations, while lateral gene transfer mediates genetic exchange in these bacterial communities. Integrons are important vectors for the spread of antimicrobial resistance. The presence of class 1 integrons (intI1, qac and sul genes) was assessed in biofilms occurring throughout the drinking water treatment process. Isolates from general and specific culture media, covering a wide range of environmental bacteria, fecal indicators and opportunistic pathogens were tested. From 96 isolates tested, 9.37% were found to possess genetic determinants of putative antimicrobial resistance, and these occurred in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Class 1 integron integrase gene was present in 8.33% of bacteria, all positive for the qacEΔ1 gene. The sul1 gene was present in 3.12% of total isolates, representing 37.5% of the class 1 integron positive cells. The present study shows that biofilm communities in a drinking water treatment plant are a reservoir of class 1 integrons, mainly in bacteria that may be associated with microbiological contamination. Eight out of nine integron bearing strains (88.8%) were identified based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing as either enteric bacteria or species that may be connected to animal and anthropogenic disturbance.

  8. [Occurence of diarylheptanoids in Corylus species native to Hungary].

    PubMed

    Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergő; Alberti, Agnes; Végh, Krisztina; Béni, Szabolcs; Balogh, György Tibor; Kéry, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Since the last decade naturally occurring diarylheptanoids have been in the focus of scientific interest due to their various. beneficial biological effects. Besides the outstanding importance of the curcuminoids isolated from members of the Curcuma genus (Zingiberaceae), several different diarylheptanoids identified in Alnus species (Betulaceae) have been proved to possess notable pharmacological effects. Chemoprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities suggest their potential role in clinical practice. The aim of our study was the phytochemical investigation of the Corylus (Betulaceae) species native to Hungary: the Common hazel (Corylus avellana L.), the Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) and the Filbert (Corylus maxima Mill.) in order to characterise their phenolic-profile. Although these plants have been used in traditional medicine for long time, literature data regarding their phytochemical composition is limited to the flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic-acid derivatives of C. avellana leaves. No previous studies have been published reporting the presence of diarylheptanoid compounds in any of the Corylus species. Soxhlet extraction with solvents of increasing polarity was performed on the bark and leaves of the mentioned three Corylus species. The phenolic-profile of the methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts was investigated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS methods. Altogether 37 different phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts: twenty diarylheptanoids (1-20), nine flavonols (21-29) and eight other phenolics: caffeic and quinic acid derivatives and flavanones (30-37). The main compounds of the extracts were identified as myricetin- quercetin- and kaempferol-3-O-rhanmosides.

  9. Naturally Occurring Variants of the Dysglycemic Peptide Pancreastatin

    PubMed Central

    Allu, Prasanna K. R.; Chirasani, Venkat R.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Mani, Anitha; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.; Senapati, Sanjib; Mullasari, Ajit S.; Mahapatra, Nitish R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreastatin (PST), a chromogranin A-derived peptide, is a potent physiological inhibitor of glucose-induced insulin secretion. PST also triggers glycogenolysis in liver and reduces glucose uptake in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Here, we probed for genetic variations in PST sequence and identified two variants within its functionally important carboxyl terminus domain: E287K and G297S. To understand functional implications of these amino acid substitutions, we tested the effects of wild-type (PST-WT), PST-287K, and PST-297S peptides on various cellular processes/events. The rank order of efficacy to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. The PST peptides also displayed the same order of efficacy for enhancing intracellular nitric oxide and Ca2+ levels in various cell types. In addition, PST peptides activated gluconeogenic genes in the following order: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT. Consistent with these in vitro results, the common PST variant allele Ser-297 was associated with significantly higher (by ∼17 mg/dl, as compared with the wild-type Gly-297 allele) plasma glucose level in our study population (n = 410). Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations predicted the following rank order of α-helical content: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. Corroboratively, circular dichroism analysis of PST peptides revealed significant differences in global structures (e.g. the order of propensity to form α-helix was: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT). This study provides a molecular basis for enhanced potencies/efficacies of human PST variants (likely to occur in ∼300 million people worldwide) and has quantitative implications for inter-individual variations in glucose/insulin homeostasis. PMID:24338022

  10. [Occurence of diarylheptanoids in Corylus species native to Hungary].

