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Sample records for activity odds ratio

  1. At Odds: Concerns Raised by Using Odds Ratios for Continuous or Common Dichotomous Outcomes in Research on Physical Activity and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lovasi, Gina S; Underhill, Lindsay J; Jack, Darby; Richards, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Research on obesity and the built environment has often featured logistic regression and the corresponding parameter, the odds ratio. Use of odds ratios for common outcomes such obesity may unnecessarily hinder the validity, interpretation, and communication of research findings. METHODS: We identified three key issues raised by the use of odds ratios, illustrating them with data on walkability and body mass index from a study of 13,102 New York City residents. RESULTS: First, dichotomization of continuous measures such as body mass index discards theoretically relevant information, reduces statistical power, and amplifies measurement error. Second, odds ratios are systematically higher (further from the null) than prevalence ratios; this inflation is trivial for rare outcomes, but substantial for common outcomes like obesity. Third, odds ratios can lead to incorrect conclusions during tests of interactions. The odds ratio in a particular subgroup might higher simply because the outcome is more common (and the odds ratio inflated) compared with other subgroups. CONCLUSION: Our recommendations are to take full advantage of continuous outcome data when feasible and to use prevalence ratios in place of odds ratios for common dichotomous outcomes. When odds ratios must be used, authors should document outcome prevalence across exposure groups.

  2. A comparison of marginal odds ratio estimators.

    PubMed

    Loux, Travis M; Drake, Christiana; Smith-Gagen, Julie

    2017-02-01

    Uses of the propensity score to obtain estimates of causal effect have been investigated thoroughly under assumptions of linearity and additivity of exposure effect. When the outcome variable is binary relationships such as collapsibility, valid for the linear model, do not always hold. This article examines uses of the propensity score when both exposure and outcome are binary variables and the parameter of interest is the marginal odds ratio. We review stratification and matching by the propensity score when calculating the Mantel-Haenszel estimator and show that it is consistent for neither the marginal nor conditional odds ratio. We also investigate a marginal odds ratio estimator based on doubly robust estimators and summarize its performance relative to other recently proposed estimators under various conditions, including low exposure prevalence and model misspecification. Finally, we apply all estimators to a case study estimating the effect of Medicare plan type on the quality of care received by African-American breast cancer patients.

  3. Prevalence odds ratio versus prevalence ratio: choice comes with consequences.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-12-30

    Odds ratio, risk ratio, and prevalence ratio are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence ratio was chosen over (Prevalence) odds ratio and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Odds Ratio: review about the meaning of an epidemiological measure].

    PubMed

    Aguiar, Pedro; Nunes, Baltazar

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: É importante rever a validade do Odds Ratio como medida de associação e efeito, assim como, qual o viés introduzido pelo Odds Ratio quando este representa uma razão de riscos ou uma razão de prevalências em situação de doença mais frequente.Material e Métodos: Simulámos numa coorte de 200 indivíduos com 100 expostos e 100 não expostos a um fator de risco, um cenário de doença rara e outro de doença mais frequente, com razão de riscos igual em ambos os cenários. Determinaram-se o Odds Ratio e o Risco Relativo pelo método clássico (padrão) e respectivamente por regressão logística e regressão de Poisson. Introduziu-se de seguida uma variável de confundimento e determinaram-se o Odds Ratio e o Risco Relativo pelo método de Mantel-Hanszel (análise estratificada padrão) e respectivamente por regressão logística e regressão de Poisson. As análises estatísticas foram efectuadas em SPSS V20.Resultados: Para a doença rara, o Odds Ratio aproximou-se do Risco Relativo. Quando a doença foi mais frequente, o Odds Ratio sobrestimou o Risco Relativo. Nesta situação, e com a presença de uma variável de confundimento, o Risco Relativo ajustado por regressão de Poisson permitiu obter estimativas mais válidas da razão de riscos que o Odds Ratio ajustado por regressão logística. Os intervalos de confiança do Risco Relativo estimado por regressão de Poisson foram sempre mais largos que os determinados por análise de Mantel-Hanszel.Conclusões: O Odds Ratio e a regressão logística múltipla são procedimentos válidos em estudos caso-controlo e em estudosprospetivos e transversais de natureza exploratória. O Odds Ratio não deve ser interpretado como uma razão de riscos ou razão de prevalências se o resultado de saúde não é raro. A análise de regressão múltipla de Poisson deve ser considerada como alternativa válida à regressão logística múltipla, especialmente em estudos de uma exposição específica.

  5. Odds ratios for mediation analysis for a dichotomous outcome.

    PubMed

    Vanderweele, Tyler J; Vansteelandt, Stijn

    2010-12-15

    For dichotomous outcomes, the authors discuss when the standard approaches to mediation analysis used in epidemiology and the social sciences are valid, and they provide alternative mediation analysis techniques when the standard approaches will not work. They extend definitions of controlled direct effects and natural direct and indirect effects from the risk difference scale to the odds ratio scale. A simple technique to estimate direct and indirect effect odds ratios by combining logistic and linear regressions is described that applies when the outcome is rare and the mediator continuous. Further discussion is given as to how this mediation analysis technique can be extended to settings in which data come from a case-control study design. For the standard mediation analysis techniques used in the epidemiologic and social science literatures to be valid, an assumption of no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome is needed. The approach presented here, however, will apply even when there are interactions between the effect of the exposure and the mediator on the outcome.

  6. Odds ratio analysis in women with endometrial cancer

    PubMed Central

    Żak, Ewa; Pięta, Beata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite the progress in diagnosis and treatment of malignant tumours, the effects of treatment are insufficient. Reduction of the risk of cervical, ovarian, and endometrial cancer is possible by introducing preventative actions. Aim of the study The aim of the thesis is the analysis of selected risk factors that may affect the increase or decrease in the odds ratio of developing endometrial cancer. Material and methods The study was conducted among patients of the Gynaecology and Obstetrics Hospital of Poznań University of Medical Sciences in the years 2011-2013. The research included a total of 548 female respondents aged between 40 and 84 years. Women responded to questions assessing elements of lifestyle such as consumption of alcohol, smoking, and eating certain groups of foods. Results The respondents consuming fruits and vegetables several times a week have a reduced risk of odds ratio and the OR is 0.85; 95% CI: 0.18-4.09, compared to the women who rarely consume vegetables and fruits. Consumption of whole-wheat bread several times a week reduces the risk of developing the cancer, OR = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.14-2.47, compared to women not consuming wholegrain bread at all. Respondents who consumed red meat, such as veal, pork, and lamb in the amount of 101-200 g per day have an increased risk of developing the disease: OR = 2.16; 95% CI: 1.09-4.28, compared to women not consuming red meat at all. Conclusions A diet rich in fruit and vegetables, onions, garlic, whole grains, and beans should be introduced in order to reduce the risk of endometrial cancer. The consumption of red meat and white pasta should be reduced or even eliminated. PMID:27095953

  7. [Razón de posibilidades: a proposed translation of the term odds ratio].

    PubMed

    Tapia, J A; Nieto, F J

    1993-01-01

    In English, odds ratio is a basic epidemiological measure approximating the relative risk. Odds ratio has been translated into Spanish in several ways, which has produced great terminological confusion. On the other hand, the English word odds is often used in epidemiology or statistics English textbooks, alone or as part of other expressions, but always keeping a definite mathematical meaning, which calls for a similarly definite term in Spanish. We discuss several translations of odds ratio found in the literature and propose the Spanish word "posibilidades" as a translation of odds and "razón de posibilidades" as a translation of odds ratio.

  8. Odds ratios and confidence intervals: a review for the pediatric oncology clinician.

    PubMed

    Laing, Catherine M; Rankin, James A

    2011-01-01

    Professional registered nurses (RNs) are active participants in seeking and interpreting research evidence. To facilitate knowledge transfer for RNs at the bedside, it behooves researchers to present their findings in a format that facilitates understanding. There is also an expectation that clinicians are capable of interpreting results in a meaningful way. It is important to be able to understand and interpret research reports where statistical methods are used as part of providing the safest and best care for patients. The purpose of this article is to describe the basic concepts of odds ratios and confidence intervals used in research. These statistical measures are used frequently in quantitative research and are often the principle measure of association that is reported. The more comfortable pediatric oncology clinicians are with the interpretation of odds ratios and confidence intervals, the better equipped they will be to bring relevant research results from the "bench" to the bedside.

  9. Isomer residual ratio of odd-odd isotope {sup 180}Ta in supernova nucleosynthsis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi; Mathews, Grant

    2010-06-01

    The nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta has remained an unsolved problem and as its origin many nucleosynthesis mechanisms have been proposed. This isotope has the unique feature that the naturally occurring abundance of {sup 180}Ta is actually a meta-stable isomer (half-life of >=10{sup 15} yr), while the ground state is a 1{sup +} unstable state which beta-decays with a half-life of only 8.15 hr. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of {sup 180}Ta meta-stable isomer residual ratio after supernova neutrino-induced reactions. This residual isomer ratio is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this naturally occurring rare isotope. We have constructed a new model under temperature evolution after type II supernova explosion. We include the explicit linking between the isomer and all known excited states and found that the residual ratio is insensitive to astrophysical parameters such as neutrino energy spectrum, explosion energy, decay time constant. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a neutrino process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV.

  10. Understanding relative risk, odds ratio, and related terms: as simple as it can get.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2015-07-01

    Risk, and related measures of effect size (for categorical outcomes) such as relative risks and odds ratios, are frequently presented in research articles. Not all readers know how these statistics are derived and interpreted, nor are all readers aware of their strengths and limitations. This article examines several measures, including absolute risk, attributable risk, attributable risk percent, population attributable risk percent, relative risk, odds, odds ratio, and others. The concept and method of calculation are explained for each of these in simple terms and with the help of examples. The interpretation of each is presented in plain English rather than in technical language. Clinically useful notes are provided, wherever necessary.

  11. How Much More Likely? The Implications of Odds Ratios for Probabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liberman, Akiva M.

    2005-01-01

    Binary outcome data are common in research and evaluation. They are often analyzed using logistic regression, and results of these analyses are often reported in the form of odds ratios (ORs). However, ORs are not directly interpretable in the metric commonly used in policy-relevant discussions, which concerns probabilities. ORs are unfamiliar to…

  12. An Odds Ratio Approach for Detecting DDF under the Nested Logit Modeling Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terzi, Ragip; Suh, Youngsuk

    2015-01-01

    An odds ratio approach (ORA) under the framework of a nested logit model was proposed for evaluating differential distractor functioning (DDF) in multiple-choice items and was compared with an existing ORA developed under the nominal response model. The performances of the two ORAs for detecting DDF were investigated through an extensive…

  13. Exact Confidence Intervals for the Relative Risk and the Odds Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weizhen; Shan, Guogen

    2015-01-01

    Summary For comparison of proportions there are three commonly used measurements: the difference, the relative risk and the odds ratio. Significant effort has been spent on exact confidence intervals for the difference. In this paper, we focus on the relative risk and the odds ratio when data are collected from a matched-pairs design or a two-arm independent binomial experiment. Exact one-sided and two-sided confidence intervals are proposed for each configuration of two measurements and two types of data. The one-sided intervals are constructed using an inductive order, they are the smallest under the order, and are admissible under the set inclusion criterion. The two-sided intervals are the intersection of two one-sided intervals. R codes are developed to implement the intervals. Supplementary materials for this article are available online. PMID:26228945

  14. Odds of Getting Adequate Physical Activity by Dog Walking

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Jesus; Epping, Jacqueline N.; Owens, Chantelle J.; Brown, David R.; Lankford, Tina J.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Caspersen, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine the likelihood that adult dog owners who walk their dogs will achieve a healthy level of moderate-intensity (MI) physical activity (PA), defined as at least 150 mins/wk. Methods We conducted a systematic search of 6 databases with data from 1990–2012 on dog owners’ PA, to identify those who achieved MIPA. To compare dog-walkers’ performance with non–dog walkers, we used a random effects model to estimate the unadjusted odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results We retrieved 9 studies that met our inclusion criterion and allowed OR calculations. These yielded data on 6980 dog owners aged 18 to 81 years (41% men). Among them, 4463 (63.9%) walked their dogs. Based on total weekly PA, 2710 (60.7%) dog walkers, and 950 (37.7%) non–dog walkers achieved at least MIPA. The estimated OR was 2.74 (95% CI 2.09–3.60). Conclusion Across 9 published studies, almost 2 in 3 dog owners reported walking their dogs, and the walkers are more than 2.5 times more likely to achieve at least MIPA. These findings suggest that dog walking may be a viable strategy for dog owners to help achieve levels of PA that may enhance their health. PMID:24733365

  15. Odds Ratio Product of Sleep EEG as a Continuous Measure of Sleep State

    PubMed Central

    Younes, Magdy; Ostrowski, Michele; Soiferman, Marc; Younes, Henry; Younes, Mark; Raneri, Jill; Hanly, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: To develop and validate an algorithm that provides a continuous estimate of sleep depth from the electroencephalogram (EEG). Design: Retrospective analysis of polysomnograms. Setting: Research laboratory. Participants: 114 patients who underwent clinical polysomnography in sleep centers at the University of Manitoba (n = 58) and the University of Calgary (n = 56). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Power spectrum of EEG was determined in 3-second epochs and divided into delta, theta, alpha-sigma, and beta frequency bands. The range of powers in each band was divided into 10 aliquots. EEG patterns were assigned a 4-digit number that reflects the relative power in the 4 frequency ranges (10,000 possible patterns). Probability of each pattern occurring in 30-s epochs staged awake was determined, resulting in a continuous probability value from 0% to 100%. This was divided by 40 (% of epochs staged awake) producing the odds ratio product (ORP), with a range of 0–2.5. In validation testing, average ORP decreased progressively as EEG progressed from wakefulness (2.19 ± 0.29) to stage N3 (0.13 ± 0.05). ORP < 1.0 predicted sleep and ORP > 2.0 predicted wakefulness in > 95% of 30-s epochs. Epochs with intermediate ORP occurred in unstable sleep with a high arousal index (> 70/h) and were subject to much interrater scoring variability. There was an excellent correlation (r2 = 0.98) between ORP in current 30-s epochs and the likelihood of arousal or awakening occurring in the next 30-s epoch. Conclusions: Our results support the use of the odds ratio product (ORP) as a continuous measure of sleep depth. Citation: Younes M, Ostrowski M, Soiferman M, Younes H, Younes M, Raneri J, Hanly P. Odds ratio product of sleep EEG as a continuous measure of sleep state. SLEEP 2015;38(4):641–654. PMID:25348125

  16. A method to compute multiplicity corrected confidence intervals for odds ratios and other relative effect estimates.

    PubMed

    Efird, Jimmy Thomas; Nielsen, Susan Searles

    2008-12-01

    Epidemiological studies commonly test multiple null hypotheses. In some situations it may be appropriate to account for multiplicity using statistical methodology rather than simply interpreting results with greater caution as the number of comparisons increases. Given the one-to-one relationship that exists between confidence intervals and hypothesis tests, we derive a method based upon the Hochberg step-up procedure to obtain multiplicity corrected confidence intervals (CI) for odds ratios (OR) and by analogy for other relative effect estimates. In contrast to previously published methods that explicitly assume knowledge of P values, this method only requires that relative effect estimates and corresponding CI be known for each comparison to obtain multiplicity corrected CI.

  17. Likelihood ratio and posterior odds in forensic genetics: Two sides of the same coin.

    PubMed

    Caliebe, Amke; Walsh, Susan; Liu, Fan; Kayser, Manfred; Krawczak, Michael

    2017-05-01

    It has become widely accepted in forensics that, owing to a lack of sensible priors, the evidential value of matching DNA profiles in trace donor identification or kinship analysis is most sensibly communicated in the form of a likelihood ratio (LR). This restraint does not abate the fact that the posterior odds (PO) would be the preferred basis for returning a verdict. A completely different situation holds for Forensic DNA Phenotyping (FDP), which is aimed at predicting externally visible characteristics (EVCs) of a trace donor from DNA left behind at the crime scene. FDP is intended to provide leads to the police investigation helping them to find unknown trace donors that are unidentifiable by DNA profiling. The statistical models underlying FDP typically yield posterior odds (PO) for an individual possessing a certain EVC. This apparent discrepancy has led to confusion as to when LR or PO is the appropriate outcome of forensic DNA analysis to be communicated to the investigating authorities. We thus set out to clarify the distinction between LR and PO in the context of forensic DNA profiling and FDP from a statistical point of view. In so doing, we also addressed the influence of population affiliation on LR and PO. In contrast to the well-known population dependency of the LR in DNA profiling, the PO as obtained in FDP may be widely population-independent. The actual degree of independence, however, is a matter of (i) how much of the causality of the respective EVC is captured by the genetic markers used for FDP and (ii) by the extent to which non-genetic such as environmental causal factors of the same EVC are distributed equally throughout populations. The fact that an LR should be communicated in cases of DNA profiling whereas the PO are suitable for FDP does not conflict with theory, but rather reflects the immanent differences between these two forensic applications of DNA information.

  18. Beta-binomial model for meta-analysis of odds ratios.

    PubMed

    Bakbergenuly, Ilyas; Kulinskaya, Elena

    2017-01-25

    In meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), heterogeneity between the studies is usually modelled via the additive random effects model (REM). An alternative, multiplicative REM for ORs uses overdispersion. The multiplicative factor in this overdispersion model (ODM) can be interpreted as an intra-class correlation (ICC) parameter. This model naturally arises when the probabilities of an event in one or both arms of a comparative study are themselves beta-distributed, resulting in beta-binomial distributions. We propose two new estimators of the ICC for meta-analysis in this setting. One is based on the inverted Breslow-Day test, and the other on the improved gamma approximation by Kulinskaya and Dollinger (2015, p. 26) to the distribution of Cochran's Q. The performance of these and several other estimators of ICC on bias and coverage is studied by simulation. Additionally, the Mantel-Haenszel approach to estimation of ORs is extended to the beta-binomial model, and we study performance of various ICC estimators when used in the Mantel-Haenszel or the inverse-variance method to combine ORs in meta-analysis. The results of the simulations show that the improved gamma-based estimator of ICC is superior for small sample sizes, and the Breslow-Day-based estimator is the best for n⩾100. The Mantel-Haenszel-based estimator of OR is very biased and is not recommended. The inverse-variance approach is also somewhat biased for ORs≠1, but this bias is not very large in practical settings. Developed methods and R programs, provided in the Web Appendix, make the beta-binomial model a feasible alternative to the standard REM for meta-analysis of ORs. © 2017 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Estimation of conditional and marginal odds ratios using the prognostic score.

    PubMed

    Hajage, David; De Rycke, Yann; Chauvet, Guillaume; Tubach, Florence

    2017-02-20

    Introduced by Hansen in 2008, the prognostic score (PGS) has been presented as 'the prognostic analogue of the propensity score' (PPS). PPS-based methods are intended to estimate marginal effects. Most previous studies evaluated the performance of existing PGS-based methods (adjustment, stratification and matching using the PGS) in situations in which the theoretical conditional and marginal effects are equal (i.e., collapsible situations). To support the use of PGS framework as an alternative to the PPS framework, applied researchers must have reliable information about the type of treatment effect estimated by each method. We propose four new PGS-based methods, each developed to estimate a specific type of treatment effect. We evaluated the ability of existing and new PGS-based methods to estimate the conditional treatment effect (CTE), the (marginal) average treatment effect on the whole population (ATE), and the (marginal) average treatment effect on the treated population (ATT), when the odds ratio (a non-collapsible estimator) is the measure of interest. The performance of PGS-based methods was assessed by Monte Carlo simulations and compared with PPS-based methods and multivariate regression analysis. Existing PGS-based methods did not allow for estimating the ATE and showed unacceptable performance when the proportion of exposed subjects was large. When estimating marginal effects, PPS-based methods were too conservative, whereas the new PGS-based methods performed better with low prevalence of exposure, and had coverages closer to the nominal value. When estimating CTE, the new PGS-based methods performed as well as traditional multivariate regression. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. The Overall Odds Ratio as an Intuitive Effect Size Index for Multiple Logistic Regression: Examination of Further Refinements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Marcus, Justin

    2012-01-01

    This study used Monte Carlo simulation to examine the properties of the overall odds ratio (OOR), which was recently introduced as an index for overall effect size in multiple logistic regression. It was found that the OOR was relatively independent of study base rate and performed better than most commonly used R-square analogs in indexing model…

  1. Body mass index, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption and cancers of the oral cavity, pharynx, and larynx: modeling odds ratios in pooled case-control data.

    PubMed

    Lubin, Jay H; Gaudet, Mia M; Olshan, Andrew F; Kelsey, Karl; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Dal Maso, Luigino; Daudt, Alexander W; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Wünsch-Filho, Victor; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Mates, Ioan Nicolae; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana; Morgenstern, Hal; Muscat, Joshua; Eluf Neto, Jose; Purdue, Mark P; Rudnai, Peter; Schwartz, Stephen M; Shangina, Oxana; Sturgis, Erich M; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonilia; Talamini, Renato; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Hashibe, Mia; Hayes, Richard B

    2010-06-15

    Odds ratios for head and neck cancer increase with greater cigarette and alcohol use and lower body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height(2) (m(2))). Using data from the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium, the authors conducted a formal analysis of BMI as a modifier of smoking- and alcohol-related effects. Analysis of never and current smokers included 6,333 cases, while analysis of never drinkers and consumers of < or =10 drinks/day included 8,452 cases. There were 8,000 or more controls, depending on the analysis. Odds ratios for all sites increased with lower BMI, greater smoking, and greater drinking. In polytomous regression, odds ratios for BMI (P = 0.65), smoking (P = 0.52), and drinking (P = 0.73) were homogeneous for oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers. Odds ratios for BMI and drinking were greater for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while smoking odds ratios were greater for laryngeal cancer (P < 0.01). Lower BMI enhanced smoking- and drinking-related odds ratios for oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer (P < 0.01), while BMI did not modify smoking and drinking odds ratios for laryngeal cancer. The increased odds ratios for all sites with low BMI may suggest related carcinogenic mechanisms; however, BMI modification of smoking and drinking odds ratios for cancer of the oral cavity/pharynx but not larynx cancer suggests additional factors specific to oral cavity/pharynx cancer.

  2. Np.OR: an S-Plus function for pointwise nonparametric estimation of odds-ratios of continuous predictors.

    PubMed

    Saez, Marc; Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2003-06-01

    Calculating odds ratios (OR) and corresponding confidence intervals (CI) for exposures that have been measured using a continuous scale, presents important limitations in the traditional practice of epidemiology. Our objective is to describe an S-Plus function, that we called np.OR, that allows the computation of the pointwise estimates of the ORs as well as their corresponding CIs of continuous predictors introduced nonlinearly in a generalised model. The function can also be generalised to compute the pointwise estimates of categorical predictors that were introduced nonlinearly. To illustrate usage of the program we analyse the relationship between ambient temperature and total mortality in Barcelona for the period 1991-1995, while controlling for observed and unobserved confounders.

  3. The association in a two-way contingency table through log odds ratio analysis: the case of Sarno river pollution.

    PubMed

    Camminatiello, Ida; D'Ambra, Antonello; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are proposing a general framework for the analysis of the complete set of log Odds Ratios (ORs) generated by a two-way contingency table. Starting from the RC (M) association model and hypothesizing a Poisson distribution for the counts of the two-way contingency table we are obtaining the weighted Log Ratio Analysis that we are extending to the study of log ORs. Particularly we are obtaining an indirect representation of the log ORs and some synthesis measures. Then for studying the matrix of log ORs we are performing a generalized Singular Value Decomposition that allows us to obtain a direct representation of log ORs. We also expect to get summary measures of association too. We have considered the matrix of complete set of ORs, because, it is linked to the two-way contingency table in terms of variance and it allows us to represent all the ORs on a factorial plan. Finally, a two-way contingency table, which crosses pollution of the Sarno river and sampling points, is to be analyzed to illustrate the proposed framework.

  4. Correlating observed odds ratios from lung cancer case-control studies to SNP functional scores predicted by bioinformatic tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hoffman, Aaron; Wu, Xifeng; Zhang, Heping; Zhang, Yawei; Leaderer, Derek; Zheng, Tongzhang

    2008-01-01

    Bioinformatic tools are widely utilized to predict functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genotyping in molecular epidemiological studies. However, the extent to which these approaches are mirrored by epidemiological findings has not been fully explored. In this study, we first surveyed SNPs examined in case-control studies of lung cancer, the most extensively-studied cancer type. We then computed SNP functional scores using four popular bioinformatics tools: SIFT, PolyPhen, SNPs3D, and PMut, and determined their predictive potential using the odds ratios (ORs) reported. Spearman’s correlation coefficient (r) for the association with SNP score from SIFT, PolyPhen, SNPs3D, and PMut, and the summary ORs were r = −0.36 (p = 0.007), r = 0.25 (p = 0.068), r = −0.20 (p = 0.205), and r = −0.12 (p = 0.370) respectively. By creating a combined score using information from all four tools we were able to achieve a correlation coefficient of r = 0.51 (p < 0.001). These results indicate that scores of predicted functionality could explain a certain fraction of the lung cancer risk detected in genetic association studies and more accurate predictions may be obtained by combining information from a variety of tools. Our findings suggest that bioinformatic tools are useful in predicting SNP functionality and may facilitate future genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:18191955

  5. [Odds ratio between sociocultural factors, body dissatisfaction, and body mass index in university students of Hidalgo, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Zaragoza Cortes, Jessica; Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesús; Fernández Cortés, Trinidad Lorena

    2011-03-01

    After to identify risky factors involved in the prediction and prevention of eating disorders (ED), in a sample of university males and females students from an urban setting in Hidalgo. Mexico; the main purpose of this paper was to reaffirm the following assumptions: 1) Dissatisfaction with body shape is closely related to both, the influence of sociocultural factors as Body Mass Index (BMI); 2) The participating women reported more dissatisfaction with body shape, indicating greater influence of sociocultural factors than men.Transversal, descriptive and association field research was carried out in a sample of 490 students (57% females. 43% males), from 16 to 30 years old (X(-) = 19.63, SD = +/- 2.11). Multidimensional self-reported questionnaire were applied. BMI was obtained by measuring each subject's weight and height. Regarding the impact association measures obtained by Odds Ratio, there were significant association (p < 0.05) between high BMI and body image dissatisfaction. Also, statistically significant associations (p < 0.05) were found between body dissatisfaction and sociocultural factors (distress because of body image, influence of advertising, and influence of verbal messages), and between BMI and these latter, where men showed a higher risk. Findings suggest that body dissatisfaction in women, and BMI, specifically overweight in men, act like key agents of the impact of sociocultural factors in the researched sample.

  6. Non-parametric estimation of the odds ratios for continuous exposures using generalized additive models with an unknown link function.

    PubMed

    Cadarso-Suárez, Carmen; Roca-Pardiñas, Javier; Figueiras, Adolfo; González-Manteiga, Wenceslao

    2005-04-30

    The generalized additive, model (GAM) is a powerful and widely used tool that allows researchers to fit, non-parametrically, the effect of continuous predictors on a transformation of the mean response variable. Such a transformation is given by a so-called link function, and in GAMs this link function is assumed to be known. Nevertheless, if an incorrect choice is made for the link, the resulting GAM is misspecified and the results obtained may be misleading. In this paper, we propose a modified version of the local scoring algorithm that allows for the non-parametric estimation of the link function, by using local linear kernel smoothers. To better understand the effect that each covariate produces on the outcome, results are expressed in terms of the non-parametric odds ratio (OR) curves. Bootstrap techniques were used to correct the bias in the OR estimation and to construct point-wise confidence intervals. A simulation study was carried out to assess the behaviour of the resulting estimates. The proposed methodology was illustrated using data from the AIDS Register of Galicia (NW Spain), with a view to assessing the effect of the CD4 lymphocyte count on the probability of being AIDS-diagnosed via Tuberculosis (TB). This application shows how the link's flexibility makes it possible to obtain OR curve estimates that are less sensitive to the presence of outliers and unusual values that are often present in the extremes of the covariate distributions.

  7. Binary Logistic Regression Analysis for Detecting Differential Item Functioning: Effectiveness of R[superscript 2] and Delta Log Odds Ratio Effect Size Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Mª Dolores; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2014-01-01

    The authors analyze the effectiveness of the R[superscript 2] and delta log odds ratio effect size measures when using logistic regression analysis to detect differential item functioning (DIF) in dichotomous items. A simulation study was carried out, and the Type I error rate and power estimates under conditions in which only statistical testing…

  8. The Effects of Small Sample Size on Identifying Polytomous DIF Using the Liu-Agresti Estimator of the Cumulative Common Odds Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvajal, Jorge; Skorupski, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the behavior of the Liu-Agresti estimator of the cumulative common odds ratio when identifying differential item functioning (DIF) with polytomously scored test items using small samples. The Liu-Agresti estimator has been proposed by Penfield and Algina as a promising approach for the study of polytomous DIF but no…

  9. Odd + Odd = Odd: Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinitsky, Ilya; Zazkis, Rina; Leikin, Roza

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors explore the reasons why some mathematical functions are referred to as odd, and others as even. They start by recalling the definitions of both functions. Simply stated, the value of an even function is the same for a number and its opposite, whereas the value of an odd function changes for the opposite number when the…

  10. Pooling dietary data using questionnaires with open-ended and predefined responses: implications for comparing mean intake or estimating odds ratios.

    PubMed

    Swartz, Michael D; Forman, Michele R; Mahabir, Somdat; Etzel, Carol J

    2010-03-15

    In the current era of diet-gene analyses, large sample sizes are required to uncover the etiology of complex diseases. As such, consortia form and often combine available data. Food frequency questionnaires, which commonly use 2 different types of responses about the frequency of intake (predefined responses and open-ended responses), may be pooled to achieve the desired sample size. The common practice is to categorize open-ended responses into the predefined response categories. A problem arises when the predefined categories are noncontiguous: possible open-ended responses may fall in gaps between the predefined categories. Using simulated data modeled from frequency of intake among 1,664 controls in a lung cancer case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas, 2000-2005), the authors describe the effect of different categories of open-ended responses that fall in between noncontiguous, predefined response sets on estimates of the mean difference in intake and the odds ratios. A significant inflation of false positives appears when comparing mean differences of intake, while the bias in estimating odds ratios may be acceptably small. Therefore, if pooling data cannot be restricted to the same type of response, inferences should focus on odds ratio estimation to minimize bias.

  11. A case-control study of cholecystectomy and right-side colon cancer: the influence of alternative data sources and differential interview participation proportions on odds ratio estimates.

    PubMed

    Vernick, L J; Kuller, L H

    1982-07-01

    One hundred fifty patients with right-side colon cancer (i.e., patients with adenocarcinoma of the cecum or ascending colon) were compared to 150 matched left-side colon cancer controls (i.e., patients with adenocarcinoma of the descending or sigmoid colon) and to 123 neighborhood controls, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area, 1975-1978. The gastrointestinal surgical history was ascertained for all study subjects so that the presence or absence of a history of cholecystectomy could be noted. Cholecystectomy history was obtained through telephone interviews and whenever possible subsequently validated from operative and pathology reports at time of cholecystectomy. Cholecystectomy history for the colon cancer patients was also abstracted from hospital records at time of colon cancer diagnosis with an attempt to confirm the gallbladder's status through operative reports, cholecystograms, and physical examinations. Hospital records and interviews for the colon cancer patients appeared to provide accurate exposure history. Point estimates of the odds ratios and confidence intervals for intra- and inter-data source comparisons (i.e., hospital records, interviews, and hospital records and interviews combined) were comparable with similar measures of effect. Consistent odds ratio estimates appeared in both left-side colon cancer controls (1.9) and neighborhood controls (1.89). The authors suggest that changes in bile acid metabolism following cholecystectomy may be associated an increased risk of right-side colon cancer.

  12. An efficient test based on the inferential model for the non-inferiority of odds ratio in matched-pairs design.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhining; Jin, Hua; Lu, Hezhi; Jin, Yaolan

    2017-01-01

    Non-inferiority of one treatment to another based on odds ratio for the matched-pair design is a common issue in the medical research. Liu et al. derived two asymptotic tests, delta method and score test, which can be applicable for large samples but may tend to be liberal for small sample sizes. Jin et al. proposed an IM-based method that can control the type I risk well but may be somewhat conservative. In this paper, we extend the IM-based method to RIM-based test using the randomized plausibility function. We prove that our new proposed method is not only valid but also efficient. Simulation studies confirm that the RIM-based test is better than other methods. A numerical example illustrates the proposed method.

  13. A note on the use of the generalized odds ratio in meta-analysis of association studies involving bi- and tri-allelic polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The generalized odds ratio (GOR) was recently suggested as a genetic model-free measure for association studies. However, its properties were not extensively investigated. We used Monte Carlo simulations to investigate type-I error rates, power and bias in both effect size and between-study variance estimates of meta-analyses using the GOR as a summary effect, and compared these results to those obtained by usual approaches of model specification. We further applied the GOR in a real meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies in Alzheimer's disease. Findings For bi-allelic polymorphisms, the GOR performs virtually identical to a standard multiplicative model of analysis (e.g. per-allele odds ratio) for variants acting multiplicatively, but augments slightly the power to detect variants with a dominant mode of action, while reducing the probability to detect recessive variants. Although there were differences among the GOR and usual approaches in terms of bias and type-I error rates, both simulation- and real data-based results provided little indication that these differences will be substantial in practice for meta-analyses involving bi-allelic polymorphisms. However, the use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful for the synthesis of data from tri-allelic variants, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations (≤10%). This gain in power may depend on knowledge of the direction of the effects. Conclusions For the synthesis of data from bi-allelic variants, the GOR may be regarded as a multiplicative-like model of analysis. The use of the GOR may be slightly more powerful in the tri-allelic case, particularly when susceptibility alleles are less common in the populations. PMID:21645382

  14. North-south asymmetry in small and large sunspot group activity and violation of even-odd solar cycle rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaraiah, J.

    2016-07-01

    According to Gnevyshev-Ohl (G-O) rule an odd-numbered cycle is stronger than its preceding even-numbered cycle. In the modern time the cycle pair (22, 23) violated this rule. By using the combined Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) and Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot group data during the period 1874-2015, and Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) of sunspot groups during the period 1974-2015, here we have found that the solar cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule because, besides during cycle 23 a large deficiency of small sunspot groups in both the northern and the southern hemispheres, during cycle 22 a large abundance of small sunspot groups in the southern hemisphere. In the case of large and small sunspot groups the cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively, suggesting the north-south asymmetry in solar activity has a significant contribution in the violation of G-O rule. The amplitude of solar cycle 24 is smaller than that of solar cycle 23. However, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) rate in the rising phases of the cycles 23 and 24 are almost same (even slightly large in cycle 24). From both the SOON and the DPD sunspot group data here we have also found that on the average the ratio of the number (counts) of large sunspot groups to the number of small sunspot groups is larger in the rising phase of cycle 24 than that in the corresponding phase of cycle 23. We suggest this could be a potential reason for the aforesaid discrepancy in the CME rates during the rising phases of cycles 23 and 24. These results have significant implication on solar cycle mechanism.

  15. Against All Odds: Latinas Activate Agency to Secure Access to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Vicki T.; Kiyama, Judy Marquez; Dache-Gerbino, Amalia

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study seeks to understand Latinas' college-going behaviors by examining their agency and role in securing opportunity for college. The authors examine the activation of agency among 16 urban Latinas when navigating the structures influencing college opportunity through a cultural ecological model. Examples of agency are…

  16. Restricted active space spin-flip configuration interaction: theory and examples for multiple spin flips with odd numbers of electrons.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Paul M; Bell, Franziska; Goldey, Matthew; Bell, Alexis T; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2012-10-28

    The restricted active space spin flip (RAS-SF) method is extended to allow ground and excited states of molecular radicals to be described at low cost (for small numbers of spin flips). RAS-SF allows for any number of spin flips and a flexible active space while maintaining pure spin eigenfunctions for all states by maintaining a spin complete set of determinants and using spin-restricted orbitals. The implementation supports both even and odd numbers of electrons, while use of resolution of the identity integrals and a shared memory parallel implementation allow for fast computation. Examples of multiple-bond dissociation, excited states in triradicals, spin conversions in organic multi-radicals, and mixed-valence metal coordination complexes demonstrate the broad usefulness of RAS-SF.

  17. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... manage a child with ODD. Doctors, counselors and child development experts can help. Treatment of ODD involves therapy, ... exhibit oppositional behavior at certain stages of a child's development. Signs of ODD generally begin during preschool years. ...

  18. Activity ratios of thorium daughters in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Toohey, R.E.; Rundo, J.; Sha, J.Y.; Essling, M.A.; Pedersen, J.C.; Slane, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A computerized method of least squares has been used to analyze the /sup 228/Ac and /sup 212/Pb-/sup 212/Bi and daughter ..gamma..-ray spectra obtained in vivo from 133 former workers at a thorium refinery. In addition, the exhalation rate of /sup 220/Rn was determined for each subject and expressed as pCi of emanating /sup 224/Ra. This value was added to the /sup 212/Pb value determined from the ..gamma..-ray measurements to obtain the total /sup 224/Ra present, and the ratio of /sup 224/Ra to /sup 228/Ac was calculated. Values of the ratio ranged from 0.52 +- 0.32 to 2.1 +- 1.7, with a weighted mean of 0.92 +- 0.17. However, it appears that the ratio observed in a given case is characteristic for that case alone; the computed mean value may not be meaningful. The least squares fitting procedure and the overall calibration of the counting system were validated by measurements of /sup 224/Ra in the lungs of one subject postmortem, compared with results obtained from the same subject in vivo. 6 references, 5 figures.

  19. Lower Odds of Poststroke Symptoms of Depression When Physical Activity Guidelines Met: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Chris M.; Simpson, Annie N.

    2017-01-01

    Background One-third of individuals with stroke report symptoms of depression, which has a negative impact on recovery. Physical activity (PA) is a potentially effective therapy. Our objective was to examine the associations of subjectively assessed PA levels and symptoms of depression in a nationally representative stroke sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012 cycle. Moderate, vigorous, and combination equivalent PA metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week averages were derived from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and .the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines/American College of Sports Medicine recommendations of ≥500 MET-minutes per week of moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA were used as cut points. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Results Meeting moderate PA guidelines resulted in 74% lower odds of having depression symptoms (P < .0001) and 89% lower odds of major symptoms of depression (P = .0003). Meeting vigorous guidelines showed a 91% lower odds of having mild symptoms of depression (P = .04). Participating in some moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA revealed the odds of depression symptoms 13 times greater compared with meeting guidelines (P = .005); odds of mild symptoms of depression were 9 times greater (P = .01); and odds of major symptoms of depression were 15 times greater (P = .006). Conclusions There is a lower risk of developing mild symptoms of depression when vigorous guidelines for PA are met and developing major symptoms of depression when moderate guidelines met. Participating in some PA is not enough to reduce the risk of depression symptoms. PMID:27145542

  20. Odd-odd deformed proton emitters.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, L S; Maglione, E

    2001-02-26

    Proton decay from odd-odd deformed nuclei is a long-standing unsolved problem. We present for the first time an exact solution using single particle Nilsson resonances. The lifetime is found to depend strongly on the single particle level occupied by the unpaired neutron, allowing a clear assignment of its Nilsson level. The emitters 112Cs, 140Ho, 150Lu, and 150Lu(m) are considered. The agreement with the experimental data is very good with deformations 0.1

  1. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  2. Activity ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase accurately reflect carbamylation ratios. [Phaseolus vulgaris, Spinacla oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Butz, N.D.; Sharkey, T.D. )

    1989-03-01

    Activity ratios and carbamylation ratios of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPCase) were determined for leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Spinacia oleracea exposed to a variety of partial pressures of CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and photon flux densities (PFD). It was found that activity ratios accurately predicted carbamylation ratios except in extracts from leaves held in low PFD. In particular, it was confirmed that the loss of FuBPCase activity in low partial pressure of O{sub 2} and high PFD results from reduced carbamylation. Activity ratios of RuBPCase were lower than carbamylation ratios for Phaseolus leaves sampled in low PFD, presumably because of the presence of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate. Spinacia leaves sampled in darkness also exhibited lower activity ratios than carbamylation ratios indicating that this species may also have an RuBPCase inhibitor even though carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate has not been detected in this species in the past.

  3. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes: influence of reservoir species on NOx and O3.

    PubMed

    Singh, H B; Herlth, D; O'Hara, D; Zahnle, K; Bradshaw, J D; Sandholm, S T; Talbot, R; Crutzen, P J; Kanakidou, M

    1992-10-30

    Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), NO, NO2, HNO3, NOy (total odd nitrogen), and O3 were made in the high-latitude troposphere over North America and Greenland (35 degrees to 82 degrees N) during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) (July-August 1988) throughout 0-to 6-km altitudes. These data are analyzed to quantitatively describe the relationships between various odd nitrogen species and assess their significance to global tropospheric chemistry. In the free troposphere, PAN was as much as 25 times more abundant than NOx. PAN to NOx ratio increased with increasing altitude and latitude. PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species in the free troposphere and constituted a major fraction of NOy, PAN to NOy ratios were about 0.1 in the boundary layer and increased to 0.4 in the free troposphere. A 2-D global photochemical model with C1-C3 hydrocarbon chemistry is used to compare model predictions with measured results. A sizable portion (approximately 50%) of the gaseous reactive nitrogen budget is unaccounted for, and unknown organic nitrates and pernitrates are expected to be present. Model calculations (August 1, 70 degrees N) show that a major fraction of the observed NOx (50 to 70% of median) may find its source in the available PAN reservoir. PAN and the unknown reservoir species may have the potential to control virtually the entire NOx availability of the high latitude troposphere. It is predicted that the summer NOx and O3 mixing ratios in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere would be considerably lower in the absence of the ubiquitous PAN reservoir. Conversely, this PAN reservoir may be responsible for the observed temporal increase in tropospheric O3 at high latitudes.

  4. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes: influence of reservoir species on NOx and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), NO, NO2, HNO3, NOy (total odd nitrogen), and O3 were made in the high-latitude troposphere over North America and Greenland (35 degrees to 82 degrees N) during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) (July-August 1988) throughout 0-to 6-km altitudes. These data are analyzed to quantitatively describe the relationships between various odd nitrogen species and assess their significance to global tropospheric chemistry. In the free troposphere, PAN was as much as 25 times more abundant than NOx. PAN to NOx ratio increased with increasing altitude and latitude. PAN was found to be the single most abundant reactive nitrogen species in the free troposphere and constituted a major fraction of NOy, PAN to NOy ratios were about 0.1 in the boundary layer and increased to 0.4 in the free troposphere. A 2-D global photochemical model with C1-C3 hydrocarbon chemistry is used to compare model predictions with measured results. A sizable portion (approximately 50%) of the gaseous reactive nitrogen budget is unaccounted for, and unknown organic nitrates and pernitrates are expected to be present. Model calculations (August 1, 70 degrees N) show that a major fraction of the observed NOx (50 to 70% of median) may find its source in the available PAN reservoir. PAN and the unknown reservoir species may have the potential to control virtually the entire NOx availability of the high latitude troposphere. It is predicted that the summer NOx and O3 mixing ratios in the Arctic/sub-Arctic troposphere would be considerably lower in the absence of the ubiquitous PAN reservoir. Conversely, this PAN reservoir may be responsible for the observed temporal increase in tropospheric O3 at high latitudes.

  5. Structure of odd-odd 136La at high spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Tumpa; Chanda, Somen; Bhattacharyya, Sarmishtha; Basu, Swapan Kumar; Bhowmik, R. K.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Pattabiraman, N. S.; Ghugre, S. S.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-04-01

    The high spin states in the N=79 odd-odd 136La nucleus have been investigated by in-beam γ-spectroscopic techniques following the 130Te( 11B, 5 n) 136La reaction at E=52 MeV using an array, consisting of eight Compton-suppressed clover germanium detectors. Thirty nine new γ rays have been assigned to 136La on the basis of γ ray singles and γγ-coincidence data. The level scheme of 136La has been extended above the known 115 ms isomer upto an excitation energy of 4.6 MeV and spin 18 ℏ. Thirty one new levels have been proposed and spin-parity assignments for most of the newly proposed levels have been made on the basis of the deduced asymmetry ratios and polarisation information for the de-exciting transitions. The observed positive parity yrast band has been compared with the theoretical calculation, done within the framework of particle rotor coupling model (PRM) where the two odd quasi-particles are coupled to an axially symmetric core. The level structure has been discussed in the light of the known systematics of the neighbouring N=79 isotonic nuclei.

  6. Against All Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2005-01-01

    More than a decade ago, no one held out much hope for the poor, immigrant children at Kennedy Middle School. Nobody thinks that now. This article presents how Kennedy Middle School transformed and beat all the odds to be a "school to watch." In many ways, Kennedy Middle School has become a model of middle-grades improvement. Test scores,…

  7. Odd Shape Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cady, Jo Ann; Wells, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    The Odd Shape Out task was an open-ended problem that engaged students in comparing shapes based on their properties. Four teachers submitted the work of 116 students from across the country. This article compares various student's responses to the task. The problem allowed for differentiation, as shown by the many different ways that students…

  8. Covariances for measured activation and fission ratios data

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.L.; Meadows, J.W.; Watanabe, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Methods which are routinely used in the determination of covariance matrices for both integral and differential activation and fission-ratios data acquired at the Argonne National Laboratory Fast-Neutron Generator Facility (FNG) are discussed. Special consideration is given to problems associated with the estimation of correlations between various identified sources of experimental error. Approximation methods which are commonly used to reduce the labor involved in this analysis to manageable levels are described. Results from some experiments which have been recently carried out in this laboratory are presented to illustrate these procedures. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  9. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annewandter, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of all radioxenons in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radioxenons, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different diffusivities due to mass differences between the radioxenons. A previous study showed surface arrival time of a chemically inert gaseous tracer is affected by its diffusivity. They observed detectable amount for SF6 50 days after detonation and 375 days for He-3. They predict 50 and 80 days for Xe-133 and Ar-37 respectively. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations , fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic

  10. Signal-to-noise ratio in neuro activation PET studies

    SciTech Connect

    Votaw, J.R.

    1996-04-01

    It has become commonplace to compare scanner sensitivity characteristics by comparing noise equivalent count rate curves. However, because a 20-cm diameter uniform phantom is drastically difference from a human brain, these curves give misleading information when planning a neuro activation PET experiment. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) calculations have been performed using measured data (Siemens 921 scanner) from the three-dimensional (3-D) Hoffman brain phantom for the purpose of determining the optimal injection and scanning protocol for [{sup 15}O] labeled activation experiments. Region of interest (ROI) values along with the variance due to prompt (trues plus randoms) and random events were determined for various regions and radioactivity concentrations. Calculated attenuation correction was used throughout. Scatter correction was not used when calculating the SNR in activation studies because the number of scattered events is almost identical in each data acquisition and hence cancels. The results indicate that randoms correction should not be performed and that rather than being limited by the scanner capabilities, neuro activation experiments are limited by the amount of radioactivity that can be injected and the length of time the patient can stay in the scanner.

  11. Examining Changes in Radioxenon Isotope Activity Ratios during Subsurface Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annewandter, Robert

    2014-05-01

    The Non-Proliferation Experiment (NPE) has demonstrated and modelled the usefulness of barometric pumping induced gas transport and subsequent soil gas sampling during On-Site inspections. Generally, gas transport has been widely studied with different numerical codes. However, gas transport of radioxenons and radioiodines in the post-detonation regime and their possible fractionation is still neglected in the open peer-reviewed literature. Atmospheric concentrations of the radioxenons Xe-135, Xe-133m, Xe-133 and Xe-131m can be used to discriminate between civilian releases (nuclear power plants or medical isotope facilities), and nuclear explosion sources. It is based on the multiple isotopic activity ratio method. Yet it is not clear whether subsurface migration of the radionuclides, with eventual release into the atmosphere, can affect the activity ratios due to fractionation. Fractionation can be caused by different mass diffusivities due to mass differences between the radionuclides. Cyclical changes in atmospheric pressure can drive subsurface gas transport. This barometric pumping phenomenon causes an oscillatoric flow in upward trending fractures or highly conductive faults which, combined with diffusion into the porous matrix, leads to a net transport of gaseous components - a so-called ratcheting effect. We use a general purpose reservoir simulator (Complex System Modelling Platform, CSMP++) which is recognized by the oil industry as leading in Discrete Fracture-Matrix (DFM) simulations. It has been applied in a range of fields such as deep geothermal systems, three-phase black oil simulations, fracture propagation in fractured, porous media, and Navier-Stokes pore-scale modelling among others. It is specifically designed to account for structurally complex geologic situation of fractured, porous media. Parabolic differential equations are solved by a continuous Galerkin finite-element method, hyperbolic differential equations by a complementary finite

  12. Spontaneous Activity Defines Effective Convergence Ratios in an Inhibitory Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hsin-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Many neurons fire spontaneously, and the rate of this firing is subject to neuromodulation. How this firing affects functional connectivity within a neural network remains largely unexplored. Here we show that changes in spontaneous firing of cartwheel interneurons in the mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) alter the effective convergence ratio of interneurons onto their postsynaptic targets through short-term synaptic plasticity. Spontaneous firing of cartwheel cells led to activity-dependent synaptic depression of individual cartwheel synapses. Depression was rapid and profound at stimulation frequencies between 10 and 200 Hz, suggesting the presence of high release probability (Pr) vesicles at these inhibitory synapses. Weak, transient synaptic facilitation could be induced after synapses were predepressed, indicating that low-Pr vesicles are also recruited, and may thus support steady-state transmission. A two-pool vesicle depletion model with 10-fold differences in Pr could account for the synaptic depression over a wide range of stimulus conditions. As a result of depression during high spontaneous activity, more cartwheel interneurons were required for effective inhibition. Convergence of four interneurons was sufficient to compensate for the effects of depression during physiologically expected rates of activity. By simulating synaptic release during spontaneous firing, we found that recruitment of low-Pr vesicles at the synapse plays a critical role in maintaining effective inhibition within a small population of interneurons. The interplay between spontaneous spiking, short-term synaptic plasticity, and vesicle recruitment thus determines the effective size of a convergent neural network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT We examined the relationship between the structure of a small neural circuit and the properties of its individual synapses. Successful synaptic inhibition of a target cell firing requires a critical inhibitory synaptic strength. Synapses often

  13. Helium/Carbon dioxide ratios as premonitors of volcanic activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, D M; Naughton, J J

    1979-06-15

    The composition of the gaseous emissions of two fumaroles at the summit of Kilauea Volcano was monitored for môre than 2 years. Magma was released from the summit reservoir on three occasions during this period; prior to or during each event the ratios of helium to carbon dioxide in the fumarole gases decreased substantially from that observed during periods of quiescence.

  14. Tilted axis rotation in odd-odd {sup 164}Tm

    SciTech Connect

    Reviol, W.; Riedinger, L.L.; Wang, X.Z.; Zhang, J.Y.

    1996-12-31

    Ten band structures are observed in {sup 164}Tm, among them sets of parallel and anti-parallel couplings of the proton and neutron spins. The Tilted Axis Cranking scheme is applied for the first time to an odd-odd nucleus in a prominent region of nuclear deformation.

  15. What Are the Odds?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, John

    2012-01-01

    Students and mathematicians alike have long struggled to understand the nature of probability. This article explores the use of gambling activities as a basis for defining probabilities. (Contains 1 table and 1 figure.)

  16. Odds 'N' Ends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on some of the unusual mammal groups, such as platypuses, kangaroos, anteaters, and armadillos. Characteristics of these animals are given and teaching activities are described, including "Oddball Options,""Pocket Pals," and "Fact and Fancy." A reproducible handout for "Oddball Options" is included. (TW)

  17. ODD Symptom Network during Preschool.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tess E; Lee, Christine A; Martel, Michelle M; Axelrad, Marni E

    2016-08-15

    Several different conceptualizations of Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) symptoms have been proposed, including one undivided set of symptoms (DSM-IV-TR; APA 2000); two domains of symptoms subdivided into affective and behavioral; and three domains of symptoms subdivided as angry/irritable, argumentative/defiant, and spiteful. The current study utilizes a novel approach to examining the division of ODD symptoms through use of network analysis. Participants were 109 preschoolers (64 male) between the ages of three and six (M = 4.34 years, SD = 1.08) and their parents and teachers/caregivers, who provided ratings of ODD symptoms. Results are consistent with one-, two-, and three- cluster solutions of ODD, but perhaps provide most support for the three-cluster solution. In addition, results support the idea that negative affect, particularly anger, forms the core of the ODD symptom network during preschool. These results suggest the importance of targeting anger in preschool interventions for ODD.

  18. Relationship of peroxyacetyl nitrate to active and total odd nitrogen at northern high latitudes - Influence of reservoir species on NO(x) and O3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, H. B.; Herlth, D.; O'Hara, D.; Zahnle, K.; Bradshaw, J. D.; Sandholm, S. T.; Talbot, R.; Crutzen, P. J.; Kanakidou, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The partitioning of relative nitrogen in the Arctic and the sub-Arctic troposphere based on measurements conducted during the 1988 Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A) is described. The first set of comprehensive odd nitrogen and O3 measurements from the Arctic/sub-Arctic free troposphere shows that a highly aged air mass that has persisted under very cold conditions is present. A large fraction of the odd nitrogen appears to be present in the form of reservoir species such as PAN. Significant quantities of as yet unknown reactive nitrogen species, such as complex alkyl nitrates and pernitrates, are expected to be present. Together with PAN, these nitrate and pernitrate reservoir species could control the entire NO(x) availability of the high-latitude troposphere and in turn influence the O3 photochemistry of the region. The role of PAN in influencing the O3 reservoir is shown to be important and may be responsible for the increasing O3 temporal trend observed at high latitudes.

  19. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1985-01-15

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earch region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  20. Modeling level structures of odd-odd deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.; Kern, J.; Piepenbring, R.; Boisson, J.P.

    1984-09-07

    A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei has been applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation were derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings were used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Corresponding average deviations for five rare-earth nuclei are 47 keV and 7%. Several applications of this modeling technique are discussed. 18 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Nonadiabatic effects in odd-odd deformed proton emitters

    SciTech Connect

    Patial, M.; Jain, A. K.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2011-11-30

    We present for the first time, the nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach to study proton emission from odd-odd deformed nuclei. Coriolis effects are incorporated in both the parent and daughter wavefunctions and hence our formalism allows us to study their complete role on the decay widths. First results obtained for the nucleus {sup 112}Cs suggest a weak dependance on Coriolis effect. However, we are able to reproduce the experimental half-lives without assuming the exact Nilsson orbital from which the decay proceeds.

  2. Influence of bite force on jaw muscle activity ratios in subject-controlled unilateral isometric biting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Pröschel, Peter Alfred; Morneburg, Thomas Riccardo

    2010-10-01

    Ratios of muscle activities in unilateral isometric biting are assumed to provide information on strategies of muscle activation independently from bite force. If valid, this assumption would facilitate experiments as it would justify subject-control instead of transducer-based force control in biting studies. As force independence of ratios is controversial, we tested whether activity ratios are associated with bite force and whether this could affect findings based on subject-controlled force. In 52 subjects, bite force and bilateral masseter and temporalis electromyograms were recorded during unilateral biting on a transducer with varying force levels and with uniform subject-controlled force. Working/balancing and temporalis/masseter ratios of activity peaks were related to bite force peaks. Activity ratios were significantly but weakly correlated with the bite force. The subject-controlled force varied within +/-25% around the prescribed force in 95% of all bites. This scatter could cause a variation of group mean activity ratios of at most +/-6% because of the weak correlation between bite force and ratios. As this small variation is negligible in most cases, subject-control of bite force can be considered an appropriate method to obtain group means of relative muscle activation in particular when force control with transducers is not feasible.

  3. On Quantizable Odd Lie Bialgebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khoroshkin, Anton; Merkulov, Sergei; Willwacher, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by the obstruction to the deformation quantization of Poisson structures in infinite dimensions, we introduce the notion of a quantizable odd Lie bialgebra. The main result of the paper is a construction of the highly non-trivial minimal resolution of the properad governing such Lie bialgebras, and its link with the theory of so-called quantizable Poisson structures.

  4. Reflection asymmetry in odd-A and odd-odd actinium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.

    1993-09-01

    Theoretical calculations and measurements indicate that octupole correlations are at a maximum in the ground states of the odd-proton nuclei Ac and Pa. It has been expected that odd-odd nuclei should have even larger amount of octupole-octupole correlations. We have recently made measurements on the structure of {sup 224}Ac. Although spin and parity assignments could not be made, two bands starting at 354.1 and 360.0 keV have properties characteristic of reflection asymmetric shape. These two bands have very similar rotational constants and also similar alpha decay rates, which suggest similarity between the wavefunctions of these bands. These signatures provide evidence for octupole correlations in these nuclides.

  5. Theoretical description of fine structure in the α decay of heavy odd-odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Dongdong; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2013-02-01

    The newly developed multichannel cluster model (MCCM), based on the coupled-channel Schrödinger equation with outgoing wave boundary conditions, is extended to study the α-decay fine structure in heavy odd-odd nuclei. Calculations are performed for the α transitions to favored rotational bands where the unpaired nucleons remain unchanged. The simple WKB barrier penetration formula is also used to evaluate the branching ratios for various daughter states. It is found that the WKB formula seems to overestimate the branching ratios for the second and third members of the favored rotational band, while the MCCM gives a precise description of them without any adjustable parameters. Moreover, the experimental total α-decay half-lives are well reproduced within the MCCM.

  6. On the calculation of activity concentrations and nuclide ratios from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Axelsson, A; Ringbom, A

    2014-09-01

    Motivated by the need for consistent use of concepts central to the reporting of results from measurements of atmospheric radioactivity, we discuss some properties of the methods commonly used. Different expressions for decay correction of the activity concentration for parent-daughter decay pairs are presented, and it is suggested that this correction should be performed assuming parent-daughter ingrowth in the sample during the entire measurement process. We note that, as has already been suggested by others, activities rather than activity concentrations should be used when nuclide ratios are calculated. In addition, expressions that can be used to transform activity concentrations to activity ratios are presented. Finally we note that statistical uncertainties for nuclide ratios can be properly calculated using the exact solution to the problem of confidence intervals for a ratio of two jointly normally distributed variables, the so-called Fieller׳s theorem.

  7. Excited states of the 150Pm odd-odd nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Drăgulescu, E.; Pascu, S.; Wirth, H.-F.; Filipescu, D.; Căta-Danil, G.; Căta-Danil, I.; Deleanu, D.; Eppinger, K.; Faestermann, T.; Ghiţă, D. G.; Glodariu, T.; Hertenberger, R.; Ivaşcu, M.; Krücken, R.; Mărginean, N.; Mărginean, R.; Mihai, C.; Negret, A.; Sava, T.; Stroe, L.; Wimmer, K.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of excited states in the odd-odd 150Pm, completely unknown until recently, is important both for understanding double β decay of 150Nd and for nuclear structure studies in mass regions with a quantum phase transition. A large number of excited states have been determined for the first time in this nucleus by measuring spectra of the 152Sm(d,α) direct reaction at 25 MeV with the Munich Q3D spectrograph and by γ-ray spectroscopy with the (p,nγ) reaction at 7.1 MeV at the Bucharest tandem accelerator. Some of these levels correspond to peaks recently observed with the (3He,t) reaction at 140 MeV/u.

  8. Activity ratio between antiprostacyclin and antiaggregating effects of acetylsalicylic acid, indometacin and ditazole.

    PubMed

    Caprino, L; Togna, G; Antonetti, F; Borrelli, F

    1980-01-01

    The effects of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) indometacin and ditazole on prostacyclin production from rabbit aortic rings were studied in comparison to their inhibiting activity on platelet aggregation. The result were expressed as the ratio between the drug dose inhibiting by 50% prostacycline production and the minimum oral antiaggregating dose. The following ratios were found: 2.4 for ASA, 7.3 for indometacin and 20.4 for ditazole.

