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Sample records for activity pa behaviors

  1. Effects of Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bernice C.; Norman, Joseph; Meza, Jane; Krogstrand, Kaye Stanek; Harrington, Susana; Shurmur, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Schumacher, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite proven efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in helping patients initiate physical activity and healthy eating changes, less than 50% of CR participants maintain changes 6 months later. Objective The objective of this feasibility study was to test the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention versus usual care (UC) in improving physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients and spouses. Methods An experimental, two-group (n = 17 couples/group), repeated measures design was used. CABG patients in both groups participated in Phase II outpatient CR. Spouses in the PaTH group attended CR with the patient and were asked to make the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the control group attended educational classes with patients. It was theorized that “two persons would be better than one” at making changes and sticking with them long-term. Physical activity behavior was measured using the Actiheart accelerometer; the activity biomarker was an exercise tolerance test. Eating behavior was measured using 3-day food records; the biomarker was the lipid profile. Data were collected at baseline (entrance in CR), 3-months (post-CR), and 6-months. Changes over time were examined using Mann-Whitney U statistics and effect sizes. Results The PaTH intervention was successful primarily in demonstrating improved trends in healthy eating behavior for patients and spouses. No differences were found between the PaTH and UC patients or spouses at 3 or 6 months in the number of minutes/week of physical activity. By 6 months, patients in both groups were, on average, below the national guidelines for PA recommendations (≥ 150 min/week at > 3 METs). Conclusions The couple-focused PaTH intervention demonstrated promise in offsetting the decline in dietary adherence typically seen 6 months after CR. PMID:24434826

  2. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  3. Ammonia sensing behaviors of TiO2-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Dong, Xianjun; Pang, Zengyuan; Du, Yuanzhi; Xia, Xin; Wei, Qufu; Huang, Fenglin

    2012-01-01

    Titanium dioxide-polyaniline/polyamide 6 (TiO(2)-PANI/PA6) composite nanofibers were prepared by in situ polymerization of aniline in the presence of PA6 nanofibers and a sputtering-deposition process with a high purity titanium sputtering target. TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers and PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers were fabricated for ammonia gas sensing. The ammonia sensing behaviors of the sensors were examined at room temperature. All the results indicated that the ammonia sensing property of TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers was superior to that of PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers had good selectivity to ammonia. It was also found that the content of TiO(2) had a great influence on both the morphology and the sensing property of TiO(2)-PANI/PA6 composite nanofibers. PMID:23235446

  4. Making Behavioral Activation More Behavioral

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanter, Jonathan W.; Manos, Rachel C.; Busch, Andrew M.; Rusch, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with…

  5. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice. PMID:26944602

  6. Making behavioral activation more behavioral.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Jonathan W; Manos, Rachel C; Busch, Andrew M; Rusch, Laura C

    2008-11-01

    Behavioral Activation, an efficacious treatment for depression, presents a behavioral theory of depression--emphasizing the need for clients to contact positive reinforcement--and a set of therapeutic techniques--emphasizing provision of instructions rather than therapeutic provision of reinforcement. An integration of Behavioral Activation with another behavioral treatment, Functional Analytic Psychotherapy, addresses this mismatch. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy provides a process for the therapeutic provision of immediate and natural reinforcement. This article presents this integration and offers theoretical and practical therapist guidelines on its application. Although the integration is largely theoretical, empirical data are presented in its support when available. The article ends with a discussion of future research directions. PMID:18420541

  7. t-PA activity in peripheral blood obtained from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ishii, A; Yamada, S; Yamada, R; Hamada, H

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were measured in blood obtained from pregnant women to elucidate the fluctuations in the fibrinolytic system which occur during the course of pregnancy. The t-PA activity was measured with a modified bioimmunoassay using anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody (SP-322) against a single chain of recombinant t-PA. The t-PA antigen was measured by ELISA using the same antibody. PAI activity was determined with a competitive inhibition assay of t-PA activity. In early pregnancy, t-PA activity was found to be close to the standard range seen in nonpregnant women, and gradually decreased during the course of pregnancy, then recovered to rise to the normal range within 48 hours after delivery. The t-PA antigen and PAI activity levels rose slowly during the course of pregnancy, and fell promptly after delivery. t-PA activity and t-PA antigen in levels in umbilical cord blood were higher after vaginal delivery than after cesarean section. These findings suggest that there may be an important physiological balance of the fibrinolytic system between mother and fetus during the course of pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:7965540

  8. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Jie; He, Xiaojing; Lv, Zongyang; Ge, Ruowen; Li, Xuemei; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Yingfang

    2009-11-10

    The heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase, containing the PA, PB1 and PB2 proteins, catalyses viral RNA replication and transcription in the nucleus of infected cells. PB1 holds the polymerase active site and reportedly harbours endonuclease activity, whereas PB2 is responsible for cap binding. The PA amino terminus is understood to be the major functional part of the PA protein and has been implicated in several roles, including endonuclease and protease activities as well as viral RNA/complementary RNA promoter binding. Here we report the 2.2 angstrom (A) crystal structure of the N-terminal 197 residues of PA, termed PA(N), from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. The PA(N) structure has an alpha/beta architecture and reveals a bound magnesium ion coordinated by a motif similar to the (P)DX(N)(D/E)XK motif characteristic of many endonucleases. Structural comparisons and mutagenesis analysis of the motif identified in PA(N) provide further evidence that PA(N) holds an endonuclease active site. Furthermore, functional analysis with in vivo ribonucleoprotein reconstitution and direct in vitro endonuclease assays strongly suggest that PA(N) holds the endonuclease active site and has critical roles in endonuclease activity of the influenza virus polymerase, rather than PB1. The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics.

  9. Low-Temperature Curable Photo-Active Anisotropic Conductive Films (PA-ACFs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Photo-active anisotropic conductive films (PA-ACFs) with curing temperatures below 120°C were introduced using photo-active curing agents. The PA-ACFs showed no curing before UV activation, and the crosslinking systems of the PA-ACFs were not activated under fluorescent light exposure. However, after UV activation, the PA-ACFs were completely cured at 120°C within 10 s. Flex-on-board (FOB) assembly using PA-ACFs had adhesion strength and joint resistances similar to those of the FOB assemblies using conventional epoxy-based ACFs. This study demonstrates that PA-ACFs provide reliable interconnection and minimal thermal deformation among all the commercially available ACFs, especially for low T g substrate applications.

  10. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity. PMID:25829338

  11. A novel plasminogen activator from Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis venom (ABUSV-PA): Purification and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shuqing; Sun Mingzhong . E-mail: ming-zhong.sun@case.edu; Greenaway, Frederick T.

    2006-10-06

    A plasminogen activator with arginine ester hydrolysis activity (ABUSV-PA) has been identified and purified to homogeneity from Chinese Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis snake venom. ABUSV-PA, a monomeric protein with molecular mass of 27815.2 Da, was purified 180-fold with 0.02% recovery for protein and 3.6% recovery for esterase activity. ABUSV-PA reacts optimally with its substrate N {sub {alpha}}-tosyl-L-arginine-methyl ester (TAME) at {approx}pH 7.5 and at 51 {sup o}C. Measurement from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) reveals that ABUSV-PA is a Zn{sup 2+}-containing protein with a stoichiometry of 1:1 [Zn{sup 2+}]:[ABUSV-PA]. Analyses of esterase hydrolysis and UV absorption and CD spectra indicate that Zn{sup 2+} plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity rather than the esterase activity of ABUSV-PA. Divalent metal ions, including Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+}, increase the TAME hydrolysis activity of ABUSV-PA. A red-shift of the emission wavelengths of the synchronous fluorescence of ABUSV-PA, compared to those of free Tyr and Trp, indicates a conformation where the Tyr and Trp residues are in exposed hydrophilic environments. The presence of zinc increases the hydrophobicity of the conformational environments surrounding the Trp residues of ABUSV-PA and affects the secondary structure of ABUSV-PA, as proved by UV absorption and CD spectroscopy.

  12. Interferon gamma regulates accumulation of the proteasome activator PA28 and immunoproteasomes at nuclear PML bodies.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, R P; Wigley, W C; Thomas, P J; DeMartino, G N

    2001-01-01

    PA28 is an interferon (gamma) (IFN(gamma)) inducible proteasome activator required for presentation of certain major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigens. Under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, a portion of nuclear PA28 is concentrated at promyelocytic leukemia oncoprotein (PML)-containing bodies also commonly known as PODs or ND10. IFN(gamma) treatment greatly increased the number and size of the PA28- and PML-containing bodies, and the effect was further enhanced in serum-deprived cells. PML bodies are disrupted in response to certain viral infections and in diseases such as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Like PML, PA28 was delocalized from PML bodies by expression of the cytomegalovirus protein, IE1, and in NB4 cells, an APL model line. Moreover, retinoic acid treatment, which causes remission of APL in patients and reformation of PML-containing bodies in NB4 cells, relocalized PA28 to this site. In contrast, the proteasome, the functional target of PA28, was not detected at PML bodies under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, but IFN(gamma) promoted accumulation of 'immunoproteasomes' at this site. These results establish PA28 as a novel component of nuclear PML bodies, and suggest that PA28 may assemble or activate immunoproteasomes at this site as part of its role in proteasome-dependent MHC class I antigen presentation. PMID:11112687

  13. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Dietary Behaviors among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Shannon; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors are each associated with overweight and obesity among youth. However, the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors are complex and not well understood. Purpose. To describe the associations of PA and sedentary behaviors with dietary behaviors among a representative sample of US high school students. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS). Using logistic regression models which controlled for sex, race/ethnicity, grade, body weight status, and weight management goals, we compared dietary behaviors among students who did and did not meet national recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviors. Results. Students who participated in recommended levels of daily PA (DPA) and muscle strengthening PA (MSPA) were more likely than those who did not to eat fruits and vegetables. Students who exceeded recommended limits for television (TV) and computer/video game (C/VG) screen time were less likely than those who did not to consume fruits and vegetables and were more likely to consume fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusions. Researchers may want to address PA, sedentary behaviors, and dietary behaviors jointly when developing health promotion and obesity prevention programs for youth. PMID:26101666

  14. Obesity and other correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among US high school students.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9-12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA) and participation in daily PA (DPA), vigorous PA (VPA), muscle-strengthening activity (MSA), viewing television (TV), and using computers or video games (C/VG). A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors. PMID:23606950

  15. Conformations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) orchestrate neuronal survival by a crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, T; Lesept, F; Chevilley, A; Lenoir, S; Aimable, M; Briens, A; Hommet, Y; Bardou, I; Parcq, J; Vivien, D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a pleiotropic serine protease of the central nervous system (CNS) with reported neurotrophic and neurotoxic functions. Produced and released under its single chain form (sc), the sc-tPA can be cleaved by plasmin or kallikrein in a two chain form, tc-tPA. Although both sc-tPA and tc-tPA display a similar fibrinolytic activity, we postulated here that these two conformations of tPA (sc-tPA and tc-tPA) could differentially control the effects of tPA on neuronal survival. Using primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons, our present study reveals that sc-tPA is the only one capable to promote N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced calcium influx and subsequent excitotoxicity. In contrast, both sc-tPA and tc-tPA are capable to activate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), a mechanism mediating the antiapoptotic effects of tPA. Interestingly, we revealed a tPA dependent crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR in which a tPA-dependent activation of EGFRs leads to downregulation of NMDAR signaling and to subsequent neurotrophic effects. PMID:26469972

  16. In Vitro Activities of the New Antitubercular Agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  17. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  18. Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Chevilley, Arnaud; Lesept, Flavie; Lenoir, Sophie; Ali, Carine; Parcq, Jérôme; Vivien, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival. PMID:26528141

  19. Demethylation-linked Activation of uPA is Involved in Progression of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulukuri, Sai MuraliKrishna; Estes, Norman; Patel, Jitendra; Rao, Jasti S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) has been reported in various malignancies including prostate cancer. However, the mechanism by which uPA is abnormally expressed in prostate cancer remains elusive. Here, we show that uPA is aberrantly expressed in a high-percentage of human prostate cancer tissues, but rarely expressed either in tumor-matched, non-neoplastic adjacent tissues (NNAT) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples. This aberrant expression is associated with cancer-linked demethylation of the uPA promoter. Furthermore, treatment with demethylation inhibitor S-Adenosylmethionine (Ado-Met) or stable expression of uPA shRNA significantly inhibits uPA expression and tumor cell invasion in vitro and tumor growth and incidence of lung metastasis in vivo. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that DNA demethylation is a common mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of uPA and is a critical contributing factor to the malignant progression of human prostate tumors. PMID:17283123

  20. Behavior and Fate of Halloysite Nanotubes (HNTs) When Incinerating PA6/HNTs Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Ounoughene, G; Le Bihan, O; Chivas-Joly, C; Motzkus, C; Longuet, C; Debray, B; Joubert, A; Le Coq, L; Lopez-Cuesta, J-M

    2015-05-01

    Nanoclay-based nanocomposites have been widely studied and produced since the late 1990s, and frequently end up in waste disposal plants. This work investigates the behavior of PA6/HNTs nanocomposites (nylon-6 incorporating halloysite nanotubes) during incineration. Incineration tests were performed at lab-scale using a specific tubular furnace modified in order to control the key incineration parameters within both the combustion and postcombustion zones. The combustion residues and combustion aerosol (particulate matter and gas phase) collected downstream of the incinerator furnace were characterized using various aerosol analysis techniques. Time tracking of the gas and particle-number concentrations revealed two-step char formation during combustion. HNTs transformed into other mineral structures which were found in both the aerosol and the residues. During combustion of the polymer, it appears that HNTs contribute to the formation of a cohesive char layer that protects the residual material. PMID:25760854

  1. Production of human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Mishaneh; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Masoumiasl, Asad; Abdolinasab, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease with 72 kD molecular mass and 527 amino acids plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The collective production of this drug in plants such as cucumber, one of the most important vegetables in the world, could reduce its production costs. In this study, after scrutiny of the appropriate regeneration of cucumber plant (Isfahan variety) on MS medium with naphthalene acetic acid hormone (NAA; 0/1 mg L⁻¹) and benzyl amino purine hormone (BAP; 3 mg L⁻¹) hormones, the cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into cotyledon explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Subsequent to the regeneration of inoculated explants on the selective medium, the persistence of tPA gene in recombinant plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. To evaluate the tPA gene expression in transgenic plants, RNA was extracted and the tPA gene transcription was confirmed by reverse-transcription (RT) PCR. Followed the extraction of protein from the leaves of transgenic plants, the presence of tPA protein was confirmed by dot blot and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis in order to survey the production of recombinant tPA protein. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for recombinant tPA protein level in transgenic cucumber plants. It was counted between 0.8 and 1%, and based on this, it was concluded that the presence of three expressions of regulatory factors (CaMV 35S, Kozak, NOS) and KDEL signal in the construct caused the increase of the tPA gene expression in cucumber plants. PMID:24152103

  2. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  3. Inhibition of PAI-1 Antiproteolytic Activity Against tPA by RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Damare, Jared; Brandal, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) inhibits the plasminogen activators: tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been correlated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Pharmacologically suppressing PAI-1 might prevent, or successfully treat PAI-1 related vascular diseases. This can potentially be accomplished by using small RNA molecules (aptamers). This study's goal is to develop RNA aptamers to a region of PAI-1 that will prevent the ability of PAI-1 to interact with the plasminogen activators. The aptamers were generated through a systematic evolution of ligands via exponential enrichment approach that ensures the creation of RNA molecules that bind to our target protein, PAI-1. In vitro assays were used to determine the effect of these aptamers on PAI-1's inhibitory activity. Three aptamers that bind to PAI-1 with affinities in the nanomolar range were isolated. The aptamer clones R10-4 and R10-2 inhibited PAI-1's antiproteolytic activity against tPA and disrupted PAI-1's ability to form a stable covalent complex with tPA. Increasing aptamer concentrations correlated positively with an increase in cleaved PAI-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of RNA molecules that inhibit the antiproteolytic activity of PAI-1. PMID:24922319

  4. Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Campion, Suzanne; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol; Sidenius, Nicolai; Docagne, Fabian; Cunningham, Colm

    2009-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-linked cell surface protein that facilitates focused plasmin proteolytic activity at the cell surface. uPAR has been detected in macrophages infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) and soluble uPAR has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid during a number of CNS pathologies. However, its expression by resident microglial cells in vivo remains uncertain. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the murine CNS expression of uPAR and uPA as well as that of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during insults generating distinct and well-characterized inflammatory responses; acute intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute kainate-induced neurodegeneration, and chronic neurodegeneration induced by prion disease inoculation. All three insults induced marked expression of uPAR at both mRNA and protein level compared to controls (naïve, saline, or control inoculum-injected). uPAR expression was microglial in all cases. Conversely, uPA transcription and activity was only markedly increased during chronic neurodegeneration. Dissociation of uPA and uPAR levels in acute challenges is suggestive of additional proteolysis-independent roles for uPAR. PAI-1 was most highly expressed upon LPS challenge, whereas tissue plasminogen activator mRNA was constitutively present and less responsive to all insults studied. These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed. PMID:19459212

  5. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of stroke: therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James F

    2008-06-01

    Today there exists only one FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke; i.e., the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In the aftermath of the failed stroke clinical trials with the nitrone spin trap/radical scavenger, NXY-059, a number of articles raised the question: are we doing the right thing? Is the animal research truly translational in identifying new agents for stroke treatment? This review summarizes the current state of affairs with plasminogen activators in thrombolytic therapy. In addition to therapeutic value, potential side effects of tPA also exist that aggravate stroke injury and offset the benefits provided by reperfusion of the occluded artery. Thus, combinational options (ultrasound alone or with microspheres/nanobubbles, mechanical dissociation of clot, activated protein C (APC), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), neuroserpin and CDP-choline) that could offset tPA toxic side effects and improve efficacy are also discussed here. Desmoteplase, a plasminogen activator derived from the saliva of Desmodus rotundus vampire bat, antagonizes vascular tPA-induced neurotoxicity by competitively binding to low-density lipoprotein related-receptors (LPR) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) interface, minimizing the tPA uptake into brain parenchyma. tPA can also activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endopeptidases comprised of 24 mammalian enzymes that primarily catalyze the turnover and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs have been implicated in BBB breakdown and neuronal injury in the early times after stroke, but also contribute to vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and axonal regeneration during the later repair phase after stroke. tPA, directly or by activation of MMP-9, could have beneficial effects on recovery after stroke by promoting neurovascular repair through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, any treatment regimen directed at MMPs must consider their

  6. Pilot surveillance for childhood encephalitis in Australia using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network.

    PubMed

    Britton, P N; Dale, R C; Elliott, E; Festa, M; Macartney, K; Booy, R; Jones, C A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records. Comprehensive clinical data were prospectively collected on consented participants and subsequently reviewed by an expert panel. Cases were categorized as confirmed encephalitis or 'not encephalitis'; encephalitis cases were sub-categorized as infectious, immune-mediated or unknown. We performed an ICD-10 diagnostic code audit of hospitalizations for the pilot period. We compared case ascertainment in the four screening methods and with the ICD code audit. Forty-eight cases of suspected encephalitis were identified by one or more methods. PAEDS was the most efficient mechanism (yield 34%), followed by MRI, CSF, and pharmacy audits (yield 14%, 12%, and 7% respectively). Twenty-five cases met the criteria for confirmed encephalitis. PAEDS was the most sensitive of the mechanisms for confirmed encephalitis (92%) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72%. The ICD audit was moderately sensitive (64%) but poorly specific (Sp 9%, PPV 14%). Of the 25 confirmed encephalitis cases, 19 (76%) were sub-categorized as infectious, three (12%) were immune-mediated, and three (12%) were 'unknown'. We identified encephalitis cases associated with two infectious disease outbreaks (enterovirus 71, parechovirus 3). PAEDS is an efficient, sensitive and accurate surveillance mechanism for detecting cases of childhood encephalitis including those

  7. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3',5' -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  8. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3’,5’ -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  9. Mediated Effects of Perceived Competence on Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yang; Chen, Senlin; Vazou, Spyridoula; Welk, Gregory J.; Schaben, Jodee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are influenced by a common mediating relationship. Method: A total of 1,552 participants in 3rd to 12th grade completed an online survey that included assessments of PA at school (PAS), PA at home (PAH), and SB as well as a battery of psychosocial variables…

  10. Behavior-Specific Influences for Physical Activity Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Hope; Yates, Bernice C; Blanchard, Shirley; Zimmerman, Lani M; Hudson, Diane; Pozehl, Bunny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity (PA) behaviors and physical functioning of prehypertensive and Stage I hypertensive African American Women (AAW) and to examine the relationships between PA behavior, physical functioning, personal factors, and behavior-specific influences. Pender's Health Promotion Model was the conceptual framework for the study. A cross-sectional design and convenience sample were used. The PA domain where the greatest amount of time was spent was in work-related activity, followed by household, leisure time, and transportation activity. Personal factors most strongly correlated to lower PA were greater body mass index and waist circumference. AAW perceived moderate barriers to PA and minimal family and friend social support for PA. Future interventions need to focus on removing barriers to and improving social support for PA among AAW. PMID:27044446

  11. The Prediction of Paranoid Behavior: Comparative Validities of Obvious vs. Subtle MMPI Paranoia (Pa) Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovanitz, Christine A.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory paranoia subtle, neutral, and obvious subscales and criteria presumed to reflect various paranoid characteristics in a sample of male college students (N=100). Results showed that both the obvious and subtle Pa Items predicted various criteria. (Author/JAC)

  12. BioKnife, a uPA activity-dependent oncolytic Sendai virus, eliminates pleural spread of malignant mesothelioma via simultaneous stimulation of uPA expression.

    PubMed

    Morodomi, Yosuke; Yano, Tokujiro; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Harada, Yui; Saito, Satoru; Kyuragi, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Kumi; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Shoji, Fumihiro; Yoshida, Tsukihisa; Ito, Kensaku; Shikada, Yasunori; Maruyama, Riichiroh; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu

    2012-04-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is highly intractable and readily spreads throughout the surface of the pleural cavity, and these cells have been shown to express urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We here examined the potential of our new and powerful recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV), which shows uPAR-specific cell-to-cell fusion activity (rSeV/dMFct14 (uPA2), named "BioKnife"), for tumor cell killing in two independent orthotopic xenograft models of human. Multicycle treatment using BioKnife resulted in the efficient rescue of these models, in association with tumor-specific fusion and apoptosis. Such an effect was also seen on both MSTO-211H and H226 cells in vitro; however, we confirmed that the latter expressed uPAR but not uPA. Of interest, infection with BioKnife strongly facilitated the uPA release from H226 cells, and this effect was completely abolished by use of either pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or BioKnife expressing the C-terminus-deleted dominant negative inhibitor for retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-IC), indicating that BioKnife-dependent expression of uPA was mediated by the RIG-I/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) axis, detecting RNA viral genome replication. Therefore, these results suggest a proof of concept that the tumor cell-killing mechanism via BioKnife may have significant potential to treat patients with MPM that is characterized by frequent uPAR expression in a clinical setting. PMID:22314292

  13. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  14. Physical Activity Behaviors and Emotional Self-Efficacy: Is There a Relationship for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Zullig, Keith J.; Paxton, Raheem J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study explored relationships between physical activity (PA) behaviors and emotional self-efficacy (ESE) in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents in South Carolina (n = 3836). Methods: The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey PA items and an adolescent ESE scale were used. Logistic regression…

  15. Ethnicity as a Moderator of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Physical Activity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Eric; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Baker, Frank; Hunt, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Most college students do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines, and ethnic disparities exist. The present study examined the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in explaining PA intentions and behavior in black and white college students and whether any TPB relationships were moderated by ethnicity. Black (n = 170) and white (n =…

  16. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  17. Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (≥600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research

  18. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta, and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2015-12-01

    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far-UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines, which can be identified with broad wings. We produce Hα, Hβ, and Paα wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density {N}{{H} {{I}}} being roughly proportional to {N}{{H} {{I}}}1/2. In particular, with {N}{{H} {{I}}}={10}23 {{cm}}-2 the Hα wings typically show a width ∼ 2× {10}4 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We also find that Hα and Paα wing profiles are asymmetric with the red part stronger than the blue part and an opposite behavior is seen for Hβ wings.

  19. Structural details of light activation of the LOV2-based photoswitch PA-Rac1.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andreas; Barends, Thomas R M; Udvarhelyi, Anikó; Lenherr-Frey, Daniel; Lomb, Lukas; Menzel, Andreas; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-02-20

    Optical control of cellular processes is an emerging approach for studying biological systems, affording control with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically designed artificial photoswitches add an interesting extension to naturally occurring light-regulated functionalities. However, despite a great deal of structural information, the generation of new tools cannot be based fully on rational design yet; in many cases design is limited by our understanding of molecular details of light activation and signal transduction. Our biochemical and biophysical studies on the established optogenetic tool PA-Rac1, the photoactivatable small GTPase Rac1, reveal how unexpected details of the sensor-effector interface, such as metal coordination, significantly affect functionally important structural elements of this photoswitch. Together with solution scattering experiments, our results favor differences in the population of pre-existing conformations as the underlying allosteric activation mechanism of PA-Rac1, rather than the assumed release of the Rac1 domain from the caging photoreceptor domain. These results have implications for the design of new optogenetic tools and highlight the importance of including molecular details of the sensor-effector interface, which is however difficult to assess during the initial design of novel artificial photoswitches. PMID:25368973

  20. TMPRSS4 upregulates uPA gene expression through JNK signaling activation to induce cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Yunhee; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Myung Kyu; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Semi

    2014-02-01

    TMPRSS4 is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that is highly expressed in pancreatic, thyroid, colon, and other cancer tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 mediates tumor cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 induced the transcription of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene through activating the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-1 in mainly a JNK-dependent manner and that the induction of uPA was required for TMPRSS4-mediated cancer cell invasion and signaling events. In addition, the uPA receptor was involved in TMPRSS4-induced signaling activation and subsequent uPA expression probably through its association with TMPRSS4 on the cell surface. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that uPA expression was significantly correlated with TMPRSS4 expression in human lung and prostate cancers. These observations suggest that TMPRSS4 is an important regulator of uPA gene expression; the upregulation of uPA by TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion and may represent a novel mechanism for the control of invasion. PMID:23978400

  1. Spatial arrangement and functional role of α subunits of proteasome activator PA28 in hetero-oligomeric form

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Sahashi, Hiroki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Takata, Shin-ichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kanai, Keita; Sakata, Eri; Minami, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Keiji; Kato, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Homologous α and β subunits are alternatively arranged in the PA28 heptameric ring. ► The flexible loops of the three α subunits surround the site of substrate entry. ► The loops serve as gatekeepers that selectively hinder passage of longer peptides. - Abstract: A major form of proteasome activator PA28 is a heteroheptamer composed of interferon-γ-inducible α and β subunits, which share approximately 50% amino acid identity and possess distinct insert loops. This activator forms a complex with the 20S proteasome and thereby stimulates proteasomal degradation of peptides in an ATP-independent manner, giving rise to smaller antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this study, we performed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the structure and function of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. Deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated three α and four β subunits are alternately arranged in the heptameric ring. In this arrangement, PA28 loops surround the central pore of the heptameric ring (site for peptide entry). Activating the 20S proteasome with a PA28 mutant that lacked the α subunit loops cleaved model substrates longer than a nonapeptide with better efficiency when compared to wild-type PA28. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the flexible PA28 loops act as gatekeepers, which function to select the length of peptide substrates to be transported between the proteolytic chamber and the extra-proteasomal medium.