    PubMed

    Riethmüller, Eszter; Tóth, Gergő; Alberti, Agnes; Végh, Krisztina; Béni, Szabolcs; Balogh, György Tibor; Kéry, Agnes

    2015-01-01

    Since the last decade naturally occurring diarylheptanoids have been in the focus of scientific interest due to their various. beneficial biological effects. Besides the outstanding importance of the curcuminoids isolated from members of the Curcuma genus (Zingiberaceae), several different diarylheptanoids identified in Alnus species (Betulaceae) have been proved to possess notable pharmacological effects. Chemoprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activities suggest their potential role in clinical practice. The aim of our study was the phytochemical investigation of the Corylus (Betulaceae) species native to Hungary: the Common hazel (Corylus avellana L.), the Turkish hazel (Corylus colurna L.) and the Filbert (Corylus maxima Mill.) in order to characterise their phenolic-profile. Although these plants have been used in traditional medicine for long time, literature data regarding their phytochemical composition is limited to the flavonoid and hydroxycinnamic-acid derivatives of C. avellana leaves. No previous studies have been published reporting the presence of diarylheptanoid compounds in any of the Corylus species. Soxhlet extraction with solvents of increasing polarity was performed on the bark and leaves of the mentioned three Corylus species. The phenolic-profile of the methanolic and ethyl acetate extracts was investigated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS and HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS methods. Altogether 37 different phenolic compounds were detected in the extracts: twenty diarylheptanoids (1-20), nine flavonols (21-29) and eight other phenolics: caffeic and quinic acid derivatives and flavanones (30-37). The main compounds of the extracts were identified as myricetin- quercetin- and kaempferol-3-O-rhanmosides. PMID:26137784

  11. Naturally occurring structural isomers in serum IgA1 o-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuo; Smith, Archer D; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Julian, Bruce A; Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan; Renfrow, Matthew B

    2012-02-01

    IgA is the most abundantly produced antibody and plays an important role in the mucosal immune system. Human IgA is represented by two isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2. The major structural difference between these two subclasses is the presence of nine potential sites of O-glycosylation in the hinge region between the first and second constant region domains of the heavy chain. Thr(225), Thr(228), Ser(230), Ser(232) and Thr(236) have been identified as the predominant sites of O-glycan attachment. The range and distribution of O-glycan chains at each site within the context of adjacent sites in this clustered region create a complex heterogeneity of surface epitopes that is incompletely defined. We previously described the analysis of IgA1 O-glycan heterogeneity by use of high resolution LC-MS and electron capture dissociation tandem MS to unambiguously localize all amino acid attachment sites in IgA1 (Ale) myeloma protein. Here, we report the identification and elucidation of IgA1 O-glycopeptide structural isomers that occur based on amino acid position of the attached glycans (positional isomers) and the structure of the O-glycan chains at individual sites (glycan isomers). These isomers are present in a model IgA1 (Mce1) myeloma protein and occur naturally in normal human serum IgA1. Variable O-glycan chains attached to Ser(230), Thr(233) or Thr(236) produce the predominant positional isomers, including O-glycans composed of a single GalNAc residue. These findings represent the first definitive identification of structural isomeric IgA1 O-glycoforms, define the single-site heterogeneity for all O-glycan sites in a single sample, and have implications for defining epitopes based on clustered O-glycan variability.