  9. Relationship between active cervical range of motion and flexion-relaxation ratio in asymptomatic computer workers.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; Park, Se-Yeon; Lee, Mi-Ra

    2011-01-01

    A high prevalence and incidence of neck and shoulder pain is present in the working population, especially sedentary workers. Recent findings have indicated that the flexion-relaxation (FR) ratio in the cervical erector spinae (CES) muscles might be a significant criteria of neuromuscular impairment and function. Additionally, the active cervical range of motion (ROM) is frequently used for discriminating between individuals with pain and those who are asymptomatic. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio in a sample of regular visual display terminal (VDT) workers. In total, 20 asymptomatic male VDT workers were recruited. Active cervical ROM was measured by a cervical ROM (CROM) instrument. Surface electromyography (EMG) was used to collect myoelectrical signals from the CES muscles, and the FR ratio was calculated for statistical analysis. Pearson correlation coefficients were used to quantify the linear relationship between the active cervical ROM and the FR ratio. The values obtained for the FR ratio in the right CES muscles correlated significantly with the active cervical ROM measured in flexion (r=0.73, p<0.01), left lateral flexion (r=0.64, p<0.01), and left rotation (r=0.60, p<0.01). Flexion (r=0.74, p<0.01) and right lateral flexion (r=0.61, p<0.01) positively correlated with the left FR ratio. Extension and right rotation showed either a very weak or no correlation with the mean value of the right and left FR ratio. Our findings suggested that the cervical FR ratio had a positive correlation with cervical movements, and that changes of the activation patterns in CES demonstrated as cervical FR ratio are associated with reduction of the cervical range of motion including flexion and lateral flexion. In addition, muscular dysfunction of the CES could occur in regular computer workers prior to occurrence of pain; this means that the FR ratio could be used to evaluate the potential

  10. Determining Linac Beam Energy from C-11/O-15 Activity Ratios in Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardman, Ryan; Shepherd, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    A method for precisely measuring the beam energy of 20-25 MeV electron linear accelerator was developed. Polyoxymethylene (Delrin) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (acrylic) samples were irradiated with an electron linac at several energy settings of the accelerator simultaneously producing C-11 and O-15 via photonuclear reactions within each of the polymers. Using gamma-ray spectroscopy the activity ratios of C-11/O-15 were measured by analyzing the decay of activity vs. time. The C-11/O-15 ratio exhibits an energy dependence due to differences in the production cross section vs. energy. The observed dependence can be matched to predictions of the activity ratio vs. energy, developed from GEANT4 Monte Carlo models of an electromagnetic shower and knowledge of the cross sections, in order to determine the energy of the beam at a sub-MeV level of precision. National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduates.

  11. Levels in doubly odd 138Pr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, G.; Bhowal, Samit; Bhowmik, R. K.; Datta Pramanik, U.; Ghosh, P.; Goswami, A.; Petrache, C.; Mukherjee, A.; Muralithar, S.; Raut, Rajarshi; Saha Sarkar, M.; Singh, A. K.; Singh, R. P.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2005-05-01

    The band structures of the doubly odd 138Pr nucleus have been investigated using the 128Te(14N, 4n)138Pr reaction at a beam energy of 55-65 MeV. Altogether six distinct structures have been established, of which the lower part of the yrast band and two side bands were known from earlier works. The observed level properties of the members of the yrast band have been compared with theoretical calculations performed within the Particle Rotor Model (PRM) with axially symmetric core. The experimental branching ratios and B(M1)/B(E2) values when compared with the theoretical results of the PRM, suggest an oblate core.

  12. Abundance ratios of oxygen, neon, and magnesium in solar active regions and flares: The FIP effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widing, K. G.; Feldman, U.

    1995-01-01

    Relative abundances of oxygen, neon, and magnesium have been derived for a sample of nine solar active regions, flares, and an erupting prominance by combining plots of the ion differential emission measures. The observations were photographed in the 300-600 A range by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) spectroheliograph on Skylab. Methods for deriving the Mg/Ne abundance ratio-which measures the separation between the low- first ionization potential (FIP) and high-FIP abundnace plateaus-have been described in previous papers. In this paper we describe the spectroscopic methods for deriving the O/Ne abundance ratio, which gives the ratio between two high-FIP elements. The plot of the O/Ne ratio versus the Mg/Ne ratio in the sample of nine Skylab events is shown. The variation in the Mg/Ne ratio by a factor of 6 is associated with a much smaller range in the O/Ne ratio. This is broadly consistent with the presence of the standard FIP pattern of abundances in the outer atmosphere of the Sun. However, a real change in the relative abundances of oxygen and neon by a factor of 1.5 cannot be excluded.

  13. Alkaline solution/binder ratio as a determining factor in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates

    SciTech Connect

    Ruiz-Santaquiteria, C.; Fernandez-Jimenez, A.; Palomo, A.

    2012-09-15

    This study investigates the effect of the alkaline solution/binder (S/B) ratio on the composition and nanostructure of the reaction products generated in the alkaline activation of aluminosilicates. The experiments used two mixtures of fly ash and dehydroxylated white clay and for each of these, varying proportions of the solution components. The alkali activator was an 8 M NaOH solution (with and without sodium silicate) used at three S/B ratios: 0.50, 0.75 and 1.25. The {sup 29}Si, {sup 27}Al MAS NMR and XRD characterisation of the reaction products reveal that for ratios nearest the value delivering suitable paste workability, the reaction-product composition and structure depend primarily on the nature and composition of the starting materials and the alkaline activator used. However, when an excess alkaline activator is present in the system, the reaction products tend to exhibit SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratios of approximately 1, irrespective of the composition of the starting binder or the alkaline activator.

  14. THE EVOLUTION AND EDDINGTON RATIO DISTRIBUTION OF COMPTON THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, A. R.; Ballantyne, D. R.

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies of the active galactic nuclei (AGNs) contribution to the cosmic X-ray background (CXB) consider only observable parameters such as luminosity and absorbing column. Here, for the first time, we extend the study of the CXB to physical parameters including the Eddington ratio of the sources and the black hole mass. In order to calculate the contribution to the CXB of AGN accreting at various Eddington ratios, an evolving Eddington ratio space density model is calculated. In particular, Compton thick (CT) AGNs are modeled as accreting at specific, physically motivated Eddington ratios instead of as a simple extension of the Compton thin type 2 AGN population. Comparing against the observed CT AGN space densities and log N-log S relation indicates that CT AGNs are likely a composite population of AGNs made up of sources accreting either at >90% or <1% of their Eddington rate.

  15. Influence of Solids-to-liquid and Activator Ratios on Calcined Kaolin Cement Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liew, Y. M.; Kamarudin, H.; Bakri, A. M. Mustafa Al; Binhussain, M.; Luqman, M.; Nizar, I. Khairul; Ruzaidi, C. M.; Heah, C. Y.

    This paper summarizes the effect of activator ratio on the processing of cement powder. Geopolymer slurry was produced via alkaline activation of calcined kaolin. Once the geopolymer slurry solidified, it was crushed and ground to obtain cement powder. Ultilizing the concept of "just adding water", hardened cement paste could be produced from cement powder. This paper concluded that solids-to-liquid and sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratios have a significant effect on compressive strength of hardened cement paste. The optimum solids-to-liquid and sodium silicate-to-sodium hydroxide ratios were 0.80 and 0.20, respectively. SEM micrographs showed that a processing route to produce cement powder by "just adding water" was possible, and the structure became denser and fewer unreacted particles were observed.

  16. The experimental isomeric cross-section ratio in the nuclear activation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vänskä, R.; Rieppo, R.

    1981-02-01

    First, the experimental isomeric cross-section ratio is discussed considering a single metastable state induced. The experimental ratio is given in a straightforward and exact formula, which is generally applicable to any incident particle activation and to any isomeric pair of an exclusive, fractional or non-existing isomeric transition decay. Second, the derived experimental isomeric yield ration is adapted for the present work where neutron induced reactions are considered and gamma-ray spectrometry is utilized in the determination of the 14-15 MeV neutron activation cross-sections and isomeric cross-section ratios for the germanium reactions, 74Ge(n, α) 71m,gZn and 76Ge(n, 2n) 75m,gGe, leading to single metastable and ground states in the product.

  17. Use of prior odds for missing persons identifications

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Identification of missing persons from mass disasters is based on evaluation of a number of variables and observations regarding the combination of features derived from these variables. DNA typing now is playing a more prominent role in the identification of human remains, and particularly so for highly decomposed and fragmented remains. The strength of genetic associations, by either direct or kinship analyses, is often quantified by calculating a likelihood ratio. The likelihood ratio can be multiplied by prior odds based on nongenetic evidence to calculate the posterior odds, that is, by applying Bayes' Theorem, to arrive at a probability of identity. For the identification of human remains, the path creating the set and intersection of variables that contribute to the prior odds needs to be appreciated and well defined. Other than considering the total number of missing persons, the forensic DNA community has been silent on specifying the elements of prior odds computations. The variables include the number of missing individuals, eyewitness accounts, anthropological features, demographics and other identifying characteristics. The assumptions, supporting data and reasoning that are used to establish a prior probability that will be combined with the genetic data need to be considered and justified. Otherwise, data may be unintentionally or intentionally manipulated to achieve a probability of identity that cannot be supported and can thus misrepresent the uncertainty with associations. The forensic DNA community needs to develop guidelines for objectively computing prior odds. PMID:21707977

  18. Effect of aspect ratio and surface defects on the photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanorods

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinyu; Qin, Jiaqian; Xue, Yanan; Yu, Pengfei; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Limin; Liu, Riping

    2014-01-01

    ZnO, aside from TiO2, has been considered as a promising material for purification and disinfection of water and air, and remediation of hazardous waste, owing to its high activity, environment-friendly feature and lower cost. However, their poor visible light utilization greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of different aspect ratios of the ZnO nanorods with surface defects by mechanical-assisted thermal decomposition method. The experiments revealed that ZnO nanorods with higher aspect ratio and surface defects show significantly higher photocatalytic performances. PMID:24699790

  19. Determination of thorium concentrations and activity ratios in silicate rocks by alpha spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, R N; Marques, L S; Nicolai, S H A; Ribeiro, F B

    2004-01-01

    A detailed radiochemical procedure for alpha spectrometry measurements of thorium concentrations and of 230Th/232Th activity ratios in silicates is presented. The Th behaviour, during each step of the chemical process, was investigated by using a 234Th tracer, which is a gamma-ray emitter. The described chemical processing provides relatively high thorium yields, which varied between 56% and 88%, in the analysis of GB-1 (granite) and BB-1 (basalt) Brazilian geological standards. Also, the application of the established radiochemical method allowed a determination of both Th concentrations and activity ratios with high reproducibility, on the order of 2%. The estimation of the concentration result accuracy is also about 2%, which was calculated by using published data obtained from neutron activation analysis as reference values.

  20. Odds of observing the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlen, A.

    2010-03-15

    Eternal inflation predicts that our observable universe lies within a bubble (or pocket universe) embedded in a volume of inflating space. The interior of the bubble undergoes inflation and standard cosmology, while the bubble walls expand outward and collide with other neighboring bubbles. The collisions provide either an opportunity to make a direct observation of the multiverse or, if they produce unacceptable anisotropy, a threat to inflationary theory. The probability of an observer in our bubble detecting the effects of collisions has an absolute upper bound set by the odds of being in the part of our bubble that lies in the forward light cone of a collision; in the case of collisions with bubbles of identical vacua, this bound is given by the bubble nucleation rate times (H{sub O}/H{sub I}){sup 2}, where H{sub O} is the Hubble scale outside the bubbles and H{sub I} is the scale of the second round of inflation that occurs inside our bubble. Similar results were obtained by Freigovel et al. using a different method for the case of collisions with bubbles of much larger cosmological constant; here, it is shown to hold in the case of collisions with identical bubbles as well.

  1. A High Aspect Ratio Microelectrode Array for Mapping Neural Activity in-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kibler, Andrew B.; Jamieson, Brian G.; Durand, Dominique M.

    2011-01-01

    A novel high-aspect-ratio penetrating microelectrode array was designed and fabricated for the purpose of recording neural activity. The array allows two dimensional recording of 64 sites in vitro with high aspect ratio penetrating electrodes. Traditional surface electrode arrays, although easy to fabricate, do not penetrate to the viable tissue such as central hippocampus slices and thus have a lower signal/noise ratio and lower selectivity than a penetrating array. In the unfolded hippocampus preparation, the CA1–CA3 pyramidal cell layer in the whole unfolded rodent hippocampus preparation is encased by the alveus on one side and the Schaffer tract on the other and requires penetrating electrodes for high signal to noise ratio recording. An array of 64 electrode spikes, each with a target height of 200 μm and diameter of 20μm, was fabricated in silicon on a transparent glass substrate. The impedance of the individual electrodes was measured to be approximately 1.5MΩ± 497kΩ. The signal to noise ratio was measured and found to be 19.4 ± 3 dB compared to 3.9 ± 0.8 dB S/N for signals obtained with voltage sensitive dye RH414. A mouse unfolded hippocampus preparation was bathed in solution containing 50 micro-molar 4-Amino Pyridine and a complex two dimensional wave of activity was recorded using the array. These results indicate that this novel penetrating electrode array is able to obtain data superior to that of voltage sensitive dye techniques for broad field two-dimensional neuronal activity recording. When used with the unfolded hippocampus preparation, the combination forms a uniquely capable tool for imaging hippocampal network activity in the entire hippocampus. PMID:22179041

  2. General parity-odd CMB bispectrum estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2014-05-01

    We develop a methodology for estimating parity-odd bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). This is achieved through the extension of the original separable modal methodology to parity-odd bispectrum domains (ℓ{sub 1}+ℓ{sub 2}+ℓ{sub 3} = odd). Through numerical tests of the parity-odd modal decomposition with some theoretical bispectrum templates, we verify that the parity-odd modal methodology can successfully reproduce the CMB bispectrum, without numerical instabilities. We also present simulated non-Gaussian maps produced by modal-decomposed parity-odd bispectra, and show the consistency with the exact results. Our new methodology is applicable to all types of parity-odd temperature and polarization bispectra.

  3. Optimal waist-to-hip ratios in women activate neural reward centers in men.

    PubMed

    Platek, Steven M; Singh, Devendra

    2010-02-05

    Secondary sexual characteristics convey information about reproductive potential. In the same way that facial symmetry and masculinity, and shoulder-to-hip ratio convey information about reproductive/genetic quality in males, waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR) is a phenotypic cue to fertility, fecundity, neurodevelopmental resources in offspring, and overall health, and is indicative of "good genes" in women. Here, using fMRI, we found that males show activation in brain reward centers in response to naked female bodies when surgically altered to express an optimal (approximately 0.7) WHR with redistributed body fat, but relatively unaffected body mass index (BMI). Relative to presurgical bodies, brain activation to postsurgical bodies was observed in bilateral orbital frontal cortex. While changes in BMI only revealed activation in visual brain substrates, changes in WHR revealed activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, an area associated with reward processing and decision-making. When regressing ratings of attractiveness on brain activation, we observed activation in forebrain substrates, notably the nucleus accumbens, a forebrain nucleus highly involved in reward processes. These findings suggest that an hourglass figure (i.e., an optimal WHR) activates brain centers that drive appetitive sociality/attention toward females that represent the highest-quality reproductive partners. This is the first description of a neural correlate implicating WHR as a putative honest biological signal of female reproductive viability and its effects on men's neurological processing.

  4. Microwave synthesis and photocatalytic activities of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Fazhe; Zhao, Zengdian; Qiao, Xueliang; Tan, Fatang; Wang, Wei

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • We synthesized linked ZnO nanorods by a facile microwave method. • The effect of reaction parameters on ZnO was investigated. • ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios were prepared. • The photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods was evaluated. - Abstract: Linked ZnO nanorods have been successfully prepared via a facile microwave method without any post-synthesis treatment. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicated the precursor had completely transformed into the pure ZnO crystal. The images of field emitting scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) showed that linked ZnO nanorods consisted predominantly of ZnO bipods. The formation process of the ZnO bipods was clearly discussed. ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios have been obtained by tuning the concentrations of reagents and microwave power. Moreover, the photocatalytic performance of ZnO bipods with different aspect ratios for degradation of methylene blue was systematically evaluated. The results of photocatalytic experiments showed that the photocatalytic activity increased with the aspect ratios of ZnO bipods increased. The reason is that ZnO bipods with larger aspect ratio have higher surface area, which can absorb more MB molecules to react with ·OH radicals.

  5. Effect of food:microorganism ratio in activated sludge foam control.

    PubMed

    Chua, H; Yu, P H; Sin, S N; Tan, K N

    2000-01-01

    Foaming is a common operational problem in activated sludge processes that often adversely affects the quality of the treated effluent. Overgrowth of the filamentous Nocardia spp. in the microbial ecosystem was previously identified as the cause of foaming. In the present study, the specific growth rate of Nocardia amarae was found to be much higher than that of nonfilamentous bacteria under food:microorganism (F:M) ratios lower than 0.5 mg of biological oxygen demand (BOD)/(mg of mixed liquor suspended solids [MLSS].d). This indicated that filamentous overgrowth may occur in normal activated sludge processes that are continually operated under the usual F:M range of 0.2-0.6 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d). A novel two-component feast-fast operation (FFO) that capitalized on the sensitivity of filamentous bacteria to F:M ratio was designed to prevent and control foaming problems. The F:M ratio in the "feasting" aeration unit was 0.8 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d) whereas that in the "fasting" aeration unit was 0.2 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d). The FFO resulted in an overall process F:M ratio that still remained within the normal range, while avoiding prolonged exposure of the activated sludge ecosystem to an F:M ratio below 0.5 mg of BOD/(mg of MLSS.d). The FFO suppressed the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria without adversely affecting the organic treatment efficiency of the modified process.

  6. Increased lactate/pyruvate ratio augments blood flow in physiologically activated human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintun, Mark A.; Vlassenko, Andrei G.; Rundle, Melissa M.; Raichle, Marcus E.

    2004-01-01

    The factors regulating cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes in physiological activation remain the subject of great interest and debate. Recent experimental studies suggest that an increase in cytosolic NADH mediates increased blood flow in the working brain. Lactate injection should elevate NADH levels by increasing the lactate/pyruvate ratio, which is in near equilibrium with the NADH/NAD+ ratio. We studied CBF responses to bolus lactate injection at rest and in visual stimulation by using positron-emission tomography in seven healthy volunteers. Bolus lactate injection augmented the CBF response to visual stimulation by 38-53% in regions of the visual cortex but had no effect on the resting CBF or the whole-brain CBF. These lactate-induced CBF increases correlated with elevations in plasma lactate/pyruvate ratios and in plasma lactate levels but not with plasma pyruvate levels. Our observations support the hypothesis that an increase in the NADH/NAD+ ratio activates signaling pathways to selectively increase CBF in the physiologically stimulated brain regions.

  7. UPPER BODY PUSH AND PULL STRENGTH RATIO IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Hanney, William J.; Pabian, Patrick; Kolber, Morey J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Agonist to antagonist strength data is commonly analyzed due to its association with injury and performance. The purpose of this study was to examine the agonist to antagonist ratio of upper body strength using two simple field tests (timed push up/timed modified pull up) in recreationally active adults and to establish the basis for reference standards. Methods: One hundred eighty (180) healthy recreationally active adults (111 females and 69 males, aged 18‐45 years) performed two tests of upper body strength in random order: 1. Push‐ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set and 2. Modified pull‐ups completed during 3 sets of 15 seconds with a 45 second rest period between each set. Results: The push‐up to modified pull‐up ratio for the males was 1.57:1, whereas females demonstrated a ratio of 2.72:1. The results suggest that for our group of healthy recreationally active subjects, the upper body “pushing” musculature is approximately 1.5–2.7 times stronger than the musculature involved for pulling. Conclusions: In this study, these recreationally active adults displayed greater strength during the timed push‐ups than the modified pull‐ups. The relationship of these imbalances to one's performance and or injury risk requires further investigation. The reference values, however, may serve the basis for future comparison and prospective investigations. The field tests in this study can be easily implemented by clinicians and an agonist/antagonist ratio can be determined and compared to our findings. Level of Evidence: 2b PMID:23593552

  8. Estimation of ground water residence times in the Critical zone: insight from U activity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabaux, Francois; Ackerer, Julien; Lucas, Yann; viville, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The use of radioactive disequilibria as tracers and chronometers of weathering processes and related mass transfers has been recognized since the 60'. The development, over the last two decades, of analytical methods for measuring very precisely U-series nuclides (especially, 234U, 230Th and 226Ra) in environmental samples has opened up new scientific applications in Earth Surface Sciences. Here, we propose to present the potential of U activity ratios in surface waters as chronometer of water transfers at a watershed scale. This will be illustrated from studies performed at different scales, with the analysis of U activity ratios in surface waters from small watersheds (Strengbach and Ringelbach watersheds in the Vosges Mountain, France) but also from watersheds of much more regional extension (e.g., the Upper Rhine basin or the Ganges basin). These various studies show that variations of U activity ratios in surface waters are mainly associated with 234U-238U fractionations occurring during the water transfer within the bedrock, which intensity depends on two main parameters: the petro-physical characteristics of the aquifer, principally the geometry of water-rock interfaces and the duration of the water-rock interactions. This readily explains why different U activity ratios (UAR) can be observed in the different aquifers of a continental hydrosystem and hence why UAR can be used to trace the source of river waters. For a hydrological system developed on a substratum marked by fairly homogeneous petro-physical characteristics, the main parameter controlling the UAR in waters draining such a system would be the duration of the water-rock interactions. Variations of UAR in stream or spring waters of such a system can therefore be modeled using simple reactive transport model, which allows the estimation of both the dissolution rate of the bedrock and the residence time of the waters within the aquifer.

  9. Enhanced CCR5+/CCR3+ T helper cell ratio in patients with active cutaneous lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Freutel, S; Gaffal, E; Zahn, S; Bieber, T; Tüting, T; Wenzel, J

    2011-10-01

    Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) is characterized by enhanced interferon α (IFNα) levels in serum and in tissue. Since IFNα promotes a Th1-biased immune response, we hypothesized that a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile should be a typical finding in patients with active CLE. Therefore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from patients with different CLE subsets (n = 15), healthy controls (n = 13) and patients under immunotherapy with IFNα (n = 7). T helper cells were analysed by flow cytometry for the expression of the chemokines receptor CCR5, indicative for Th1 cells, and of CCR3, indicating Th2. In addition, intracellular levels of the type I IFN-inducible MxA protein were measured. Patients with widespread active CLE skin lesions had a significantly increased expression of CCR5, whereas expression of CCR3 was decreased when compared with healthy controls. MxA expression was significantly enhanced in all investigated CLE subtypes, with the highest levels in patients with widespread skin lesions. The enhanced CCR5/CCR3 ratio closely correlated with the MxA levels in peripheral lymphocytes and with disease activity. Our analyses revealed that active CLE is associated with a systemic type I IFN effect that appears to induce a shift towards a Th1-associated chemokine receptor profile. The CCR5/CCR3 T-helper cell ratio might therefore represent an indirect marker for the disease activity in CLE.

  10. Observed parity-odd CMB temperature bispectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, Maresuke; Liguori, Michele; Fergusson, James R. E-mail: michele.liguori@pd.infn.it

    2015-01-01

    Parity-odd non-Gaussianities create a variety of temperature bispectra in the cosmic microwave background (CMB), defined in the domain: ℓ{sub 1} + ℓ{sub 2} + ℓ{sub 3} = odd. These models are yet unconstrained in the literature, that so far focused exclusively on the more common parity-even scenarios. In this work, we provide the first experimental constraints on parity-odd bispectrum signals in WMAP 9-year temperature data, using a separable modal parity-odd estimator. Comparing theoretical bispectrum templates to the observed bispectrum, we place constraints on the so-called nonlineality parameters of parity-odd tensor non-Gaussianities predicted by several Early Universe models. Our technique also generates a model-independent, smoothed reconstruction of the bispectrum of the data for parity-odd configurations.

  11. Fission product activity ratios measured at trace level over France during the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    de Vismes Ott, A; Gurriaran, R; Cagnat, X; Masson, O

    2013-11-01

    The nuclear accident of Fukushima Dai-ichi (Japan) which occurred after the tsunami that impacted the northeast coasts of Japan on March 11th, 2011 led to significant releases of radionuclides into the atmosphere and resulted in the detection of those radionuclides at a global scale. In order to track airborne radionuclides from the damaged reactors and to survey their potential impact on the French territory, the French Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety (Institut de Radioprotection et de Sureté Nucléaire IRSN) set up an enhanced surveillance system to give quick results as needed and later give quality trace level measurements. Radionuclides usually measured at trace levels such as (137)Cs and in a very sporadic way (131)I were reported. Radionuclides that we had never measured in air since the Chernobyl accident: (134)Cs, (136)Cs, the mother/daughter pairs (129m)Te-(129)Te and (132)Te-(132)I, and (140)La (from the mother-daughter pair (140)Ba- (140)La) were also reported. Except the (131)I/(137)Cs ratio, activity concentration ratios were constant. These ratios could be used to help source term assessment, or as data for transfer studies realized after the passage of contaminated air masses, typically using the (134)Cs/(137)Cs ratio.

  12. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04–2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2–2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS. PMID:24875824

  13. Redundant prepuce increases the odds of chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu-Yang; Xu, Dong-Liang; Zhao, Fu-Jun; Han, Bang-Min; Shao, Yi; Zhao, Wei; Xia, Shu-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Some published evidence has revealed that the dendritic cells can interact with pathogens that exist in the inner foreskin. This information provides a new vision that pathogens could play a role through the redundant prepuce; numerous studies have failed to find pathogens in prostates of patients who had chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS). However, no studies have reported an association between foreskin length and CP/CPPS. Hence, we conducted a retrospective case-control study of clinical data from 322 CP/CPPS patients (case group) and 341 nonCP/CPPS patients (control group). Demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and foreskin lengths were collected and analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was adopted to calculate the odds of foreskin length for CP/CPPS. According to the multivariate logistic regression results, when the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, the odds for CP/CPPS were higher with an increased foreskin (odds ratio (OR): 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-2.66). In comparison, when the glans penis was completely covered by the foreskin, the OR value increased to 1.86 (95% CI, 1.2-2.88). The study results showed an association between foreskin length and the odds of CP/CPPS. When the foreskin length covered up more than half of the glans penis, there were greater odds for CP/CPPS. This possible mechanism might result from interaction between pathogens and DCs in the inner foreskin, consequently activating T-cells to mediate allergic inflammation in the prostate and producing the autoimmunizations causing CP/CPPS.

  14. Temporal variability of local abundance, sex ratio and activity in the Sardinian chalk hill blue butterfly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casula, P.; Nichols, J.D.

    2003-01-01

    When capturing and marking of individuals is possible, the application of newly developed capture-recapture models can remove several sources of bias in the estimation of population parameters such as local abundance and sex ratio. For example, observation of distorted sex ratios in counts or captures can reflect either different abundances of the sexes or different sex-specific capture probabilities, and capture-recapture models can help distinguish between these two possibilities. Robust design models and a model selection procedure based on information-theoretic methods were applied to study the local population structure of the endemic Sardinian chalk hill blue butterfly, Polyommatus coridon gennargenti. Seasonal variations of abundance, plus daily and weather-related variations of active populations of males and females were investigated. Evidence was found of protandry and male pioneering of the breeding space. Temporary emigration probability, which describes the proportion of the population not exposed to capture (e.g. absent from the study area) during the sampling process, was estimated, differed between sexes, and was related to temperature, a factor known to influence animal activity. The correlation between temporary emigration and average daily temperature suggested interpreting temporary emigration as inactivity of animals. Robust design models were used successfully to provide a detailed description of the population structure and activity in this butterfly and are recommended for studies of local abundance and animal activity in the field.

  15. Spatio-temporal variability in the GDH activity to ammonium excretion ratio in epipelagic marine zooplankton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Urruzola, I.; Osma, N.; Packard, T. T.; Maldonado, F.; Gómez, M.

    2016-11-01

    Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activities have been widely used in oceanographic research as an index of in situ NH4+ excretion rates (RNH4+) in zooplankton. Here we study the variability in the relationship between the enzymatic rates and the actual rates measured in epipelagic marine zooplankton between several marine ecosystems. Although both measures were significantly correlated across zooplankton assemblages, the regression models yielded different GDH/RNH4+ ratios across ecosystems. Accordingly, the error of a general equation increased up to ±42.5 % when regressing all our data together. Aside from possible interspecific differences, some of the variability was explained by the unequal allometric relation that each rate maintained with protein. Scaling exponents were 1.38 for GDH activities and 0.87 for RNH4+, which would induce uncertainties in the GDH/RNH4+ ratios when organisms with different sizes were considered. Nevertheless, the main factor causing divergence between GDH activities and RNH4+ was the potential prey availability. We compared the excretory metabolism of the zooplankton community at different productivity periods in waters off Gran Canaria, and observed an important decrease in the RNH4+ during stratification. A similar decrease was found in the internal pool of glutamate, which may be critical in the regulation of in vivo rates. Strengthening our knowledge of the relationship between GDH activities and the RNH4+ will lead to more meaningful predictions of phytoplankton regeneration and community nitrogen fluxes across large spatial scales.

  16. Microbial activities and phosphorus cycling: An application of oxygen isotope ratios in phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stout, Lisa M.; Joshi, Sunendra R.; Kana, Todd M.; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2014-08-01

    Microorganisms carry out biochemical transformations of nutrients that make up their cells. Therefore, understanding how these nutrients are transformed or cycled in natural environments requires knowledge of microbial activity. Commonly used indicators for microbial activity typically include determining microbial respiration by O2/CO2 measurements, cell counts, and measurement of enzyme activities. However, coupled studies on nutrient cycling and microbial activity are not given enough emphasis. Here we apply phosphate oxygen isotope ratios (δ18OP) as a tool for measurement of microbial activity and compare the rate of isotope exchange with methods of measuring microbial activities that are more commonly applied in environmental studies including respiration, dehydrogenase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and cell counts. Our results show that different bacteria may have different strategies for P uptake, storage and release, their respiration and consequently expression of DHA and APase activities, but in general the trend of their enzyme activities are comparable. Phosphate δ18OP values correlated well with these other parameters used to measure microbial activity with the strongest linear relationships between δ18OP and CO2 evolution (r = -0.99). Even though the rate of isotope exchange for each microorganism used in this study is different, the rate per unit CO2 respiration showed one general trend, where δ18OP values move towards equilibrium while CO2 is generated. While this suggests that P cycling among microorganisms used in this study can be generalized, further research is needed to determine whether the microorganism-specific isotope exchange trend may occur in natural environments. In summary, phosphate oxygen isotope measurements may offer an alternative for use as a tracer to measure microbial activity in soils, sediments, and many other natural environments.

  17. Theoretical Odds and Practical Ends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siddons, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a variety of experiments and activities such as refractive index by an interference method, Young's third slit, a microscope problem, uses of a hand stroboscope, an acceleration game, an aluminum thermometer, why milk boils over, and others. (BR)

  18. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON AND EMISSION LINE RATIOS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND STARBURST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Sales, Dinalva A.; Pastoriza, M. G.; Riffel, R. E-mail: pastoriza@ufrgs.b

    2010-12-10

    We study the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bands, ionic emission lines, and mid-infrared continuum properties in a sample of 171 emission line galaxies taken from the literature plus 15 new active galactic nucleus (AGN) Spitzer spectra. We normalize the spectra at {lambda} = 23 {mu}m and grouped them according to the type of nuclear activity. The continuum shape steeply rises for longer wavelengths and can be fitted with a warm blackbody distribution of T {approx} 150-300 K. The brightest PAH spectral bands (6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 {mu}m) and the forbidden emission lines of [Si II] 34.8 {mu}m, [Ar II] 6.9 {mu}m, [S III] 18.7 and 33.4 {mu}m were detected in all the starbursts and in {approx}80% of the Seyfert 2. Taking under consideration only the PAH bands at 7.7 {mu}m, 11.3 {mu}m, and 12.7 {mu}m, we find that they are present in {approx}80% of the Seyfert 1, while only half of this type of activity show the 6.2 {mu}m and 8.6 {mu}m PAH bands. The observed intensity ratios for neutral and ionized PAHs (6.2 {mu}m/7.7 {mu}m x 11.3 {mu}m/7.7 {mu}m) were compared to theoretical intensity ratios, showing that AGNs have higher ionization fraction and larger PAH molecules ({>=}180 carbon atoms) than SB galaxies. The ratio between the ionized (7.7 {mu}m) and the neutral PAH bands (8.6 {mu}m and 11.3 {mu}m) are distributed over different ranges for AGNs and SB galaxies, suggesting that these ratios could depend on the ionization fraction, as well as on the hardness of the radiation field. The ratio between the 7.7 {mu}m and 11.3 {mu}m bands is nearly constant with the increase of [Ne III]15.5 {mu}m/[Ne II] 12.8 {mu}m, indicating that the fraction of ionized to neutral PAH bands does not depend on the hardness of the radiation field. The equivalent width of both PAH features show the same dependence (strongly decreasing) with [Ne III]/[Ne II], suggesting that the PAH molecules, emitting either ionized (7.7 {mu}m) or neutral (11.3 {mu}m) bands, may be destroyed

  19. Radiolead (210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in dogs' hair.

    PubMed

    Strumińska-Parulska, Dagmara I; Szymańska, Karolina; Skwarzec, Bogdan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activity concentrations of radiolead (210)Pb as well as (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios in dog hair. The objectives of this research were also to investigate the utility of domestic animal hair as a noninvasive indicator of metal exposure for radiotoxic, naturally occurring (210)Pb and find the correlations between (210)Pb concentration in hair and age, gender, hair type or diet of analyzed animals. The highest (210)Pb concentrations were measured in a 2-year-old Shih Tzus (9.82 ± 0.53 Bq kg(-1) dw(-1)) and a 2-year-old Bichon Maltese (8.09 ± 0.42 Bq kg(-1) dw(-1)), both longhair males, while the lowest was found in a 15-year-old Yorkshire Terrier (0.44 ± 0.02 Bq kg(-1) dw(-1)), small longhair male as well. As results showed, mainly dog hair color as well as their age and gender influenced the differences in the values of (210)Pb concentrations in analyzed hair samples. Also the values of activity ratios of (210)Po/(210)Pb in analyzed dog hair samples were calculated and obtained results were similar to those observed in human hair.

  20. [Antioxidant activity of vegetable oils with various omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids ratio].

    PubMed

    Guseva, D A; Prozorovskaia, N N; Shironin, A V; Sanzhakov, M A; Evteeva, N M; Rusina, I F; Kasaikina, O T

    2010-01-01

    Antioxidant activity and the oxidative stability were investigated in flax, sesame, silybum oils and oils with different omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio. The content of antioxidants (AO) in crude oils and their reactivity towards peroxyl radicals were studied using kinetic method for addition of oil in a model reaction of cumol oxidation. There were correlations between PUFA/omega-9 and thermal stability (50 degrees C); between gamma-tocopherol content and resistantance to oxidative changes after storage at (10 +/- 2) degrees C for 6 months.

  1. DUST IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: ANOMALOUS SILICATE TO OPTICAL EXTINCTION RATIOS?

    SciTech Connect

    Lyu, Jianwei; Hao, Lei; Li, Aigen

    2014-09-01

    Dust plays a central role in the unification theory of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). However, little is known about the nature (e.g., size, composition) of the dust that forms a torus around the AGN. In this Letter, we report a systematic exploration of the optical extinction (A{sub V} ) and the silicate absorption optical depth (Δτ{sub 9.7}) of 110 type 2 AGNs. We derive A{sub V} from the Balmer decrement based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data, and Δτ{sub 9.7} from the Spitzer/InfraRed Spectrograph data. We find that with a mean ratio of (A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7}) ≲ 5.5, the optical-to-silicate extinction ratios of these AGNs are substantially lower than that of the Galactic diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) for which A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ≈ 18.5. We argue that the anomalously low A{sub V} /Δτ{sub 9.7} ratio could be due to the predominance of larger grains in the AGN torus compared to that in the Galactic diffuse ISM.

  2. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    PubMed

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p < 0.01); and in the up-right position were r = 0.7765, r(2) = 0.9153 (p < 0.01). The cut-off values of ARR and ADRR ≥ 100 presented highest specificity (99%) for the diagnosis of PA; however, quite acceptable specificity and sensitivity (> 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  3. Transient CD4/CD8 ratio inversion and aberrant immune activation during dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ching-Chuan; Huang, Kao-Jean; Lin, Yee-Shin; Yeh, Trai-Ming; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng; Lei, Huan-Yao

    2002-10-01

    The immune status after dengue virus infection was studied in dengue patients from an outbreak of serotype 3 dengue virus infection in the southern part of Taiwan during November and December 1998. Consecutive blood samples from 29 dengue patients, of whom 21 had dengue fever and 8 had dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, were collected, and the immunophenotypes of the peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined by flow cytometry. The early activation marker CD69 appeared on lymphocytes and monocytes at day 4 after the onset of fever, and declined afterward. However, a transient reverse in the CD4/CD8 ratio occurred at days 6-10 after the onset of fever. The CD4/CD8 ratio inversion was manifested in 10 of 29 dengue patients and was encountered more frequently in dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome than in dengue fever patients. Analysis of the clinical blood cell count of these 10 cases showed that increase of immature neutrophils developed at fever days 5-6, CD4(dim) or CD8(dim) monocytosis at days 6-7, and atypical lymphocytosis at days 8-10 after the onset of fever. Serum IL-6 was found at either day 7 or day 9-11. The PHA-stimulated T-cell response was depressed as well. These changes in immune parameters indicate aberrant immune activation during dengue virus infection and might be involved in the pathogenesis of dengue virus infection.

  4. Correlation of random urine protein creatinine (P-C) ratio with 24-hour urine protein and P-C ratio, based on physical activity: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Seyed-Ali; Jaipaul, Navin

    2010-09-07

    Quantification of proteinuria is usually predicated upon 24-hour urine collection. Multiple factors influence urine collection and the rate of protein and creatinine excretion. Urine collection is often incomplete, and therefore creatinine and protein excretion rates are underestimated. A random urine protein-creatinine (P-C) ratio has been shown over the years to be a reliable alternative to the 24-hour collection for detection and follow up of proteinuria. However, urine protein excretion may be influenced by physical activity. We studied 48 patients with proteinuria and varying levels of physical activity to determine the correlation between the measures of urine protein excretion. The correlation coefficient (r) between 24-hour urine total protein and random urine P-C ratio was 0.75 (P < 0.01) in the overall study population, but varied according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity in a stratified analysis: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.95 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.44 (P = not significant [NS]) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.44 (P = NS) and r = 0.58 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic- (>3500 mg/day) and non-nephrotic (<3500 mg/day) range proteinuria, respectively. The correlation appeared to be stronger between random urine and 24-hour urine P-C ratio for the overall study population (r = 0.84; P < 0.001), and when stratified according to the level of proteinuria and physical activity: r = 0.99 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.92 (P < 0.01) in bedridden patients; r = 0.61 (P = NS) and r = 0.54 (P = NS) in semiactive patients; and r = 0.64 (P < 0.02) and r = 0.52 (P < 0.05) in active patients with nephrotic and non-nephrotic range proteinuria, respectively. We conclude that the random urine P-C ratio is a reliable and practical way of estimating and following proteinuria, but its precision and accuracy may be affected by the level of patient physical activity.

  5. Structure evolution and phase transition in odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    The evolution of level structures due to the unique parity orbitals g9 /2, h11 /2, and i13 /2 in odd-mass nuclei from Zn to Am is studied within a unified framework, by correlations between ratios of excitation energies in both odd-mass nuclei and their even-even core nuclei. These plots reveal regularities that can be understood in terms of the particle-plus-rotor model, as evolutions along its three limiting coupling schemes: weak coupling, decoupling, and strong coupling, and transitions between them. Peculiar transitions between the decoupling and strong coupling schemes are found in both i13 /2 structures of neutron-odd nuclei and h11 /2 structures of proton-odd nuclei, at neutron numbers around 90 and 70, respectively. These are correlated with the critical shape phase transitions from vibrator to rotor from the even-even nuclei in the same regions and are characterized as critical phase transitions too. This behavior is corroborated with a nonmonotonic behavior of the differential variation of the two-neutron separation energies in the same nuclear regions.

  6. Topology Explains Why Automobile Sunshades Fold Oddly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Curtis; Naimi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Automobile sunshades always fold into an "odd" number of loops. The explanation why involves elementary topology (braid theory and linking number, both explained in detail here with definitions and examples), and an elementary fact from algebra about symmetric group.

  7. Intrinsic excitations in doubly odd nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P.C.

    1985-01-15

    A procedure is outlined for predicting the bandhead energies of the two-particle (intrinsic) states of odd-odd deformed nuclei based on a quantitative evaluation of the zero range n-p residual interaction energy. We present our results for 250Bk, where many such levels are experimentally known, and for 236Np and 246Am, where the information is very scarce and that too uncertain, to illustrate the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. Temporal trends in nutrient ratios: chemical evidence of Mediterranean ecosystem changes driven by human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béthoux, Jean P.; Morin, Pascal; Ruiz-Pino, Diana P.

    Over the last few decades, the Mediterranean ecosystem has experienced changes in biodiversity due to climatic and environmental change or to accidental inputs of exotic species. But the plankton community, which is the base of the food chain and remains only partly described, is also probably experiencing a drastic change. Observed changes in nutrient concentrations and ratios in the deep waters of the western Mediterranean, as well as differences between the eastern and western Mediterranean, suggest that shifts have occurred in the relative distribution of nutrients and therefore probably phytoplankton species over the whole sea. A shift from a diatom-dominated ecosystem to a non-siliceous one (as already observed in some coastal areas, with increasing algal blooms and eutrophication events) may involve the whole Mediterranean Sea and have consequences for fishery and tourism activities.

  9. Use of Dynamic Geometry as a Support to Paper and Pencil Activities for Comprehension of Ratio and Proportion Topics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Elena Fabiola; Lupianez, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The present paper shows the importance of a joint use of pencil and paper activities and of technology so that students may develop a complete understanding of ratio and proportion. A previous experience with strategy use when solving ratio and proportion problems provided background. Prompted by a recognition of the cognitive…

  10. Extremal charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2010-07-15

    Employing higher order perturbation theory, we obtain charged rotating black holes in odd dimensions, where the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian may be supplemented with a Chern-Simons term. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta. For Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with arbitrary Chern-Simons coupling constant, we perform the perturbations up to 3rd order for any odd dimension. We discuss the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge. In particular, we show that the gyromagnetic ratio g of Einstein-Maxwell black holes differs from the lowest order perturbative value D-2, and that the first correction term to g/(D-2) is universal.

  11. Use of plutonium isotope activity ratios in dating recent sediments. [/sup 238/Pu//sup 239/Pu + /sup 240/Pu

    SciTech Connect

    Beasley, T. M.

    1982-01-01

    The majority of plutonium presently in the biosphere has come from the testing of nuclear devices. In the early 1950s, the Pu-238/239+240 activity ratio of fallout debris was > 0.04; in the more extensive test series of 1961 to 1962, the Pu-238/239+240 activity ratios were quite consistent at 0.02 to 0.03 and maximum fallout delivery occurred in mid-1963. A significant perturbation in Pu isotope activity ratios occurred in mid-1966 with the deposition of Pu-238 from the SNAP-9A reentry and burn-up. Recently deposited sediments have recorded these events and where accumulation rates are rapid (> 1 cm/y), changes in Pu isotope activity ratios can be used as a geochronological tool.

  12. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model

    SciTech Connect

    Hamby, D.M.; Bauer, L.R.

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates. 11 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. The vegetation-to-air concentration ratio in a specific activity atmospheric tritium model.

    PubMed

    Hamby, D M; Bauer, L R

    1994-03-01

    Specific activity models are frequently used to estimate the concentration of tritium oxide in vegetation. In such models, a single value represents the ratio (R) of the specific activity of tritium oxide in vegetation to the specific activity of atmospheric tritium oxide. Federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency have not established a consensus default for R. Literature on this topic suggests that a site-specific distribution of R should be developed when feasible. In this study, a distribution of R is established for the Savannah River Site. Environmental tritium concentrations in air and vegetation measured on and around the Savannah River Site over a 9-y period form the basis for the analysis. For dose assessments of chronic atmospheric tritium releases at the Savannah River Site, R is best parameterized by a normal distribution with a mean of 0.54 and one standard deviation of 0.10. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission default for R is approximately equal to the Savannah River Site site-specific estimate. Based on the results, the default value for R recognized by the Environmental Protection Agency overestimates tritium concentrations in vegetation and, therefore, doses from foodstuff consumption pathways at humid sites. For the Savannah River Site, the magnitude of the error is on the order of a factor of 2. This consideration may be important if an estimated dose approaches an as-low-as-reasonably-achievable or regulatory threshold. Conversely, without the benefit of site-specific data, ingestion doses may be underestimated in regions with dry climates.

  14. Odd-frequency Superconductivity in Driven Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes in terms of parity under transformations that invert spin, space, time, and orbital degrees of freedom holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then discuss the conditions under which pair amplitudes which are odd in frequency can emerge in driven systems. Considering a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential, we investigate the influence of the drive on the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that the anomalous Green's function develops odd in frequency component in the presence of an external drive. Furthermore we investigate how these odd-frequency terms are related to satellite features in the density of states and spectral function. Supported by US DOE BES E 304.

  15. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Donana National Park, South of Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Bolivar, J. P.; Olias, M.; Gonzalez-Garcia, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-07

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Donana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and {sup 210}Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  16. Odd-frequency superconductivity in driven systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2016-09-01

    We show that Berezinskii's classification of the symmetries of Cooper pair amplitudes holds for driven systems even in the absence of translation invariance. We then consider a model Hamiltonian for a superconductor coupled to an external driving potential and, treating the drive as a perturbation, we investigate the corrections to the anomalous Green's function, density of states, and spectral function. We find that in the presence of an external drive the anomalous Green's function develops terms that are odd in frequency and that the same mechanism responsible for these odd-frequency terms generates additional features in the density of states and spectral function.

  17. Phosphate oxygen isotope ratio proxy for specific microbial activity in marine sediments (Peru Margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Y.; Blake, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    Oxygen (O) isotope ratios of biogenic apatites have been widely used as paleotemperature and environmental geochemical proxies. With improved knowledge of the phosphate O isotope effects of different P cycling pathways, the δ18O value of inorganic phosphate (δ18OP) has been proposed as a useful proxy and tracer of biological reactions and P cycling in natural environments[1,2,3,4]. Being the only way of removing P from oceanic water, sedimentary P burial is one of the most important processes during biogeochemical cycling of P. The high concentrations of organic matter and pronounced microbial activity at ODP Site 1230 along the Peru Margin result in unusually high interstitial water phosphate concentrations, which provides a unique opportunity to use δ18OP to investigate inorganic phosphate (Pi) regeneration and P cycling pathways in marine sediments. The isotopic measurements of both dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) and bulk sediment Pi show that DIP δ18OP values are affected by three different processes, which are all induced by specific microbial activities present in the sediments. In sediments at ~ 65 to 120 mbsf, porewater DIP is derived from dissolved organophosphorus compounds (DOP) through enzymatic degradation pathways, evidenced by both DIP δ18OP values and interstitial water chemistry. Measured porewater DIP δ18OP values also suggest that 4 to 8% of interstitial water DIP reflects regeneration of Pi from Porg by microbially-synthesized enzymes. Throughout the sediment column and especially at ~ 120 to 150 mbsf, DIP is released from the sediments by microbially-induced reductive dissolution of Fe-oxides, which contributes to the overall high DIP concentrations at Site 1230. The third and dominant process controlling measured DIP δ18OP values is microbial turnover of regenerated Pi. The presence of high microbial activities in organic-rich Site 1230 sediments promotes the remobilization of P and affects marine P cycling by potentially enhancing

  18. Confusion between Odds and Probability, a Pandemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Lawrence V.; Mendez, Francis A.; Bastian, Nathaniel D.; Musal, R. Muzaffer

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript discusses the common confusion between the terms probability and odds. To emphasize the importance and responsibility of being meticulous in the dissemination of information and knowledge, this manuscript reveals five cases of sources of inaccurate statistical language imbedded in the dissemination of information to the general…

  19. PARITY ODD BUBBLES IN HOT QCD.

    SciTech Connect

    KHARZEEV,D.; PISARSKI,R.D.; TYTGAT,M.H.G.

    1998-04-16

    We consider the topological susceptibility for an SU(N) gauge theory in the limit of a large number of colors, N {r_arrow} {infinity}. At nonzero temperature, the behavior of the topological susceptibility depends upon the order of the deconfining phase transition. The most interesting possibility is if the deconfining transition, at T = T{sub d}, is of second order. Then we argue that Witten's relation implies that the topological susceptibility vanishes in a calculable fashion at Td. As noted by Witten, this implies that for sufficiently light quark masses, metastable states which act like regions of nonzero {theta}--parity odd bubbles--can arise at temperatures just below T{sub d}. Experimentally, parity odd bubbles have dramatic signatures: the {eta}{prime} meson, and especially the {eta} meson, become light, and are copiously produced. Further, in parity odd bubbles, processes which are normally forbidden, such as {eta} {r_arrow} {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}, are allowed. The most direct way to detect parity violation is by measuring a parity odd global asymmetry for charged pions, which we define.

  20. Odd numbers of photons and teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enk, S. J.

    2003-02-01

    Several teleportation protocols, namely those using entangled coherent states, entangled squeezed states, and the single-photon Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen state, are all shown to be particular instances of a more general scheme that relies on the detection of an odd number of photons.

  1. Experimental level-structure determination in odd-odd actinide nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, R.W.

    1985-04-04

    The status of experimental determination of level structure in odd-odd actinide nuclei is reviewed. A technique for modeling quasiparticle excitation energies and rotational parameters in odd-odd deformed nuclei is applied to actinide species where new experimental data have been obtained by use of neutron-capture gamma-ray spectroscopy. The input parameters required for the calculation are derived from empirical data on single-particle excitations in neighboring odd-mass nuclei. Calculated configuration-specific values for the Gallagher-Moszkowski splittings are used. Calculated and experimental level structures for /sup 238/Np, /sup 244/Am, and /sup 250/Bk are compared, as well as those for several nuclei in the rare-earth region. The agreement for the actinide species is excellent, with bandhead energies deviating 22 keV and rotational parameters 5%, on the average. Applications of this modeling technique are discussed.

  2. (abstract) Odd Hydrogen in the Atmospheres of Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, Hari; Allen, Mark; Yung, Yuk L.

    1994-01-01

    The Martian atmosphere has many features in common with the terrestrial mesosphere. Both share similar pressure and temperature ranges, and much of the same chemistry operates in each. For example, the radical species H, OH, and H(sub 2)O, which comprise the odd hydrogen family, are of central importance in the catalytic destruction of CO and O(sub 3) in both atmospheres. The inclusion of recent chemical kinetics data, specifically temperature dependent CO(sub 2) absorption cross-sections, into our one dimensional photochemical model of the Martial atmosphere shows that oxidation of CO by odd hydrogen is too efficient. The incorporation of smaller cross sections for CO(sub 2) leads to an enhanced photolysis rate of water vapor, increasing odd hydrogen to the point where the predicted mixing ratio of CO in our model is substantially less than the observed value of 6.5 x 10(sup -4). Interestingly, most photochemical models of the terrestrial mesosphere underestimate the CO and O(sub 3) densities using currently accepted photodissociation and kinetic rate coefficients. This has also been attributed to an overabundance of odd hydrogen in the models. We shall show that agreement between models and observations of CO in the Martian atmosphere as well as of CO and O(sub 3) in the terrestrial mesosphere can be achieved by revising the rate constants for the reactions OH + HO(sub 2) and CO + OH within their published uncertainties. The fact that similar revisions alleviate discrepancies in both the terrestrial and Martian atmospheres warrants a re-evaluation of these key rate constants at the appropriate temperatures and pressures.

  3. Activity of sulphate reducing bacteria according to COD/SO4(2-) ratio of acrylonitrile wastewater containing high sulphate.

    PubMed

    Byun, I G; Lee, T H; Kim, Y O; Song, S K; Park, T J

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the biodegradability of acrylonitrile wastewater, microbial inhibition effect of acrylonitrile wastewater on removal efficiency and the activity of sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) according to COD/sulphate ratio. Acrylonitrile wastewater was hardly biodegradable in a biodegradability test, however, SRB activity was 57% for overall consumption of electron donor and it was relatively high value compared to 17% of reference test with glucose. COD removal of acrylonitrile wastewater was improved to 57% and 61% from 20% as the COD/sulphate ratio were 0.5 and 0.3 by sulphate addition to acrylonitrile wastewater. First order reaction rate constants k on organic removal of acrylonitrile wastewater were 0.001, 0.004 and 0.004 at each COD/sulphate ratio of 0.9, 0.5 and 0.3. Thus it was suggested that the activity of SRB was a significant factor for removing organics and sulphate simultaneously in acrylonitrile wastewater.

  4. A convenient method for experimental determination of yields and isomeric ratios in photonuclear reactions measured by the activation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolev, D.; Dobreva, E.; Nenov, N.; Todorov, V.

    1995-02-01

    A generalized exact formula is derived for a determination of the experimental isomeric ratio in any incident particle activation. For the particular case, when the activity of the ground state results from the simultaneous decay of both states and can be conveniently measured, the appropriate modification of this formula is evaluated and applied to six photonuclear reactions induced by 43 MeV bremsstrahlung. The experimental isomeric yield ratios of (γ, 3n) 110m,gIn; (γ, p) (γ, pn), (γ, 2n2p) 117m,gIn; (γ, n) 164m,gHo and (γ, 3n) 162m,gHo are deduced.

  5. Spectroscopic evidence of odd frequency superconducting order

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Avradeep; Ouassou, J. A.; Eschrig, M.; Linder, J.; Blamire, M. G.

    2017-01-01

    Spin filter superconducting S/I/N tunnel junctions (NbN/GdN/TiN) show a robust and pronounced Zero Bias Conductance Peak (ZBCP) at low temperatures, the magnitude of which is several times the normal state conductance of the junction. Such a conductance anomaly is representative of unconventional superconductivity and is interpreted as a direct signature of an odd frequency superconducting order. PMID:28106102

  6. Hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol using copper/zinc oxide-based catalyst: Effect of active metal ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabidi, Noor Asmawati Mohd; Tasfy, Sara; Shaharun, Maizatul Shima

    2016-11-01

    Effects of Cu:Zn ratio on the catalytic performance of synthesized SBA-15 supported Cu/ZnO-based (CZS) catalyst for the hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol was investigated in a fixed bed reactor. The physicochemical properties of the synthesized CZS catalyst in terms of textural properties, morphological and reducibility are presented. Methanol productivity was found to be influenced by the ratio of Cu and Zn in the catalyst formulation. Methanol selectivity of 92.1 % and CO2 conversion of 14.2 % was achieved over CZS catalyst with active metal ratio of 70 %Cu:30% Zn in CO2 hydrogenation reaction performed at 250°C, 2.25 MPa, and H2/CO2 ratio of 3.

  7. Stratospheric distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in a two-dimensional model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.

    1975-01-01

    A two-dimensional pole-to-pole chemical model of the stratosphere is developed which extends from 8 to 38 km in altitude. Atmospheric motions are simulated by mean vertical and meridional winds and eddy diffusion coefficients. Seasonally averaged distributions of important odd nitrogen (NO, NO2, and HNO3) and odd hydrogen (H, OH, HO2, H2O2) compounds are computed. Photodissociation of N2O leads to production of odd nitrogen in the stratosphere, and the odd nitrogen is ultimately removed by downward transport into the troposphere and by rain-out (modeled by a rain-out lifetime of 30 days below 8-km altitude). Results are presented for a quasi-steady state in which seasonal cycles repeat themselves. These results show significant latitudinal as well as vertical variations in the predicted species which emphasize the need for at least two dimensions in accurate stratospheric modeling. Computed concentrations are compared with observations when they exist.

  8. Classifying organic materials by oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio to predict the activation regime of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, M.; Shao, W.; Lebouteiller, R.; Martin, S. T.

    2012-12-01

    The governing highly soluble, slightly soluble, or insoluble activation regime of organic compounds as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was examined as a function of oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C). New data were collected for adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic and pinonic acids. Secondary organic materials (SOMs) produced by α-pinene ozonolysis and isoprene photo-oxidation were also included in the analysis. The saturation concentrations C of the organic compounds in aqueous solutions served as the key parameter for delineating regimes of CCN activation, and the values of C were tightly correlated to the O : C ratios. The highly soluble, slightly soluble, and insoluble regimes of CCN activation were found to correspond to ranges of [O : C] > 0.6, 0.2 < [O : C] < 0.6, and [O : C] < 0.2, respectively. These classifications were evaluated against CCN activation data of isoprene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.69-0.72) and α-pinene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.38-0.48). Isoprene-derived SOM had highly soluble activation behavior, consistent with its high O : C ratio. For α-pinene-derived SOM, although CCN activation can be modeled as a highly soluble mechanism, this behavior was not predicted by the O : C ratio, for which a slightly soluble mechanism was anticipated. Complexity in chemical composition, resulting in continuous water uptake and the absence of a deliquescence transition that can thermodynamically limit CCN activation, might explain the differences of α-pinene-derived SOM compared to the behavior of pure organic compounds. The present results suggest that atmospheric particles dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic components do not activate (i.e. insoluble regime) whereas those dominated by oxygenated organic components activate (i.e. highly soluble regime).

  9. Classifying organic materials by oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio to predict the activation regime of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, M.; Shao, W.; Lebouteiller, R.; Martin, S. T.

    2013-05-01

    The governing highly soluble, slightly soluble, or insoluble activation regime of organic compounds as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) was examined as a function of oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C). New data were collected for adipic, pimelic, suberic, azelaic, and pinonic acids. Secondary organic materials (SOMs) produced by α-pinene ozonolysis and isoprene photo-oxidation were also included in the analysis. The saturation concentrations C of the organic compounds in aqueous solutions served as the key parameter for delineating regimes of CCN activation, and the values of C were tightly correlated to the O : C ratios. The highly soluble, slightly soluble, and insoluble regimes of CCN activation were found to correspond to ranges of [O : C] > 0.6, 0.2 < [O : C] < 0.6, and [O : C] < 0.2, respectively. These classifications were evaluated against CCN activation data of isoprene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.69-0.72) and α-pinene-derived SOM (O : C = 0.38-0.48). Isoprene-derived SOM had highly soluble activation behavior, consistent with its high O : C ratio. For α-pinene-derived SOM, although CCN activation can be modeled as a highly soluble mechanism, this behavior was not predicted by the O : C ratio, for which a slightly soluble mechanism was anticipated. Complexity in chemical composition, resulting in continuous water uptake and the absence of a deliquescence transition that can thermodynamically limit CCN activation, might explain the difference in the behavior of α-pinene-derived SOM compared to that of pure organic compounds. The present results suggest that atmospheric particles dominated by hydrocarbon-like organic components do not activate (i.e., insoluble regime) whereas those dominated by oxygenated organic components activate (i.e., highly soluble regime) for typical atmospheric cloud life cycles.