  2. Molecular requirements for the insecticidal activity of the plant peptide pea albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Pedro; Rahioui, Isabelle; Laugier, Christian; Jouvensal, Laurence; Meudal, Hervé; Chouabe, Christophe; Delmas, Agnès F; Gressent, Frédéric

    2010-10-22

    PA1b (pea albumin 1, subunit b) is a small and compact 37-amino acid protein, isolated from pea seeds (Pisum sativum), that adopts a cystine knot fold. It acts as a potent insecticidal agent against major pests in stored crops and vegetables, making it a promising bioinsecticide. Here, we investigate the influence of individual residues on the structure and bioactivity of PA1b. A collection of 13 PA1b mutants was successfully chemically synthesized in which the residues involved in the definition of PA1b amphiphilic and electrostatic characteristics were individually replaced with an alanine. The three-dimensional structure of PA1b was outstandingly tolerant of modifications. Remarkably, receptor binding and insecticidal activities were both dependent on common well defined clusters of residues located on one single face of the toxin, with Phe-10, Arg-21, Ile-23, and Leu-27 being key residues of the binding interaction. The inactivity of the mutants is clearly due to a change in the nature of the side chain rather than to a side effect, such as misfolding or degradation of the peptide, in the insect digestive tract. We have shown that a hydrophobic patch is the putative site of the interaction of PA1b with its binding site. Overall, the mutagenesis data provide major insights into the functional elements responsible for PA1b entomotoxic properties and give some clues toward a better understanding of the PA1b mode of action. PMID:20660598

  3. Contribution of the Nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the Activity of Novel Regimens in Murine Models of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E.; Upton, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. PMID:25331697

  4. Contribution of the nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the activity of novel regimens in murine models of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E; Upton, Anna M; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2015-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. PMID:25331697

  5. Multifunctional roles of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in cancer stemness and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Stepanova, Victoria; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Holterman, AiXuan L.; Estes, Norman; Cines, Douglas B.; Rao, Jasti S.; Gondi, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost always lethal. One of the underlying reasons for this lethality is believed to be the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC), which impart chemoresistance and promote recurrence, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. Recently the poor prognosis of PDAC has been correlated with increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In the present study we examine the role of uPA in the generation of PDAC CSC. We observe a subset of cells identifiable as a side population (SP) when sorted by flow cytometry of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells that possess the properties of CSC. A large fraction of these SP cells are CD44 and CD24 positive, are gemcitabine resistant, possess sphere-forming ability, and exhibit increased tumorigenicity, known characteristics of cancer stemness. Increased tumorigenicity and gemcitabine resistance decrease after suppression of uPA. We observe that uPA interacts directly with transcription factors LIM homeobox-2 (Lhx2), homeobox transcription factor A5 (HOXA5), and Hey to possibly promote cancer stemness. uPA regulates Lhx2 expression by suppressing expression of miR-124 and p53 expression by repressing its promoter by inactivating HOXA5. These results demonstrate that regulation of gene transcription by uPA contributes to cancer stemness and clinical lethality. PMID:23864708

  6. Current perspectives on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sherita N; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Johansen, Michelle C; McMurry, Timothy L; Johnston, Karen C; Southerland, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) Stroke Study Group published the results of a large multicenter clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of intravenous tPA by revealing a 30% relative risk reduction (absolute risk reduction 11%–15%) compared with placebo at 90 days in the likelihood of having minimal or no disability. Since approval in 1996, tPA remains the only drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the years, an abundance of research and clinical data has supported the safe and efficacious use of intravenous tPA in all eligible patients. Despite such supporting data, it remains substantially underutilized. Challenges to the utilization of tPA include narrow eligibility and treatment windows, risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, perceived lack of efficacy in certain high-risk subgroups, and a limited pool of neurological and stroke expertise in the community. With recent US census data suggesting annual stroke incidence will more than double by 2050, better education and consensus among both the medical and lay public are necessary to optimize the use of tPA for all eligible stroke patients. Ongoing and future research should continue to improve upon the efficacy of tPA through more rapid stroke diagnosis and treatment, refinement of advanced neuroimaging and stroke biomarkers, and successful demonstration of alternative means of reperfusion. PMID:24591838

  7. QSAR study of substituted 2-pyridinyl guanidines as selective urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, C; Moorthy, N S Hari Narayana; Trivedi, Piyush

    2009-02-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis was conducted on two different series of pyridinylguanidines acting as inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator using QuaSAR descriptors of molecular modeling software MOE. Multiple linear regression analysis following a stepwise scheme was employed to generate QSARs that relate molecular descriptors to uPA inhibitory activity data of the title compounds. Among the several QSARs generated by MLR analysis, the best models were selected on the basis of their statistical significance and predictive potential. The interpretation of the selected QSAR models suggest that uPA inhibitory activity of compounds in series 1 is influenced by their molecular shape, molecular flexibility and halogen atoms in the molecule whereas the uPA inhibitory potency of compounds in series 2 is dependent on molecular lipophilicity, number of double bonds and spatial orientation of bulky substituents in the molecule. PMID:19012070

  8. Late Quaternary mass-wasting records in the actively uplifting Pa-chang catchment, southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Ching, Kuo-En; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen

    2014-07-01

    Although dominated by erosion over long term, the tectonically active mountains of Taiwan commonly contain thick landslide and debris-flow gravels capping hillslopes or forming alluvial terraces. These deposits and their associated landforms serve to study ancient mass-wasting histories and their controls on fluvial processes. This study focuses on the Pa-chang River draining the < 2000 m high Ali-shan area in southwestern Taiwan (current tectonic uplift: 5-8 mm yr- 1). Although small (catchment area: 83 km2), the Pa-chang exhibits one of the largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, which stretches from the outlet of the catchment for 9 km along the river and comprises fluvial and debris-flow gravels up to 150 m thick. Totally 55 radiocarbon dates have been obtained, tracing the mass-wasting records back to 14.8 ka. The largest events, which created the studied major terraces, occurred in 10.0-11.3 and 8.7-9.4 ka. These events are synchronous with the formation of some regionally largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, and may have been triggered by the frequent heavy rains associated with the early Holocene East Asian summer-monsoon maximum. More mass-wasting events have been dated at ~ 5.4, ~ 1.9, 1.2-1.7, 0.7-0.9, ~ 0.6, and < 0.3 ka. The vast supply of sediment from the recorded mass-wasting events not only caused river aggradation but also regulated the subsequent incision by forming boulder armors. As a result, the bedrock incision in the upper part of the catchment has been negligible since the early Holocene debris-flow deposition. The incision rates increase to the downstream direction as the size and concentration of boulders reduce. Still, the 14.8 ka-averaged bedrock incision rate (< 4.5 mm yr- 1) at the catchment outlet is lower than the current uplift rate (6 mm yr- 1). At the same site, however, the bedrock incision rate is 23 mm yr- 1 averaged over the past 0.6 ka. Even higher rates of incision (> 50 mm yr- 1) are detected further downstream after the

  9. Acculturation and activity behaviors in Chinese American immigrants in New York City.

    PubMed

    Yi, Stella S; Beasley, Jeannette M; Kwon, Simona C; Huang, Keng-Yen; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Asian Americans have lower levels of physical activity (PA) compared to other racial/ethnic groups; however, there is little understanding of the social and cultural determinants of PA in this population. Few analyses describe specific PA domains (occupation-, transportation-, recreation-related), focus on one Asian subgroup, or use validated scales. The study objective was to assess the association between acculturation and activity behaviors (meeting 2008 PA guidelines, activity minutes by PA domain, sitting time) in a cross-sectional sample of urban-dwelling, Chinese American immigrants. Data were from the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) 2010-11 among participants with valid reports of PA minutes, assessed by the WHO Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (n = 1772). Acculturation was assessed using the Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale, a 32-item instrument which characterizes two acculturative dimensions: ethnic society (Chinese) immersion and dominant society (American) immersion (maximum possible scores = 4). Multivariable models regressing activity behaviors on acculturation were run, adjusting for age, sex, household income, education, and age at immigration. Ethnic society immersion was high (mean = 3.64) while dominant society immersion was moderate (mean = 2.23). Higher ethnic society immersion was associated with less recreation-related PA (- 40.7 min/week); higher dominant society immersion was associated with a higher odds of meeting PA guidelines (OR: 1.66 (1.25, 2.20), p < 0.001) and more recreation-related PA (+ 36.5 min/week). Given low PA levels in Chinese adults in China, results suggest that PA for leisure may increase and become a more normative behavior among Chinese American immigrants with acculturation. Understanding acculturation level may inform strategies to increase PA in Chinese Americans. PMID:27570733

  10. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  11. Gender differences in sociodemographic and behavioral influences of physical activity in Mexican-origin adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Larkin L; Anderson, Cheryl B; Miranda, Patricia Y; Bondy, Melissa L; Zhou, Renke; Etzel, Carol J; Spitz, Margaret R; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that contribute to physical activity (PA) in Mexican-origin adolescents is essential to the design of effective efforts to enhance PA participation in this population. Methods Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of self-reported PA in school and community settings in 1,154 Mexican-origin adolescents aged 12–17 years in Houston, TX. Results The majority of adolescents were born in the US (74%), approximately half (51%) were overweight or obese, and nearly three-quarters (73%) watched more than 2 hours of weekday television. Similarities and differences by setting and gender were observed in the relationships between sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and PA. In boys, parental education and attending physical education (PE) were positively associated with PA across multiple PA outcomes. Adolescent linguistic acculturation was inversely associated with participation in community sports, whereas parental linguistic acculturation was positively associated with PA at school. In girls, PA in school and community settings was inversely associated with TV viewing and positively associated with PE participation. Conclusions These findings highlight similarities and differences in correlates of PA among boys and girls, and point towards potential sources of opportunities as well as disparities for PA behaviors in Mexican-origin adolescents. PMID:21952224

  12. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 minutes moderate-intensity or ≥75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

  13. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  14. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  15. Emergent behavior in active colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zöttl, Andreas; Stark, Holger

    2016-06-01

    Active colloids are microscopic particles, which self-propel through viscous fluids by converting energy extracted from their environment into directed motion. We first explain how artificial microswimmers move forward by generating near-surface flow fields via self-phoresis or the self-induced Marangoni effect. We then discuss generic features of the dynamics of single active colloids in bulk and in confinement, as well as in the presence of gravity, field gradients, and fluid flow. In the third section, we review the emergent collective behavior of active colloidal suspensions, focusing on their structural and dynamic properties. After summarizing experimental observations, we give an overview of the progress in modeling collectively moving active colloids. While active Brownian particles are heavily used to study collective dynamics on large scales, more advanced methods are necessary to explore the importance of hydrodynamic and phoretic particle interactions. Finally, the relevant physical approaches to quantify the emergent collective behavior are presented.

  16. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  17. Reliability of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey, physical activity (CAPANS-PA) questionnaire among chinese-australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that differences exist in physical activity (PA) participation among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) children and adolescents. It is possible that these differences could be influenced by variations in measurement technique and instrument reliability. However, culturally sensitive instruments for examining PA behaviour among CALD populations are lacking. This study tested the reliability of the Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS-PA) recall questionnaire among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods The psychometric property of the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was examined among a sample of 77 Chinese-Australian youth (aged 11 - 14 y) who completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days. Test-retest reliability of individual items and scales within the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was determined using Kappa statistics for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Results The CAPANS-PA questionnaire demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for frequency and duration of time spent in weekly Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) (ICC ≥ 0.70) for all participants. Test-retest reliability for time spent in weekly sedentary activities was acceptable for females (ICC = 0.82) and males (ICC = 0.72). Conclusions The results suggest the CAPANS-PA questionnaire provides reliable estimates for type, frequency and duration of MVPA participation among Chinese-Australian youth. Further investigation into the reliability of the sedentary items within the CAPANS-PA is required before these items can be used with confidence. This study is novel in that the reliability of instruments among CALD groups nationally and internationally remains sparse and this study contributes to the wider body of available psychometrically tested instruments. In addition, this study is the first to our knowledge to successfully engage and investigate the basic health

  18. Analyzing the behavior of a porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite for healing of bone defects.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yan; Ren, Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Yang, Hongsheng; Lang, Yun; Min, Li; Zhang, Wenli; Pei, Fuxing; Yan, Yonggang; Li, Hong; Mo, Anchun; Tu, Chongqi; Duan, Hong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the behavior of the porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) composite grafted for bone defect repair through a series of biological safety experiments, animal experiments, and a more than 5-year long clinical follow-up. The biological safety experiments, carried out in accordance with the Chinese Guo Biao and Tolerancing (GB/T)16886 and GB/T16175, revealed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had no cytotoxicity, no sensitization effect, no pyrogenic reaction, and that its hemolysis rate was 0.59% (less than 5%). Rabbit models of tibia defects with grafted porous n-HA/PA66 composite were established. After 2 weeks, the experiment showed that osteogenesis was detected in the porous n-HA/PA66 composite; the density of new bone formation was similar to the surrounding host bone at 12 weeks. After 26 weeks, the artificial bone rebuilt to lamellar bone completely. In the clinical study, a retrospective review was carried out for 21 patients who underwent serial radiographic assessment after treatment with porous n-HA/PA66 composite grafts following bone tumor resection. All wounds healed to grade A. No postoperative infections, delayed deep infection, nonspecific inflammation, rejection, or fractures were encountered. At a mean follow-up of 5.3 years, the mean Musculoskeletal Tumor Society's (MSTS) 93 score was 29.3 points (range: 28-30 points) and mean radiopaque density ratio was 0.77±0.10. The radiologic analysis showed that porous n-HA/PA66 composite had been completely incorporated with the host bone about 1.5 years later. In conclusion, this study indicated that the porous n-HA/PA66 composite had biological safety, and good biocompatibility, osteoinduction, and osseointegration. Thus, the porous n-HA/PA66 composite is an ideal artificial bone substitute and worthy of promotion in the field. PMID:24531621

  19. Hemothorax under thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue: plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in a 16-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Varnholt, V; Ringe, H; Nietsch, L; Gaedicke, G

    1999-12-01

    We present the case of a 16-year-old girl with an extended thrombosis of the femoral and iliac vein and the inferior vena cava during pleuropneumonia; predisposing risk factors for thrombophilia were: use of contraceptives, nicotine abuse and congenital deficiency of antithrombin III (not previously diagnosed). Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; initial dose: 0.08 mg/kg/h) was started. 2 days later--after diagnosis of an extended hemothorax: 1500 ml blood were obtained after thoracocentesis, transfusion of packed red blood cells was necessary--rt-PA was stopped, with only heparin (400 U/kg/d) being administered. 36 h later--the thrombosis had not yet changed--the thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA was continued in a markedly reduced dose (0.015 mg/kg/d) with no further bleeding complications. 8 days later--after successful thrombolysis--t-PA was stopped, heparin was given for another 10 days, then cumarin was administered orally. PMID:10650854

  20. "Feeling unsafe": a photovoice analysis of factors influencing physical activity behavior among Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saimon, Rosalia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the factors influencing physical activity (PA) in the Asia-Pacific region is critical, given the high prevalence of inactivity in this area. The photovoice technique explores the types of PA and factors influencing PA among adolescents in Kuching, Sarawak. A total of 160 photographs were collected from participants (adolescents, n = 22, mean age = 14.27 ± 0.7 years, and parents, n = 8, mean age = 48 ± 6.8 years). Data analysis used constant comparison methods of a grounded theory. The Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity was used to categorize PA factors. Study findings were centered on the concept of safety, facilities, parental restriction, friends, cultural traits, media, community cohesiveness, and weather. The central theme was "feeling unsafe" when being outdoors. To promote PA behavior, provision of PA facilities needs to be supported by other programs that build on peer support, crime prevention, and traffic safety, together with other educational campaigns. PMID:23513006

  1. High-level expression of a novel recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in the milk of transgenic rabbits and its thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Ge, Xin; Cheng, Yaobin; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Baoli; Ji, Xueqiao; Qi, Zhengqiang; Rong, Yao; Yuan, Yuguo; Cheng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key kinase of fibrinolysis that plays an important role in dissolving fibrin clots to promote thrombolysis. The recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) has more thrombolytic advantages than the wild type tPA. To increase the half-life and thrombolytic activity of tPA, a mutant containing only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P activating plasminogen domains of the wild type tPA was cloned. This fragment was then inserted into goat β-casein regulatory sequences. Then, a mammary gland-specific expression vector, PCL25/rhPA, was constructed, and the transgenic rabbits were generated. In this study, 18 live transgenic founders (12♀, 6♂) were generated using pronuclear microinjection. Six transgenic rabbits were obtained, and the expression levels of rhPA in the milk had a range of 15.2-630 µg/ml. A fibrin agarose plate assay of rhPA showed that it had strong thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro, and the highest specific activity was >360 (360 times more than that of alteplase). The results indicated that the rhPA containing only the K2 and P domains is efficiently expressed with higher thrombolytic bioactivity in the milk of transgenic rabbits. Our study also demonstrated a new method for the large-scale production of clinically relevant recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits. PMID:27230577

  2. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Results Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Conclusion Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time. PMID:26709924

  3. CFTR suppresses tumor progression through miR-193b targeting urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, C; Jiang, X H; Zhang, J T; Sun, T T; Dong, J D; Sanders, A J; Diao, R Y; Wang, Y; Fok, K L; Tsang, L L; Yu, M K; Zhang, X H; Chung, Y W; Ye, L; Zhao, M Y; Guo, J H; Xiao, Z J; Lan, H Y; Ng, C F; Lau, K M; Cai, Z M; Jiang, W G; Chan, H C

    2013-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in the epithelial cells of a wide range of organs/tissues from which most cancers are derived. Although accumulating reports have indicated the association of cancer incidence with genetic variations in CFTR gene, the exact role of CFTR in cancer development and the possible underlying mechanism have not been elucidated. Here, we report that CFTR expression is significantly decreased in both prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissue samples. Overexpression of CFTR in prostate cancer cell lines suppresses tumor progression (cell growth, adhesion and migration), whereas knockdown of CFTR leads to enhanced malignancies both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that CFTR knockdown-enhanced cell proliferation, cell invasion and migration are significantly reversed by antibodies against either urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or uPA receptor (uPAR), which are known to be involved in various malignant traits of cancer development. More interestingly, overexpression of CFTR suppresses uPA by upregulating the recently described tumor suppressor microRNA-193b (miR-193b), and overexpression of pre-miR-193b significantly reverses CFTR knockdown-enhanced malignant phenotype and abrogates elevated uPA activity in prostate cancer cell line. Finally, we show that CFTR gene transfer results in significant tumor repression in prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated a previously undefined tumor-suppressing role of CFTR and its involvement in regulation of miR-193b in prostate cancer development. PMID:22797075

  4. The Influence of γ-Ray Irradiation on the Mechanical and Thermal Behaviors of nHA/PA66 Composite Scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    You, Fu; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of sterilization process using γ-ray radiation on the melting behavior, crystallization behavior, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (nHA/PA66) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The results show that the melting temperature, degree of crystallization, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds increased with the enhancement of radiation doses from 25 kGy to 50 kGy, especially the irradiation dose of 50 kGy which imposed a remarkable effect on these properties. However, a reverse trend was found when the 100 kGy irradiation dose was applied. In general, a conclusion can be drawn that sterilization using γ-ray radiation with proper dose has no adverse effect on the properties of nHA/PA66 composite scaffolds. PMID:24453800

  5. The influence of γ-ray irradiation on the mechanical and thermal behaviors of nHA/PA66 composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    You, Fu; Li, Yubao; Zuo, Yi; Li, Jidong

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of sterilization process using γ -ray radiation on the melting behavior, crystallization behavior, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of nanohydroxyapatite/polyamide66 (nHA/PA66) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. The results show that the melting temperature, degree of crystallization, thermal stability, and mechanical properties of the composite scaffolds increased with the enhancement of radiation doses from 25 kGy to 50 kGy, especially the irradiation dose of 50 kGy which imposed a remarkable effect on these properties. However, a reverse trend was found when the 100 kGy irradiation dose was applied. In general, a conclusion can be drawn that sterilization using γ -ray radiation with proper dose has no adverse effect on the properties of nHA/PA66 composite scaffolds. PMID:24453800

  6. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Preterm-Born 7-Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, John; Watkins, W. John; Kotecha, Sarah J.; Kotecha, Sailesh

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies of preterm-born children (<37 weeks’ gestation) have demonstrated decrements in lung function, exercise capacity, and increased respiratory symptoms compared to their term-born peers. However, it is unclear if these children have decreased levels of physical activity (PA) and increased sedentary behavior as a consequence of this increased respiratory morbidity. We therefore compared objectively measured PA in 7-year old preterm-born children with those born at term. Methods Children in the Millennium Cohort Study underwent assessment of PA at 7 years of age using accelerometry. 6422/12781 (50%) provided valid accelerometry and had gestational age data. A series of general linear models adjusted for confounders investigated the association between gestational age and levels of Total PA (average accelerometer counts per minute over the period of the recording), Moderate-to-Vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior. Mediation analysis was performed to specifically investigate whether the observed association of gestational age on PA was mediated by respiratory symptoms. Results PA data were available for 79, 119, 275 and 5949 children born at 25–32, 33–34, 35–36 and 37–43 weeks’ gestation respectively. Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation had modest but statistically significant reductions in MVPA when compared to term controls. This equated to a reduction of 9 minutes per day. No differences were found for Total PA or sedentary behavior. The association between gestational age and MVPA was not mediated by respiratory symptoms. In females, there was no association between gestational age and any measure of PA or sedentary behavior. Conclusions Boys born at ≤32 weeks’ gestation took part in less MVPA than their term-born peers at 7 years of age. The differences were modest, but equated to a reduction of over 1 hour per week. Since PA levels have been shown to decline during childhood and adolescence, this vulnerable group

  7. A National Survey of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Chinese City Children and Youth Using Accelerometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) of Chinese city children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old using accelerometers and to examine their differences by gender, age, grade, and weight status. Method: The PA and SB of 2,163 students in 4th grade through 11th grade…

  8. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  9. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brassinga, Ann Karen C; Belmonte, Mark F; Fernando, W G Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which should facilitate

  10. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brassinga, Ann Karen C.; Belmonte, Mark F.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which should facilitate

  11. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  12. Does Physical Activity Intensity Moderate Social Cognition and Behavior Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Felicity; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Public health messaging about physical activity (PA) sometimes combines moderate and vigorous intensity, but the variance/invariance of the motives for PA by intensity has received scant attention. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs and motivations associated with regular moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA in a…

  13. Antiviral Activity of Bay 41-4109 on Hepatitis B Virus in Humanized Alb-uPA/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brezillon, Nicolas; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Massinet, Hélène; Giang, Eric; Lamant, Céline; DaSilva, Lucie; Berissi, Sophie; Belghiti, Jacques; Hannoun, Laurent; Puerstinger, Gherard; Wimmer, Eva; Neyts, Johan; Hantz, Olivier; Soussan, Patrick; Morosan, Serban; Kremsdorf, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Current treatments for HBV chronic carriers using interferon alpha or nucleoside analogues are not effective in all patients and may induce the emergence of HBV resistant strains. Bay 41-4109, a member of the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine family, inhibits HBV replication by destabilizing capsid assembly. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of Bay 41-4109 in a mouse model with humanized liver and the spread of active HBV. Antiviral assays of Bay 41-4109 on HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV, displayed an IC50 of about 202 nM with no cell toxicity. Alb-uPA/SCID mice were transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Ten days post-infection, the mice were treated with Bay 41-4109 for five days. During the 30 days of follow-up, the HBV load was evaluated by quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, decreased HBV viremia of about 1 log(10) copies/ml was observed. By contrast, increased HBV viremia of about 0.5 log(10) copies/ml was measured in the control group. Five days after the end of treatment, a rebound of HBV viremia occurred in the treated group. Furthermore, 15 days after treatment discontinuation, a similar expression of the viral capsid was evidenced in liver biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that Bay 41-4109 displayed antiviral properties against HBV in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice and confirm the usefulness of Alb-uPA/SCID mice for the evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds. The administration of Bay 41-4109 may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of patients in escape from standard antiviral therapy. PMID:22162746

  14. Progression of Osteosarcoma from a Non-Metastatic to a Metastatic Phenotype Is Causally Associated with Activation of an Autocrine and Paracrine uPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    Endo-Munoz, Liliana; Cai, Na; Cumming, Andrew; Macklin, Rebecca; Merida de Long, Lilia; Topkas, Eleni; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Hill, Michelle; Saunders, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary metastasis is the major untreatable complication of osteosarcoma (OS) resulting in 10–20% long-term survival. The factors and pathways regulating these processes remain unclear, yet their identification is crucial in order to find new therapeutic targets. In this study we used a multi-omics approach to identify molecules in metastatic and non-metastatic OS cells that may contribute to OS metastasis, followed by validation in vitro and in vivo. We found elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and of the uPA receptor (uPAR) exclusively in metastatic OS cells. uPA was secreted in soluble form and as part of the protein cargo of OS-secreted extracellular vesicles, including exosomes. In addition, in the tumour microenvironment, uPA was expressed and secreted by bone marrow cells (BMC), and OS- and BMC-derived uPA significantly and specifically stimulated migration of metastatic OS cells via uPA-dependent signaling pathways. Silencing of uPAR in metastatic OS cells abrogated the migratory response to uPA in vitro and decreased metastasis in vivo. Finally, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of uPA significantly (P = 0.0004) inhibited metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of OS. Thus, we show for the first time that malignant conversion of OS cells to a metastatic phenotype is defined by activation of the uPA/uPAR axis in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, metastasis is driven by changes in OS cells as well as in the microenvironment. Finally, our data show that pharmacological inhibition of the uPA/uPAR axis with a novel small-molecule inhibitor can prevent the emergence of metastatic foci. PMID:26317203

  15. Progression of Osteosarcoma from a Non-Metastatic to a Metastatic Phenotype Is Causally Associated with Activation of an Autocrine and Paracrine uPA Axis.

    PubMed

    Endo-Munoz, Liliana; Cai, Na; Cumming, Andrew; Macklin, Rebecca; Merida de Long, Lilia; Topkas, Eleni; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Hill, Michelle; Saunders, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary metastasis is the major untreatable complication of osteosarcoma (OS) resulting in 10-20% long-term survival. The factors and pathways regulating these processes remain unclear, yet their identification is crucial in order to find new therapeutic targets. In this study we used a multi-omics approach to identify molecules in metastatic and non-metastatic OS cells that may contribute to OS metastasis, followed by validation in vitro and in vivo. We found elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and of the uPA receptor (uPAR) exclusively in metastatic OS cells. uPA was secreted in soluble form and as part of the protein cargo of OS-secreted extracellular vesicles, including exosomes. In addition, in the tumour microenvironment, uPA was expressed and secreted by bone marrow cells (BMC), and OS- and BMC-derived uPA significantly and specifically stimulated migration of metastatic OS cells via uPA-dependent signaling pathways. Silencing of uPAR in metastatic OS cells abrogated the migratory response to uPA in vitro and decreased metastasis in vivo. Finally, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of uPA significantly (P = 0.0004) inhibited metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of OS. Thus, we show for the first time that malignant conversion of OS cells to a metastatic phenotype is defined by activation of the uPA/uPAR axis in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, metastasis is driven by changes in OS cells as well as in the microenvironment. Finally, our data show that pharmacological inhibition of the uPA/uPAR axis with a novel small-molecule inhibitor can prevent the emergence of metastatic foci. PMID:26317203

  16. [u-Plasminogen activator (urinary plasminogen activator, urokinase) (uPA) and its PA-1 type 1 inhibitor are not only prognostically but also predictively significant and support clinical decisions on therapy in primary carcinoma of the breast].