  12. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type: evidence for an association with COMT but not MAOA in a Chinese sample

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Qiu-Jin; Liu, Jin; Wang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Li; Guan, Li-Li; Faraone, Stephen V

    2009-01-01

    Background There are three childhood disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). The most common comorbid disorder in ADHD is ODD. DSM-IV describes three ADHD subtypes: predominantly inattentive type (ADHD-IA), predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type (ADHD-HI), and combined type (ADHD-C). Prior work suggests that specific candidate genes are associated with specific subtypes of ADHD in China. Our previous association studies between ADHD and functional polymorphisms of COMT and MAOA, consistently showed the low transcriptional activity alleles were preferentially transmitted to ADHD-IA boys. Thus, the goal of the present study is to test the hypothesis that COMT Val158Met and MAOA-uVNTR jointly contribute to the ODD phenotype among Chinese ADHD boys. Methods 171 Chinese boys between 6 and 17.5 years old (mean = 10.3, SD = 2.6) with complete COMT val158met and MAOA-uVNTR genotyping information were studied. We used logistic regression with genotypes as independent variables and the binary phenotype as the dependent variable. We used p < 0.05 as the level of nominal statistical significance. Bonferroni correction procedures were used to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results Our results highlight the potential etiologic role of COMT in the ADHD with comorbid ODD and its predominately inattentive type in male Chinese subjects. ADHD with comorbid ODD was associated with homozygosity of the high-activity Val allele, while the predominantly inattentive ADHD subtype was associated with the low-activity Met allele. We found no evidence of association between the MAOA-uVNTR variant and ADHD with comorbid ODD or the ADHD-IA subtype. Conclusion Our study of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and its predominately inattentive type highlights the potential etiologic role of COMT for ADHD children in China. But we failed to

  13. Investigation of an outbreak of measles: failure to vaccinate or vaccine failure in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala.

    PubMed

    Nujum, Zinia T; Varghese, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Measles outbreaks continue to occur in developing countries. This study attempted to explore the context of an outbreak of measles in a community of predominantly fishermen in Kerala to find out whether the outbreak was the result of a failure to vaccinate or failure of the vaccine itself. A cross sectional study was conducted in Mukkola village of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala, India. A total of 215 children of ages between 9 and 35 months were studied. Documented evidence of measles vaccination was available only in 71.6% (65.57-77.62) of the children. The risk factors for not being immunized against measles were being third or higher in birth order and having: a father whose occupation is fishing, low family income, lower parental education, Muslim religion and poor knowledge regarding measles and its vaccine. Of the 215 children studied, 43 had a history of measles. Thirty percent of these 43 children were younger than the age of vaccination. Unvaccinated children, children third or higher in birth order and children of families with more than 5 members had a significantly higher risk of contracting measles. Vaccine effectiveness was 76.6% (95% CI: 75.96-77.99). The prevalence of missed vaccination opportunities was found to be 15.8% (34/215). Even with the relatively low vaccine effectiveness, this outbreak could have been prevented by higher vaccination coverage. Lowering the age at administration of the first dose of measles vaccine needs to be considered. Effective utilization of opportunities for vaccination could enhance coverage and prevent outbreaks in the future.

  14. Proteomic Characterization of Middle Ear Fluid Confirms Neutrophil Extracellular Traps as a Predominant Innate Immune Response in Chronic Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Val, Stephanie; Poley, Marian; Brown, Kristy; Choi, Rachel; Jeong, Stephanie; Colberg-Poley, Annie; Rose, Mary C.; Panchapakesan, Karuna C.; Devaney, Joe C.; Perez-Losada, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Background Chronic Otitis Media (COM) is characterized by middle ear effusion (MEE) and conductive hearing loss. MEE reflect mucus hypersecretion, but global proteomic profiling of the mucosal components are limited. Objective This study aimed at characterizing the proteome of MEEs from children with COM with the goal of elucidating important innate immune responses. Method MEEs were collected from children (n = 49) with COM undergoing myringotomy. Mass spectrometry was employed for proteomic profiling in nine samples. Independent samples were further analyzed by cytokine multiplex assay, immunoblotting, neutrophil elastase activity, next generation DNA sequencing, and/or immunofluorescence analysis. Results 109 unique and common proteins were identified by MS. A majority were innate immune molecules, along with typically intracellular proteins such as histones and actin. 19.5% percent of all mapped peptide counts were from proteins known to be released by neutrophils. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting demonstrated the presence of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) in every MEE, along with MUC5B colocalization. DNA found in effusions revealed unfragmented DNA of human origin. Conclusion Proteomic analysis of MEEs revealed a predominantly neutrophilic innate mucosal response in which MUC5B is associated with NET DNA. NETs are a primary macromolecular constituent of human COM middle ear effusions. PMID:27078692