  10. Serum Albumin and C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio Are Useful Biomarkers of Crohn's Disease Activity.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guangming; Tu, Jiangfeng; Liu, Lingang; Luo, Laisheng; Wu, Jiaqi; Tao, Lisha; Zhang, Chenjing; Geng, Xiaoge; Chen, Xiaojun; Ai, Xinbo; Shen, Bo; Pan, Wensheng

    2016-11-16

    BACKGROUND Serum albumin (ALB) may be low during acute inflammation, but it is also affected by nutritional status. Therefore, we hypothesized that ALB and the C-reactive protein/ALB ratio (CRP/ALB) may be associated with disease activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIAL AND METHODS Altogether, 100 patients with CD and 100 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers were retrospectively enrolled in the current study. The patients with CD were subdivided into patients with active disease (Crohn's Disease Activity Index >150) and those in remission. ALB levels, CRP levels, and lipid profiles were measured. RESULTS ALB and CRP levels and the CRP/ALB ratio were the most useful for differentiating between active and nonactive CD. ALB levels (r=-0.50, P<0.01), CRP levels (r=0.39, P<0.01), and CRP/ALB ratio (r=0.42, P<0.01) all correlated with CD activity. These correlations were more prominent in males. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that the area under the curve (AUC) representing ALB (0.79) was higher than the AUC representing CRP (0.73) or CRP/ALB ratio (0.75; P>0.05). The AUCs corresponding to ALB level, CRP level, and CRP/ALB ratio were more prominent in males versus females (P<0.05). CRP level (14.55 mg/L), ALB level (34.35 g/L), and CRP/ALB ratio (0.69) had sensitivities of 67.7%, 72.6%, and 59.7%, and specificities of 73.7%, 78.9%, and 81.6%, respectively, for CD activity. CONCLUSIONS In the present retrospective study, we found that ALB level and CRP/ALB ratio were useful biomarkers for identifying CD activity, especially in males. These results suggest that, in addition to inflammation, assessment of patient nutritional status could also aid in identifying CD activity.

  11. Uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkel, R. C.

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and 234U/238U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. 234U/238U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M=6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  12. Fluctuation theorems and entropy production with odd-parity variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyunggyu; Lee, Hyun Keun; Kwon, Chulan

    2013-03-01

    We show that the total entropy production in stochastic processes with odd-parity variables (under time reversal) is separated into three parts, only two of which satisfy the integral fluctuation theorems in general. One is the usual excess contribution, which can appear only transiently and is called non-adiabatic. Another one is attributed solely to the breakage of detailed balance. The last part not satisfying the fluctuation theorem comes from the steady-state distribution asymmetry for odd-parity variables, which is activated in a non-transient manner. The latter two parts combine together as the house-keeping (adiabatic) contribution, whose positivity is not guaranteed except when the excess contribution completely vanishes. Our finding reveals that the equilibrium requires the steady-state distribution symmetry for odd-parity variables independently, in addition to the usual detailed balance. This work was supported by Mid-career Researcher Program through NRF grant (No. 2010-0026627) funded by the MEST.

  13. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Sleep Complaints

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Kline, Christopher E.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Blair, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness and odds of incident sleep problems. Methods A cohort of 7368 men and 1155 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. The cohort did not complain of sleep problems, depression, or anxiety at their first clinic visit. Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at 4 clinic visits between 1971–2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used as a proxy measure of cumulative physical activity exposure. Sleep complaints were made to a physician during follow-up. Results Across visits, there were 784 incident cases of sleep complaints in men and 207 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, body mass index, smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, complaints of depression or anxiety at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately one-half MET) between ages 51 to 56 increased the odds of incident sleep complaints by 1.7% (1.0–2.4%) in men and 1.3% (0.0–2.8%) in women. Odds were ~8% higher per minute decline in people with sleep complaints at 2 or 3 visits. Conclusion The results indicate that maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates and risk of sleep problems is elevated, helps protect against the onset of sleep complaints made to a physician. PMID:25207930

  14. The Effect of the CO32- to Ca2+ Ion activity ratio on calcite precipitation kinetics and Sr2+ partitioning

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A proposed strategy for immobilizing trace metals in the subsurface is to stimulate calcium carbonate precipitation and incorporate contaminants by co-precipitation. Such an approach will require injecting chemical amendments into the subsurface to generate supersaturated conditions that promote mineral precipitation. However, the formation of reactant mixing zones will create gradients in both the saturation state and ion activity ratios (i.e., aCO32-/aCa2+). To better understand the effect of ion activity ratios on CaCO3 precipitation kinetics and Sr2+ co-precipitation, experiments were conducted under constant composition conditions where the supersaturation state (Ω) for calcite was held constant at 9.4, but the ion activity ratio (r=aCO32-/aCa2+) was varied between 0.0032 and 4.15. Results Calcite was the only phase observed, by XRD, at the end of the experiments. Precipitation rates increased from 41.3 ± 3.4 μmol m-2 min-1 at r = 0.0315 to a maximum rate of 74.5 ± 4.8 μmol m-2 min-1 at r = 0.306 followed by a decrease to 46.3 ± 9.6 μmol m-2 min-1 at r = 1.822. The trend was simulated using a simple mass transfer model for solute uptake at the calcite surface. However, precipitation rates at fixed saturation states also evolved with time. Precipitation rates accelerated for low r values but slowed for high r values. These trends may be related to changes in effective reactive surface area. The aCO32-/aCa2+ ratios did not affect the distribution coefficient for Sr in calcite (DPSr2+), apart from the indirect effect associated with the established positive correlation between DPSr2+ and calcite precipitation rate. Conclusion At a constant supersaturation state (Ω = 9.4), varying the ion activity ratio affects the calcite precipitation rate. This behavior is not predicted by affinity-based rate models. Furthermore, at the highest ion ratio tested, no precipitation was observed, while at the lowest ion ratio precipitation occurred immediately

  15. Activities of Pu and Am isotopes and isotopic ratios in a soil contaminated by weapons-grade plutonium.

    PubMed

    Lee, M H; Clark, S B

    2005-08-01

    An accident and fire at the former McGuire Air Force Base and Boeing Michigan Aeronautical Research Center (BOMARC) site in New Jersey resulted in dispersion of weapons-grade plutonium in particulate form to the local environment. Soil samples collected at the BOMARC site were measured for their activities and isotopic ratios of Pu and Am isotopes by radioanalytical techniques. The activities of the Pu and Am isotopes in the BOMARC soil were markedly higher than fallout levels, and they decreased nearly exponentially with increasing particle size of the soil. The measured (241)Am activity was compared to calculated values based on decay of (241)Pu. The activity ratios of (238)Pu/(239,240)Pu, (241)Pu/(239,240)Pu, and (241)Am/(239,240)Pu observed in the BOMARC soil were much lower than those attributed to nuclear reprocessing plants and Chernobyl fallout. From the activity ratios of (241)Pu/(239,240)Pu and (241)Am/(239,240)Pu, the origin of the Pu isotopes was identified as weapons-grade and the time since production of the material was estimated. Furthermore, the atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu in the BOMARC soil was remarkably lower than the fallout value influenced by nuclear weapons testing and the Chernobyl accident. The atomic ratio of (240)Pu/(239)Pu was very close to the value of the weapons-grade Pu detected from the Thule accident in Greenland. This work demonstrates the utility of radioanalytical measurements and decay calculations for defining characteristics of the source term and discriminating multiple processes that contribute to a source. Such an approach would also be needed to respond to a terrorist event involving an improvised nuclear device or radiological dispersal device.

  16. Benefits of Omega-3 Fatty Acids Supplementation on Serum Paraoxonase 1 Activity and Lipids Ratios in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Elahe; Rafraf, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ef¬fects of omega-3 fatty acids on serum paraoxonase 1 activity and lipids ratios in polycystic ovary syndrome. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 64 PCOS pa¬tients with 20-35 years old. Thirty two of the subjects had taken 4 g/day omega -3 fatty acids and 32 patients were given placebo for 8 weeks. Fasting blood samples, anthropometric measure¬ments and dietary intakes were collected at the beginning and the end of the study. Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and HDL-C were measured using the enzymatic methods. LDL-C con¬centration was calculated by the Friedewald formula and arylesterase activity of serum PON1 was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Omega-3 fatty acids significantly decreased TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios (P = 0.009 for both) and significantly increased serum PON1 activity (P = 0.048) compared with placebo. Changes in TG/HDL-C ratio were not statistically significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study in comparison to placebo group. Reduction in TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios and increase in serum PON1 activity were also significant in omega-3 fatty acids group at the end of the study compared with baseline values (P <0.001, P < 0.001, P = 0.004, and P = 0.001, respectively). Conclusion: Omega-3 fatty acids may decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease through the improvement in paraxonase-1 activity and reduction in some lipids ratio in PCOS women. PMID:24688934

  17. Use of polarization to improve signal to clutter ratio in an outdoor active imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontoura, Patrick F.; Giles, Michael K.; Padilla, Denise D.

    2005-08-01

    This paper describes the methodology and presents the results of the design of a polarization-sensitive system used to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio in a robust outdoor structured lighting sensor that uses standard CCD camera technology. This lighting sensor is intended to be used on an autonomous vehicle, looking down to the ground and horizontal to obstacles in an 8 foot range. The kinds of surfaces to be imaged are natural and man-made, such as asphalt, concrete, dirt and grass. The main problem for an outdoor eye-safe laser imaging system is that the reflected energy from background clutter tends to be brighter than the reflected laser energy. A narrow-band optical filter does not reduce significantly the background clutter in bright sunlight, and problems also occur when the surface is highly absorptive, like asphalt. Therefore, most of applications are limited to indoor and controlled outdoor conditions. A series of measurements was made for each of the materials studied in order to find the best configuration for the polarizing system and also to find out the potential improvement in the signal-to-clutter ratio (STC). This process was divided into three parts: characterization of the reflected sunlight, characterization of the reflected laser light, and measurement of the improvement in the STC. The results show that by using polarization properties it is possible to design an optical system that is able to increase the signal-to-clutter ratio from approximately 30% to 100% in the imaging system, depending on the kind of surface and on the incidence angle of the sunlight. The technique was also analyzed for indoor use, with the background clutter being the room illumination. For this specific case, polarization did not improve the signal-to-clutter ratio.

  18. Odd-parity D states in He.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhatia, A. K.

    1972-01-01

    The states considered lie below the n = 2 threshold of He(+) and decay radiatively to the lower states. The most general D-state wave function of odd parity of two electrons is examined. The results presented are optimized with respect to four nonlinear parameters for 112 terms. A mass-polarization correction is given for all the states listed. The positions of the D states, including the reduced mass and the mass-polarization corrections, with respect to the ground state of He are reported.

  19. Enhanced T-odd, P-odd electromagnetic moments in reflection asymmetric nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Spevak, V.; Auerbach, N.; Flambaum, V.V.

    1997-09-01

    Collective P- and T-odd moments produced by parity and time invariance violating forces in reflection asymmetric nuclei are considered. The enhanced collective Schiff, electric dipole, and octupole moments appear due to the mixing of rotational levels of opposite parity. These moments can exceed single-particle moments by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The enhancement is due to the collective nature of the intrinsic moments and the small energy separation between members of parity doublets. In turn these nuclear moments induce enhanced T- and P-odd effects in atoms and molecules. A simple estimate is given and a detailed theoretical treatment of the collective T-, P-odd electric moments in reflection asymmetric, odd-mass nuclei is presented. In the present work we improve on the simple liquid drop model by evaluating the Strutinsky shell correction and include corrections due to pairing. Calculations are performed for octupole deformed long-lived odd-mass isotopes of Rn, Fr, Ra, Ac, and Pa and the corresponding atoms. Experiments with such atoms may improve substantially the limits on time reversal violation. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  20. Thiamine pyrophosphate effect and normalized erythrocyte transketolase activity ratio in Wernicke-Korsakoff patients and acute alcoholics undergoing detoxification.

    PubMed

    Rooprai, H K; Pratt, O E; Shaw, G K; Thomson, A D

    1996-09-01

    Thiamine deficiency may be assessed clinically by an abnormally low specific erythrocyte transketolase activity and/or by abnormally large activation by thiamine diphosphate in vitro (or 'TPP effect'). In the present investigation, we report erythrocyte transketolase activation by TPP in acute alcoholics and Wernicke-Korsakoff patients undergoing detoxification. A new age-dependent parameter was used to improve the reliability of transketolase activity as an indicator of marginal thiamine deficiency. Thus normalized transketolase activity ratio (NTKZ), primary activation ratio (PAR) and further activation ratio (FAR) were measured in 29 acute alcoholics and 12 Wernicke-Korsakoff patients upon admission, and also on 47 control subjects. It was possible to follow up 14 of the 29 acute alcoholics after 7 days of treatment. Twenty-one per cent of the acute alcoholics and 33% of the Wernicke-Korsakoff patients, on admission to the detoxification Unit, had NTKZ values beyond the defined critical conditions for thiamine deficiency, whereas 7% of the former and 25% of the latter had PAR values beyond these critical conditions. Furthermore, all three parameters were significantly different in the Wernicke-Korsakoff patients compared to the other groups. The pattern of improvement of the different parameters on follow-up varied considerably and is difficult to explain, as only the NTKZ was statistically significant. Hence, only eight out of 14 acute alcoholics showed improvement in NTKZ, seven showed improvement of PAR and six showed improvement of FAR after treatment. Five patients showed improvement of both NTKZ and PAR and none of the patients showed improvement of all three parameters. We conclude that our findings confirm previous reports and that this modified transketolase activation test improves its reliability as an indicator of marginal thiamine deficiency.

  1. The Effect of the CO32- to Ca2+ Ion activity ratio on calcite precipitation kinetics and Sr2+ partitioning

    SciTech Connect

    Tsigabu Gebrehiwet; Mikala S. Beig; George Redden; Yoshiko Fujita; Robert W. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Engineering the precipitation of calcium carbonate, which can co-precipitate trace metal contaminants, is a proposed strategy for remediating toxic or radioactive metals in subsurface environments. Engineering precipitation of multi-component minerals will involve injection of chemical amendments that must be mixed at a molecular level to supersaturated conditions that are sufficient to promote rapid mineral precipitation relative to natural systems. In subsurface systems this often means reactant mixing zones will be formed that are characterized by gradients in solute concentrations, saturation state, and solute activity ratios. To better understand the effect of ion activity ratios on CaCO{sub 3} precipitation kinetics and Sr{sup 2+} co-precipitation we experiments were conducted under constant composition conditions where the supersaturation state ({Omega}) with respect to calcite was held constant at 9.4, but the ion activity ratio (r = a{sub co{sub 3}{sup 2-}}/a{sub Ca{sup 2+}}) ranged from 0.003 to 4.15. Results: Under the chosen experimental conditions the CaCO{sub 3} phase formed was calcite and initial precipitation rates varied from a maximum rate of 84.7 {mu}mol/ m{sup 2}/min for a carbonate to calcium activity ratio of (0.21). However, precipitation rates were found to vary with time which could be indicative of variations in precipitation mechanisms that are related to the ion activity ratio. The observed trends in the distribution coefficients for co-precipitated Sr2+ (D{sup P}{sub Sr}{sup 2+}) relative to the calcite precipitation rate (i.e. a positive correlation) indicate that increasing calcite precipitation rates increase the incorporation of Sr{sup 2+}. Conclusion: The observed variation between the rate maxima and minima based on the ion activity ratio could have great deal of implication for sequestering radionuclides (e.g. {sup 90}Sr) and other toxic metals in engineered systems at contaminated sites. Extending our data plot range allowed us

  2. No Difference in Transverse Abdominis Activation Ratio between Healthy and Asymptomatic Low Back Pain Patients during Therapeutic Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gorbet, Nathaniel; Selkow, Noelle M.; Hart, Joseph M.; Saliba, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Dysfunction of the transverse abdominis (TrA) has been associated with LBP. Several therapeutic exercises are prescribed to help target the TrA. Rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) is used to capture activation of the TrA during exercise. The purpose was to examine TrA activation during the ADIM and quadruped exercises between healthy and nonsymptomatic LBP patients. We instructed the subjects how to perform the exercises and measured muscle thickness of the TrA at rest and during the exercises using RUSI. This allowed us to calculate TrA activation ratio during these exercises. We found no significant differences between activation ratios of the two groups during either exercise; however TrA activation during the ADIM was higher than the quadruped exercise. These exercises were capable of activating the TrA, which may be in part due to the verbal instruction they received. These exercises could be used during prevention or rehabilitation programs, since the TrA is activated. PMID:22110965

  3. Quantum Hall effect on odd spheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coşkun, Ü. H.; Kürkçüoǧlu, S.; Toga, G. C.

    2017-03-01

    We solve the Landau problem for charged particles on odd dimensional spheres S2 k -1 in the background of constant SO (2 k -1 ) gauge fields carrying the irreducible representation (I/2 ,I/2 ,…,I/2 ). We determine the spectrum of the Hamiltonian, the degeneracy of the Landau levels and give the eigenstates in terms of the Wigner D -functions, and for odd values of I , the explicit local form of the wave functions in the lowest Landau level (LLL). The spectrum of the Dirac operator on S2 k -1 in the same gauge field background together with its degeneracies is also determined, and in particular, its number of zero modes is found. We show how the essential differential geometric structure of the Landau problem on the equatorial S2 k -2 is captured by constructing the relevant projective modules. For the Landau problem on S5, we demonstrate an exact correspondence between the union of Hilbert spaces of LLLs, with I ranging from 0 to Imax=2 K or Imax=2 K +1 to the Hilbert spaces of the fuzzy CP 3 or that of winding number ±1 line bundles over CP 3 at level K , respectively.

  4. Sigma decomposition: the CP-odd Lagrangian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hierro, I. M.; Merlo, L.; Rigolin, S.

    2016-04-01

    In Alonso et al., JHEP 12 (2014) 034, the CP-even sector of the effective chiral Lagrangian for a generic composite Higgs model with a symmetric coset has been constructed, up to four momenta. In this paper, the CP-odd couplings are studied within the same context. If only the Standard Model bosonic sources of custodial symmetry breaking are considered, then at most six independent operators form a basis. One of them is the weak- θ term linked to non-perturbative sources of CP violation, while the others describe CP-odd perturbative couplings between the Standard Model gauge bosons and an Higgs-like scalar belonging to the Goldstone boson sector. The procedure is then applied to three distinct exemplifying frameworks: the original SU(5)/SO(5) Georgi-Kaplan model, the minimal custodial-preserving SO(5)/SO(4) model and the minimal SU(3)/(SU(2) × U(1)) model, which intrinsically breaks custodial symmetry. Moreover, the projection of the high-energy electroweak effective theory to the low-energy chiral effective Lagrangian for a dynamical Higgs is performed, uncovering strong relations between the operator coefficients and pinpointing the differences with the elementary Higgs scenario.

  5. Soil clay content underlies prion infection odds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    David, Walter W.; Walsh, D.P.; Farnsworth, Matthew L.; Winkelman, D.L.; Miller, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental factors-especially soil properties-have been suggested as potentially important in the transmission of infectious prion diseases. Because binding to montmorillonite (an aluminosilicate clay mineral) or clay-enriched soils had been shown to enhance experimental prion transmissibility, we hypothesized that prion transmission among mule deer might also be enhanced in ranges with relatively high soil clay content. In this study, we report apparent influences of soil clay content on the odds of prion infection in free-ranging deer. Analysis of data from prion-infected deer herds in northern Colorado, USA, revealed that a 1% increase in the clay-sized particle content in soils within the approximate home range of an individual deer increased its odds of infection by up to 8.9%. Our findings suggest that soil clay content and related environmental properties deserve greater attention in assessing risks of prion disease outbreaks and prospects for their control in both natural and production settings. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  6. Meeting report for Odd Pols 2012.

    PubMed

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M; Moss, Thomas; Maraia, Richard J

    2013-08-15

    The Eighth International Biennial Conference on RNA polymerases I and III (the 'Odd Pols') was held June 7-11, 2012 at The Airlie Center in Warrenton Virginia, USA. It was sponsored by the Universite Laval and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, NIH, and organized by Rich Maraia and Tom Moss. The meeting honored the memory of Pierre Thuriaux (Jan 1, 1950-March 18, 2012) and David Schneider reminisced on the important accomplishments his mentor Masayasu Nomura (1927-2011). The goal of the conference was to bring together the world's experts on RNA polymerase I and RNA polymerase III to highlight and share their latest results and varied experimental approaches. The meeting drew attendees from twelve countries and most contributed through oral and poster presentations. The talks were organized into several sessions subdivided into 10 distinct topics. The keynote speaker, Ian Willis, opened the meeting with his presentation entitled "New Regulators of Signaling to Odd Pols" and the closing presentation was given by Patrick Cramer with his presentation "Conservation of the RNA polymerase I, II and III transcription initiation machineries". Here we present some of the highlights from the meeting using summaries provided by the participants.

  7. Floral ratios in the figs of Ficus montana span the range from actively to passively pollinated fig trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suleman, Nazia; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Compton, Stephen G.

    2014-05-01

    Fig trees (Ficus spp., Moraceae) and their associated obligate pollinator fig wasps (Agaonidae) are partners in what is often a pair-wise species-specific association. Their interaction centres on the unique enclosed inflorescence of Ficus species - the fig. Among dioecious fig tree species, only pollinated ovules in figs on female trees develop into seeds. On male trees, galled ovules support development of the fig wasp offspring that will transport their pollen, but no seeds develop. Some fig wasp species actively collect and disperse pollen, whereas others are typical insect pollinators in that pollen is transferred passively. Active pollination is associated with improved larval survivorship in pollinated figs. Because active pollination is much more efficient, their host figs need to contain far fewer male flowers and across numerous Ficus species anther-ovule ratios are a good predictor of pollination mode. We examined variation in inflorescence size and floral ratios among male figs of the Asian Ficus montana and its consequences for the amounts of pollen that would be available for each pollinator to collect. Inflorescence size (total flower number) was highly variable, and female pollinator offspring production was higher in figs with more female flowers. Pollinator offspring numbers and anther-ovule ratios were also highly variable, and encompassed the range typical of both actively and passively pollinated fig tree species. In combination, this variation resulted in large differences in the extent to which pollinators were competing for access to pollen, with potential fitness consequences for both partners in the mutualism.

  8. Critical evaluation of changes in the ratio of insoluble bound to soluble phenolics on antioxidant activity of lentils during germination.

    PubMed

    Yeo, JuDong; Shahidi, Fereidoon

    2015-01-21

    A new indicator, the ratio of insoluble bound phenolics (IBPs) to soluble phenolics (SPs), is suggested as an effective means to monitor changes in the antioxidant activity of lentils during germination. This indicator may be used to monitor other process-induced changes in antioxidant potential of food phenolics in other foods. The antioxidant activity of SPs, IBPs, and total value, the sum of both free and esterified phenolics, of germinated CDC Richlea lentil variety was evaluated for 4 days. Total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging ability were employed to record antioxidant activities. An incremental increase in IBPs was found in TPC, TFC, DPPH, and ABTS radical cation scavenging ability, whereas SPs showed a declining trend in TFC, DPPH, and ABTS, except TPC during 4 days of germination. The ratio of IBPs to SPs increased using most methods, and this may be possibly due to the changes of phenolic compound formation from soluble into insoluble bound form during germination process. The ratio can be used as a novel method for monitoring process-induced changes in the antioxidant activity of foods.

  9. Nitrogen removal from wastewater and bacterial diversity in activated sludge at different COD/N ratios and dissolved oxygen concentrations.

    PubMed

    Zielińska, Magdalena; Bernat, Katarzyna; Cydzik-Kwiatkowska, Agnieszka; Sobolewska, Joanna; Wojnowska-Baryła, Irena

    2012-01-01

    The impact of the organic carbon to nitrogen ratio (chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N) in wastewater and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on carbon and nitrogen removal efficiency, and total bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in activated sludge in constantly aerated sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) was determined. At DO of 0.5 and 1.5 mg O2/L during the aeration phase, the efficiency of ammonia oxidation exceeded 90%, with nitrates as the main product. Nitrification and denitrification achieved under the same operating conditions suggested the simultaneous course of these processes. The most effective nitrogen elimination (above 50%) was obtained at the COD/N ratio of 6.8 and DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. Total bacterial diversity was similar in all experimental series, however, for both COD/N ratios of 6.8 and 0.7, higher values were observed at DO of 0.5 mg O2/L. The diversity and abundance of AOB were higher in the reactors with the COD/N ratio of 0.7 in comparison with the reactors with the COD/N of 6.8. For both COD/N ratios applied, the AOB population was not affected by oxygen concentration. Amplicons with sequences indicating membership of the genus Nitrosospira were the determinants of variable technological conditions.

  10. Activation of high and low affinity dopamine receptors generates a closed loop that maintains a conductance ratio and its activity correlate

    PubMed Central

    Krenz, Wulf-Dieter C.; Hooper, Ryan M.; Parker, Anna R.; Prinz, Astrid A.; Baro, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Neuromodulators alter network output and have the potential to destabilize a circuit. The mechanisms maintaining stability in the face of neuromodulation are not well described. Using the pyloric network in the crustacean stomatogastric nervous system, we show that dopamine (DA) does not simply alter circuit output, but activates a closed loop in which DA-induced alterations in circuit output consequently drive a change in an ionic conductance to preserve a conductance ratio and its activity correlate. DA acted at low affinity type 1 receptors (D1Rs) to induce an immediate modulatory decrease in the transient potassium current (IA) of a pyloric neuron. This, in turn, advanced the activity phase of that component neuron, which disrupted its network function and thereby destabilized the circuit. DA simultaneously acted at high affinity D1Rs on the same neuron to confer activity-dependence upon the hyperpolarization activated current (Ih) such that the DA-induced changes in activity subsequently reduced Ih. This DA-enabled, activity-dependent, intrinsic plasticity exactly compensated for the modulatory decrease in IA to restore the IA:Ih ratio and neuronal activity phase, thereby closing an open loop created by the modulator. Activation of closed loops to preserve conductance ratios may represent a fundamental operating principle neuromodulatory systems use to ensure stability in their target networks. PMID:24155696

  11. Odd-even staggering of heavy cluster spontaneous emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mazilu, D.; Plonski, I. H.

    1986-12-01

    Experimentally observed enhanced14C and24Ne emission rates from even-even parents in comparison with that from even-odd or odd-even nuclei are explained in the framework of the analytical superasymmetric fission model, by taking various prescriptions for the zero point vibration energy of even-even, even-odd, odd-even and odd-odd emitters. Longer half-lives than previously computed are obtained by extrapolating the present prescriptions to emitted clusters heavier than24Ne.

  12. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ultra-high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires due to Cu induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupathi Sugavaneshwar, Ramu; Duy Dao, Thang; Nanda, Karuna Kar; Nagao, Tadaaki; Hishita, Shunichi; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires in ambient air at 650°C by a single-step vapor transport method using two different sources Zn (ZnO nanowires-I) and Zn:Cu (ZnO nanowires-II). The Zn:Cu mixed source co-vaporize Zn with a small amount of Cu at temperatures where elemental Cu source does not vaporize. This method provides us a facile route for Cu doping into ZnO. The aspect ratio of the grown ZnO nanowires-II was found to be higher by more than five times compared ZnO nanowires-I. Photocatalytic activity was measured by using a solar simulator and its ultraviolet-filtered light. The ZnO nanowires-II shows higher catalytic activity due to increased aspect ratio and higher content of surface defects because of incorporation of Cu impurities.

  13. Isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in seaweed measured by neutron activation analysis with gamma-gamma coincidence.

    PubMed

    Toh, Y; Hatsukawa, Y; Oshima, M; Shinohara, N; Hayakawa, T; Kushita, K; Ueno, T

    2002-07-01

    129I is a long-lived (1.6 x 10(7) y) radionuclide that is produced in nature as the result of spontaneous fission of heavy elements and reaction of xenon with cosmic rays. Recently, however, artificial sources from nuclear power plants and nuclear test explosions have become a significant component of environmental radioactive iodine. Coincidence gamma-ray detection using Ge detectors makes it possible to simultaneously resolve the numerous gamma-rays produced by neutron activation. In this study, the coincidence gamma-ray detection technique was combined with neutron activation analysis to determine the radioactive iodine composition of seaweed. The ratio of 129I/127I in this common Japanese food item collected from the Ibaraki prefecture has been derived without the need for radiochemical purification. The isotopic ratio of 129I/127I in Kajime algae is 3.5(5) x 10(-10).

  14. Shell Model Description of the Odd-Odd Co and Cu Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Medina, N. H.; Allegro, P. R. P.; Oliveira, J. R. B. de; Ribas, R. V.; Seale, W. A.; Toufen, D. L.; Silveira, M. A. G.

    2007-10-26

    The known excited states of the odd-odd nuclei {sup 54,56,58,60}Co and 60,62,64,66Cu were interpreted in the framework of the large scale shell model (LSSM), using several effective interactions and configuration spaces. For the description of the negative parity states, we have allowed one particle excitation to the g{sub 9/2} orbital. The LSSM using the GXPF1 effective interaction reproduces well the first excited states in all of these nuclei.

  15. Proton emission from the deformed odd-odd nuclei near drip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Jain, A. K.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2016-01-01

    Proton emission from odd-odd nuclei is studied within the two quasiparticle plus rotor model which includes the non-adiabatic effects and the residual interaction between valence proton and neutron. Justification of the formalism is discussed through corroboration of our results with the experimental spectrum of 180Ta. Exact calculations are performed to get the proton emission halflives. Our results for the proton emitter 130Eu leads to the assignment of spin and parity Jπ = 1+ for the ground state. The role of Coriolis and residual neutron-proton interactions on the proton emission halflives and their interplay are also discussed.

  16. Comparative study of Gamow-Teller strength distributions in the odd-odd nucleus V50 and its impact on electron capture rates in astrophysical environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Sajjad, Muhammad

    2007-11-01

    Gamow-Teller (GT) strength transitions are an ideal probe for testing nuclear structure models. In addition to nuclear structure, GT transitions in nuclei directly affect the early phases of Type Ia and Type-II supernovae core collapse since the electron capture rates are partly determined by these GT transitions. In astrophysics, GT transitions provide an important input for model calculations and element formation during the explosive phase of a massive star at the end of its life-time. Recent nucleosynthesis calculations show that odd-odd and odd-A nuclei cause the largest contribution in the rate of change of lepton-to-baryon ratio. In the present manuscript, we have calculated the GT strength distributions and electron capture rates for odd-odd nucleus V50 by using the pn-QRPA theory. At present V50 is the first experimentally available odd-odd nucleus in fp-shell nuclei. We also compare our GT strength distribution with the recently measured results of a V50(d, He2)Ti50 experiment, with the earlier work of Fuller, Fowler, and Newman (referred to as FFN) and subsequently with the large-scale shell model calculations. One curious finding of the paper is that the Brink's hypothesis, usually employed in large-scale shell model calculations, is not a good approximation to use at least in the case of V50. SNe Ia model calculations performed using FFN rates result in overproduction of Ti50, and were brought to a much acceptable value by employing shell model results. It might be interesting to study how the composition of the ejecta using presently reported QRPA rates compare with the observed abundances.

  17. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome. PMID:28210036

  18. A study on muscle activity and ratio of the knee extensor depending on the types of squat exercise.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Park, Joon-Su; Choi, Hyun; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Kwon, Hye-Min; Moon, Young-Jun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] For preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome, this study aims to suggest a proper squat method, which presents selective muscle activity of Vastus Medialis Oblique and muscle activity ratios of Vastus Medialis Oblique/Vastus Lateralis by applying squat that is a representative weight bearing exercise method in various ways depending on the surface conditions and knee bending angles. [Subjects and Methods] An isometric squat that was accompanied by hip adduction, depending on the surface condition and the knee joint flexion angle, was performed by 24 healthy students. The muscle activity and the ratio of muscle activity were measured. [Results] In a comparison of muscle activity depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, the vastus medialis oblique showed a significant difference at 15° and 60°. Meanwhile, in a comparison of the muscle activity ratio between the vastus medialis oblique and the vastus lateralis depending on the knee joint flexion angle on a weight-bearing surface, significant differences were observed at 15° and 60°. [Conclusion] An efficient squat exercise posture for preventing the patellofemoral pain syndrome is to increase the knee joint bending angle on a stable surface. But it would be efficient for patients with difficulties in bending the knee joint to keep a knee joint bending angle of 15 degrees or less on an unstable surface. It is considered that in future, diverse studies on selective Vastus Medialis Oblique strengthening exercise methods would be needed after applying them to patients with the patellofemoral pain syndrome.

  19. Active Learning Strategies to Teach Renal-Cardiovascular Integration with High Student-to-Teacher Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brands, Michael W.; Schumacher, Lori

    2009-01-01

    To address the challenge of increasing opportunities for active learning into a medical physiology course with 190 students enrolled, we chose an integrated approach. This was facilitated by the availability of a patient simulator facility at the School of Nursing at the Medical College of Georgia, and an 20-min simulation of acute hemorrhage on…

  20. W${'}$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may show up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.

  1. W$${'}$$ signatures with odd Higgs particles

    DOE PAGES

    Dobrescu, Bogdan A.; Peterson, Andrea D.

    2014-08-13

    We point out that W' bosons may decay predominantly into Higgs particles associated with their broken gauge symmetry. We demonstrate this in a renormalizable model where the W' and W couplings to fermions differ only by an overall normalization. This "meta-sequential" W' boson decays into a scalar pair, with the charged one subsequently decaying into a W boson and a neutral scalar. These scalars are odd under a parity of the Higgs sector, which consists of a complex bidoublet and a doublet. Finally, the W' and Z' bosons have the same mass and branching fractions into scalars, and may showmore » up at the LHC in final states involving one or two electroweak bosons and missing transverse energy.« less

  2. Detailed velocity ratio mapping during the aftershock sequence as a tool to monitor the fluid activity within the fault plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachura, Martin; Fischer, Tomáš

    2016-11-01

    The rheological properties of Earth materials are expressed by their seismic velocities and VP /VS ratio, which is easily obtained by the Wadati method. Its double-difference version based on cross-correlated waveforms enables focusing on very local structures and allows tracking, monitoring and analysing the fluid activity along faults. We applied the method to three 2014 mainshock-aftershock sequences in the West Bohemia/Vogtland (Czech Republic) earthquake swarm area and found pronounced VP /VS variations in time and space for different clusters of events located on a steeply dipping fault zone at depths ranging from 7 to 11 km. Each cluster reflects the spatial distribution of earthquakes along the fault plane but also the temporal evolution of the activity. Low values of VP /VS ratio down to 1.59 ± 0.02 were identified in the deeper part of the fault zone whereas higher values up to 1.73 ± 0.01 were estimated for clusters located on a shallower segment of the fault. Temporally the low VP /VS values are associated with the early aftershocks, while the higher VP /VS ratios are related only to later aftershocks. We interpret this behaviour as a result of saturation of the focal zone by compressible fluids: in the beginning the mainshock and early aftershocks driven by over-pressured fluids increased the porosity due to opening the fluid pathways. This process was associated with a decrease of the velocity ratio. In later stages the pressure and porosity decreased and the velocity ratio recovered to levels of 1.73, typical for a Poissonian medium and Earth's crust.

  3. UV activation of polymeric high aspect ratio microstructures: ramifications in antibody surface loading for circulating tumor cell selection†

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Joshua M.; Witek, Małgorzata A.; Hupert, Mateusz L.; Brady, Charles; Pullagurla, Swathi; Kamande, Joyce; Aufforth, Rachel D.; Tignanelli, Christopher J.; Torphy, Robert J.; Yeh, Jen Jen

    2014-01-01

    The need to activate thermoplastic surfaces using robust and efficient methods has been driven by the fact that replication techniques can be used to produce microfluidic devices in a high production mode and at low cost, making polymer microfluidics invaluable for in vitro diagnostics, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis, where device disposability is critical to mitigate artifacts associated with sample carryover. Modifying the surface chemistry of thermoplastic devices through activation techniques can be used to increase the wettability of the surface or to produce functional scaffolds to allow for the covalent attachment of biologics, such as antibodies for CTC recognition. Extensive surface characterization tools were used to investigate UV activation of various surfaces to produce uniform and high surface coverage of functional groups, such as carboxylic acids in microchannels of different aspect ratios. We found that the efficiency of the UV activation process is highly dependent on the microchannel aspect ratio and the identity of the thermoplastic substrate. Colorimetric assays and fluorescence imaging of UV-activated microchannels following EDC/NHS coupling of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotides indicated that UV-activation of a PMMA microchannel with an aspect ratio of ∼3 was significantly less efficient toward the bottom of the channel compared to the upper sections. This effect was a consequence of the bulk polymer's damping of the modifying UV radiation due to absorption artifacts. In contrast, this effect was less pronounced for COC. Moreover, we observed that after thermal fusion bonding of the device's cover plate to the substrate, many of the generated functional groups buried into the bulk rendering them inaccessible. The propensity of this surface reorganization was found to be higher for PMMA compared to COC. As an example of the effects of material and microchannel aspect ratios on device functionality, thermoplastic devices for the

  4. UV activation of polymeric high aspect ratio microstructures: ramifications in antibody surface loading for circulating tumor cell selection.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Joshua M; Witek, Małgorzata A; Hupert, Mateusz L; Brady, Charles; Pullagurla, Swathi; Kamande, Joyce; Aufforth, Rachel D; Tignanelli, Christopher J; Torphy, Robert J; Yeh, Jen Jen; Soper, Steven A

    2014-01-07

    The need to activate thermoplastic surfaces using robust and efficient methods has been driven by the fact that replication techniques can be used to produce microfluidic devices in a high production mode and at low cost, making polymer microfluidics invaluable for in vitro diagnostics, such as circulating tumor cell (CTC) analysis, where device disposability is critical to mitigate artifacts associated with sample carryover. Modifying the surface chemistry of thermoplastic devices through activation techniques can be used to increase the wettability of the surface or to produce functional scaffolds to allow for the covalent attachment of biologics, such as antibodies for CTC recognition. Extensive surface characterization tools were used to investigate UV activation of various surfaces to produce uniform and high surface coverage of functional groups, such as carboxylic acids in microchannels of different aspect ratios. We found that the efficiency of the UV activation process is highly dependent on the microchannel aspect ratio and the identity of the thermoplastic substrate. Colorimetric assays and fluorescence imaging of UV-activated microchannels following EDC/NHS coupling of Cy3-labeled oligonucleotides indicated that UV-activation of a PMMA microchannel with an aspect ratio of ~3 was significantly less efficient toward the bottom of the channel compared to the upper sections. This effect was a consequence of the bulk polymer's damping of the modifying UV radiation due to absorption artifacts. In contrast, this effect was less pronounced for COC. Moreover, we observed that after thermal fusion bonding of the device's cover plate to the substrate, many of the generated functional groups buried into the bulk rendering them inaccessible. The propensity of this surface reorganization was found to be higher for PMMA compared to COC. As an example of the effects of material and microchannel aspect ratios on device functionality, thermoplastic devices for the

  5. Atmospheric residence time of (210)Pb determined from the activity ratios with its daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po.

    PubMed

    Semertzidou, P; Piliposian, G T; Appleby, P G

    2016-08-01

    The residence time of (210)Pb created in the atmosphere by the decay of gaseous (222)Rn is a key parameter controlling its distribution and fallout onto the landscape. These in turn are key parameters governing the use of this natural radionuclide for dating and interpreting environmental records stored in natural archives such as lake sediments. One of the principal methods for estimating the atmospheric residence time is through measurements of the activities of the daughter radionuclides (210)Bi and (210)Po, and in particular the (210)Bi/(210)Pb and (210)Po/(210)Pb activity ratios. Calculations used in early empirical studies assumed that these were governed by a simple series of equilibrium equations. This approach does however have two failings; it takes no account of the effect of global circulation on spatial variations in the activity ratios, and no allowance is made for the impact of transport processes across the tropopause. This paper presents a simple model for calculating the distributions of (210)Pb, (210)Bi and (210)Po at northern mid-latitudes (30°-65°N), a region containing almost all the available empirical data. By comparing modelled (210)Bi/(210)Pb activity ratios with empirical data a best estimate for the tropospheric residence time of around 10 days is obtained. This is significantly longer than earlier estimates of between 4 and 7 days. The process whereby (210)Pb is transported into the stratosphere when tropospheric concentrations are high and returned from it when they are low, significantly increases the effective residence time in the atmosphere as a whole. The effect of this is to significantly enhance the long range transport of (210)Pb from its source locations. The impact is illustrated by calculations showing the distribution of (210)Pb fallout versus longitude at northern mid-latitudes.

  6. Effect of Ag+ and PO43- ratios on the microstructure and photocatalytic activity of Ag3PO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jiaqian; Zhang, Xinyu; Yang, Chengwu; Song, Aijun; Zhang, Bing; Rajendran, Saravanan; Ma, Mingzhen; Liu, Riping

    2016-09-01

    In this work, the catalyst silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) with different initial ratios of Ag+ and PO43- in aqueous solution was synthesized by a simple precipitation method from AgNO3 and NH4H2PO4 which were used as the precursor. After that, the prepared samples were characterized by different techniques such as field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) and decomposition evolution of rhodamine B (RhB) solution. The results indicate that the initial ratios of Ag+/PO43- in aqueous solution can modify the morphology and also it can significantly affect the photocatalytic performance. During photocatalytic process, the rich Ag+ ion Ag3PO4 can form the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of Ag nanoparticles, which inhibit the reduction of Ag3PO4 resulting in higher photocatalytic activity and stability.

  7. Variations in stable- isotope ratios of ground waters in seismically active regions of California.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Neil, J.R.; Chi-Yu, King

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of D and 18O concentrations of ground waters in seismically active regions are potentially useful in earthquake prediction and in elucidating mechanisms operative during earthquakes. Principles of this method are discussed and some preliminary data regarding a magnitude 5.7 earthquake at the Oroville Dam in 1975 and a series of events near San Juan Bautista in 1980 are presented to support the utility of such measurements. After earthquakes, the D content of nearby ground waters increased by several permil while the 18O content remained constant. This increase implies that H2O may have either decomposed or reacted to form molecular H2 at depth. It is emphasized that many areas must be investigated for these effects in order to find a sufficient number of 'sensitive' water wells and springs to permit a truly effective program of earthquake research. -Authors

  8. Angle-specific hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio: a comparison of football players and recreationally active males.

    PubMed

    Evangelidis, Pavlos Eleftherios; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    It is currently unclear how football participation affects knee-joint muscle balance, which is widely considered a risk factor for hamstrings injury. This study compared the angle-specific functional hamstring-to-quadriceps (H:Q) ratio (hamstrings eccentric torque as a ratio of quadriceps concentric torque at the same knee-joint angle) of football players with recreationally active controls. Ten male footballers and 14 controls performed maximal voluntary isometric and isovelocity concentric and eccentric contractions (60, 240 and 400° s(-1)) of the knee extensors and flexors. Gaussian fitting to the raw torque values was used to interpolate torque values for knee-joint angles of 100-160° (60° s(-1)), 105-160° (240° s(-1)) and 115-145° (400° s(-1)). The angle-specific functional H:Q ratio was calculated from the knee flexors eccentric and knee extensors concentric torque at the same velocity and angle. No differences were found for the angle-specific functional H:Q ratio between groups, at any velocity. Quadriceps and hamstrings strength relative to body mass of footballers and controls was similar for all velocities, except concentric knee flexor strength at 400° s(-1) (footballers +40%; P < 0.01). In previously uninjured football players, there was no intrinsic muscle imbalance and therefore the high rate of hamstring injuries seen in this sport may be due to other risk factors and/or simply regular exposure to a high-risk activity.

  9. How Salmonella survive against the odds.

    PubMed

    Foster, J W; Spector, M P

    1995-01-01

    The enteric pathogen Salmonella typhimurium faces daunting odds during its voyages in the natural environment and through an infected host. It must manage stresses ranging from feast to famine, acid to base, and high to low osmolarity, among others, as well as counter various types of oxidative stress and a variety of antimicrobial peptides. The defenses used to survive these encounters can be specific or can provide cross protection to a variety of hostile conditions. Once inside a host, Salmonella spp. escape the extracellular environment and thus humoral immunity by invading professional and nonprofessional phagocytes in which a new set of challenges await. Some of these stresses are similar to those encountered in the natural environment (e.g. acid, starvation) but the bacterial response is complicated by the simultaneous occurrence of multiple stresses. S. typhimurium appears to sense various in vivo cues and responds by seducing the host signal-transduction pathways that are required to phagocytize the bacterial cell. The pathogen then calls upon components of its stress-response arsenal to survive the intracellular environment. These survival strategies enable the organism to persist in nature, where conditions are usually suboptimal, and equip the bacterium with pathogenic properties that, if successful, will provide it with a very rich and stress-free growth environment, a dead host.

  10. Beating the odds--surviving extreme hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Muck, Philip M; Letterer, Sebastian; Lindner, Ulrich; Lehnert, Hendrik; Haas, Christian Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Severe hyperkalemia (>7 mmol/L) is a medical emergency because of possible fatal arrhythmias. We here report the case of a 58-year-old woman surviving extreme hyperkalemia (>10 mmol/L). The patient with a history of congestive heart failure, a DDD pacemaker and mild chronic renal insufficiency was admitted with progressive weakness and sudden onset of hypotension and bradycardia in the absence of any pacemaker action. Laboratory tests revealed an extreme serum potassium level of 10.1 mmol/L, with a slightly elevated serum creatinine of 149 μmol/L. Treatment with norepinephrine, sodium bicarbonate, and insulin improved both the hemodynamic situation and the serum potassium with subsequent regaining pacemaker actions even before additional hemodialysis normalized the potassium level. A thorough investigation demonstrated that several mechanisms contributed to the extreme potassium level: urinalysis and a low transtubular potassium gradient in the presence of metabolic acidosis with normal anion gap pointed to preexisting interstitial nephritis, with renal tubular acidosis type IV as the predisposing factor, whereas several drugs and acute impairment of renal function contributed to the dangerous situation. Despite the odds for fatal outcome, the patient recovered completely, and long-term management was initiated to prevent recurrent hyperkalemia.

  11. Hybrid configuration mixing model for odd nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colò, G.; Bortignon, P. F.; Bocchi, G.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we introduce a new approach which is meant to be a first step towards complete self-consistent low-lying spectroscopy of odd nuclei. So far, we essentially limit ourselves to the description of a double-magic core plus an extra nucleon. The model does not contain any free adjustable parameter and is instead based on a Hartree-Fock (HF) description of the particle states in the core, together with self-consistent random-phase approximation (RPA) calculations for the core excitations. We include both collective and noncollective excitations, with proper care of the corrections due to the overlap between them (i.e., due to the nonorthonormality of the basis). As a consequence, with respect to traditional particle-vibration coupling calculations in which one can only address single-nucleon states and particle-vibration multiplets, we can also describe states of shell-model types like 2 particle-1 hole. We will report results for 49Ca and 133Sb and discuss future perspectives.

  12. Odd frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Woelfle, Peter; Balatsky, Alexandar

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. While the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e. non-interacting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory allowing to discuss a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing. Work supported by USDOE DE-AC52-06NA25396 E304, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, and ERC DM-321031.

  13. The ODD protocol: A review and first update

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimm, Volker; Berger, Uta; DeAngelis, Donald L.; Polhill, J. Gary; Giske, Jarl; Railsback, Steve F.

    2010-01-01

    The 'ODD' (Overview, Design concepts, and Details) protocol was published in 2006 to standardize the published descriptions of individual-based and agent-based models (ABMs). The primary objectives of ODD are to make model descriptions more understandable and complete, thereby making ABMs less subject to criticism for being irreproducible. We have systematically evaluated existing uses of the ODD protocol and identified, as expected, parts of ODD needing improvement and clarification. Accordingly, we revise the definition of ODD to clarify aspects of the original version and thereby facilitate future standardization of ABM descriptions. We discuss frequently raised critiques in ODD but also two emerging, and unanticipated, benefits: ODD improves the rigorous formulation of models and helps make the theoretical foundations of large models more visible. Although the protocol was designed for ABMs, it can help with documenting any large, complex model, alleviating some general objections against such models.

  14. The distributions of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen in the natural and perturbed stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prinn, R. G.; Alyea, F. N.; Cunnold, D. M.; Katz, A.

    1974-01-01

    In order to quantitatively illustrate the effects of quasi-horizontal transport of certain gases and of the reactions influencing their concentrations, a vertical-meridional pole-to-pole stratospheric model is presented which explicitly predicts concentrations of odd nitrogen and odd hydrogen compounds in the natural stratosphere and also in a perturbed stratosphere incorporating artificial injection of nitrogen oxides by an SST fleet. The northern hemisphere SST operations clearly have a very large local effect on the nitrogen oxide distribution and also have a significant effect on the southern hemisphere. The largest changes are seen at the point of injection of the nitrogen oxides. Results are in agreement with previous one-dimensional models.

  15. Structure of the yrast band in the odd-odd deformed nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Sai, K. Vijay; Gowrishankar, R.; Sainath, M.

    2011-05-15

    The six-level sequence deduced for the odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm in the high-spin studies following spontaneous fission of {sup 252}Cf is shown to constitute the K{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} yrast band having the two-quasiparticle configuration {l_brace}p:5/2[532]+ n:3/2[521]{r_brace}. Spin parities I{sup {pi}=}4{sup +} through 9{sup +} are assigned to the earlier suggested six levels. The location and the decay {gamma}'s of the 10{sup +} level of this band are indicated. It is also pointed out that there are no {gamma} rays common to these postfission high-spin spectra and those seen in the {sup 156}Nd {beta}-decay studies.

  16. Fat/carbohydrate ratio but not energy density determines snack food intake and activates brain reward areas.

    PubMed

    Hoch, Tobias; Kreitz, Silke; Gaffling, Simone; Pischetsrieder, Monika; Hess, Andreas

    2015-05-14

    The snack food potato chips induces food intake in ad libitum fed rats, which is associated with modulation of the brain reward system and other circuits. Here, we show that food intake in satiated rats is triggered by an optimal fat/carbohydrate ratio. Like potato chips, an isocaloric fat/carbohydrate mixture influenced whole brain activity pattern of rats, affecting circuits related e.g. to reward/addiction, but the number of modulated areas and the extent of modulation was lower compared to the snack food itself.

  17. Decline in Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Odds of Incident Depression

    PubMed Central

    Dishman, Rodney K.; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S.; Hand, Gregory A.; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Blair, Steven N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies of physical activity and incidence of physician-diagnosed depression have been limited to a single estimate of self-reported physical activity exposure, despite follow-up periods lasting many years. Purpose To examine longitudinal change in cardiorespiratory fitness, an objective marker of habitual physical activity, and incident depression complaints made to a physician. Methods Cardiorespiratory fitness assessed at four clinic visits between 1971 and 2006, each separated by an average of 2–3 years, was used to objectively measure cumulative physical activity exposure in cohorts of 7936 men and 1261 women, aged 20–85 years, from the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study who did not complain of depression at their first clinic visit in 1971–2003. Data were analyzed in August 2010. Results Across subsequent visits, there were 446 incident cases in men and 153 cases in women. After adjustment for age, time between visits, BMI at each visit, and fitness at Visit 1, each 1-minute decline in treadmill endurance (i.e., a decline in cardiorespiratory fitness of approximately 1 half-MET) between ages 51 and 55 years in men and ages 53 and 56 years in women, increased the odds of incident depression complaints by approximately 2% and 9.5%, respectively. The increased odds remained significant but were attenuated to 1.3% and 5.4% after further adjustment at each visit for smoking, alcohol use, chronic medical conditions, anxiety, and sleep problems. Conclusions Maintenance of cardiorespiratory fitness during late middle-age, when decline in fitness typically accelerates, helps protect against the onset of depression complaints made to a physician. PMID:22992353

  18. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series Xt . The branching ratio bx is defined as bx=E[ξx/x] . The random variable ξx is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x , so ξx={Xt+1∣Xt=x} . If bx>1 , the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x , while if bx<1 , it is subcritical. For stock prices we find bx=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x , consistent with an “efficient market hypothesis.” For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, bx is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where bx≃1 , which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for Xt and for ξx . For the BTW model the distribution of ξx is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x . Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where bx is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model—supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  19. Activity-dependent branching ratios in stocks, solar x-ray flux, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld sandpile model.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elliot; Shreim, Amer; Paczuski, Maya

    2010-01-01

    We define an activity-dependent branching ratio that allows comparison of different time series X(t). The branching ratio b(x) is defined as b(x)=E[xi(x)/x]. The random variable xi(x) is the value of the next signal given that the previous one is equal to x, so xi(x)=[X(t+1) | X(t)=x]. If b(x)>1, the process is on average supercritical when the signal is equal to x, while if b(x)<1, it is subcritical. For stock prices we find b(x)=1 within statistical uncertainty, for all x, consistent with an "efficient market hypothesis." For stock volumes, solar x-ray flux intensities, and the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model, b(x) is supercritical for small values of activity and subcritical for the largest ones, indicating a tendency to return to a typical value. For stock volumes this tendency has an approximate power-law behavior. For solar x-ray flux and the BTW model, there is a broad regime of activity where b(x) approximately equal 1, which we interpret as an indicator of critical behavior. This is true despite different underlying probability distributions for X(t) and for xi(x). For the BTW model the distribution of xi(x) is Gaussian, for x sufficiently larger than 1, and its variance grows linearly with x. Hence, the activity in the BTW model obeys a central limit theorem when sampling over past histories. The broad region of activity where b(x) is close to one disappears once bulk dissipation is introduced in the BTW model-supporting our hypothesis that it is an indicator of criticality.

  20. A CORRELATION BETWEEN THE IONIZATION STATE OF THE INNER ACCRETION DISK AND THE EDDINGTON RATIO OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ballantyne, D. R.; McDuffie, J. R.; Rusin, J. S.

    2011-06-20

    X-ray reflection features observed from the innermost regions of accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) allow important tests of accretion theory. In recent years, it has been possible to use the Fe K{alpha} line and reflection continuum to parameterize the ionization state of the irradiated inner accretion disk. Here, we collect 10 measurements of {xi}, the disk ionization parameter, from eight AGNs with strong evidence for reflection from the inner accretion disk and good black hole mass estimates. We find strong statistical evidence (98.56% confidence) for a nearly linear correlation between {xi} and the AGN Eddington ratio. Moreover, such a correlation is predicted by a simple application of {alpha}-disk accretion theory, albeit with a stronger dependence on the Eddington ratio. The theory shows that there will be intrinsic scatter to any correlation as a result of different black hole spins and radii of reflection. There are several possibilities to soften the predicted dependence on the Eddington ratio to allow a closer agreement with the observed correlation, but the current data do not allow for a unique explanation. The correlation can be used to estimate that MCG-6-30-15 should have a highly ionized inner accretion disk, which would imply a black hole spin of {approx}0.8. Additional measurements of {xi} from a larger sample of AGNs are needed to confirm the existence of this correlation, and will allow investigation of the accretion disk/corona interaction in the inner regions of accretion disks.

  1. Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of fragments emitted at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, I.; Lanzalone, G.; Agodi, C.; Amorini, F.; Anzalone, A.; Han, J.; Maiolino, C.; Auditore, L.; Loria, D.; Trifiro, A.; Trimarchi, M.; Berceanu, I.; Cardella, G.; De Filippo, E.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Cavallaro, S.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.

    2011-08-15

    Even-odd effects in Z and N distributions of light fragments emitted at forward angles in nuclear collisions {sup 40}Ca + {sup 40}Ca, {sup 40}Ca + {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 48}Ca + {sup 48}Ca at 25 MeV/nucleon and identified in charge and mass with the Chimera multidetector have been analyzed. The amplitude of even-odd staggering effects seems to be related to the neutron to proton ratio N/Z of the entrance channels. A qualitative explanation of this effect, taking into account the deexcitation phase of primary excited fragments, is discussed.

  2. Specific activity and activity ratios of radionuclides in soil collected about 20 km from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant: Radionuclide release to the south and southwest.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Uchihori, Yukio; Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Kitamura, Hisashi; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki

    2011-10-15

    Soil samples at different depths (0-2, 5-7 and 10-12cm) were collected from J Village, about 20km south of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) to determine their radionuclide specific activities and activity ratios. The concentrations and activity ratios of (131)I, (134, 136, 137)Cs and (129m)Te were obtained, but only trace amounts of (95)Nb, (110m)Ag and (140)La were detected which were too low to provide accurate concentrations. Radionuclides such as (95)Zr, (103, 106)Ru and (140)Ba that were found in Chernobyl fallout, were not found in these soil samples. This suggests that noble gasses and volatile radionuclides predominated in the releases from FNPP to the terrestrial environment. The average activity ratios of (131)I/(137)Cs, (134)Cs/(137)Cs, (136)Cs/(137)Cs and (129m)Te/(137)Cs were 55, 0.90, 0.22 and 4.0 (corrected to March 11, 2011) in the 0-2cm soil samples of April 20 and 28, 2011.

  3. GT Strength in Odd-A Nuclei^*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, J. W.; Du, Q. Q.

    1998-04-01

    We measured the complete set of polarization-transfer observables (D_ij) for the ^13C(p,n)^13N and ^15N(p,n)^15O reactions at 135 MeV. From the D_ijs we constructed the spin-independent, spin-longitudinal, and spin-transverse responses [1] D_0, D_q, Dn and D_p. From these responses we extracted, in a model-independent way, the Δ J=0 and Δ J=1 (``F'' and ``GT'') fractions of the J^π=1/2^-arrow1/2^- g.s. to g.s. transitions for these reactions. The ``F'' fraction, f_F=D_0(0^circ); the ``GT'' fraction, f_GT=D_q(0^circ)+D_n(0^circ)+D_p(0^circ)= 1- D_0(0^circ). The extracted GT fractions, f_GT, are substantially larger than one would predict from β-decay matrix elements and the systematics of the (p,n) reaction on even-A nuclei. These results confirm earlier, model-dependent determinations of f_GT obtained from the (p,n) reaction on ^13C, ^15N and ^39K at other energies [2], [3], [4], indicating that considerable caution must be used when extracting B(GT) matrix elements from odd-A (p,n) data. * Research supported in part by the U.S. NSF. [1] M. Ichimura, K. Kawahigashi, Phys. Rev. C 45 1822 (1992). [2] T. N. Taddeucci, C. A. Goulding, T. A. Carey, R. C. Byrd, C. D. Goodman, C. Gaarde, J. Larsen, D. Horen, J. Rapaport, and E. Sugarbaker, Nucl. Phys. A469 125 (1987). [3] H. Sakai, H. Okamura, N. Matsuoka, A. Shimizu, T. Suda, M. Ieiri and H. M. Shimizu, Nuclear Physics A579 45-61 (1994). [4] W. Huang, Ph.D. dissertation, Indiana U., 1991, (unpublished).

  4. Black Carbon, Metal Concentrations and Lead Isotopes Ratios in Aerosols as Tracers of Human and Natural Activities in Northern Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinot, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric brown clouds (ABC) observed as widespread layers of brownish haze are regional scale plumes of air pollutants with a hot spot of emission located in East Asia. ABC are mainly composed of aerosol particles such as Black Carbon (BC) emitted to the atmosphere during biomass burning and fossil fuels combustion. The atmospheric lifetime of BC ranges from a few days in wet season up to one month in dry season. The use of stable lead isotopes and 21 elements as tracers of air pollution was applied to identify and characterized the main sources of anthropogenic activities in Asian region. Aerosol samples from Haiphong (North Vietnam) were collected by a high volume sampler for a period of one year from October 2012 to October 2013. Vietnam's 207Pb/206Pb ratios were almost identical to those found for China. Ratios of 207Pb/206Pb ranged from 0.837 to 0.871 which agrees with values previously reported for the last 10 years in China (0.841 - 0.879). No significant variation in isotope ratio was observed during the sampling period, which suggests that there was no large seasonal variation in the isotope ratios of airborne lead. Trajectory analysis showed that almost two third of the air masses originated from East Northeast which implies that China was a major source of lead in atmosphere. Enrichment factor calculations indicated a large influence of coal activity (EF(Al) As = 1982 ± 796, EF(Al) Cd = 972 ± 659, EF(Al) Sb = 1358 ± 930) but the difference between combustion and mining exploitation could not be evidenced. Significant correlations were found between two others groups of elements: As, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Al, Fe K, Co. Wind dilution was effective on metals concentration variation. During the cold and dry season (winter) ambient concentrations were high and variable, during the warm and wet season (summer) concentrations were stable and low. Taken together, these factors also identified industrial and lithogenic activities in the region.