    PubMed

    Harbeck, N; Thomssen, C

    2003-09-01

    uPA and PAI-1 are the first novel tumor biological prognostic factors in breast cancer for which the prognostic impact has been validated at the highest level of evidence and hence all evaluation criteria for transfer into clinical practice have been fullfilled. Breast cancer patients with high uPA and/or PAI-1 levels in their primary tumor tissue have a significantly lower chance for cure than patients with low levels of both uPA and PAI-1. Our research that was honored with the Schmidt-Matthiesen-Award 2002 shows for the first time that uPA and PAI-1 are not only prognostic factors but also have a predictive impact with regard to response to adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with high uPA/PAI-1 derive a significantly greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy than patients with low uPA/PAI-1. Benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy is independent of uPA/PAI-1 status. The resulting question about the optimal chemotherapy for patients with high uPA/PAI-1 is currently being addressed in Germany by the NNBC-3 trial in node-negative breast cancer (AGO, EORTC-RBG) as well as the ADEBAR trial in patients with 4 or more involved axillary lymph nodes. Moreover, our results suggest the use of novel therapeutic agents interfering with the uPA system together with conventional chemotherapy in patients with high uPA/PAI-1 already in early stage disease. PMID:14569518

  17. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors Between Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Stephanie M; Jakicic, John M; Gibbs, Bethany Barone

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were more likely to be overweight and obese, and less likely to engage in regular PA versus typically developing adolescents (p's < 0.05). Increased odds for overweight and obesity were attenuated after adjustment for PA. Higher autism severity was associated with increased odds of overweight and obesity and decreased odds of PA, sport, and club participation. These findings suggest adolescents with ASD are in need of targeted programs to decrease obesity and increase physical activity. PMID:26936162

  18. Delphinid behavioral responses to incidental mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Henderson, E Elizabeth; Smith, Michael H; Gassmann, Martin; Wiggins, Sean M; Douglas, Annie B; Hildebrand, John A

    2014-10-01

    Opportunistic observations of behavioral responses by delphinids to incidental mid-frequency active (MFA) sonar were recorded in the Southern California Bight from 2004 through 2008 using visual focal follows, static hydrophones, and autonomous recorders. Sound pressure levels were calculated between 2 and 8 kHz. Surface behavioral responses were observed in 26 groups from at least three species of 46 groups out of five species encountered during MFA sonar incidents. Responses included changes in behavioral state or direction of travel, changes in vocalization rates and call intensity, or a lack of vocalizations while MFA sonar occurred. However, 46% of focal groups not exposed to sonar also changed their behavior, and 43% of focal groups exposed to sonar did not change their behavior. Mean peak sound pressure levels when a behavioral response occurred were around 122 dB re: 1 μPa. Acoustic localizations of dolphin groups exhibiting a response gave insight into nighttime movement patterns and provided evidence that impacts of sonar may be mediated by behavioral state. The lack of response in some cases may indicate a tolerance of or habituation to MFA sonar by local populations; however, the responses that occur at lower received levels may point to some sensitization as well. PMID:25324099

  19. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors between Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Stephanie M.; Jakicic, John M.; Barone Gibbs, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were…

  20. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) Promotes Angiogenesis by Attenuating Proline-rich Homeodomain Protein (PRH) Transcription Factor Activity and De-repressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Receptor Expression.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Victoria; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Zaitsev, Sergei V; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Bdeir, Khalil; Kershaw, Rachael; Holman, Kelci R; Parfyonova, Yelena V; Semina, Ekaterina V; Beloglazova, Irina B; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A; Cines, Douglas B

    2016-07-15

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability through proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix and intracellular signaling initiated upon its binding to uPAR/CD87 and other cell surface receptors. Here, we describe an additional mechanism by which uPA regulates angiogenesis. Ex vivo VEGF-induced vascular sprouting from Matrigel-embedded aortic rings isolated from uPA knock-out (uPA(-/-)) mice was impaired compared with vessels emanating from wild-type mice. Endothelial cells isolated from uPA(-/-) mice show less proliferation and migration in response to VEGF than their wild type counterparts or uPA(-/-) endothelial cells in which expression of wild type uPA had been restored. We reported previously that uPA is transported from cell surface receptors to nuclei through a mechanism that requires its kringle domain. Intranuclear uPA modulates gene transcription by binding to a subset of transcription factors. Here we report that wild type single-chain uPA, but not uPA variants incapable of nuclear transport, increases the expression of cell surface VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by translocating to the nuclei of ECs. Intranuclear single-chain uPA binds directly to and interferes with the function of the transcription factor hematopoietically expressed homeodomain protein or proline-rich homeodomain protein (HHEX/PRH), which thereby lose their physiologic capacity to repress the activity of vehgr1 and vegfr2 gene promoters. These studies identify uPA-dependent de-repression of vegfr1 and vegfr2 gene transcription through binding to HHEX/PRH as a novel mechanism by which uPA mediates the pro-angiogenic effects of VEGF and identifies a potential new target for control of pathologic angiogenesis. PMID:27151212

  1. Modulating self-assembly behavior of a salt-free peptide amphiphile (PA) and zwitterionic surfactant mixed system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Sun, Jichao; Xin, Xia; Xu, Wenlong; Shen, Jinglin; Song, Zhaohua; Yuan, Shiling

    2016-04-01

    A salt-free surfactant system formed by a peptide amphiphile with short headgroup (PA,C16-GK-3) and a zwitterionic surfactant (dodecyldimethylamine oxide, C12DMAO) in water has been systematically investigated. The microstructures and properties of C16-GK-3/C12DMAO mixed system were characterized using a combination of microscopic, scattering and spectroscopic techniques, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), circular dichroism (CD) and rheological measurements. Rich phase transitions have been observed by adjusting the concentration of C16-GK-3. Investigation of the hydrogels of C16-GK-3/C12DMAO with TEM, SEM and AFM showed that all of these hydrogels form nanobelts. The nanobelt formation is performed in a hierarchical manner: β-sheet peptides and C12DMAO first interact each other to form small aggregates, which then arrange themselves to form one dimensional (1D) left-handed ribbons. The ribbons further aggregated into flat and rigid nanobelts. We proposed a mechanism to interpret the self-assembly process according to the specific peptide structure as well as multiple equilibria between the hydrogen bonding interactions between the headgroups of C16-GK-3, between C12DMAO molecules and the headgroups of C16-GK-3, chirality of the amino acid residues and hydrophobic interactions of the alkyl chains. PMID:26773608

  2. Discovery and SAR of Novel and Selective Inhibitors of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) with an Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Adriaenssens, Yves; De Winter, Hans; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2015-12-10

    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a biomarker and therapeutic target for several cancer types. Its inhibition is regarded as a promising, noncytotoxic approach in cancer therapy by blocking growth and/or metastasis of solid tumors. Earlier, we reported the modified substrate activity screening (MSAS) approach and applied it for the identification of fragments with affinity for uPA's S1 pocket. Here, these fragments are transformed into a novel class of uPA inhibitors with an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine scaffold. The SAR for uPA inhibition around this scaffold is explored, and the best compounds in the series have nanomolar uPA affinity and selectivity with respect to the related trypsin-like serine proteases (thrombin, tPA, FXa, plasmin, plasma kallikrein, trypsin, FVIIa). Finally, the approach followed for translating fragments into small molecules with a decorated scaffold architecture is conceptually straightforward and can be expected to be broadly applicable in fragment-based drug design. PMID:26575094

  3. Differences between neonates and adults in tissue-type-plasminogen activator (t-PA)-catalyzed plasminogen activation with various effectors and in carbohydrate sequences of fibrinogen chains.

    PubMed

    Ries, M; Easton, R L; Longstaff, C; Zenker, M; Corran, P H; Morris, H R; Dell, A; Gaffney, P J

    2001-08-01

    Our study investigates the effect of fetal and adult soluble fibrin (SF), fetal and adult fibrinogen Aalpha- and gamma-chains, as well as adult CNBr-fibrinogen fragments on tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)-catalyzed plasminogen activation of both fetal and adult Glu-plasminogen types 1 and 2. In addition, we determined carbohydrate sequences of fetal and adult Bbeta- and gamma-chains by mass spectrometric analysis. In the absence of an effector, no substantial differences in the rate of plasmin formation could be seen between the fetal and adult plasminogen types. In the presence of an effector, both fetal Glu-plasminogen types revealed lower values for k(cat app) than the respective adult types. No differences could be seen in the values for K(m app). The resulting differences in catalytic efficiencies between the fetal and adult plasminogen types were much less than previously reported. No differences could be seen between fetal and adult effectors in stimulating t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation. Detailed analyses of the activation kinetics revealed a longer initial phase of slow plasmin formation of both fetal Glu-plasminogen types compared to their respective adult types, indicating a slower plasmin-induced modification of CNBr-fibrinogen fragments or SF by fetal plasmin. Mass spectrometric analysis of the N-glycans present on adult and fetal Bbeta- and gamma-fibrinogen chains showed the presence of a major monosialylated biantennary structure with lesser amounts of the disialylated form. In contrast to previous data, we conclude that catalytic efficiency of t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in neonates is only slightly lower than in adults. PMID:11672579

  4. Production of a urokinase plasminogen activator-IgG fusion protein (uPA-IgG) in the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Kost, T A; Ignar, D M; Clay, W C; Andrews, J; Leray, J D; Overton, L; Hoffman, C R; Kilpatrick, K E; Ellis, B; Emerson, D L

    1997-04-29

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor, uPAR, in the processes of tumor progression and metastasis. Thus, the uPA/uPAR interaction may represent an important target for inhibiting metastatic disease. The baculovirus expression system was used to produce high levels of a secreted uPA-Immunoglobulin G fusion protein (uPA-IgG) which could then be used for displacing uPA from the surface of tumor cells. The recombinant uPA-IgG fusion protein was placed under the control of either the viral polyhedrin promoter or a copy of the viral basic protein promoter. Recombinant viruses were then used to infect Sf9 and BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells. Infection of both cell types resulted in the production of secreted uPA-IgG. The molecular mass of the secreted protein as determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 40 kDa. The highest level of secreted uPA-IgG, 444 microg/ml, was found in the culture medium of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells 72 h post-infection with the basic protein promoter-uPA-IgG virus. In the case of Sf9 cells, the highest level of secreted protein was 195 microg/ml. The amount of cell-associated uPA-IgG in infected BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells was significantly less than that of infected Sf9 cells, reflecting the superior secretory capability of the BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells. The uPA-IgG was readily purified using a combination of zinc chelate and sephacryl S-100 column chromatography. Routinely, greater than 100 mg of greater than 95% pure protein could be obtained per liter of culture medium collected at 72 h post-infection of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells with the basic protein promoter virus. BIAcore analysis and competition binding assays using LOX human malignant melanoma cells expressing uPAR indicated that the purified recombinant protein possessed similar ligand binding characteristics to that of human uPA. PMID:9185859

  5. [Practice of Behavioral Activation in Cognitive-behavioral Therapy].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Nobuki

    2015-01-01

    An approach focusing on behavioral activation (BA) was adopted in the cognitive therapy of A. T. Beck, and it came to be considered that BA can play an important role in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for depression. Therefore, in recent years, BA based on clinical behavior analysis has been developed as a new treatment (Martell, et al.). The core characteristics are as follows: 1) focusing attention on context in daily life to promote the behavior control of patients and avoidance of a hatred experience ; 2) breaking the vicious circle; 3) promoting the behavior according to the purpose that the patients originally expect; 4) recognizing a relationship between behavior and the situation (contingency), thereby recovering self-efficacy tied to the long-term results that one originally expects. This does not increase pleasant activity at random when the patient is inactive, or give a sense of accomplishment. We know that depression is maintained by conducting functional analysis of detailed life behavior, and encourage the patients to have healthy behavior according to individual values. We help them to complete schedules regardless of mood and reflect on the results patiently. It is considered that those processes are important. BA may be easy to apply in clinical practice and effective for the chronic cases, or the patients in a convalescent stage. Also, in principle in the CBT for major depression, it may be effective that behavioral activation is provided in an early stage, and cognitive reconstruction in a latter stage. However, an approach to carry out functional analysis by small steps with careful activity monitoring is essential when the symptoms are severe. Furthermore, it should be considered that the way of psychoeducation requires caution because we encourage rest in the treatment of depression in our country. In particular, we must be careful not to take an attitude that an inactive behavior pattern is unproductive only based model cases. PMID

  6. Reciprocal Reinforcement Between Wearable Activity Trackers and Social Network Services in Influencing Physical Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers (WATs) are emerging consumer electronic devices designed to support physical activities (PAs), which are based on successful behavior change techniques focusing on goal-setting and frequent behavioral feedbacks. Despite their utility, data from both recent academic and market research have indicated high attrition rates of WAT users. Concurrently, evidence shows that social support (SS), delivered/obtained via social network services or sites (SNS), could increase adherence and engagement of PA intervention programs. To date, relatively few studies have looked at how WATs and SS may interact and affect PAs. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore how these two Internet and mobile technologies, WATs and SNS, could work together to foster sustainable PA behavior changes and habits among middle-aged adults (40-60 years old) in Taiwan. Methods We used purposive sampling of Executive MBA Students from National Taiwan University of Science and Technology to participate in our qualitative research. In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with a total of 15 participants, including 9 WAT users and 6 nonusers. Analysis of the collected materials was done inductively using the thematic approach with no preset categories. Two authors from different professional backgrounds independently annotated and coded the transcripts, and then discussed and debated until consensus was reached on the final themes. Results The thematic analysis revealed six themes: (1) WATs provided more awareness than motivation in PA with goal-setting and progress monitoring, (2) SS, delivered/obtained via SNS, increased users’ adherence and engagement with WATs and vice versa, (3) a broad spectrum of configurations would be needed to deliver WATs with appropriately integrated SS functions, (4) WAT design, style, and appearance mattered even more than those of smartphones, as they are body-worn devices, (5) the user interfaces of WATs left a

  7. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  8. Coagulation alterations due to local fibrinolytic therapy with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rauber, Klaus; Heidinger, Kathrin S.; Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To determine the systemic effects of local fibrinolytic therapy with low-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods. Ten patients received intrathrombal infusion of 20 mg rt-PA and heparin for local thrombolysis and had subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Eight controls underwent PTA and received heparin alone. We measured t-PA, D-Dimer, and fibrinogen levels before, directly after, and 20, 40, and 60 min and 24 hr after therapy. Results. In the thrombolysis group the t-PA level peaked immediately after infusion and then declined within 1 hr. D-Dimer increased and remained elevated, whereas in the control group only t-PA levels increased, and only after 24 hr. Fibrinogen remained within the normal range in both groups. Eight of ten patients in the thrombolysis group and seven of eight with PTA had clinical improvement after the procedure. Conclusions. The increase in D-Dimer in the rt-PA group indicates a good local fibrinolytic effect. The fact that fibrinogen levels remained unchanged indicates that there is a lack of systemic fibrinogenolysis.

  9. The effect of active video gaming on children's physical activity, behavior preferences and body composition.

    PubMed

    Graves, Lee E F; Ridgers, Nicola D; Atkinson, Greg; Stratton, Gareth

    2010-11-01

    Active video game interventions typically provide children a single game that may become unappealing. A peripheral device (jOG) encourages step-powered gaming on multiple games. This trial evaluated the effect of jOG on children's objectively measured PA, body fat and self-reported behaviors. 42 of 58 eligible children (8-10 y) randomly assigned to an intervention (jOG) or control (CON) completed the trial. Intervention children received two jOG devices for home use. Analyses of covariance compared the intervention effect at 6 and 12 weeks from baseline. No differences were found between groups for counts per minute (CPM; primary outcome) at 6 and 12 weeks (p > .05). Active video gaming increased (adjusted change 0.95 (95% CI 0.25, 1.65) h·d⁻¹, p <.01) and sedentary video gaming decreased (-0.34 (-1.24, 0.56) h·d⁻¹, p > .05) at 6 weeks relative to CON. No body fat changes were observed between groups. Targeted changes in video game use did not positively affect PA. Larger trials are needed to verify the impact of active video games on children's PA and health. PMID:21242603

  10. A novel small-molecule inhibitor of influenza A virus acts by suppressing PA endonuclease activity of the viral polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Chu, Hin; Singh, Kailash; Zhao, Hanjun; Zhang, Ke; Kao, Richard Y. T.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus comprises conserved and independently-folded subdomains with defined functionalities. The N-terminal domain of the PA subunit (PAN) harbors the endonuclease function so that it can serve as a desired target for drug discovery. To identify a class of anti-influenza inhibitors that impedes PAN endonuclease activity, a screening approach that integrated the fluorescence resonance energy transfer based endonuclease inhibitory assay with the DNA gel-based endonuclease inhibitory assay was conducted, followed by the evaluation of antiviral efficacies and potential cytotoxicity of the primary hits in vitro and in vivo. A small-molecule compound ANA-0 was identified as a potent inhibitor against the replication of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9 and H9N2, in cell cultures. Combinational treatment of zanamivir and ANA-0 exerted synergistic anti-influenza effect in vitro. Intranasal administration of ANA-0 protected mice from lethal challenge and reduced lung viral loads in H1N1 virus infected BALB/c mice. In summary, ANA-0 shows potential to be developed to novel anti-influenza agents. PMID:26956222

  11. Characteristic amino acid changes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus PA protein enhance A(H7N9) viral polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Tan, Likai; Lu, Gen; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Human coinfection with a novel H7N9 influenza virus and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus, H1N1pdm09, has recently been reported in China. Because reassortment can occur during coinfection, it is necessary to clarify the effects of gene reassortment between these two viruses. Among the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) genes, only the PA gene of H1N1pdm09 enhances the avian influenza viral polymerase activity. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show a special evolutionary feature of the H1N1pdm09 PA gene, which clustered with those of the novel H7N9 virus and related H9N2 viruses, rather than in the outgroup as the H1N1pdm09 genes do on the phylogenetic trees of other vRNP genes. Using a minigenome system of the novel H7N9 virus, we further demonstrate that replacement of its PA gene significantly enhanced its polymerase activity, whereas replacement of the other vRNP genes reduced its polymerase activity. We also show that the residues of PA evolutionarily conserved between H1N1pdm09 and the novel H7N9 virus are associated with attenuated or neutral polymerase activity. The mutations associated with the increased activity of the novel H7N9 polymerase are characteristic of the H1N1pdm09 gene, and are located almost adjacent to the surface of the PA protein. Our results suggest that the novel H7N9 virus has more effective PB1, PB2, and NP genes than H1N1pdm09, and that H1N1pdm09-like PA mutations enhance the novel H7N9 polymerase function. PMID:26980671

  12. Biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties of rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of human tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Nelles, L; Li, X K; Vanlinthout, I; De Cock, F; Lijnen, H R; Collen, D

    1992-04-01

    rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), in which proline at position 47 and lysine at position 49 were replaced by glycine and asparagine respectively, was previously described by Ahern et al. (J Biol Chem 1990; 265:5540-5) to have an extended in vivo half-life with unaltered in vitro fibrinolytic properties. Because this variant might possess an increased in vivo thrombolytic potency, we have constructed its cDNA, expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells and determined its biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties relative to those of home-made rt-PA and of alteplase (Actilyse). The specific fibrinolytic activities on fibrin plates were 160,000 +/- 17,000, 210,000 +/- 88,000 and 460,000 +/- 72,000 IU/mg (mean +/- SEM) for rt-PA P47G, K49N, rt-PA and alteplase, respectively, while the catalytic efficiencies for plasminogen activation (k2/Km) in the absence of fibrin were comparable (1.1 to 1.7 x 10(-3) microM-1s-1). Fibrin enhanced the rate of plasminogen activation by rt-PA P47G, K49N 100-fold and by both wild-type molecules 390-fold. Binding of the variant rt-PA to fibrin was significantly reduced, but its affinity for lysine-Sepharose was unaltered. In an in vitro clot lysis system, consisting of a radiolabeled human plasma clot submersed in plasma, 50% clot lysis in 2 h required 0.67 +/- 0.14 micrograms/ml rt-PA P47G, K49N, 0.36 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml rt-PA and 0.17 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml alteplase, respectively (mean +/- SEM; n = 3 or 4). At these doses residual fibrinogen levels at 2 h were in excess of 80%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1631793

  13. Maduramicin Rapidly Eliminates Malaria Parasites and Potentiates the Gametocytocidal Activity of the Pyrazoleamide PA21A050

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Maxim I.; Magle, Crystal T.; Czesny, Beata; Turturice, Benjamin A.; Huang, Ruili; Zheng, Wei; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2015-01-01

    New strategies targeting Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual-stage parasites that are responsible for malaria transmission, are needed to eradicate this disease. Most commonly used antimalarials are ineffective against P. falciparum gametocytes, allowing patients to continue to be infectious for over a week after asexual parasite clearance. A recent screen for gametocytocidal compounds demonstrated that the carboxylic polyether ionophore maduramicin is active at low nanomolar concentrations against P. falciparum sexual stages. In this study, we showed that maduramicin has an EC50 (effective concentration that inhibits the signal by 50%) of 14.8 nM against late-stage gametocytes and significantly blocks in vivo transmission in a mouse model of malaria transmission. In contrast to other reported gametocytocidal agents, maduramicin acts rapidly in vitro, eliminating gametocytes and asexual schizonts in less than 12 h without affecting uninfected red blood cells (RBCs). Ring stage parasites are cleared by 24 h. Within an hour of drug treatment, 40% of the normally crescent-shaped gametocytes round up and become spherical. The number of round gametocytes increases to >60% by 2 h, even before a change in membrane potential as monitored by MitoProbe DiIC1 (5) is detectable. Maduramicin is not preferentially taken up by gametocyte-infected RBCs compared to uninfected RBCs, suggesting that gametocytes are more sensitive to alterations in cation concentration than RBCs. Moreover, the addition of 15.6 nM maduramicin enhanced the gametocytocidal activity of the pyrazoleamide PA21A050, which is a promising new antimalarial candidate associated with an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration that is proposed to be due to inhibition of PfATP4, a putative Na+ pump. These results underscore the importance of cation homeostasis in sexual as well as asexual intraerythrocytic-stage P. falciparum parasites and the potential of targeting this pathway for drug development

  14. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA. PMID:25014307

  15. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. PMID:25084562

  16. Physical activity status of academic professors during their early career transition: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Megan A; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2012-01-01

    Life-transitions (e.g. parenthood) have been linked to physical inactivity, yet the topic requires further exploration. In this study, we evaluated changes in the physical activity (PA) of adults during their early career transition using retrospective analysis and the theory of planned behavior. Recruitment from January to March 2010 yielded a random sample of 267 assistant professors, ages 25-44, employed within the last five years. Repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) concluded that PA declined across the transition (d = 0.36-0.43) and was further attenuated by marriage, work hours, and parenthood status. Discriminant function analysis (DFA) identified specific behavioral and control correlates about PA enjoyment, limited time, inconsistent schedule, work demands, and job pressures to distinguish between those who remained active from those who did not across the transition. PA interventions administered prior to career transitions may be needed to prevent physical inactivity. PMID:22348598

  17. Treating Depression and Depression-Like Behavior with Physical Activity: An Immune Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Harris A.; Papps, Evan; Baune, Bernhard T.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing burden of major depressive disorder makes the search for an extended understanding of etiology, and for the development of additional treatments highly significant. Biological factors may be useful biomarkers for treatment with physical activity (PA), and neurobiological effects of PA may herald new therapeutic development in the future. This paper provides a thorough and up-to-date review of studies examining the neuroimmunomodulatory effects of PA on the brain in depression and depression-like behaviors. From a neuroimmune perspective, evidence suggests PA does enhance the beneficial and reduce the detrimental effects of the neuroimmune system. PA appears to increase the following factors: interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6 (acutely), macrophage migration inhibitory factor, central nervous system-specific autoreactive CD4+ T cells, M2 microglia, quiescent astrocytes, CX3CL1, and insulin-like growth factor-1. On the other hand, PA appears to reduce detrimental neuroimmune factors such as: Th1/Th2 balance, pro-inflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein, M1 microglia, and reactive astrocytes. The effect of other mechanisms is unknown, such as: CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (T regs), CD200, chemokines, miRNA, M2-type blood-derived macrophages, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α [via receptor 2 (R2)]. The beneficial effects of PA are likely to occur centrally and peripherally (e.g., in visceral fat reduction). The investigation of the neuroimmune effects of PA on depression and depression-like behavior is a rapidly developing and important field. PMID:23382717

  18. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  19. Making Activity Recognition Robust against Deceptive Behavior.

    PubMed

    Saeb, Sohrab; Körding, Konrad; Mohr, David C

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare services increasingly use the activity recognition technology to track the daily activities of individuals. In some cases, this is used to provide incentives. For example, some health insurance companies offer discount to customers who are physically active, based on the data collected from their activity tracking devices. Therefore, there is an increasing motivation for individuals to cheat, by making activity trackers detect activities that increase their benefits rather than the ones they actually do. In this study, we used a novel method to make activity recognition robust against deceptive behavior. We asked 14 subjects to attempt to trick our smartphone-based activity classifier by making it detect an activity other than the one they actually performed, for example by shaking the phone while seated to make the classifier detect walking. If they succeeded, we used their motion data to retrain the classifier, and asked them to try to trick it again. The experiment ended when subjects could no longer cheat. We found that some subjects were not able to trick the classifier at all, while others required five rounds of retraining. While classifiers trained on normal activity data predicted true activity with ~38% accuracy, training on the data gathered during the deceptive behavior increased their accuracy to ~84%. We conclude that learning the deceptive behavior of one individual helps to detect the deceptive behavior of others. Thus, we can make current activity recognition robust to deception by including deceptive activity data from a few individuals. PMID:26659118

  20. Scaling behavior of online human activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Cai, Shi-Min; Huang, Junming; Fu, Yan; Zhou, Tao

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of the Internet technology enables humans to explore the web and record the traces of online activities. From the analysis of these large-scale data sets (i.e., traces), we can get insights about the dynamic behavior of human activity. In this letter, the scaling behavior and complexity of human activity in the e-commerce, such as music, books, and movies rating, are comprehensively investigated by using the detrended fluctuation analysis technique and the multiscale entropy method. Firstly, the interevent time series of rating behaviors of these three types of media show similar scaling properties with exponents ranging from 0.53 to 0.58, which implies that the collective behaviors of rating media follow a process embodying self-similarity and long-range correlation. Meanwhile, by dividing the users into three groups based on their activities (i.e., rating per unit time), we find that the scaling exponents of the interevent time series in the three groups are different. Hence, these results suggest that a stronger long-range correlations exist in these collective behaviors. Furthermore, their information complexities vary in the three groups. To explain the differences of the collective behaviors restricted to the three groups, we study the dynamic behavior of human activity at the individual level, and find that the dynamic behaviors of a few users have extremely small scaling exponents associated with long-range anticorrelations. By comparing the interevent time distributions of four representative users, we can find that the bimodal distributions may bring forth the extraordinary scaling behaviors. These results of the analysis of the online human activity in the e-commerce may not only provide insight into its dynamic behaviors but may also be applied to acquire potential economic interest.

  1. Internet Reporting of Weekly Physical Activity Behaviors: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Bain, Tyson; Frierson, Georita M.; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Morrow, James R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Self-report measures have been validated and are widely used. Interest currently lies in the development of simple, valid methods that can be used in any location to determine level of PA in large populations/samples. The purpose of this report is to illustrate tracking of physical activity behaviors and musculoskeletal injury reports on a weekly basis via the Internet. Methods The Women’s Injury Study (WIN) methodology includes use of BRFSS-related physical activity items that are completed online by more than 800 women weekly for an average of 3 years. Results With more than 45,000 weekly physical activity and injury logs, the percentage of total logs submitted via online records is 91%. Self-reported pedometer steps are consistent with similar, smaller research samples. Conclusions This report suggests that Internet tracking is a viable means of assessing nearly real-time physical activity, describes the process of developing and monitoring self-reported physical activity behaviors via the Internet, and provides recommendations for others considering such methods. PMID:20683095

  2. [Behavioral Activation for Depression: Theory and Practice].