  15. Predominant anthropogenic sources and rates of atmospheric mercury accumulation in southern Ontario recorded by peat cores from three bogs: comparison with natural "background" values (past 8000 years).

    PubMed

    Givelet, Nicolas; Roos-Barraclough, Fiona; Shotyk, William

    2003-12-01

    Peat cores from three bogs in southern Ontario provide a complete, quantitative record of net rates of atmospheric Hg accumulation since pre-industrial times. For comparison with modern values, a peat core extending back 8000 years was used to quantify the natural variations in Hg fluxes for this region, and their dependence on climatic change and land use history. The net mercury accumulation rates were separated into "natural" and "excess" components by comparing the Hg/Br ratios of modern samples with the long-term, pre-anthropogenic average Hg/Br. The average background mercury accumulation rate during the pre-anthropogenic period (from 5700 years BC to 1470 AD) was 1.4 +/- 1.0 microg m(-2) per year (n = 197). The beginning of Hg contamination from anthropogenic sources dates from AD 1475 at the Luther Bog, corresponding to biomass burning for agricultural activities by Native North Americans. During the late 17th and 18th centuries, deposition of anthropogenic Hg was at least equal to that of Hg from natural sources. Anthropogenic inputs of Hg to the bogs have dominated continuously since the beginning of the 19th century. The maximum Hg accumulation rates decrease in the order Sifton Bog, in the City of London, Ontario (141 microg Hg m(-2) per year), Luther Bog in an agricultural region (89 microg Hg m(-2) per year), and Spruce Bog which is in a comparatively remote, forested region (54 microg Hg m(-2) per year). Accurate age dating of recent peat samples using the bomb pulse curve of 14C shows that the maximum rate of atmospheric Hg accumulation occurred during AD 1956 and 1959 at all sites. In these (modern) samples, the Hg concentration profiles resemble those of Pb, an element which is known to be immobile in peat bogs. The correlation between these two metals, together with sulfur, suggests that the predominant anthropogenic source of Hg (and Pb) was coal burning. While Hg accumulation rates have gone into strong decline since the late 1950's, Hg

  16. Biotransformation of BDE-47 to Potentially Toxic Metabolites Is Predominantly Mediated by Human CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Feo, Maria Luisa; Gross, Michael S.; McGarrigle, Barbara P.; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Olson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are involved in the metabolism of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) flame retardants in humans, resulting in the formation of hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) that are potentially more toxic than the parent PBDEs. However, the specific enzymes responsible for the formation of OH-PBDEs are unknown. Objectives: The purposes of this study were to characterize the in vitro metabolism of 2,2´,4,4´-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) by human liver microsomes (HLM) and recombinant human CYPs, and to identify the CYP(s) that are active in the oxidative metabolism of BDE-47. Methods: Recombinant human CYPs (CYP1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1, and 3A4) were incubated with BDE-47 (20 µM), and the metabolites were measured and characterized using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). For kinetic studies, CYP2B6 and pooled human liver microsomes (HLMs) were incubated with BDE-47 (0–60 µM). Results: CYP2B6 was the predominant CYP capable of forming six OH-BDEs, including 3-OH-BDE-47, 5-OH-BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, 4-OH-BDE-42, 4´-OH-BDE-49, and a metabolite tentatively identified as 2´-OH-BDE-66. On the basis of full-scan GC-MS analysis, we hypothesized the formation of two other metabolites: di-OH-tetra-BDE and di-OH-tetrabrominated dioxin. In kinetic studies of BDE-47 metabolism by CYP2B6 and pooled HLMs, we found Km values ranging from 3.8 to 6.4 µM and 7.0 to 11.4 µM, respectively, indicating the high affinity toward the formation of OH-BDEs. Conclusion: Our findings support a predominant role of CYP2B6 in the metabolism of BDE-47 to potentially toxic metabolites, including a hypothesized di-OH-tetrabrominated dioxin metabolite. These results will assist future epidemiological studies investigating the potential of PBDEs and their metabolites to produce neurobehavioral/neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:23249762