  5. Cytoplasm-to-myonucleus ratios and succinate dehydrogenase activities in adult rat slow and fast muscle fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, B. S.; Kasper, C. E.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between myonuclear number, cellular size, succinate dehydrogenase activity, and myosin type was examined in single fiber segments (n = 54; 9 +/- 3 mm long) mechanically dissected from soleus and plantaris muscles of adult rats. One end of each fiber segment was stained for DNA before quantitative photometric analysis of succinate dehydrogenase activity; the other end was double immunolabeled with fast and slow myosin heavy chain monoclonal antibodies. Mean +/- S.D. cytoplasmic volume/myonucleus ratio was higher in fast and slow plantaris fibers (112 +/- 69 vs. 34 +/- 21 x 10(3) microns3) than fast and slow soleus fibers (40 +/- 20 vs. 30 +/- 14 x 10(3) microns3), respectively. Slow fibers always had small volumes/myonucleus, regardless of fiber diameter, succinate dehydrogenase activity, or muscle of origin. In contrast, smaller diameter (< 70 microns) fast soleus and plantaris fibers with high succinate dehydrogenase activity appeared to have low volumes/myonucleus while larger diameter (> 70 microns) fast fibers with low succinate dehydrogenase activity always had large volume/myonucleus. Slow soleus fibers had significantly greater numbers of myonuclei/mm than did either fast soleus or fast plantaris fibers (116 +/- 51 vs. 55 +/- 22 and 44 +/- 23), respectively. These data suggest that the myonuclear domain is more limited in slow than fast fibers and in the fibers with a high, compared to a low, oxidative metabolic capability.

  6. The effect of water loading on the urinary ratio of cortisone to cortisol in healthy subjects and a new approach to the evaluation of the ratio as an index for in vivo human 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 activity.

    PubMed

    Yokokawa, Akitomo; Takasaka, Toru; Shibasaki, Hiromi; Kasuya, Yasuji; Kawashima, Soko; Yamada, Akira; Furuta, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Factors that give rise to a large variation in the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF) were investigated to accurately estimate 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 2 (11β-HSD2) activity in humans in vivo. A water loading test was first carried out in two healthy subjects to examine the effect of water intake or urine volume on the urinary ratio of free cortisone to cortisol (UFE/UFF). The ratio was found to increase by water loading. We also examined urinary concentrations and amounts of cortisol, cortisone, creatinine, Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-), and urine volume, as possible factors affecting the urinary ratio (UFE/UFF), in 60 urine samples obtained from 15 healthy volunteers. Among these factors tested, the urinary concentration of cortisol was most highly correlated with the UFE/UFF ratio (r=-0.858), indicating that the in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 (UFE/UFF) should fluctuate with the changes of the urinary concentration of cortisol. Based on the findings, we proposed a new estimation method of in vivo activity of 11β-HSD2 in humans, using the UFE/UFF ratio correlated with the urinary concentration of cortisol (UFE/UFF-cortisol concentration). Taking into consideration the intra-individual variabilities in the urinary concentration of cortisol, there were no significant within-day variations in 11β-HSD2 activity. The findings indicate that 11β-HSD2 activities can be accurately evaluated by simply measuring free cortisol and cortisone concentrations in spot urine samples. Furthermore, administrations of glycyrrhetinic acid in three healthy volunteers were performed to confirm the usefulness of the present assessment for the activity of 11β-HSD2.

  7. Cosmic impact: What are the odds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. W.

    2009-12-01

    Firestone et al. (PNAS 104, 16016-16021, 2007) propose that the impact of a ~4 km diameter comet (or multiple bodies making up a similar mass) led to the Younger Dryas cooling and extinction of megafauna in North America, 12,900 years ago. Even more provocatively, Firestone et al. (Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes, Bear & Co. Books, 2006, 392pp), suggest that a nearby supernova may have produced a comet shower leading to the impact event, either by disturbing the Oort Cloud or by direct injection of 4-km comet-like bodies to the solar neighborhood. Here we show: (a) A supernova shockwave or mass ejection is not capable of triggering a shower of comets from the Oort Cloud. (b) An Oort Cloud shower from whatever cause would take 100,000 years or more for the perturbed comets to arrive in the inner solar system, and the peak flux would persist for some hundreds of thousands more years. (c) Even if all 20 solar masses or so of ejected matter from a SN were in the form of 4-km diameter balls, the probability of even one such ball hitting the Earth from an event 100 light years away would be about 3e-5. (d) A 4-km diameter ball traveling fast enough to get here from 100 LY away in some tens of thousands of years would deliver the energy of a 50 km diameter impactor traveling at typical Earth-impact velocity (~20 km/sec). We review the current impact flux on the Earth from asteroids and comets, and show that the probability of an impact of a 4-km diameter asteroid in an interval of 13,000 years is about one in a thousand, and the probability of a comet impact of that size is a few in a million. An "impact shower" caused by the injection or breakup of comets or asteroids in the inner solar system by whatever means would take tens to hundreds of thousands of years to clear out, thus the population of NEOs we see now with our telescopic surveys is what we’ve had for the last few tens of thousands of years, at least. Faced with such low odds, the evidence that such a large

  8. PD98059 and U0126 activate AMP-activated protein kinase by increasing the cellular AMP:ATP ratio and not via inhibition of the MAP kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Dokladda, Kanchana; Green, Kevin A; Pan, David A; Hardie, D Grahame

    2005-01-03

    The MAP kinase pathway inhibitor U0126 caused phosphorylation and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and increased phosphorylation of its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase, in HEK293 cells. This effect only occurred in cells expressing the upstream kinase, LKB1. Of two other widely used MAP kinase pathway inhibitors not closely related in structure to U0126, PD98059 also activated AMPK but PD184352 did not. U0126 and PD98059, but not PD184352, also increased the cellular ADP:ATP and AMP:ATP ratios, accounting for their ability to activate AMPK. These results suggest the need for caution in interpreting experiments conducted using U0126 and PD98059.

  9. Ultrafast active cavitation imaging with enhanced cavitation to tissue ratio based on wavelet transform and pulse inversion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runna; Hu, Hong; Xu, Shanshan; Huo, Rui; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2015-06-01

    The quality of ultrafast active cavitation imaging (UACI) using plane wave transmission is hindered by low transmission pressure, which is necessary to prevent bubble destruction. In this study, a UACI method that combined wavelet transform with pulse inversion (PI) was proposed to enhance the contrast between the cavitation bubbles and surrounding tissues. The main challenge in using wavelet transform is the selection of the optimum mother wavelet. A mother wavelet named "cavitation bubble wavelet" and constructed according to Rayleigh-Plesset-Noltingk-Neppiras-Poritsky model was expected to obtain a high correlation between the bubbles and beamformed echoes. The method was validated by in vitro experiments. Results showed that the image quality was associated with the initial radius of bubble and the scale. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the best optimum cavitation bubble wavelet transform (CBWT) mode image was improved by 3.2 dB compared with that of the B-mode image in free-field experiments. The cavitation-to-tissue ratio of the best optimum PI-based CBWT mode image was improved by 2.3 dB compared with that of the PI-based B-mode image in tissue experiments. Furthermore, the SNR versus initial radius curve had the potential to estimate the size distribution of cavitation bubbles.

  10. Use of ICP/MS with ultrasonic nebulizer for routine determination of uranium activity ratios in natural water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraemer, T.F.; Doughten, M.W.; Bullen, T.D.

    2002-01-01

    A method is described that allows precise determination of 234U/238U activity ratios (UAR) in most natural waters using commonly available inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) instrumentation and accessories. The precision achieved by this technique (??0.5% RSD, 1 sigma) is intermediate between thermal ionization mass spectrometry (??0.25% RSID, 1 sigma) and alpha particle spectrometry (??5% RSD, 1 sigma). It is precise and rapid enough to allow analysis of a large number of samples in a short period of time at low cost using standard, commercially available quadrupole instrumentation with ultrasonic nebulizer and desolvator accessories. UARs have been analyzed successfully in fresh to moderately saline waters with U concentrations of from less than 1 ??g/L to nearly 100 ??g/L. An example of the uses of these data is shown for a study of surface-water mixing in the North Platte River in western Nebraska. This rapid and easy technique should encourage the wider use of uranium isotopes in surface-water and groundwater investigations, both for qualitative (e.g. identifying sources of water) and quantitative (e.g. determining end-member mixing ratios purposes.

  11. pH-susceptibility of HLA-DO tunes DO/DM ratios to regulate HLA-DM catalytic activity

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Strohman, Michael J.; Somasundaram, Sriram; Ayyangar, Sashi; Hou, Tieying; Wang, Nan; Mellins, Elizabeth D.

    2015-01-01

    The peptide-exchange catalyst, HLA-DM, and its inhibitor, HLA-DO control endosomal generation of peptide/class II major histocompatibility protein (MHC-II) complexes; these complexes traffic to the cell surface for inspection by CD4+ T cells. Some evidence suggests that pH influences DO regulation of DM function, but pH also affects the stability of polymorphic MHC-II proteins, spontaneous peptide loading, DM/MHC-II interactions and DM catalytic activity, imposing challenges on approaches to determine pH effects on DM-DO function and their mechanistic basis. Using optimized biochemical methods, we dissected pH-dependence of spontaneous and DM-DO-mediated class II peptide exchange and identified an MHC-II allele-independent relationship between pH, DO/DM ratio and efficient peptide exchange. We demonstrate that active, free DM is generated from DM-DO complexes at late endosomal/lysosomal pH due to irreversible, acid-promoted DO destruction rather than DO/DM molecular dissociation. Any soluble DM that remains in complex with DO stays inert. pH-exposure of DM-DO in cell lysates corroborates such a pH-regulated mechanism, suggesting acid-activated generation of functional DM in DO-expressing cells. PMID:26610428

  12. Effect of isotretinoin on prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT).

    PubMed

    Kaptanoglu, Asli Feride; Uncu, Murat; Ozyurt, Selcuk; Hincal, Evren

    2013-08-01

    Patients with severe acne may need elective/urgent surgical interventions during treatment with isotretinoin and it is critical for the surgeon to consider the possible effects of this medication on coagulation systems. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in prothrombin time (PT), international normalized ratio (INR), and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) during isotretinoin treatment. PT, aPTT, and INR values of 51 severe acne patients were evaluated during routine pre-treatment biochemical analysis. Only patients with normal values were included in the study. The results of before and after 1 month treatment were compared statistically. There were no statistically significant change in mean alanine aminotranferease (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), PT, and INR values after treatment. A significant increase in aPTT was detected. The INR values, which are more trusted and safe, showed no difference. Isotretinoin seems to have no effect on these coagulation parameters.

  13. pH Measurement Using Dual-Wavelength Fluorescent Ratio by Two-Photon Excitation for Mitochondrial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanazashi, Yasuaki; Li, Yongbo; Onojima, Takumi; Iwami, Kentaro; Ohta, Yoshihiro; Umeda, Norihiro

    2012-11-01

    A mitochondrion has a pH gradient between the two sides of its inner membrane in order to produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Because ATP depletion causes numerous diseases, the measurement of the pH value around the mitochondrion is expected to clarify the mechanism of these diseases. In this study, a dual-wavelength pH-sensitive dye was excited by two-photon absorption initiated using a femtosecond pulse laser. In addition, fluorescence from the dye was directly collected from the fluorescent point using the collection-mode probe of a scanning near-field optical microscope. By this proposed method, a pH calibration curve was obtained from the fluorescent intensity ratio of the dye solution, and temporal pH variations with 0.1 s time resolution following the addition of acid were observed. Moreover, mitochondrial activity on the basis of the pH changes was successfully observed in three different mitochondrial densities.

  14. High-spin states and shell structure of the odd-odd nucleus {sup 90}Nb

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, X.Z.; Zhang, Z.L.; Meng, R.; Yang, C.X.; Zhu, L.H.; Wu, X.G.; Wang, Z.M.; He, C.Y.; Li, G.S.; Wen, S.X.; Ma, R.G.; Liu, Y.; Luo, P.; Zheng, Y.; Ndontchueng, M.M.; Huo, J.D.

    2005-10-01

    The high-spin states of the odd-odd nucleus {sup 90}Nb have been investigated with in-beam {gamma}-spectroscopic techniques via the {sup 76}Ge({sup 19}F,5n){sup 90}Nb reaction at a beam energy of 80 MeV. {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences were measured using a {gamma}-ray detector array. Twenty new {gamma} rays have been assigned to {sup 90}Nb and the level scheme has been extended up to an excitation energy of 8.095 MeV at spin 18({Dirac_h}/2{pi}). The level structure of {sup 90}Nb at high spin states has been well reproduced using semiempirical shell-model calculations in the model space {pi}(1p{sub 1/2},0f{sub 5/2},0g{sub 9/2}){nu}(0g{sub 9/2}). The results show that the excitation of protons plays an important role in generating the high-spin states of {sup 90}Nb.

  15. Diabatic crossing of chiral "twins" in the odd-odd 106Ag nucleus: A theoretical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sham S.

    2016-07-01

    A systematic study of both the observed positive-parity magnetic rotation band and the negative-parity Δ I =1 doublet bands in an odd-odd 106Ag nucleus is carried out. The negative-parity doublet bands depict some unusual features that have not been observed in any isotope in the mass A =100 region. For instance, (i) the moment of inertia of the partner band is quite different from that of the yrast band, and (ii) these bands cross each other at an angular momentum of I =14 ℏ . Also, the observed significantly large but constant B (M 1 ) transitions confirm that the strong M 1 transitions are being reinforced by the contributions from collective rotation. To explain these features, a collective model has been developed whose kinetic and potential energies are extracted from the tilted-axis cranking model. Instead of the triaxial parameter γ , a second-order phase transition is found to be responsible for the spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry. Analytical solution of the Schrödinger equation has generated a doublet nondegenerate eigenvalue spectrum. The ensuing model results based on the two-quasiparticle configuration π g9/2⊗ν h11/2 exhibit similarities with many observed features of the negative-parity doublet bands and hence confirm their chiral character. The cranking mass parameter in kinetic energy plays an important role in diabatic crossing between these emerged chiral twin bands.

  16. Neutron-proton multiplets in the odd-odd nucleus 53 37 90Rb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerwiński, M.; RzÄ ca-Urban, T.; Urban, W.; BÄ czyk, P.; Sieja, K.; Timár, J.; Nyakó, B. M.; Kuti, I.; Tornyi, T. G.; Atanasova, L.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Mutti, P.; Köster, U.; Soldner, T.; de France, G.; Simpson, G. S.; Ur, C. A.

    2016-03-01

    Medium-spin excited levels in 90Rb, populated in the fission of 235U induced by neutrons, have been observed for the first time. γ radiation from fission has been measured by using the EXILL array of Ge detectors at the cold-neutron-beam facility PF1B of the Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble. Low-energy levels are interpreted as members of the π p3/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , π f5/2 -1ν (d5/2) 3 , and π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 multiplets with the 0- ground state due to the seniority-3 coupling in the ν d5 /2 shell. Analogous anomalous coupling within the π g9 /2ν (d5/2) 3 configuration explains the 5+, 6+, and 7+ triplet of states, observed at medium spins, similar to the triplet seen in the N =53 isotone, 88Br. Shell-model calculations reproduce well the proposed structures in Rb,9088 and support the seniority-3 coupling in N =53 isotones and its absence in N =51 isotones. The structure of the odd-odd 88Rb and 90Rb nuclei provides an argument in favor of the collectivity building up at the neutron number N =53 .

  17. Application of neural network method to detect type of uranium contamination by estimation of activity ratio in environmental alpha spectra.

    PubMed

    Einian, M R; Aghamiri, S M R; Ghaderi, R

    2016-01-01

    The discrimination of the composition of environmental and non-environmental materials by the estimation of the (234)U/(238)U activity ratio in alpha-particle spectrometry is important in many applications. If the interfering elements are not completely separated from the uranium, they can interfere with the determination of (234)U. Thickness as a result of the existence of iron in the source preparation phase and their alpha lines can broaden the alpha line of (234)U in alpha spectra. Therefore, the asymmetric broadening of the alpha line of (234)U and overlapping of peaks make the analysis of the alpha particle spectra and the interpretation of the results difficult. Applying Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to a spectrometry system is a good idea because it eliminates limitations of classical approaches by extracting the desired information from the input data. In this work, the average of a partial uranium raw spectrum, were considered. Each point that its slope was of the order of 0-1% per 10 channels, was used as input to the multi-layer feed forward error-back propagation network. The network was trained by an alpha spectrum library which has been developed in the present work. The training data in this study was actual spectral data with any reasonable thickness and interfering elements. According to the results, the method applied to estimate the activity ratio in this work, can examine the alpha spectrum for peaks which would not be expected for a source of given element and provide the clues about composition of uranium contamination in the environmental samples in a fast screening and classifying procedures.

  18. Engineering Escherichia coli for odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-10-01

    Microbial biosynthesis of free fatty acids (FFAs) can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into Escherichia coli. The engineered E. coli usually produced even chain FFAs. In this study, propionyl-CoA synthetase (prpE) from Salmonella enterica was overexpressed in two efficient even chain FFAs producers, ML103 (pXZM12) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica and ML103 (pXZ18) carrying the acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Ricinus communis combined with supplement of extracellular propionate. With these metabolically engineered E. coli, the odd straight chain FFAs, undecanoic acid (C11:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), and pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) were produced from glucose and propionate. The highest total odd straight chain FFAs produced by ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) reached 276 mg/l with a ratio of 23.43 % of the total FFAs. In ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE), the highest total odd straight chain FFAs accumulated to 297 mg/l, and the ratio reached 17.68 % of the total FFAs. Due to the different substrate specificity of the acyl-ACP thioesterases, the major odd straight chain FFA components of ML103 (pXZM12, pBAD-prpE) were undecanoic acid and tridecanoic acid, while the ML103 (pXZ18, pBAD-prpE) preferred pentadecanoic acid.

  19. DEPENDENCE OF THE OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET VARIABILITY ON THE EMISSION-LINE PROPERTIES AND EDDINGTON RATIO IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Ai, Y. L.; Yuan, W.; Wang, J. G.

    2010-06-10

    The dependence of the long-term optical/UV variability on the spectral and fundamental physical parameters for radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is investigated. The multi-epoch-repeated photometric scanning data in the Stripe-82 region of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) are exploited for two comparative AGN samples (mostly quasars) selected therein: a broad-line Seyfert 1 (BLS1) type sample and a narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) type AGN sample within redshifts 0.3-0.8. Their spectral parameters are derived from the SDSS spectroscopic data. It is found that on rest-frame timescales of several years the NLS1-type AGNs show systematically smaller variability compared to the BLS1-type AGNs. In fact, the variability amplitude is found to correlate, though only moderately, with the eigenvector 1 parameters, i.e., the smaller the H{beta} linewidth, the weaker the [O III] and the stronger the Fe II emission, the smaller the variability amplitude. Moreover, an interesting inverse correlation is found between the variability and the Eddington ratio, which is perhaps more fundamental. The previously known dependence of the variability on luminosity is not significant, and the dependence on black hole mass-as claimed in recent papers and also present in our data-fades out when controlling for the Eddington ratio in the correlation analysis, though these may be partly due to the limited ranges of luminosity and black hole mass of our samples. Our result strongly supports that an accretion disk is likely to play a major role in producing the optical/UV variability.

  20. Exploring the active galactic nuclei population with extreme X-ray-to-optical flux ratios (fx/fo > 50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Ceca, R.; Carrera, F. J.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.; Ballo, L.; Braito, V.; Corral, A.; Del Moro, A.; Mateos, S.; Ruiz, A.; Watson, M. G.

    2015-03-01

    The cosmic history of the growth of supermassive black holes in galactic centres parallels that of star formation in the Universe. However, an important fraction of this growth occurs inconspicuously in obscured objects, where ultraviolet/optical/near-infrared emission is heavily obscured by dust. Since the X-ray flux is less attenuated, a high X-ray-to-optical flux ratio (fx/fo) is expected to be an efficient tool to find out these obscured accreting sources. We explore here via optical spectroscopy, X-ray spectroscopy and infrared photometry the most extreme cases of this population (those with fx/fo > 50, EXO50 sources hereafter), using a well-defined sample of seven X-ray sources extracted from the 2XMM catalogue. Five EXO50 sources (˜70 per cent of the sample) in the bright flux regime explored by our survey (f(2-10 keV) ≥ 1.5 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1) are associated with obscured AGN (NH > 1022 cm-2), spanning a redshift range between 0.75 and 1 and characterized by 2-10 keV intrinsic luminosities in the QSO regime (e.g. well in excess to 1044 erg s-1). We did not find compelling evidence of Compton thick active galacic nuclei (AGN). Overall, the EXO50 type 2 QSOs do not seem to be different from standard X-ray-selected type 2 QSOs in terms of nuclear absorption; a very high AGN/host galaxy ratio seems to play a major role in explaining their extreme properties. Interestingly, three out of five EXO50 type 2 QSO objects can be classified as extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs, f24 μm/fR ≥ 2000), suggesting that a very high AGN/host ratios (along with the large amount of dust absorption) could be the natural explanation also for a part of the EDOG population. The remaining two EXO50 sources are classified as BL Lac objects, having rather extreme properties, and which are good candidates for TeV emission.

  1. Level Density In Interacting Boson-Fermion-Fermion Model (IBFFM) Of The Odd-Odd Nucleus 196Au

    SciTech Connect

    Kabashi, Skender; Bekteshi, Sadik

    2007-04-23

    The level density of the odd-odd nucleus 196Au is investigated in the interacting boson-fermion-fermion model (IBFFM) which accounts for collectivity and complex interaction between quasiparticle and collective modes.The IBFFM total level density is fitted by Gaussian and its tail is also fitted by Bethe formula and constant temperature Fermi gas model.

  2. Structure-Based Design of Mucor pusillus Pepsin for the Improved Ratio of Clotting Activity/Proteolytic Activity in Cheese Manufacture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai; Li, Zhuolin; Luo, Quan; Li, Tiezhu; Wang, Tuoyi

    2015-01-01

    Previous theoretical studies have determined the intermolecular interactions between Mucor pusillus pepsin (MPP) and the key domain of κ-casein, with the aim to understand the mechanism of milk clotting in the specific hydrolysis of κ-casein by MPP for cheese making. Here, we combined the docking model with site-directed mutagenesis to further investigate the functional roles of amino acid residues in the active site of MPP. T218S replacement caused a low thermostability and moderate increase in the clotting activity. Mutations of three amino acid residues, T218A and T218S in S2 region and L287G in S4 region, led to a significant decrease in proteolytic activity. For T218S and L287G, an increase in the ratio of clotting activity to proteolytic activity (C/P) was observed, in particular 3.34-fold increase was found for T218S mutants. Structural analysis of the binding mode of MPP and chymosin splitting domain (CSD) of κ-casein indicated that T218S plays a critical role in forming a hydrogen bond with the hydroxyl group of Ser(104) around the MPP-sensitive Phe(105)-Met(106) peptide bond of κ- casein and L287G is partially responsible for CSD accommodation in a suitable hydrophobic environment. These data suggested that T218S mutant could serve as a promising milk coagulant that contributes to an optimal flavor development in mature cheese.

  3. Effect of lipid/polysaccharide ratio on surface activity of model root mucilage in its solid and liquid states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fengxian; Arye, Gilboa

    2016-04-01

    The rhizosphere can be defined as the volume of soil around living roots, which is influenced by root activity. The biological, chemical and physical conditions that prevail in the rhizosphere are significantly different from those of the bulk soil. Plant roots can release diverse organic materials in the rhizosphere which may have different effects on its bio-chemo-physical activity. Among these exudates is the root mucilage which can play a role on the maintenance of root-soil contact, lubrication of the root tip, protection of roots from desiccation and disease, stabilization of soil micro-aggregates and the selective absorption and storage of ions. The surface activity of the root mucilage at the liquid-air interface deduced from its surface tension depression relative to water, implying on its amphiphilic nature. Consequently as the rhizosphere dry out, hydrophobic functional groups may exhibit orientation at the solid-air interface and thus, the wettability of the rhizosphere may temporarily decrease. The major fraction of the root mucilage comprise of polysaccharides and to a much lesser extent, amino acids, organic acids, and phospholipids. The most frequent polysaccharide and phospholipids detected in root mucilage are polygalacturonic acid (PGA) and Phosphatidylcholine (PC), respectively. The latter, is thought to be main cause for the surface active nature of root mucilage. Nevertheless, the role and function of root mucilage in the rhizosphere is commonly studied based on model root mucilage that comprise of only one component, where the most frequent ones are PGA or PC (or lecithin). The main objective of this study was to quantify the effect of concentration and PGA/PC ratios on the wettability of a model rhizosphere soil and the surface tension of the model root mucilage at the liquid-air interface. The PGA/PC mixtures were measured for their equilibrium and dynamic surface tension using the Wilhelmy-Plate method. Quartz sand or glass slides were

  4. Concentrations and activity ratios of uranium isotopes in groundwater from Doñana National Park, South of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolívar, J. P.; Olías, M.; González-García, F.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2008-08-01

    The levels and distribution of natural radionuclides in groundwaters from the unconfined Almonte-Marismas aquifer, upon which Doñana National Park is located, have been analysed. Most sampled points were multiple piezometers trying to study the vertical distribution of the hydrogeochemical characteristics in the aquifer. Temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and redox potential were determined in the field. A large number of parameters, physico-chemical properties, major and minor ions, trace elements and natural radionuclides (U-isotopes, Th-isotopes, Ra-isotopes and 210Po), were also analysed. In the southern zone, where aeolian sands crop out, water composition is of the sodium chloride type, and the lower U-isotopes concentrations have been obtained. As water circulates through the aquifer, bicarbonate and calcium concentrations increase slightly, and higher radionuclides concentrations were measured. Finally, we have demonstrated that 234U/238U activity ratios can be used as markers of the type of groundwater and bedrock, as it has been the case for old waters with marine origin confined by a marsh in the south-east part of aquifer.

  5. Temporal evolution of lead isotope ratios in sediments of the Central Portuguese Margin: a fingerprint of human activities.

    PubMed

    Mil-Homens, Mário; Caetano, Miguel; Costa, Ana M; Lebreiro, Susana; Richter, Thomas; de Stigter, Henko; Trancoso, Maria A; Brito, Pedro

    2013-09-15

    Stable Pb isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb), (210)Pb, Pb, Al, Ca, Fe, Mn and Si concentrations were measured in 7 sediment cores from the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula to assess the Pb contamination throughout the last 200 years. Independently of their locations, all cores are characterized by increasing Pb/Al rends not related to grain-size changes. Conversely, decreasing trends of (206)Pb/(207)Pb were found towards the present. This tendency suggest a change in Pb sources reflecting an increased proportion derived from anthropogenic activities. The highest anthropogenic Pb inventories for sediments younger than 1950s were found in the two shallowest cores of Cascais and Lisboa submarine canyons, reflecting the proximity of the Tagus estuary. Lead isotope signatures also help demonstrate that sediments contaminated with Pb are not constrained to estuarine-coastal areas and upper parts of submarine canyons, but are also to transferred to a lesser extent to deeper parts of the Portuguese Margin.

  6. A molecular marker of disease activity in autoimmune liver diseases with histopathological correlation; FoXp3/RORγt ratio.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Suvradeep; Anand, Shashi; Das, Ashim; Thapa, Baburam; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Minz, Ranjana Walker

    2015-11-01

    Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) encompass a group of diseases with variable clinicopathological manifestations. Th17 and Treg cells have roles in the pathogenesis of AILDs with a balance shifted towards a relative increase in activity of the Th17 cells. In this study, the balance between the transcription factors of Treg and Th17 cells (FoXp3 and RORγt) was sought as a molecular marker of disease activity and to highlight the pathogenesis. The peripheral blood samples of 46 treatment-naive patients were collected and RNA was extracted. Real time PCR was performed and the ratio of gene expression was calculated. Histopathology of 18 patients was obtained and the activity score of these biopsies were also corroborated with their respective molecular (FoXp3/RORγt) (FRGT=FoXp3-ROR Gamma T) ratio. The FRGT ratio in healthy individuals was close to 1 and in disease the ratio changed significantly. This ratio (FRGT) was not significantly different in different varieties of AILD or in adult or paediatric form of the disease. However, the ratio remained consistently below 1 (mean 0.3) in acute disease and high (mean 224.7) in chronic or asymptomatic form of the disease (p < 0.001). The histopathological activity score also significantly correlated with the ratio. This signified the relative excess of Th17 (RORγt) in active disease as compared to Treg (FoXp3) and the reverse in chronic form. This ratio can be an important peripheral molecular marker to assess the disease activity without the necessity of performing a liver biopsy.

  7. The competition between alpha decay and spontaneous fission in odd-even and odd-odd nuclei in the range 99 ≤ Z ≤ 129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2015-08-01

    The predictions on the mode of decay of the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of heavy and superheavy nuclei with Z = 99- 129, in the range 228 ≤ A ≤ 336, have been done within the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). A comparison of our calculated alpha half lives with the values computed using other theoretical models shows good agreement with each other. An extensive study on the spontaneous fission half lives of all the isotopes under study has been performed to identify the long-lived isotopes in the mass region. The study reveals that the alpha decay half lives and the mode of decay of the isotopes with Z = 109, 111, 113, 115 and 117, evaluated using our formalisms, agree well with the experimental observations. As our study on the odd-even and odd-odd isotopes of Z = 99- 129 predicts that, the isotopes 238,240-25499, 244,246-258101, 248,250,252-260,262103, 254,256,258-262,264105, 258,260,262-264,266107, 262,264,266-274109, 266,268-279111, 270-284,286113, 272-289,291115, 274-299117, 276-307119, 281-314121, 287-320,322123, 295-325125, 302-327127 and 309-329129 survive fission and have alpha decay channel as the prominent mode of decay, these nuclei could possibly be synthesized in the laboratory and this could be of great interest to the experimentalists. The behavior of these nuclei against the proton decay has also been studied to identify the probable proton emitters in this region of nuclei.

  8. Colorings of odd or even chirality on hexagonal lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cépas, O.

    2017-02-01

    We define two classes of colorings that have odd or even chirality on hexagonal lattices. This parity is an invariant in the dynamics of all loops, and explains why standard Monte Carlo algorithms are nonergodic. We argue that adding the motion of "stranded" loops allows for parity changes. By implementing this algorithm, we show that the even and odd classes have the same entropy. In general, they do not have the same number of states, except for the special geometry of long strips, where a Z2 symmetry between even and odd states occurs in the thermodynamic limit.

  9. Superdeformation studies in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 192}Tl

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, S.; Carpenter, M.P.; Janssens, R.V.F.

    1995-08-01

    The study of yrast and near-yrast structures of odd-odd nuclei to high spins is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the spectra resulting from the many proton-neutron couplings near the Fermi surface. In superdeformed nuclei, the number of available protons and neutrons near the Fermi surface is somewhat limited due to the presence of large-shell gaps which stabilize the nuclear shape. A relatively small number of available neutron and proton configurations can lead to fragmentation of the SD intensity into a number of different bands. Two good examples of this phenomenon were found in {sup 192}Tl and {sup 194}Tl where the presence of six superdeformed bands were reported in both nuclei. We reexamined {sup 192}Tl at Gammasphere using the {sup 160}Gd({sup 37}Cl,5n) reaction at 178 MeV to populate states in the superdeformed well of this nucleus. While our previous study on {sup 192}Tl at ATLAS was very successful, a number of questions remained which formed the basis of our objectives in this experiment: obtain better {gamma}-ray energies for the known transitions and identify higher spin members in each band; determine how the bands feed the known yrast states in {sup 192}Tl as well as determine the complete spectrum in coincidence with the SD bands; look for M1 transitions connecting proposed signature partners; and attempt to identify other excitations in the superdeformed well. Analysis is underway and four of the six bands were confirmed. The reasons that two of the reported bands were not observed in this latest work is still under investigation. As of this time, no other superdeformed bands were identified in the data. Two of the confirmed SD bands have a constant moment of inertia and show indications of cross-talk between each other. This observation is not unexpected since the calculated M1 rates for the proposed configuration of the band, {pi}{sub 13/2} x {upsilon}j{sub 15/2}, indicate that M1 transitions linking the two SD bands should be observed.

  10. Characterization of isomers in the neutron-rich odd-odd nucleus {sup 156}Pm

    SciTech Connect

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R; Sai, K. Vijay; Sainath, M.

    2011-02-15

    Critical examination of the experimental data from {sup 156}Nd and {sup 156}Pm {beta} decays and the observed location of relevant neutron and proton orbitals in the neighboring odd-A isotones and isotopes, taken together with the low-lying two-quasiparticle (2qp) structures expected in {sup 156}Pm from the rotor-particle model, lead to the conclusion that a consistent description of all the available data is achieved with the I{sup {pi}}=4{sup +} spin-parity assignment to the 26.7s {sup 156}Pm ground state (g.s.) and assignment of I{sup {pi}}=1{sup +} to its 150.3-keV isomer with the 2qp configuration 4{sub g.s.}{sup +}{l_brace}p{sub o}:5/2[532{up_arrow}]{+-}n{sub o}:3/2[521{up_arrow}]{r_brace}1{sub 150}{sup +}. In the process, a two-neutron configuration is also suggested for the 1509-keV 4{sup +} level in the daughter nucleus {sup 156}Sm. The present analysis reiterates the important question of whether the {beta}-decay log ft value, by itself, can be employed to deduce the relative parity of the {beta}-connected states.

  11. Genes Plus Erratic Sleep May Raise Odds for Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164039.html Genes Plus Erratic Sleep May Raise Odds for Obesity ...

  12. Can Depression Up Odds for Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163780.html Can Depression Up Odds for Arthritis Linked to Psoriasis? Mood ... 24, 2017 FRIDAY, Feb. 24, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Depression in people with the chronic inflammatory skin disease ...

  13. Cavity tests of parity-odd Lorentz violations in electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewes, Matthew; Petroff, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Electromagnetic resonant cavities form the basis for a number modern tests of Lorentz invariance. The geometry of most of these experiments implies unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-even Lorentz violations only. Parity-odd violations typically enter through suppressed boost effects, causing a reduction in sensitivity by roughly 4 orders of magnitude. Here we discuss possible techniques for achieving unsuppressed sensitivities to parity-odd violations using asymmetric resonators.

  14. The odd-number sequence: squares and sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Direct study of various characteristics of integers and their interactions is readily accessible to undergraduate students. Integers obviously fall in different classes of modular rings and thus have features unique to that class which can result in a variety of formations, particularly with sums of squares. The sum of the first n odd numbers is itself the square of n within the odd number sequence, from which testing for primality within the Fibonacci sequence is investigated in this note.

  15. Increasing the Odds: Applying Emergentist Theory in Language Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Poll, Gerard H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose This review introduces a leading theory of language development, emergentism, the view that language ability is the product of interactions between the language environment and the learning capabilities of the child. It suggests ways in which emergentism provides a theoretical rationale for interventions designed to address developmental language delays in young children. Method A review of selected literature on emergentist theory and research is presented, with a focus on the acquisition of early morphology and syntax. A significant method for developing and testing emergentist theory, connectionist modeling, is described. Key themes from both connectionist and behavioral studies are summarized and applied with specific examples to language intervention techniques. A case study is presented to integrate elements of emergentism with language intervention. Conclusions Evaluating the theoretical foundation for language interventions is an important step in evidence-based practice. This article introduces three themes in the emergentist literature that have implications for language intervention: sufficiency of language input, active engagement of the child with the input, and the introduction of factors that increase the odds for correctly mapping language form to meaning. Evidence supporting the importance of these factors in effective language intervention is presented, along with limitations in that evidence. PMID:21616988

  16. The progressive ratio schedule as a model for studying the psychomotor stimulant activity of drugs in the rat.

    PubMed

    Poncelet, M; Chermat, R; Soubrie, P; Simon, P

    1983-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were trained to press a lever with food reinforcement according to a continuously reinforced schedule (CRF). Afterwards, rats were subjected to three experimental sessions (30 min each) during which responding was rewarded according to a progressive ratio schedule (following an initial 2-min CRF period, the number of presses necessary for the pellet delivery was doubled every second minute). Responding during the first half of each session, i.e., pressing for food, was maintained at a significant level, whereas it was almost suppressed during the second part of the session. As compared to controls (200 +/- 20 presses/30 min) animals given amfonelic acid (0.5, 1 mg/kg IP), methylphenidate (4, 8 mg/kg IP), caffeine (16 mg/kg IP), cocaine (4 mg/kg IP), oxolinic acid (32 mg/kg IP), nomifensine (4 mg/kg IP), DR 250 (2, 4 mg/kg IP) and d-amphetamine (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg/kg IP) showed an increased rate of responding ranging from 400 to 950 presses/30 min. In contrast, apomorphine, MK 486 + L-dopa, trihexyphenidyl, imipramine, salbutamol and diazepam did not increase responding. These results suggested that this test is highly sensitive for psychomotor stimulants and perhaps for their ability to enhance the reinforcing value of the reward or stimuli associated with the reward. Such activity seemed related to a catecholaminergic substrate since the increase of responding induced by amphetamine was blocked by pimozide, d,l-propranolol and prazosin.

  17. DEEP, LOW-MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XII. CK BOOTIS WITH POSSIBLE CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND ADDITIONAL COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-05-15

    We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7({+-} 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67({+-} 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days({+-} 0.0009 days) and P{sub 3} = 24.16({+-} 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary system. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 ({+-}0.80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass ratio overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J{sub spin} > (1/3)J{sub orb}.

  18. Testosterone enhancement during pregnancy influences the 2D:4D ratio and open field motor activity of rat siblings in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Talarovicová, Alzbeta; Krsková, Lucia; Blazeková, Jana

    2009-01-01

    In humans, the relationship between the prenatal testosterone exposure and the ratio of the second and the fourth digits (2D:4D) has been extensively studied. Surprisingly, data on this relationship have thus far been lacking in experimental animals such as rats. We studied the effect of maternal testosterone enhancement during pregnancy on the digit ratio and open field activity of adult progeny in Wistar rats. Elevated levels of maternal testosterone resulted in lower 2D:4D ratios and an elongated 4D on the left and right forepaws in both males and females. We found no sex difference in 2D:4D in control animals. In the open field test, control females were more active than control males and testosterone females, while the activity of testosterone females did not differ from that of control males. We found a positive correlation between motor activity and the right forepaw 2D:4D ratio of control males and females. Prenatal exposure to testosterone resulted in the disappearance of this correlation in both males and females. Our results show that elevated levels of testosterone during the prenatal period can influence forepaw 4D length, 2D:4D ratio, and open field motor activity of rats, and that these variables are positively correlated. Thus, this approach represents a noninvasive and robust method for evaluating the effects of prenatal testosterone enhancement on anatomical and physiological parameters.

  19. Mean individual muscle activities and ratios of total muscle activities in a selective muscle strengthening experiment: the effects of lower limb muscle activity based on mediolateral slope angles during a one-leg stance

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Yeol

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to provide basic data for research on selective muscle strengthening by identifying mean muscle activities and calculating muscle ratios for use in developing strengthening methods. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-one healthy volunteers were included in this study. Muscle activity was measured during a one-leg stance under 6 conditions of slope angle: 0°, 5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The data used in the analysis were root mean square and % total muscle activity values. [Results] There were significant differences in the root mean square of the gluteus medius, the hamstring, and the medial gastrocnemius muscles. There were significant differences in % total muscle activity of the medial gastrocnemius. [Conclusion] Future studies aimed at developing selective muscle strengthening methods are likely to yield more effective results by using muscle activity ratios based on electromyography data. PMID:27799690

  20. Projected shell model study of odd-odd f-p-g shell proton-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palit, R.; Sheikh, J. A.; Sun, Y.; Jain, H. C.

    2003-01-01

    A systematic study of two-quasiparticle bands of the proton-rich odd-odd nuclei in the mass A˜70 80 region is performed using the projected shell model approach. The study includes Br, Rb, and Y isotopes with N=Z+2 and Z+4. We describe the energy spectra and electromagnetic transition strengths in terms of the configuration mixing of the angular-momentum projected multi-quasiparticle states. Signature splitting and signature inversion in the rotational bands are discussed and are shown to be well described. A preliminary study of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus 74Rb, using the concept of spontaneous symmetry breaking is also presented.

  1. The ratio of alpha-galactosidase to beta-glucuronidase activities in dried blood for the identification of female Fabry disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, Z; Keil, A; Kohlschütter, A; Beck, M; Mengel, E

    2005-01-01

    Female heterozygous patients with Fabry disease are difficult to identify because of the relatively high residual activity of alpha-galactosidase. We systematically evaluated the activities of various lysosomal enzymes in dried blood samples from Fabry patients and found that the beta-glucuronidase activity was frequently elevated. The ratio of alpha-galactosidase to beta-glucuronidase proved to be a helpful tool for the diagnosis of female Fabry disease patients.

  2. The Role of Ice Compositions for Snowlines and the C/N/O Ratios in Active Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piso, Ana-Maria A.; Pegues, Jamila; Öberg, Karin I.

    2016-12-01

    The elemental compositions of planets define their chemistry, and could potentially be used as beacons for their formation location if the elemental gas and grain ratios of planet birth environments, i.e., protoplanetary disks, were well understood. In disks, the ratios of volatile elements, such as C/O and N/O, are regulated by the abundance of the main C, N, O carriers, their ice binding environment, and the presence of snowlines of major volatiles at different distances from the central star. We explore the effects of disk dynamical processes, molecular compositions and abundances, and ice compositions on the snowline locations of the main C, O, and N carriers, and the C/N/O ratios in gas and dust throughout the disk. The gas-phase N/O ratio enhancement in the outer disk (exterior to the H2O snowline) exceeds the C/O ratio enhancement for all reasonable volatile compositions. Ice compositions and disk dynamics individually change the snowline location of N2, the main nitrogen carrier, by a factor of 2-3, and when considered together the range of possible N2 snowline locations is ˜11-˜79 au in a standard disk model. Observations that anchor snowline locations at different stages of planet formation are therefore key to developing C/N/O ratios as a probe of planet formation zones.

  3. Executive functions in preschoolers with ADHD, ODD, and comorbid ADHD-ODD: Evidence from ecological and performance-based measures.

    PubMed

    Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser

    2015-09-01

    Executive functioning in 3-year-old preschoolers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional-defiant disorder (ODD), comorbid ADHD+ODD, and children without any of these conditions (control group) was examined. A community sample including 622 children was diagnosed using a diagnostic interview following DSM-IV criteria, and assessed using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function Preschool version (BRIEF-P) and the Kiddie-Conners' Continuous Performance Test. The children diagnosed with ADHD showed the poorest executive function (EF) profile in comparison with controls, and were closely followed up in this respect by the comorbid ADHD+ODD children. The ADHD and comorbid groups presented similar executive difficulties. The ODD group obtained mean scores statistically equal to those of controls in EF. These findings suggest that, in preschoolers, executive functioning deficits assessed with a performance-based measure or with behavioural descriptions are specific to children with ADHD, in comparison with those with ODD. This study contributes knowledge about EFs in two prevalent and comorbid disorders in preschool children, ADHD and ODD, knowledge that can help our understanding of specific deficits and the design of specific early intervention initiatives.

  4. Serum flecainide S/R ratio reflects the CYP2D6 genotype and changes in CYP2D6 activity.

    PubMed

    Doki, Kosuke; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Kuga, Keisuke; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Homma, Masato

    2015-08-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify whether the ratio of S- to R-flecainide (S/R ratio) in the serum flecainide concentration was associated with the stereoselectivity of flecainide metabolism, and to investigate the effects of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotype and CYP2D6 inhibitor on the serum flecainide S/R ratio. In vitro studies using human liver microsomes and cDNA-expressed CYP isoforms suggested that variability in the serum flecainide S/R ratio was associated with the stereoselectivity of CYP2D6-mediated flecainide metabolism. We examined the serum flecainide S/R ratio in 143 patients with supraventricular tachyarrhythmia. The S/R ratio was significantly lower in intermediate metabolizers and poor metabolizers (IMs/PMs) than in extensive metabolizers (EMs) identified by the CYP2D6 genotype. The cut-off value for the S/R ratio to allow the discrimination between CYP2D6 EMs and IMs/PMs was 0.99. The S/R ratio in patients with co-administration of bepridil, a potent CYP2D6 inhibitor, was lower than 0.99, regardless of the CYP2D6 genotype status. Other factors, including age, sex, body weight, and renal function, did not affect the serum flecainide S/R ratio. This study suggests that the serum flecainide S/R ratio reflects the CYP2D6 genotype and changes in CYP2D6 activity on co-administration of a CYP2D6 inhibitor.

  5. Odds of fault and factors for out-of-state drivers in crashes in four states of the USA.

    PubMed

    Harootunian, Kristine; Lee, Brian H Y; Aultman-Hall, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Drivers outside their country of residence are at a safety disadvantage when compared to native counterparts. This research aimed to (1) investigate if out-of-state drivers in the United States experienced the same vulnerabilities as foreign drivers, and (2) examine the relations of out-of-state crashes to various human and environmental factors. Crash data from Florida, Maine, Minnesota, and Nevada was analyzed to model fault using logistic regressions. Univariate regressions showed that out-of-state drivers had increased odds of fault, ranging from 17% to 92%, for a single-vehicle crash compared to in-state drivers in all states except Florida, where there was no difference between groups. Odds were elevated for out-of-state drivers in two-vehicle crashes by 3% to 19% in all states except Florida and Minnesota, where, again, there was no difference between groups. Human and environmental factors such as age, sex, driving conditions, and seasons were examined with multivariate regressions for in- and out-of-state groups separately, and their odds ratios were compared. For single-vehicle crashes age, sex, road grade, surface condition, light conditions, and day of week were factors that increased at least one of the two groups' odds of fault in all states. Sex, surface condition, and light conditions increased the odds of fault for at least one of the groups in two-vehicle crashes in all four states. Factors that consistently increased odds of fault for both single- and two-vehicle crashes were males, non-vehicle owners, curves, and inclement weather. Although there were several factors in each state that increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers, no factors consistently increased odds of fault for out-of-state drivers across all four states.

  6. [The effect of diet ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids of omega-3 and omega-6 families on activity of aminotransferases and gamma-glutamyltransferase in rat blood serum].

    PubMed

    Ketsa, O V; Marchenko, M M

    2014-01-01

    The effect of diet fat compositions with various ratio of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) on alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activities in blood serum of 45 white mongrel rats weighing 90-110 g (9 animals in group) has been investigated. Fat components in the semi-synthetic diet, compiled on the basis of AIN-93 diet, and sources of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA were presented by sunflower oil, soybean oil and fish oil. It has been shown that four-week inclusion of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA) in a ratio of 7:1 into the diet (soybean oil) as well as use of only omega-6 PUFA (sunflower oil) has lead to an increase in the activity of ALT and GGT in rat blood serum compared to control animals treated with the complex of linolenic, eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid through the mixture of sunflower oil and fish oil (9:1) with the ratio of omega-6 and omega-3 PUFA 7:1. Along with this, the AST:ALT ratio (de Ritis ratio) was lower (p < 0.05) as compared with the control group of rat, amounting respectively 0.92 +/- 0.08 and 0.79 +/- 0.12 vs 1.26 +/- 0.10. The use of high doses of omega-3 fatty acids (600 mg EPA and 400 mg DHA per kg of animal weight per day coming through fish oil) did not affect the activity of ALT and GGT, but increased AST serum activity (0.47 +/- 0.04 micromoles/min per mg protein) and the de Ritis ratio (2.53 +/- 0.23). The diet deprived with fat increased enzyme activity of ALT, AST and GGT in rat blood serum.

  7. Estimating Regression Parameters in an Extended Proportional Odds Model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying Qing; Hu, Nan; Cheng, Su-Chun; Musoke, Philippa; Zhao, Lue Ping

    2012-01-01

    The proportional odds model may serve as a useful alternative to the Cox proportional hazards model to study association between covariates and their survival functions in medical studies. In this article, we study an extended proportional odds model that incorporates the so-called “external” time-varying covariates. In the extended model, regression parameters have a direct interpretation of comparing survival functions, without specifying the baseline survival odds function. Semiparametric and maximum likelihood estimation procedures are proposed to estimate the extended model. Our methods are demonstrated by Monte-Carlo simulations, and applied to a landmark randomized clinical trial of a short course Nevirapine (NVP) for mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Additional application includes analysis of the well-known Veterans Administration (VA) Lung Cancer Trial. PMID:22904583

  8. Effective field theory for vibrations in odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coello Pérez, E. A.; Papenbrock, T.

    2016-11-01

    Heavy even-even nuclei exhibit low-energy collective excitations that are separated in scale from the microscopic (fermion) degrees of freedom. This separation of scale allows us to approach nuclear vibrations within an effective field theory (EFT). In odd-mass nuclei collective and single-particle properties compete at low energies, and this makes their description more challenging. In this article we describe spherical odd-mass nuclei with ground-state spin I =1/2 by means of an EFT that couples a fermion to the collective degrees of freedom of an even-even core. The EFT relates observables such as energy levels, electric quadrupole transition strengths, and magnetic dipole moments of the odd-mass nucleus to those of its even-even neighbor and allows us to quantify theoretical uncertainties. For isotopes of rhodium and silver the theoretical description is consistent with data within experimental and theoretical uncertainties. Several testable predictions are made.

  9. Even and odd Wigner negative binomial states: Nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojaveri, B.; Dehghani, A.

    2015-10-01

    By using Wigner-Heisenberg algebra (WHA) and its Fock representation, even and odd Wigner negative binomial states (WNBSs) |M,ξ,ν>±W (ν = 0 corresponds to the ordinary even and odd negative binomial states (NBSs)) are introduced. These states can be reduced to the Wigner cat states in special limit. We establish the resolution of identity property for them through a positive definite measure on the unit disc. Some of their nonclassical properties, such as Mandel’s parameter and quadrature squeezing have been investigated numerically. We show that in contrast with the even NBSs, even WNBSs may exhibit sub-Poissonian statistics. Also squeezing in the field quadratures appears for both even and odd WNBSs. It is found that the deformation parameter ν plays an essential role in displaying highly nonclassical behaviors.

  10. Effects of Non-Guidance Activities, Supervision, and Student-to-Counselor Ratios on School Counselor Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    School counselors, like all mental health professionals are at high risk for burnout. High caseloads, job role ambiguity, and lack of supervision increase their propensity for burnout. Three areas were selected for study in this article due to their potential impact on burnout: supervision, student-to-counselor-ratios, and non-guidance related…

  11. Extremal charged rotating dilaton black holes in odd dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Allahverdizadeh, Masoud; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lerida, Francisco

    2010-09-15

    Employing higher-order perturbation theory, we find a new class of charged rotating black hole solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with general dilaton coupling constant. Starting from the Myers-Perry solutions, we use the electric charge as the perturbative parameter, and focus on extremal black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta in odd dimensions. We perform the perturbations up to 4th order for black holes in 5 dimensions and up to 3rd order in higher odd dimensions. We calculate the physical properties of these black holes and study their dependence on the charge and the dilaton coupling constant.

  12. The effects of diet, mating duration , female to male ratios and temperature on ovary activation, mating success and fecundity of Aethina tumida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of natural diet, mating and temperature on the ovary activation and fecundity of small hive beetles (SHB) Aethina tumida Murray were studied. The natural diets evaluated were brood, pollen, honey and their various combinations. Duration of mating (1 day versus 2 days), ratio of female (F...

  13. Uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios in fault-associated groundwater as possible earthquake precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Finkel, R.C.

    1981-05-01

    In order to assess the utility of uranium isotopes as fluid phase earthquake precursors, uranium concentrations and /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios have been monitored on a monthly or bimonthly basis in water from 24 wells and springs associated with Southern California fault zones. Uranium concentrations vary from 0.002 ppb at Indian Canyon Springs on the San Jacinto fault to 8.3 ppb at Lake Hughes well on the San Andreas fault in the Palmdale area. /sup 234/U//sup 238/U activity ratios vary from 0.88 at Agua Caliente Springs on the Elsinore fault to 5.4 at Niland Slab well on the San Andreas fault in the Imperial Valley. There was one large earthquake in the study area during 1979, the 15 October 1979 M = 6.6 Imperial Valley earthquake. Correlated with this event, uranium concentrations varied by a factor of more than 60 and activity ratios by a factor of 3 at the Niland Slab site, about 70 km from the epicenter. At the other sites monitored, uranium concentrations varied in time, but with no apparent pattern, while uranium activity ratios remained essentially constant throughout the monitoring period.

  14. Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities. Annual Report 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, Steven R.; Buchholz, Bruce A.

    2011-08-24

    The objective of this work is to identify isotopic ratios suitable for analysis via mass spectrometry that distinguish between commercial nuclear reactor fuel cycles, fuel cycles for weapons grade plutonium, and products from nuclear weapons explosions. Methods will also be determined to distinguish the above from medical and industrial radionuclide sources. Mass spectrometry systems will be identified that are suitable for field measurement of such isotopes in an expedient manner.

  15. Real-time Signal-to-noise Ratio (SNR) Estimation for BPSK and QPSK Modulation Using the Active Communications Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manning, Robert M. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Method and apparatus for estimating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gamma of a composite input signal e(t) on a phase modulated (e.g., BPSK) communications link. A first demodulator receives the composite input signal and a stable carrier signal and outputs an in-phase output signal; a second demodulator receives the composite input signal and a phase-shifted version of the carrier signal and outputs a quadrature-phase output signal; and phase error theta(sub E)(t) contained within the composite input signal e(t) is calculated from the outputs of the first and second demodulators. A time series of statistically independent phase error measurements theta(sub E)(t(sub 1)), theta (sub E)(t(sub 2)),..., theta (sub E)(t(sub k)) is obtained from the composite input signal subtending a time interval delta t = t(sub k) - t(sub 1) whose value is small enough such that gamma(t) and sigma(t) can be taken to be constant in delta t. A biased estimate gamma(sup *) for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gamma if the composite input signal is calculated using maximum likelihood (ML) estimation techniques, and an unbiased estimate gamma(sup ^) for the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) gamma of the composite input signal is determined from the biased estimate gamma(sup *), such as by use of a look-up table.

  16. Assessment of Non-traditional Isotopic Ratios by Mass Spectrometry for Analysis of Nuclear Activities: Annual Report Year 2

    SciTech Connect

    Biegalski, S; Buchholz, B

    2009-08-26

    The objective of this work is to identify isotopic ratios suitable for analysis via mass spectrometry that distinguish between commercial nuclear reactor fuel cycles, fuel cycles for weapons grade plutonium, and products from nuclear weapons explosions. Methods will also be determined to distinguish the above from medical and industrial radionuclide sources. Mass spectrometry systems will be identified that are suitable for field measurement of such isotopes in an expedient manner. Significant progress has been made with this project within the past year: (1) Isotope production from commercial nuclear fuel cycles and nuclear weapons fuel cycles have been modeled with the ORIGEN and MCNPX codes. (2) MCNPX has been utilized to calculate isotopic inventories produced in a short burst fast bare sphere reactor (to approximate the signature of a nuclear weapon). (3) Isotopic ratios have been identified that are good for distinguishing between commercial and military fuel cycles as well as between nuclear weapons and commercial nuclear fuel cycles. (4) Mass spectrometry systems have been assessed for analysis of the fission products of interest. (5) A short-list of forensic ratios have been identified that are well suited for use in portable mass spectrometry systems.

  17. The Antarctic ozone minimum - Relationship to odd nitrogen, odd chlorine, the final warming, and the 11-year solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callis, L. B.; Natarajan, M.

    1986-01-01

    Photochemical calculations along 'diabatic trajectories' in the meridional phase are used to search for the cause of the dramatic springtime minimum in Antarctic column ozone. The results indicate that the minimum is principally due to catalytic destruction of ozone by high levels of total odd nitrogen. Calculations suggest that these levels of odd nitrogen are transported within the polar vortex and during the polar night from the middle to upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere to the lower stratosphere. The possibility that these levels are related to the 11-year solar cycle and are increased by enhanced formation in the thermosphere and mesosphere during solar maximum conditions is discussed.

  18. Racing Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Unit conversion need not be boring. If students see that the skill is necessary, both their motivation to learn and their appreciation of the process can be enhanced. As a result, students become actively engaged and construct understanding and computational skills that they will retain over time. The activity described here makes use of scale…

  19. High-spin level scheme of doubly odd 128I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, B.; Wang, H. X.; Jiang, H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhao, Y. M.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, M. L.; Li, G. S.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, N. T.; Zhou, H. B.; Ma, Y. J.; Sasakiz, Y.; Yamada, K.; Ohshima, H.; Yokose, S.; Ishizuka, M.; Komatsubara, T.; Furuno, K.

    2012-09-01

    High-spin states in the odd-odd 128I have been studied experimentally using the 124Sn(7Li, 3nγ)128I reaction at beam energies of 28 and 32 MeV. A level scheme built on the known T1/2=175 ns, (6-) isomer has been established. The low-lying states in the level scheme have been proposed to be associated with the πd5/2⊗νh11/2 and πg7/2⊗νh11/2 two-quasiparticle excitations. The strongly populated negative-parity states, forming a bandlike structure, have been assigned to be based on the πg7/2⊗νh11/2 configuration. The πh11/2⊗νh11/2 multiplet 9+, 10+, and 11+ members have been identified according to the systematics of the corresponding level structures observed in the lighter odd-odd iodine isotopes. The two-quasiparticle configuration assignments are supported by the nucleon pair approximation and empirical shell-model calculations.

  20. Band structure of doubly-odd nuclei around mass 130

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiyama, Koji; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2011-05-06

    Nuclear structure of the doublet bands in the doubly-odd nuclei with mass A{approx}130 is studied in terms of a pair-truncated shell model. The model reproduces quite well the energy levels of the doublet bands and the electromagnetic transitions. The analysis of the electromagnetic transitions reveals new band structure of the doublet bands.

  1. Are the Odds Against the Origin of Life Too Great?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Richard

    2000-01-01

    Statistics are offered to "prove" odds against the origin of life. Presents a summary analysis of all known examples to be used to check these claims whenever they are brought up in conversations, debates, books, or articles. Addresses scientific work misused by anti-evolutionists and the pseudoscientific assertions of the…

  2. Stacking the Odds: A National Directory of Exemplary Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jon D.; Spindel, Ann

    A recent study found that many students have dreams for the future, but many of them are on paths that do not lead to that future. Many institutions are already taking steps to close the gap between aspirations and reality, and some of the programs that are working to stack the odds in children's favor are profiled in this directory. Educational…

  3. Odd Laplacians: geometrical meaning of potential and modular class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khudaverdian, Hovhannes M.; Peddie, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    A second-order self-adjoint operator Δ =Spartial ^2+U is uniquely defined by its principal symbol S and potential U if it acts on half-densities. We analyse the potential U as a compensating field (gauge field) in the sense that it compensates the action of coordinate transformations on the second derivatives in the same way as an affine connection compensates the action of coordinate transformations on first derivatives in the first-order operator, a covariant derivative, nabla =partial +Γ . Usually a potential U is derived from other geometrical constructions such as a volume form, an affine connection, or a Riemannian structure, etc. The story is different if Δ is an odd operator on a supermanifold. In this case, the second-order potential becomes a primary object. For example, in the case of an odd symplectic supermanifold, the compensating field of the canonical odd Laplacian depends only on this symplectic structure and can be expressed by the formula obtained by K. Bering. We also study modular classes of odd Poisson manifolds via Δ -operators, and consider an example of a non-trivial modular class which is related with the Nijenhuis bracket.

  4. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishiyama, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Japanese prefer odd numbers, whereas Westerners emphasize even numbers, an observation that is clear from the distribution of number-related words in Japanese and English dictionaries. In this article, the author explains why these two cultures differ by surveying the history of numbers, including yin-yang thought from ancient China, ancient Greek…

  5. Search for very light CP-odd Higgs Boson in radiative decays of Upsilon(1S).

    PubMed

    Love, W; Savinov, V; Mendez, H; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sultana, N; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Zhang, L M; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Naik, P; Rademacker, J; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Reed, J; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Hunt, J M; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Ledoux, J; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Mehrabyan, S; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A; Libby, J; Martin, L; Powell, A; Wilkinson, G; Ecklund, K M

    2008-10-10

    We search for a non-SM-like CP-odd Higgs boson (a(1)(0)) decaying to tau(+)tau(-) or mu(+)mu(-) in radiative decays of the Upsilon(1S). No significant signal is found, and upper limits on the product branching ratios are set. Our tau(+)tau(-) results are almost 2 orders of magnitude more stringent than previous upper limits. Our data provide no evidence for a Higgs state with a mass of 214 MeV decaying to mu(+)mu(-), previously proposed as an explanation for 3 Sigma(+)-->pmu(+)mu(-) events observed by the HyperCP experiment. Our results constrain NMSSM models.