    PubMed

    Nakao, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) has recently attracted marked attention. While cognitive therapy focuses on the cognitive distortion of patients with depression and asks them to change their behaviors as the process of altering the cognitive distortion, BA pays attention to behavior to avoid an unpleasant situation or social situation as a key symptom that leads to persistence of the depression. Avoidance behaviors are often seen during every process of depression, from onset to recurrence. Avoidance behaviors, a decrease in pleasant phenomena, or increase in unpleasant phenomena, result in reinforcing a depressive mood. If patients can set appropriate behavioral targets and achieve them, the beneficial behaviors will be further promoted with positive feed-back. The behavioral change, as-a consequence, will result in improvement of the mood, cognition, and depression itself. In this manuscript, the author presents two clinical cases, in which BA assisted the patients in recovering from their depression. The first case was a male in his thirties who repeatedly took sick leave from his work because of maladjustment, which resulted in persistent depression. The second case was a female in her thirties who suffered from OCD and then became maladjusted to her place of work, depressive, and emotionally unstable. In both cases, avoidant behaviors caused their conditions to persist. Appropriate activities formed by BA improved their moods, and their self-efficacies were gradually regained. It was suggested that BA is markedly effective, especially in patients whose avoidant behaviors mainly cause the persistence of their depressive symptoms. PMID:26514042

  3. Maintaining physical activity during refeeding improves body composition, intestinal hyperpermeability and behavior in anorectic mice

    PubMed Central

    Achamrah, Najate; Nobis, Séverine; Breton, Jonathan; Jésus, Pierre; Belmonte, Liliana; Maurer, Brigitte; Legrand, Romain; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; Rego, Jean Luc do; Goichon, Alexis; Rego, Jean Claude do; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O; Claeyssens, Sophie; Coëffier, Moïse

    2016-01-01

    A role of gut-brain axis emerges in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and maintaining adapted physical activity during refeeding remains discussed. We aimed to assess gastrointestinal protein metabolism and investigate the contribution of physical activity during refeeding in C57BL/6 mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA). ABA mice exhibited lower body weight and food intake with increase of lean mass/fat mass ratio and fat oxidation. Colonic permeability was increased in ABA. Ad libitum food access was then restored and ABA group was divided into two subgroups, with access to running wheel (ABA-PA) or not (ABA-NPA). After refeeding, fat free mass was completely restored only in ABA-PA. Colonic permeability was enhanced in ABA-NPA. Finally, muscle kynurenine conversion into kynurenic acid was lower in ABA-NPA who also exhibited altered behavior. Maintaining physical activity during refeeding may thus limit colonic hyperpermeability and improve behavior in anorectic mice. PMID:26906060

  4. Maintaining physical activity during refeeding improves body composition, intestinal hyperpermeability and behavior in anorectic mice.

    PubMed

    Achamrah, Najate; Nobis, Séverine; Breton, Jonathan; Jésus, Pierre; Belmonte, Liliana; Maurer, Brigitte; Legrand, Romain; Bôle-Feysot, Christine; do Rego, Jean Luc; Goichon, Alexis; Rego, Jean Claude do; Déchelotte, Pierre; Fetissov, Sergueï O; Claeyssens, Sophie; Coëffier, Moïse

    2016-01-01

    A role of gut-brain axis emerges in the pathophysiology of anorexia nervosa and maintaining adapted physical activity during refeeding remains discussed. We aimed to assess gastrointestinal protein metabolism and investigate the contribution of physical activity during refeeding in C57BL/6 mice with activity-based anorexia (ABA). ABA mice exhibited lower body weight and food intake with increase of lean mass/fat mass ratio and fat oxidation. Colonic permeability was increased in ABA. Ad libitum food access was then restored and ABA group was divided into two subgroups, with access to running wheel (ABA-PA) or not (ABA-NPA). After refeeding, fat free mass was completely restored only in ABA-PA. Colonic permeability was enhanced in ABA-NPA. Finally, muscle kynurenine conversion into kynurenic acid was lower in ABA-NPA who also exhibited altered behavior. Maintaining physical activity during refeeding may thus limit colonic hyperpermeability and improve behavior in anorectic mice. PMID:26906060

  5. Persistent Focal Behavior and Physical Activity Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the proclivity and performance attributes of focal students across time and activities using data from 9,345 students. Three systematic focal behavior partitions are examined: Across activities, across time, and across activities and time. A student's performance is focal if it ends in 0 or 5 for push-ups and 0 for…

  6. METABOLIC SYNDROME IN RELATION TO CARDIORESPIRATORY FITNESS, ACTIVE AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR IN HIV+ HISPANICS WITH AND WITHOUT LIPODYSTROPHY

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Marrero, Farah A.; Santana-Bagur, Jorge L.; Joyner, Michael J.; Rodríguez-Zayas, Jorge; Frontera, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics in Puerto Rico (PR) have a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome (met-syn), partially explained by low physical activity (PA) and possibly low cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak). Met-syn is also associated with lipodystrophy in HIV infected (HIV+) adults taking antiretroviral therapies. However, associations between met-syn, VO2peak, PA, sedentary behavior and lipodystrophy among HIV+ Hispanics have not been adequately reported. Objective We tested the following hypotheses: 1) HIV+ Hispanics with lipodystrophy (HIV-Lipo) would have a higher prevalence of met-syn, lower VO2peak and PA, and higher sedentary behavior compared with those without lipodystrophy (HIV-no-Lipo) and without HIV infection (Non-HIV); and 2) met-syn would be inversely associated with VO2peak and PA, and directly associated with sedentary behavior. METHODS Ninety Hispanic adults (32 HIV-Lipo, 28 HIV-no-Lipo, 30 Non-HIV) completed measurements of VO2peak, anthropometry, PA and sedentary behavior with accelerometry, blood pressure, fasting glucose, insulin, and lipids. ANOVA and chi-square tests were used to detect differences between groups, and regression analyses to test associations between variables. RESULTS More HIV-Lipo (69%) had met-syn compared with HIV-no-Lipo (39%) and Non-HIV (37%) (P=0.002). Sedentary behavior and PA were not different, but VO2peak differed between all groups: lowest in HIV-Lipo and highest in non-HIV. PA and sedentary behavior were not associated with met-syn, but PA was directly associated with VO peak (R2=0.26, p<0.01). Also, a lower odds ratio for met-syn was observed with higher VO2peak (0.87; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95). CONCLUSION Met-syn is related to lipodystrophy in HIV+ Hispanics in PR, and high VO2peak may protect against met-syn in this population. PMID:25563033

  7. Concurrent Associations of Physical Activity and Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior on Obesity Among US Adolescents: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barreira, Tiago V.; Kang, Minsoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Independent associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with obesity are well documented. However, little is known about the combined associations of these behaviors with obesity in adolescents. The present study examines the prevalence of concurrent levels of PA and SB, and their associations with obesity among US adolescents. Methods Data from a total of 12 081 adolescents who participated in the Youth Risk Behaviors Survey during 2012–2013 were analyzed. A latent class analysis was performed to identify latent subgroups with varying combined levels of subjectively measured PA and screen-based SB. Follow-up analysis examined the changes in the likelihood of being obese as determined by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention Growth Chart between latent subgroups. Results Four latent subgroups with varying combined levels of PA and SB were identified across gender. The likelihood of being obese was significantly greater for the subgroups featuring either or both Low PA or High SB when compared with High PA/Low SB across genders (odds ratio [OR] ranges, 2.1–2.7 for males and 9.6–23.5 for females). Low PA/High SB showed the greater likelihood of being obese compared to subgroups featuring either or both High PA and Low SB (OR ranges, 2.2–23.5) for female adolescents only. Conclusions The findings imply that promoting sufficient levels of PA while reducing SB should be encouraged in order to reduce obesity risk among adolescents, particularly for males. The risk of obesity for female adolescents can be reduced by engaging in either high levels of PA or low levels of SB. PMID:26477996

  8. Motor Behavior Activates Bergmann Glial Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nimmerjahn, Axel; Mukamel, Eran A.; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Although it is firmly established neuronal activity is a prime determinant of animal behavior, relationships between astrocytic excitation and animal behavior have remained opaque. Cerebellar Bergmann glia are radial astrocytes that are implicated in motor behavior and exhibit Ca2+-excitation. However, Ca2+-excitation in these cells has not previously been studied in behaving animals. Using two-photon microscopy we found that Bergmann glia exhibit three forms of Ca2+-excitation in awake behaving mice. Two of these are ongoing within the cerebellar vermis. During locomotor performance concerted Ca2+-excitation arises in networks of at least hundreds of Bergmann glia extending across several hundred microns or more. Concerted Ca2+-excitation was abolished by anesthesia or blockade of either neural activity or glutamatergic transmission. Thus, large networks of Bergmann glia can be activated by specific animal behaviors and undergo excitation of sufficient magnitude to potentially initiate macroscopic changes in brain dynamics or blood flow. PMID:19447095

  9. Relationship between Eating Behaviors and Physical Activity among Primary and Secondary School Students: Results of a Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Pascale; Turcotte, Sylvain; Perreault, Gino

    2013-01-01

    Background: With a view toward developing concerted efforts in fostering healthy eating habits and a physically active lifestyle among young people, a study was carried out to explore associations between eating behavior and physical activity (PA). Methods: In the school district, questionnaires were completed at home by parents of primary school…

  10. How Are Physical Activity Behaviors and Cardiovascular Risk Factors Associated with Characteristics of the Built and Social Residential Environment?

    PubMed Central

    Haditsch, Bernd; Dorner, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of our study was to identify perceptions of built and social residential characteristics and their association with behaviors such as physical activity (PA), nutrition and smoking and with cardiovascular risk factors (elevated BMI and fasting blood glucose). Methods Among participants of a preventive medical checkup at an Austrian District Health Insurance Fund (n=904, response rate = 82.2%, 42% women, 18-91 years) self-reported and measured data were collected. Results Total PA was positively associated with the presence of trees along the streets and high levels of pro-physical activity social modeling (SM) and it was negatively related to perceived safety from crime. More leisure-time PA was associated with higher levels of cycling/walking infrastructure and high levels of SM. PA for transportation was positively related to high levels of connectivity and high levels of SM. Better behavioral cardiovascular risk factor profiles (smoking and nutrition) were associated with high levels of SM and high levels of total PA. Lower BMI values were associated with high levels of infrastructure and high levels of SM. Conclusions Both built and social residential characteristics are important correlates of PA as well as of major cardiovascular risk factors besides PA. PMID:26035294

  11. Conformational Analysis of the Host-Defense Peptides Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb and -2Pa and Design of Analogues with Insulin-Releasing Activities and Reduced Toxicities.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Giorgia; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Srinivasan, Dinesh; Attoub, Samir; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Casu, Mariano; Flatt, Peter R; Conlon, J Michael

    2015-12-24

    Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb (Ps-1Pb; IKIPSFFRNILKKVGKEAVSLIAGALKQS) and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa (Ps-2Pa; GIFPIFAKLLGKVIKVASSLISKGRTE) are amphibian peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. In the membrane-mimetic solvent 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol-H2O, both peptides adopt a well-defined α-helical conformation that extends over almost all the sequence and incorporates a flexible bend. Both peptides significantly (p < 0.05) stimulate the rate of release of insulin from BRIN-BD11 clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥ 0.1 nM but produce loss of integrity of the plasma membrane at concentrations ≥ 1 μM. Increasing cationicity by the substitution Glu(17) → l-Lys in Ps-1Pb and Glu(27) → l-Lys in Ps-2Pa generates analogues with increased cytotoxicity and reduced insulin-releasing potency. In contrast, the analogues [R8r]Ps-1Pb and [K8k,K19k]Ps-2Pa, incorporating d-amino acid residues to destabilize the α-helical domains, retain potent insulin-releasing activity but are nontoxic to BRIN-BD11 cells at concentrations of 3 μM. [R8r]Ps-1Pb produces a significant increase in insulin release rate at 0.3 nM and [K8k,K19k]Ps-2Pa at 0.01 nM. Both analogues show low hemolytic activity (IC50 > 100 μM) but retain broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and remain cytotoxic to a range of human tumor cell lines, albeit with lower potency than the naturally occurring peptides. These analogues show potential for development into agents for type 2 diabetes therapy. PMID:26606380

  12. Girls' Physically Active Play and Parental Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauber, Margaret A.

    Sex differences in children's physical activity levels, and associations between girls' activity level, childrearing characteristics and parent-child play behavior were investigated in a quasi-naturalistic situation. As part of a longitudinal project, 144 third grade children were videotaped in a 1-hour play session with one of their parents. A…

  13. Tri-Axial Accelerometer-Determined Daily Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Suburban Community-Dwelling Older Japanese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Sanmei; Haeuchi, Yuki; Nofuji, Yu Y; Matsuo, Eri; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge regarding accelerometer-derived physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SED) levels is scarce for Japanese older adults. The aims of this study were therefore to 1) describe levels of PA and SED in Japanese community-dwelling older adults, using tri-axial accelerometer; 2) examine the variation of PA and SED with respect to sex, age, and body mass index (BMI). Participants of this study were from the baseline survey of the Sasaguri Genkimon Study, who were 65 years or older and not certified as those requiring long-term care. PA was assessed objectively for seven consecutive days using tri-axial accelerometer. A total of 1,739 participants (median age: 72 years, men: 38.0%) with valid PA data were included. Overall, participants in the present study spent 54.5% of their waking time being sedentary and 45.5% being active, of which 5.4% was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Women accumulated more minutes of light physical activity (LPA) and MVPA compared with men. In contrast, men spent more time being sedentary. Mean steps per day did not differ between sexes. Furthermore, participants with higher BMI (BMI ≥25) had lower PA levels, and longer SED compared with those with lower BMI (BMI <). PA levels were lower and SED was longer with age. The present study is the first to demonstrate that the levels of PA and SED differed by sex, age, and BMI in Japanese community-dwelling older adults. In particular, women were more active compared with men, providing unique insight into the current level of PA in older adults. Data presented in the study will enable further investigation of additional determinants of PA and SED in order to develop effective population-based intervention strategies to promote PA and reduce prolonged SED in the Japanese population and possibly other rapidly aging societies. Key points Accelerometer, that is capable to assess PA more precisely in large scale epidemiological studies, provides opportunity for improving

  14. Elucidating Protactinium Hydrolysis: The Relative Stabilities of PaO2(H2O)(+) and PaO(OH)2(+).

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Wilson, Richard E; Gibson, John K

    2015-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series. PMID:26203499

  15. Influence of risk behavior aggregation in different categories of physical activity on the occurrence of cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to verify the association of risk behavior aggregation in different categories of physical activity (PA) with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (RF) employees at a public university. Method We analyzed data of 376 employees, which were visited in their workplace for measurement of weight, height and questionnaires to identify the risk behaviors and risk factors. Chi-square test was used to analyze the association between the dependent and independent variables and binary logistic regression was used to construct a multivariate model for the observed associations. Results Associations were found between the aggregation of following risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol consumption and physical inactivity, considered in different categories of PA, and the increase in RF, except for the presence of hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with two or more risk behaviors in occupational PA category are more likely to be hypertensive (3.04 times) and diabetes (3.44 times). For the free time PA category, these individuals were 3.18 times more likely to have hypercholesterolemia and for locomotion PA, more likely to be hypertensive (2.42 times) and obese (2.51 times). Conclusion There are association between the aggregation of two or more risk behaviors and the presence of cardiovascular RF. PMID:23800219

  16. Older People’s Perspectives on Health, Physical Activity and Nutritional Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Leila; Salehi, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approaches for investigating health-promoting lifestyle generally focus on physical activity and regular diet. To explore the perspectives of Iranian elders regarding health, healthy eating and physical activity (PA) this study was conducted in 2012. Methods: Participants in this qualitative study were selected through purposeful sampling. Ten focus groups were conducted with 60 older adults in 3 elderly centers in Tehran. A moderator’s guideline that consisted of general and specific questions was used. Focus groups were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysis was performed using conventional content analysis. Results: Participants explained their perspectives regarding health, healthy eating and PA in the following 5 categories: meaning of health was represented based on issues such as absence of pain and disorder, complete body wellbeing, staying away from hazards, complete individual satisfaction, experiencing positive events, effective communication, faithfulness and trust in God. The healthy eating category was featured by adequate eating, age balanced diet, refraining from under or over nutrition and sensible consumption of fruits and vegetables. The PA was described - according to the level of performing outdoor activities or household tasks. Expressions about the perceived benefits and barriers of healthy eating and PA were aligned the two remaining categories. Conclusions: Participants have referred to the association between both PA and dietary practices and health. Understanding how older people define physical activity and nutritional behavior and recognition of the most important perceived benefits and barriers that might contribute to have a healthy eating or adequate PA profile could procure insight into the type of interventions that are required to promote healthy lifestyle among Iranian older adults. PMID:26933648

  17. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities…

  18. Exploring Gender Differences in Predicting Physical Activity among Elementary Aged Children: An Application of the Integrated Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branscum, Paul; Bhochhibhoya, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Background: The integrated behavioral model (IBM) is a new and emerging theory in the field of health promotion and health education, and more applications are needed to test the usefulness of the model for research and practice. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to operationalize the IBM as it relates to physical activity (PA) among children…

  19. Perceptions of Environmental Supports on the Physical Activity Behaviors of University Men and Women: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian; Ainsworth, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine perception differences between genders of university sidewalks and safety from crime on the physical activity (PA) behaviors of undergraduate students. Participants: Five hundred and sixty undergraduate students participated in this study. Methods: The authors derived questions from the South Carolina Environmental Supports…

  20. Intra-arterial administration of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) causes more intracranial bleeding than does intravenous rt-PA in a transient rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-arterial (IA) administration of rt-PA for ischemic stroke has the potential for greater thrombolytic efficacy, especially for a large thrombus in the M1 or M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a concern with IA or intravenous (IV) administration especially as the therapeutic window is extended. However, because IA administration delivers a higher local concentration of agent, the incidence and severity of ICH may be greater than with similar doses IV. We investigated the safety of rt-PA administration by IA compared to IV infusion following 6 hours of MCA occlusion (MCAo) with reflow in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Methods Male SHRs were subjected to 6 hours MCAo with 18 hours reflow using a snare ligature model. They were treated with IA saline, IA rt-PA (1, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg), or IV rt-PA (10 and 30 mg/kg) by a 10 to 60 minute infusion beginning approximately 1 minute before reflow. The rats were recovered for 24 hours after MCAo onset at which time Bleeding Score, infarct volume, and Modified Bederson Score were measured. Results Greater hemorrhagic transformation occurred with 10 and 30 mg/kg rt-PA administered IA than IV. The IV 10 mg/kg rt-PA dosage induced significantly less bleeding than did the 1 or 5 mg/kg IA groups. No significant increase in infarct volume was observed after IA or IV treatment. Rats treated with 30 mg/kg rt-PA by either the IA or IV route had greater neurological dysfunction compared to all other groups. Conclusions Administration of rt-PA by the IA route following 6 hours of MCAo results in greater ICH and worse functional recovery than comparable dosages IV. Significantly greater bleeding was observed when the IA dose was a tenth of the IV dose. The increased bleeding did not translate in larger infarct volumes. PMID:21933438

  1. Mesolimbic neuronal activity across behavioral states.

    PubMed

    Woodward, D J; Chang, J Y; Janak, P; Azarov, A; Anstrom, K

    1999-06-29

    A goal of neurophysiology of the mesolimbic system is to determine the activity patterns within the regions in the prefrontal cortex, ventral neostriatum, and amygdala that regulate behavioral patterns to seek rewards. A new technology has been introduced in which arrays of microwires are implanted in different brain regions while activity patterns of ensembles of neurons are recorded for long periods of time during freely moving behaviors. Multichannel instrumentation and software is used for data acquisition and analysis. An initial hypothesis was that neural signals would be encountered in the nucleus accumbens and associated regions specifically related to reward. However, an initial study of neural activity and behavioral patterns during a simple lever press for intravenous cocaine (1 mg/kg) revealed that phasic excitatory or inhibitory neural activity patterns often appear prior to the reward phase. Individual neurons throughout the mesolimbic system appear to code information specific to sensory and motor events, tones, or lever presses in the chain of tasks leading to all rewards so far studied. Different spatial temporal patterns also appear within the same neural populations, as reward is changed from injected cocaine to heroin, from ingested pure water to ethanol in water or sucrose. Overall, patterns of activity for each neuron are found to shift dynamically during the operant task as changes are made in the target reward. Significant shifts in activity of mesolimbic neurons that are unrelated to specific sensory-motor events also appear during complex sessions, such as during a bout of ethanol consumption to reach satiation or during progressive ratio tasks with increasing difficulty. An emerging hypothesis is that some candidate neural elements in the mesolimbic system code the anticipated reward, whereas others serve internal logic functions of motivation that mediate extinction or resumption of specific goal-directed behaviors. PMID:10415645

  2. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  3. Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior with Academic Skills – A Follow-Up Study among Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Haapala, Eero A.; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Väistö, Juuso; Leppänen, Paavo H. T.; Laaksonen, David E.; Lindi, Virpi; Lakka, Timo A.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are no prospective studies that would have compared the relationships of different types of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with academic skills among children. We therefore investigated the associations of different types of PA and SB with reading and arithmetic skills in a follow-up study among children. Methods The participants were 186 children (107 boys, 79 girls, 6–8 yr) who were followed-up in Grades 1–3. PA and SB were assessed using a questionnaire in Grade 1. Reading fluency, reading comprehension and arithmetic skills were assessed using standardized tests at the end of Grades 1–3. Results Among all children more recess PA and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across Grades 1–3. In boys, higher levels of total PA, physically active school transportation and more time spent in SB related to academic skills were associated with a better reading fluency across the Grades 1–3. Among girls, higher levels of total PA were related to worse arithmetic skills across Grades 1–3. Moreover, total PA was directly associated with reading fluency and arithmetic skills in Grades 1–3 among girls whose parents had a university degree, whereas these relationships were inverse in girls of less educated parents. Conclusions Total PA, physically active school transportation and SB related to academic skills may be beneficial for the development of reading skills in boys, whereas factors that are independent of PA or SB may be more important for academic skills in girls. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01803776 PMID:25207813

  4. Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

  5. A Test of the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Physical Activity in an Overweight/Obese Population Sample of Adolescents from Alberta, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Lubans, David R.; Costigan, Sarah A.; McCargar, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining physical activity (PA) intention and behavior among a large population sample of overweight and obese adolescents (Alberta, Canada), using a web-based survey. Secondary objectives were to examine the mediating effects of the TPB constructs and moderating effects…

  6. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens. PMID:24319695

  7. Comparison of two objective monitors for assessing physical activity and sedentary behaviors in bariatric surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Bond, Dale S.; Jakicic, John M.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Pohl, Dieter; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Objective quantification of physical activity (PA) is needed to understand PA and sedentary behaviors in bariatric surgery patients, yet it is unclear whether PA estimates produced by different monitors are comparable and can be interpreted similarly across studies. We compared PA estimates from the Stayhealthy RT3 triaxial accelerometer (RT3) and the Sensewear Pro2 Armband (SWA) at both the group and individual participant level. Methods Bariatric surgery candidates were instructed to wear the RT3 and SWA during waking hours for seven days. Participants meeting valid wear time requirements (≥4 days of ≥8 hours/day) for both monitors were included in the analyses. Time spent in sedentary (<1.5 METs), light (1.5–2.9 METs), moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA; ≥3.0 METs), and total PA (TPA; ≥1.5 METs) according to each monitor was compared. Results Fifty-five participants (BMI: 48.4±8.2 kg/m2) met wear time requirements. Daily time spent in sedentary (RT3: 582.9±94.3; SWA: 602.3±128.6 min), light (RT3: 131.9±60.0; SWA: 120.6±65.7 min), MVPA (RT3: 25.9±20.9; SWA: 29.9±19.5 min), and TPA (RT3: 157.8±74.5; SWA: 150.6±80.7 min) was similar between monitors (p>0.05). While the average difference in TPA between the two monitors at the group level was 7.2±64.2 minutes; the average difference between the two monitors for each participant was 45.6±45.4 minutes. Conclusions At the group level, the RT3 and SWA provide similar estimates of PA and sedentary behaviors; however concordance between monitors may be compromised at the individual level. Findings related to PA and sedentary behaviors at the group level can be interpreted similarly across studies when either monitor is used. PMID:21814865

  8. Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African American women who are physically active and those who are not.

    PubMed

    Carter-Parker, Kathleen; Edwards, Karethy A; McCleary-Jones, Voncella

    2012-01-01

    Many people have positive intention to engage in physical activity but fail to act. In general, Physical activity (PA) levels among Americans are declining. However, when compared to all other racial groups, middle aged African American women (AAW) have the lowest rate of PA participation. The lack of physical activity has dire illness consequences for AAW Despite significant efforts to increase physical activity to levels that benefit health, the need to understand successful translation of intention to engage in physical activity, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control is warranted in order to design theoretically derived culturally tailored interventions to increase physical activity participation among middle aged AAW. Moreover, there is a paucity of studies that use theoretical underpinnings to elucidate the differences between middle aged AAW who are physically active and those who are not physically active. Therefore, the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) measuring the constructs of intention, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control was used to guide the design of this study. One-hundred-fifty-three respondents completed the socio-demographic profile, a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire (TPBQ), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated the highest correlation between intention and attitude r (137) = .740, p < .001. The correlation between intention and perceived behavior control was r (137) = .546, p < .001; intention and physical activity r (137) = .439, p < .001; attitude and perceived behavior control r (137) = .487, p < .001; and attitude and physical activity r (137) = .429, p < .001 demonstrated a moderately strong positive relationship. Subjective norm and perceived behavior control demonstrate the smallest correlational significance r (137) = .264, p <.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed attitude towards physical

  9. Fundamental motor skill, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiangli

    2016-10-01

    Guided by Stodden et al's conceptual model, the main purpose of the study was to examine the relation between fundamental motor skills (FMS; locomotor and objective control skills), different intensity levels of physical activity (light PA [LPA], moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA], and vigorous PA[VPA]), and sedentary behavior (SB) in socioeconomically disadvantaged kindergarteners. A prospective design was used in this study and the data were collected across the 2013-2014 academic school year. Participants were 256 (129 boys; 127 girls; Mage = 5.37, SD = 0.48) kindergarteners recruited from three public schools in the southern United States. Results found that FMS were significantly related to LPA, MVPA, VPA, and SB. Regression analyses indicate that locomotor skills explained significant variance for LPA (6.4%; p < .01), MVPA (7.9%; p < .001), and VPA (5.3%; p < .01) after controlling for weight status. Mediational analysis supports the significant indirect effect of MVPA on the relation between FMS and SB (95% CI: [-0.019, -0.006]). Adequate FMS development during early childhood may result in participating in more varied physical activities, thus leading to lower risk of obesity-related behaviors. PMID:26691744

  10. Testing multi-theory model (MTM) in predicting initiation and sustenance of physical activity behavior among college students

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Vinayak K.; Sharma, Manoj; Catalano, Hannah Priest; Ickes, Melinda J.; Johnson, Paul; Ford, M. Allison

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most college students do not adequately participate in enough physical activity (PA) to attain health benefits. A theory-based approach is critical in developing effective interventions to promote PA. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the newly proposed multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change in predicting initiation and sustenance of PA among college students. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design, a valid and reliable survey was administered in October 2015 electronically to students enrolled at a large Southern US University. The internal consistency Cronbach alphas of the subscales were acceptable (0.65-0.92). Only those who did not engage in more than 150 minutes of moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic PA during the past week were included in this study. Results: Of the 495 respondents, 190 met the inclusion criteria of which 141 completed the survey. The majority of participants were females (72.3%) and Caucasians (70.9%). Findings of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed construct validity of subscales (initiation model: χ2 = 253.92 [df = 143], P < 0.001, CFI = 0.91, RMSEA = 0.07, SRMR = 0.07; sustenance model: χ2= 19.40 [df = 22], P < 0.001, CFI = 1.00, RMSEA = 0.00, SRMR = 0.03). Multivariate regression analysis showed that 26% of the variance in the PA initiation was explained by advantages outweighing disadvantages, behavioral confidence, work status, and changes in physical environment. Additionally, 29.7% of the variance in PA sustenance was explained by emotional transformation, practice for change, and changes in social environment. Conclusion: Based on this study’s findings, MTM appears to be a robust theoretical framework for predicting PA behavior change. Future research directions and development of suitable intervention strategies are discussed. PMID:27386419

  11. Impulsive Approach Tendencies towards Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors, but Not Reflective Intentions, Prospectively Predict Non-Exercise Activity Thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cheval, Boris; Sarrazin, Philippe; Pelletier, Luc

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the determinants of non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) is crucial, given its extensive health benefits. Some scholars have assumed that a proneness to react differently to environmental cues promoting sedentary versus active behaviors could be responsible for inter-individual differences in NEAT. In line with this reflection and grounded on the Reflective-Impulsive Model, we test the assumption that impulsive processes related to sedentary and physical activity behaviors can prospectively predict NEAT, operationalized as spontaneous effort exerted to maintain low intensity muscle contractions within the release phases of an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. Participants (n = 91) completed a questionnaire assessing their intentions to adopt physical activity behaviors and a manikin task to assess impulsive approach tendencies towards physical activity behaviors (IAPA) and sedentary behaviors (IASB). Participants were then instructed to perform a maximal handgrip strength task and an intermittent maximal isometric contraction task. As hypothesized, multilevel regression analyses revealed that spontaneous effort was (a) positively predicted by IAPA, (b) negatively predicted by IASB, and (c) was not predicted by physical activity intentions, after controlling for some confounding variables such as age, sex, usual PA level and average force provided during the maximal-contraction phases of the task. These effects remained constant throughout all the phases of the task. This study demonstrated that impulsive processes may play a unique role in predicting spontaneous physical activity behaviors. Theoretically, this finding reinforces the utility of a motivational approach based on dual-process models to explain inter-individual differences in NEAT. Implications for health behavior theories and behavior change interventions are outlined. PMID:25526596

  12. Collective behavior of thermally active colloids.

    PubMed

    Golestanian, Ramin

    2012-01-20

    Colloids with patchy metal coating under laser irradiation could act as local heat sources and generate temperature gradients that could induce self-propulsion and interactions between them. The collective behavior of a dilute solution of such thermally active particles is studied using a stochastic formulation. It is found that when the Soret coefficient is positive, the system could be described in a stationary state by the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and could adopt density profiles with significant depletion in the middle region when confined. For colloids with a negative Soret coefficient, the system can be described as a dissipative equivalent of a gravitational system. It is shown that in this case the thermally active colloidal solution could undergo an instability at a critical laser intensity, which has similarities to a supernova explosion. PMID:22400792

  13. Collective Behavior of Thermally Active Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Ramin

    2012-01-01

    Colloids with patchy metal coating under laser irradiation could act as local heat sources and generate temperature gradients that could induce self-propulsion and interactions between them. The collective behavior of a dilute solution of such thermally active particles is studied using a stochastic formulation. It is found that when the Soret coefficient is positive, the system could be described in a stationary state by the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation and could adopt density profiles with significant depletion in the middle region when confined. For colloids with a negative Soret coefficient, the system can be described as a dissipative equivalent of a gravitational system. It is shown that in this case the thermally active colloidal solution could undergo an instability at a critical laser intensity, which has similarities to a supernova explosion.