  17. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  18. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  19. Outcomes of combined trabecular micro-bypass and phacoemulsification in a predominantly Hispanic patient population

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo, Mark J; Supnet, Richard A; Giamporcaro, Jane Ellen; Hornbeak, Dana M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate intraocular pressure (IOP) and topical ocular hypotensive medication burden at 12 months postoperatively in a predominantly Hispanic patient population with primary open-angle glaucoma each implanted with one trabecular micro-bypass stent during cataract surgery. Methods This was a retrospective, consecutive case series. The main objective was to assess reduction of IOP and/or medication burden in all eyes at the 12-month postoperative exam. A secondary objective was to assess outcomes in 3 subgroups, distinguished preoperatively by IOP control and by medication burden (suboptimal or maximum therapy) and with different treatment goals. Group 1 had medication-controlled IOP and goal to reduce medications while maintaining IOP control (n=65); Group 2 had uncontrolled IOP on ≤2 medications and goal to reduce IOP and maintain/reduce medication burden (n=31); and Group 3 had uncontrolled IOP on ≥3 medications and goal to reduce IOP and avoid filtering surgery (n=38). Evaluations included IOP, medication use, cup-to-disc ratio, visual fields, complications, and interventions. One hundred subjects (134 eyes) have been followed for 12 months. Results Most patients (80%) were Hispanic and had moderate or severe glaucoma (87%). At 12 months, mean IOP reduced to 12.9 mmHg vs 16.5 mmHg preoperatively; 92% had an IOP ≤15 mmHg at 12 months (99% had ≤18 mmHg). Mean medication burden had decreased to 0.9 vs 2.3 preoperatively. At the 12-month time point, 94% of all eyes achieved their predefined treatment goal of reduced IOP and/or medications. Reductions in medication burden for Group 1, and in IOP for Groups 2 and 3, were highly statistically significant (P<0.001). Two eyes in Group 3 had filtering surgery; the remaining 95% avoided such treatment. No other complications were reported. Conclusion This mainly Hispanic population with predominantly moderate or severe glaucoma had substantial reduction of IOP and medication

  20. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal Ghanaian women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a clump of risk factors for development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. Menopause and age are thought to predispose women to the development of metabolic syndrome. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of MetS and identify its predominant components among pre-and postmenopausal women in the Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana. Two hundred and fifty (250) Ghanaian women were randomly selected for the study. They were evaluated for the prevalence of metabolic syndrome using the World Health Organization (WHO), National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Harmonization (H_MS) criteria. Results Out of the total subjects, 143 (57.2%) were premenopausal and 107 (42.8%) menopausal. The study population was between the ages of 20–78 years. The overall percentage prevalence of MetS were 14.4%, 25.6%, 29.2% and 30.4% according to the WHO, NCEP-ATP III, IDF and H_MS criteria, respectively. The prevalence was found to increase with age, irrespective of criterion used. Generally, MetS was significantly higher among postmenopausal women (p < 0.05 by all criteria) compared to their premenopausal cohort, but with marked inter-criteria variations. Abdominal obesity, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio were significantly (p < 0.05) different among the two groups of women. Central obesity, higher blood pressure and raised fasting blood glucose were the predominant components that contributed to the syndrome in Ghanaian women. Conclusion The higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women is an indication that they are at risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Therefore women in that group should be monitored for the two conditions and also be advised to adopt healthy