  6. Opening of the closed water area and consequent changes of ²²⁸Ra/²²⁶Ra activity ratios in coastal lagoon Nakaumi, southwest Japan.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Ritsuo; Nakamura, Kosaku; Seto, Koji; Inoue, Mutsuo; Kofuji, Hisaki

    2013-11-01

    In Lake Nakaumi, the second largest coastal lagoon in Japan, artificially closed (Honjyo) area, which was left untouched for 28 years, was partly opened in May, 2009. (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of waters in Honjyo area and Lake Nakaumi showed a well-tuned seasonal variation exhibiting high value in summer. After the opening event, however, the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios in the Honjyo water showed an unclear seasonal variation in both surface and deep water. This opening event caused the change of active movement of lake and marine water.

  7. The Ratio of a Urinary Tobacco-Specific Lung Carcinogen Metabolite to Cotinine is Significantly Higher in Passive than in Active Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Carmella, Steven G.; Stepanov, Irina; Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2011-01-01

    4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol plus its glucuronides (total NNAL), metabolites of the lung carcinogen NNK, and total cotinine, metabolites of nicotine, are biomarkers of active and passive cigarette smoking. We calculated the total NNAL: total cotinine (× 103) ratio in 408 passive (infants, children, adults) and 1088 active smokers. The weighted averages were 0.73 (95% CI 0.71, 0.76) for passive smokers and 0.07 (0.06, 0.08) for active smokers (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that cotinine measurements may underestimate exposure of passive smokers to the lung carcinogen NNK in secondhand cigarette smoke. The total NNAL:total cotinine (× 103) ratio may provide an improved biomarker for evaluating the health effects of passive smoking. PMID:21812592

  8. Biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ying-Xiu; Xiao, Wen-Hai; Liu, Duo; Zhang, Jin-Lai; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-05-01

    Engineered microbes offer the opportunity to design and implement artificial molecular pathways for renewable production of tailored chemical commodities. Targeted biosynthesis of odd-chain fatty alcohols is very challenging in microbe, due to the specificity of fatty acids synthase for two-carbon unit elongation. Here, we developed a novel strategy to directly tailor carbon number in fatty aldehydes formation step by incorporating α-dioxygenase (αDOX) from Oryza sativa (rice) into Escherichia coli αDOX oxidizes Cn fatty acids (even-chain) to form Cn-1 fatty aldehydes (odd-chain). Through combining αDOX with fatty acyl-acyl carrier protein (-ACP) thioesterase (TE) and aldehyde reductase (AHR), the medium odd-chain fatty alcohols profile (C11, C13, C15) was firstly established in E. coli. Also, medium even-chain alkanes (C12, C14) were obtained by substitution of AHR to aldehyde decarbonylase (AD). The titer of odd-chain fatty alcohols was improved from 7.4mg/L to 101.5mg/L in tube cultivation by means of fine-tuning endogenous fatty acyl-ACP TE (TesA'), αDOX, AHRs and the genes involved in fatty acids metabolism pathway. Through high cell density fed-batch fermentation, a titer of 1.95g/L odd-chain fatty alcohols was achieved, which was the highest reported titer in E. coli. Our system has greatly expanded the current microbial fatty alcohols profile that provides a new brand solution for producing complex and desired molecules in microbes.

  9. Antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with odd-numbered coupled spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owerre, S. A.; Nsofini, J.

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, studies on cyclic molecular nanomagnets have captivated the attention of researchers. These magnets are finite in size and contain very large spins. They are interesting because they possess macroscopic quantum tunneling of Néel vectors. For antiferromagnetic molecular nanomagnets with finite number of even-numbered coupled spins, tunneling involves two classical localized Néel ground states separated by a magnetic energy barrier. The question is: can such phenomena be observed in nanomagnets with odd number of magnetic ions? The answer is not directly obvious because cyclic chains with odd-numbered coupled spins are frustrated as one cannot obtain a perfect Néel order. These frustrated spins can indeed be observed experimentally, so they are of interest. In this letter, we theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling in this odd spin system with arbitrary spins s, in the presence of a magnetic field applied along the plane of the magnet. In contrast to systems with an even-numbered coupled spins, the ground state of the cyclic odd-spin system contains a topological soliton due to spin frustration. Thus, the classical ground state is 2N-fold degenerate as the soliton can be placed anywhere along the ring with total S_z=+/- s . Small quantum fluctuations delocalize the soliton with a formation of an energy band. We obtain this energy band using degenerate perturbation theory at order 2s. We show that the soliton ground state is chiral for half-odd integer spins and non-chiral for integer spins. From the structure of the energy band we infer that as the value of the spin increases the inelastic polarized neutron-scattering intensity may increase or decrease depending on the strengths of the parameters of the Hamiltonian.

  10. Entrance-channel effects in odd-Z tranactinide compound nucleus reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S.L.; Gregorich, K.E.; Dragojevic, I.; Dullmann, Ch.E.; Eichler, R.; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M.A.; Gates, J.M.; Stavsetra, L.; Sudowe, R.; Nitsche, H.

    2007-09-01

    Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilczynska, and Wilczynski's 'Fusion By Diffusion' description [1] of transactinide (TAN) compound nucleus (CN) formation utilizes a three-step model. The first step is the 'sticking', or capture, which can be calculated relatively accurately. The second step is the probability for the formation of a CN by 'diffusion' analogous to that of Brownian motion. Lastly, there exists the probability of the CN 'surviving' deexcitation by neutron emission, which competes with fission and other de-excitation modes. This model predicts and reproduces cross sections typically within a factor of two. Producing the same CN with different projectile-target pairs is a very sensitive way to test entrance channel effects on heavy element production cross sections. If the same CN is produced at or near the same excitation energy the survival portion of the theory is nearly identical for the two reactions. This method can be used as a critical test of the novel 'diffusion' portion of the model. The reactions producing odd-Z TAN CN such as Db, Bh, Mt, and Rg (Z = 105, 107, 109, and 111, respectively) were first studied using even-Z projectiles on {sup 209}Bi targets (as opposed to odd-Z projectiles on {sup 208}Pb targets) because lower effective fissility [2] was expected to lead to larger cross sections. Many odd-Z projectile reactions producing odd-Z CN had not been studied in-depth until very recently. We have completed studies of these reaction pairs with the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator (BGS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), see Figure 1. Cross section ratios for several pairs of reactions will be presented and compared with theory.

  11. Odds, prevalence and predictors of sleep problems in school-age normal children.

    PubMed

    Spruyt, Karen; O'Brien, Louise M; Cluydts, Raymond; Verleye, Gino Benjamin; Ferri, Raffaele

    2005-06-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence, odds, and predictors of 36 paediatric sleep behaviours and describe their coexistence in a school-age normal population. The design was community-based questionnaire survey of sleep-wake patterns, sleep environment, and 36 sleep behaviours indicative of six sleep disorder-subscales using the Health-Behaviour Questionnaire. A caregivers' report of 3045 children aged 6-13 years in Belgium constituted the participants. Prevalence of each sleep behaviour was calculated. Log-linear modelling within and between the sleep disorder-subscales was used to screen for coexistence. The effect size of selected night-time parameters to the likelihood of sleep behaviours and disorder-subscale was expressed as odds ratios via logit regression analysis. Significant differences in sleep-wake patterns were found between weekday and weekend. Ranking by odds showed that: (1) sleep problems such as 'tired when waking up', 'repetitive limb movements', 'going to bed reluctantly', and 'sleep paralysis' and; (2) the disorder-subscale 'excessive somnolence' are common in children. Coexistences within and between disorder-subscales of sleep problems are evident in a school-age, normal population. These results suggest that disorders of excessive somnolence (DES) are highly prevalent in a non-clinical sample of school-age children. Furthermore, sleep-onset latency and a noisy, not well-darkened room are predictive towards the odds for exhibiting sleep problems and disorders. It is advocated that more information on the importance of good sleep-wake hygiene should reach parents and children.

  12. Lithium and Isotopic Ratio Li6/Li7 in Magnetic roAp Stars as an Indicator of Active Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polosukhina, N.; Shavrina, A.; Lyashko, D.; Nesvacil, N.; Drake, N.; Smirnova, M.

    2015-04-01

    The lines of lithium at 6708 Å and 6103 Å are analyzed in high resolution spectra of some sharp-lined and slowly rotating roAp stars. Three spectral synthesis codes— STARSP, ZEEMAN2, and SYNTHM—were used. New lines of rare earth elements (REE) from the DREAM database and the lines calculated on the basis of the NIST energy levels were included. Magnetic splitting and other line broadening processes were taken into account. For both lithium lines, the enhanced abundances of lithium in the atmospheres of the stars studied are obtained. The lithium abundance determined from the Li 6103 Å line is higher than that from the Li 6708 Å for all the stars. This may be evidence of vertical lithium stratification, abnormal temperature distribution, or unidentified blending of the 6103 Å line. Our work on two roAp stars, HD 83368 and HD 60435 (Shavrina et al. 2001) provides evidence of an enhanced lithium abundance near the magnetic-field poles. We can expect similar effects in the sharp-lined roAp stars. High lithium abundance for all the stars and the estimates of the 6Li/7Li ratio (0.2-0.5) can be explained by production of Li in the cosmic ray spallation reactions in the interstellar medium where the stars were born, and by preservation of the original 6Li and 7Li by strong magnetic fields of these stars. The values of the 6Li/7Li ratio expected from production by cosmic rays are about 0.5-0.8 (Knauth et al. 2003; Webber et al. 2002). New laboratory and theoretical gf-values for REE lines are necessary in order to refine our estimates of lithium abundances and the isotopic ratio.

  13. Microbial protein production in activated suspension tanks manipulating C:N ratio in feed and the implications for fish culture.

    PubMed

    Azim, M E; Little, D C; Bron, J E

    2008-06-01

    The present experiment investigated the possibility of microbial protein production in 250 l indoor tanks by manipulating C:N ratio in fish feed applied. Two different levels of protein feed (35% and 22% CP) resulting in C:N ratio of 8.4 and 11.6, respectively, were applied at 25 g daily in each tank. Tanks were aerated and agitated continuously using a dome diffuser. The experiment was carried out for eight weeks. The biofloc development in terms of VSS and BOD5 was better in the low protein fed tanks than in the high protein fed tanks. An estimated biofloc productivity ranged 3-5 g Cm(-3)day(-1). A 3-D image stained with DAPI indicates that the biofloc is comprised of hundreds of bacterial nuclei, size being ranged from 100 to 200 microm. Biofloc quality was independent of the quality of feed applied and contained more than 50% crude protein, 2.5% crude lipid, 4% fibre, 7% ash and 22 kJ g(-1) energy on dry matter basis. The dietary composition and size of biofloc can be considered as appropriate for all omnivorous fish species. The underlying ecological processes are explained through factor analysis. The potential of using biofloc in fish culture is also discussed.

  14. The activity ratio of 228Th to 228Ra in bone tissue of recently deceased humans: a new dating method in forensic examinations.

    PubMed

    Zinka, Bettina; Kandlbinder, Robert; Schupfner, Robert; Haas, Gerald; Wolfbeis, Otto S; Graw, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    Reliable determination of time since death in human skeletons or single bones often is limited by methodically difficulties. Determination of the specific activity ratio of natural radionuclides, in particular of 232Th (Thorium), 228Th and 228Ra (Radium) seems to be a new appropriate method to calculate the post mortem interval. These radionuclides are incorporated by any human being, mainly from food. So with an individual's death the uptake of radionuclides ends. But the decay of 232Th produces 228Ra and 228Th due to its decay series, whereas 228Th is continuously built up in the human's bones. Thus, it can be concluded that in all deceased humans at different times after death different activity ratios of 228Th to 228Ra will develop in bone. According to this fact it should be possible to calculate time since death of an individual by first analysing the specific activities of 228Th and 228Ra in bones of deceased and then determining the 228Th/228Ra activity ratio, which can be assigned to a certain post-mortem interval.

  15. R-carrying genotypes of serum paraoxonase (PON1) 192 polymorphism and higher activity ratio are related to susceptibility against ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Mahrooz, Abdolkarim; Gohari, Ghorban; Hashemi, Mohammad-Bagher; Zargari, Mehryar; Musavi, Hadis; Abedini, Mahmoud; Alizadeh, Ahad

    2012-12-01

    The polymorphic gene of serum paraoxonase (PON1) and its activity involved in atherosclerosis. The purpose of the study was to analyze PON1 192 Q/R polymorphism and the enzyme activities in ischemic stroke. The polymorphism as the most common polymorphism in PON1 gene coding sequence is associated with variation in the enzyme activity and vascular disease. The study included 85 stroke patients and 71 control subjects. PON1 192 polymorphism was genotyped using PCR protocol. Paraoxonase activity (Para) and arylesterase activity (Aryl) were determined spectrophotometrically using paraoxon and phenylacetate as the substrates. The QR and RR genotypes were more frequent in stroke population compared to controls, resulting in a higher frequency of the R allele in patients (0.24 vs 0.18, OR = 1.41). Patients had significantly higher Para/Aryl ratio than that of controls (P = 0.016). In stroke patients, Para/Aryl and Para/HDL ratios increased with this order: QQ < QR < RR. Hypertension significantly increased the risk of ischemic stroke by 15-fold among R-containing people, while this was significantly increased 4-fold for QQ homozygotes. Smoking increased the risk of having ischemic stroke in both QQ homozygote and QR + RR group (OR = 2.84 and OR = 2.33, respectively). In conclusion, these data highlight the importance of PON1 192 R allele and high Para/Aryl ratio in susceptibility to ischemic stroke in the population. The presence of the 192 R allele potentiates the risk of stroke especially in hypertensive people. Decreased Aryl and increased Para/Aryl, Para/HDL and Aryl/HDL ratios may be markers indicated the increased susceptibility to ischemic stroke in the population.

  16. Abnormal kappa:lambda light chain ratio in circulating immune complexes as a marker for B cell activity in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Low, J M; Chauhan, A K; Moore, T L

    2007-01-01

    Patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) have been shown to have elevated levels of circulating immune complexes (CICs) which correlated with disease activity. Our aim was to assess B cell activity by measuring the amount of and the kappa:lambda chain immunoglobulin light (L) chain ratio in CICs from JIA patients and to determine potential evidence for either an antigen-driven response or B-cell receptor editing. We used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure kappa and lambda chains present in the CICs from the sera of patients with JIA. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation, one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Sera from 44 JIA patients were examined for the concentration of L chains in CICs. Healthy controls had a kappa:lambda chain ratio of 1.2:1, whereas this ratio was reversed among JIA subgroups with RF-positive polyarthritis (1:1.2), RF-negative polyarthritis (1:1.3), oligoarthritis (1:2.3) and systemic-onset arthritis (1:2.5). In addition, overall lambda chain selection was not significantly associated with a particular immunoglobulin heavy (H) chain and occurred with all immunoglobulin isotypes. We showed preferential selection of lambda chains contributing to the formation of potentially pathogenic CICs from JIA patients, of all onset types compared to healthy controls, in an H chain-independent manner. The reversal of kappa:lambda chain ratio within the JIA CICs and association with all immunoglobulin isotypes demonstrated the potential for L chain editing. Furthermore, we conclude that a reversal of the normal kappa:lambda chain ratio in JIA CICs may be used as a marker for increased B-cell activity.

  17. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathway by adiponectin and insulin in mouse adipocytes: requirement of acyl-CoA synthetases FATP1 and Acsl1 and association with an elevation in AMP/ATP ratio.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qingqing; Gauthier, Marie-Soleil; Sun, Lei; Ruderman, Neil; Lodish, Harvey

    2010-11-01

    Adiponectin activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in adipocytes, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we tested the hypothesis that AMP, generated in activating fatty acids to their CoA derivatives, catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetases, is involved in AMPK activation by adiponectin. Moreover, in adipocytes, insulin affects the subcellular localization of acyl-CoA synthetase FATP1. Thus, we also tested whether insulin activates AMPK in these cells and, if so, whether it activates through a similar mechanism. We examined these hypotheses by measuring the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPK activation on adiponectin and insulin stimulation and after knocking down acyl-CoA synthetases in adipocytes. We show that adiponectin activation of AMPK is accompanied by an ∼2-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Moreover, FATP1 and Acsl1, the 2 major acyl-CoA synthetase isoforms in adipocytes, are essential for AMPK activation by adiponectin. We also show that after 40 min. insulin activated AMPK in adipocytes, which was coupled with a 5-fold increase in the cellular AMP/ATP ratio. Knockdown studies show that FATP1 and Acsl1 are required for these processes, as well as for stimulation of long-chain fatty acid uptake by adiponection and insulin. These studies demonstrate that a change in cellular energy state is associated with AMPK activation by both adiponectin and insulin, which requires the activity of FATP1 and Acsl1.

  18. Dissipation of carbendazim and chloramphenicol alone and in combination and their effects on soil fungal:bacterial ratios and soil enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hu; Wang, Dandan; Dong, Bin; Tang, Feifan; Wang, Baichuan; Fang, Hua; Yu, Yunlong

    2011-07-01

    The dissipation of carbendazim and chloramphenicol alone and in combination and their effects on soil fungal:bacterial ratios and soil enzyme activities were investigated. The results revealed that carbendazim dissipation was little affected by chloramphenicol, whereas chloramphenicol dissipation was found to be retarded significantly by the presence of carbendazim. The inhibitory effect of carbendazim on the fungal:bacterial ratios was increased by the presence of chloramphenicol, and the inhibitory effect of chloramphenicol on neutral phosphatase was increased by the presence of carbendazim. Carbendazim increased soil catalase and urease activities, but this increase was partially diminished by the presence of chloramphenicol. Little interaction was observed between carbendazim and chloramphenicol with regard to their influence on soil invertase. The results obtained in this study suggest that combinations of fungicides and antibiotics may alter the compounds' individual behaviors in soil and their effects on soil enzymes.

  19. The global distribution of thermospheric odd nitrogen for solstice conditions during solar cycle minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerard, J.-C.; Roble, R. G.; Rusch, D. W.; Stewart, A. I.

    1984-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of odd nitrogen in the thermosphere and upper mesosphere is described. The global distributions of nitric oxide and atomic nitrogen are calculated for the solstice period for quiet and moderate magnetic activity during the solar minimum period. The effect of thermospheric transport by winds is investigated along with the importance of particle-induced ionization in the auroral zones. The results are compared with rocket and satellite measurements, and the sensitivity of the model to eddy diffusion and neutral winds is investigated. Downward fluxes of NO into the mesosphere are given, and their importance for stratospheric ozone is discussed. The results show that the summer-to-winter pole meridional circulation transports both NO and N(S-4) across the solar terminator into the polar night region where there is a downward vertical transport toward the mesosphere. The model shows that odd nitrogen densities at high winter latitudes are entirely controlled by particle precipitation and transport processes.

  20. Mesospheric Odd Nitrogen Enhancements During Relativistic Electron Precipitation Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Smith, H. J. P.

    1999-01-01

    The behavior of mesospheric odd nitrogen species during and following relativistic and diffuse auroral precipitation events is simulated, Below 75 km nitric oxide is enhanced in proportion to the ion pair production function associated with the electron precipitation and the length of the event. Nitrogen dioxide and nitric acid are also enhanced. At 65 km the percentage of odd nitrogen for N is 0.1%, HNO3 is 1.6%, NO2 is 15%, and NO is 83.3%. Between 75 and 85 km NO is depleted during particle events due to the faster destruction of NO by N relative to the production of NO by N reacting with O2. Recovery of NO depends on transport from the lower thermosphere, where NO is produced in abundant amounts during particle events.

  1. Flexible Viologen Cyclophanes: Odd/Even Effects on Intramolecular Interactions.

    PubMed

    Berville, Mathilde; Choua, Sylvie; Gourlaouen, Christophe; Boudon, Corinne; Ruhlmann, Laurent; Bailly, Corinne; Cobo, Saioa; Saint-Aman, Eric; Wytko, Jennifer; Weiss, Jean

    2017-01-04

    The ability of three bis-viologen cyclophanes to act as redox-triggered contractile switches is investigated. Odd/even effects in the formation of cyclic bis-viologens are circumvented by the use of a Zincke salt intermediate and a tetrathiafulvalene template to prepare a flexible cyclophane with hexyl linkers. Comparative spectro-electrochemical studies of this macrocycle with two other pentyl- or heptyl-linked cyclic bis-viologens show that the development of intramolecular interactions in aqueous solution depends on the length of the bridges. This dependence is confirmed by EPR and DFT studies of the magnetic coupling in the diradical dication species. The anti-ferromagnetic or ferromagnetic nature of the coupling depend, respectively, on the odd or even number of methylene groups in the spacer.

  2. Investigation of odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in atomic vapors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Yaqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Si, Jinhai; Yan, Lihe; Zhang, Yiqi; Yuan, Chenzhi; Sun, Jia; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-06-15

    We theoretically deduce the macroscopic symmetry constraints for arbitrary odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities in homogeneous media including atomic vapors for the first time. After theoretically calculating the expressions using a semiclassical method, we demonstrate that the expressions for third- and fifth-order nonlinear susceptibilities for undressed and dressed four- and six-wave mixing (FWM and SWM) in atomic vapors satisfy the macroscopic symmetry constraints. We experimentally demonstrate consistence between the macroscopic symmetry constraints and the semiclassical expressions for atomic vapors by observing polarization control of FWM and SWM processes. The experimental results are in reasonable agreement with our theoretical calculations. -- Highlights: •The macroscopic symmetry constraints are deduced for homogeneous media including atomic vapors. •We demonstrate that odd-order nonlinear susceptibilities satisfy the constraints. •We experimentally demonstrate the deduction in part.

  3. Odd-frequency triplet pairing in mixed-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuoco, Mario; Gentile, Paola; Noce, Canio; Romano, Alfonso; Annunziata, Gaetano; Linder, Jacob

    2012-02-01

    We show that mixed-parity superconductors may exhibit equal-spin pair correlations that are odd-in-time and can be tuned by means of an applied field. The direction and the amplitude of the pair correlator in the spin space turn out to be strongly dependent on the symmetry of the order parameter, and thus provide a tool to identify different types of singlet-triplet mixed configurations. We suggest that odd-in-time spin-polarized pair correlations can be generated without magnetic inhomogeneities in superconducting/ferromagnetic hybrids with non-centrosymmetric superconductor or when parity mixing is induced at the interface. Paola Gentile, Canio Noce, Alfonso Romano, Gaetano Annunziata, Jacob Linder, Mario Cuoco, arXiv:1109.4885

  4. Shape phase transitions in odd-A nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso, C. E.; Arias, J. M.; Fortunato, L.; Vitturi, A.

    2008-11-11

    We investigate shape phase transitions in odd nuclei within the Interacting Boson Fermion Model. Special attention is given to the case of the transition from the vibrational behaviour to the stable axial deformation. The odd particle is assumed to be moving in the three single particle orbitals j = 1/2,3/2,5/2 with a boson-fermion Hamiltonian that leads to the occurrence of the SU{sup BF}(3) boson-fermion symmetry when the boson part approaches the SU(3) condition. Both energy spectra and electromagnetic transitions show characteristic patterns similar to those displayed by the even nuclei at the corresponding critical point. The role of the additional particle in characterizing the properties of the critical points in finite quantal systems is investigated by resorting to the formalism based on the intrinsic frame.

  5. Effects of the molar ratio on the photo-generated charge separation behaviors and photocatalytic activities of (BiO)2CO3-BiOBr composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiufu; Zhong, Junbo; Li, Jianzhang; Huang, Shentian; Xiang, Zhen; Li, Minjiao

    2016-10-01

    The molar ratio of two semiconductors will remarkably influence the photo-induced charge separation behaviors of the composites constructed, thus affecting the corresponding photocatalytic activity. Therefore, it is critical to reveal the relationship between the molar ratio of two semiconductors and the photo-induced charge separation; the information can shed light on the study of nature of surface catalysis. In this work, (BiO)2CO3-BiOBr composites were facilely fabricated in-situ through a pore impregnating approach using HBr aqueous solution. The samples were studied by BET, XRD, SEM, UV-Vis DRS and surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS). The photocatalytic activities of the samples were evaluated by the discoloration of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution upon the simulated sunlight illumination. The results reveal that the (BiO)2CO3-BiOBr composite with 3/4 M ratio of (BiO)2CO3/BiOBr displays the highest photo-induced charge separation rate and photocatalytic activity, the results further manifest that no different electronic transfer property occurs after coupling (BiO)2CO3 with BiOBr.

  6. Odd Harmonics in Exoplanet Photometry: Weather or Artifact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Chayes, Victoria; Bouffard, Élie; Meynig, Max; Haggard, Hal M.

    2017-01-01

    In addition to the transits of a planet in front of its star and the eclipses of the planet by its star, researchers have reported flux variations at the orbital frequency and its harmonics: planetary reflection and/or emission and Doppler beaming of starlight produce one peak per orbit, while ellipsoidal variations of a tidally distorted star and/or planet produce two maxima per orbit. Researchers have also reported significant photometric variability at three times the orbital frequency, as yet unexplained. Reflected phase variations of homogeneous planets only contain power at the orbital frequency and its even harmonics. We show that odd harmonics can, however, be produced by an edge-on planet with a time-variable map, or an inclined planet with a North-South (N-S) asymmetric map. For tidally-locked planets with thick atmospheres, either of these scenarios entail weather: planets with zero obliquity experience N-S symmetric stellar forcing. North-South asymmetry would therefore suggest stochastic localized features, i.e., weather. However, we find that previous claims of large-amplitude odd modes in Kepler photometry are artifacts of removing planetary transits rather than modeling them. The only reliable claims of odd harmonics remain HAT-P-7b and Kepler-13Ab, for which the third mode amplitude is 6-8% of the planetary flux. Although time-variable albedo maps could in principle explain these odd harmonics, upper-limits on the infrared variability of other hot Jupiters make this scenario unlikely. We recommend further studying the tidal effects of close-in planets on their host stars, as this remains the only plausible hypothesis.

  7. OPE of Green functions in the odd sector of QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadavý, T.; Kampf, K.; Novotný, J.

    2017-03-01

    A review of familiar results of the three-point Green functions of currents in the odd-intrinsic parity sector of QCD is presented. Such Green functions include very well-known examples of VVP, VAS or AAP correlators. We also present new results for VVA and AAA Green functions that have not yet been studied extensively in the literature before, more importantly with a phenomenological study and a discussion of the highenergy behaviour and its relation to the QCD condensates.

  8. Decoupling and anomalous bandcrossings in odd-proton nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.S. , Center of Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 8730, Beijing 100080 Department of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 Institute of Theoretical Physics, Academia Sinica, Beijing 100080 )

    1995-04-01

    The anomalous bandcrossing observed in the [541] [down arrow] bands of odd-[ital Z] nuclei from the rare-earth region was investigated in the framework of the particle-rotor model. The participation of the decoupling term in the [ital K]=1/2 band will give rise to a significant shift of the bandcrossing frequency, with an amplitude comparable to the observed values.

  9. Alternating parity structure in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Davidson, M.; Kreiner, A.J.; Davidson, J.; Falcone, G.; Hojman, D.; Santos, D.

    1989-03-01

    States in doubly odd /sup 218/Ac have been studied using in-beam ..cap alpha..-, ..gamma..-, and e/sup -/-spectroscopy techniques mainly through the /sup 209/Bi(/sup 12/C,3n)= fusion-evaporation reaction. /sup 218/Ac shows a band structure, with interleaved states of alternating parities connected by enhanced B(E1) transitions, which is strikingly similar to the one in its isotone /sup 217/Ra.

  10. Observations of Chiral Odd GPDs and Their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.; Liuti, Simonetta; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J. Osvaldo

    2014-01-01

    Our original suggestion to investigate exclusive π0 electroproduction as a method for extracting the tensor charge, transversity, and other quantities related to chiral odd generalized parton distributions from cross section and asymmetry data is reviewed. We explain some of the details of the process: i) the connection between the helicity description and the cartesian basis; ii) the dependence on the momentum transfer squared, Q2, and iii) the angular momentum, parity, and charge conjugation constraints (JPC quantum numbers).

  11. Amplifiers of Developmental and Negative Experiences in Organized Activities: Dosage, Motivation, Lead Roles, and Adult-Youth Ratios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David M.; Larson, Reed W.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated four sets of factors hypothesized to amplify adolescents' developmental and negative experience in organized youth activities. A representative sample of 1,822 eleventh grade students from 19 high schools completed the computer-administered Youth Experience Survey. Findings indicated that amount of time, motivation, holding a…

  12. Measurement, Ratios, and Graphing: Safety First. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. NASA CONNECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA CONNECT is an annual series of free integrated mathematics, science, and technology instructional distance learning programs for students in grades 5-8. Each program has three components: (1) a 30-minute television broadcast which can be viewed live or taped for later use; (2) an interactive Web activity that allows teachers to integrate…

  13. Signatures of shape phase transitions in odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, K.; Nikšić, T.; Vretenar, D.

    2016-12-01

    Quantum phase transitions between competing ground-state shapes of atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons or neutrons are investigated in a microscopic framework based on nuclear energy density functional theory and the particle-plus-boson-core coupling scheme. The boson-core Hamiltonian, as well as the single-particle energies and occupation probabilities of the unpaired nucleon, are completely determined by constrained self-consistent mean-field calculations for a specific choice of the energy density functional and paring interaction, and only the strength parameters of the particle-core coupling are adjusted to reproduce selected spectroscopic properties of the odd-mass system. We apply this method to odd-A Eu and Sm isotopes with neutron number N ≈90 , and explore the influence of the single unpaired fermion on the occurrence of a shape phase transition. Collective wave functions of low-energy states are used to compute quantities that can be related to quantum order parameters: deformations, excitation energies, E 2 transition rates, and separation energies, and their evolution with the control parameter (neutron number) is analyzed.

  14. The ultraviolet emission properties of five low-redshift active galactic nuclei at high signal-to-noise ratio and spectral resolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laor, Ari; Bahcall, John N.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Schneider, Donald P.; Green, Richard F.; Hartig, George F.

    1994-01-01

    We analyze the ultraviolet (UV) emission line and continuum properties of five low-redshift active galactic nuclei (four luminous quasars: PKS 0405-123, H1821 + 643, PG 0953 + 414, and 3C 273, and one bright Seyfert 1 galaxy: Mrk 205). The HST spectra have higher signal-to-noise ratios (typically approximately 60 per resolution element) and spectral resolution (R = 1300) than all previously published UV spectra used to study the emission characteristics of active galactic nuclei. We include in the analysis ground-based optical spectra covering H beta and the narrow (O III) lambda lambda 4959, 5007 doublet. New results are obtained and presented.

  15. Plant/soil concentration ratios of 226Ra for contrasting sites around an active U mine-mill.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, S A; Whicker, F W

    1988-12-01

    Concentrations of 226Ra were determined in native vegetation and underlying substrate (soil and tailings) at various sites around a conventional open-pit, acid leach U production operation in Wyoming. Plant/soil concentration ratios (CRs) for 226Ra were estimated for various sites, including weathered tailings; a tailings impoundment shoreline; downwind from exposed tailings; a mine overburden reclamation area; and several background locations. Radium-226 concentrations for vegetation and substrate and CR values from the perturbed sites were elevated above background. The highest vegetation concentration (1.3 Bq g-1) was found in a grass which had invaded exposed, weathered tailings. Levels of 226Ra in soil and vegetation and CR values decreased with distance from the tailings impoundment edge. CR values varied significantly among sites, but few differences were found between plant species groups. The observed CR values ranged from 0.07 at the background and reclamation areas to 0.4 downwind from the tailings area. Average CR values for plants growing on exposed tailings and within one meter from the impoundment edge were 0.15 and 0.3, respectively. CR values of 226Ra for plants on tailings substrates were comparatively low in contrast to other radionuclides in the U chain. We speculate that in the case of sulfuric acid leached tailings-derived material, 226Ra is sequestered as sulfate, which is highly insoluble relative to the sulfates of the other elements (e.g., U and Th) resulting in reduced availability for plant uptake.

  16. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    A study was conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities and load reductions are achieved.

  17. Design verification and fabrication of active control systems for the DAST ARW-2 high aspect ratio wing. Part 2: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgehee, C. R.

    1986-01-01

    This is Part 2-Appendices of a study conducted under Drones for Aerodynamic and Structural Testing (DAST) Program to accomplish the final design and hardware fabrication for four active control systems compatible with and ready for installation in the NASA Aeroelastic Research Wing No. 2 (ARW-2) and Firebee II drone flight test vehicle. The wing structure was designed so that Active Control Systems (ACS) are required in the normal flight envelope by integrating control system design with aerodynamics and structure technologies. The DAST ARW-2 configuration uses flutter suppression, relaxed static stability, and gust and maneuver load alleviation ACS systems, and an automatic flight control system. Performance goals and criteria were applied to individual systems and the systems collectively to assure that vehicle stability margins, flutter margins, flying qualities, and load reductions were achieved.

  18. In vitro effect of different Na+/K+ ratios on plasma membrane H+ -ATPase activity in maize and sugar beet shoot.

    PubMed

    Wakeel, Abdul; Sümer, Ali; Hanstein, Stefan; Yan, Feng; Schubert, Sven

    2011-03-01

    Plant growth is impaired primarily by osmotic stress in the first phase of salt stress, whereas Na+ toxicity affects the plant growth mainly in the second phase. Salinity leads to increased Na+/K+ ratio and thus displacement of K+ by Na+ in the plant cell. Relatively higher cytosolic Na+ concentrations may have an effect on the activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+ -ATPase. A decreased PM-H+ -ATPase activity could increase the apoplastic pH. This process could limit the cell-wall extensibility and thus reduce growth according to the acid growth theory. To compare the effect of Na+ on PM H+ -ATPase activity in salt-sensitive maize (Zea mays L.) and salt-resistant sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) shoot, PM vesicles were isolated from growing shoots of both species and ATPase activity was determined by assaying the P(i) released by hydrolysis of ATP. The H+ pumping activity was measured as the quenching of acridine-orange absorbance. An increased Na+/K+ ratio decreased the PM H+ -ATPase activity in vesicles of maize as well as of sugar beet shoots. Nevertheless, the detrimental effect of increased Na+/K+ ratio was more severe in salt-sensitive maize compared to salt-resistant sugar beet. At 25 mM Na+ concentration, hydrolytic activity was not affected in sugar beet. However, a significant decrease in hydrolytic activity was observed in maize at pH 7. In maize and sugar beet, reduction in active H+ flux was 20% and 5% at 25 mM Na+ concentration in the assay, respectively. The active H+ flux was decreased to 80% and 60%, when 100 mM K+ were substituted by 100mM Na+. We conclude that PM H+ -ATPases of salt-resistant sugar beet and maize shoot are sensitive to higher concentration of Na+. However, sugar beet PM-H+ -ATPases are relatively efficient and may have constitutive resistance against lower concentration (25 mM) of Na+ as compared to that of salt-sensitive maize.

  19. Quantifying sediment sources in a lowland agricultural catchment pond using (137)Cs activities and radiogenic (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Thil, François; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2016-10-01

    Soil erosion often supplies high sediment loads to rivers, degrading water quality and contributing to the siltation of reservoirs and lowland river channels. These impacts are exacerbated in agricultural catchments where modifications in land management and agricultural practices were shown to accelerate sediment supply. In this study, sediment sources were identified with a novel tracing approach combining cesium ((137)Cs) and strontium isotopes ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) in the Louroux pond, at the outlet of a lowland cultivated catchment (24km(2), Loire River basin, France) representative of drained agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe. Surface soil (n=36) and subsurface channel bank (n=17) samples were collected to characterize potential sources. Deposited sediment (n=41) was sampled across the entire surface of the pond to examine spatial variation in sediment deposits. In addition, a 1.10m sediment core was sampled in the middle of the pond to reconstruct source variations throughout time. (137)Cs was used to discriminate between surface and subsurface sources, whereas (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios discriminated between lithological sources. A distribution modeling approach quantified the relative contribution of these sources to the sampled sediment. Results indicate that surface sources contributed to the majority of pond (μ 82%, σ 1%) and core (μ 88%, σ 2%) sediment with elevated subsurface contributions modeled near specific sites close to the banks of the Louroux pond. Contributions of the lithological sources were well mixed in surface sediment across the pond (i.e., carbonate sediment contribution, μ 48%, σ 1% and non-carbonate sediment contribution, μ 52%, σ 3%) although there were significant variations of these source contributions modeled for the sediment core between 1955 and 2013. These fluctuations reflect both the progressive implementation of land consolidation schemes in the catchment and the eutrophication of the pond. This original sediment

  20. [Using log-binomial model for estimating the prevalence ratio].

    PubMed

    Ye, Rong; Gao, Yan-hui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Yue

    2010-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence ratios, using a log-binomial model with or without continuous covariates. Prevalence ratios for individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation associated with smoking status, estimated by using a log-binomial model were compared with odds ratios estimated by logistic regression model. In the log-binomial modeling, maximum likelihood method was used when there were no continuous covariates and COPY approach was used if the model did not converge, for example due to the existence of continuous covariates. We examined the association between individuals' attitude towards smoking-ban legislation and smoking status in men and women. Prevalence ratio and odds ratio estimation provided similar results for the association in women since smoking was not common. In men however, the odds ratio estimates were markedly larger than the prevalence ratios due to a higher prevalence of outcome. The log-binomial model did not converge when age was included as a continuous covariate and COPY method was used to deal with the situation. All analysis was performed by SAS. Prevalence ratio seemed to better measure the association than odds ratio when prevalence is high. SAS programs were provided to calculate the prevalence ratios with or without continuous covariates in the log-binomial regression analysis.

  1. Activation of Human Complement System by Dextran-Coated Iron Oxide Nanoparticles Is Not Affected by Dextran/Fe Ratio, Hydroxyl Modifications, and Crosslinking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guankui; Chen, Fangfang; Banda, Nirmal K.; Holers, V. Michael; Wu, LinPing; Moghimi, S. Moein; Simberg, Dmitri

    2016-01-01

    While having tremendous potential as therapeutic and imaging tools, the clinical use of engineered nanoparticles has been associated with serious safety concerns. Activation of the complement cascade and the release of proinflammatory factors C3a and C5a may contribute to infusion-related reactions, whereas opsonization with C3 fragments promotes rapid recognition and clearance of nanomaterials by mononuclear phagocytes. We used dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIO), which are potent activators of the complement system, to study the role of nanoparticle surface chemistry in inciting complement in human serum. Using complement inhibitors and measuring levels of fluid phase markers (sC5b-9, C5a, and Bb), we found that the majority of human complement activation by SPIO is through the alternative pathways (AP). SPIO prepared with high dextran/iron ratio showed some complement activation via calcium-sensitive pathways, but the AP was responsible for the bulk of complement activation and amplification. Activation via the AP required properdin, the positive regulator of the alternative C3bBb convertase. Modification of sugar alcohols of dextran with alkylating, acylating, or crosslinking agents did not overcome complement activation and C3 opsonization. These data demonstrate that human complement activation is independent of dextran modification of SPIO and suggest a crucial role of the AP in immune recognition of nano-assemblies in human serum. PMID:27777575

  2. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  3. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-04-07

    (135)Cs/(137)Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure (135)Cs, there were no (135)Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited (135)Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of (134)Cs, (135)Cs, and (137)Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the (134)Cs/(137)Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and (135)Cs/(137)Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace (135)Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%-52.6%. The obtained (135)Cs/(137)Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future.

  4. 135Cs activity and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio in environmental samples before and after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guosheng; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    135Cs/137Cs is a potential tracer for radiocesium source identification. However, due to the challenge to measure 135Cs, there were no 135Cs data available for Japanese environmental samples before the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. It was only 3 years after the accident that limited 135Cs values could be measured in heavily contaminated environmental samples. In the present study, activities of 134Cs, 135Cs, and 137Cs, along with their ratios in 67 soil and plant samples heavily and lightly contaminated by the FDNPP accident were measured by combining γ spectrometry with ICP-MS/MS. The arithmetic means of the 134Cs/137Cs activity ratio (1.033 ± 0.006) and 135Cs/137Cs atom ratio (0.334 ± 0.005) (decay corrected to March 11, 2011), from old leaves of plants collected immediately after the FDNPP accident, were confirmed to represent the FDNPP derived radiocesium signature. Subsequently, for the first time, trace 135Cs amounts before the FDNPP accident were deduced according to the contribution of global and FDNPP accident-derived fallout. Apart from two soil samples with a tiny global fallout contribution, contributions of global fallout radiocesium in other soil samples were observed to be 0.338%–52.6%. The obtained 135Cs/137Cs database will be useful for its application as a geochemical tracer in the future. PMID:27052481

  5. Multilevel built environment features and individual odds of overweight and obesity in Utah.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanqing; Wen, Ming; Wang, Fahui

    2015-06-01

    Based on the data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 2007, 2009 and 2011 in Utah, this research uses multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine the associations between neighborhood built environments and individual odds of overweight and obesity after controlling for individual risk factors. The BRFSS data include information on 21,961 individuals geocoded to zip code areas. Individual variables include BMI (body mass index) and socio-demographic attributes such as age, gender, race, marital status, education attainment, employment status, and whether an individual smokes. Neighborhood built environment factors measured at both zip code and county levels include street connectivity, walk score, distance to parks, and food environment. Two additional neighborhood variables, namely the poverty rate and urbanicity, are also included as control variables. MLM results show that at the zip code level, poverty rate and distance to parks are significant and negative covariates of the odds of overweight and obesity; and at the county level, food environment is the sole significant factor with stronger fast food presence linked to higher odds of overweight and obesity. These findings suggest that obesity risk factors lie in multiple neighborhood levels and built environment features need to be defined at a neighborhood size relevant to residents' activity space.

  6. Modeling the ratio of photosynthetically active radiation to broadband global solar radiation using ground and satellite-based data in the tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janjai, S.; Wattan, R.; Sripradit, A.

    2015-12-01

    Data from four stations in Thailand are used to model the ratio of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to broadband global solar radiation. The model expresses the ratio of PAR-to-broadband global solar radiation as a function of cloud index, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water, total ozone column and solar zenith angle. Data from the MTSAT-1R and OMI/AURA satellites are used to estimate the cloud index and total ozone column, respectively at each of the four stations, while aerosol optical depth and precipitable water are retrieved from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sunphotometer measurements, also available at each station. When tested against hourly measurements, the model exhibits a coefficient of variance (R2) equal to or better than 0.96, and root mean square difference (RMSD) in the range of 7.3-7.9% and mean bias difference (MBD) of -4.5% to 3.5%. The model compares favorably with other existing models.

  7. Determination of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios in Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) Collected from Amchitka Island, Alaska.

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-05-02

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-240 ({sup 240}Pu) activity concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for Brown Algae (Fucus distichus) collected from the littoral zone of Amchitka Island (Alaska) and at a control site on the Alaskan peninsula. Plutonium isotope measurements were performed in replicate using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The average {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio observed in dried Fucus d. collected from Amchitka Island was 0.227 {+-} 0.007 (n=5) and compares with the expected {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio in integrated worldwide fallout deposition in the Northern Hemisphere of 0.1805 {+-} 0.0057 (Cooper et al., 2000). In general, the characteristically high {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu content of Fucus d. analyzed in this study appear to indicate the presence of a discernible basin-wide secondary source of plutonium entering the marine environment. Of interest to the study of plutonium source terms within the Pacific basin are reports of elevated {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios in fallout debris from high-yield atmospheric nuclear tests conducted in the Marshall Islands during the 1950s (Diamond et al., 1960), the wide range of {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratio values (0.19 to 0.34) observed in sea water, sediments, coral and other environmental media from the North Pacific Ocean (Hirose et al., 1992; Buesseler, 1997) and updated estimates of the relative contributions of close-in and intermediate fallout deposition on oceanic inventories of radionuclidies, especially in the Northern Pacific Ocean (Hamilton, 2004).

  8. Bupropion Increases Selection of High Effort Activity in Rats Tested on a Progressive Ratio/Chow Feeding Choice Procedure: Implications for Treatment of Effort-Related Motivational Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Lee, Christie A.; Podurgiel, Samantha J.; Hart, Evan; Yohn, Samantha E.; Jones, Myles; Rowland, Margaret; López-Cruz, Laura; Correa, Mercè

    2015-01-01

    Background: Depression and related disorders are characterized by deficits in behavioral activation, exertion of effort, and other psychomotor/motivational dysfunctions. Depressed patients show alterations in effort-related decision making and a bias towards selection of low effort activities. It has been suggested that animal tests of effort-related decision making could be useful as models of motivational dysfunctions seen in psychopathology. Methods: Because clinical studies have suggested that inhibition of catecholamine uptake may be a useful strategy for treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms, the present research assessed the ability of bupropion to increase work output in rats responding on a test of effort-related decision-making (ie, a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task). With this task, rats can choose between working for a preferred food (high-carbohydrate pellets) by lever pressing on a progressive ratio schedule vs obtaining a less preferred laboratory chow that is freely available in the chamber. Results: Bupropion (10.0–40.0 mg/kg intraperitoneal) significantly increased all measures of progressive ratio lever pressing, but decreased chow intake. These effects were greatest in animals with low baseline levels of work output on the progressive ratio schedule. Because accumbens dopamine is implicated in effort-related processes, the effects of bupropion on markers of accumbens dopamine transmission were examined. Bupropion elevated extracellular dopamine levels in accumbens core as measured by microdialysis and increased phosphorylated dopamine and cyclic-AMP related phosphoprotein 32 kDaltons (pDARPP-32) immunoreactivity in a manner consistent with D1 and D2 receptor stimulation. Conclusion: The ability of bupropion to increase exertion of effort in instrumental behavior may have implications for the pathophysiology and treatment of effort-related motivational symptoms in humans. PMID:25575584

  9. Isospin odd @pK scattering length [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, J.

    2005-10-01

    We make use of the chiral two-loop representation of the πK scattering amplitude [J. Bijnens, P. Dhonte, P. Talavera, JHEP 0405 (2004) 036] to investigate the isospin odd scattering length at next-to-next-to-leading order in the SU (3) expansion. This scattering length is protected against contributions of ms in the chiral expansion, in the sense that the corrections to the current algebra result are of order Mπ2. In view of the planned lifetime measurement on πK atoms at CERN it is important to understand the size of these corrections.

  10. Neutron-proton pairing correlations in odd mass systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fellah, M. Allal, N. H.; Oudih, M. R.

    2015-03-30

    An expression of the ground-state which describes odd mass systems within the BCS approach in the isovector neutron-proton pairing case is proposed using the blocked level technique. The gap equations as well as the energy expression are then derived. It is shown that they exactly generalize the expressions obtained in the pairing between like-particles case. The various gap parameters and the energy are then numerically studied as a function of the pairing-strength within the schematic one-level model.

  11. Closely Spaced Pregnancies Are Associated With Increased Odds of Autism in California Sibling Births

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kayuet; Bearman, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the interpregnancy interval (IPI) is associated with the risk of autism in subsequent births. METHODS: Pairs of first- and second-born singleton full siblings were identified from all California births that occurred from 1992 to 2002 using birth records, and autism diagnoses were identified by using linked records of the California Department of Developmental Services. IPI was calculated as the time interval between birth dates minus the gestational age of the second sibling. In the primary analysis, logistic regression models were used to determine whether odds of autism in second-born children varied according to IPI. To address potential confounding by unmeasured family-level factors, a case-sibling control analysis determined whether affected sibling (first versus second) varied with IPI. RESULTS: An inverse association between IPI and odds of autism among 662 730 second-born children was observed. In particular, IPIs of <12, 12 to 23, and 24 to 35 months were associated with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for autism of 3.39 (3.00–3.82), 1.86 (1.65–2.10), and 1.26 (1.10–1.45) relative to IPIs of ≥36 months. The association was not mediated by preterm birth or low birth weight and persisted across categories of sociodemographic characteristics, with some attenuation in the oldest and youngest parents. Second-born children were at increased risk of autism relative to their firstborn siblings only in pairs with short IPIs. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that children born after shorter intervals between pregnancies are at increased risk of developing autism; the highest risk was associated with pregnancies spaced <1 year apart. PMID:21220394

  12. Type of Diabetes Mellitus and the Odds of Gleason Score 8 to 10 Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Josephine; Chen Minghui; Zhang Yuanye; Moran, Brian J.; Dosoretz, Daniel E.; Katin, Michael J.; Braccioforte, Michelle H.; Salenius, Sharon A.; D'Amico, Anthony V.

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: It has been recently shown that diabetes mellitus (DM) is significantly associated with the likelihood of presenting with high-grade prostate cancer (PCa) or Gleason score (GS) 8 to 10; however, whether this association holds for both Type 1 and 2 DM is unknown. In this study we evaluated whether DM Type 1, 2, or both are associated with high-grade PCa after adjusting for known predictors of high-grade disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1991 and 2010, a total of 15,330 men diagnosed with PCa and treated with radiation therapy were analyzed. A polychotomous logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate whether Type 1 or 2 DM was associated with odds of GS 7 or GS 8 to 10 compared with 6 or lower PCa, adjusting for African American race, age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and digital rectal examination findings. Results: Men with Type 1 DM (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-3.27; p = 0.003) or Type 2 DM (AOR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.26-1.99; p < 0.001) were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with GS 8 to 10 PCa compared with nondiabetic men. However this was not true for GS 7, for which these respective results were AOR, 1.30; 95% CI, 0.93-1.82; p = 0.12 and AOR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.98-1.32; p = 0.10. Conclusion: Type 1 and 2 DM were associated with a higher odds of being diagnosed with Gleason score 8 to 10 but not 7 PCa. Pending validation, men who are diagnosed with Type I DM with GS 7 or lower should be considered for additional workup to rule out occult high-grade disease.

  13. Oxygen isotope ratios of PO4: an inorganic indicator of enzymatic activity and P metabolism and a new biomarker in the search for life.

    PubMed

    Blake, R E; Alt, J C; Martini, A M

    2001-02-27

    The distinctive relations between biological activity and isotopic effect recorded in biomarkers (e.g., carbon and sulfur isotope ratios) have allowed scientists to suggest that life originated on this planet nearly 3.8 billion years ago. The existence of life on other planets may be similarly identified by geochemical biomarkers, including the oxygen isotope ratio of phosphate (delta(18)O(p)) presented here. At low near-surface temperatures, the exchange of oxygen isotopes between phosphate and water requires enzymatic catalysis. Because enzymes are indicative of cellular activity, the demonstration of enzyme-catalyzed PO(4)-H(2)O exchange is indicative of the presence of life. Results of laboratory experiments are presented that clearly show that delta(18)O(P) values of inorganic phosphate can be used to detect enzymatic activity and microbial metabolism of phosphate. Applications of delta(18)O(p) as a biomarker are presented for two Earth environments relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life: a shallow groundwater reservoir and a marine hydrothermal vent system. With the development of in situ analytical techniques and future planned sample return strategies, delta(18)O(p) may provide an important biosignature of the presence of life in extraterrestrial systems such as that on Mars.

  14. Special Feature: Oxygen isotope ratios of PO4: An inorganic indicator of enzymatic activity and P metabolism and a new biomarker in the search for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Ruth E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Martini, Anna M.

    2001-02-01

    The distinctive relations between biological activity and isotopic effect recorded in biomarkers (e.g., carbon and sulfur isotope ratios) have allowed scientists to suggest that life originated on this planet nearly 3.8 billion years ago. The existence of life on other planets may be similarly identified by geochemical biomarkers, including the oxygen isotope ratio of phosphate (18Op) presented here. At low near-surface temperatures, the exchange of oxygen isotopes between phosphate and water requires enzymatic catalysis. Because enzymes are indicative of cellular activity,the demonstration of enzyme-catalyzed PO4-H2O exchange is indicative of the presence of life. Results of laboratory experiments are presented that clearly show that δ18OP values of inorganic phosphate can be used to detect enzymatic activity and microbial metabolism of phosphate. Applications of δ18Op as a biomarker are presented for two Earth environments relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life: a shallow groundwater reservoir and a marine hydrothermal vent system. With the development of in situ analytical techniques and future planned sample return strategies, δ18Op may provide an important biosignature of the presence of life in extraterrestrial systems such as that on Mars.

  15. Oxygen isotope ratios of PO4: An inorganic indicator of enzymatic activity and P metabolism and a new biomarker in the search for life

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Ruth E.; Alt, Jeffrey C.; Martini, Anna M.

    2001-01-01

    The distinctive relations between biological activity and isotopic effect recorded in biomarkers (e.g., carbon and sulfur isotope ratios) have allowed scientists to suggest that life originated on this planet nearly 3.8 billion years ago. The existence of life on other planets may be similarly identified by geochemical biomarkers, including the oxygen isotope ratio of phosphate (δ18Op) presented here. At low near-surface temperatures, the exchange of oxygen isotopes between phosphate and water requires enzymatic catalysis. Because enzymes are indicative of cellular activity, the demonstration of enzyme-catalyzed PO4–H2O exchange is indicative of the presence of life. Results of laboratory experiments are presented that clearly show that δ18OP values of inorganic phosphate can be used to detect enzymatic activity and microbial metabolism of phosphate. Applications of δ18Op as a biomarker are presented for two Earth environments relevant to the search for extraterrestrial life: a shallow groundwater reservoir and a marine hydrothermal vent system. With the development of in situ analytical techniques and future planned sample return strategies, δ18Op may provide an important biosignature of the presence of life in extraterrestrial systems such as that on Mars. PMID:11226207

  16. Accelerator Mass Spectrometric (AMS) Measurements of Plutonium Activity Concentrations and 240Pu/239Pu Atom Ratios In Soil Extracts Supplied by the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R

    2005-02-28

    Plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) and plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) activities concentrations and {sup 240}Pu/{sup 239}Pu atom ratios are reported for a series of chemically purified soil extracts received from the Carlsbad Environmental Monitoring & Research Center (CEMRC) in New Mexico. Samples were analyzed without further purification at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). This report also includes a brief description of the AMS system and internal laboratory procedures used to ensure the quality and reliability of the measurement data.

  17. Activation cross sections and isomeric ratios in reactions induced by 14.5 MeV neutrons on152Sm,154Sm and178Hf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirov, A.; Nenoff, N.; Georgieva, E.; Necheva, C.; Ephtimov, I.

    1993-09-01

    Cross sections for the reactions152Sm( n, p)152 g,m1, m2 Pm,154Sm( n, p)154 g,m Pm,178Hf( n, p)178 m,g Lu,154Sm( n, d)153Pm and152Sm( n, α)149Nd were measured at 14.5 MeV neutron energy by the activation method. On the basis of these cross sections, the associated isomeric ratios in154Pm,152Pm,178Lu and the comparison with the predictions of different compound and precompound models, conclusions are drawn about the role of the preequilibrium processes in 14.5 MeV neutron induced reactions. Calculations for equal angular momentum removal by equilibrium and preequilibrium emitted particles better reproduced the experimental isomeric ratios, than for higher angular momentum removal in the preequilibrium phase. The isomeric ratios may be used as a source of additional information about the spin of the isomeric states in152Pm and154Pm for which the spectroscopic information is uncertain.

  18. Structure of dipole bands in doubly odd 102Ag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, V.; Sihotra, S.; Malik, S. S.; Bhat, G. H.; Palit, R.; Sheikh, J. A.; Kumar, S.; Singh, N.; Singh, K.; Goswamy, J.; Sethi, J.; Saha, S.; Trivedi, T.; Mehta, D.

    2016-10-01

    Excited states in the transitional doubly odd 102Ag nucleus were populated in the 75As(31P,p 3 n ) fusion-evaporation reaction using the 125 MeV incident 31P beam. The subsequent deexcitations were investigated through in-beam γ -ray spectroscopic techniques using the Indian National Gamma Array spectrometer equipped with 21 clover Ge detectors. The level scheme in 102Ag has been established up to excitation energy ˜6.5 MeV and angular momentum 19 ℏ . The earlier reported level scheme is considerably extended and modified to result in a pair of nearly degenerate negative-parity dipole bands. Lifetime measurements for the states of these two dipole bands have been performed by using the Doppler-shift attenuation method. The two nearly degenerate bands exhibit different features with regard to kinetic moment of inertia, and the reduced transition probabilities B (M 1 ) and B (E 2 ) , which do not favor these to be chiral partners. These bands are discussed in the framework of the hybrid version of tilted-axis cranking (tac) model calculations and assigned the π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2 and π g9 /2⊗ν h11 /2(d5/2/g7 /2) 2 configurations. The tac model calculations are extended to the nearly degenerate bands observed in the heavier doubly odd Ag-108104 isotopes.

  19. Noble gas isotopic ratios from historical lavas and fumaroles at Mount Vesuvius (southern Italy): constraints for current and future volcanic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tedesco, Dario; Nagao, Keisuke; Scarsi, Paolo

    1998-12-01

    Helium, neon and argon isotope ratios have been analysed from phenocrysts of eleven lava samples belonging to the last eruptive cycle of Mount Vesuvius (1631 until 1944). The phenocrysts separates include pyroxene ( N=10) and olivine ( N=1). All phenocryst samples show similarly low gas contents (He, Ne and Ar ˜10 -10 cm 3/g). 3He/ 4He ratios, 5.3-2.11 Ra, are generally low if compared to those typical of the MORB and those of the European Subcontinental Mantle (ESCM), respectively R/ Ra 8.5±1 and 6.0-6.5. A decreasing trend is found from 1631 to 1796, while a more homogeneous set of data is obtained for more recent eruptions, as evidenced by an average R/ Ra value of 2.85. Neon ratios ( 21Ne/ 22Ne and 20Ne/ 22Ne) strongly differ from those typically found on volcanoes and suggest that a crustal component has been added in the source region to Mt. Vesuvius magmas. Argon ratios ( 40Ar/ 36Ar and 38Ar/ 36Ar) have values similar to the atmosphere and are well correlated. The low 40Ar/ 36Ar ratio (max. 302) is, however, in the range of the 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios obtained from several lava samples at other Italian volcanoes and might be considered to have a deep origin. Two hypothesis have been discussed: (1) a deep argon-like-air source, due to subduction of air-rich sediments and/or (2) a preferential loss of Ar, in comparison to lighter noble gases, from silicic melts. Helium isotopic analysis of gas samples recently collected from crater and submarine fumaroles are similar to those of lavas belonging to the final part of this eruptive cycle. This result supports the idea that no new juvenile fluids from the source region have been injected into the magmatic reservoir during the 1631-1944 eruptive cycle and, more importantly, until 1993. Both sets of data help to understand the genesis of these fluids and to constrain the current activity of the volcano.

  20. The distribution of odd nitrogen in the lower stratosphere and possible perturbations caused by stratospheric air transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isaksen, I. S. A.; Hesstvedt, E.

    1973-01-01

    In the lower stratosphere a significant production of odd nitrogen results from the reaction N2O + O(D-1) yields 2NO. Since the transport is relatively slow, odd nitrogen builds up with a maximum mixing ratio of 2 x 10 to the minus 8th power at 30 Km. Profiles of odd nitrogen, for different latitudes, winter and summer, are computed from one-dimensional transport models. Variations with latitude are small. Horizontal transport is therefore not believed to alter our results significantly. In order to evaluate the effect of odd nitrogen upon the ozone layer, NO(x) profiles are calculated. OH is here a key component, since it converts NO2 to HNO3. In the region where ozone is determined by chemistry rather than by transport (above 25 km), NO2 is found to be relatively abundant. The effect of stratospheric transport on the NO(x) distribution is shown to depend critically upon the height of emission. The effect increases by a factor of 5 or more for a change of flight level from 18 km to 23 km. This strong dependence should be duely considered when future stratospheric transport is discussed.

  1. Correlations of Energy Ratios for Collective Nuclear Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mărginean, N.