  14. Models accounting for intention-behavior discordance in the physical activity domain: a user's guide, content overview, and review of current evidence.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E; Yao, Christopher A

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern among researchers with the limited effectiveness and yet subsequent stagnation of theories applied to physical activity (PA). One of the most highlighted areas of concern is the established gap between intention and PA, yet the considerable use of models that assume intention is the proximal antecedent of PA. The objective of this review was to: 1) provide a guide and thematic analysis of the available models that include constructs that address intention-behavior discordance and 2) highlight the evidence for these structures in the PA domain. A literature search was conducted among 13 major databases to locate relevant models and PA studies published before August 2014. Sixteen models were identified and nine overall themes for post-intentional constructs were created. Of the 16 models, eight were applied to 36 PA studies. Early evidence supported maintenance self-efficacy, behavioral regulation strategies, affective judgments, perceived control/opportunity, habit, and extraversion as reliable predictors of post-intention PA. Several intention-behavior discordance models exist within the literature, but are not used frequently. Further efforts are needed to test these models, preferably with experimental designs. PMID:25890238

  15. Anti-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as an effective therapy of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia with and without inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neurodevelopmental deficits in neonates. Intrauterine infection and the ensuing fetal inflammatory responses augment hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and attenuate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Here, we review evidences from preclinical studies suggesting that the induction of brain parenchymal tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important pathogenic role in these conditions. Moreover, administration of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 called CPAI confers potent protection against hypoxic-ischemic injury with and without inflammation via different mechanisms. Besides intracerebroventricular injection, CPAI can also be administered into the brain using a noninvasive intranasal delivery strategy, adding to its applicability in clinical use. In sum, the therapeutic potential of CPAI in neonatal care merits further investigation with large-animal models of hypoxia-ischemia and cerebral palsy. PMID:25475942

  16. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    The Cementitious Barriers Partnership (CBP) is a collaborative program sponsored by the US DOE Office of Waste Processing. The objective of the CBP is to develop a set of computational tools to improve understanding and prediction of the long-term structural, hydraulic, and chemical performance of cementitious barriers and waste forms used in nuclear applications. CBP tools are expected to better characterize and reduce the uncertainties of current methodologies for assessing cementitious barrier performance and increase the consistency and transparency of the assessment process, as the five-year program progresses. In September 2009, entering its second year of funded effort, the CBP sought opportunities to provide near-term tangible support to DOE Performance Assessments (PAs). The Savannah River Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) was selected for the initial PA support effort because (1) cementitious waste forms and barriers play a prominent role in the performance of the facility, (2) certain important long-term behaviors of cementitious materials composing the facility are uncertain, (3) review of the SDF PA by external stakeholders is ongoing, and (4) the DOE contractor responsible for the SDF PA is open to receiving technical assistance from the CBP. A review of the current (SRR Closure & Waste Disposal Authority 2009) and prior Saltstone PAs (e.g., Cook et al. 2005) suggested five potential opportunities for improving predictions. The candidate topics considered were (1) concrete degradation from external sulfate attack, (2) impact of atmospheric exposure to concrete and grout before closure, such as accelerated slag and Tc-99 oxidation, (3) mechanistic prediction of geochemical conditions, (4) concrete degradation from rebar corrosion due to carbonation, and (5) early age cracking from drying and/or thermal shrinkage. The candidate topics were down-selected considering the feasibility of addressing each issue within approximately six months, and

  17. Oxidation of gas-phase protactinium ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: formation and properties of PaO2(2+)(g), protactinyl.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Tyagi, Rajni; Pitzer, Russell M

    2006-05-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N(2)O to the relatively weak CH(2)O-all oxidized Pa(+) to PaO(+) and PaO(+) to PaO(2)(+). On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa(+)-O] and D[OPa(+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). Estimates for D[Pa(+)-O], D[OPa(+)-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO(2)] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa(2+) to produce PaO(2+), indicating that D[Pa(2+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO(2+) by N(2)O to PaO(2)(2+), a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO(2)(2+) suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {O-Pa-O}(2+). The experimentally determined IE[PaO(2)(+)] approximately 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO(2)(+) and PaO(2)(2+). These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial "6p hole" in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO(2)(2+) catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N(2)O-such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO(2)(2+) is capable of activating H(2) to form the stable PaO(2)H(2+) ion. PMID:16640369

  18. The effect of O2 and CO2 on the dive behavior and heart rate of lesser scaup ducks (Aythya affinis): quantification of the critical PaO2 that initiates a diving bradycardia.

    PubMed

    Borg, Kim A; Milsom, William K; Jones, David R

    2004-12-15

    Lesser scaup ducks were trained to dive for short and long durations following exposure to various gas concentrations to determine the influence of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) on diving behavior and heart rate. Compared with normoxia, hyperoxia (50% O2) significantly increased the duration of long dives, whereas severe hypoxia (9% O2) significantly decreased the duration of both short and long dives. Hypercapnia (5% CO2) had no effect on dive duration. Surface intervals were not significantly altered by the oxygen treatments, but significantly increased following CO2 exposure. Heart rate during diving was unaffected by hyperoxia and hypercapnia, but gradually declined in long dives after severe hypoxia. Thus, our results suggest that during the majority of dives, O2 and CO2 levels in lesser scaup ducks are managed through changes in diving behavior without any major cardiovascular adjustments, but below a threshold PaO2, a bradycardia is evoked to conserve the remaining oxygen for hypoxia sensitive tissues. A model of oxygen store utilization during voluntary diving was developed to estimate the critical PaO2 below which bradycardia is initiated (approximately 26 mmHg) and predicted that this critical PaO2 would be reached 19s into a dive after exposure to severe hypoxia, which corresponded exactly with the time of initiation of bradycardia in the severe hypoxia trials. PMID:15556108

  19. Behavioral activation: a strategy to enhance treatment response.

    PubMed

    Sudak, Donna M; Majeed, Muhammad H; Youngman, Branden

    2014-07-01

    Behavioral activation is an empirically validated treatment for depression pioneered in 1973 by Ferster, based on B.F. Skinner's behavioral principles. After publication of Beck's work on cognitive therapy, the boundaries of behavioral and cognitive therapies were blurred and the two now overlap substantially. Behavioral activation is also used as a stand-alone treatment and can also be effective in conjunction with antidepressant medication. Case conceptualization in behavioral activation entails an assessment of the behaviors that the patient has stopped that produce pleasure or are of importance, as well as behaviors essential to self-care. Activity monitoring, which provides treatment targets and leads to the case conceptualization in behavioral activation, consists of using charts, forms, or other prompts to track the relationship between activities and other variables (e.g., mood, enjoyment). That technique is also used to target rumination, procrastination, and avoidance and may also be helpful for patients with psychosis. PMID:25036582

  20. Motivation and Physical Activity Behaviors among Older Women: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of our study was to examine the motivational determinants of older women's dropout and participation in physical activity (PA). Older women who dropped out (n = 242) or remained (n = 332) in an organized PA program completed the Sport Motivation Scale as well as health and PA measures. We found…

  1. Who intervenes against homophobic behavior? Attributes that distinguish active bystanders.

    PubMed

    Poteat, V Paul; Vecho, Olivier

    2016-02-01

    Research on homophobic behavior has focused on students engaging in this behavior or students toward whom this behavior is directed. There has been little attention to the large segment of students who observe this behavior, including active bystanders who defend or support students when homophobic behavior occurs. Among 722 high school students (55% female, 87% white, 86% heterosexual), 66.8% had observed at least one instance of homophobic behavior in the past 30 days. Gender (in this case, girls more so than boys), leadership, courage, altruism, justice sensitivity, and number of LGBT friends were associated with engagement in more active bystander behavior in response to observing homophobic behavior. Further, gender, courage, altruism, and number of LGBT friends each made unique contributions in accounting for variability in students' defending behavior in a comprehensive regression model. Findings highlight qualities that interventionists should cultivate in students that could lead to more active bystander engagement against homophobic behavior. PMID:26790700

  2. Socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity behavior among older adults (45–70 years): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Present study aimed to identify socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates of physical activity among Dutch older individuals. Methods A systematic random sample of 2,568 Dutch participants aged 45–70 years filled out the validated modified Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire on physical activity. Socio-demographic and social-cognitive correlates were measured with validated instruments; medical correlates were checked by a general practitioner. The study had a cross-sectional design and the data collection ran from March 2005 until August 2006. Linear regression analyses were conducted to identify correlates of PA. We separated the findings for men from those for women to explore potential gender-specific associations. Results Being female, living in North Limburg or North-Brabant, having a higher educational level, a higher perceived behavioral control, more knowledge about PA advantages, a stronger habitual PA behavior, having more action plans and a stronger intention to engage in PA were significantly associated with higher PA levels. Being older, being a smoker, having a higher body mass index (BMI), having a paid job, observing others being physically active and overestimating one's PA level were associated with being less physically active. Socio-demographic and medical correlates significantly explained 20% of the variance of PA behavior while social-cognitive correlates as attitude explained an additional 4% and intention together with actual control explained another 1% of the variance of PA behavior. Conclusion There may be stable individual differences that influence PA in view of the fact that several socio-demographic and medical factors were not completely mediated by the socio-cognitive factors. The current study may help to focus PA interventions for individuals aged 45–70 years on influential socio-demographic, medical and social-cognitive correlates. Physical activity was

  3. Physician Assistant profession (PA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... provide health care services under the direction and supervision of a doctor of medicine (MD) or a ... location as the PA. Most states allow physician supervision by telephone communication with periodic site visits. Supervising ...

  4. Physical activity, sedentary behaviors and the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Joshua J; Golden, Sherita H; Chen, Haiying; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Jacobs, David; Burke, Gregory L; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Ouyang, Pamela; Bertoni, Alain G

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior, and incident diabetes has been assessed in whites but is less well investigated in multiethnic populations. Objective To assess the association between PA, sedentary behavior, and incident diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Research design and methods Incident diabetes was assessed among adults without prevalent baseline diabetes (2000–2002) at 5 in-person examinations between 2002 and 2012. Baseline PA (moderate, vigorous, and exercise-specific; metabolic equivalents of task-hours/week) and sedentary behaviors (television watching, reading; hours/day) were assessed by questionnaire. HRs were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results Among 5829 adults (mean age 61.8 years, 54% female, 42% white, 12% Chinese-American, 26% African-American, 21% Hispanic-American), there were 655 incident diabetes cases (median follow-up 11.1 years). After adjustment, diabetes risk was lower in those with brisk or striding compared with none or casual walking pace (HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.54 to 0.84), higher levels of exercise PA (HR for highest vs lowest quartile 0.79; 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98), and any compared with no vigorous PA (HR 0.79; 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95). Race/ethnicity influenced the association of walking pace, exercise PA, and any vigorous PA on diabetes risk, which was only significant among whites. Total leisure sedentary behaviors (HR for highest vs lowest quartile 1.65; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.14) and television watching (HR for highest vs lowest quartile 2.68; 95% CI 1.38 to 5.21) were significantly associated with diabetes risk in multiethnic analyses and were influenced by race/ethnicity. Conclusions These results confirm the importance of PA and sedentary behavior on diabetes risk in a multiethnic population and demonstrate potential variations across race/ethnic groups. PMID:27403323

  5. Recent Perplexing Behavior in Solar Activity Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopresto, James C.

    1997-05-01

    Calcium K and Hα and SOHO He II UV plage and sunspot ara have been monitored using images on the INTERNET since November of 1992. The purpose of the project is to determine the degree of correlation between changing plage area and solar irradiance changes (also obtained via the INTERNET). Also the project provides a low cost process to involve undergraduates in astronomy research. When using weighted weekly averages for both spot Hα plage pixel counts, we see the expected decline from the last maximum. The activity continues to decline, or at best, has flattened out over the past several months. In contrast, the K-line plage pixel count from both Big Bear and Sacramento Peak show an upswing since mid-1995 or earlier. The k2 measurments from both Kitt Peak and Sacramento Peak are in general agreement with the spot and Hα behavior, indicating wer are in, or barely passed minimum. Images high in the chromosphere, detailing the magnetic network, may be more senstive to smaller field changes. This might be a partial explanation for the earlier upswing in K line and He 304 activity, which are receiving radiation near or at the top of the chromosphere.

  6. Keeping the blood flowing—plasminogen activator genes and feeding behavior in vampire bats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellgren-Roth, Åsa; Dittmar, Katharina; Massey, Steven E.; Kemi, Cecilia; Tellgren-Roth, Christian; Savolainen, Peter; Lyons, Leslie A.; Liberles, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The blood feeding vampire bats emerged from New World leaf-nosed bats that fed on fruit and insects. Plasminogen activator, a serine protease that regulates blood coagulation, is known to be expressed in the saliva of Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) and is thought to be a key enzyme for the emergence of blood feeding in vampire bats. To better understand the evolution of this biological function, we studied the plasminogen activator (PA) genes from all vampire bat species in light of their feeding transition to bird and subsequently mammalian blood. We include the rare species Diphylla ecaudata and Diaemus youngi, where plasminogen activator had not previously been studied and demonstrate that PA gene duplication observed in Desmodus is not essential to the vampire phenotype, but relates to the emergence of predominant mammalian blood feeding in this species. Plasminogen activator has evolved through gene duplication, domain loss, and sequence evolution leading to change in fibrin-specificity and susceptibility to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1. Before undertaking this study, only the four plasminogen activator isoforms from Desmodus were known. The evolution of vampire bat plasminogen activators can now be linked phylogenetically to the transition in feeding behavior among vampire bat species from bird to mammalian blood.

  7. A Research Agenda to Examine the Efficacy and Relevance of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Karly S.; Motl, Rob W.; Horwath, Caroline C.; Wertin, Kristin K.; Dishman, Rodney K.

    2010-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) decreases the risk of several chronic diseases including some cancers, type II diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease; however, the majority of US adults are not meeting the recommended levels to experience these benefits. To address this public health concern, the underlying mechanisms for behavior change need to be understood, translated and disseminated into appropriately tailored interventions. The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) provides a framework for both the conceptualization and measurement of behavior change, as well as facilitating promotion strategies that are individualized and easily adapted. The purpose of this manuscript is to present the constructs of the TTM as they relate to PA behavior change. We begin with a brief synopsis of recent examinations of the TTM constructs and their application. Subsequent to its introduction, we specifically present the TTM within the PA context and discuss its application and usefulness to researchers and practitioners. Criticisms of the TTM are also noted and presented as opportunities for future research to enhance the valid application of the TTM. We offer general study design recommendations to appropriately test the hypothesized relationships within the model. With further examinations using appropriate study design and statistical analyses, we believe the TTM has the potential to advance the public health impact of future PA promotion interventions. PMID:21113323

  8. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H.; Sugar, Linda M.; Kiss, Alexander; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-08-28

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. Results: The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by the combination when compared to that of either treatment alone in PC3 cells (p < 0.01). The anti-tumor effect of this combination treatment was associated with down-regulation of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in PC3 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to elucidate the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. - Highlights: • Desmopressin inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. • The expression of cyclin A and CDK2

  9. Aerobic physical activity and resistance training: an application of the theory of planned behavior among adults with type 2 diabetes in a random, national sample of Canadians

    PubMed Central

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Courneya, Kerry S; Trinh, Linda; Karunamuni, Nandini; Sigal, Ronald J

    2008-01-01

    Background Aerobic physical activity (PA) and resistance training are paramount in the treatment and management of type 2 diabetes (T2D), but few studies have examined the determinants of both types of exercise in the same sample. Objective The primary purpose was to investigate the utility of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) in explaining aerobic PA and resistance training in a population sample of T2D adults. Methods A total of 244 individuals were recruited through a random national sample which was created by generating a random list of household phone numbers. The list was proportionate to the actual number of household telephone numbers for each Canadian province (with the exception of Quebec). These individuals completed self-report TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control and intention, and a 3-month follow-up that assessed aerobic PA and resistance training. Results TPB explained 10% and 8% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training; and accounted for 39% and 45% of the variance respectively for aerobic PA and resistance training intentions. Conclusion These results may guide the development of appropriate PA interventions for aerobic PA and resistance training based on the TPB. PMID:19055725

  10. Cue Consistency Associated with Physical Activity Automaticity and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Pimm, Rosemary; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rhodes, Ryan E; Short, Camille; Duncan, Mitch J; Rebar, Amanda L

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is partly regulated by automatic processes such as habits (ie, well-learned responses to cues), but it remains unclear what cues trigger these processes. This study examined the relations of physical activity automaticity and behavior with the consistency of people, activity, routine, location, time, and mood cues present upon initiation of physical activity behavior. Australian adults (N = 1,244, 627 female, M age = 55 years) reported their physical activity automaticity, behavior, and the degree of consistency of these cues each time they start a physical activity behavior. Multiple regression models, which accounted for gender and age, revealed that more consistent routine and mood cues were linked to more physical activity automaticity; whereas more consistent time and people cues were linked to more physical activity behavior. Interventions may more effectively translate into long-lasting physical activity habits if they draw people's attention to the salient cues of time, people, routine, and mood. PMID:25864705

  11. Executive function moderates the intention-behavior link for physical activity and dietary behavior.

    PubMed

    Hall, Peter A; Fong, Geoffrey T; Epp, Lynette J; Elias, Lorin J

    2008-01-01

    Dominant theories of health behavior posit that social-cognitive and conative variables are sufficient to explain health behavior tendencies. The current studies challenge this assumption in two ways: (1) by demonstrating that unique variance in health protective behavior is predictable by knowing about individual differences in executive functioning, and (2) by demonstrating that executive function moderates the association between intention and behavior. In Studies 1 and 2, participants completed a computer-based task of executive function (Go/NoGo task) and articulated 1-week behavioral intentions for physical activity (Study 1) and dietary behavior (Study 2). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that executive function predicts unique variance in both behaviors, and strongly moderates the association between behavioral intention and behavioral performance. Together behavioral intention and executive function explain more variance in health protective behavior than 'rational actor' models that have been widely adopted and disseminated. PMID:25160480

  12. Measuring Homework Completion in Behavioral Activation

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Andrew M.; Uebelacker, Lisa A.; Kalibatseva, Zornitsa; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and validate an observer-based coding system for the characterization and completion of homework assignments during Behavioral Activation (BA). Existing measures of homework completion are generally unsophisticated, and there is no current measure of homework completion designed to capture the particularities of BA. The tested scale sought to capture the type of assignment, realm of functioning targeted, extent of completion, and assignment difficulty. Homework assignments were drawn from 12 (mean age = 48, 83% female) clients in two trials of a 10-session BA manual targeting treatment-resistant depression in primary care. The two coders demonstrated acceptable or better reliability on most codes, and unreliable codes were dropped from the proposed scale. In addition, correlations between homework completion and outcome were strong, providing some support for construct validity. Ultimately, this line of research aims to develop a user-friendly, reliable measure of BA homework completion that can be completed by a therapist during session. PMID:20562324

  13. Psychosocial predictors of changes in adolescent girls' physical activity and dietary behaviors over the course of the Go Girls! group-based mentoring program.

    PubMed

    Dowd, A Justine; Chen, Michelle Y; Schmader, Toni; Jung, Mary E; Zumbo, Bruno D; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-08-01

    Changes in social cognitions targeted within a group-based mentoring program for adolescent girls were examined as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary behavior (in two separate models) over the course of the 7-week program. Data were collected from 310 participants who participated in the program. Multilevel path models were used to assess changes in psychosocial variables predicting changes in behavioral outcomes from pre- to post-program. Analyses revealed that 24.4 and 12.3% of the variance in increases in PA and dietary behavior, respectively, was explained by increases in affective and instrumental attitudes, self-regulatory efficacy (SRE), and intentions. Increases in intentions partially mediated the effects of increases in SRE and affective attitudes on increases in PA behavior. In relation to improvements in dietary behavior, increases in intentions and SRE directly predicted improvements in dietary behavior. These findings suggest potential psychological mechanisms through which a group-based mentoring program may lead to changes in adolescent girls' health-enhancing PA and dietary behaviors. PMID:27325620

  14. Regulated proteolytic processing of Reelin through interplay of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, and their modulators.

    PubMed

    Krstic, Dimitrije; Rodriguez, Myriam; Knuesel, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular signaling protein Reelin, indispensable for proper neuronal migration and cortical layering during development, is also expressed in the adult brain where it modulates synaptic functions. It has been shown that proteolytic processing of Reelin decreases its signaling activity and promotes Reelin aggregation in vitro, and that proteolytic processing is affected in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, neither the pathophysiological significance of dysregulated Reelin cleavage, nor the involved proteases and their modulators are known. Here we identified the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and two matrix metalloproteinases, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, as Reelin cleaving enzymes. Moreover, we assessed the influence of several endogenous protease inhibitors, including tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), α-2-Macroglobulin, and multiple serpins, as well as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) on Reelin cleavage, and described their complex interplay in the regulation of this process. Finally, we could demonstrate that in the murine hippocampus, the expression levels and localization of Reelin proteases largely overlap with that of Reelin. While this pattern remained stable during normal aging, changes in their protein levels coincided with accelerated Reelin aggregation in a mouse model of AD. PMID:23082219

  15. Racial differences in parental perceptions of the neighborhood as predictors of children's physical activity and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Budd, Elizabeth L.; Aaron Hipp, J.; Geary, Nora; Dodson, Elizabeth A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most U.S. children engage in insufficient physical activity (PA) and spend too much time in sedentary behaviors (SBs), leading to increased risk of obesity and chronic disease. Evidence remains inconsistent on relationships between parental perceptions of the neighborhood and children's PA and SB. This study examines parental neighborhood perceptions, stratified by race, as predictors of children's PA and SB. Methods Relationships were tested with regressions stratified by parental race. The sample included 196 parents, residing in St. Louis, Missouri with a child at home. Participants responded to a mailed survey in 2012. Parental neighborhood perceptions were examined by mean composite scores and individual items. Results For parents of all races, perceived barriers negatively predicted the number of days in a week children engaged in ≥ 60 min of PA. Examining parental neighborhood perceptions by individual item, the perception that drivers exceed neighborhood speed limits was a positive predictor of their children's SB only among white parents. Only among minority-race parents was perceived neighborhood crime rate a positive predictor of their children's SB. Conclusions While predictors of children's PA did not differ widely, several distinct predictors of children's SB by parental race lend support toward further examination of this topic. PMID:26844096

  16. Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Methods: Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior…

  17. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  18. Using Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict the Physical Activity of Children: Probing Gender Differences

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The primary objective of this study was to use the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to examine the association between TPB variables and the moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of children in Shanghai, China. Gender differences were also explored. Methods. The participants were 353 children (180 boys and 173 girls) aged 9 to 13 years from three primary schools in Shanghai. Accelerometers were used to measure the MVPA duration of the children. Questionnaires that focused on attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (PBC) related to MVPA engagement were completed by the participants. Results. Regression analyses revealed that intention, and not PBC, accounted for 9% of the variance in MVPA. Meanwhile, attitude and PBC explained 33% of the variance in intentions to engage in MVPA. In terms of gender differences, TPB performed better in the physical activity (PA) domain for boys than for girls. Furthermore, attitude and PBC were significantly associated with intention among boys, whereas only PBC was significantly related to intention among girls. Conclusion. Practitioners should consider tailoring intervention to address gender differences to increase leisure-time PA participation of children. PMID:26649307

  19. Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity. Interim Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Raymond C.

    This interim report discusses progress toward three major goals of the Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity: increased pupil inquiry, changed teacher behavior to facilitate pupil inquiry, and the development of a 32-week course of instruction to provide for these behavioral changes. Data currently available deals with the emotional…

  20. Physician Assistant profession (PA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and about 4 years of health-related experience. Educational programs for PAs are typically associated with colleges of medicine. They vary from 25 to 27 months in length. Most programs award a master's degree upon completion. The first PA students were ...

  1. Pregnant women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of women’s perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23–39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women’s weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  2. Design of Video Games for Children's Diet and Physical Activity Behavior Change.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Thompson, Debbe; Buday, Richard; Lu, Amy Shirong; Baranowski, Janice

    2010-01-01

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and overcome challenges related to fruit and vegetable (FV) and physical activity (PA) goal attainment and/or consumption), skill development (e.g., asking behaviors; virtual recipe preparation), self regulatory behaviors (problem solving, goal setting, goal review, decision making), rewards (e.g., points and positive statements generated by the program), immediate feedback (e.g., through characters and/or statements that appear on the computer screen at critical decision points), and personalization (e.g., tailored choices offered at critical junctures, based on responses to baselines questions related to preferences, outcome expectancies, etc). We are in the earliest stages of learning how to optimally design effective behavior change procedures for use in VG, and yet they have been demonstrated to change behavior. As we learn, VG offer more and better opportunities for obesity prevention that can adjust to individual needs and preferences. PMID:25364331

  3. Association of Active Play-Related Parenting Behaviors, Orientations, and Practices with Preschool Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Kane, Christy; Lee, Hyo; Beets, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Parents' behaviors, practices, beliefs, and attitudes greatly influence children's active play behavior; however, little research has examined these parental influences on preschool children's sedentary behavior (SB). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between parental influences on…

  4. Conceptualizing physical activity behavior of older Korean-Americans: an integration of Korean culture and social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Lim, Kyung-Choon; Waters, Catherine M; Froelicher, Erika S; Kayser-Jones, Jeanie S

    2008-01-01

    People can live longer and healthier lives by engaging in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this article is to assess the social cognitive theory (SCT) in relation to its relevance to produce cultural-specific directions for gerontological nursing practice in order to guide the design of PA interventions for Korean-American elders. SCT is compared to the Korean cultural, social, and health belief system and is analyzed and evaluated based on 3 criteria: assumptions of the theory, completeness and consistency, and essence of nursing. Within the Korean culture, as presumed in the SCT and the nursing paradigm, health-promoting behavior, such as PA, is conceptualized as the desire for a higher level of health rather than a fear of disease as is proposed by other health behavior theories. SCT with the integration of Korean culture recognizes cultural, developmental, societal, and other external constraints that may help in formulating interventions and better understanding of the limits faced by older Korean-Americans (OKAs) in their pursuit of routine PA. PMID:19041454

  5. Modeling a 15-min extravehicular activity prebreathe protocol using NASA's exploration atmosphere (56.5 kPa/34% O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's plans for future human exploration missions utilize a new atmosphere of 56.5 kPa (8.2 psia), 34% O2, 66% N2 to enable rapid extravehicular activity (EVA) capability with minimal gas losses; however, existing EVA prebreathe protocols to mitigate risk of decompression sickness (DCS) are not applicable to the new exploration atmosphere. We provide preliminary analysis of a 15-min prebreathe protocol and examine the potential benefits of intermittent recompression (IR) and an abbreviated N2 purge on crew time and gas consumables usage. A probabilistic model of decompression stress based on an established biophysical model of DCS risk was developed, providing significant (p<0.0001) prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures including a variety of pressure profiles. DCS risk for a 15-min prebreathe protocol was then estimated under different exploration EVA scenarios. Estimated DCS risk for all EVA scenarios modeled using the 15-min prebreathe protocol ranged between 6.1% and 12.1%. Supersaturation in neurological tissues (5- and 10-min half-time compartments) is prevented and tissue tensions in faster half-time compartments (≤40 min), where the majority of whole-body N2 is located, are reduced to about the levels (30.0 vs. 27.6 kPa) achieved during a standard Shuttle prebreathe protocol. IR reduced estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 7.9% (1.8% reduction) and from 8.4% to 6.1% (2.3% reduction) for the scenarios modeled; the penalty of N2 reuptake during IR may be outweighed by the benefit of decreased bubble size. Savings of 75% of purge gas and time (0.22 kg gas and 6 min of crew time per person per EVA) are achievable by abbreviating the EVA suit purge to 20% N2 vs. 5% N2 at the expense of an increase in estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 12.1% (2.4% increase). A 15-min prebreathe protocol appears feasible using the new exploration atmosphere. IR between EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements

  6. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders’ active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders’ stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders’ momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader’s beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721

  7. The cognitive-behavioral system of leadership: cognitive antecedents of active and passive leadership behaviors.

    PubMed

    Dóci, Edina; Stouten, Jeroen; Hofmans, Joeri

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we propose a cognitive-behavioral understanding of active and passive leadership. Building on core evaluations theory, we offer a model that explains the emergence of leaders' active and passive behaviors, thereby predicting stable, inter-individual, as well as variable, intra-individual differences in both types of leadership behavior. We explain leaders' stable behavioral tendencies by their fundamental beliefs about themselves, others, and the world (core evaluations), while their variable, momentary behaviors are explained by the leaders' momentary appraisals of themselves, others, and the world (specific evaluations). By introducing interactions between the situation the leader enters, the leader's beliefs, appraisals, and behavior, we propose a comprehensive system of cognitive mechanisms that underlie active and passive leadership behavior. PMID:26441721

  8. Fuzzy Behavior Modulation with Threshold Activation for Autonomous Vehicle Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tunstel, Edward

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes fuzzy logic techniques used in a hierarchical behavior-based architecture for robot navigation. An architectural feature for threshold activation of fuzzy-behaviors is emphasized, which is potentially useful for tuning navigation performance in real world applications. The target application is autonomous local navigation of a small planetary rover. Threshold activation of low-level navigation behaviors is the primary focus. A preliminary assessment of its impact on local navigation performance is provided based on computer simulations.

  9. Behavioral Activation Is an Evidence-Based Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturmey, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Recent reviews of evidence-based treatment for depression did not identify behavioral activation as an evidence-based practice. Therefore, this article conducted a systematic review of behavioral activation treatment of depression, which identified three meta-analyses, one recent randomized controlled trial and one recent follow-up of an earlier…

  10. Impact of Policy Environment Characteristics on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Children Attending Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin; Ajja, Rahma; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    State and national organizations recently developed policies focused on increasing physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs (ASPs). These policies emphasize "activity friendly" environment characteristics that, when present, should lead to higher levels of PA and reduce the amount of time children spend sedentary during an ASP. Currently,…

  11. Objective Assessment of Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Pre-through 3-Years Post- Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Bond, Dale S; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Patterson, Emma J; Mitchell, James E; Inabnet, William B; Dakin, George F; Flum, David R; Cook, Brian; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate change in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) over three years following bariatric surgery. Methods A subset of participants in an observational study (n=473 of 2458; 79% female, median body mass index 45kg/m2) wore an activity monitor pre-surgery and at 1–3 annual post-surgery assessments. Results Over the first year, on average, sedentary time decreased from 573 (95%CI 563–582) to 545 (95%CI 534–555) min/d and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) increased from 77 (95%CI: 71–84) to 106 (95%CI: 98–116) min/wk, or 7 (95%CI: 5–10) to 24 (95%CI: 18–29) min/wk in MVPA bouts ≥10 minutes. There were no changes in these parameters from years 1 to 3 (P for all>.05). The percentage of participants achieving ≥150 min/wk of bout-related MVPA was not different at year 3 [6.5% (95%CI: 3.1–12.7)] vs. pre-surgery [3.4% (95%CI: 1.8–5.0); p=.45]. Most participants followed SB and PA trajectories that paralleled mean change and were consistent with their pre-surgery position in relation to the group. Conclusions On average, bariatric surgical patients make small reductions in SB and increases in PA during the first post-surgery year, which are maintained through 3 years. Still, post-surgery PA levels fall short of PA guidelines for general health or weight control. PMID:26010326

  12. Reduction in ATP levels triggers immunoproteasome activation by the 11S (PA28) regulator during early antiviral response mediated by IFNβ in mouse pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Freudenburg, Wieke; Gautam, Madhav; Chakraborty, Pradipta; James, Jared; Richards, Jennifer; Salvatori, Alison S; Baldwin, Aaron; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark L; Corbett, John A; Skowyra, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells is the hallmark of type I diabetes. One of the key molecules implicated in the disease onset is the immunoproteasome, a protease with multiple proteolytic sites that collaborates with the constitutive 19S and the inducible 11S (PA28) activators to produce immunogenic peptides for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Despite its importance, little is known about the function and regulation of the immunoproteasome in pancreatic β-cells. Of special interest to immunoproteasome activation in β-cells are the effects of IFNβ, a type I IFN secreted by virus-infected cells and implicated in type I diabetes onset, compared to IFNγ, the classic immunoproteasome inducer secreted by cells of the immune system. By qPCR analysis, we show that mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells and mouse islets accumulate the immune proteolytic β1(i), β2(i) and β5(i), and 11S mRNAs upon exposure to IFNβ or IFNγ. Higher concentrations of IFNβ than IFNγ are needed for similar expression, but in each case the expression is transient, with maximal mRNA accumulation in 12 hours, and depends primarily on Interferon Regulatory Factor 1. IFNs do not alter expression of regular proteasome genes, and in the time frame of IFNβ-mediated response, the immune and regular proteolytic subunits co-exist in the 20S particles. In cell extracts with ATP, these particles have normal peptidase activities and degrade polyubiquitinated proteins with rates typical of the regular proteasome, implicating normal regulation by the 19S activator. However, ATP depletion rapidly stimulates the catalytic rates in a manner consistent with levels of the 11S activator. These findings suggest that stochastic combination of regular and immune proteolytic subunits may increase the probability with which unique immunogenic peptides are produced in pancreatic β-cells exposed to IFNβ, but primarily in cells with reduced ATP levels that stimulate the 11S

  13. Association between Adolescents' Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors with Change in BMI and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at identifying the association between physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) patterns during adolescents on the future increase in BMI and risk of diabetes during young adulthood. A total of 3,717 participants aged 11 to 21 at baseline who completed Waves I (1994–1995), II (1996), III (2001–2002), and IV (2008) surveys of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) were analyzed. Physical activity and sedentary behavior patterns were assessed using an interviewer-administered questionnaire at Waves I, II, and III. A participant was classified as having diabetes at Wave IV according to WHO guidelines. The k-means cluster analysis was used to identify the number of PA and SB patterns assessed using interviewer-administered questionnaire. The k-means cluster analysis identified three clusters; 575 (15.5%), 2,140 (57.6%), and 1,002 (27.0%) participants belonged to the low PA high SB (LPAHSB), the LPALSB, and the HPALSB cluster respectively. Relative to the LPALSB cluster, the HPALSB cluster had lower increase in BMI from Wave III to Wave IV (P = 0.03), whereas the difference between LPAHSB cluster and LPALSB cluster was not significant (P = 0.09). The odds of developing diabetes at Wave IV was significant for the LPAHSB cluster (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.04, 2.75) but not significant for the HPALSB cluster (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.52, 1.47) relative to the LPALSB cluster. To conclude, PA but not SB during adolescence predicted change in BMI during young adulthood. SB but not PA during adolescence predicted type 2 diabetes during young adulthood. PMID:25340773

  14. Psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Wayne W; Sagarin, Brad J

    2010-01-01

    Previous research on heterosexuals' attitudes toward gays is characterized by a focus on negative attitudes and minimal use of behavioral dependent variables. In an attempt to rectify this situation, the present study explored the psychological antecedents of heterosexuals' pro-gay activism behavior in an undergraduate sample using the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991). Findings suggest that intentions predict activism behavior (in the form of signing an online petition supporting the construction of a new lesbian, gay, and bisexual resource center on their campus). In addition, attitudes toward the possible outcomes of the behavior, attitudes toward the behavior itself, and self-identity were found to predict intentions. Directions for future research on pro-gay activism are discussed. PMID:20665329

  15. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Sedentary Behavior in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckworth, Janet; Nigg, Claudio

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between physical activity, exercise, and sedentary behaviors in 493 college students who were enrolled in 10 conditioning activity classes and had completed questionnaires at the beginning of the course. They analyzed sedentary activities and indicators of participation in exercise and physical activity by…

  16. Sedentary Behaviors by Type of Day and Physical Activity in Spanish Adolescents: A Socio-Ecological Approach.

    PubMed

    Abarca-Sos, Alberto; Bois, Julien E; Aibar, Alberto; Antonio Julián, José; Generelo, Eduardo; Zaragoza, Javier

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between TV and computer use, study time, and physical activity, with regard to gender, school, and weekday/weekend. Adolescents (N = 1,609; M age = 14.5 yr., SD = 1.3) reported on physical activity, sedentary behavior, their parents' employment, and environmental factors. The relationship between PA and screen media behaviors was negative on weekdays, while no relationship was found at weekends. Only 30.7% of adolescents met the screen media guidelines on weekdays and 14.6% at weekends. Girls spent more time on study, only showing a positive relationship with physical activity on weekdays. Each type of sedentary behavior has different correlates for weekdays and weekends. PMID:27420322

  17. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  18. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-12-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key PointsSouth Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA.Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents.To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  19. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  20. Use of Pediatrician Toolkit to Address Parental Perception of Children’s Weight Status, Nutrition, and Activity Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, Eliana M.; Jacobson Vann, Julie C.; Benjamin, John T.; Skinner, Asheley Cockrell; Wegner, Steven; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    Background Communication of children’s weight status and targeted counseling by pediatricians may change parental perceptions or child dietary and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Purpose To determine whether accuracy of parental perception of children’s weight status and reports of related behaviors changed following a brief pediatrics resident intervention. Methods Parents (N=115) of children ages 4–12 years enrolled in Medicaid completed baseline questionnaires about prior communication of weight status and/or body mass index (BMI) with providers, perceptions of their children’s weight, and children s dietary and PA behaviors, and children were weighed and measured. Trained residents used a toolkit to communicate weight status to parents (via color-coded BMI charts) and counseled about mutually chosen healthy behaviors. Questionnaires were repeated at one and three months, and measurements were repeated for children with BMI≥85%. Results At baseline, 42% of parents of overweight children believed they were at healthy weight. Most (n=96; 83%) parents completed one-month, and 56% completed three month follow up questionnaires. Improvements in fruit and vegetable consumption, sweet drinks, unhealthy snacks, frequency of restaurant food, lower-fat milk, and screen time, occurred among both overweight and healthy weight children. There were also increases in discussions with providers about weight/BMI and parental accuracy of overweight assessment. Conclusions Parent accuracy of weight status and short term childhood dietary and PA behavior changes improved following resident pediatrician use of a toolkit to support communication of weight status and counseling. Further research needs to determine whether accurate parental perception motivates improved behavior change or healthier BMI trajectories. PMID:20554259

  1. Behavioral Activation for Moderately Depressed University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gawrysiak, Michael; Nicholas, Christopher; Hopko, Derek R.

    2009-01-01

    Although depression is prevalent among university students, limited and dated research has examined the efficacy of behavioral interventions in treating this population (C. Lee, 2005). On the basis of a modified version of the Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression (BATD; D. R. Hopko & C. W. Lejuez, 2007; C. W. Lejuez, D. R. Hopko, & S. D.…

  2. [Physical activity, eating behavior, and pathology].

    PubMed

    Jáuregui Lobera, Ignacio; Estébanez Humanes, Sonia; Santiago Fernández, María José

    2008-09-01

    Intense physical activity has been reported in patients with eating disorders, and hyperactivity can be found in more than 80% in severe stages. The beginning of food restriction occurs at earlier ages if there is an intense physical activity; body dissatisfaction is more intense among patients who practice exercise; and the presence of intense activity in anorexia nervosa usually precedes to the restrictive diet. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of exercise at the beginning of the eating disorder, and to analyze possible differences in the kind of exercise, according to age, sex and diagnostic subgroups. In order to evaluate the exercise 745 patients were assessed by the Eating Disorders Examination (EDE). The presence of physical activity (driving to caloric consumption, weight loss or modification of body shape), kind of activity, and its intensity were considered. Only the presence of moderate or high intensity clearly related with the mentioned objectives was considered. 407 patients (54.63%) engaged in exercise: 68.96% with anorexia, 68.96% with bulimia, and 34.73% with other non-specified eating disorders. There were not significant differences between men and women. Hyperactivity was the most frequent (47.42%), followed by gym activity (25.79%). Taking into account the different clinic subgroups, we could observe significant differences. To assess eating disorders, a correct evaluation of the physical activity should be necessary in order to include this aspect in treatment programs. PMID:19137991

  3. Active-Learning Exercises for Consumer Behavior Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Timothy J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents 13 active-learning activities designed for use in consumer behavior courses. The exercises involve students in brief activities, such as analysis of persuasion techniques in advertising, and follow-up discussion. Reports that students found the exercises enjoyable and worthwhile. (CFR)

  4. Classroom Activities and Demonstrations for Use in Behavioral Science Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cology, Lorry J.

    This compilation provides descriptions of and resource materials for 25 classroom activities or demonstrations for behavioral science courses. For each activity, the following information is provided: subject area, source, time required and materials needed. In addition, discussion questions and comments on the value and use of the activities are…

  5. Sedentary behavior and physical activity in youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the rise of type 2 diabetes in youth, it is critical to investigate factors such as physical activity (PA) and time spent sedentary that may be contributing to this public health problem. This article describes PA and sedentary time in a large cohort of youth with type 2 diabetes and compares t...

  6. The effect of a school-centered multicomponent intervention on daily physical activity and sedentary behavior in primary school children: The Active Living study.

    PubMed

    Van Kann, D H H; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; de Vries, S I; Jansen, M W J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a school-centered multicomponent PA intervention, called 'Active Living', on children's daily PA levels. A quasi-experimental design was used including 9 intervention schools and 9 matched control schools located in the Netherlands. The baseline measurement took place between March-June 2013, and follow-up measurements were conducted 12months afterwards. Accelerometer (ActiGraph, GT3X+) data of 520 children aged 8-11years were collected and supplemented with demographics and weather conditions data. Implementation magnitude of the interventions was measured by keeping logbooks on the number of implemented physical environmental interventions (PEIs) and social environmental interventions (SEIs). Multilevel multivariate linear regression analyses were used to study changes in sedentary behavior (SB), light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between baseline and follow-up. Finally, effect sizes (ESs) were calculated using Cohen's d. No pooled effects on PA and SB were found between children exposed and not exposed to Active Living after 12months. However, children attending Active Living schools that implemented larger numbers of both PEIs and SEIs engaged in 15 more minutes of LPA per weekday at follow-up than children in the control condition (ES=0.41; p<.05). Moreover, children attending these schools spent less time in SB at follow-up (ES=0.33), although this effect was non-significant. No significant effects were found on MVPA. A school-centered multicomponent PA intervention holds the potential to activate children, but a comprehensive set of intervention elements with a sufficient magnitude is necessary to achieve at least moderate effect sizes. PMID:27235606

  7. Activity Space Environment and Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Schulz, Amy J.; Matthews, Stephen A.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Wilbur, JoEllen; Wegrzyn, Lani; Gibbs, Kevin; Braunschweig, Carol; Stokes, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined relationships among individual demographics, environmental features (e.g., fast food outlet density, park land use) of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces, and obesity-related behaviors (diet, physical activity). Participants’ movement was tracked for seven days using global positioning systems (GPS). Two activity space measures (one standard deviation ellipse, daily path area) were derived from the GPS data. Activity spaces were generally larger than residential neighborhoods; environmental features of residential neighborhoods and activity spaces were weakly associated; and some activity space environmental features were related to dietary behaviors. Activity spaces may provide new insights into environmental influences on obesity-related behaviors. PMID:21696995

  8. Parasuicidal behavior on an active duty army training post.

    PubMed

    Koshes, R J; Rothberg, J M

    1992-07-01

    The incidence of suicidal behavior among active duty Army personnel at a training post has not been the subject of analysis since the advent of the all-volunteer military. A review of admissions over 16 consecutive months showed most of the behaviors to be parasuicidal, with low levels of lethality and high rescuability. Compared to previously published studies, the characteristics of these soldiers are little changed over the past 25 years. This report suggests a standard method for handling suicidal behavior which includes an active role for psychiatric consultation to units and commanders. PMID:1528469

  9. Right dorsolateral prefrontal cortical activity and behavioral inhibition.

    PubMed

    Shackman, Alexander J; McMenamin, Brenton W; Maxwell, Jeffrey S; Greischar, Lawrence L; Davidson, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Individuals show marked variation in their responses to threat. Such individual differences in behavioral inhibition play a profound role in mental and physical well-being. Behavioral inhibition is thought to reflect variation in the sensitivity of a distributed neural system responsible for generating anxiety and organizing defensive responses to threat and punishment. Although progress has been made in identifying the key constituents of this behavioral inhibition system in humans, the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) remains unclear. Here, we acquired self-reported Behavioral Inhibition System Sensitivity scores and high-resolution electroencephalography from a large sample (n= 51). Using the enhanced spatial resolution afforded by source modeling techniques, we show that individuals with greater tonic (resting) activity in right-posterior DLPFC rate themselves as more behaviorally inhibited. This observation provides novel support for recent conceptualizations of behavioral inhibition and clues to the mechanisms that might underlie variation in threat-induced negative affect. PMID:19906125

  10. Symbol Sense Behavior in Digital Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bokhove, Christian; Drijvers, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The algebraic expertise that mathematics education is aiming for includes both procedural skills and conceptual understanding. To capture the latter, notions such as symbol sense, gestalt view and visual salience have been developed. We wonder if digital activities can be designed that not only require procedural algebraic skills, but also invite…

  11. Controlling neural activity in Caenorhabditis elegans to evoke chemotactic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocabas, Askin; Shen, Ching-Han; Guo, Zengcai V.; Ramanathan, Sharad

    2013-03-01

    Animals locate and track chemoattractive gradients in the environment to find food. With its simple nervous system, Caenorhabditis elegans is a good model system in which to understand how the dynamics of neural activity control this search behavior. To understand how the activity in its interneurons coordinate different motor programs to lead the animal to food, here we used optogenetics and new optical tools to manipulate neural activity directly in freely moving animals to evoke chemotactic behavior. By deducing the classes of activity patterns triggered during chemotaxis and exciting individual neurons with these patterns, we identified interneurons that control the essential locomotory programs for this behavior. Notably, we discovered that controlling the dynamics of activity in just one interneuron pair was sufficient to force the animal to locate, turn towards and track virtual light gradients.

  12. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  13. Preschooler's Physical Activity Levels and Associations with Lesson Context, Teacher's Behavior, and Environment during Preschool Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Gubbels, Jessica; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Preschools offer two main opportunities, recess and physical education (PE), for preschool children to participate in physical activity (PA) and are considered a suitable institution for PA promotion given the large number of children enrolled. Although PE can have a meaningful effect on preschoolers' PA levels, preschool PE characteristics…

  14. Self-Reported Pediatric Measures of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior and Strength Impact for PROMIS®: Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Carole A.; Bevans, Katherine B.; Teneralli, Rachel E.; Smith, Ashley Wilder; Bowles, Heather R; Forrest, Christopher B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Children's physical activity (PA) levels are commonly assessed in pediatric clinical research, but rigorous self-report assessment tools for children are scarce, and computer adaptive test implementations are rare. Our objective was to improve pediatric self-report measures of activity using semi-structured interviews with experts and children for conceptualization of a child-informed framework. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted to conceptualize physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and strengthening activities. We performed systematic literature reviews to identify item-level concepts used to assess these 3 domains. Results We developed conceptual frameworks for each domain using words and phrases identified by children as relevant. Conclusions Semi-structured interview methods provide valuable information of children's perspectives and the ways children recall previous activities. Conceptualized domains of physical activity are based on the literature and expert views that also reflect children's experiences and understanding providing a basis for pediatric self-report instruments. PMID:25251789

  15. Chinese City Children and Youth's Walking Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quan, Minghui; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie; Wang, Chao

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Although walking has been demonstrated as one of the best forms for promoting physical activity (PA), little is known about Chinese city children and youth's walking behavior. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess ambulatory PA behavior of Chinese city children and youth. Method: The daily steps of 2,751 children and…

  16. Activity anorexia: An interplay between basic and applied behavior analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, W. David; Epling, W. Frank; Dews, Peter B.; Estes, William K.; Morse, William H.; Van Orman, Willard; Herrnstein, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between basic research with nonhumans and applied behavior analysis is illustrated by our work on activity anorexia. When rats are fed one meal a day and allowed to run on an activity wheel, they run excessively, stop eating, and die of starvation. Convergent evidence, from several different research areas, indicates that the behavior of these animals and humans who self-starve is functionally similar. A biobehavioral theory of activity anorexia is presented that details the cultural contingencies, behavioral processes, and physiology of anorexia. Diagnostic criteria and a three-stage treatment program for activity-based anorexia are outlined. The animal model permits basic research on anorexia that for practical and ethical reasons cannot be conducted with humans. Thus, basic research can have applied importance. PMID:22478169

  17. A cluster-randomized controlled trial to reduce sedentary behavior and promote physical activity and health of 8-9 year olds: The Transform-Us! Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with positive cardio-metabolic health and emerging evidence suggests sedentary behavior (SB) may be detrimental to children's health independent of PA. The primary aim of the Transform-Us! study is to determine whether an 18-month, behavioral and environmental intervention in the school and family settings results in higher levels of PA and lower rates of SB among 8-9 year old children compared with usual practice (post-intervention and 12-months follow-up). The secondary aims are to determine the independent and combined effects of PA and SB on children's cardio-metabolic health risk factors; identify the factors that mediate the success of the intervention; and determine whether the intervention is cost-effective. Methods/design A four-arm cluster-randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a 2 × 2 factorial design, with schools as the unit of randomization. Twenty schools will be allocated to one of four intervention groups, sedentary behavior (SB-I), physical activity (PA-I), combined SB and PA (SB+PA-I) or current practice control (C), which will be evaluated among approximately 600 children aged 8-9 years in school year 3 living in Melbourne, Australia. All children in year 3 at intervention schools in 2010 (8-9 years) will receive the intervention over an 18-month period with a maintenance 'booster' delivered in 2012 and children at all schools will be invited to participate in the evaluation assessments. To maximize the sample and to capture new students arriving at intervention and control schools, recruitment will be on-going up to the post-intervention time point. Primary outcomes are time spent sitting and in PA assessed via accelerometers and inclinometers and survey. Discussion To our knowledge, Transform-Us! is the first RCT to examine the effectiveness of intervention strategies for reducing children's overall sedentary time, promoting PA and optimizing health outcomes. The integration of consistent

  18. Psychological Changes among Muslim Students Participating in a Faith-Based School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution…

  19. Determinants of Physical Activity in Low-income, Overweight African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Debbie A.; Braunschweig, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between puberty, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences with intention for physical activity (PA) and PA. Methods: Low-income, overweight African American girls (n=72) completed 5 questionnaires that assessed PA, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences. Puberty was assessed using Tanner…

  20. Chronic Assessment of Diaphragm Muscle EMG Activity across Motor Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Mantilla, Carlos B.; Seven, Yasin B.; Hurtado-Palomino, Juan N.; Zhan, Wen-Zhi; Sieck, Gary C.