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the Mallmann's energy correlations, introduced a long time ago for the ground state bands of the even-even nuclei are, in fact, universal. Various bands in all collective nuclei (even-even, odd-even, and odd-odd) obey the same systematics. This unique, universal behaviour indicates the same spin dependence of the energy of the levels and, consequently, a common structure of all collective bands. Based on the second-order anharmonic vibrator description, parameter-free recurrence relations between energy ratios are deduced. These relations can be used to predict levels of higher spins in various bands.

  2. Correlations of Energy Ratios for Collective Nuclear Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamfir, N. V.; Bucurescu, D.; Căta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Mărginean, N.

    2009-03-01

    It is shown that the Mallmann's energy correlations, introduced a long time ago for the ground state bands of the even-even nuclei are, in fact, universal. Various bands in all collective nuclei (even-even, odd-even, and odd-odd) obey the same systematics. This unique, universal behaviour indicates the same spin dependence of the energy of the levels in all bands in all collective nuclei. Based on a second-order anharmonic vibrator description, parameter-free recurrence relations between energy ratios are deduced. These relations can be used to predict levels of higher spins in various bands.

  3. The case for cases B and C: intrinsic hydrogen line ratios of the broad-line region of active galactic nuclei, reddenings, and accretion disc sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaskell, C. Martin

    2017-01-01

    Low-redshift active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with extremely blue optical spectral indices are shown to have a mean, velocity-averaged, broad-line Hα/Hβ ratio of ≈2.72 ± 0.04, consistent with a Baker-Menzel Case B value. Comparison of a wide range of properties of the very bluest AGNs with those of a luminosity-matched subset of the Dong et al. blue AGN sample indicates that the only difference is the internal reddening. Ultraviolet fluxes are brighter for the bluest AGNs by an amount consistent with the flat AGN reddening curve of Gaskell et al. (2004). The lack of a significant difference in the GALEX (FUV-NUV) colour index strongly rules out a steep SMC-like reddening curve and also argues against an intrinsically harder spectrum for the bluest AGNs. For very blue AGNs the Lyα/Hβ ratio is also consistent with being the Case B value. The Case B ratios provide strong support for the self-shielded broad-line model of Gaskell, Klimek & Nazarova. It is proposed that the greatly enhanced Lyα/Hβ ratio at very high velocities is a consequence of continuum fluorescence in the Lyman lines (Case C). Reddenings of AGNs mean that the far-UV luminosity is often underestimated by up to an order of magnitude. This is a major factor causing the discrepancies between measured accretion disc sizes and the predictions of simple accretion disc theory. Dust covering fractions for most AGNs are lower than has been estimated. The total mass in lower mass supermassive black holes must be greater than hitherto estimated.

  4. The Relative Odds of Progressing by Structural and Functional Tests in Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Ricardo Y.; Diniz-Filho, Alberto; Zangwill, Linda M.; Gracitelli, Carolina P. B.; Marvasti, Amir H.; Weinreb, Robert N.; Baig, Saif; Medeiros, Felipe A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of disease severity and number of tests acquired during follow-up on the relative odds of identifying progression by structural or functional tests in glaucoma. Methods This was an observational cohort study involving 462 eyes of 305 patients with glaucoma and 62 eyes of 49 healthy subjects. Glaucoma patients and healthy subjects were followed for an average of 3.6 ± 0.9 and 3.8 ± 0.9 years, with a median (interquantile range) of 8 (6–9) and 7 (6–8) visits, respectively. At each visit, subjects underwent visual field assessment with standard automated perimetry (SAP) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) evaluation by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Slopes of change in SAP mean sensitivity and OCT RNFL thickness over time were estimated by linear regression using progressively cumulative visits over time. Cutoff values for age-related expected rates of change for each test were obtained from the healthy group. Progression by SD-OCT and/or SAP was determined if the slope of change was statistically significant and also lower (faster) than the fifth percentile cutoff calculated from the healthy group. A generalized estimating equation logistic regression model was used to evaluate the relative odds of progressing by OCT versus SAP in glaucoma eyes. Results Eyes with less severe disease at baseline had a higher chance of being detected as progressing by SD-OCT but not by SAP, whereas an increase in disease severity at baseline increased the chance that the eye would be detected as progressing by SAP but not SD-OCT. Each 1 dB higher MD was associated with a 5% increase in the odds of detecting progression by SD-OCT versus SAP (odds ratio = 1.05 per 1 dB; 95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.09; P = 0.005). Conclusions The ability to detect glaucoma progression by SAP versus SD-OCT is significantly influenced by the stage of disease. Our results may provide useful information for

  5. Effects of feeding ratio of beet pulp to alfalfa hay or grass hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity in Holstein dry cows.

    PubMed

    Izumi, Kenichi; Unno, Chigusa

    2010-04-01

    The influence of the feeding ratio of a non-forage fiber source and hay on ruminal mat characteristics and chewing activity was evaluated in dairy dry cows. Cows were fed four different diets: the ratios of alfalfa hay (AH) to beet pulp (BP) were 8:2 (dry matter basis, A8B2) and 2:8 (A2B8), and those of grass hay (GH) to BP were 8:2 (G8B2) and 2:8 (G2B8). Total eating time was decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). Total rumination time for AH was shorter than that for GH (P < 0.01), and it decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.01). The ruminal mat was detected by using a penetration resistance test of the rumen digesta. Penetration resistance value (PRV) of ruminal mat was highest with the G8B2 diet and PRV decreased with increasing BP content (P < 0.05) and feeding AH (P < 0.05). Thickness of the ruminal mat was greater for increasing BP content (P < 0.05). Simple linear regression of ruminal mat PRV on total rumination time resulted in a high positive correlation (r = 0.744; P < 0.001; n = 16). The results demonstrated that increasing the PRV of the ruminal mat stimulated rumination activity and a ruminal mat could be formed, although it was soft even when cows were offered a large quantity of BP.

  6. A fast degrading odd-odd aliphatic polyester-5,7 made by condensation polymerization for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fei; Nölle, Jan Martin; Wietzke, Steffen; Reuter, Marco; Chatterjee, Sangam; Koch, Martin; Agarwal, Seema

    2012-01-01

    A fast enzymatic degradable aliphatic all-odd-polyester-5,7, based on 1,7-heptanedioic acid (pimelic acid) and 1,5-pentanediol, was synthesized by polycondensation. The structural characterization of the polyester was done using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic techniques. The properties of the resulting polyester-like crystallization behavior, enzymatic degradation, thermal stability, etc., were investigated using differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and gel-permeation chromatography. Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy was employed to determine the glass transition temperature, which could not be revealed reliably by conventional thermal analysis. The properties of all-odd-polyester-5,7 were compared with a well-known enzymatic degradable polyester (polycaprolactone). The results indicated that polyester-5,7 has a crystal structure similar to PCL, but a much faster degradation rate. The morphology of polyester-5,7 film during enzymatic degradation showed a fibrillar structure and degradation began by surface erosion.

  7. Evidence of antimagnetic rotation in odd-A {sup 105}Cd

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Deepika; Jain, A. K.; Patial, M.; Gupta, N.; Arumugam, P.; Dhal, A.; Sinha, R. K.; Chaturvedi, L.; Joshi, P. K.; Trivedi, T.; Palit, R.; Kumar, S.; Garg, R.; Mandal, S.; Negi, D.; Mohanto, G.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P.; Madhavan, N.; Bhowmik, R. K.

    2010-12-15

    The lifetimes of the levels above spin 23/2{sup -} in the negative-parity yrast band of {sup 105}Cd have been measured using the Doppler shift attenuation method. The obtained B(E2) values are small and show a decrease with an increase in spin. This establishes, for the first time, antimagnetic rotation (AMR) in an odd-A nucleus. An excellent agreement between the theoretical (semiclassical model) and experimental results along with a large I{sup (2)}/B(E2) ratio for the states strongly suggests that the structure of the levels beyond spin 23/2{sup -} has the character of a twin-shears type AMR band resulting from the coupling of a pair of g{sub 9/2} proton holes with aligned h{sub 11/2} and (g{sub 7/2}){sup 2} neutron particles, along with a small contribution from the core rotation.

  8. Optimal odd-periodic complementary sequences for diffuse wireless optical communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun-Bo; Xie, Xiu-Xiu; Jiao, Yuan; Song, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Xibin; Gu, Ming; Sheng, Ming

    2012-09-01

    Indoor wireless optical communication (WOC) systems become promising because of their distinct advantages over their radio frequency counterparts. We address the optimal odd-periodic complementary sequences (OPCSs) for estimating a channel impulse response in WOC systems. Based on the Cramer-Rao bound, a criterion for design the optimal OPCSs is introduced. Optimum OPCSs are obtained and tabulated by computer search for different channel responses and OPCS length. Moreover, the sequence detection performance measured by bit error ratio (BER) for OPCSs-based channel estimation is also investigated. Simulation results show that the sequence detection performance can be significantly improved by using the optimal OPCS pairs. Moreover, the longer OPCS is, the better a BER performance can be obtained when the channel order is held fixed.

  9. On strontium isotopic anomalies and odd-A p-process abundances. [in solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1978-01-01

    Several aspects of the nucleosynthesis of Sr isotopes are considered in an attempt to shed light on the problem of the Sr isotopic anomalies discovered in an inclusion of the Allende meteorite. Decomposition of the Sr isotopes into average r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynthetic classes is performed. It is suggested that the Allende inclusion most likely has an excess of s-process Sr and that the initial Sr-87/Sr-86 isotopic ratio is probably slightly more primitive than basaltic achondrites. The results also show that Sn-115 is mostly due to the r-process and that odd-A yields are very small. It is concluded that if the Sr anomaly in the inclusion is an average s enhancement, it argues somewhat in favor of a model of gas/dust fractionation of s and r isotopes during accumulation of the inclusion parent in the protosolar cloud.

  10. Systematics of fine structure in the α decay of deformed odd-mass nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Zhongzhou; Ni, Dongdong

    2014-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the a-decay fine structure in 32 deformed odd-mass nuclei from Z = 93 to Z = 102. The α-decay half-lives are systematically calculated within the multichannel cluster model (MCCM), which turns out to well reproduce the experimental data and show the neutron deformed shell structure. The branching ratios for various daughter states are investigated in the MCCM and in the WKB barrier penetration approach, respectively. It is found that the MCCM results agree well with the experimental data, while the WKB results have relatively large deviations from the experimental data for the α transitions to the high-lying members of the rotational band.

  11. Low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater reduced labile C and enhanced organic-inorganic N and enzymatic activities in a semiarid alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Mian, Ishaq A

    2017-02-01

    Application of raw and treated wastewater for irrigation is an extensive practice for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Raw textile wastewater has been used for cultivation in urban and peri-urban areas in Pakistan without any systematic consideration to soil quality. We conducted a laboratory incubation study to investigate the effects of low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater on soil nitrogen (N) contents, labile carbon (C) as water-soluble C (WSC) contents, and activities of urease and dehydrogenase enzymes. The 60-day incubation study used an alkaline clay loam aridisol that received 0 (distilled water), 25, 50, and 100% wastewater concentrations, and microcosms were incubated aerobically under room temperature at 70% water holding capacity. Results revealed that raw wastewater significantly (p < 0.05) changed soil N pools and processes, WSC contents, and enzymatic activities. The organic and inorganic N species increased with increasing wastewater concentrations, whereas WSC contents followed an opposite trend. The highest NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents were observed in soil treated with 100% wastewater. The extractable organic N (EON) contents always represented >50% of the soil total Kjeldahl N (TKN) contents and served as the major N pool. However, nitrification index (NO3(-)-N/NH4(+)-N ratio) decreased at high wastewater concentrations. A significant negative correlation was observed between EON and WSC (p < 0.05) and between net nitrification and WSC/EON ratio (p < 0.01). In contrast, nitrification index and WSC contents were correlated, positively suggesting WSC potentially controlling N turnover in nutrient-poor aridisol. We found significant (p < 0.0001) positive correlations of soil urease and dehydrogenase enzymatic activities with soil-extractable mineral N contents indicating coupled N cycling and soil biological activity. Higher production and accumulation of soil NO3(-)-N and EON contents in concentrated wastewater

  12. Prognostic impact of the tumor-infiltrating regulatory T-cell (Foxp3+)/activated cytotoxic T lymphocyte (granzyme B+) ratio on resected left-sided pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ho Kyoung; Kim, Hyoung-Il; Kim, Se Hoon; Choi, Junjeong; Kang, Chang Moo; Kim, Kyung Sik; Lee, Woo Jung

    2016-01-01

    Among the subsets of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), activated cytotoxic T lymphocytes (granzyme B+) have an antitumor effect, while regulatory T lymphocytes [forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)+] suppress the antitumor immune response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible associations between TIL subsets and survival outcomes in patients with left-sided pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). From January 2000 to December 2008, 30 patients who underwent curative distal pancreatectomy without neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy due to left-sided PDAC were enrolled in the present study. TIL subsets were enumerated by immunohistochemical staining for cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD4, CD8, Foxp3 and granzyme B in the intra-tumoral areas of tissue blocks. Patients were divided into two groups according to the median value of the absolute counts and relative ratios of TIL subsets. In the univariate analysis, age, gender, tumor size, nodal stage, tumor differentiation and lymphovascular/perineural invasion were not significantly associated with survival outcome. However, low levels of preoperative cancer antigen (CA) 19–9 were associated with a longer overall survival (OS), although the association was not significant (37 vs. 18 months; P=0.061). A high level of granzyme B+ was associated with enhanced disease-free survival (DFS) (25 vs. 10 months; P=0.023), and a low Foxp3+/granzyme B+ ratio was associated with a favorable prognosis in terms of DFS (25 vs. 8 months; P=0.008) and OS (47 vs. 17 months; P=0.003). In the multivariate analysis, the ratio of Foxp3+/granzyme B+ was an independent prognostic factor for determining DFS [Exp(B), 3.060; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.259–47.436; P=0.014] and OS [Exp(B), 3.580; 95% CI, 1.460–8.780; P=0.005]. Among the clinicopathological factors, low levels of CA 19–9 were significantly associated with a low Foxp3+/granzyme B+ ratio (P=0.016). The results of the present study suggested that a low Foxp3

  13. Phase transition in odd-N Pd-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hou-Bing; Dong, Guo-Xiang; Sun, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Fu-Rong

    2015-11-01

    Phase transition in odd-N isotopes 99,101,103Pd are investigated via the E-GOS (E-Gamma Over Spin) curves, which strongly suggest a structure evolution from vibration to rotation along the yrast lines with increasing spin. Theoretical calculations have been performed for the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd in the framework of the cranked shell model (CSM) and the alignment properties observed experimentally are analyzed employing this model. The results show that the phase transition in the ground state bands of 99,101,103Pd can be interpreted as the valence nucleons start to occupy the g9/2 proton orbitals with increasing spin which would polarize the core to a small, but rigid quadrupole deformation. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Guangxi (2014jjBA10016, 2014jjDA10012) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (11465005)

  14. Near yrast states in doubly odd [sup 214]Fr

    SciTech Connect

    Debray, M.E.; Kreiner, A.J.; Kesque, J.M.; Ozafran, M.; Romo, A.; Somacal, H.; Vazquez, M.E. ); Davidson, J.; Davidson, M. ); Ahn, K.; Fossan, D.B.; Liang, Y.; Ma, R.; Paul, E.S.; Piel, W.F. Jr.; Xu, N. )

    1993-11-01

    High spin states of doubly odd [sup 214]Fr[sub 127] have been investigated using in-beam [gamma]-ray and conversion electron spectroscopy techniques through the [sup 206]Pb([sup 11]B, 3[ital n]) and [sup 208]Pb([sup 11]B, 5[ital n]) fusion-evaporation reactions. Completely new spectrocopic information has been obtained. The yrast level structure is established up to spin (19[sup +]) and some information on [gamma] transitions from higher-lying levels is also obtained. Two new isomers [ital T][sub 1/2]=174(20) ns and [ital T][sub 1/2]=11(2) ns were found. Configuration assignments for the low-lying levels are discussed. Information on residual proton-neutron interactions is extracted.

  15. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wolfle, P.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical valuemore » gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.« less

  16. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wölfle, P.; Balatsky, A. V.

    2015-09-01

    Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.

  17. Odd-frequency pairing of interacting Majorana fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Zhoushen; Wolfle, P.; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    2015-09-14

    In this study, Majorana fermions are rising as a promising key component in quantum computation. Although the prevalent approach is to use a quadratic (i.e., noninteracting) Majorana Hamiltonian, when expressed in terms of Dirac fermions, generically the Hamiltonian involves interaction terms. Here we focus on the possible pair correlations in a simple model system. We study a model of Majorana fermions coupled to a boson mode and show that the anomalous correlator between different Majorana fermions, located at opposite ends of a topological wire, exhibits odd-frequency behavior. It is stabilized when the coupling strength g is above a critical value gc. We use both, conventional diagrammatic theory and a functional integral approach, to derive the gap equation, the critical temperature, the gap function, the critical coupling, and a Ginzburg-Landau theory that allows discussing a possible subleading admixture of even-frequency pairing.

  18. Torsion, parity-odd response, and anomalies in topological states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrikar, Onkar; Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.

    2014-11-01

    We study the response of a class of topological systems to electromagnetic and gravitational sources, including torsion and curvature. By using the technology of anomaly polynomials, we derive the parity-odd response of a massive Dirac fermion in d =2 +1 and d =4 +1 , which provides a simple model for a topological insulator. We discuss the covariant anomalies of the corresponding edge states, from a Callan-Harvey anomaly inflow, as well as a Hamiltonian spectral flow point of view. We also discuss the applicability of our results to other systems such as Weyl semimetals. Finally, using dimensional reduction from d =4 +1 , we derive the effective action for a d =3 +1 time-reversal invariant topological insulator in the presence of torsion and curvature, and discuss its various physical consequences.

  19. Dimension-5 CP -odd operators: QCD mixing and renormalization

    DOE PAGES

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; ...

    2015-12-23

    Here, we study the off-shell mixing and renormalization of flavor-diagonal dimension-five T- and P-odd operators involving quarks, gluons, and photons, including quark electric dipole and chromoelectric dipole operators. Furthermore, we present the renormalization matrix to one loop in themore » $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme. We also provide a definition of the quark chromoelectric dipole operator in a regularization-independent momentum-subtraction scheme suitable for nonperturbative lattice calculations and present the matching coefficients with the $$\\bar{MS}$$ scheme to one loop in perturbation theory, using both the naïve dimensional regularization and ’t Hooft–Veltman prescriptions for γ5.« less

  20. Exposure to Childhood Traumas Ups the Odds of Giving Birth to Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women’s exposure to four categories of stressors: Childhood Trauma, Adult Trauma, Chronic Stressors, and Recent (adverse) Life Events. Hypothesis 1 stated that that exposure to Recent Life Events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women’s chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relation between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent PTSD symptoms. Method The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was Prospective Observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were < 27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 27–30 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM disorders). In interview 3 (30–34 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire, SSI) and PTSD symptoms (Post Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant Gender was obtained from medical records. The relation between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and Logistic Regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Results Childhood Trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl; with an odds ratio of > 3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relation between Childhood Trauma and infant gender. Conclusions Findings suggest that women’s exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause. PMID:24221408

  1. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    PubMed

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were <27 weeks pregnant and met initial inclusion criteria. In interview 2, at 27-30 weeks, women were excluded for positive diagnoses of anxiety disorders besides PTSD with or without depression (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders). In interview 3 (30-34 weeks), reports on stress categories (Social Stress Indicator Questionnaire) and PTSD symptoms (Post-Traumatic Checklist) were obtained. Infant gender was obtained from medical records. The relationship between stress categories and the distribution of girl/boy infants was examined with Chi Squares and logistic regression analyses. Mediation was tested with the macro PROCESS (Hayes 2012). Childhood trauma was the only stress category that increased the odds of having a girl, with an odds ratio of >3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause.

  2. An Overview of Modeling Middle Atmospheric Odd Nitrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackman, Charles H.; Kawa, S. Randolph; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Odd nitrogen (N, NO, NO2, NO3, N2O5, HNO3, HO2NO2, ClONO2, and BrONO2) constituents are important components in the control of middle atmospheric ozone. Several processes lead to the production of odd nitrogen (NO(sub y)) in the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) including the oxidation of nitrous oxide (N2O), lightning, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles (e.g., galactic cosmic rays, solar proton events, and energetic electron precipitation). The dominant production mechanism of NO(sub y) in the stratosphere is N2O oxidation, although other processes contribute. Mesospheric NO(sub y) is influenced by N2O oxidation, downflux from the thermosphere, and energetic charged particles. NO(sub y) is destroyed in the middle atmosphere primarily via two processes: 1) dissociation of NO to form N and O followed by N + NO yielding N2 + O to reform even nitrogen; and 2) transport to the troposphere where HNO3 can be rapidly scavenged in water droplets and rained out of the atmosphere. There are fairly significant differences among global models that predict NO(sub y). NO(sub y) has a fairly long lifetime in the stratosphere (months to years), thus disparate transport in the models probably contributes to many of these differences. Satellite and aircraft measurement provide modeling tests of the various components of NO(sub y). Although some recent reaction rate measurements have led to improvements in model/measurement agreement, significant differences do remain. This presentation will provide an overview of several proposed sources and sinks of NO(sub y) and their regions of importance. Multi-dimensional modeling results for NO(sub y) and its components with comparisons to observations will also be presented.

  3. Galangin inhibits proliferation of HepG2 cells by activating AMPK via increasing the AMP/TAN ratio in a LKB1-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haitao; Li, Ning; Wu, Jun; Su, Lijuan; Chen, Xiaoyi; Lin, Biyun; Luo, Hui

    2013-10-15

    Galangin, a flavonol derived from Alpinia officinarum Hance and used as food additives in southern China, induces apoptosis and autophagy to suppress the proliferation of HepG2 cells. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy by increasing the ratio of AMP/TAN in HepG2 cells. It stimulated the phosphorylation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and LKB1, but inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT and mTOR. Inhibition of AMPK activation suppressed the dephosphorylation of mTOR to block galangin-induced autophagy. AMPK activation by galangin appeared to be independent of the LKB1 signaling pathway because the down-regulation of LKB1 by its siRNA failed to affect galangin-induced autophagy. Collectively, the findings demonstrated a novel mechanism of how galangin induces autophagy via activating AMPK in a LKB1- independent manner. The induction of autophagy can thus reflect the anti-proliferation effect of galangin in HCC cells.

  4. Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bellocco, Rino; Jia, Chongqi; Ye, Weimin; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2010-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) have been well documented. However, there is less research investigating whether or not these health benefits might differ among males and females or among subjects characterized by different levels of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC). Baseline total PA, BMI, WHR and waist circumference were measured in 14,585 men and 26,144 women who participated in the Swedish National March. Their effects on all-cause mortality were analyzed with a follow-up time of almost 10 years. Sedentary men with a BMI ≥ 30 had a 98% (95% CI: 30-201%) increased risk of mortality compared to normal weight men with a high level of total PA. The same trend was observed for sedentary men with high WHR or waist circumference, compared to lean and highly active men. Sedentary women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more had almost doubled, i.e. 97% (95% CI: 35-189%) increased mortality risk compared to physically active women with a waist circumference below 80 cm. BMI in men, but waist circumference in women better forecast all-cause mortality. We found no substantial effect modification between different measures of adiposity and physical activity-physical inactivity and obesity seem to increase total mortality risk independently and additively.

  5. bowel, an odd-skipped homolog, functions in the terminal pathway during Drosophila embryogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, L; Coulter, D E

    1996-01-01

    The terminal genes of Drosophila specify non-segmented regions of the larval body that are derived from the anterior and posterior regions of the early embryo. Terminal class genes include both maternal-effect loci (typified by the receptor tyrosine kinase torso) that encode components of a signal transduction cascade and zygotic genes (e.g. tailless and huckebein) that are transcribed at the poles of the embryo in response to the local activation of the pathway. We have characterized a zygotic gene, bowel, that was identified as a zinc finger homolog of the pair-rule segmentation gene odd-skipped. bowel transcripts are initially expressed at both poles of the blastoderm embryo and in a single cephalic stripe. This pattern depends upon torso and tailless activity, but is not affected in huckebein mutants. We isolated and sequenced five mutations that affect the bowel protein, including a nonsense mutation upstream of the zinc fingers and a missense mutation in a putative zinc-chelating residue. bowel mutants die as late embryos with defects in terminal derivatives including the hindgut and proventriculus. Our results indicate that the developmental roles of odd-skipped and bowel have diverged substantially, and that bowel represents a new member of the terminal hierarchy that acts downstream of tailless and mediates a subset of tailless functions in the posterior of the embryo. Images PMID:8670819

  6. Effects of neurofeedback and computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation on relative brain wave ratios and activities of daily living of stroke patients: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hwi-Young; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jung, Jin-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of neurofeedback (NFB) and computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) on the relative brain wave ratios and activities of daily living (ADL) of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty-four participants were randomly allocated to the NFB (n=14), CACR (n=14), or control (CON) (n=16) groups. Two expert therapists provided the NFB, CACR, and CON groups with traditional rehabilitation therapy in 30-minute sessions, 5 times a week, for 6 weeks. NFB training was provided only to the NFB group and CACR training was provided only to the CACR group. The CON group received traditional rehabilitation therapy only. Before and after 6 weeks of intervention, brain wave and ADL evaluations were performed, and the results were analyzed. [Results] The relative ratio of beta waves, only showed a significant increase in the frontal and parietal areas of the NFB group. Significant changes in ADL were shown by all three groups after the intervention. However, there were no significant differences between the NFB and CACR groups and the CON group. [Conclusion] Our results suggest that CACR and NFB are effective at improving cognitive function and ADL of stroke patients. PMID:27512287

  7. Predicting Efflux Ratios and Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration from Chemical Structure: Combining Passive Permeability with Active Efflux by P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In order to reach their pharmacologic targets, successful central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates have to cross a complex protective barrier separating brain from the blood. Being able to predict a priori which molecules can successfully penetrate this barrier could be of significant value in CNS drug discovery. Herein we report a new computational approach that combines two mechanism-based models, for passive permeation and for active efflux by P-glycoprotein, to provide insight into the multiparameter optimization problem of designing small molecules able to access the CNS. Our results indicate that this approach is capable of distinguishing compounds with high/low efflux ratios as well as CNS+/CNS– compounds and provides advantage over estimating P-glycoprotein efflux or passive permeability alone when trying to predict these emergent properties. We also demonstrate that this method could be useful for rank-ordering chemically similar compounds and that it can provide detailed mechanistic insight into the relationship between chemical structure and efflux ratios and/or CNS penetration, offering guidance as to how compounds could be modified to improve their access into the brain. PMID:23421687

  8. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratios following thermodenuder treatment of organic particles grown by α-pinene ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Kuwata, Mikinori; Chen, Qi; Martin, Scot T

    2011-08-28

    The effects of thermodenuder treatment on the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity and elemental composition of organic particles grown by α-pinene ozonolysis were investigated. The secondary organic material (SOM) was produced in a continuous-flow chamber, with steady-state organic particle mass concentrations M(org) ranging from 1.4 to 37 μg m(-3). Particles exiting in the outflow were heated to temperatures T of up to 100 °C in a thermodenuder. The oxygen-to-carbon (O:C) and hydrogen-to-carbon (H:C) ratios were measured by on-line mass spectrometry. The observed elemental ratios were fit by a linear function, given by (H:C) = -0.8 (O:C) +1.8 for 0.38 < O:C < 0.50. This fit included the dependence on both M(org) and T, meaning that the single variable of post-thermodenuder M(org) was sufficient as an accurate predictor for O:C(M(org)(T)) and H:C(M(org)(T)). This result suggests that equilibrium partitioning theory largely governed the initial volatilization in the thermodenuder. By comparison, the CCN activity had a different dependence on thermodenuder treatment. At 25 °C, the CCN activity was independent of M(org), having an effective hygroscopicity parameter κ(org) of 0.103 ± 0.002. At 100 °C, however, κ(org) varied from 0.105 for M(org) = 1.4 μg m(-3) to 0.079 for M(org) = 37 μg m(-3), indicating that for high mass concentration the CCN activity decreased with heat treatment. The interpretation is that the oligomer fraction of the SOM increased at elevated T, both because of particle-phase reactions that produced oligomers under those conditions and because of the relative enrichment of lower-volatility oligomers in the SOM accompanying the evaporation of higher-volatility monomers from the SOM. Oligomers have high effective molecular weights and thereby significantly influence CCN activity. The production rates of different types of oligomers depend on the types and concentrations of functional groups present in the SOM, which in turn are

  9. Unique first-forbidden β-decay transitions in odd-odd and even-even heavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Çakmak, Necla; Majid, Muhammad; Selam, Cevad

    2017-01-01

    The allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are the most common weak nuclear processes of spin-isospin (στ) type. These transitions play a key role in numerous processes in the domain of nuclear physics. Equally important is their contribution in astrophysics, particularly in nuclear synthesis and supernova-explosions. In situations where allowed GT transitions are not favored, first-forbidden transitions become significant, specifically in medium heavy and heavy nuclei. For neutron-rich nuclei, first-forbidden transitions are favored mainly due to the phase-space amplification for these transitions. In this work we calculate the allowed GT as well as unique first-forbidden (U1F) | ΔJ | = 2 transitions strength in odd-odd and even-even nuclei in mass range 70 ≤ A ≤ 214. Two different pn-QRPA models were used with a schematic separable interaction to calculate GT and U1F transitions. The inclusion of U1F strength improved the overall comparison of calculated terrestrial β-decay half-lives in both models. The ft values and reduced transition probabilities for the 2- ⟷0+ transitions were also calculated. We compared our calculations with the previously reported correlated RPA calculation and experimental results. Our calculations are in better agreement with measured data. For stellar applications we further calculated the allowed GT and U1F weak rates. These include β±-decay rates and electron/positron capture rates of heavy nuclei in stellar matter. Our study shows that positron and electron capture rates command the total weak rates of these heavy nuclei at high stellar temperatures.

  10. Isoliquiritigenin Inhibits Metastatic Breast Cancer Cell-induced Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin Ratio in Human Osteoblastic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun Kyoung; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Kim, Ki Rim; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Bone destruction induced by the metastasis of breast cancer cells is a frequent complication that is caused by the interaction between cancer cells and bone cells. Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and the endogenous soluble RANKL inhibitor, osteoprotegerin (OPG), directly play critical roles in the differentiation, activity, and survival of osteoclasts. In patients with bone metastases, osteoclastic bone resorption promotes the majority of skeletal-related events and propagates bone metastases. Therefore, blocking osteoclast activity and differentiation via RANKL inhibition can be a promising therapeutic approach for cancer-associated bone diseases. We investigated the potential of isoliquiritigenin (ISL), which has anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and anti-invasive effects, as a preventive and therapeutic agent for breast cancer cell-induced bone destruction. ISL at non-toxicity concentrations significantly inhibited the RANKL/OPG ratio by reducing the production of RANKL and restoring OPG production to control levels in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated with conditioned medium (CM) of MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, ISL reduced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in hFOB1.19 cells stimulated by CM of MDA-MB-231 cells. Therefore, ISL may have inhibitory potential on breast cancer-induced bone destruction. PMID:26734591

  11. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  12. Plasma parameters and active species kinetics in CF4/O2/Ar gas mixture: effects of CF4/O2 and O2/Ar mixing ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Junmyung; Kwon, Kwang-Ho; Efremov, A.

    2016-12-01

    The effects of both CF4/O2 and O2/Ar mixing ratios in three-component CF4/O2/Ar mixture on plasma parameters, densities and fluxes of active species determining the dry etching kinetics were analyzed. The investigation combined plasma diagnostics by Langmuir probes and zero-dimensional plasma modeling. It was found that the substitution of CF4 for O2 at constant fraction of Ar in a feed gas produces the non-monotonic change in F atom density, as it was repeatedly reported for the binary CF4/O2 gas mixtures. At the same time, the substitution of Ar for O2 at constant fraction of CF4 results in the monotonic increase in F atom density toward more oxygenated plasmas. The natures of these phenomena as well as theirs possible impacts on the etching/polymerization kinetics were discussed in details.

  13. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-12-28

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver's input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice.

  14. Relevance and use of the Ag-110m: Cs-137 activity ratio for tracking the dispersion of radioactive sediment within Fukushima coastal catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepage, Hugo; Evrard, Olivier; Onda, Yuichi; Chartin, Caroline; Lefèvre, Irène; Bonté, Philippe; Ayrault, Sophie

    2014-05-01

    Large quantities of fallout radionuclides emitted during the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident were deposited on Japanese soils, thereby leading to the formation of a 3000 km² contamination plume. Because they are strongly sorbed by fine particles, those radionuclides are likely to be redistributed by hydrosedimentary processes across catchments. As Ag-110m: Cs-137 activity ratio showed a variation in soils across the main plume, we investigated the behaviour of Silver-110 metastable (Ag-110m) and compared it to the one of the more documented radiocesium (Cs-137) to check whether this ratio may be used to track the dispersion of contaminated sediment. We analysed soil and sediment drape deposits (i.e., mud drapes deposited on channel bed sand in rivers) collected in Nov 2011, April 2012, Nov 2012 and May 2013 within coastal catchments draining the main radioactive pollution plume of Fukushima Prefecture (Japan). Several field experiments were also conducted to document radiosilver behaviour in the terrestrial environment. Results show a similar and low mobility for both elements in soils and a strong affinity with the clay fraction. Measurements conducted on sediment sequences accumulated in reservoirs tend to confirm a comparable migration and deposition of both radionuclides even after their redistribution due to erosion and deposition processes. Use of a simple mixing model based on Ag-110m: Cs-137 activity ratio values in both soil and sediment demonstrated the strong reactivity of catchments to the succession of summer typhoons and spring snowmelt. We identified a two stage sediment export cycle with (1) a partial export of contaminated sediment from inland mountain ranges - exposed initially to the highest radionuclide fallout - to the coastal plains in summer and autumn after the occurrence of violent typhoons, and (2) an amplification of the sediment flush during the spring snowmelt. Our results suggest that this contamination export

  15. Odds ratio for 2 × 2 tables: Mantel-Haenszel estimator, profile likelihood, and presence of surrogate responses.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Buddhananda; Biswas, Atanu

    2014-01-01

    Use of surrogate outcome to improve the inference in biomedical problems is an area of growing interest. Here, we consider a setup where both the true and surrogate endpoints are binary and we observe all the surrogate endpoints along with a few true endpoints. In a two-treatment setup we study the surrogate-augmented Mantel-Haenszel estimator based on observations from different groups when the group effect is present. We compare the Mantel-Haenszel estimator with the one obtained by maximizing profile likelihood in a surrogate augmented setup. We observe that the performances of these estimators are very close.

  16. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Neuroimaging in Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) and Conduct Disorder (CD) Taking Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Into Account.

    PubMed

    Noordermeer, Siri D S; Luman, Marjolein; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2016-03-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) are common behavioural disorders in childhood and adolescence and are associated with brain abnormalities. This systematic review and meta-analysis investigates structural (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI) findings in individuals with ODD/CD with and without attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Online databases were searched for controlled studies, resulting in 12 sMRI and 17 fMRI studies. In line with current models on ODD/CD, studies were classified in hot and cool executive functioning (EF). Both the meta-analytic and narrative reviews showed evidence of smaller brain structures and lower brain activity in individuals with ODD/CD in mainly hot EF-related areas: bilateral amygdala, bilateral insula, right striatum, left medial/superior frontal gyrus, and left precuneus. Evidence was present in both structural and functional studies, and irrespective of the presence of ADHD comorbidity. There is strong evidence that abnormalities in the amygdala are specific for ODD/CD as compared to ADHD, and correlational studies further support the association between abnormalities in the amygdala and ODD/CD symptoms. Besides the left precuneus, there was no evidence for abnormalities in typical cool EF related structures, such as the cerebellum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Resulting areas are associated with emotion-processing, error-monitoring, problem-solving and self-control; areas associated with neurocognitive and behavioural deficits implicated in ODD/CD. Our findings confirm the involvement of hot, and to a smaller extent cool, EF associated brain areas in ODD/CD, and support an integrated model for ODD/CD (e.g. Blair, Development and Psychopathology, 17(3), 865-891, 2005).

  17. Massive and massless higher spinning particles in odd dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastianelli, Fiorenzo; Bonezzi, Roberto; Corradini, Olindo; Latini, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    We study actions for massive bosonic particles of higher spins by dimensionally reducing an action for massless particles. For the latter we take a model with a SO( N) extended local supersymmetry on the worldline, that is known to describe massless (conformal) particles of higher spins in flat spacetimes of even dimensions. Dimensional reduction produces an action for massive spinning particles in odd dimensions. The field equations that emerge in a quantization à la Dirac are shown to be equivalent to the Fierz-Pauli ones. The massless limit generates a multiplet of massless states with higher spins, whose first quantized field equations have a geometric form with fields belonging to various types of Young tableaux. These geometric equations can be partially integrated to show their equivalence with the standard Fronsdal-Labastida equations. We covariantize our model to check whether an extension to curved spacetimes can be achieved. Restricting to (A)dS spaces, we find that the worldline gauge algebra becomes nonlinear, but remains first class. This guarantees consistency on such backgrounds. A light cone analysis confirms the presence of the expected propagating degrees of freedom. A covariant analysis is worked out explicitly for the massive case, which is seen to give rise to the Fierz-Pauli equations extended to (A)dS spaces. It is worth noting that in D = 3 the massless limit of our model with N → ∞ has the same field content of the Vasiliev's theory that accommodates each spin exactly once.

  18. Ferroelectric behavior of the odd-numbered nylons

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinbeim, J.I.; Newman, B.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent work in the Polymer Electroprocessing Laboratory. Rutgers University, has shown that the odd-numbered nylons (11, 9, 7, 5) constitute the second known family of ferroelectric polymers: poly(vinylidene fluoride) and its co-polymers are the only other known family of ferroelectric polymers. Using mel-quenched and cold-drawn samples of nylon 11 which exhibit double orientation (chain axes in the draw direction and hydrogen bonds in the plane of the films) the authors examined changes in orientation of the polar (hydrogen bonds) and non-polar (hydrocarbon) sections as a function of annealing temperature and applied electric field. Using FTIR and WAXD studies, the authors have found that the samples polarized by application of electric fields before high temperature annealing exhibit diffraction patterns rotated by 90{degrees} from those of samples exposed to only high temperature annealing. These studies also show that the polarized, annealed samples are triply oriented and that they hydrocarbon sections exhibit little crystal order unless samples are annealed at high temperature.

  19. Even-odd entanglement in boson and spin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossignoli, R.; Canosa, N.; Matera, J. M.

    2011-04-01

    We examine the entanglement entropy of the even half of a translationally invariant finite chain or lattice in its ground state. This entropy measures the entanglement between the even and odd halves (each forming a “comb” of n/2 sites) and can be expected to be extensive for short-range couplings away from criticality. We first consider bosonic systems with quadratic couplings, where analytic expressions for arbitrary dimensions can be provided. The bosonic treatment is then applied to finite spin chains and arrays by means of the random-phase approximation. Results for first-neighbor anisotropic XY couplings indicate that, while at strong magnetic fields this entropy is strictly extensive, at weak fields important deviations arise, stemming from parity-breaking effects and the presence of a factorizing field (in the vicinity of which it becomes size-independent and identical to the entropy of a contiguous half). Exact numerical results for small spin s chains are shown to be in agreement with the bosonic random-phase approximation prediction.

  20. Odd-even staggering in the neutron-proton interaction and nuclear mass models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y. Y.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper we study odd-even staggering of the empirical neutron-proton interaction between the last neutron and the last proton, denoted as δ V1 n -1 p , and its consequence in the Garvey-Kelson mass relations (GKs) and nuclear mass models. The root-mean-squared deviations of predicted masses respectively for even-A and odd-A nuclei by using two combinatorial GKs suggest a large odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-odd and odd-even nuclei, while the odd-even difference of δ V1 n -1 p between even-even and odd-odd nuclei is much smaller. The contribution of the odd-even staggering of δ V1 n -1 p between even-A and odd-A nuclei in deviations of theoretical δ V1 n -1 p values of the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model are well represented by an isospin-dependent term. The consideration of this odd-even staggering improves our description of binding energies and one-neutron separation energies in both the Duflo-Zuker model and the improved Weizs a ̈cker -Skyrme model.

  1. The effect of activity outside the field-of-view on image signal-to-noise ratio for 3D PET with 15O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibaraki, Masanobu; Sugawara, Shigeki; Nakamura, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Fumiko; Kinoshita, Toshibumi

    2011-05-01

    Activity outside the field-of-view (FOV) degrades the count rate performance of 3D PET and consequently reduces signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) of reconstructed images. The aim of this study was to evaluate a neck-shield installed in a 3D PET scanner for reducing the effect of the outside FOV activity. Specifically, we compared brain PET scans (15O2 and H215O) with and without the use of the neck-shield. Image SNRs were directly estimated by a sinogram bootstrap method. The bootstrap analysis showed that the use of the neck-shield improved the SNR by 8% and 19% for H215O and 15O2, respectively. The SNR improvements were predominantly due to the reduction of the random count rates. Noise equivalent count rate (NECR) analysis provided SNR estimates that were very similar with the bootstrap-based results for H215O, but not for 15O2. This discrepancy may be due to the fundamental difference between the two methods: the bootstrap method directly calculates the local SNR of reconstructed images, whereas the NECR calculation is based on the whole-gantry count rates, indicating a limitation of the conventional NECR-based method as a tool for assessing the image SNR. Although quantitative parameters, e.g. cerebral blood flow, did not differ when examined with and without the neck-shield, the use of the shield for brain 15O study is recommended in terms of the image SNR.

  2. Enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency and reducing nitrate liquor recirculation ratio by improving simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Zhang, Yaobin; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo

    2016-01-01

    An integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) process (G1) and an activated sludge anoxic-oxic process (G2) were operated at nitrate liquor recirculation ratio (R) of 100, 200 and 300% to investigate the feasibility of enhancing nitrogen removal efficiency (RTN) and reducing R by improving simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) in the IFAS process. The results showed that the effluent NH4(+)-N and total nitrogen (TN) of G1 at R of 200% were less than 1.5 and 14.5 mg/L, satisfying the Chinese discharge standard (NH4(+)-N < 5 mg/L; TN < 15 mg/L). However, the effluent NH4(+)-N and TN of G2 at R of 300% were higher than 8.5 and 15.3 mg/L. It indicated that better RTN could be achieved at a lower R in the IFAS process. The polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis results implied that nitrifiers and denitrifiers co-existed in one microbial community, facilitating the occurrence of SND in the aerobic reactor of G1, and the contribution of SND to TN removal efficiency ranged 15-19%, which was the main reason that the RTN was improved in the IFAS process. Therefore, the IFAS process was an effective method for improving RTN and reducing R. In practical application, this advantage of the IFAS process can decrease the electricity consumption for nitrate liquor recirculation flow, thereby saving operational costs.

  3. Effect of solvent type and ratio on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of extracts from Hylocereus polyrhizus flesh and peel by supercritical fluid extraction and solvent extraction.

    PubMed

    Fathordoobady, Farahnaz; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Selamat, Jinap; Manap, Mohd Yazid Abd

    2016-07-01

    The main objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of solvent type and ratio as well as the extraction techniques (i.e. supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and conventional solvent extraction) on betacyanins and antioxidant activity of the peel and fresh extract from the red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus). The peel and flesh extracts obtained by SFE at 25MPa pressure and 10% EtOH/water (v/v) mixture as a co-solvent contained 24.58 and 91.27mg/100ml total betacyanin, respectively; while the most desirable solvent extraction process resulted in a relatively higher total betacyanin in the peel and flesh extracts (28.44 and 120.28mg/100ml, respectively). The major betacyanins identified in the pitaya peel and flesh extracts were betanin, isobetanin, phyllocactin, butyrylbetanin, isophyllocactin and iso-butyrylbetanin. The flesh extract had the stronger antioxidant activity than the peel extract when the higher proportion of ethanol to water (E/W) was applied for the extraction.

  4. Flowering and Growth Responses of Cultivated Lentil and Wild Lens Germplasm toward the Differences in Red to Far-Red Ratio and Photosynthetically Active Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hai Y.; Saha, Shyamali; Vandenberg, Albert; Bett, Kirstin E.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding environmental responses of pulse crop species and their wild relatives will play an important role in developing genetic strategies for crop improvement in response to changes in climate. This study examined how cultivated lentil and wild Lens germplasm responded to different light environments, specifically differences in red/far-red ratio (R/FR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR). Three genotypes of each the seven Lens species were grown in environmentally controlled growth chambers equipped to provide light treatments consisting of different R/FR ratios and PAR values. Our results showed that overall, days to flower of Lens genotypes were mainly influenced by the R/FR induced light quality change but not by the PAR related light intensity change. The cultivated lentil (L. culinaris) showed consistent, accelerated flowering in response to the low R/FR light environment together with three wild lentil genotypes (L. orientalis IG 72611, L. tomentosus IG 72830, and L. ervoides IG 72815) while most wild lentil genotypes had reduced responses and flowering time was not significantly affected. The longest shoot length, longest internode length, and largest leaflet area were observed under the low R/FR low PAR environment for both cultivated and wild lentils. The distinctly different responses between flowering time and elongation under low R/FR conditions among wild Lens genotypes suggests discrete pathways controlling flowering and elongation, which are both components of shade avoidance responses. The yield and above-ground biomass of Lens genotypes were the highest under high R/FR high PAR conditions, intermediate under low R/FR low PAR conditions, and lowest under high R/FR low PAR light conditions. Three L. lamottei genotypes (IG 110809, IG 110810, and IG 110813) and one L. ervoides genotype (IG 72646) were less sensitive in their time to flower responses while maintaining similar yield, biomass, and harvest index across all three light

  5. Weakened negative effect of Au/TiO2 photocatalytic activity by CdS quantum dots deposited under UV-vis light illumination at different intensity ratios.

    PubMed

    Song, Kang; Wang, Xiaohong; Xiang, Qun; Xu, Jiaqiang

    2016-10-26

    Herein, we demonstrate experimentally the coexistence of photocatalytic dual opposite roles of Au nanoparticles in a UV-vis light irradiated Au/TiO2 system. We have investigated that the photocatalytic performance curves of Au/TiO2 and CdS/Au/TiO2 for degradation of methylene blue (MB) all present a V-shape with different radiation power ratios. However, through the comparison of photocatalytic activities of Au/TiO2 and CdS/Au/TiO2 by statistics and mathematical simulation, we propose qualitatively that the deposition of CdS used as a photosensitizer could extend the Au/TiO2 light absorption range and weaken the negative effect of Au/TiO2. Compared with Au/TiO2, it is proven indirectly that the photo-excited electrons of CdS/Au/TiO2 transfer from CdS to Au, and then to TiO2. Furthermore, we discuss the photocatalytic dual opposite roles of Au nanoparticles between CdS and TiO2, the positive effect includes localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and Schottky barrier (SB), and the negative effect is that Au nanoparticles can be used as a new charge-carrier recombination center. In addition, we have analyzed that the dual opposite relationship of Au/TiO2 under the irradiation of mixed-light could be regulated by changing the intensity ratio of visible to UV light as well.

  6. Active duty service members who sustain a traumatic brain injury have chronically elevated peripheral concentrations of Aβ40 and lower ratios of Aβ42/40

    PubMed Central

    Lejbman, Natasha; Olivera, Anlys; Heinzelmann, Morgan; Feng, Rebekah; Yun, Sijung; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Gill, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Primary objective: Excessive accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau have been observed in older individuals with chronic neurological symptoms related to a traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet little is known about the possible role of Aβ in younger active duty service members following a TBI. The purpose of the study was to determine if Aβ 40 or 42 related to sustaining a TBI or to chronic neurological symptoms in a young cohort of military personnel. Research design: This was a cross-sectional study of active duty service members who reported sustaining a TBI and provided self-report of neurological and psychological symptoms and provided blood. Methods and procedures: An ultrasensitive single-molecule enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to compare concentrations of Aβ in active duty service members with (TBI+; n = 53) and without (TBI–; n = 18) a history of TBI. Self-report and medical history were used to measure TBI occurrence and approximate the number of total TBIs and the severity of TBIs sustained during deployment. Main outcomes and results: This study reports that TBI is associated with higher concentrations of Aβ40 (F 1,68 = 6.948, p = 0.009) and a lower ratio of Aβ42/Aβ40 (F 1,62 = 5.671, p = 0.020). These differences remained significant after controlling for co-morbid symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Conclusions: These findings suggest that alterations in Aβ relate to TBIs and may contribute to chronic neurological symptoms. PMID:27834544

  7. Highly active Au/δ-MoC and Cu/δ-MoC catalysts for the conversion of CO2: The metal/C ratio as a key factor defining activity, selectivity, and stability

    DOE PAGES

    Posada-Pérez, Sergio; Ramírez, Pedro J.; Evans, Jaime; ...

    2016-06-16

    The ever growing increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is one of the main causes of global warming. Thus, CO2 activation and conversion toward valuable added compounds is a major scientific challenge. A new set of Au/δ-MoC and Cu/δ-MoC catalysts exhibits high activity, selectivity, and stability for the reduction of CO2 to CO with some subsequent selective hydrogenation toward methanol. Sophisticated experiments under controlled conditions and calculations based on density functional theory have been used to study the unique behavior of these systems. A detailed comparison of the behavior of Au/β-Mo2C and Au/δ-MoC catalysts provides evidence of the impactmore » of the metal/carbon ratio in the carbide on the performance of the catalysts. The present results show that this ratio governs the chemical behavior of the carbide and the properties of the admetal, up to the point of being able to switch the rate and mechanism of the process for CO2 conversion. Here, a control of the metal/carbon ratio paves the road for an efficient reutilization of this environmental harmful greenhouse gas.« less

  8. Highly active Au/δ-MoC and Cu/δ-MoC catalysts for the conversion of CO2: The metal/C ratio as a key factor defining activity, selectivity, and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Posada-Pérez, Sergio; Ramírez, Pedro J.; Evans, Jaime; Viñes, Francesc; Liu, Ping; Illas, Francesc; Rodriguez, José A.

    2016-06-16

    The ever growing increase of CO2 concentration in the atmosphere is one of the main causes of global warming. Thus, CO2 activation and conversion toward valuable added compounds is a major scientific challenge. A new set of Au/δ-MoC and Cu/δ-MoC catalysts exhibits high activity, selectivity, and stability for the reduction of CO2 to CO with some subsequent selective hydrogenation toward methanol. Sophisticated experiments under controlled conditions and calculations based on density functional theory have been used to study the unique behavior of these systems. A detailed comparison of the behavior of Au/β-Mo2C and Au/δ-MoC catalysts provides evidence of the impact of the metal/carbon ratio in the carbide on the performance of the catalysts. The present results show that this ratio governs the chemical behavior of the carbide and the properties of the admetal, up to the point of being able to switch the rate and mechanism of the process for CO2 conversion. Here, a control of the metal/carbon ratio paves the road for an efficient reutilization of this environmental harmful greenhouse gas.

  9. Characterization of long-lived isomers in the odd-odd heavy actinide 254Md

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sood, P. C.; Gowrishankar, R.

    2017-02-01

    Bandhead energies of all the physically admissible low-lying two-quasiparticle configuration states in the doubly-odd heavy actinide Md 153 101 254 are evaluated using the well-tested two-quasiparticle rotor model with explicit inclusion of the residual proton-neutron interaction. A critical examination of these results, aimed at characterization of the long-lived (t1 /2=10 min and 28 min; %ɛ ≤100 ) isomer pair, conclusively rules out a high-spin (J ≥5 ) assignment for either of the isomers. Our analysis leads to JπK =1-0 {p :1 /2-[521 ] ⊗n :1 /2+) [620 ] } and 3-3 {p :7 /2-[514 ] ⊗n :1 /2+[620 ] } assignments, respectively, to these isomers and designates the 10-min isomer as its ground state. Our study reveals a "landmark" position for 254Md in the decay path of super heavy elements. The as-yet unobserved electron capture decay branches from each of the two 254Md isomers to 254Fm levels are specified.

  10. Preconception maternal polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and the secondary sex ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Kira C.; Jackson, Leila W.; Lynch, Courtney D.; Kostyniak, Paul J.; Buck Louis, Germaine M. . E-mail: louisg@mail.nih.gov

    2007-01-15

    The secondary sex ratio is the ratio of male to female live births and historically has ranged from 102 to 106 males to 100 females. Temporal declines have been reported in many countries prompting authors to hypothesize an environmental etiology. Blood specimens were obtained from 99 women aged 24-34 prior to attempting pregnancy and quantified for 76 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners using dual column gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Women were prospectively followed until pregnancy or 12 cycles of trying. The odds of a male birth for three PCB groupings (total, estrogenic, anti-estrogenic) controlling for maternal characteristics were estimated using logistic regression. Among the 50 women with live births and PCB data, 26 female and 24 male infants were born (ratio 0.92). After adjusting for age and body mass index, odds of a male birth were elevated among women in the second (OR=1.29) and third (OR=1.48) tertiles of estrogenic PCBs; odds (OR=0.70) were reduced among women in the highest tertile of anti-estrogenic PCBs. All confidence intervals included one. The direction of the odds ratios in this preliminary study varied by PCB groupings, supporting the need to study specific PCB patterns when assessing environmental influences on the secondary sex ratio.

  11. Variability of sulphur isotope ratios in pyrite and dissolved sulphate in granitoid fractures down to 1 km depth - Evidence for widespread activity of sulphur reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Henrik; Åström, Mats E.; Tullborg, Eva-Lena; Whitehouse, Martin; Fallick, Anthony E.

    2013-02-01

    Euhedral pyrite crystals in 46 open bedrock (granitoid) fractures at depths down to nearly 1 km were analysed for sulphur isotope ratios (δ34S) by the in situ secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) technique and by conventional bulk-grain analysis, and were compared with groundwater data. Twenty nine of the fractures sampled for pyrite had corresponding data for groundwater, including chemistry and isotopic ratios of sulphate, which provided a unique opportunity to compare the sulphur-isotopic ratios of pyrite and dissolved sulphate both at site and fracture-specific scales. Assessment of pyrite age and formation conditions were based on the geological evolution of the area (Laxemar, SE Sweden), and on data on co-genetic calcite as follows: (1) the isotopic ratios of the calcite crystals (δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr) were compared with previously defined isotopic features of fracture mineral assemblages precipitated during various geological periods, and (2) the δ18O of the calcites were compared with the δ18O of groundwater in fractures corresponding to those where the calcite/pyrite assemblages were sampled. Taken together, the data show that all the sampled fractures carried pyrite/calcite that are low-temperature and precipitated from the current groundwater or similar pre-existing groundwater, except at depths of -300 to -600 m where water with a glacial component dominates and the crystals are from pre-modern fluids. An age of <10 Ma are anticipated for the pre-modern fluids. The δ34Spyr showed huge variations across individual crystals (such as -32 to +73‰) and extreme minimum (-50‰) and maximum (+91‰) values. For this kind of extreme S-isotopic variation at earth-surface conditions there is no other explanation than activity of sulphur reducing bacteria coupled with sulphate-limited conditions. Indeed, the most common subgrain feature was an increase in δ34Spyr values from interior to rim of the crystal, which we interpret are related to successively

  12. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Kroll, J. H.; Onasch, T. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Knighton, W. B.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Jobson, B. T.; Stutz, J.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.

    2010-02-01

    Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particulate matter (PM) concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2]) and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA), which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h) and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m-3 ppm-1 (STP) in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m-3 ppm-1 in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m-3 ppm-1. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 LT. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed ratio. Although not succesful in reproducing the atmospheric observations presented, modeling P(SOA)/P(Ox) can serve as a useful test

  13. Investigation of the correlation between odd oxygen and secondary organic aerosol in Mexico City and Houston

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, E. C.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Herndon, S. C.; Onasch, T. B.; Kolb, C. E.; Worsnop, D. R.; Kroll, J. H.; Knighton, W. B.; Seila, R.; Zavala, M.; Molina, L. T.; Decarlo, P. F.; Jimenez, J. L.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Jobson, B. T.; Stutz, J.; Kuster, W. C.; Williams, E. J.

    2010-09-01

    Many recent models underpredict secondary organic aerosol (SOA) particulate matter (PM) concentrations in polluted regions, indicating serious deficiencies in the models' chemical mechanisms and/or missing SOA precursors. Since tropospheric photochemical ozone production is much better understood, we investigate the correlation of odd-oxygen ([Ox]≡[O3]+[NO2]) and the oxygenated component of organic aerosol (OOA), which is interpreted as a surrogate for SOA. OOA and Ox measured in Mexico City in 2006 and Houston in 2000 were well correlated in air masses where both species were formed on similar timescales (less than 8 h) and not well correlated when their formation timescales or location differed greatly. When correlated, the ratio of these two species ranged from 30 μg m-3/ppm (STP) in Houston during time periods affected by large petrochemical plant emissions to as high as 160 μg m-3/ppm in Mexico City, where typical values were near 120 μg m-3/ppm. On several days in Mexico City, the [OOA]/[Ox] ratio decreased by a factor of ~2 between 08:00 and 13:00 local time. This decrease is only partially attributable to evaporation of the least oxidized and most volatile components of OOA; differences in the diurnal emission trends and timescales for photochemical processing of SOA precursors compared to ozone precursors also likely contribute to the observed decrease. The extent of OOA oxidation increased with photochemical aging. Calculations of the ratio of the SOA formation rate to the Ox production rate using ambient VOC measurements and traditional laboratory SOA yields are lower than the observed [OOA]/[Ox] ratios by factors of 5 to 15, consistent with several other models' underestimates of SOA. Calculations of this ratio using emission factors for organic compounds from gasoline and diesel exhaust do not reproduce the observed ratio. Although not succesful in reproducing the atmospheric observations presented, modeling P(SOA)/P(Ox) can serve as a useful test

  14. An efficient top-down approach for the fabrication of large-aspect-ratio g-C3N4 nanosheets with enhanced photocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Tong, Jincheng; Zhang, Li; Li, Fei; Li, Mingming; Cao, Shaokui

    2015-09-28

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanosheets with large aspect ratios were fabricated from bulk g-C3N4 through an efficient top-down approach of moderate disintegration-exfoliation using diluted H2SO4 as an "efficient knife". By prior disintegration in a diluted H2SO4 solution, the exfoliation of bulk g-C3N4 was effectively accelerated. The as-prepared g-C3N4 nanosheets possess a two-dimensional (2D) thin-layer structure with seven-atom thickness, a large lateral size of about 1 μm, and a high specific surface area of 80 m(2) g(-1). Compared with the bulk precursor, the g-C3N4 nanosheets showed much higher efficiency of photogenerated charge transfer and separation, and consequently exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity toward hydrogen evolution and pollutant decomposition under both full-sunlight and visible-light irradiation.

  15. Changes in activated partial thromboplastin time and international normalised ratio after on-pump and off-pump surgical revascularization of the heart.

    PubMed

    Selimović Čeke, Lejla; Imamović, Semir; Ljuca, Farid; Jerkić, Zoran; Imamović, Goran; Hadžimešić, Munevera; Pojskić, Aida; Kovčić, Jasmina

    2014-05-01

    Surgical revascularization of the heart (CABG - coronary artery bypass grafting) is one way of treating coronary heart disease. Bleeding is one of the serious and frequent complications of heart surgery and can result in increased mortality and morbidity. Hemostasis disorder may be secondary consequences of surgical bleeding, preoperative anticoagulant therapy, and the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Tests used for routine evaluation of the coagulation system are activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio (INR). The study encountered 60 patients who were hospitalized at the Clinic for Cardiovascular Diseases, University Clinical Center Tuzla. Patients underwent elective coronary artery bypass heart surgery either with cardiopulmonary bypass (on-pump CABG) or without it (off-pump CABG). The aim of this study was to compare the changes in coagulation tests (APTT, INR) in patients who were operated on-pump and patients operated off-pump. Our study showed that the values of APTT and INR tend to increase immediately after surgery. Twenty-four hours after surgery these values are declining and they are approaching the preoperative values in all observed patients (p <0.05). Comparing APTT between the groups we found that postoperative APTT levels are significantly higher in the group of patients who underwent surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (p <0.05). Changes in coagulation tests after surgical revascularization of the heart are more pronounced in patients who were operated with on-pump technique compared to patients operated off-pump technique.