    2011-01-01

    The diaphragm muscle is main inspiratory muscle in mammals. Quantitative analyses documenting the reliability of chronic diaphragm EMG recordings are lacking. Assessment of ventilatory and non-ventilatory motor behaviors may facilitate evaluating diaphragm EMG activity over time. We hypothesized that normalization of diaphragm EMG amplitude across behaviors provides stable and reliable parameters for longitudinal assessments of diaphragm activity. We found that diaphragm EMG activity shows substantial intra-animal variability over 6 weeks, with coefficient of variation (CV) for different behaviors ~29–42%. Normalization of diaphragm EMG activity to near maximal behaviors (e.g., deep breathing) reduced intra-animal variability over time (CV ~22–29%). Plethysmographic measurements of eupneic ventilation were also stable over 6 weeks (CV ~13% for minute ventilation). Thus, stable and reliable measurements of diaphragm EMG activity can be obtained longitudinally using chronically implanted electrodes by examining multiple motor behaviors. By quantitatively determining the reliability of longitudinal diaphragm EMG analyses, we provide an important tool for evaluating the progression of diseases or injuries that impair ventilation. PMID:21414423

  1. Behaviorism and the stages of scientific activity.

    PubMed

    Moore, J

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the deployment of higher order concepts in statements about organizations of data. The article emphasizes the importance of viewing theory and explanation as examples of verbal processes at the later stages, guided by the stimulus control from the earlier stages. The article further suggests that many theories and explanations in traditional psychology often take a form that appears to be from the later stages. However, adequate activity at the earlier stages has not preceded those theories and explanations. They therefore do not have the benefit of suitable stimulus control from the earlier stages. Rather, they reflect some degree of stimulus control by many mentalistic assumptions about causal entities and relations. Ultimately, traditional theories and explanations influenced by mentalistic assumptions occasion less effective interaction with natural events (e.g., through prediction and control) than they might otherwise. PMID:22479126

  2. Behaviorism and the Stages of Scientific Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moore, J

    2010-01-01

    Following from an earlier analysis by B. F. Skinner, the present article suggests that the verbal processes in science may usefully be viewed as following a three-stage progression. This progression starts with (a) identification of basic data, then moves to (b) description of relations among those data, and ultimately concludes with (c) the deployment of higher order concepts in statements about organizations of data. The article emphasizes the importance of viewing theory and explanation as examples of verbal processes at the later stages, guided by the stimulus control from the earlier stages. The article further suggests that many theories and explanations in traditional psychology often take a form that appears to be from the later stages. However, adequate activity at the earlier stages has not preceded those theories and explanations. They therefore do not have the benefit of suitable stimulus control from the earlier stages. Rather, they reflect some degree of stimulus control by many mentalistic assumptions about causal entities and relations. Ultimately, traditional theories and explanations influenced by mentalistic assumptions occasion less effective interaction with natural events (e.g., through prediction and control) than they might otherwise. PMID:22479126

  3. The chemical nature of the hypothalamocortical activation underlying drinking behavior.

    PubMed

    Batuev, A S; Gafurov, B G

    1993-01-01

    The injection of cholinergic substances (carbocholine, carbathin [karbatin], acetylcholine) into the lateral field of the hypothalamus of cats is accompanied by the appearance in the electrohypothalamogram of characteristic hypersynchronized activity and drinking behavior. The swallowing of water temporarily stops the hypersynchronized activity; the injection of adrenaline into the hypothalamus elicits the same effect. The injection of the same cholinergic preparations into the posterior sigmoid gyrus of the cerebral cortex is accompanied by similar, but less pronounced bioelectrical and behavioral effects. The presentation of a closed drink dispenser containing water to the animals against the background of cholinergic activation of the hypothalamus or cortex leads to desynchronization of the bioelectrical activity and suppression of the bursts of hypersynchronized activity. The drinking behavior of cats which appears on the basis of centrally created thirst motivation reflects the activity of a primary dominant focus in the hypothalamus and of a secondary dominant focus in the sensorimotor cortex. These foci are cholinergic in nature. The cessation of the drinking behavior may be related to the activation of adrenergic mechanisms of the same brain structures. PMID:8464543

  4. Effects of Varying Epoch Lengths, Wear Time Algorithms, and Activity Cut-Points on Estimates of Child Sedentary Behavior and Physical Activity from Accelerometer Data

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Jorge A.; Haydel, K. Farish; Davila, Tania; Desai, Manisha; Haskell, William L.; Matheson, Donna; Robinson, Thomas N.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine the effects of accelerometer epoch lengths, wear time (WT) algorithms, and activity cut-points on estimates of WT, sedentary behavior (SB), and physical activity (PA). Methods 268 7–11 year-olds with BMI ≥ 85th percentile for age and sex wore accelerometers on their right hips for 4–7 days. Data were processed and analyzed at epoch lengths of 1-, 5-, 10-, 15-, 30-, and 60-seconds. For each epoch length, WT minutes/day was determined using three common WT algorithms, and minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, light (LPA), moderate (MPA), and vigorous (VPA) PA were determined using five common activity cut-points. ANOVA tested differences in WT, SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA when using the different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and activity cut-points. Results WT minutes/day varied significantly by epoch length when using the NHANES WT algorithm (p < .0001), but did not vary significantly by epoch length when using the ≥ 20 minute consecutive zero or Choi WT algorithms. Minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA varied significantly by epoch length for all sets of activity cut-points tested with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001). Across all epoch lengths, minutes/day and percent time spent in SB, LPA, MPA, VPA, and MVPA also varied significantly across all sets of activity cut-points with all three WT algorithms (all p < .0001). Conclusions The common practice of converting WT algorithms and activity cut-point definitions to match different epoch lengths may introduce significant errors. Estimates of SB and PA from studies that process and analyze data using different epoch lengths, WT algorithms, and/or activity cut-points are not comparable, potentially leading to very different results, interpretations, and conclusions, misleading research and public policy. PMID:26938240

  5. A Retrospective Study of thrombolysis with 0.6 mg/kg Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) in Mild Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Fei; Liu, Hong; An, Hedi; Xiong, Ran; Huang, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    We sought to assess the safety, effectiveness and cost of 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA treatment for patients with acute mild stroke and to compare that with 0.9 mg/kg. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who had a NIHSS score ≤5 at admission and who were treated with rt-PA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. The demographic data, clinical outcomes and hospitalization cost were analyzed. A total of 108 patients were included. Forty six patients (42.6%) received a 0.6 mg/kg dosage of rt-PA. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well matched (p > 0.05). Regarding the safety and effectiveness, the 0.6 mg/kg dosage group had a comparable proportion of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (0.6 mg/kg, 4.3% vs 0.9 mg/kg, 4.8%; p > 0.05), early neurological deterioration (END) (19.6% vs 17.7%; p > 0.05), in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.6%; p > 0.05), and a similar rate of favorable functional outcome (mRS score 0–1) at 3 months (73.9% vs 71.0%; p > 0.05) to those who received the standard dosage. However, the hospital cost was markedly lower in the 0.6 mg/kg group (0.6  mg/kg, 3,401.7 USD vs 0.9  mg/kg, 4,157.4 USD; p < 0.01). Our study suggest that 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA shared similar effectiveness and safety profile compared with that of 0.9 mg/kg in treating mild stroke, but cost less. PMID:27510959

  6. A Retrospective Study of thrombolysis with 0.6 mg/kg Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) in Mild Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Fei; Liu, Hong; An, Hedi; Xiong, Ran; Huang, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    We sought to assess the safety, effectiveness and cost of 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA treatment for patients with acute mild stroke and to compare that with 0.9 mg/kg. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who had a NIHSS score ≤5 at admission and who were treated with rt-PA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. The demographic data, clinical outcomes and hospitalization cost were analyzed. A total of 108 patients were included. Forty six patients (42.6%) received a 0.6 mg/kg dosage of rt-PA. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well matched (p > 0.05). Regarding the safety and effectiveness, the 0.6 mg/kg dosage group had a comparable proportion of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (0.6 mg/kg, 4.3% vs 0.9 mg/kg, 4.8%; p > 0.05), early neurological deterioration (END) (19.6% vs 17.7%; p > 0.05), in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.6%; p > 0.05), and a similar rate of favorable functional outcome (mRS score 0-1) at 3 months (73.9% vs 71.0%; p > 0.05) to those who received the standard dosage. However, the hospital cost was markedly lower in the 0.6 mg/kg group (0.6  mg/kg, 3,401.7 USD vs 0.9  mg/kg, 4,157.4 USD; p < 0.01). Our study suggest that 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA shared similar effectiveness and safety profile compared with that of 0.9 mg/kg in treating mild stroke, but cost less. PMID:27510959

  7. Behavioral Inhibition and Activation Systems: Differences in Substance Use Expectancy Organization and Activation in Memory

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Lau-Barraco, Cathy

    2009-01-01

    We used multidimensional scaling to model the semantic network of alcohol and marijuana expectancies (N = 897). Preference mapping was used to estimate vectors representing patterns of activation through the network as a function of levels of behavioral inhibition (BIS) and behavioral activation (BAS). Individuals with low BIS combined with high BAS levels exhibited patterns of activation emphasizing behavioral activation similar to heavier drug users in previous research. High BIS, low BAS individuals exhibited activation patterns with greater emphasis on inhibitory expectancies similar to low-level users. Differences in expectancy activation patterns were maintained after controlling for substance use and gender. Individual differences in BIS/BAS are associated with the organization of semantic networks and patterns of activation of expectancies contributing to differences in substance use behavior. PMID:19586148

  8. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of 7-(R)- and 7-(S)-methyl-2-nitro-6-(S)-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyloxy)-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazines, analogues of PA-824

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojin; Manjunatha, Ujjini H.; Goodwin, Michael B.; Knox, John E.; Lipinski, Christopher A.; Keller, Thomas H.; Barry, Clifton E.; Dowd, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles such as PA-824 and OPC-67683 are currently in clinical development as members of a promising new class of therapeutics for tuberculosis. While the antitubercular activity of these compounds is high, they both suffer from poor water solubility thus complicating development. We determined the single-crystal X-ray structure of PA-824 and found a close packing of the nitroimidazoles facilitated by a pseudoaxial conformation of the p-trifluoromethoxybenzyl ether. To attempt to disrupt this tight packing by destabilizing the axial preference of this side chain, we prepared the two diastereomers of the 7-methyl-nitroimidazo-oxazine. Determination of the crystal structure of the 7-(S)-methyl derivative (5, cis) revealed that the benzylic side chain remained pseudoaxial while the 7-(R)-methyl derivative (6, trans) adopted the desired pseudoequatorial conformation. Both derivatives displayed similar activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but neither showed improved aqueous solubility, suggesting that inherent lattice stability is not likely to be a major factor in limiting solubility. Conformational analysis revealed that all three compounds have similar energetically accessible conformations in solution. Additionally, these results suggest that the nitroreductase that initially recognizes PA-824 is somewhat insensitive to substitutions at the 7-position. PMID:18358721

  9. Rodent ultrasonic vocalizations are bound to active sniffing behavior

    PubMed Central

    Sirotin, Yevgeniy B.; Costa, Martín Elias; Laplagne, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    During rodent active behavior, multiple orofacial sensorimotor behaviors, including sniffing and whisking, display rhythmicity in the theta range (~5–10 Hz). During specific behaviors, these rhythmic patterns interlock, such that execution of individual motor programs becomes dependent on the state of the others. Here we performed simultaneous recordings of the respiratory cycle and ultrasonic vocalization emission by adult rats and mice in social settings. We used automated analysis to examine the relationship between breathing patterns and vocalization over long time periods. Rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs, “50 kHz”) were emitted within stretches of active sniffing (5–10 Hz) and were largely absent during periods of passive breathing (1–4 Hz). Because ultrasound was tightly linked to the exhalation phase, the sniffing cycle segmented vocal production into discrete calls and imposed its theta rhythmicity on their timing. In turn, calls briefly prolonged exhalations, causing an immediate drop in sniffing rate. Similar results were obtained in mice. Our results show that ultrasonic vocalizations are an integral part of the rhythmic orofacial behavioral ensemble. This complex behavioral program is thus involved not only in active sensing but also in the temporal structuring of social communication signals. Many other social signals of mammals, including monkey calls and human speech, show structure in the theta range. Our work points to a mechanism for such structuring in rodent ultrasonic vocalizations. PMID:25477796

  10. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa. PMID:27052734

  11. Left brain cortical activity modulates stress effects on social behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunee; Hong, Jiso; Park, Young-Gyun; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Yong; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-01-01

    When subjected to stress, some individuals develop maladaptive symptoms whereas others retain normal behavior. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to control these adaptive responses to stress. Here, we show that mPFC neurons in the left hemisphere control stress effects on social behavior. Mice made socially avoidant by the stress of chronic social defeats showed depressed neural activity in the left mPFC. Photoactivation of these neurons reversed social avoidance and restored social activity. Despite social defeats, resilient mice with normal sociability showed normal firing rates in the left mPFC; however, photoinhibition of these neurons induced social avoidance. The same photomodulation administered to the right mPFC caused no significant effects. These results explain how stressed individuals develop maladaptive behaviors through left cortical depression, as reported in mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26302668

  12. Left brain cortical activity modulates stress effects on social behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunee; Hong, Jiso; Park, Young-Gyun; Chae, Sujin; Kim, Yong; Kim, Daesoo

    2015-01-01

    When subjected to stress, some individuals develop maladaptive symptoms whereas others retain normal behavior. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is known to control these adaptive responses to stress. Here, we show that mPFC neurons in the left hemisphere control stress effects on social behavior. Mice made socially avoidant by the stress of chronic social defeats showed depressed neural activity in the left mPFC. Photoactivation of these neurons reversed social avoidance and restored social activity. Despite social defeats, resilient mice with normal sociability showed normal firing rates in the left mPFC; however, photoinhibition of these neurons induced social avoidance. The same photomodulation administered to the right mPFC caused no significant effects. These results explain how stressed individuals develop maladaptive behaviors through left cortical depression, as reported in mood and anxiety disorders. PMID:26302668

  13. Sensor Kinase PA4398 Modulates Swarming Motility and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    PubMed Central

    Strehmel, Janine; Neidig, Anke; Nusser, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is able to sense and adapt to numerous environmental stimuli by the use of transcriptional regulators, including two-component regulatory systems. In this study, we demonstrate that the sensor kinase PA4398 is involved in the regulation of swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PA14. A PA4398− mutant strain was considerably impaired in swarming motility, while biofilm formation was increased by approximately 2-fold. The PA4398− mutant showed no changes in growth rate, rhamnolipid synthesis, or the production of the Pel exopolysaccharide but exhibited levels of the intracellular second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) 50% higher than those in wild-type cells. The role of PA4398 in gene regulation was investigated by comparing the PA4398− mutant to the wild-type strain by using microarray analysis, which demonstrated that 64 genes were up- or downregulated more than 1.5-fold (P < 0.05) under swarming conditions. In addition, more-sensitive real-time PCR studies were performed on genes known to be involved in c-di-GMP metabolism. Among the dysregulated genes were several involved in the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP or in the biosynthesis, transport, or function of the iron-scavenging siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin, in agreement with the swarming phenotype observed. By analyzing additional mutants of selected pyoverdine- and pyochelin-related genes, we were able to show that not only pvdQ but also pvdR, fptA, pchA, pchD, and pchH are essential for the normal swarming behavior of P. aeruginosa PA14 and may also contribute to the swarming-deficient phenotype of the PA4398− mutant in addition to elevated c-di-GMP levels. PMID:25501476

  14. Development and Pilot Investigation of Behavioral Activation for Negative Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mairs, Hilary; Lovell, Karina; Campbell, Malcolm; Keeley, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Negative symptoms cause functional impairment and impede recovery from psychosis, not least, because of limited developments in empirically validated treatments. This article details a pilot evaluation of a behavioral activation (BA) treatment with eight people presenting with psychosis and marked negative symptoms. The rationale for this…

  15. Crisis and chaos in behavioral nutrition and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resnicow and Vaughn challenged the field of behavioral nutrition and physical activity to conduct research in new ways. They challenged the predictiveness of our models, sensitivity to initial conditions, factors predisposing to change, and measurement procedures. While the predictiveness of our mod...

  16. Children's Emotion and Behavior In Painting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, I-Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study adopted various methods such as qualitative research, observation, interviews, and document collection to examine the emotional responses, behavior changes, and counseling effects on a single-parent child in a skipped-generation family before or after a series of painting activities. The participant was asked to take part in 50-minute…

  17. Behavioral Activation for Depressed Teens: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritschel, Lorie A.; Ramirez, Cynthia L.; Jones, Meredith; Craighead, W. Edward

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation (BA) is a psychosocial intervention that has shown promising treatment outcome results with depressed adults. The current pilot study evaluated a version of BA adapted for depressed adolescents. Six teens (3 male, 3 female, ages 14-17) who met criteria for major depressive disorder participated in the study. Participants were…

  18. Coitally Active University Students: Sexual Behaviors, Concerns, and Challenges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Carol A.; Davidson, J. Kenneth., Sr.

    1986-01-01

    Examined behaviors, attitudes, and concerns of students coitally active. Differences between genders included male dissatisfaction with infrequent opportunities for sexual intercourse, lack of variety of sex partners, and insufficient oral-genital stimulation. Female concerns were lack of stimulation to their breasts, painful sexual intercourse,…

  19. Adolescents Engaging in Risky Sexual Behavior: Sexual Activity and Associated Behavioral Risk Factors in Bolivian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novilla, M. Lelinneth B.; Dearden, Kirk A.; Crookston, Benjamin T.; De La Cruz, Natalie; Hill, Susan; Torres, Scott B.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of risky sexual activities among Bolivian adolescents within the context of other behavioral factors that contribute to compromised health outcomes, unintended pregnancies, and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS. Data was collected from 576 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, from six schools in La…

  20. Behavioral meaningful opioidergic stimulation activates kappa receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Teodorov, E.; Ferrari, M.F.R.; Fior-Chadi, D.R.; Camarini, R.; Felício, L.F.

    2012-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (PAG) has been reported to be a location for opioid regulation of pain and a potential site for behavioral selection in females. Opioid-mediated behavioral and physiological responses differ according to the activity of opioid receptor subtypes. The present study investigated the effects of the peripheral injection of the kappa-opioid receptor agonist U69593 into the dorsal subcutaneous region of animals on maternal behavior and on Oprk1 gene activity in the PAG of female rats. Female Wistar rats weighing 200-250 g at the beginning of the study were randomly divided into 2 groups for maternal behavior and gene expression experiments. On day 5, pups were removed at 7:00 am and placed in another home cage that was distant from their mother. Thirty minutes after removing the pups, the dams were treated with U69593 (0.15 mg/kg, sc) or 0.9% saline (up to 1 mL/kg) and after 30 min were evaluated in the maternal behavior test. Latencies in seconds for pup retrieval, grouping, crouching, and full maternal behavior were scored. The results showed that U69593 administration inhibited maternal behavior (P < 0.05) because a lower percentage of U69593 group dams showed retrieval of first pup, retrieving all pups, grouping, crouching and displaying full maternal behavior compared to the saline group. Opioid gene expression was evaluated using real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A single injection of U69593 increased Oprk1 PAG expression in both virgin (P < 0.05) and lactating female rats (P < 0.01), with no significant effect on Oprm1 or Oprd1 gene activity. Thus, the expression of kappa-opioid receptors in the PAG may be modulated by single opioid receptor stimulation and behavioral meaningful opioidergic transmission in the adult female might occur simultaneously to specific changes in gene expression of kappa-opioid receptor subtype. This is yet another alert for the complex role of the opioid system in female

  1. Predicting Active Users' Personality Based on Micro-Blogging Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 845 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors. PMID:24465462

  2. Predicting active users' personality based on micro-blogging behaviors.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin; Li, Ang; Hao, Bibo; Guan, Zengda; Zhu, Tingshao

    2014-01-01

    Because of its richness and availability, micro-blogging has become an ideal platform for conducting psychological research. In this paper, we proposed to predict active users' personality traits through micro-blogging behaviors. 547 Chinese active users of micro-blogging participated in this study. Their personality traits were measured by the Big Five Inventory, and digital records of micro-blogging behaviors were collected via web crawlers. After extracting 839 micro-blogging behavioral features, we first trained classification models utilizing Support Vector Machine (SVM), differentiating participants with high and low scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory [corrected]. The classification accuracy ranged from 84% to 92%. We also built regression models utilizing PaceRegression methods, predicting participants' scores on each dimension of the Big Five Inventory. The Pearson correlation coefficients between predicted scores and actual scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.54. Results indicated that active users' personality traits could be predicted by micro-blogging behaviors. PMID:24465462

  3. An economic framework for understanding physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John

    2004-10-01

    This paper offers an economic framework of human behavior with respect to physical activity and nutrition. Economics offers useful insights into these behaviors because it is the study of how people allocate their scarce resources of time and money to maximize their lifetime happiness. This paper outlines the criteria for policy interventions from an economic perspective and also considers arguments for policy intervention that are not based on economic considerations. The implications of the economic framework are summarized and its limitations are described. PMID:15450622

  4. Monitoring Neural Activity with Bioluminescence during Natural Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Naumann, Eva A.; Kampff, Adam R.; Prober, David A.; Schier, Alexander F.; Engert, Florian

    2010-01-01

    Existing techniques for monitoring neural activity in awake, freely behaving vertebrates are invasive and difficult to target to genetically identified neurons. Here we describe the use of bioluminescence to non-invasively monitor the activity of genetically specified neurons in freely behaving zebrafish. Transgenic fish expressing the Ca2+-sensitive photoprotein GFP-apoAequorin (GA) in most neurons generated large and fast bioluminescent signals related to neural activity, neuroluminescence, that could be recorded continuously for many days. To test the limits of this technique, GA was specifically targeted to the hypocretin-positive neurons of the hypothalamus. We found that neuroluminescence generated by this group of ~20 neurons was associated with periods of increased locomotor activity and identified two classes of neural activity corresponding to distinct swim latencies. Thus, our neuroluminescence assay can report, with high temporal resolution and sensitivity, the activity of small subsets of neurons during unrestrained behavior. PMID:20305645

  5. Age-related changes in oxidative capacity differ between locomotory muscles and are associated with physical activity behavior

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Ryan G.; Callahan, Damien M.; Foulis, Stephen A.; Kent-Braun, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    There is discrepancy in the literature regarding the degree to which old age affects muscle bioenergetics. These discrepancies are likely influenced by several factors, including variations in physical activity (PA) and differences in the muscle group investigated. To test the hypothesis that age may affect muscles differently, we quantified oxidative capacity of tibialis anterior (TA) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles in healthy, relatively sedentary younger (8 YW, 8 YM; 21–35 years) and older (8 OW, 8 OM; 65–80 years) adults. To investigate the effect of physical activity on muscle oxidative capacity in older adults, we compared older sedentary women to older women with mild-to-moderate mobility impairment and lower physical activity (OIW, n = 7), and older sedentary men with older active male runners (OAM, n = 6). Oxidative capacity was measured in vivo as the rate constant, kPCr, of postcontraction phosphocreatine recovery, obtained by 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy following maximal isometric contractions. While kPCr was higher in TA of older than activity-matched younger adults (28%; p = 0.03), older adults had lower kPCr in VL (23%; p = 0.04). In OIW compared with OW, kPCr was lower in VL (~45%; p = 0.01), but not different in TA. In contrast, OAM had higher kPCr than OM (p = 0.03) in both TA (41%) and VL (54%). In older adults, moderate-to-vigorous PA was positively associated with kPCr in VL (r = 0.65, p < 0.001) and TA (r = 0.41, p = 0.03). Collectively, these results indicate that age-related changes in oxidative capacity vary markedly between locomotory muscles, and that altered PA behavior may play a role in these changes. PMID:22236246

  6. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  7. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  8. Correlates of physical activity in a population-based sample of kidney cancer survivors: an application of the theory of planned behavior

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over half of kidney cancer survivors (KCS) are completely inactive and only a quarter are meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines. This highlights the need to identify and understand the determinants of PA in this understudied population. The purpose of this study is to determine the social cognitive correlates of PA intention and behavior in KCS using the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Methods All 1,985 KCS diagnosed between 1996 and 2010 in Alberta, Canada were mailed a self-report survey that consisted of the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and standard TPB items for intention, planning, perceived behavioral control (PBC), affective and instrumental attitudes, and descriptive and injunctive norms. Standard demographic and medical variables were also collected. Results Completed surveys were received from 703 of 1,654 (43%) eligible KCS. The TPB was tested using structural equation modelling and demonstrated an adequate-to-good fit to the data [χ² = 256.88, p < .001; TLI = 0.97; CFI = 0.98; RMSEA = 0.06, 90% CI = 0.05-0.06]. There were significant pathways to PA from PBC (ß = 0.18, p = 0.02), planning (ß = 0.22, p < 0.01), and intention (ß = 0.31, p < 0.01); and to planning from intention (ß = 0.81, p < 0.01). In addition, there were significant model pathways to intention from instrumental attitude (ß = 0.28, p = 0.03), descriptive norm (ß = 0.09, p = 0.01), and PBC (ß = 0.52, p < 0.01). Overall, the TPB accounted for 69%, 63%, and 42% of the variance in intention, planning and PA, respectively. Conclusion The TPB appears to be a useful model for explaining PA in KCS. All TPB constructs except injunctive norm and affective attitude were useful for explaining intention with PBC emerging as the largest correlate. Developing PA interventions based on the TPB may be effective in promoting PA in KCS and may lead to important improvements in health. PMID

  9. The contributing role of physical education in youth’s daily physical activity and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background School physical education (PE) is considered as an effective channel for youth to accumulate moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and reduce sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to determine the contributing role of PE in daily MVPA and sedentary time among youth. Methods The study recruited 67 sixth grade children (29 boys; Mean age = 11.75) from two suburban schools at a U.S. Midwest state, 48 of whom contributed ≥10 hours of physical activity (PA) data per day were included for analysis. An objective monitoring tool (i.e., Sensewear armband monitor) was used to capture the participants’ MVPA and sedentary time for 7–14 days. Pearson product–moment correlation analysis (r), multi-level regression analyses, and analysis of variance were conducted for data analysis. Results MVPA and sedentary time in PE showed significant positive associations with daily MVPA and sedentary time, respectively (r = 0.35, p < 0.01; r = 0.55, p < 0.01). Regression analyses revealed that one minute increase in MVPA and sedentary behavior in PE was associated with 2.04 minutes and 5.30 minutes increases in daily MVPA and sedentary behavior, respectively, after controlling for sex and BMI. The participants demonstrated a significantly higher level of MVPA (p = .05) but similar sedentary time (p = 0.61) on PE days than on non-PE days. Boys had significantly more daily MVPA (p < .01) and less sedentary time (p < .01) than girls; while higher BMI was associated with more sedentary time (p < .01). Conclusions PE displayed a positive contribution to increasing daily MVPA and decreasing daily sedentary time among youth. Active participation in PE classes increases the chance to be more active and less sedentary beyond PE among youth. PMID:24495714

  10. PaR-PaR Laboratory Automation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Linshiz, G; Stawski, N; Poust, S; Bi, CH; Keasling, JD; Hilson, NJ

    2013-05-01

    Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.

  11. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    PubMed

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns. PMID:25717313

  12. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    PubMed Central

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns. PMID:25717313

  13. Orexin-A controls sympathetic activity and eating behavior

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Giovanni; Dalia, Carmine; Tafuri, Domenico; Monda, Vincenzo; Palmieri, Filomena; Dato, Amelia; Russo, Angelo; De Blasio, Saverio; Messina, Antonietta; De Luca, Vincenzo; Chieffi, Sergio; Monda, Marcellino

    2014-01-01

    It is extremely important for the health to understand the regulatory mechanisms of energy expenditure. These regulatory mechanisms play a central role in the pathogenesis of body weight alteration. The hypothalamus integrates nutritional information derived from all peripheral organs. This region of the brain controls hormonal secretions and neural pathways of the brainstem. Orexin-A is a hypothalamic neuropeptide involved in the regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wakefulness rhythm, and neuroendocrine homeostasis. This neuropeptide is involved in the control of the sympathetic activation, blood pressure, metabolic status, and blood glucose level. This minireview focuses on relationship between the sympathetic nervous system and orexin-A in the control of eating behavior and energy expenditure. The “thermoregulatory hypothesis” of food intake is analyzed, underlining the role played by orexin-A in the control of food intake related to body temperature. Furthermore, the paradoxical eating behavior induced orexin-A is illustrated in this minireview. PMID:25250003

  14. Sensor kinase PA4398 modulates swarming motility and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14.

    PubMed

    Strehmel, Janine; Neidig, Anke; Nusser, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald; Overhage, Joerg

    2015-02-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is able to sense and adapt to numerous environmental stimuli by the use of transcriptional regulators, including two-component regulatory systems. In this study, we demonstrate that the sensor kinase PA4398 is involved in the regulation of swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PA14. APA4398 mutant strain was considerably impaired in swarming motility, while biofilm formation was increased by approximately 2-fold. The PA4398 mutant showed no changes in growth rate, rhamnolipid synthesis, or the production of the Pel exopolysaccharide but exhibited levels of the intracellular second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) 50% higher than those in wild-type cells. The role of PA4398 in gene regulation was investigated by comparing the PA4398 mutant to the wildtype strain by using microarray analysis, which demonstrated that 64 genes were up- or downregulated more than 1.5-fold (P<0.05) under swarming conditions. In addition, more-sensitive real-time PCR studies were performed on genes known to be involved in c-di-GMP metabolism. Among the dysregulated genes were several involved in the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP or in the biosynthesis, transport, or function of the iron-scavenging siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin, in agreement with the swarming phenotype observed. By analyzing additional mutants of selected pyoverdine- and pyochelin-related genes,we were able to show that not only pvdQ but also pvdR, fptA, pchA, pchD, and pchH are essential for the normal swarming behavior of P. aeruginosa PA14 and may also contribute to the swarming-deficient phenotype of the PA4398 mutant in addition to elevated c-di-GMP levels. PMID:25501476

  15. Longitudinal structure of solar activity: Regular and stochastic behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erofeev, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    The ratio of regular and stochastic components in the behavior of the longitudinal-temporal distribution of solar activity is studied with the use of correlation and spectral analysis of data on sunspot groups for 12 solar cycles. It was found that data samples of about 10 years in length often (in 50% of cases) show the presence of regular structures in the longitudinal distribution of sunspot groups. However, these structures are nonstationary; their characteristic scales and rotation periods vary when changing from one 10-year interval to another. The behavior of the longitudinal structure of sunspot activity is mainly stochastic on a long time scale (50-100 years); it is characterized by a wide spectrum of spatial scales and a continuous spectrum of rotation periods, which takes a period from 25.6 to 28.5 days.