  16. sup 234 U/ sup 238 U and sup 230 Th/ sup 234 U activity ratios in the collidal phases of aquifers in lateritic weathered zones

    SciTech Connect

    Short, S.A.; Lowson, R.T. ); Ellis, J. )

    1988-11-01

    A procedure was developed for comparing solute and colloid phases of groundwaters in contact with uranium ore bodies at Nabarlek and Koongarra in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, Australia. Single-pass ultrafiltration of large volumes with cut-offs of 18 nm and 1 {mu}m was used. Colloids were composed of Fe and Si species with sorbed U and U daughters. Uranium isotopes were mostly present as soluble species. Thorium was significantly associated with the colloids. The {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U activity ratios (ARs) were similar in solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies but further down-gradient colloids were generally more depleted of {sup 234}U than the solute. The {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ARs rose from very low values for both solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies through several orders of magnitude to much higher values further down-gradient. Colloid {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U ARs were always significantly greater than solute ARs. Results were consistent with a systematic leaching of U from colloids going down-gradient and very little mobilization of ore body. {sup 230}Th relative to U. Ubiquitous complexes {sup 232}Th appeared to suppress the solubility of {sup 230}Th.

  17. 234U /238U and 230Th /234U activity ratios in the colloidal phases of aquifers in lateritic weathered zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Stephen A.; Lowson, Richard T.; Ellis, John

    1988-11-01

    A procedure was developed for comparing solute and colloid phases of groundwaters in contact with uranium ore bodies at Nabarlek and Koongarra in the Alligator Rivers region, Northern Territory, Australia. Single-pass ultrafiltration of large volumes with cut-offs of 18 nm and 1 μm was used. Colloids were composed of Fe and Si species with sorbed U and U daughters. Uranium isotopes were mostly present as soluble species. Thorium was significantly associated with the colloids. The 234U /238U activity ratios (ARs) were similar in solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies but further down-gradient colloids were generally more depleted of 234U than the solute. The 230Th /234U ARs rose from very low values for both solute and colloid phases close to the ore bodies through several orders of magnitude to much higher values further down-gradient. Colloid 230Th /234U ARs were always significantly greater than solute ARs. Results were consistent with a systematic leaching of U from colloids going down-gradient and very little mobilization of ore-body 230Th relative to U. Ubiquitous complexed 232Th appeared to suppress the solubility of 230Th.

  18. THE AKARI 2.5-5.0 μm SPECTRAL ATLAS OF TYPE-1 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: BLACK HOLE MASS ESTIMATOR, LINE RATIO, AND HOT DUST TEMPERATURE

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dohyeong; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Ji Hoon; Jun, Hyunsung David; Lee, Seong-Kook; Woo, Jong-Hak; Lee, Hyung Mok; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Nakagawa, Takao; Matsuhara, Hideo; Wada, Takehiko; Takagi, Toshinobu; Oyabu, Shinki; Ohyama, Youichi E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2015-01-01

    We present 2.5-5.0 μm spectra of 83 nearby (0.002 < z < 0.48) and bright (K < 14 mag) type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) taken with the Infrared Camera on board AKARI. The 2.5-5.0 μm spectral region contains emission lines such as Brβ (2.63 μm), Brα (4.05 μm), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (3.3 μm), which can be used for studying the black hole (BH) masses and star formation activity in the host galaxies of AGNs. The spectral region also suffers less dust extinction than in the ultra violet (UV) or optical wavelengths, which may provide an unobscured view of dusty AGNs. Our sample is selected from bright quasar surveys of Palomar-Green and SNUQSO, and AGNs with reverberation-mapped BH masses from Peterson et al. Using 11 AGNs with reliable detection of Brackett lines, we derive the Brackett-line-based BH mass estimators. We also find that the observed Brackett line ratios can be explained with the commonly adopted physical conditions of the broad line region. Moreover, we fit the hot and warm dust components of the dust torus by adding photometric data of SDSS, 2MASS, WISE, and ISO to the AKARI spectra, finding hot and warm dust temperatures of ∼1100 K and ∼220 K, respectively, rather than the commonly cited hot dust temperature of 1500 K.

  19. Pure odd-order oscillators with constant excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cveticanin, L.

    2011-02-01

    In this paper the excited vibrations of a truly nonlinear oscillator are analyzed. The excitation is assumed to be constant and the nonlinearity is pure (without a linear term). The mathematical model is a second-order nonhomogeneous differential equation with strong nonlinear term. Using the first integral, the exact value of period of vibration i.e., angular frequency of oscillator described with a pure nonlinear differential equation with constant excitation is analytically obtained. The closed form solution has the form of gamma function. The period of vibration depends on the value of excitation and of the order and coefficient of the nonlinear term. For the case of pure odd-order-oscillators the approximate solution of differential equation is obtained in the form of trigonometric function. The solution is based on the exact value of period of vibration. For the case when additional small perturbation of the pure oscillator acts, the so called 'Cveticanin's averaging method' for a truly nonlinear oscillator is applied. Two special cases are considered: one, when the additional term is a function of distance, and the second, when damping acts. To prove the correctness of the method the obtained results are compared with those for the linear oscillator. Example of pure cubic oscillator with constant excitation and linear damping is widely discussed. Comparing the analytically obtained results with exact numerical ones it is concluded that they are in a good agreement. The investigations reported in the paper are of special interest for those who are dealing with the problem of vibration reduction in the oscillator with constant excitation and pure nonlinear restoring force the examples of which can be found in various scientific and engineering systems. For example, such mechanical systems are seats in vehicles, supports for machines, cutting machines with periodical motion of the cutting tools, presses, etc. The examples can be find in electronics

  20. Nuclear Shell Structure and Beta Decay I. Odd A Nuclei II. Even A Nuclei

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Mayer, M.G.; Moszkowski, S.A.; Nordheim, L.W.

    1951-05-01

    In Part I a systematics is given of all transitions for odd A nuclei for which sufficiently reliable data are available. The allowed or forbidden characters of the transitions are correlated with the positions of the initial and final odd nucleon groups in the nuclear shell scheme. The nuclear shells show definite characteristics with respect to parity of the ground states. The latter is the same as the one obtained from known spins and magnetic moments in a one-particle interpretation. In Part II a systematics of the beta transitions of even-A nuclei is given. An interpretation of the character of the transitions in terms of nuclear shell structure is achieved on the hypothesis that the odd nucleon groups have the same structure as in odd-A nuclei, together with a simple coupling rule between the neutron and proton groups in odd-odd nuclei.

  1. Experimental identification of intruder bandheads in odd-mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    Andreyev, A. N.; Huyse, M.; Van de Vel, K.; Van Duppen, P.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Dorvaux, O.; Greenlees, P.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Helariutta, K.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Trzaska, W. H.; Eskola, K.; Wyss, R.

    1999-11-16

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  2. Experimental Identification of Intruder Bandheads in Odd-Mass {sup 187-193}Pb

    SciTech Connect

    A.N. Andreyev; J.F.C. Cocks; O. Dorvaux; K. Eskola; P. Greenlees; P. Jones; R. Julin; S. Juutinen; K. Helariutta; M. Huyse; H. Kettunen; P. Kuusiniemi; M. Leino; M. Muikku; W.H. Trzaska; K. Van de Vel; P. Van Duppen; R. Wyss

    1999-12-31

    Fine-structure {alpha}-decays of the odd mass {sup 191-197}Po identifying proton based intruder states in the daughter lead nuclei have been observed, leading to a systematics of intruder states in odd mass lead isotopes from {sup 197}Pb down to {sup 187}Pb. The interpretation of these states involves the coupling of the i{sub 13/2} or p{sub 3/2} odd neutron to the oblate deformed even lead core.

  3. The odds of delivering one, two or three extremely low birth weight (< 1000 g) triplet infants: a study of 3288 sets.

    PubMed

    Blickstein, Isaac; Jacques, Debbie L; Keith, Louis G

    2002-01-01

    The odds of an individual triplet pregnancy to end with neonates weighing < 1000 g (extremely low birth weight [ELBW]) are unknown. We analyzed a nationwide perinatal database collected by Matria Healthcare, Inc. (Marietta, GA) to select from 3288 triplets those weighing 500-1000 g, delivered during the period 1988-2000 in the United States. We counted the number of sets with one, two, and three ELBW neonates and compared the incidence of ELBW infants between the subsets of nulliparas and multiparas. The odds of delivering at least one ELBW infant was significantly higher among nulliparas (1:8) than among multiparas (1:14), Odds Ratio (OR) 1.9, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.9, 2.5. The odds of having at least two ELBW sibs in nulliparas (1:16) is twice higher than in multiparas (1:31), OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3, 2.9. Nulliparas and multiparas had similar odds of delivering three ELBW infants (1:29 versus 1:40, OR 1.3, 95% CI 0.9, 2.1). Nulliparas are at significantly increased risk of delivering one or two ELBW triplets. This observation is no less than alarming and highlighted by the exceptionally high risk of major neurological deficits reported among ELBW infants.

  4. Even the Odd Numbers Help: Failure Modes of SAM-Based Tunnel Junctions Probed via Odd-Even Effects Revealed in Synchrotrons and Supercomputers.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Damien; Nijhuis, Christian A

    2016-10-18

    This Account describes a body of research in atomic level design, synthesis, physicochemical characterization, and macroscopic electrical testing of molecular devices made from ferrocene-functionalized alkanethiol molecules, which are molecular diodes, with the aim to identify, and resolve, the failure modes that cause leakage currents. The mismatch in size between the ferrocene headgroup and alkane rod makes waxlike highly dynamic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on coinage metals that show remarkable atomic-scale sensitivity in their electrical properties. Our results make clear that molecular tunnel junction devices provide an excellent testbed to probe the electronic and supramolecular structures of SAMs on inorganic substrates. Contacting these SAMs to a eutectic "EGaIn" alloy top-electrode, we designed highly stable long-lived molecular switches of the form electrode-SAM-electrode with robust rectification ratios of up to 3 orders of magnitude. The graphic that accompanies this conspectus displays a computed SAM packing structure, illustrating the lollipop shape of the molecules that gives dynamic SAM supramolecular structures and also the molecule-electrode van der Waals (vdW) contacts that must be controlled to form good SAM-based devices. In this Account, we first trace the evolution of SAM-based electronic devices and rationalize their operation using energy level diagrams. We describe the measurement of device properties using near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy complemented by molecular dynamics and electronic structure calculations together with large numbers of electrical measurements. We discuss how data obtained from these combined experimental/simulation codesign studies demonstrate control over the supramolecular and electronic structure of the devices, tuning odd-even effects to optimize inherent packing tendencies of the molecules in order to minimize leakage currents

  5. Universal one-dimensional atomic gases near odd-wave resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiaoling

    2016-10-01

    We show the renormalization of the contact interaction for odd-wave scattering in one-dimension (1D). Based on the renormalized interaction, we exactly solve the two-body problem in a harmonic trap and further explore the universal properties of spin-polarized fermions near odd-wave resonance by using the operator-product-expansion method. It is found that the high-momentum distribution behaves as C /k2 , with C being the odd-wave contact. Various universal relations are derived. Our work suggests a universal system emergent in 1D with large odd-wave scattering length.

  6. Skyrmions and Single Spin Flips in the Odd Integer Quantized Hall Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeller, Andreas

    1996-03-01

    For an (ideal) two-dimensional electron system in an odd integer quantized Hall state, the energy Δ needed to excite a quasiparticle pair is the sum of the Zeeman energy Sgμ_BB_tot (S is the number of flipped spins) and the many body contribution Δ_ex, where Δ_ex depends only on the perpendicular magnetic field component B_⊥. If the sample is tilted with respect to the field B_tot and B_⊥ is kept constant, the rate of change of Δ with B_tot gives S. We measure the energy gap Δ by thermally-activated magneto-transport experiments in tilted magnetic fields. We find: 1. At ν=1, where the ground state is fully spin polarized with only one spin level occupied, the lowest lying charged excitations have S >> 1. This reflects the excitation of quasiparticle pairs, with spins of up to 7/2 per particle, a value that is in good agreement with recent results of Knight shift experiments [1]. 2. In contrast we observe only single spin flips (S=1) at the higher odd integer filling factors ν=3 and 5. These results lend support to recent suggestions[2] that Skyrmions, which are topological distortions of the spin field that involve large spin values, form the lowest-lying charged excitations in the fully-polarized ν =1 quantum Hall fluid, but are energetically unfavorable with respect to single spin flips at the higher odd-integer filling factors. This work was done in collaboration with J.P. Eisenstein, L.N. Pfeiffer and K.W. West. 1: S.E. Barrett, G. Dabbagh, L.N. Pfeiffer, K.W. West, and Z. Tycko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 5112 (1995). 2: S.L. Sondhi et al. Phys. Rev. B47, 16419 (1993). J. K. Jain and X. G. Wu, Phys. Rev. B49, 5085 (1994). X.-G. Wu and S.L. Sondhi, preprint (1995).

  7. Mid-Infrared Fine-Structure Line Ratios in Active Galactic Nuclei Observed with the Spitzer IRS: Evidence for Extinction by the Torus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-20

    ble types, bolometric luminosities [log (LBOL) 40Y46,median¼ 43], and Eddington ratios [log (L/LEdd) 6:5Y0.3; median ¼ 2:5]. The entire sample...of central black hole in solar masses; col. (6): log of the hard X-ray luminosity (2Y10 keV) in ergs s1. Col. (8): log of the Eddington ratio. (The...many orders of magnitude in X-ray luminosity and Eddington ratio for these AGNs, or (2) that the temperature of the gas is high (from 105 to 106 K) and

  8. Assignment of single particle configurations in odd-A nuclei near A~100 with angular correlation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramayya, A. V.; Hamilton, J. H.; Hwang, J. K.; Liu, S. H.; Daniel, A. V.; Goodin, C.; Luo, Y. X.; Rasmussen, J. O.; Stone, N. J.; Zhu, S. J.; Li, K.

    2011-01-01

    The multipole mixing ratios of ΔI = 1 transitions between levels in rotational bands built on single-particle states in odd neutron nuclei are dependent on the configurations of the states. In particular, the mixing ratio can be used to distinguish between several possible single-particle configurations if interpreted with the particle plus axial-rotor model (PRM). This work features the first determination of the ground-state configurations of 109,111Ru. The single-particle structures of the ground states of 101Zr and 103,105,107Mo as well as excited states in 103,107Mo are also investigated, with a new result found in 107Mo.

  9. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei.

    PubMed

    Nafee, Sherif S; Shaheen, Salem A; Al-Ramady, Amir M

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (81(217)Tl, Bismuth (83(217)Bi), Astatine (85(217)At), Francium (87(217)Fr), Actinium (89(217)Ac) and Protactinium (91(217)Pa) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory's website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for (221)Fr-, (221)Ac- and (221)Pa-α-decays.

  10. Nuclear Data Evaluation for Mass Chain A=217:Odd-Proton Nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Nafee, Sherif S.; Shaheen, Salem A.; Al-Ramady, Amir M.

    2016-01-01

    Thallium (Tl81217), Bismuth (Bi83217), Astatine (At85217), Francium (Fr87217), Actinium (Ac89217) and Protactinium (Pa91217) are of odd-proton numbers among the mass chain A = 217. In the present work, the half-lives and gamma transitions for the six nuclei have been studied and adopted based on the recently published interactions or unevaluated nuclear data sets XUNDL. The Q (α) has been updated based on the recent published work of the Atomic Mass Evaluation AME2012 as well. Moreover, the total conversion electrons as well as the K-Shell to L-Shell, L-Shell to M-Shell and L-Shell to N-Shell Conversion Electron Ratios have been calculated using BrIcc code v2.3. An updated skeleton decay scheme for each of the above nuclei has been presented here. The decay hindrance factors (HF) calculated using the ALPHAD program, which is available from Brookhaven National Laboratory’s website, have been calculated for the α- decay data sets for 221Fr-, 221Ac- and 221Pa- α-decays. PMID:26761207

  11. Into the Cuckoo's Nest: "Silver Linings Playbook" and Movies about Odd People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Odd people have always been identified and often treated differently in human societies. In modern times, they have been described as being afflicted with a psychological condition to be treated by specialists and assigned to a "crazy" category by general society. Movies about such odd people have a long history. A recent movie,…

  12. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  13. ODD and ADHD Symptoms in Ukrainian Children: External Validators and Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Gadow, Kenneth D.; Carlson, Gabrielle A.; Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential external validators for oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and attention-deficient/hyperactive disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a Ukrainian community-based sample of 600 children age 10 to 12 years old and evaluate the nature of co-occurring ODD and ADHD symptoms using mother- and teacher-defined groups. Method: In…

  14. Fitting Proportional Odds Models to Educational Data in Ordinal Logistic Regression Using Stata, SAS and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xing

    2008-01-01

    The proportional odds (PO) model, which is also called cumulative odds model (Agresti, 1996, 2002 ; Armstrong & Sloan, 1989; Long, 1997, Long & Freese, 2006; McCullagh, 1980; McCullagh & Nelder, 1989; Powers & Xie, 2000; O'Connell, 2006), is one of the most commonly used models for the analysis of ordinal categorical data and comes from the class…

  15. The Correlation of Secondary Organic Aerosol with Odd Oxygen in Mexico City

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from a mountain location intercepting the Mexico City emission plume demonstrate a strong correlation between secondary organic aerosol and odd-oxygen (O3 + NO2). The measured oxygenated-organic aerosol correlates with odd-oxygen measurements with an a...

  16. Association of Anxiety and ODD/CD in Children with and without ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Aguirre, Vincent P.; Lee, Steve S.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine levels of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) in four groups of children: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) only, anxiety only, ADHD and anxiety, and controls (i.e., non-ADHD youth). Although children with ADHD exhibit more ODD and CD than non-ADHD youth, it is unknown if…

  17. Why Some Schools with Latino Children Beat the Odds...and Others Don't

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Mary Jo; Campbell, Heather E.; Gau, Rebecca; Jacobs, Ellen; Rex, Tom; Hess, Robert K.

    2006-01-01

    Throughout Arizona and the Southwest, the odds are against high achievement in schools with a mostly Latino, mostly poor student enrollment. Some schools, however, "beat the odds" and achieve consistently high results or show steady gains. Why do these schools succeed where others fail? Using the methodology of business guru Jim Collins…

  18. The Interplay among Preschool Child and Family Factors and the Development of ODD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined (a) the interactions between early behavior, early parenting, and early family adversity in predicting later oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, and (b) the reciprocal relations between parent functioning and ODD symptoms across the preschool years. Participants were 258 three-year-old children (138 boys, 120…

  19. Clinically Referred ODD Children with or without CD and Healthy Controls: Comparisons across Contextual Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study compares 6-11-year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder, either with (ODD + CD, n = 40) or without Conduct Disorder (ODD only; n = 136), to a matched sample of healthy control children (HC; n = 69). Multiple informants completed intake diagnostic interviews and self-reports to evaluate…

  20. Does the Q − H index show a stronger relationship than the H:Q ratio in regard to knee pain during daily activities in patients with knee osteoarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Remi; Matsui, Yasumoto; Harada, Atsushi; Takemura, Marie; Kondo, Izumi; Nemoto, Tetsuya; Sakai, Tadahiro; Hiraiwa, Hideki; Ota, Susumu

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between knee muscle strength and knee pain in activities of daily living, based on consideration of the difference between extension and flexion strength (Q − H) and the hamstring:quadriceps (H:Q) ratio in patients with knee osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 78 females with knee osteoarthritis, and a total of 133 knees that had not been treated surgically were the targets of this research. The legs were divided according to dominance. Isometric knee extension and flexion muscle strength and knee pain during activities of daily living were measured. The H:Q ratio (flexion/extension muscle strength) and the difference between extension and flexion strength, (extension muscle strength/weight) minus (flexion muscle strength/weight), that is, Q − H, were calculated. The correlation between these indices and the knee pain score during activities of daily living was investigated. [Results] Greater knee pain during activities of daily living was related to lower knee extension muscle strength and Q − H in both the dominant and nondominant legs. Knee flexion muscle strength and the H:Q ratio were not significantly correlated with knee pain during any activities of daily living. [Conclusion] Knee extension muscle strength and Q − H were found to be significantly correlated with knee pain during activities of daily living, whereas the H:Q ratio was not. PMID:28174444

  1. Odd-even effect in heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Su Jun; Zhang Fengshou; Bian Baoan

    2011-01-15

    Heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies are studied by the isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model in the company of the GEMINI model. The isospin-dependent quantum molecular dynamics model is applied to describe the violent stage of the collisions, while the GEMINI model is applied to simulate the decays of the prefragments. The present study mainly focuses on the odd-even effect in the yields of the final fragments. We find that the odd-even effect appears in the deexcitation process of the excited prefragments, and is affected by the excitation energies and the isotope distributions of the prefragments. Both the projectile-isospin-dependent odd-even effect in the region of -4{<=}T{sub Z}{<=}1 and the role of the symmetry energy on the odd-even effect are studied. We find that the odd-even effect depends sensitively on the symmetry energy.

  2. Odd-skipped maintains prohemocyte potency and blocks blood cell development in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongjuan; Wu, Xiaorong; Fossett, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    Studies using Drosophila have contributed significantly to our understanding of regulatory mechanisms that control stem cell fate choice. The Drosophila blood cell progenitor or prohemocyte shares important characteristics with mammalian hematopoietic stem cells, including quiescence, niche dependence, and the capacity to form all three fly blood cell types. This report extends our understanding of prohemocyte fate choice by showing that the zinc-finger protein Odd-skipped promotes multipotency and blocks differentiation. Odd-skipped was expressed in prohemocytes and downregulated in terminally differentiated plasmatocytes. Furthermore, Odd-skipped maintained the prohemocyte population and blocked differentiation of plasmatocytes and lamellocytes but not crystal cells. A previous study showed that Odd-skipped expression is downregulated by Decapentaplegic signaling. This report provides a functional basis for this regulator/target pair by suggesting that Decapentaplegic signaling limits Odd-skipped expression to promote prohemocyte differentiation. Overall, these studies are the basis for a gene regulatory model of prohemocyte cell fate choice.

  3. Odd-Mode Surface Plasmon Polaritons Supported by Complementary Plasmonic Metamaterial

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xi; Zhou, Liang; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    Surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), either on metal-dielectric interfaces in optical frequencies or on structured metal surfaces in the lower frequencies, are dominantly even modes. Here we discover dominant odd-mode SPPs on a complementary plasmonic metamaterial, which is constructed by complementary symmetric grooves. We show that the fundamental SPP mode on such a plasmonic metamaterial is a tightly confined odd mode, whose dispersion curve can be tuned by the shape of groove. According to the electric field distributions of odd-mode SPPs, we propose a high-efficiency transducer using asymmetric coplanar waveguide and slot line to excite the odd-mode SPPs. Numerical simulations and experimental results validate the high-efficiency excitation and excellent propagation performance of odd-mode SPPs on the complementary plasmonic waveguides in the microwave frequencies. PMID:25783166

  4. Obesity increases the odds of acquiring and incarcerating noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

    PubMed

    Lau, Briana; Kim, Hanjoo; Haigh, Philip I; Tejirian, Talar

    2012-10-01

    The current data available describing the relationship of obesity and abdominal wall hernias is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate the current prevalence of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias and their correlation with body mass index (BMI) and other demographic risk factors. Patients with umbilical, incisional, ventral, epigastric, or Spigelian hernias with or without incarceration were identified using the regional database for 14 hospitals over a 3-year period. Patients were stratified based on their BMI. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to distinguish other significant risk factors associated with the hernias. Of 2,807,414 patients, 26,268 (0.9%) had one of the specified diagnoses. Average age of the patients was 52 years and 61 per cent were male. The majority of patients had nonincarcerated umbilical hernias (74%). Average BMI was 32 kg/m2. Compared with patients with a normal BMI, the odds of having a hernia increased with BMI: BMI of 25 to 29.9 kg/m2 odds ratio (OR) 1.63, BMI of 30 to 39.9 kg/m2 OR 2.62, BMI 40 to 49.9 kg/m2 OR 3.91, BMI 50 to 59.9 kg/m2 OR 4.85, and BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 OR 5.17 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years was associated with a higher risk for having a hernia (OR, 2.12; 95% [CI], 2.07 to 2.17), whereas female gender was associated with a lower risk (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.52 to 0.55). Those with incarcerated hernias had a higher average BMI (32 kg/m2 vs 35 kg/m2; P<0.0001). Overall, BMI greater than 40 kg/m2 showed an increased chance of incarceration, and a BMI greater than 60 kg/m2 had the highest chance of incarceration, OR 12.7 (P<0.0001). Age older than 50 years and female gender were also associated with a higher risk of incarceration (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.59 and OR, 1.80; CI, 1.45 to 2.24). Increasing BMI and increasing age are associated with a higher prevalence and an increased risk of incarceration of noninguinal abdominal wall hernias.

  5. Analysis of the triaxial, strongly deformed bands in odd-odd nucleus 164Lu with the tops-on-top model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugawara-Tanabe, Kazuko; Tanabe, Kosai; Yoshinaga, Naotaka

    2014-06-01

    The top-on-top model with angular-momentum-dependent moments of inertia is extended to the tops-on-top model for an odd-odd nucleus, where one proton and one neutron in each single-j orbital are coupled to the triaxial rotor. For a pure rotor case, an explicit algebraic formula for the triaxial, strongly deformed (TSD) band levels is given, and its stability problem is discussed. Both positive and negative parity TSD bands are well reproduced by taking account of attenuation factors in the Coriolis interaction and the proton-neutron interaction in the recoil term. Difference in quantum numbers between the yrast and yrare TSD bands is confirmed by direct estimation of spin alignments. The electromagnetic transition rates of B(M1) are much reduced because of the different sign of g-factors in comparison with the odd-A case, while B(E2) are in the same order.

  6. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., “There are other children nearby home to go out and play with”) with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR) for one standard deviation (SD) change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.18) and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88–0.98). Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence. PMID:28054953

  7. Is a Perceived Activity-Friendly Environment Associated with More Physical Activity and Fewer Screen-Based Activities in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Bucksch, Jens; Nalecz, Hanna; Sigmundova, Dagmar; van Dijk, Jitse P; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2017-01-03

    Background: The aim of this study is to explore if perception of an activity-friendly environment is associated with more physical activity and fewer screen-based activities among adolescents. Methods: We collected self-reported data in 2014 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study from four European countries (n = 13,800, mean age = 14.4, 49.4% boys). We explored the association of perceived environment (e.g., "There are other children nearby home to go out and play with") with physical activity and screen-based activities using a binary logistic regression model adjusted for age, gender, family affluence and country. Results: An environment perceived as activity-friendly was associated with higher odds that adolescents meet recommendations for physical activity (odds ratio (OR) for one standard deviation (SD) change = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.18) and lower odds for excessive screen-based activities (OR for 1 SD better = 0.93, 95% CI 0.88-0.98). Conclusions: Investment into an activity-friendly environment may support the promotion of active life styles in adolescence.

  8. Measurement, Ratios, and Graphing: Who Added the "Micro" to Gravity? An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. NASA CONNECT[TM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The NASA CONNECT series features 30-minute, instructional videos for students in grades 5-8 and teacher's guides that use aeronautics and space technology as the organizing theme. In this guide and videotape, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) researchers and scientists use measurement, ratios, and graphing to demonstrate the…

  9. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  10. Occupational Physical Activity, Overweight, and Mortality: A Follow-Up Study of 47,405 Norwegian Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Selmer, Randi; Sorensen, Marit; Skurtveit, Svetlana

    2007-01-01

    This population-based 24-year follow-up study evaluated the association of occupational physical activity (OPA) with overweight and mortality in 47,405 men and women, healthy at baseline, and reporting OPA as sedentary (reference), light, moderately heavy, or heavy. The adjusted odds ratio for overweight was slightly less than 1 for all categories…

  11. Horizontal wells up odds for profit in Giddings Austin chalk

    SciTech Connect

    Maloy, W.T. )

    1992-02-17

    This paper reports on horizontal drilling in the Giddings field Austin chalk which has significantly improved average well recoveries and more than offset increased drilling costs. Although not the panacea originally promoted, horizontal drilling, in Giddings field, offers economic profits to the average investor. Economic analysis indicates that the typical investor is making money by earning returns in excess of market values. Field-wide development will, therefore, remain active unless oil prices or average well recoveries fall below $12/bbl or 112,000 bbl of oil equivalent (BOE), respectively. The application of technological innovation in the Giddings field may culminate in the drilling of over 2,000 horizontal Austin chalk wells, and has conceivably increased recoverable reserves by 400 million BOE.

  12. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  13. Nonexistence of small, odd breathers for a class of nonlinear wave equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Michał; Martel, Yvan; Muñoz, Claudio

    2016-11-01

    In this note, we show that for a large class of nonlinear wave equations with odd nonlinearities, any globally defined odd solution which is small in the energy space decays to 0 in the local energy norm. In particular, this result shows nonexistence of small, odd breathers for some classical nonlinear Klein Gordon equations, such as the sine-Gordon equation and φ ^4 and φ ^6 models. It also partially answers a question of Soffer and Weinstein (Invent Math 136(1): 9-74, p 19 1999) about nonexistence of breathers for the cubic NLKG in dimension one.

  14. Even and odd coherent states of supersymmetric harmonic oscillators and their nonclassical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afshar, Davood; Motamedinasab, Amin; Anbaraki, Azam; Jafarpour, Mojtaba

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we have constructed even and odd superpositions of supercoherent states, similar to the standard even and odd coherent states of the harmonic oscillator. Then, their nonclassical properties, that is, squeezing and entanglement have been studied. We have observed that even supercoherent states show squeezing behavior for some values of parameters involved, while odd supercoherent states do not show squeezing at all. Also sub-Poissonian statistics have been observed for some ranges of the parameters in both states. We have also shown that these states may be considered as logical qubits which reduce to the Bell states at a limit, with concurrence equal to 1.

  15. Positive parity states and some electromagnetic transition properties of even-odd europium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Yazar, Harun Resit

    2013-06-15

    The positive-parity low-spin states of even-odd Europium isotopes ({sup 151-155}Eu) were studied within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model. The calculated positive low-spin state energy spectra of the odd Eu isotope were found to agree quite well with the experimental data. The B(E2) values were also calculated and it was found that the calculated positive-parity low-spin state energy spectra of the odd-A Eu isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  16. General Conditions for Proximity-Induced Odd-Frequency Superconductivity in Two-Dimensional Electronic Systems.

    PubMed

    Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E

    2016-06-24

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present.

  17. Sustainable Odds: Towards Quantitative Decision Support when Relevant Probabilities are not Available

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. A.

    2012-04-01

    There is, at present, no attractive foundation for quantitative probabilistic decision support in the face of model inadequacy, or given ambiguity (deep uncertainty) regarding the relative likelihood of various outcomes, known or unknown. True model error arguably precludes the extraction of objective probabilities from an ensemble of model runs drawn from an available (inadequate) model class, while the acknowledgement of incomplete understanding precludes the justified use of (if not the very formation of) an individual's subjective probabilities. An alternative approach based on Sustainable Odds is proposed and investigated. Sustainable Odds differ from "fair odds" (and are easily distinguished any claim which implying well defined probabilities) as the probabilities implied by sustainable odds summed over all outcomes is expected to exceed one. Traditionally, a person's fair odds are found by identifying the probability level at which one would happily accept either side of a bet, thus the probabilities implied by fair odds always sum to one. Knowing that one has incomplete information and perhaps even erroneous beliefs, there is no compelling reason a rational agent should accept the constraint implied by "fair odds" in any bet. Rather, a rational agent might insist on longer odds both on the event and against the event in order to account for acknowledged ignorance. Let probabilistic odds imply any set of odds for which the implied probabilities sum to one; once model error is acknowledged can one rationally demand non-probabilistic odds? The danger of using fair odds (or probabilities) in decision making is illustrated by considering the risk of ruin a cooperative insurance scheme using probabilistic odds is exposed to. Cases where knowing merely that the insurer's model is imperfect, and nothing else, is sufficient to place bets which drive the insurer to an unexpectedly early ruin are presented. Methodologies which allow the insurer to avoid this early

  18. Construct Validity of ADHD/ODD Rating Scales: Recommendations for the Evaluation of Forthcoming DSM-V ADHD/ODD Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, G. Leonard; Walsh, James A.; Servera, Mateu; Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Cardo, Esther; Rodriguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Exploratory structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to a multiple indicator (26 individual symptom ratings) by multitrait (ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI and ODD factors) by multiple source (mothers, fathers and teachers) model to test the invariance, convergent and discriminant validity of the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory with 872…

  19. A model study of the effects of intermittent loss on odd nitrogen concentrations in the lower troposphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R. W.; Hameed, S.; Matloff, G.

    1983-01-01

    A time-dependent box model of the lower troposphere which includes a description of photochemical and physical processes has been developed. This model has been applied to the calculation of nitric acid and NO(x)(NO + NO2) concentrations over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Nitric acid concentrations and the HNO3/NO(x) ratio are found to be highly variable under the assumptions regarding the frequency, duration, and intensity of precipitation employed in this model. The chemistry of odd nitrogen compounds during the night is potentially important in establishing the level of nitric acid in the lower troposphere. These calculations also indicate that relatively large errors may occur when the continuity equation describing nitric acid variations is averaged over a diurnal cycle which includes precipitation. Interpretation of simultaneous measurements of HNO3 and NO(x) will require some knowledge of the history of the observed air mass and may require an improved understanding of nighttime odd nitrogen chemistry.

  20. Effect of lipid supplementation on milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acids in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Baumann, E; Chouinard, P Y; Lebeuf, Y; Rico, D E; Gervais, R

    2016-08-01

    Eight ruminally fistulated, multiparous Holstein cows were arranged in a double 4×4 Latin square with 14-d periods to investigate the effects of lipid supplementation on performance, rumen parameters, the milk odd- and branched-chain fatty acid (OBCFA) profile, and the relationships between milk OBCFA and rumen parameters. Lipid supplementation is known to inhibit microbial growth in the rumen, decrease de novo microbial fatty acid synthesis, and increase the uptake of circulating fatty acids by the mammary gland; treatments were selected to isolate these effects on the milk OBCFA profile. The 4 treatments were (1) a lipid-free emulsion medium infused in the rumen (CTL), (2) soybean oil as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids infused in the rumen (RSO), (3) saturated fatty acids (38% 16:0, 40% 18:0) infused in the rumen (RSF), and (4) saturated fatty acids infused in the abomasum (ASF). Fat supplements were provided continuously as emulsions at a rate of 450g/d. Preplanned contrasts compared CTL to RSO, RSO to RSF, and RSF to ASF. Infusing RSO slightly decreased ruminal pH, but did not affect volatile fatty acids profile and milk fat concentration as compared with CTL. The yields of energy-corrected milk, fat, and protein were greater with RSF compared with RSO. The concentration of odd-chain fatty acids was decreased by RSO, whereas even-chain iso fatty acids were not affected. Milk fat concentration of 17:0 + cis-9 17:1 was higher for RSF than for RSO, due to the saturated fatty acids supplement containing 2% 17:0 + cis-9 17:1. Limited differences were observed in the milk OBCFA profile between RSF and ASF. A multiple regression analysis yielded the following equation for predicting rumen pH based on milk fatty acids: pH=6.24 - (0.56×4:0) + (1.67 × iso 14:0) + (4.22 × iso 15:0) + (9.41×22:0). Rumen propionate concentration was negatively correlated with milk fat concentration of iso 14:0 and positively correlated with milk 15:0, whereas the acetate

  1. Interleukin-35: odd one out or part of the family?

    PubMed Central

    Collison, Lauren W.; Vignali, Dario A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Advances in cytokine biology have helped us understand the complex communication that takes place between antigen-presenting cells and cells of the adaptive immune system, such as T cells, which collectively mediate an appropriate immune response to a plethora of pathogens while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens. The interleukin-12 (IL-12) cytokine family remains one of the most important and includes IL-12, IL-23, IL-27, and the recently identified IL-35. All four are heterodimeric cytokines, composed of an α chain (p19, p28, or p35) and a β chain (p40 or Ebi3), and signal through unique pairings of five receptor chains (IL-12Rβ1, IL-12Rβ2, IL-23R, gp130, and WSX-1). Despite the interrelationship between the cytokines themselves and their receptors, their source, activity, and kinetics of expression are quite different. Studies using genetically deficient mice have greatly enhanced our understanding of the biology of these cytokines. However, interpretation of these data has been complicated by the recent realization that p40−/−, p35−/−, and Ebi3−/− mice all lack more than one cytokine (IL-12/IL-23, IL-12/IL-35, IL-27/IL-35, respectively). In this review, we compare and contrast the biology of this expanded IL-12 family and re-evaluate data derived from the analysis of these dual cytokine-deficient mice. We also discuss how the opposing characteristics of the IL-12 family siblings may help to promote a balanced immune response. PMID:19161429

  2. Against All Odds: Genocidal Trauma Is Associated with Longer Life-Expectancy of the Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Sagi-Schwartz, Abraham; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Linn, Shai; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.

    2013-01-01

    Does surviving genocidal experiences, like the Holocaust, lead to shorter life-expectancy? Such an effect is conceivable given that most survivors not only suffered psychosocial trauma but also malnutrition, restriction in hygienic and sanitary facilities, and lack of preventive medical and health services, with potentially damaging effects for later health and life-expectancy. We explored whether genocidal survivors have a higher risk to die younger than comparisons without such background. This is the first population-based retrospective cohort study of the Holocaust, based on the entire population of immigrants from Poland to Israel (N = 55,220), 4–20 years old when the World War II started (1939), immigrating to Israel either between 1945 and 1950 (Holocaust group) or before 1939 (comparison group; not exposed to the Holocaust). Hazard of death – a long-term outcome of surviving genocidal trauma – was derived from the population-wide official data base of the National Insurance Institute of Israel. Cox regression yielded a significant hazard ratio (HR = 0.935, CI (95%) = 0.910–0.960), suggesting that the risk of death was reduced by 6.5 months for Holocaust survivors compared to non-Holocaust comparisons. The lower hazard was most substantial in males who were aged 10–15 (HR = 0.900, CI (95%) = 0.842–0.962, i.e., reduced by 10 months) or 16–20 years at the onset of the Holocaust (HR = 0.820, CI (95%) = 0.782–0.859, i.e., reduced by18 months). We found that against all odds genocidal survivors were likely to live longer. We suggest two explanations: Differential mortality during the Holocaust and “Posttraumatic Growth” associated with protective factors in Holocaust survivors or in their environment after World War II. PMID:23894427

  3. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W. A.

    2015-01-01

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field. PMID:26503380

  4. Odd versus even: a scientific study of the ‘rules’ of plating

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Charles; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We report on the results of a series of large-scale computer-based preference tests (conducted at The Science Museum in London and online) that evaluated the widely-held belief that food should be plated in odd rather than even numbers of elements in order to maximize the visual appeal of a dish. Participants were presented with pairs of plates of food showing odd versus even number of seared scallops (3 vs. 4; 1–6 in Experiment 7), arranged in a line, as a polygon or randomly, on either a round or square white plate. No consistent evidence for a preference for odd or even numbers of food items was found, thus questioning the oft-made assertion that odd number of items on a plate looks better than an even number. The implications of these results are discussed. PMID:26839741

  5. Testing Lorentz invariance using an odd-parity asymmetric optical resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Baynes, Fred N.; Luiten, Andre N.; Tobar, Michael E.

    2011-10-15

    We present the first experimental test of Lorentz invariance using the frequency difference between counter-propagating modes in an asymmetric odd-parity optical resonator. This type of test is {approx}10{sup 4} more sensitive to odd-parity and isotropic (scalar) violations of Lorentz invariance than equivalent conventional even-parity experiments due to the asymmetry of the optical resonator. The disadvantages of odd-parity resonators have been negated by the use of counter-propagating modes, delivering a high level of immunity to environmental fluctuations. With a nonrotating experiment our result limits the isotropic Lorentz violating parameter {kappa}-tilde{sub tr} to 3.4{+-}6.2x10{sup -9}, the best reported constraint from direct measurements. Using this technique the bounds on odd-parity and scalar violations of Lorentz invariance can be improved by many orders of magnitude.

  6. Odd-even dependence of rectifying behavior in carbon chains modified diphenyl-dimethyl molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiu-Hua; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Hai-Ying; Liu, De-Sheng; Chen, Gang

    2014-06-01

    Using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism, we investigate the effects of asymmetric nonequi-length carbon chains on the electron transport properties of diphenyl-dimethyl molecule. The results show significant odd-even dependence: the rectification appears only in the hybrid nanostructure with odd carbon chain on one side and even carbon chain on the other side, while it is negligible in those with odd/even carbon chain on both sides. The mechanism for the odd-even dependence of rectification is analyzed by the bias-dependent transmission spectra, evolution of molecular orbital levels, their spatial distributions, and projected density of states with the applied bias.

  7. Strong odd-frequency correlations in fully gapped Zeeman-split superconductors.

    PubMed

    Linder, Jacob; Robinson, Jason W A

    2015-10-27

    It is now well established that at a superconductor/ferromagnet (S/F) interface an unconventional superconducting state arises in which the pairing is odd-frequency. The hallmark signature of this superconducting state is generally understood to be an enhancement of the electronic density of states (DoS) at subgap energies close to the S/F interface. However, here we show that an odd frequency state can be present even if the DoS is fully gapped. As an example, we show that this is the case in the pioneering S/FI (where FI is a insulating ferromagnet) tunneling experiments of Meservey and Tedrow, and we derive a generalized analytical criterium to describe the effect of odd-frequency pairing on the DoS. Finally, we propose a simple experiment in which odd-frequency pairing in a Zeeman-split superconductor can be unambiguously detected via the application of an external magnetic field.

  8. Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver Cancer in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164210.html Obesity in Youth Tied to Higher Odds for Liver ... risk, a new study warns. Efforts to reduce obesity, "should be implemented from an early age to ...

  9. Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI

    MedlinePlus

    ... Brain Injury Changing the Odds A North Carolina family's search to help those with TBI Past Issues / ... with traumatic brain injury (TBI)—and changed his family's life forever. "Back then there were no roadmaps ...

  10. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    PubMed

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-05-21

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  11. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Razak, Rafiza; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced. PMID:26006238

  12. Comparing T-odd and T-even spin sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Teryaev, O.V.

    2015-04-10

    Sum rules for T-even and T-odd structure functions and parton distributions are considered. The case of spin-dependent distributions related to energy-momentum tensor (EMT) is specifically addressed. The Burkardt sum rule for T-odd Sivers functions may be related to EMT provided the imaginary prescription for gluonic pole correlator is incorporated. The momentum sum rule for deuteron tensor spin structure function allows one to probe indirectly the gravity couplings to quarks and gluons.

  13. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  14. Efficient odd straight medium chain free fatty acid production by metabolically engineered Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; San, Ka-Yiu

    2014-11-01

    Free fatty acids (FFAs) can be used as precursors for the production of biofuels or chemicals. Different composition of FFAs will be useful for further modification of the biofuel/biochemical quality. Microbial biosynthesis of even chain FFAs can be achieved by introducing an acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterase gene into E. coli. In this study, odd straight medium chain FFAs production was investigated by using metabolic engineered E. coli carrying acyl-ACP thioesterase (TE, Ricinus communis), propionyl-CoA synthase (Salmonella enterica), and β-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (four different sources) with supplement of extracellular propionate. By using these metabolically engineered E. coli, significant quantity of C13 and C15 odd straight-chain FFAs could be produced from glucose and propionate. The highest concentration of total odd straight chain FFAs attained was 1205 mg/L by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE2), and 85% of the odd straight chain FFAs was C15. However, the highest percentage of odd straight chain FFAs was achieved by the strain HWK201 (pXZ18, pBHE3) of 83.2% at 48 h. This strategy was also applied successfully in strains carrying different TE, such as the medium length acyl-ACP thioesterase gene from Umbellularia californica. C11 and C13 became the major odd straight-chain FFAs.

  15. Swimming at low Reynolds number in fluids with odd, or Hall, viscosity.

    PubMed

    Lapa, Matthew F; Hughes, Taylor L

    2014-04-01

    We apply the geometric theory of swimming at low Reynolds number to the study of nearly circular swimmers in two-dimensional fluids with nonvanishing "odd," or Hall, viscosity. The odd viscosity gives an off-diagonal contribution to the fluid stress tensor, which results in a number of striking effects. In particular, we find that a swimmer whose area is changing will experience a torque proportional to the rate of change of the area, with the constant of proportionality given by the coefficient ηo of odd viscosity. After working out the general theory of swimming in fluids with odd viscosity for a class of simple swimmers, we give a number of example swimming strokes which clearly demonstrate the differences between swimming in a fluid with conventional viscosity and a fluid which also has an odd viscosity. We also include a discussion of the extension of the famous Scallop theorem of low Reynolds number swimming to the case where the fluid has a nonzero odd viscosity. A number of more technical results, including a proof of the torque-area relation for swimmers of more general shape, are explained in a set of Appendixes.

  16. Mother-teacher agreement on preschoolers' symptoms of ODD and CD: does context matter?

    PubMed

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-08-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female 3- to 5-year old preschool children, their mothers, and teachers. A structured interview, the Kiddie-Disruptive Behavior Disorder Schedule was used for maternal report and teachers completed the Early Childhood Inventory. Results indicated that mothers reported more symptoms and diagnoses of ODD and CD than teachers, and mother-teacher agreement on both ODD and CD symptoms and diagnoses was low. Level of mother-teacher agreement increased when reporting on behavior in the same context; however, the rates remain modest. Referral status increased the likelihood of mother and teacher agreement on several ODD and CD symptoms, as well as ODD and CD diagnosis. These data suggest that context plays a role in mother-teacher agreement in the assessment of young children's ODD and CD symptoms.

  17. In Vivo Changes of the Oxidation-Reduction State of NADP and of the ATP/ADP Cellular Ratio Linked to the Photosynthetic Activity in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Forti, Giorgio; Furia, Alberto; Bombelli, Paolo; Finazzi, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    The ATP/ADP and NADP/NADPH ratios have been measured in whole-cell extract of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, to understand their availability for CO2 assimilation by the Calvin cycle in vivo. Measurements were performed during the dark-light transition of both aerobic and anaerobic cells, under illumination with saturating or low light intensity. Two different patterns of behavior were observed: (a) In anaerobic cells, during the lag preceding O2 evolution, ATP was synthesized without changes in the NADP/NADPH ratio, consistently with the operation of cyclic electron flow. (b) In aerobiosis, illumination increased the ATP/ADP ratio independently of the intensity used, whereas the amount of NADPH was decreased at limiting photon flux and regained the dark-adapted level under saturating photon flux. Moreover, under these conditions, the addition of low concentrations of uncouplers stimulated photosynthetic O2 evolution. These observations suggest that the photosynthetic generation of reducing equivalents rather than the rate of ATP formation limits the photosynthetic assimilation of CO2 in C. reinhardtii cells. This situation is peculiar to C. reinhardtii, because neither NADPH nor ATP limited this process in plant leaves, as shown by their increase upon illumination in barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves, independent of light intensity. Experiments are presented and were designed to evaluate the contribution of different physiological processes that might increase the photosynthetic ATP/NADPH ratio—the Mehler reaction, respiratory ATP supply following the transfer of reducing equivalents via the malate/oxaloacetate shuttle, and cyclic electron flow around PSI—to this metabolic situation. PMID:12857827

  18. Which Executive Functioning Deficits Are Associated with AD/HD, ODD/CD and Comorbid AD/HD+ODD/CD? (Attention Deficit/hyperactivity Disorder)(Oppositional Defiant Disorder)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scheres, Anouk; Sergeant, Joseph A.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated (1) whether attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is associated with executive functioning (EF) deficits while controlling for oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD), (2) whether ODD/CD is associated with EF deficits while controlling for AD/HD, and (3) whether a combination of AD/HD and ODD/CD…

  19. Lactose electroisomerization into lactulose: effect of the electrode material, active membrane surface area-to-electrode surface area ratio, and interelectrode-membrane distance.

    PubMed

    Aït-Aissa, Amara; Aïder, Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study and develop an innovative, clean, and environmentally friendly process for lactulose synthesis by electroactivation of lactose. In this work, the electrode material (type 304 stainless steel, titanium, and copper), dimensionless interelectrode-membrane distance at the cathodic compartment (0.36, 0.68, and 1), and the membrane:electrode surface area ratio (0.23, 0.06, and 0.015) were considered to be the factors that could affect the kinetic conversion of lactose into lactulose. The reactions were conducted under an initial lactose concentration of 0.15mol/L at 10°C, Froude number (mixing speed) of 2.05×10(-2), and electric current intensity of 300mA for 30min. The highest lactulose formation yield of 32.50% (0.05mol/L) was obtained by using a copper electrode, interelectrode-membrane distance of 0.36, and membrane:electrode surface area ratio of 0.23. The 2-parameter Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin isotherm models were used for the prediction of the lactose isomerization kinetics as well as the 3-parameter Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model. It was shown that the lactose isomerization kinetics into lactulose followed the Temkin and Langmuir-Freundlich models with coefficients of determination of 0.99 and 0.90 and a relative error of 1.42 to 1.56% and 4.27 to 4.37%, respectively.

  20. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  1. Odd-skipped related-1 controls neural crest chondrogenesis during tongue development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han; Lan, Yu; Xu, Jingyue; Chang, Ching-Fang; Brugmann, Samantha A; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-11-12

    The tongue is a critical element of the feeding system in tetrapod animals for their successful adaptation to terrestrial life. Whereas the oral part of the mammalian tongue contains soft tissues only, the avian tongue has an internal skeleton extending to the anterior tip. The mechanisms underlying the evolutionary divergence in tongue skeleton formation are completely unknown. We show here that the odd-skipped related-1 (Osr1) transcription factor is expressed throughout the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme in mouse, but not in chick, embryos during early tongue morphogenesis. Neural crest-specific inactivation of Osr1 resulted in formation of an ectopic cartilage in the mouse tongue, reminiscent in shape and developmental ontogeny of the anterior tongue cartilage in chick. SRY-box containing gene-9 (Sox9), the master regulator of chondrogenesis, is widely expressed in the nascent tongue mesenchyme at the onset of tongue morphogenesis but its expression is dramatically down-regulated concomitant with activation of Osr1 expression in the developing mouse tongue. In Osr1 mutant mouse embryos, expression of Sox9 persisted in the developing tongue mesenchyme where chondrogenesis is subsequently activated to form the ectopic cartilage. Furthermore, we show that Osr1 binds to the Sox9 gene promoter and that overexpression of Osr1 suppressed expression of endogenous Sox9 mRNAs and Sox9 promoter-driven reporter. These data indicate that Osr1 normally prevents chondrogenesis in the mammalian tongue through repression of Sox9 expression and suggest that changes in regulation of Osr1 expression in the neural crest-derived tongue mesenchyme underlie the evolutionary divergence of birds from other vertebrates in tongue morphogenesis.

  2. ADHD and Depression Symptoms in Parent Couples Predict Response to Child ADHD and ODD Behavior.

    PubMed

    Wymbs, Brian T; Dawson, Anne E; Egan, Theresa E; Sacchetti, Gina M; Tams, Sean T; Wymbs, Frances A

    2017-04-01

    Parents of children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) often have elevated ADHD and depressive symptoms, both of which increase the risk of ineffective parenting and interparental discord. However, little is known about whether child ADHD/ODD behavior and parent ADHD or depressive symptoms uniquely or synergistically predict the quality of parenting and interparental communication during triadic (mother-father-child) interactions. Ninety parent couples, including 51 who have children diagnosed with ADHD, were randomly assigned to interact with a 9-12 year-old confederate child (84 % male) exhibiting either ADHD/ODD-like behavior or typical behavior. Parents reported their own ADHD and depressive symptoms, and parents and observers rated the quality of parenting and interparental communication during the interaction. Actor-partner interdependence modeling indicated that child ADHD/ODD behavior predicted less positive and more negative parenting and communication, independent of adult ADHD and depressive symptoms. Parent couples including two parents with elevated ADHD communicated more positively while managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than couples managing children behaving typically or couples with only one parent with elevated ADHD symptoms. Couples including one parent with, and one parent without, elevated ADHD or depressive symptoms parented less positively and more negatively, and communicated more negatively, when managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior than when managing children behaving typically. Taken together, depending on the similarity of ADHD and depressive symptom levels in parent couples, adults managing children exhibiting ADHD/ODD behavior may parent or communicate positively or negatively. Findings highlight the need to consider the psychopathology of both parents when treating children with ADHD in two-parent homes.

  3. Genetic and pharmacological evidence that 5-HT2C receptor activation, but not inhibition, affects motivation to feed under a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Paul J; Sinyard, Judy; Higgins, Guy A

    2010-11-01

    Previous work showed that 5-HT(2C) receptor agonists reduce cocaine self-administration on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement, whereas a 5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist enhances responding for cocaine. The present experiments examined the effects of Ro60-0175 (5-HT(2C) agonist) and SB242084 (5-HT(2C) receptor antagonist) in rats on responding for food on a PR schedule; responding was also determined in mice lacking functional 5-HT(2C) receptors. In food-restricted rats, lever pressing reinforced by regular food pellets or sucrose pellets was reduced by Ro60-0175. This effect was blocked by SB242084, and was absent in mice lacking functional 5-HT(2C) receptors. A number of studies examined the effects of SB242084 on responding for food under a variety of conditions. These included manipulation of food type (regular pellets versus sucrose pellets), nutritional status of the animals (food restriction versus no restriction), and rate of progression of the increase in ratio requirements on the PR schedule. In all cases there was no evidence of enhanced responding for food by SB242084. Mice lacking functional 5-HT(2C) receptors did not differ from wildtype mice in responding for food in either food-restricted or non-restricted states. The effects of Ro60-0175 are consistent with its effects on food consumption and motivation to self-administer cocaine. Unlike their effects on cocaine self-administration, pharmacological blockade of 5-HT(2C) receptors, and genetic disruption of 5-HT(2C) receptor function do not alter the motivation to respond for food. Because the 5-HT(2C) receptor exerts a modulatory effect on dopamine function, the differential effects of reduced 5-HT(2C) receptor mediated transmission on responding for food versus cocaine may relate to a differential role of this neurotransmitter in mediating these two behaviours.

  4. Studies of a Large Odd-Numbered Odd-Electron Metal Ring: Inelastic Neutron Scattering and Muon Spin Relaxation Spectroscopy of Cr8 Mn.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael L; Lancaster, Tom; Chiesa, Alessandro; Amoretti, Giuseppe; Baker, Peter J; Barker, Claire; Blundell, Stephen J; Carretta, Stefano; Collison, David; Güdel, Hans U; Guidi, Tatiana; McInnes, Eric J L; Möller, Johannes S; Mutka, Hannu; Ollivier, Jacques; Pratt, Francis L; Santini, Paolo; Tuna, Floriana; Tregenna-Piggott, Philip L W; Vitorica-Yrezabal, Iñigo J; Timco, Grigore A; Winpenny, Richard E P

    2016-01-26

    The spin dynamics of Cr8 Mn, a nine-membered antiferromagnetic (AF) molecular nanomagnet, are investigated. Cr8 Mn is a rare example of a large odd-membered AF ring, and has an odd-number of 3d-electrons present. Odd-membered AF rings are unusual and of interest due to the presence of competing exchange interactions that result in frustrated-spin ground states. The chemical synthesis and structures of two Cr8 Mn variants that differ only in their crystal packing are reported. Evidence of spin frustration is investigated by inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and muon spin relaxation spectroscopy (μSR). From INS studies we accurately determine an appropriate microscopic spin Hamiltonian and we show that μSR is sensitive to the ground-spin-state crossing from S=1/2 to S=3/2 in Cr8 Mn. The estimated width of the muon asymmetry resonance is consistent with the presence of an avoided crossing. The investigation of the internal spin structure of the ground state, through the analysis of spin-pair correlations and scalar-spin chirality, shows a non-collinear spin structure that fluctuates between non-planar states of opposite chiralities.

  5. Manganese nodules: thorium-230: protactinium-231 ratios.

    PubMed

    Sackett, W M

    1966-11-04

    The Th(230): Pa(231) activity ratio in 7 of 11 manganese nodules is less than 10.8, the theoretical production ratio of activities in the ocean. This finding indicates difierential accumulation of these nuclides in authigenic deposits of manganese-iron oxide.

  6. The Th17/Treg Ratio, IL-1RA and sCD14 Levels in Primary HIV Infection Predict the T-cell Activation Set Point in the Absence of Systemic Microbial Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Mathieu F.; Petitjean, Gaël; Dunyach-Rémy, Catherine; Didier, Céline; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Manea, Maria Elena; Campa, Pauline; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Barré-Sinoussi, Françoise; Scott-Algara, Daniel; Weiss, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Impairment of the intestinal barrier and subsequent microbial translocation (MT) may be involved in chronic immune activation, which plays a central role in HIV pathogenesis. Th17 cells are critical to prevent MT. The aim of the study was to investigate, in patients with primary HIV infection (PHI), the early relationship between the Th17/Treg ratio, monocyte activation and MT and their impact on the T-cell activation set point, which is known to predict disease progression. 27 patients with early PHI were included in a prospective longitudinal study and followed-up for 6 months. At baseline, the Th17/Treg ratio strongly negatively correlated with the proportion of activated CD8 T cells expressing CD38/HLA-DR or Ki-67. Also, the Th17/Treg ratio was negatively related to viral load and plasma levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA, two markers of monocyte activation. In untreated patients, the Th17/Treg ratio at baseline negatively correlated with CD8 T-cell activation at month 6 defining the T-cell activation set point (% HLA-DR+CD38+ and %Ki-67+). Soluble CD14 and IL-1RA plasma levels also predicted the T-cell activation set point. Levels of I-FABP, a marker of mucosal damages, were similar to healthy controls at baseline but increased at month 6. No decrease in anti-endotoxin core antibody (EndoCAb) and no peptidoglycan were detected during PHI. In addition, 16S rDNA was only detected at low levels in 2 out 27 patients at baseline and in one additional patient at M6. Altogether, data support the hypothesis that T-cell and monocyte activation in PHI are not primarily driven by systemic MT but rather by viral replication. Moreover, the “innate immune set point” defined by the early levels of sCD14 and IL-1RA might be powerful early surrogate markers for disease progression and should be considered for use in clinical practice. PMID:23818854

  7. Leaf and root pectin methylesterase activity and 13C/12C stable isotopic ratio measurements of methanol emissions give insight into methanol production in Lycopersicon esculentum.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Patricia Yoshino; Giebel, Brian M; Sternberg, Leonel da Silveira Lobo O'Reilly; Li, Lei; Timko, Michael P; Swart, Peter K; Riemer, Daniel D; Mak, John E; Lerdau, Manuel T

    2011-09-01

    Plant production of methanol (MeOH) is a poorly understood aspect of metabolism, and understanding MeOH production in plants is crucial for modeling MeOH emissions. Here, we have examined the source of MeOH emissions from mature and immature leaves and whether pectin methylesterase (PME) activity is a good predictor of MeOH emission. We also investigated the significance of below-ground MeOH production for mature leaf emissions. We present measurements of MeOH emission, PME activity, and MeOH concentration in mature and immature tissues of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). We also present stable carbon isotopic signatures of MeOH emission and the pectin methoxyl pool. Our results suggest that below-ground MeOH production was not the dominant contributor to daytime MeOH emissions from mature and immature leaves. Stable carbon isotopic signatures of mature and immature leaf MeOH were similar, suggesting that they were derived from the same pathway. Foliar PME activity was related to MeOH flux, but unexplained variance suggested PME activity could not predict emissions. The data show that MeOH production and emission are complex and cannot be predicted using PME activity alone. We hypothesize that substrate limitation of MeOH synthesis and MeOH catabolism may be important regulators of MeOH emission.

  8. Influence of salinity and ratio of lipid to protein in diets on certain enzyme activities in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson).

    PubMed

    Jürss, K; Bittorf, T; Vökler, T

    1985-01-01

    The connection between metabolic and sea water adaptation of the rainbow trout was investigated. The rainbow trout were kept in fresh water and diluted sea water of 8 and 20 0/00 S at 16 degrees C and fed on three different diets for 51 days. Hyperosmotic salinity (20 0/00) tends to inhibit growth in rainbow trout by reducing the food conversion efficiency. A higher protein concentration in the diet can partly compensate for this effect. The liver IDH, G6PDH and 6PGDH activities of the rainbow trout are influenced only by food quality, whereas the liver G1DH, AspT and A1T activities, like the muscle A1T, are also affected by salinity. The salinity had no significant effect on the activities of the kidney enzymes we investigated (Na/K-ATPase, G1DH, A1T, AspT) or of the muscle AspT in these experiments.

  9. α -decay spectra of odd nuclei using the effective Skyrme interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, D. E.; Carlsson, B. G.; Åberg, S.

    2015-07-01

    Background: For nuclei heavier than 208Pb α decay is a dominating decay mode. α decay of odd nuclei can give spectroscopic information because different states in the daughter nucleus can be populated in the decay. Purpose: To explore and test microscopic descriptions of α decay of odd nuclei based on self-consistent models with effective nuclear interactions. To predict the hindrance of α decay of odd-A superheavy nuclei. Methods: We apply the method of our previous work [15e D. E. Ward, B. G. Carlsson, and S. Åberg, Phys. Rev. C 88, 064316 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevC.88.064316] to the case of odd-A near-spherical nuclei. The Skyrme effective interaction SLy4 is used. Starting from the obtained Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov vacuum and quasiparticle excitations, the α -particle formation amplitude is calculated giving the decay rates and hindrance of different α -decay channels. Result: The calculated relative decay rates show good agreement with available data. The hindrance of decay channels where the odd nucleon changes orbital is reasonably described by the microscopic calculation. Several hindered ground-state decays of superheavy nuclei are predicted, implying possible α -γ coincidences. Conclusions: The approach offers a practical method of making quantitative predictions for the relative hindrance of different α -decay channels.

  10. Formation of chloroplast protrusions and catalase activity in alpine Ranunculus glacialis under elevated temperature and different CO2/O2 ratios.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Othmar; Moser, Tim; Karadar, Matthias; Roach, Thomas; Kranner, Ilse; Holzinger, Andreas

    2015-11-01

    Chloroplast protrusions (CPs) have frequently been observed in plants, but their significance to plant metabolism remains largely unknown. We investigated in the alpine plant Ranunculus glacialis L. treated under various CO2 concentrations if CP formation is related to photorespiration, specifically focusing on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) metabolism. Immediately after exposure to different CO2 concentrations, the formation of CPs in leaf mesophyll cells was assessed and correlated to catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activities. Under natural irradiation, the relative proportion of chloroplasts with protrusions (rCP) was highest (58.7 %) after exposure to low CO2 (38 ppm) and was lowest (3.0 %) at high CO2 (10,000 ppm). The same relationship was found for CAT activity, which decreased from 34.7 nkat mg(-1) DW under low CO2 to 18.4 nkat mg(-1) DW under high CO2, while APX activity did not change significantly. When exposed to natural CO2 concentration (380 ppm) in darkness, CP formation was significantly lower (18.2 %) compared to natural solar irradiation (41.3 %). In summary, CP formation and CAT activity are significantly increased under conditions that favour photorespiration, while in darkness or at high CO2 concentration under light, CP formation is significantly lower, providing evidence for an association between CPs and photorespiration.

  11. Ground-state properties of even and odd Magnesium isotopes in a symmetry-conserving approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrajo, Marta; Egido, J. Luis

    2017-01-01

    We present a self-consistent theory for odd nuclei with exact blocking and particle number and angular momentum projection. The demanding treatment of the pairing correlations in a variation-after-projection approach as well as the explicit consideration of the triaxial deformation parameters in a projection after variation method, together with the use of the finite-range density-dependent Gogny force, provides an excellent tool for the description of odd-even and even-even nuclei. We apply the theory to the Magnesium isotopic chain and obtain an outstanding description of the ground-state properties, in particular binding energies, odd-even mass differences, mass radii and electromagnetic moments among others.

  12. Global systematics of unique parity quasibands in odd-A collective nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Stroe, L.; Ur, C. A.

    1994-04-01

    All known structures in the collective medium and heavy odd-A nuclei, based on the unique parity orbitals g9/2, h11/2, and i13/2, are collected and correlations between the energies within both the favored and unfavored quasibands are analyzed. A first startling result is that irrespective of the nature of the odd particle and the shell model orbital, for most of the nondeformed nuclei the energies within these quasibands, show a universal behavior of an anharmonic vibrator with a constant anharmonicity, identical with that found for the even-even nuclei. Second, the rapid transition between the anharmonic vibrator and the rotor regimes, which takes place in the even-even nuclei, is accompanied, in the adjacent odd-A nuclei, by an equally rapid transition from the anharmonic vibrator to the strong coupling regime.

  13. Positive parity low spin states of odd-mass tellurium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazar, Harun Reşit

    2006-11-01

    In this work, we analyse the positive parity of states of odd-mass nucleus within the framework of interacting boson fermion model. The result of an IBFM-1 multilevel calculation with the lg 9/2, 2d 5/2, 2d 3/2, 3s 1/2 and one level, 1h 11/2 with negative parity, single particle orbits is reported for the positive parity states of the odd mass nucleus 123-125Te. Also, an IBM-1 calculation is presented for the low-lying states in the even-even 124-126Te core nucleus. The energy levels and B (E2) transition probabilities were calculated and compared with the experimental data. It was found that the calculated positive parity low spin state energy spectra of the odd-mass 123-125Te isotopes agree quite well with the experimental data.

  14. Odd-parity superconductivity by competing spin-orbit coupling and orbital effect in artificial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Tomohiro; Yanase, Youichi

    2015-11-01

    We show that odd-parity superconductivity occurs in multilayer Rashba systems without requiring spin-triplet Cooper pairs. A pairing interaction in the spin-singlet channel stabilizes the odd-parity pair-density-wave (PDW) state in the magnetic field parallel to the two-dimensional conducting plane. It is shown that the layer-dependent Rashba spin-orbit coupling and the orbital effect play essential roles for the PDW state in binary and tricolor heterostructures. We demonstrate that the odd-parity PDW state is a symmetry-protected topological superconducting state characterized by the one-dimensional winding number in the symmetry class BDI. The superconductivity in the artificial heavy-fermion superlattice CeCoIn5/YbCoIn5 and bilayer interface SrTiO3/LaAlO3 is discussed.

  15. Influences of Vehicle Size and Mass and Selected Driver Factors on Odds of Driver Fatality

    PubMed Central

    Padmanaban, Jeya

    2003-01-01

    Research was undertaken to determine vehicle size parameters influencing driver fatality odds, independent of mass, in two-vehicle collisions. Forty vehicle parameters were evaluated for 1,500 vehicle groupings. Logistic regression analyses show driver factors (belt use, age, drinking) collectively contribute more to fatality odds than vehicle factors, and that mass is the most important vehicular parameter influencing fatality odds for all crash configurations. In car crashes, other vehicle parameters with statistical significance had a second order effect compared to mass. In light truck-to-car crashes, “vehicle type-striking vehicle is light truck” was the most important parameter after mass, followed by vehicle height and bumper height, with second order effect. To understand the importance of “vehicle type” variable, further investigation of vehicle “stiffness” and other passenger car/light truck differentiating parameters is warranted. PMID:12941244

  16. Even- and odd-parity finite-element transport solutions in the thick diffusion limit

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, M.L.

    1991-01-07

    We analyze the behavior of odd-parity continuous finite-element methods (CFEMs) for problems that contain diffusive regions. We find that each of these method produces a solution that, to leading order inside diffusive regions, satisfies a discretization of the diffusion equation. We find further that these leading-order solutions satisfy boundary conditions that can lead to large errors in the interior solution. We recognize, however, that we can combine an odd-purity CFEM solution and an even-parity CFEM solution and obtain a solution that satisfies very accurate boundary conditions. Our analysis holds in three-dimensional Cartesian geometry, with an arbitrary spatial grid. We give numerical results from slab-geometry; these invariably agree with the predictions of the analysis. Finally, we introduce a rapidly-convergent diffusion-synthetic acceleration scheme for the odd-parity CFEMs, which we believe is new. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Atmospheric odd oxygen production due to the photodissociation of ordinary and isotopic molecular oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omidvar, K.; Frederick, J. E.

    1987-01-01

    Line-by-line calculations are performed to determine the contributions of the Schumann-Runge bands of ordinary and isotopic oxygen to the photodissociation of these molecules at different altitudes. The contributions to the dissociation rates of the satellite lines and of the first and higher vibrational states of the initial molecular states are found to be insignificant. At 70 km, (O-16)(O-18) is found to produce 10 times as much odd oxygen as would be produced if the isotope did not have selective absorption, and 6 percent of the odd oxygen produced is due to this isotope. It is noted that the excess odd oxygen produced is not enough to explain the excess quantity of ozone observed in the atmosphere, which cannot be accounted for in photochemical models. Comparison with previous results is made.

  18. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  19. A single diamagnetic catalyCEST MRI contrast agent that detects cathepsin B enzyme activity by using a ratio of two CEST signals

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Dina V.; Montano, Luis A.; Randtke, Edward A.; Lee, Yeon Sun; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio; Pagel, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    CatalyCEST MRI can detect enzyme activity by monitoring the change in chemical exchange with water after a contrast agent is cleaved by an enzyme. Often these molecules use paramagnetic metals and are delivered with an additional non-responsive reference molecule. To improve this approach for molecular imaging, a single diamagnetic agent with enzyme-responsive and enzyme-unresponsive CEST signals was synthesized and characterized. The CEST signal from the aryl amide disappeared after cleavage of a dipeptidyl ligand with cathepsin B, while a salicylic acid moiety was largely unresponsive to enzyme activity. The ratiometric comparison of the two CEST signals from the same agent allowed for concentration independent measurements of enzyme activity. The chemical exchange rate of the salicylic acid moiety was unchanged after enzyme catalysis, which further validated that this moiety was enzyme-unresponsive. The temperature dependence of the chemical exchange rate of the salicylic acid moiety was non-Arrhenius, suggesting a two-step chemical exchange mechanism for salicylic acid. The good detection sensitivity at low saturation power facilitates clinical translation, along with the potentially low toxicity of a non-metallic MRI contrast agent. The modular design of the agent constitutes a platform technology that expands the variety of agents that may be employed by catalyCEST MRI for molecular imaging. PMID:26633584

  20. A single diamagnetic catalyCEST MRI contrast agent that detects cathepsin B enzyme activity by using a ratio of two CEST signals.

    PubMed

    Hingorani, Dina V; Montano, Luis A; Randtke, Edward A; Lee, Yeon Sun; Cárdenas-Rodríguez, Julio; Pagel, Mark D

    2016-01-01

    CatalyCEST MRI can detect enzyme activity by monitoring the change in chemical exchange with water after a contrast agent is cleaved by an enzyme. Often these molecules use paramagnetic metals and are delivered with an additional non-responsive reference molecule. To improve this approach for molecular imaging, a single diamagnetic agent with enzyme-responsive and enzyme-unresponsive CEST signals was synthesized and characterized. The CEST signal from the aryl amide disappeared after cleavage of a dipeptidyl ligand with cathepsin B, while a salicylic acid moiety was largely unresponsive to enzyme activity. The ratiometric comparison of the two CEST signals from the same agent allowed for concentration independent measurements of enzyme activity. The chemical exchange rate of the salicylic acid moiety was unchanged after enzyme catalysis, which further validated that this moiety was enzyme-unresponsive. The temperature dependence of the chemical exchange rate of the salicylic acid moiety was non-Arrhenius, suggesting a two-step chemical exchange mechanism for salicylic acid. The good detection sensitivity at low saturation power facilitates clinical translation, along with the potentially low toxicity of a non-metallic MRI contrast agent. The modular design of the agent constitutes a platform technology that expands the variety of agents that may be employed by catalyCEST MRI for molecular imaging.

  1. Odd sensation induced by moving-phantom which triggers subconscious motor program.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Takao; Kimura, Toshitaka; Kadota, Koji; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Gomi, Hiroaki

    2009-06-03

    Our motor actions are sometimes not properly performed despite our having complete understanding of the environmental situation with a suitable action intention. In most cases, insufficient skill for motor control can explain the improper performance. A notable exception is the action of stepping onto a stopped escalator, which causes clumsy movements accompanied by an odd sensation. Previous studies have examined short-term sensorimotor adaptations to treadmills and moving sleds, but the relationship between the odd sensation and behavioral properties in a real stopped-escalator situation has never been examined. Understanding this unique action-perception linkage would help us to assess the brain function connecting automatic motor controls and the conscious awareness of action. Here we directly pose a question: Does the odd sensation emerge because of the unfamiliar motor behavior itself toward the irregular step-height of a stopped escalator or as a consequence of an automatic habitual motor program cued by the escalator itself. We compared the properties of motor behavior toward a stopped escalator (SE) with those toward moving escalator and toward a wooden stairs (WS) that mimicked the stopped escalator, and analyzed the subjective feeling of the odd sensation in the SE and WS conditions. The results show that moving escalator-specific motor actions emerged after participants had stepped onto the stopped escalator despite their full awareness that it was stopped, as if the motor behavior was guided by a "phantom" of a moving escalator. Additionally, statistical analysis reveals that postural forward sway that occurred after the stepping action is directly linked with the odd sensation. The results suggest a dissociation between conscious awareness and subconscious motor control: the former makes us perfectly aware of the current environmental situation, but the latter automatically emerges as a result of highly habituated visual input no matter how unsuitable

  2. Multi-loop control of UPS inverter with a plug-in odd-harmonic repetitive controller.

    PubMed

    Razi, Reza; Karbasforooshan, Mohammad-Sadegh; Monfared, Mohammad

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes an improved multi-loop control scheme for the single-phase uninterruptible power supply (UPS) inverter by using a plug-in odd-harmonic repetitive controller to regulate the output voltage. In the suggested control method, the output voltage and the filter capacitor current are used as the outer and inner loop feedback signals, respectively and the instantaneous value of the reference voltage feedforwarded to the output of the controller. Instead of conventional linear (proportional-integral/-resonant) and conventional repetitive controllers, a plug-in odd-harmonic repetitive controller is employed in the outer loop to regulate the output voltage, which occupies less memory space and offers faster tracking performance compared to the conventional one. Also, a simple proportional controller is used in the inner loop for active damping of possible resonances and improving the transient performance. The feedforward of the converter reference voltage enhances the robust performance of the system and simplifies the system modelling and the controller design. A step-by-step design procedure is presented for the proposed controller, which guarantees stability of the system under worst-case scenarios. Simulation and experimental results validate the excellent steady-state and transient performance of the proposed control scheme and provide the exact comparison of the proposed method with the conventional multi-loop control method.

  3. Orangutans (Pongo abelii) "play the odds": information-seeking strategies in relation to cost, risk, and benefit.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Heidi L; MacDonald, Suzanne E

    2012-08-01

    Recent research has examined whether animals possess metacognition, or the ability to monitor their knowledge states. However, the extent to which animals actively control their knowledge states is still not well delineated. Although organisms might be capable of seeking information when it is lacking, it does not mean that it is always adaptive to do so. In the present set of experiments, we examined the flexibility of this behavior in captive orangutans (Pongo abelii; two adults and one juvenile) in a foraging task, by varying the necessity of information-seeking, the cost associated with it, the likelihood of error, and the value of the reward. In Experiment 1, subjects searched for information most often when it was "cheapest" energetically. In Experiment 2, subjects searched for information most often when the odds of making an error were the greatest. In Experiment 3, subjects searched for information more when the reward was doubled in value. In Experiment 4, adult subjects adapted to risk/benefit trade-offs in their searching behavior. In every experiment, subjects sought information more often when they needed it than when they already knew the solution to the problem. Therefore, the current research suggests that information-seeking behavior in orangutans shows a sophisticated level of flexibility, comparable to that seen in human children, as they appear to "play the odds" when making the decision to seek information or not.

  4. Global correlations of unique parity structures in odd-A nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucurescu, D.; Zamfir, N. V.; Cǎta-Danil, G.; Ivaşcu, M.; Stroe, L.; Ur, C. A.; Casten, R. F.

    1996-02-01

    All known unique parity structures in precollective odd-A nuclei (having cores with {E(4 1+) }/{E(2 1+) } < 2.0 ) are shown to behave similarly to the yrast quasibands in the neighboring even-even nuclei. This is interpreted in terms of a pair addition mode. With previous results on collective nuclei, this gives a tripartite classification of the evolution of the unique parity quasibands in odd-A nuclei. A simple index for signature splitting is also developed which avoids the need for complex analysis of Routhian structures.

  5. Sensitivity of odd-harmonic amplitudes to open quotient and skewing quotient in glottal airflow.

    PubMed

    Titze, Ingo R

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a half-sinusoid has no odd harmonics other than the fundamental. If glottal flow in phonation were to approximate this exact waveshape, which is generally unlikely, some misperception of pitch and loss of vowel intelligibility would occur. The sensitivity of the glottal waveshape to this special shape is explored by systematically varying two parameters, open quotient and skewing quotient. Mild asymmetry (open quotient below 0.45 or above 0.55 and/or skewing quotient greater than 2.0) equalizes the odd-even harmonic series. Singers and speakers avoid the exact symmetry by skewing the flow pulse with source-filter interaction.

  6. High-purity Transmission of a Slow Light Odd Mode in a Photonic Crystal Waveguide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 3 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c . THIS PAGE unclassified...the disper- sion of ng;odd. We have calculated Δng ng;odd − ng;even from the mixed-mode spectrum and plotted it in Fig. 4( c ). The peak spacing and...mode MZCs; (b) direct transmission with- out MZC and transmission with mixed-mode MZCs; ( c )Δng ob- tained from the mixed-mode spectrum; the solid

  7. An odd-number limitation of extended time-delayed feedback control in autonomous systems.

    PubMed

    Amann, Andreas; Hooton, Edward W

    2013-09-28

    We propose a necessary condition for the successful stabilization of a periodic orbit, using the extended version of time-delayed feedback control. This condition depends on the number of real Floquet multipliers larger than unity and is therefore related to the well-known odd-number limitation in non-autonomous systems. We show that the period of the orbit that is induced by mismatching the delay time of the control scheme and the period of the uncontrolled orbit plays an important role in the formulation of the odd-number limitation in the autonomous case.

  8. Nonminimal derivative coupling scalar-tensor theories: Odd-parity perturbations and black hole stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisterna, Adolfo; Cruz, Miguel; Delsate, Térence; Saavedra, Joel

    2015-11-01

    We derive the odd-parity perturbation equation for the nonminimal kinetic coupling sector of the general Horndeski theory, where the kinetic term is coupled to the metric and the Einstein tensor. We derive the potential of the perturbation, by identifying a master function and switching to tortoise coordinates. We then prove the mode stability under linear odd-parity perturbations of hairy black holes in this sector of Horndeski theory, when a cosmological constant term in the action is included. Finally, we comment on the existence of slowly rotating black hole solutions in this setup and discuss their implications on the physics of compact object configurations, such as neutron stars.

  9. Collective states of odd nuclei in a model with quadrupole-octupole degrees of freedom

    SciTech Connect

    Minkov, N. Drenska, S. B.; Yotov, P.; Bonatsos, D. Scheid, W.

    2007-08-15

    We apply the collective axial quadrupole-octupole Hamiltonian to describe the rotation-vibration motion of odd nuclei with Coriolis coupling between the even-even core and the unpaired nucleon.We consider that the core oscillates coherently with respect to the quadrupole and octupole axialdeformation variables. The coupling between the core and the unpaired nucleon provides a split paritydoublet structure of the spectrum. The formalism successfully reproduces the parity-doublet splitting in a wide range of odd-A nuclei. It provides model estimations for the third angular-momentum projection K on the intrinsic symmetry axis and the related intrinsic nuclear structure.

  10. Microscopic multiphonon method for odd nuclei and its application to 17O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Gregorio, G.; Knapp, F.; Lo Iudice, N.; Vesely, P.

    2016-12-01

    An equations of motion phonon method is extended to odd nuclei. It generates an orthonormal basis out of an odd particle coupled to n -phonon core states (n =0 ,1 ,2 ,⋯ ), built of Tamm-Dancoff phonons, and formulates the eigenvalue problem in such a multiphonon particle-core space. 17O is chosen as testing ground. An intrinsic chiral Hamiltonian is adopted in a large configuration space to perform a calculation using a Hartree-Fock (HF) basis in a space encompassing up to two and, under simplifying assumptions, three phonons. The impact of the different phonon components on spectrum, moments, transitions, and dipole cross section is discussed.

  11. General conditions for proximity induced odd-frequency superconductivity in two-dimensional electronic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.

    We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  12. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia versus stimulus-dichotomy synaesthesia: Odd, even or something else?

    PubMed

    White, Rebekah C; Plassart, Anna

    2015-01-01

    In stimulus-parity synaesthesia, a range of stimuli-for example, letters, numbers, weekdays, months, and colours (the inducers)-elicit an automatic feeling of oddness or evenness (the concurrent). This phenomenon was first described by Théodore Flournoy in 1893, and has only recently been "rediscovered." Here, we describe an individual who experiences a comparable phenomenon, but uses the labels negative and positive rather than odd and even. Stimulus-parity synaesthesia may be broader than first supposed, and it is important that assessments are sensitive to this breadth.

  13. The Ratio of 2-AG to Its Isomer 1-AG as an Intrinsic Fine Tuning Mechanism of CB1 Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Dócs, Klaudia; Mészár, Zoltán; Gonda, Sándor; Kiss-Szikszai, Attila; Holló, Krisztina; Antal, Miklós; Hegyi, Zoltán

    2017-01-01

    Endocannabinoids are pleiotropic lipid messengers that play pro-homeostatic role in cellular physiology by strongly influencing intracellular Ca2+ concentration through the activation of cannabinoid receptors. One of the best-known endocannabinoid ‘2-AG’ is chemically unstable in aqueous solutions, thus its molecular rearrangement, resulting in the formation of 1-AG, may influence 2-AG-mediated signaling depending on the relative concentration and potency of the two isomers. To predict whether this molecular rearrangement may be relevant in physiological processes and in experiments with 2-AG, here we studied if isomerization of 2-AG has an impact on 2-AG-induced, CB1-mediated Ca2+ signaling in vitro. We found that the isomerization-dependent drop in effective 2-AG concentration caused only a weak diminution of Ca2+ signaling in CB1 transfected COS7 cells. We also found that 1-AG induces Ca2+ transients through the activation of CB1, but its working concentration is threefold higher than that of 2-AG. Decreasing the concentration of 2-AG in parallel to the prevention of 1-AG formation by rapid preparation of 2-AG solutions, caused a significant diminution of Ca2+ signals. However, various mixtures of the two isomers in a fix total concentration – mimicking the process of isomerization over time – attenuated the drop in 2-AG potency, resulting in a minor decrease in CB1 mediated Ca2+ transients. Our results indicate that release of 2-AG into aqueous medium is accompanied by its isomerization, resulting in a drop of 2-AG concentration and simultaneous formation of the similarly bioactive isomer 1-AG. Thus, the relative concentration of the two isomers with different potency and efficacy may influence CB1 activation and the consequent biological responses. In addition, our results suggest that 1-AG may play role in stabilizing the strength of cannabinoid signal in case of prolonged 2-AG dependent cannabinoid mechanisms. PMID:28265242

  14. Evaluation of Cadmium Ratio and Foil Activation Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Assembly of U(93.15)O2 Fuel Rods (1.506-cm Triangular Pitch)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were completed from 1962 to 1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of un-moderated stainless-steel tubes, each containing 26 UOIdaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States) fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were performed to determine critical reflector arrangements, fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. The graphite reflectors were then changed to beryllium reflectors. For the beryllium reflected assemblies, the fuel was in 1.506-cm-triangular and 7-tube clusters leading to two critical configurations. Once the critical configurations had been achieved, various measurements of reactivity, relative axial and radial activation rates of 235U, and cadmium ratios were performed. The cadmium ratio, reactivity, and activation rate measurements, performed on the 1.506-cm-array critical configuration, have been evaluated and are described in this paper.

  15. Evaluation of Cadmium Ratio and Foil Activation Measurements for a Beryllium-Reflected Assembly of U(93.15)O2 Fuel Rods (1.506-cm Triangular Pitch)

    DOE PAGES

    Marshall, Margaret A.

    2014-11-04

    A series of small, compact critical assembly (SCCA) experiments were completed from 1962 to 1965 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) in support of the Medium-Power Reactor Experiments (MPRE) program. Initial experiments, performed in November and December of 1962, consisted of a core of un-moderated stainless-steel tubes, each containing 26 UOIdaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States) fuel pellets, surrounded by a graphite reflector. Measurements were performed to determine critical reflector arrangements, fission-rate distributions, and cadmium ratio distributions. The graphite reflectors were then changed to beryllium reflectors. For the beryllium reflected assemblies, the fuel wasmore » in 1.506-cm-triangular and 7-tube clusters leading to two critical configurations. Once the critical configurations had been achieved, various measurements of reactivity, relative axial and radial activation rates of 235U, and cadmium ratios were performed. The cadmium ratio, reactivity, and activation rate measurements, performed on the 1.506-cm-array critical configuration, have been evaluated and are described in this paper.« less

  16. Substituting homemade fruit juice for sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with lower odds of metabolic syndrome among Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Josiemer; Malik, Vasanti; Hu, Frank B; Campos, Hannia

    2012-06-01

    Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS); however, studies conducted on Hispanic adults are scarce. To determine the association between beverages consumed by Hispanic adults and MetS and its components, data were analyzed in 1872 Costa Rican adults who served as controls of a population-based, case-control study of coronary heart disease. Multivariate-adjusted means were calculated for components of MetS by servings (never, ≤ 1/wk; 2-6/wk, ≥ 1/d) of 2 traditional fruit-based beverages ("fresco" and freshly-squeezed homemade fruit juice, separately) and 2 SSB (instant drinks and regular sodas, separately and combined). The prevalence ratio (PR) of MetS was calculated for each beverage and the OR was calculated by substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice or water for one of SSB. Significant positive trends were observed for increasing servings of instant drinks with plasma TG and waist circumference and for regular soda with waist circumference (all P-trend < 0.001). Increasing servings of homemade fruit juice were positively associated with HDL cholesterol (P-trend = 0.033). Consuming ≥1 serving/d of instant drinks was associated with a higher PR of MetS [1.42 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.83)] compared with no consumption. Substituting one serving of homemade fruit juice for instant drink was associated with 29% (95% CI: 7, 47%) lower odds of MetS and for regular soda with 30% (95% CI: 1, 50%) lower odds. Substituting water for combined SSB was marginally significant (OR = 0.86 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.00). In conclusion, reducing the consumption of SSB and substituting them with homemade fruit juices in moderation may be a culturally appropriate approach to lower MetS among Hispanic adults.

  17. Ratio imaging instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kenneth; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2003-01-01

    Using ratio imaging to obtain quantitative information from microscope images is a powerful tool that has been used successfully in numerous studies. Although ratio imaging reduces the effects of many parameters that can interfere with accurate measurements, it is not a panacea. In designing a ratio imaging experiment, all of the potential problems discussed in this chapter must be considered. Undoubtedly, other problems that were not discussed can also interfere with accurate and meaningful measurements. Many of the problems discussed here were observed in the authors' laboratories. In our experience there are no standard routines or methods that can foresee every problem before it has been encountered. Good experimental design can minimize problems, but the investigator must continue to be alert. Progress in instrumentation continues to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in ratio imaging. CCD cameras with 12- to 14-bit pixel depth are being used more frequently, and several confocal microscope manufacturers are now also using 12-bit digitization. The dramatic increase in the use of confocal microscopes over the past decade is now causing microscope manufacturers to more critically evaluate the effect of axial chromatic aberration in objectives, and recent designs to minimize this problem are being implemented. Other developments such as the use of AOTFs to attenuate laser lines extend the applicability of ratio imaging. Ratio imaging is clearly applicable to a wide range of cell biological problems beyond its widespread use for measuring ion concentrations. Imaginative but careful use of this technique should continue to provide novel insights into the properties of cells.

  18. Why the Faulhaber Polynomials Are Sums of Even or Odd Powers of (n + 1/2)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hersh, Reuben

    2012-01-01

    By extending Faulhaber's polynomial to negative values of n, the sum of the p'th powers of the first n integers is seen to be an even or odd polynomial in (n + 1/2) and therefore expressible in terms of the sum of the first n integers.

  19. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  20. Singular eigenstates in the even(odd) length Heisenberg spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Giri, Pulak; Deguchi, Tetsuo

    2015-05-01

    We study the implications of the regularization for the singular solutions on the even(odd) length spin-1/2 XXX chains in some specific down-spin sectors. In particular, the analytic expressions of the Bethe eigenstates for three down-spin sector have been obtained along with their numerical forms in some fixed length chains. For an even-length chain if the singular solutions \\{{{λ }α }\\} are invariant under the sign changes of their rapidities \\{{{λ }α }\\}=\\{-{{λ }α }\\}, then the Bethe ansatz equations are reduced to a system of (M-2)/2((M-3)/2) equations in an even (odd) down-spin sector. For an odd N length chain in the three down-spin sector, it has been analytically shown that there exist singular solutions in any finite length of the spin chain of the form N=3(2k+1) with k=1,2,3,\\cdots . It is also shown that there exist no singular solutions in the four down-spin sector for some odd-length spin-1/2 XXX chains.

  1. Building and Solving Odd-One-Out Classification Problems: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Philippe E.

    2011-01-01

    Classification problems ("find the odd-one-out") are frequently used as tests of inductive reasoning to evaluate human or animal intelligence. This paper introduces a systematic method for building the set of all possible classification problems, followed by a simple algorithm for solving the problems of the R-ASCM, a psychometric test derived…

  2. Odd asymmetric factorization of Wiener-Hopf plus Hankel operators on variable exponent Lebesgue spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, L. P.; Silva, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    The main goal of this paper is to obtain an invertibility criterion for Wiener-Hopf plus Hankel operators acting between variable exponent Lebesgue spaces on the real line. This is obtained by a so-called odd asymmetric factorization which is applied to the Fourier symbols of the operators under study.

  3. Delaware Middle Schools Beating the Odds. Technical Report Number T2010.4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grusenmeyer, Linda; Fifield, Steve; Murphy, Aideen; Nian, Qinghua; Qian, Xiaoyu

    2010-01-01

    The investigation identified Delaware public and charter middle schools across the state which outperformed other Delaware middle schools with similar student demographic profiles. Teachers and administrators at six of these "Beating the Odds" schools and at six comparison middle schools were surveyed regarding their schools…

  4. Improving the Odds for Adolescents: State Policies That Support Adolescent Health and Well-Being. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Susan Wile; Aratani, Yumiko

    2011-01-01

    For policymakers, adolescence presents an invaluable opportunity to ensure that all young people can access the high-quality services and supports they need to improve their odds of becoming successful, healthy, productive adults. At an historic moment when the provisions and breadth of health care reform are under vigorous debate, it is important…

  5. Wellness Factors Decrease the Odds of Drinking and Driving among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined holistic wellness factors and drinking and driving behaviors among undergraduate students. Two factors of the Indivisible Self Wellness Model, the Coping Self and the Physical Self, decreased the odds of engaging in drinking and driving behavior. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  6. Anger and Irritability Symptoms among Youth with ODD: Cross-Informant versus Source-Exclusive Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    We examined differences in co-occurring psychological symptoms and background characteristics among clinically referred youth with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) with and without anger/irritability symptoms (AIS) according to either parent or teacher (source-exclusive) and both informants (cross-informant), youth with noncompliant symptoms…

  7. The numerology of gender: gendered perceptions of even and odd numbers

    PubMed Central

    Wilkie, James E. B.; Bodenhausen, Galen V.

    2015-01-01

    Do numbers have gender? Wilkie and Bodenhausen (2012) examined this issue in a series of experiments on perceived gender. They examined the perceived gender of baby faces and foreign names. Arbitrary numbers presented with these faces and names influenced their perceived gender. Specifically, odd numbers connoted masculinity, while even numbers connoted femininity. In two new studies (total N = 315), we further examined the gendering of numbers. The first study examined explicit ratings of 1-digit numbers. We confirmed that odd numbers seemed masculine while even numbers seemed feminine. Although both men and women showed this pattern, it was more pronounced among women. We also examined whether this pattern holds for automatic as well as deliberated reactions. Results of an Implicit Association Test showed that it did, but only among the women. The implicit and explicit patterns of numerical gender ascription were moderately correlated. The second study examined explicit perceptions of 2-digit numbers. Again, women viewed odd numbers as more masculine and less feminine than even numbers. However, men viewed 2-digit numbers as relatively masculine, regardless of whether they were even or odd. These results indicate that women and men impute gender to numbers in different ways and to different extents. We discuss possible implications for understanding how people relate to and are influenced by numbers in a variety of real-life contexts. PMID:26113839

  8. Changing the Odds: Informing Policy with Research on How Adult Learners Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condelli, Larry; Kirshstein, Rita; Silver-Pacuilla, Heidi; Reder, Stephen; Wrigley, Heide Spruck

    2010-01-01

    Research has identified the barriers adult learners face in attaining their education and English proficiency goals, entering and advancing in employment, succeeding in postsecondary education and training, and navigating service systems. Most adult learners face long odds in trying to meet these goals. What would it take to address these barriers…

  9. Partial proportional odds model-an alternate choice for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Lekshmi; Menéndez, Mónica

    2014-11-01

    The conventional methods for crash injury severity analyses include either treating the severity data as ordered (e.g. ordered logit/probit models) or non-ordered (e.g. multinomial models). The ordered models require the data to meet proportional odds assumption, according to which the predictors can only have the same effect on different levels of the dependent variable, which is often not the case with crash injury severities. On the other hand, non-ordered analyses completely ignore the inherent hierarchical nature of crash injury severities. Therefore, treating the crash severity data as either ordered or non-ordered results in violating some of the key principles. To address these concerns, this paper explores the application of a partial proportional odds (PPO) model to bridge the gap between ordered and non-ordered severity modeling frameworks. The PPO model allows the covariates that meet the proportional odds assumption to affect different crash severity levels with the same magnitude; whereas the covariates that do not meet the proportional odds assumption can have different effects on different severity levels. This study is based on a five-year (2008-2012) national pedestrian safety dataset for Switzerland. A comparison between the application of PPO models, ordered logit models, and multinomial logit models for pedestrian injury severity evaluation is also included here. The study shows that PPO models outperform the other models considered based on different evaluation criteria. Hence, it is a viable method for analyzing pedestrian crash injury severities.

  10. Nodal lines and nodal loops in nonsymmorphic odd-parity superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micklitz, T.; Norman, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the nodal structure of odd-parity superconductors in the presence of nonsymmorphic crystal symmetries, both with and without spin-orbit coupling, and with and without time-reversal symmetry. We comment on the relation of our work to previous work in the literature, and also the implications for unconventional superconductors such as UPt3.

  11. Even-odd spatial nonequivalence for atomic quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, G. S.; Gupta, Reena

    2014-05-01

    A general expression for the density of states (DOS) of power-law trapped d-dimensional ideal quantum gases with isotropic spin-orbit couplings (SOCs) is derived and is found to bifurcate into even- dand odd- d classes. The expressions for the grand potential and hence for several thermodynamic quantities are then shown to be amenable to exact analytical forms provided d is an odd integer. Also, a condition γ < 2 d is obtained in case of odd- d for appearance of the Bose-Einstein condensation with γ as the power-law exponent. It is thus established that isotropic SOCs render even and odd dimensional spaces nonequivalent for uniform as well as trapped gases, and that the DOS of one-dimensional (1D) ideal gases, uniform or trapped, remains unaffected by the SOC. Furthermore, the analytical study of the transition temperature and the condensate fraction in a 3D Bose gas under combined presence of the harmonic trapping and the Weyl coupling shows that the condensation is favored by the former but disfavored by the latter. This countering behavior is discussed to be in conformity with the exchange-symmetry-induced statistical interactions resulting from these two entities as enunciated recently [Phys. Rev. A 88, 053607 (2013)].

  12. Empowerment Zone: Texas School Beats the Odds with a Shared Commitment to Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkey, Timothy; Dow, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    The odds were stacked against the new elementary school from the beginning. In its favor, the school was a beautiful building with an established principal. Beyond that, anyone would predict that the first year would be tough. The staff consisted of new teachers and transfers from across the district. The students were reassigned from two…

  13. Mother-Teacher Agreement on Preschoolers' Symptoms of ODD and CD: Does Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jennifer; Hopkins, Joyce; Keenan, Kate

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine mother-teacher agreement on oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and diagnoses in preschool children; to determine if context is a source of disagreement; and to explore if sex, referral status, and age moderated agreement rates. Participants included 158 male and 139 female…

  14. Learning in the Home and at School: How Working Class Children "Succeed against the Odds"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siraj-Blatchford, Iram

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents data collected in individual case studies that aimed to investigate children and their families who succeeded against the usual "odds" of disadvantage. Funded as an extension of EPPE 3-11 by the Cabinet Office for the Equalities Review, the study focused particularly closely upon the performance of disadvantaged…

  15. Teenage Parenthood among Child Welfare Clients: A Swedish National Cohort Study of Prevalence and Odds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinnerljung, Bo; Franzen, Eva; Danielsson, Maria

    2007-01-01

    To assess prevalence and odds for teenage parenthood among former child welfare clients, we used national register data for all children born in Sweden 1972-1983 (n = 1,178,207), including 49,582 former child welfare clients with varying intervention experiences. Logistic regression models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic and familial…

  16. Systematic study of α decay for odd-A nuclei within a two-potential approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Duan, Chao; Deng, Jun-Gang; Guo, Ping; Li, Xiao-Hua

    2017-01-01

    α decay is usually associated with both ground and low-lying isomeric states of heavy and superheavy nuclei, and the unpaired nucleon plays a key role in α decay. In this work, we systematically studied the α decay half-lives of odd-A nuclei, including both favored and unfavored α decay within the two-potential approach based on the isospin dependent nuclear potential. The α preformation probabilities are estimated by using an analytic formula taking into account the shell structure and proton-neutron correlation, and the parameters are obtained through the α decay half-lives data. The results indicate that, in general, the α preformation probabilities of even-Z , odd-N nuclei are slightly smaller than the odd-Z , even-N ones. We found that the odd-even staggering effect may play a more important role on spontaneous fission than α decay. The calculated half-lives can well reproduce the experimental data.

  17. Spontaneous topological transitions of electromagnetic fields in spatially inhomogeneous C P -odd domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuchin, Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Metastable C P -odd domains of the hot QCD matter are coupled to QED via the chiral anomaly. The topology of electromagnetic field in these domains is characterized by magnetic helicity. It is argued, using the Maxwell-Chern-Simons model, that spatial inhomogeneity of the domains induces spontaneous transitions of electromagnetic field between the opposite magnetic helicity states.

  18. Classical Odd-hydrogen Reservoir Species in the Marine Boundary Layer During the California Nexus Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heikes, B.; Herndon, S.; Zahniser, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and formaldehyde were measured in the marine boundary layer from on board the R/V Atlantis during the CalNex program along with a suite of other photochemically active gas and aerosol species. The CalNex R/V Atlantis sub-program was focused on improving our understanding of aerosol and gas photochemistry under a variety of mixed maritime and urban air mass conditions. The cruise occurred between May 14 and June 8, 2010, and the ship's track was along the California coast from San Diego, to the Los Angeles bight, to San Francisco and inland up the Sacramento River to the 'turn-around basin'. Hydrogen peroxide mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit (0.02 ppb) to 2.1 ppb. Methylhydroperoxide mixing ratios ranged from below the detection limit (0.04 ppb) to 1.2 ppb. Measurements of peracetic were attempted, however, mixing ratios above the detection limit (0.2 ppb), were not encountered. Formaldehyde was measured using a wet chemical derivatization fluorescence method and by a quantum cascade laser spectral absorption method. The measurements ranged from below the detection limit, nominally 0.020 ppb (QCL) and 50 (WetChem), to greater than 15 ppb; with values typically between 0.2 and 2.0 ppb. A formaldehyde measurement comparison will be presented; the two systems agreed well. Hydrogen peroxide, methylhydroperoxide and formaldehyde will be presented and interpreted in terms of photochemistry, air quality, and meteorological conditions.

  19. Hindered Gamow-Teller decay to the odd-odd N=Z (62)Ga: absence of proton-neutron T=0 condensate in A=62.

    PubMed

    Grodner, E; Gadea, A; Sarriguren, P; Lenzi, S M; Grebosz, J; Valiente-Dobón, J J; Algora, A; Górska, M; Regan, P H; Rudolph, D; de Angelis, G; Agramunt, J; Alkhomashi, N; Amon Susam, L; Bazzacco, D; Benlliure, J; Benzoni, G; Boutachkov, P; Bracco, A; Caceres, L; Cakirli, R B; Crespi, F C L; Domingo-Pardo, C; Doncel, M; Dombrádi, Zs; Doornenbal, P; Farnea, E; Ganioğlu, E; Gelletly, W; Gerl, J; Gottardo, A; Hüyük, T; Kurz, N; Leoni, S; Mengoni, D; Molina, F; Morales, A I; Orlandi, R; Oktem, Y; Page, R D; Perez, D; Pietri, S; Podolyák, Zs; Poves, A; Quintana, B; Rinta-Antila, S; Rubio, B; Nara Singh, B S; Steer, A N; Verma, S; Wadsworth, R; Wieland, O; Wollersheim, H J

    2014-08-29

    Search for a new kind of superfluidity built on collective proton-neutron pairs with aligned spin is performed studying the Gamow-Teller decay of the T=1, J(π)=0+ ground state of (62)Ge into excited states of the odd-odd N=Z nucleus (62)Ga. The experiment is performed at GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Shwerionenforshung with the (62)Ge ions selected by the fragment separator and implanted in a stack of Si-strip detectors, surrounded by the RISING Ge array. A half-life of T1/2=82.9(14)  ms is measured for the (62)Ge ground state. Six excited states of (62)Ga, populated below 2.5 MeV through Gamow-Teller transitions, are identified. Individual Gamow-Teller transition strengths agree well with theoretical predictions of the interacting shell model and the quasiparticle random phase approximation. The absence of any sizable low-lying Gamow-Teller strength in the reported beta-decay experiment supports the hypothesis of a negligible role of coherent T=0 proton-neutron correlations in (62)Ga.

  20. Digit ratio in birds.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

    2008-12-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds.

  1. Effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on thymus, spleen and cardiac indexes, caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein and mRNA expression levels in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Sun, Yong Le; Wang, Ai Hong; Xu, Chong En; Zhang, Meng Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.

  2. Models of ratio schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Bizo, L A; Killeen, P R

    1997-07-01

    Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engendered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter alpha (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter delta (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules.

  3. Multi-ratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.C.

    1987-07-14

    A preselected multi-ratio power transmission is described comprising: input means for transmitting drive forces; output means; first, second and third friction clutch means each selectively engageable with the input means for accepting drive forces. First input gear means drivingly connects with the first friction clutch means; second input gear means drivingly connects with the second friction clutch means; third input gear means drivingly connects with the third clutch means; first output gear means drivingly connects with the first input gear means; second output gear means drivingly connects with the first and second input gear means; third output means drivingly connects between the third input gear means and the output means; and one double-acting synchronizer clutch for selectively engaging the first output gear means with the output means and alternately the second output gear means with the output means. The first friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The second friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two other forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The third friction clutch means is engageable to provide another forward drive ratio between the input means and the output means; and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch is relieved of transmitting drive forces during the engagement of the third friction clutch means and being manipulable for alternate connection with either the first output gear or the second output gear while the third friction clutch means is engaged.

  4. Impact of target-to-background ratio, target size, emission scan duration, and activity on physical figures of merit for a 3D LSO-based whole body PET/CT scanner.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, M; Matheoud, R; Secco, C; Sacchetti, G; Comi, S; Rudoni, M; Carriero, A; Inglese, E

    2007-10-01

    The aim of our work is to describe the way in which physical figures of merit such as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) behave when varying acquisition parameters such as emission scan duration (ESD) or activity at the start of acquisition (A(acq)) that in clinical practice can be selected by the user, or object properties such as target dimensions or target-to-background (T/B) ratio, which depend uniquely on the intrinsic characteristics of the object being imaged. Figures of merit, used to characterize image quality and quantitative accuracy for a 3D-LSO based PET/CT scanner, were studied as a function of ESD and A(acq) for different target sizes and T/B ratios using a multivariate approach in a wide range of conditions approaching the ones that can be encountered in clinical practice. An annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness was fitted over an IEC phantom in order to obtain counting rates similar to those found in average patients. The average scatter fraction (SF) of the modified IEC phantom was similar to the mean SF measured on patients with a similar scanner. A supplemental set of micro-hollow spheres was positioned inside the phantom. The NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the IEC phantom to approximate the clinical situation of having activity that extends beyond the scanner. The phantoms were filled with a solution of water and 18F (12 kBq/mL) and the spheres with various T/B ratios of 22.5, 10.3, and 3.6. Sequential imaging was performed to acquire PET images with varying background activity concentrations of about 12, 9, 6.4, 5.3, and 3.1 kBq/mL, positioned on the linear portion of the phantom's NECR curve, well below peak NECR of 61.2 kcps that is reached at 31.8 kBq/mL. The ESD was set to 1, 2, 3, and 4 min/bed. With T/B ratios of 3.6, 10.3, and 22.5, the 13.0, 8.1, and 6.5 mm spheres were detectable for the whole ranges of background activity concentration and ESD, respectively. The ESD resulted as the most significant

  5. Impact of target-to-background ratio, target size, emission scan duration, and activity on physical figures of merit for a 3D LSO-based whole body PET/CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Brambilla, M.; Matheoud, R.; Secco, C.; Sacchetti, G.; Comi, S.; Rudoni, M.; Carriero, A.; Inglese, E.

    2007-10-15

    The aim of our work is to describe the way in which physical figures of merit such as contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) behave when varying acquisition parameters such as emission scan duration (ESD) or activity at the start of acquisition (A{sub acq}) that in clinical practice can be selected by the user, or object properties such as target dimensions or target-to-background (T/B) ratio, which depend uniquely on the intrinsic characteristics of the object being imaged. Figures of merit, used to characterize image quality and quantitative accuracy for a 3D-LSO based PET/CT scanner, were studied as a function of ESD and A{sub acq} for different target sizes and T/B ratios using a multivariate approach in a wide range of conditions approaching the ones that can be encountered in clinical practice. An annular ring of water bags of 3 cm thickness was fitted over an IEC phantom in order to obtain counting rates similar to those found in average patients. The average scatter fraction (SF) of the modified IEC phantom was similar to the mean SF measured on patients with a similar scanner. A supplemental set of micro-hollow spheres was positioned inside the phantom. The NEMA NU 2-2001 scatter phantom was positioned at the end of the IEC phantom to approximate the clinical situation of having activity that extends beyond the scanner. The phantoms were filled with a solution of water and {sup 18}F (12 kBq/mL) and the spheres with various T/B ratios of 22.5, 10.3, and 3.6. Sequential imaging was performed to acquire PET images with varying background activity concentrations of about 12, 9, 6.4, 5.3, and 3.1 kBq/mL, positioned on the linear portion of the phantom's NECR curve, well below peak NECR of 61.2 kcps that is reached at 31.8 kBq/mL. The ESD was set to 1, 2, 3, and 4 min/bed. With T/B ratios of 3.6, 10.3, and 22.5, the 13.0, 8.1, and 6.5 mm spheres were detectable for the whole ranges of background activity concentration and ESD, respectively. The ESD resulted as the most

  6. Doing Mathematics with Bicycle Gear Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Sheryl L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students examine bicycle chain-rings, cogs, and gear ratios as a means of exploring algebraic relationships, data collection, scatter plots, and lines of best fit. (KHR)

  7. Observation of the {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} band in odd-odd {sup 170}Re

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.L.; Zhang, Y.H.; Zhou, X.H.; Guo, Y.X.; Lei, X.G.; Liu, M.L.; Peng, L.; Xie, C.Y.; Song, L.T.; Yu, H.P.; Zheng, Y.; Guo, W.T.; Ndontchueng, M. Moyo; Wen, S.X.; Zhu, L.H.; Wu, X.G.; Xu, F.R.

    2004-12-01

    High-spin states in doubly odd {sup 170}Re have been populated via the {sup 142}Nd({sup 32}S,p3n{gamma}) reaction at beam energies of 155 and 166 MeV. K X-{gamma} and {gamma}-{gamma} coincidences have been measured using a detector array consisting of 12 high-purity germanium detectors with BGO suppressors. A rotational band is identified and assigned to {sup 170}Re for the first time. This band is proposed to be built on the {pi}h{sub 11/2}x{nu}i{sub 13/2} two-quasiparticle configuration by comparing the band properties with known bands in neighboring nuclei and the cranked-shell model calculations.

  8. Monte Carlo and deterministic simulations of activation ratio experiments for 238U(n,f), 238U(n,g) and 238U(n,2n) in the Big Ten benchmark critical assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Descalle, M; Clouse, C; Pruet, J

    2009-07-28

    The authors have compared calculations of critical assembly activation ratios using 3 different Monte Carlo codes and one deterministic code. There is excellent agreement. Discrepancies between the different Monte Carlo codes are the 1-2% level. Notably, the deterministic calculations with 87 groups are also in good agreement with the continuous energy Monte Carlo results. The three codes underestimate the {sup 238}U(n,f) reaction, suggesting that there is room for improvement in the evaluation, or in the evaluations of other reactions influencing the spectrum in BigTen. Until statistical uncertainties are implemented in Mercury, they strongly advise long runs to guarantee sufficient convergence of the flux at high energies, and they strongly encourage comparing Mercury results to a well-developed and documented code such as MCNP5 and/or COG. It may be that ENDL2008 will be available for use in COG within a year. Finally, it may be worthwhile to add a 'standard' reaction rate tally similar to those implemented in COG and MCNP5, if the goal is to expand the central fission and activation ratios simulations to include isotopes that are not part of the specifications for the assembly material composition.

  9. Associations between demographic characteristics and physical activity practices in Nevada schools.

    PubMed

    Monnat, Shannon M; Lounsbery, Monica A F; McKenzie, Thomas L; Chandler, Raeven Faye

    2017-02-01

    Schools are important settings for not only providing and promoting children's physical activity (PA) but also for reducing PA disparities. We investigated associations between school-level demographic characteristics (racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition, urban-rural status, and student-to-teacher ratio) and 16 PA-promoting practices in 347 Nevada public elementary, middle, and high schools in 2014. We found that low-cost and easy-to-implement practices are most prevalent. There is relative demographic equity in ten of 16 PA practices and significant differences in six PA practices in Nevada schools. Schools with comparatively larger percentages of Black students are the most disadvantaged, as they have the fewest PA-supportive practices in place. Higher percent black was associated with lower odds of providing classroom activity breaks (AOR=0.632, 95% CI=0.453-0.881) and bike racks (AOR=0.60, 95% CI=0.362-0.996), greater odds of withholding recess/PE for disciplinary reasons (AOR=1.377, 95% CI=1.006-1.885), and lower odds of having recess supervisors who are trained to promote PA (AOR=0.583, 95% CI=0.374-0.909). Schools with greater percentages of Hispanic students have lower odds of providing before-school PA programs (AOR=0.867, 95% CI=0.761-0.987), whereas schools with greater percentages of low-SES students have greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Higher student-to-teacher ratio was also associated with greater odds of providing after-school PA programs (AOR=1.135, 95% CI=1.016-1.268). Urban-rural status was unrelated to all PA practices.

  10. Time reversal odd fragmentation functions in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-hadron scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Mulders, P.J.; Levelt, J.

    1994-04-01

    In semi-inclusive scattering of polarized leptons from unpolarized hadrons, one can measure a time reversal odd structure function. It shows up as a sin({phi}) asymmetry of the produced hadrons. This asymmetry can be expressed as the product of a twist-three {open_quotes}hadron {r_arrow} quark{close_quotes} profile function and a time reversal odd twist-two {open_quotes}quark {r_arrow} hadron{close_quotes} fragmentation function. This fragmentation function can only be measured for nonzero transverse momenta of the produced hadron. Its appearance is a consequence of final state interactions between the produced hadron and the rest of the final state.

  11. Nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach for rotation-particle coupling in triaxial odd-A nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modi, Swati; Patial, M.; Arumugam, P.; Maglione, E.; Ferreira, L. S.

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the formulation of a nonadiabatic approach to study the rotational states in triaxially deformed odd-A nuclei. The rotation-particle coupling is treated microscopically by coupling the triaxial rotor states of the even-even core with the states of the valence particle in order to obtain the matrix elements of the odd-A system. We arrive at a nonadiabatic quasiparticle approach where the rotational states can have contributions from various quasiparticle states near the Fermi level. We bring out the advantages of this approach over the conventional particle rotor model with a fixed or variable moment of inertia. One clear evidence favoring our approach is the rotation alignment phenomenon which is demonstrated in the case of 137Pm. We discuss our results for 136Nd and 137Pm, and justify that this approach is suitable also for studying nuclei away from stability.

  12. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Di Bernardo, A.; Diesch, S.; Gu, Y.; Linder, J.; Divitini, G.; Ducati, C.; Scheer, E.; Blamire, M.G.; Robinson, J.W.A.

    2015-01-01

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces. PMID:26329811

  13. Signature of magnetic-dependent gapless odd frequency states at superconductor/ferromagnet interfaces.

    PubMed

    Di Bernardo, A; Diesch, S; Gu, Y; Linder, J; Divitini, G; Ducati, C; Scheer, E; Blamire, M G; Robinson, J W A

    2015-09-02

    The theory of superconductivity developed by Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer (BCS) explains the stabilization of electron pairs into a spin-singlet, even frequency, state by the formation of an energy gap within which the density of states is zero. At a superconductor interface with an inhomogeneous ferromagnet, a gapless odd frequency superconducting state is predicted, in which the Cooper pairs are in a spin-triplet state. Although indirect evidence for such a state has been obtained, the gap structure and pairing symmetry have not so far been determined. Here we report scanning tunnelling spectroscopy of Nb superconducting films proximity coupled to epitaxial Ho. These measurements reveal pronounced changes to the Nb subgap superconducting density of states on driving the Ho through a metamagnetic transition from a helical antiferromagnetic to a homogeneous ferromagnetic state for which a BCS-like gap is recovered. The results prove odd frequency spin-triplet superconductivity at superconductor/inhomogeneous magnet interfaces.

  14. Odd-parity topological superconductors: theory and application to CuxBi2Se3.

    PubMed

    Fu, Liang; Berg, Erez

    2010-08-27

    Topological superconductors have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface Andreev bound states. In this Letter, we provide a sufficient criterion for realizing time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors in centrosymmetric superconductors with odd-parity pairing. We next study the pairing symmetry of the newly discovered superconductor CuxBi2Se3 within a two-orbital model, and find that a novel spin-triplet pairing with odd parity is favored by strong spin-orbit coupling. Based on our criterion, we propose that CuxBi2Se3 is a good candidate for a topological superconductor. We close by discussing experimental signatures of this new topological phase.

  15. T-odd asymmetry in W + jet events at the LHC.

    PubMed

    Frederix, Rikkert; Hagiwara, Kaoru; Yamada, Toshifumi; Yokoya, Hiroshi

    2014-10-10

    W bosons produced at high transverse momentum in hadron collisions can have polarization along the direction perpendicular to the production plane, which is odd under naïve T reversal where both the three-momenta and angular momenta are reversed. Perturbative QCD predicts nonzero polarization at the one-loop level, which can be measured as parity-odd components in the angular distribution of charged leptons from the decay of W bosons. We perform a detector-level simulation with the generator MadGraph5_aMC@NLO, and demonstrate that the asymmetry can be observed at the 8 TeV LHC with 20 fb(-1) of data. If confirmed, it will be the first experimental measurement of the sign of the imaginary part of one-loop QCD amplitudes.

  16. Rotational structure of the odd-proton nuclide 171Tm: A projected shell model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, YanXin; Chen, FangQi; Yu, ShaoYing; Sun, Yang

    2015-05-01

    Deformed odd-mass nuclei are ideal examples where the interplay between single-particle and collective degrees of freedom can be studied. Inspired by the recent experimental high-spin data in the odd-proton nuclide 171Tm, we perform projected shell model (PSM) calculations to investigate structure of the ground band and other bands based on isomeric states. In addition to the usual quadrupole-quadrupole force in the Hamiltonian, we employ the hexadecapole-hexadecapole ( HH) interaction, in a self-consistent way with the hexadecapole deformation of the deformed basis. It is found that the known experimental data can be well described by the PSM calculation. The effect of the HH force on the quasiparticle isomeric states is discussed.

  17. Odd-Parity Pairing and Topological Superconductivity in a Strongly Spin-Orbit Coupled Semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasaki, Satoshi; Ren, Zhi; Taskin, A. A.; Segawa, Kouji; Fu, Liang; Ando, Yoichi

    2012-11-01

    The existence of topological superconductors preserving time-reversal symmetry was recently predicted, and they are expected to provide a solid-state realization of itinerant massless Majorana fermions and a route to topological quantum computation. Their first likely example, CuxBi2Se3, was discovered last year, but the search for new materials has so far been hindered by the lack of a guiding principle. Here, we report point-contact spectroscopy experiments suggesting that the low-carrier-density superconductor Sn1-xInxTe is accompanied by surface Andreev bound states which, with the help of theoretical analysis, would give evidence for odd-parity pairing and topological superconductivity. The present and previous finding of possible topological superconductivity in Sn1-xInxTe and CuxBi2Se3 suggests that odd-parity pairing favored by strong spin-orbit coupling is likely to be a common underlying mechanism for materializing topological superconductivity.

  18. Odd-Parity Topological Superconductors: Theory and Application to CuxBi2Se3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Liang; Berg, Erez

    2010-08-01

    Topological superconductors have a full pairing gap in the bulk and gapless surface Andreev bound states. In this Letter, we provide a sufficient criterion for realizing time-reversal-invariant topological superconductors in centrosymmetric superconductors with odd-parity pairing. We next study the pairing symmetry of the newly discovered superconductor CuxBi2Se3 within a two-orbital model, and find that a novel spin-triplet pairing with odd parity is favored by strong spin-orbit coupling. Based on our criterion, we propose that CuxBi2Se3 is a good candidate for a topological superconductor. We close by discussing experimental signatures of this new topological phase.

  19. Middle atmosphere heating by exothermic chemical reactions involving odd-hydrogen species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mlynczak, Martin G.; Solomon, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The rate of heating which occurs in the middle atmosphere due to four exothermic reactions involving members of the odd-hydrogen family is calculated. The following reactions are considered: O + OH yields O2 + H; H + O2 + M yields HO2 + M; H + O3 yields OH + O2; and O + HO2 yields OH + O2. It is shown that the heating rates due to these reactions rival the oxygen-related heating rates conventionally considered in middle-atmosphere models. The conversion of chemical potential energy into molecular translational energy (heat) by these odd-hydrogen reactions is shown to be a significant energy source in the middle atmosphere that has not been previously considered.

  20. Odd tensor electric transitions in high-spin Sn-isomers and generalized seniority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Bhoomika; Jain, Ashok Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The similar behavior of the B (E 1) values of the recently observed 13- odd tensor E1 isomers and the B (E 2) values of the 10+ and 15- even tensor E2 isomers in the Sn-isotopes has been understood in terms of the generalized seniority for multi-j orbits by using the quasi-spin scheme. This simple approach proves to be quite successful in explaining the measured transition probabilities and the corresponding half-lives in the high-spin isomers of the semi-magic Sn-isotopes. Hence, we show for the first time the occurrence of seniority isomers in the 13- Sn-isomers, which decay by odd-tensor E1 transitions to the same seniority states.