  16. SEDENTARY BEHAVIOR, NOT TV VIEWING, PREDICTS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AMONG 3- TO 7-YEAR OLD CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little information about relationships between the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of young children is available in the literature. We therefore examined how sedentary behaviors, TV watching, and encouragements and discouragements for activity were associated with physical activity (as me...

  17. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  18. 4,6-Diphenylpyridines as Promising Novel Anti-Influenza Agents Targeting the PA-PB1 Protein-Protein Interaction: Structure-Activity Relationships Exploration with the Aid of Molecular Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trist, Iuni M L; Nannetti, Giulio; Tintori, Cristina; Fallacara, Anna Lucia; Deodato, Davide; Mercorelli, Beatrice; Palù, Giorgio; Wijtmans, Maikel; Gospodova, Tzveta; Edink, Ewald; Verheij, Mark; de Esch, Iwan; Viteva, Lilia; Loregian, Arianna; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-03-24

    Influenza is an infectious disease that represents an important public health burden, with high impact on the global morbidity, mortality, and economy. The poor protection and the need of annual updating of the anti-influenza vaccine, added to the rapid emergence of viral strains resistant to current therapy make the need for antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action compelling. In this regard, the viral RNA polymerase is an attractive target that allows the design of selective compounds with reduced risk of resistance. In previous studies we showed that the inhibition of the polymerase acidic protein-basic protein 1 (PA-PB1) interaction is a promising strategy for the development of anti-influenza agents. Starting from the previously identified 3-cyano-4,6-diphenyl-pyridines, we chemically modified this scaffold and explored its structure-activity relationships. Noncytotoxic compounds with both the ability of disrupting the PA-PB1 interaction and antiviral activity were identified, and their mechanism of target binding was clarified with molecular modeling simulations. PMID:26924568

  19. METHODS FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION AND ACTIVITY OF FISSION PRODUCTS ACCUMULATED IN THE IRRADIATED URANIUM AT THE MOMENT OF ITS RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING AT PLANT “B”, “MAYAK” PA IN THE EARLY 1950s

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Lyzhkov, A. V.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    The article describes calculation procedure for reconstruction of radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments accumulated in the irridated uranium from “Mayak” PA graphite-uranium reactors at the moment, when irradiation is completed, and at the moment, when the uranium is transferred to radiochemical processing (plant B) in the early 1950s. The procedure includes a reactor model and a cooling pool model. It is based on archive data on monthly uranium unloading and loading in the reactor and in the cooling pool of each reactor. The objects of reconstruction include: order of reloading of uranium versus its location radius in the reactor core; duration of irradiation and radionuclide composition of fission fragments for each radius; order of uranium removal from the cooling pool; effective time of uranium storage in the pool; radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments in the irradiated uranium delivered to radiochemical reprocessing daily and on average for each month. The model is intended for use in reconstruction of parameters of radionuclide release source into the atmosphere and the source of liquid radioactive waste generation at the “Mayak” PA radiochemical plant.

  20. Dabbling duck behavior and aircraft activity in coastal North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conomy, J.T.; Collazo, J.A.; Dubovsky, J.A.; Fleming, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    Requests to increase military aircraft activity in some training facilities in the United States have prompted the need to determine if waterfowl and other wildlife are adversely affected by aircraft disturbance. We quantified behavioral responses of wintering American black ducks (Anas rubripes), American wigeon (A. americana), gadwall (A. strepera), and American green-winged teal (A. crecca carolinensis) exposed to low-level flying military aircrafts at Piney and Cedar islands, North Carolina, in 1991 and 1992. Waterfowl spent ???1.4% of their time responding to aircraft, which included flying, swimming, and alert behaviors. Mean duration of responses by species ranged from 10 to 40 sec. Costs to each species were deemed low because disruptions represented a low percentage of their time-activity budgets only a small proportion of birds reacted to disturbance (13/672; 2%); and the likelihood of resuming the activity disrupted by an aircraft disturbance event was high (64%). Recorded levels of aircraft disturbance (i.e., x?? = 85.1 dBA) were not adversely affecting the time-activity budgets of selected waterfowl species wintering at Piney and Cedar islands.

  1. Manipulating the Behavior-Altering Effect of the Motivating Operation: Examination of the Influence on Challenging Behavior during Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Lancioni, Giulio; Rispoli, Mandy; Lang, Russell; Chan, Jeff; Machalicek, Wendy; Langthorne, Paul

    2008-01-01

    We examined the behavior-altering effect of the motivating operation on challenging behavior during leisure activities for three individuals with severe disabilities. Prior functional analyses indicated that challenging behavior was maintained by positive reinforcement in the form of attention or tangible items for all participants. During leisure…

  2. Monitoring tectal neuronal activities and motor behavior in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sumbre, Germán; Poo, Mu-Ming

    2013-09-01

    To understand how visuomotor behaviors are controlled by the nervous system, it is necessary to monitor the activity of large populations of neurons with single-cell resolution over a large area of the brain in a relatively simple, behaving organism. The zebrafish larva, a small lower vertebrate with transparent skin, serves as an excellent model for this purpose. Immediately after the larva hatches, it needs to catch prey and avoid predators. This strong evolutionary pressure leads to the rapid development of functional sensory systems, particularly vision. By 5 d postfertilization (dpf), tectal cells show distinct visually evoked patterns of activation, and the larvae are able to perform a variety of visuomotor behaviors. During the early larval stage, zebrafish breathe mainly through the skin and can be restrained under the microscope using a drop of low-melting-point agarose, without the use of anesthetics. Moreover, the transparency of the skin, the small diameter of the neurons (4-5 µm), and the high-neuronal density enable the use of in vivo noninvasive imaging techniques to monitor neuronal activities of up to ∼500 cells within the central nervous system, still with single-cell resolution. This article describes a method for simultaneously monitoring spontaneous and visually evoked activities of large populations of neurons in the optic tectum of the zebrafish larva, using a synthetic calcium dye (Oregon Green BAPTA-1 AM) and a conventional confocal or two-photon scanning fluorescence microscope, together with a method for measuring the tail motor behavior of the head-immobilized zebrafish larva. PMID:24003199

  3. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  4. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m−2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (−14.4% vs −26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (−14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs −4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least

  5. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  6. Caenorhabditis elegans glia modulate neuronal activity and behavior

    PubMed Central

    Stout Jr., Randy F.; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells of Caenorhabditis elegans can modulate neuronal activity and behavior, which is the focus of this review. Initially, we provide an overview of neuroglial evolution, making a comparison between C. elegans glia and their genealogical counterparts. What follows is a brief discussion on C. elegans glia characteristics in terms of their exact numbers, germ layers origin, their necessity for proper development of sensory organs, and lack of their need for neuronal survival. The more specific roles that various glial cells have on neuron-based activity/behavior are succinctly presented. The cephalic sheath glia are important for development, maintenance and activity of central synapses, whereas the amphid glia seem to set the tone of sensory synapses; these glial cell types are ectoderm-derived. Mesoderm-derived Glial-Like cells in the nerve Ring (GLRs) appear to be a part of the circuit for production of motor movement of the worm anterior. Finally, we discuss tools and approaches utilized in studying C. elegans glia, which are assets available for this animal, making it an appealing model, not only in neurosciences, but in biology in general. PMID:24672428

  7. Caenorhabditis elegans glia modulate neuronal activity and behavior.

    PubMed

    Stout, Randy F; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Glial cells of Caenorhabditis elegans can modulate neuronal activity and behavior, which is the focus of this review. Initially, we provide an overview of neuroglial evolution, making a comparison between C. elegans glia and their genealogical counterparts. What follows is a brief discussion on C. elegans glia characteristics in terms of their exact numbers, germ layers origin, their necessity for proper development of sensory organs, and lack of their need for neuronal survival. The more specific roles that various glial cells have on neuron-based activity/behavior are succinctly presented. The cephalic sheath glia are important for development, maintenance and activity of central synapses, whereas the amphid glia seem to set the tone of sensory synapses; these glial cell types are ectoderm-derived. Mesoderm-derived Glial-Like cells in the nerve Ring (GLRs) appear to be a part of the circuit for production of motor movement of the worm anterior. Finally, we discuss tools and approaches utilized in studying C. elegans glia, which are assets available for this animal, making it an appealing model, not only in neurosciences, but in biology in general. PMID:24672428

  8. Behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure for bereavement in older adults.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Rheingold, Alyssa; Amstadter, Ananda; Kurent, Jerome; Amella, Elaine; Resnick, Heidi; Muzzy, Wendy; Lejuez, Carl

    2012-02-01

    The development and clinical trial of a 5-session behavioral intervention for complicated bereavement (CB) is presented. We conceptualized CB in terms of Major Depression (MDD) and Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and consequently applied treatment components of Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure (BA-TE). In order to assure standardization of treatment, control costs, and engage patients, a multi-media, multi-context format was adopted to address avoidance and withdrawal behaviors conceptualized as central pathogenic responses in CB. Participants (N = 26) were assessed before and after BA-TE treatment via structured clinical interview and standardized questionnaires in terms of PTSD, MDD, CB, and health concerns. The number of days since the death of the loved one was widely variable and served as a covariate for all outcome analyses. ANCOVAS revealed statistically significant improvement, irrespective of how many days since death had elapsed prior to initiation of intervention, on structured interviews and self-report measures for most outcome variables. PMID:21685428

  9. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  10. Behavioral characterization of serotonergic activation in the flatworm Planaria.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Martilias S; Gilmore, Kirsti; Raffa, Robert B; Walker, Ellen A

    2008-05-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptors have been identified in Planaria, a model used for studying the pharmacology of behavioral phenomena. This study characterized the behavioral and locomotor effects of 5-HT, a 5-HT1A agonist, a 5-HT1B/2C agonist, and a 5-HT1A antagonist to examine the role of 5-HT receptor activation in this species. Planarians were video recorded individually in a clear plastic cube containing drug solution or vehicle. To quantify locomotor velocity (pLMV), planarians were placed individually into a dish containing drug solution or vehicle and the rate of gridline crossings was recorded. For the antagonist experiments, four conditions were studied: water alone, agonist alone, antagonist alone, and agonist plus antagonist. The decrease in pLMV induced by the5-HT1A agonist (8-OH-DPAT), and the 5-HT1B/2C agonist (mCPP), was antagonized by pretreatment with the 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100635) at a dose that had no effect of its own on pLMV. At a higher concentration of WAY-100635, further decreases in pLMV induced by 8-OH-DPAT were observed. Each agonist produced increased occurrences of 'C-like position' and 'screw-like hyperkinesia', 5-HT and mCPP produced 'writhing', and only mCPP produced a significant increase in duration of 'headswing' behavior. The results demonstrate that the 5-HT1A receptor identified in Planaria mediates behavioral responses to 5-HT receptor ligands, supporting the notion that planarians possess functional 5-HT receptors and might serve as a simple model for their study. PMID:18469535

  11. Beyond Screen Time: Assessing Recreational Sedentary Behavior among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Katherine W.; Friend, Sarah; Graham, Daniel J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Most studies of sedentary behavior have focused on television use or screen time. This study aims to examine adolescent girls' participation in a variety of recreational sedentary behaviors (e.g., talking on the phone and hanging around), and their association with physical activity (PA), dietary behaviors, and body mass index. Data were from a sample of 283 adolescent girls. Recreational sedentary behavior, PA, and dietary behaviors were self-reported, and girls' height and weight were measured. Over 95% of girls engaged in at least one recreational sedentary behavior during the recall period. Watching television and hanging around were the most common behaviors. Watching television, using the Internet, and hanging around were associated with less PA; watching television, hanging around, and talking on the phone were associated with less healthful dietary behaviors. No associations were found with body mass index. Interventions may benefit from capitalizing on and intervening upon girls' common recreational sedentary behaviors. PMID:22013514

  12. tPA-S481A prevents neurotoxicity of endogenous tPA in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Armstead, William M; Riley, John; Yarovoi, Serge; Cines, Douglas B; Smith, Douglas H; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2012-06-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with loss of autoregulation due to impaired responsiveness to cerebrovascular dilator stimuli, which leads to cerebral hypoperfusion and neuronal impairment or death. Upregulation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) post-TBI exacerbates loss of cerebral autoregulation and NMDA-receptor-mediated impairment of cerebral hemodynamics, and enhances excitotoxic neuronal death. However, the relationship between NMDA-receptor activation, loss of autoregulation, and neurological dysfunction is unclear. Here, we evaluated the potential therapeutic efficacy of a catalytically inactive tPA variant, tPA S481A, that acts by competing with wild-type tPA for binding, cleavage, and activation of NMDA receptors. Lateral fluid percussion brain injury was produced in anesthetized piglets. Pial artery reactivity was measured via a closed cranial window, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). tPA-S481A prevented impairment of cerebral autoregulation and reduced histopathologic changes after TBI by inhibiting upregulation of the ERK isoform of MAPK. Treatment with this tPA variant provides a novel approach for limiting neuronal toxicity caused by untoward NMDA-receptor activation mediated by increased tPA and glutamate following TBI. PMID:22435890

  13. Neuropathic pain in aged rats: behavioral responses and astrocytic activation.

    PubMed

    Stuesse, S L; Crisp, T; McBurney, D L; Schechter, J B; Lovell, J A; Cruce, W L

    2001-03-01

    We used the Bennett and Xie (1988) model of chronic neuropathic pain to study the effect of age on thermal and tactile sensitivity and on astrocytic activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord after nerve injury. Fischer 344 FBNF1 hybrid rats in three age groups, 4-6, 14-16, and 24-26 months, were studied. Rats were either unligated (day 0, control) or the left sciatic nerve was loosely ligated to cause a chronic constriction injury (CCI). CCI causes a neuropathic pain condition characterized by tactile allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia. Rats were behaviorally assessed for tactile and thermal sensitivity of their ligated and unligated hind paws up to 35 days postligation. Rats were sacrificed before or at various days postligation, and activated astrocytes were identified at the L4-L5 levels of their spinal cords by use of an antibody to glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP). The number of GFAP-ir astrocytes in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the control, uninjured condition decreased with age (P < or = 0.001) but increased after CCI in all three age groups. After CCI, astrocytic activation in the cord was less robust in aged rats than in younger ones (P < or = 0.01). Not all the CCI rats displayed hyperalgesia to touch and to heat. Rats with an increased sensitivity to heat had increased levels of GFAP-ir in their cords; however, rats with decreased thermal sensitivity also displayed increased GFAP-ir. Thus the presence of activated astrocytes was not correlated with a single behavioral manifestation of neuropathic pain. PMID:11315551

  14. Scale Development for Measuring and Predicting Adolescents’ Leisure Time Physical Activity Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ries, Francis; Romero Granados, Santiago; Arribas Galarraga, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a scale for assessing and predicting adolescents’ physical activity behavior in Spain and Luxembourg using the Theory of Planned Behavior as a framework. The sample was comprised of 613 Spanish (boys = 309, girls = 304; M age =15.28, SD =1.127) and 752 Luxembourgish adolescents (boys = 343, girls = 409; M age = 14.92, SD = 1.198), selected from students of two secondary schools in both countries, with a similar socio-economic status. The initial 43-items were all scored on a 4-point response format using the structured alternative format and translated into Spanish, French and German. In order to ensure the accuracy of the translation, standardized parallel back-translation techniques were employed. Following two pilot tests and subsequent revisions, a second order exploratory factor analysis with oblimin direct rotation was used for factor extraction. Internal consistency and test-retest reliabilities were also tested. The 4-week test-retest correlations confirmed the items’ time stability. The same five factors were obtained, explaining 63.76% and 63.64% of the total variance in both samples. Internal consistency for the five factors ranged from α = 0.759 to α = 0. 949 in the Spanish sample and from α = 0.735 to α = 0.952 in the Luxembourgish sample. For both samples, inter-factor correlations were all reported significant and positive, except for Factor 5 where they were significant but negative. The high internal consistency of the subscales, the reported item test-retest reliabilities and the identical factor structure confirm the adequacy of the elaborated questionnaire for assessing the TPB-based constructs when used with a population of adolescents in Spain and Luxembourg. The results give some indication that they may have value in measuring the hypothesized TPB constructs for PA behavior in a cross-cultural context. Key points When using the structured alternative format, weak internal consistency was obtained

  15. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  16. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  17. Wormlike micelles with photoresponsive viscoelastic behavior formed by surface active ionic liquid/azobenzene derivative mixed solution.

    PubMed

    Bi, Yanhui; Wei, Hongtu; Hu, Qiongzheng; Xu, Wenwen; Gong, Yanjun; Yu, Li

    2015-04-01

    The UV-light-stimulated self-assembly behavior of a surface active ionic liquid (SAIL), 1-hexadecyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (C16mimBr), with an azobenzene derivative, sodium azobenzene 4-carboxylate (AzoCOONa), was investigated in aqueous solution. The properties and structures of the aggregates, formed at a concentration ratio equal to 2:1 ([C16mimBr]:[AzoCOONa]), were comprehensively characterized by rheometer and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. Initially, viscoelastic wormlike micelles with a viscosity of 0.65 Pa·s were constructed in the C16mimBr/AzoCOONa system. Upon irradiation by UV light (365 nm), particularly fascinating is that the wormlike micelles become much longer and more entangled, exhibiting a high viscosity of 6.9 Pa·s. This can be attributed to photoisomerization of the AzoCOONa molecule from trans to cis form. It is the first time that, with exposure to UV or visible light, the aggregate type of the photoresponsive system has remained unchanged, with only a change of internal property parameters. The cation-π interaction prevailing over the hydrophobic interaction and electrostatic interaction between C16mimBr and AzoCOONa molecules is supposed to be responsible for this peculiar phase behavior. The wormlike micelles constructed with the SAIL and photosensitive additive exhibit controllable viscoelastic behavior in the photoresponsive process. In addition, the average contour length of wormlike micelles was found to slightly decrease with the increase of temperature. We expect this system will receive particular attention due to its unique properties and potential applications in drug delivery, biochemistry, and materials science, etc. PMID:25763685

  18. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  19. Factors affecting the behavior of unburned carbon upon steam activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhe

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the factors that could affect the behavior of unburned carbon samples upon steam activation. Through this work, the relationships among the factors that could influence the carbon-steam reaction with the surface area of the produced activated carbon were explored. Statistical analysis was used to relate the chemical and physical properties of the unburned carbon to the surface area of the activated carbon. Six unburned carbons were selected as feedstocks for activated carbon, and marked as UCA through UCF. The unburned carbons were activated using steam at 850°C for 90 minutes, and the surface areas of their activated counterparts were measured using N2 adsorption isotherms at 77K. The activated carbons produced from different unburned carbon precursors presented different surface areas at similar carbon burn-off levels. Moreover, in different carbon burn-off regions, the sequences for surface area of activated carbons from different unburned carbon samples were different. The factors that may affect the carbon-steam gasification reactions, including the concentration of carbon active sites, the crystallite size of the carbon, the intrinsic porous structure of carbon, and the inorganic impurities, were investigated. All unburned carbons investigated in this study were similar in that they showed the very broad (002) and (10 ) carbon peaks, which are characteristic of highly disordered carbonaceous materials. In this study, the unburned carbon samples contained about 17--48% of inorganic impurities. Compared to coals, the unburned carbon samples contain a larger amount of inorganic impurities as a result of the burn-off, or at lease part, of the carbon during the combustion process. These inorganic particles were divided into two groups in terms of the way they are associated with carbon particles: free single particles, and particles combined with carbon particles. As indicated from the present work, unburned

  20. Atomic structure of anthrax PA pore elucidates toxin translocation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Collier, R. John; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in human and animals. PA forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes LF and EF into the cytosol of target cells1. PA is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. Based on biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a Φ-clamp composed of Phe427 residues of PA catalyzes protein translocation via a charge-state dependent Brownian ratchet2–9. Although atomic structures of PA prepores are available10–14, how PA senses low pH, converts to active pore and translocates LF and EF are not well defined without an atomic model of the PA pore. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) with direct electron counting, we have determined the PA pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low-pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed. PMID:25778700

  1. In vitro and in vivo characterization of PA01, a novel promising triple reuptake inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jian; Xing, Yanli; Zuo, Daiying; Wu, Yingliang; Tian, Jingwei; Meng, Qingguo; Yang, Mina

    2015-01-01

    Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs) that inhibit the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), and dopamine (DA) are being developed as a new class of antidepressants, which is hypothesized to produce more rapid onset and better efficacy than conventional antidepressants in part due to the addition of the DA component. 4-[2-(dimethylamino)-1-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)-ethyl]-phenyl benzoate hydrochloride (PA01), a novel compound, potently bound to the human 5-HT, NE, and DA transporters (Ki=105, 644, and 813nM, respectively), and inhibited the reuptake of 5-HT, NE, and DA into recombinant cells (IC50=341, 427, and 753nM, respectively). In vivo, PA01 dose-dependently decreased immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST) in rats, and the tail suspension test (TST) in mice with higher efficacy than desvenlafaxine succinate (DVS), and showed no stimulatory effect on the spontaneous locomotor activity. The anti-immobility effect of PA01 in the TST was significantly prevented by the pretreatment of mice with DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (pCPA, 300mg/kg, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis), SCH23390 (0.05mg/kg, s.c., dopamine D1 receptor antagonist), and sulpiride (50mg/kg, i.p., dopamine D2 receptor antagonist). PA01 significantly increased head-twitch response induced by 5-hydroxytryptophan (80mg/kg, i.p., a metabolic precursor to serotonin) in rats, potentiated yohimbine (25mg/kg, s.c., a α2-adrenoceptor antagonist) toxicity, and antagonized high dose apomorphine-induced hypothermia in mice. Taken together, these in vitro and in vivo results indicated that PA01 is a novel triple reuptake inhibitor, and exerts an excellent antidepressant activity in the behavioral despair animal models of depression, with more potent antidepressant activity than DVS at the same dose. PMID:25447484

  2. Oxidation of Gas-Phase Protactinium Ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: Formation and Properties of PaO22+(g), Protactinyl

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M.; de Matos, A. Pires; Marcalo, J.; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard {Dick} G; Tyagi, R.; Pitzer, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N{sub 2}O to the relatively weak CH{sub 2}O - all oxidized Pa{sup +} to PaO{sup +} and PaO{sup +} to PaO{sub 2}{sup +}. On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa{sup +}-O] and D[OPa{sup +}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. Estimates for D[Pa{sup +}-O], D[OPa{sup +}-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO{sub 2}] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa{sup 2+} to produce PaO{sup 2+}, indicating that D[Pa{sup 2+}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO{sup 2+} by N{sub 2}O to PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {l_brace}O-Pa-O{r_brace}{sup 2+}. The experimentally determined IE[PaO{sub 2}{sup +}] {approx} 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO{sub 2}{sup +} and PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial '6p hole' in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N{sub 2}O - such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} is capable of activating H{sub 2} to form the stable PaO{sub 2}H{sup 2+} ion.

  3. Behavioral State Modulates the Activity of Brainstem Sensorimotor Neurons

    PubMed Central

    McArthur, Kimberly L.

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor processing must be modulated according to the animal's behavioral state. A previous study demonstrated that motion responses were strongly state dependent in birds. Vestibular eye and head responses were significantly larger and more compensatory during simulated flight, and a flight-specific vestibular tail response was also characterized. In the current study, we investigated the neural substrates for these state-dependent vestibular behaviors by recording extracellularly from neurons in the vestibular nuclear complex and comparing their spontaneous activity and sensory responses during default and simulated flight states. We show that motion-sensitive neurons in the lateral vestibular nucleus are state dependent. Some neurons increased their spontaneous firing rates during flight, though their increased excitability was not reflected in higher sensory gains. However, other neurons exhibited state-dependent gating of sensory inputs, responding to rotational stimuli only during flight. These results demonstrate that vestibular processing in the brainstem is state dependent and lay the foundation for future studies to investigate the synaptic mechanisms responsible for these modifications. PMID:22090497

  4. Influence of military activities on raptor abundance and behavior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schueck, Linda S.; Marzluff, J.M.; Steenhof, Karen

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the influence of military training on the abundance and behavior of raptors at a military training area in the Snake River Birds of Prey National Conservation Area in Idaho during the breeding seasons of 1991a??1994. Raptor counts on military training ranges did not differ when we compared all training days to all non-training days. However, during one period of intensive military training in one breeding season, raptor counts were lower during training than on non-training days. During training, Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus) did not alter their behavior on training days. In years when prey numbers were low, falcons, hawks, and eagles perched and flew at low levels less often and flew at higher altitudes more often during training than they did when training did not occur. We observed fewer prey capture attempts on ranges on days with training than on days without training. Specific types of military training activity affected counts of raptors on ranges. The lowest raptor counts were associated with firing of artillery, small arms, and main turret guns or machine guns on tanks. Raptor counts associated with tank preparation (i.e., assembling and loading ammunition), driving, laser training, and convoy traffic were similar to non-training periods.

  5. Behavioral activating effects of adrafinil in aged canines.

    PubMed

    Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Woehrlé, F; Schneider, M; Muggenburg, B A; Murphey, H L; Callahan, H; Milgram, N W

    2000-06-01

    Adrafinil, a vigilance enhancing pharmaceutical, was administered to aged dogs for 14 consecutive days at doses of 10, 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg using a crossover design. The effects on spontaneous behavior in a 10-min canine open-field test were systematically recorded every fourth day, starting with day 1 of treatment. The open field tests were given 2 or 10 h following oral administration of capsules containing either adrafinil or lactose, the placebo control. Adrafinil caused an increase in locomotor activity at the three highest doses at both the 2- and 10-h intervals and during both the first (days 1 and 5) and second treatment week (days 9 and 13). Adrafinil also caused a transient increase in directed sniffing. At the highest dose level, adrafinil caused a decrease in urination frequency. The increased locomotion was generally unaccompanied by stereotypical behavior in the test session. There was some variability; a subpopulation of animals showed either no effect, or decreased locomotion. The individual differences were correlated with changes in serum levels of adrafinil 10 h following treatment. PMID:10880681

  6. Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment and Children’s Afterschool Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Samantha M; Dowda, Marsha; Colabianchi, Natalie; Porter, Dwayne; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests the neighborhood environment may be an important influence on children’s physical activity (PA) behaviors; however, findings are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to further understand the relationship between perceptions of the neighborhood environment and children’s afterschool moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Utilizing a structural equation modeling technique, we tested a conceptual model linking parent and child perceptions of the neighborhood environment, parent support for PA, and child outdoor PA with children’s afterschool MVPA. We found that child perception of the neighborhood environment and outdoor PA were positively associated with afterschool MVPA. In addition, parent support for PA positively influenced children’s outdoor PA. The neighborhood environment and outdoor activity appear to play an influential role on children’s afterschool PA behaviors. PMID:25679820

  7. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Chronic Fibromyalgia Pain: Replication and Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A multiple-baseline-across two behavior sets and positions (reclined, upright) was used to experimentally examine the effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment for Pain (BAT-P) on pain-related behavior of a 44-year-old woman with a 22-year history of fibromyalgia (FM). BAT-P, based on the matching law, is comprised of Behavioral Relaxation…

  8. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement. PMID:26524097

  9. Decoding of dopaminergic mesolimbic activity and depressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander; Deri, Ilana; Friedman, Yaakov; Dremencov, Eliyahu; Goutkin, Sophia; Kravchinsky, Elizabeth; Mintz, Matti; Levi, Dino; Overstreet, David H; Yadid, Gal

    2007-01-01

    Dopaminergic mesolimbic and mesocortical systems are involved in hedonia and motivation, two core symptoms of depression. However, their role in the pathophysiology of depression and their manipulation to treat depression has received little attention. Previously, we showed decreased limbic dopamine (DA) neurotransmission in an animal model of depression, Flinder sensitive line (FSL) rats. Here we describe a high correlation between phase-space algorithm of bursting-like activity of DA cells in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and efficiency of DA release in the accumbens. This bursting-like activity of VTA DA cells of FSL rats is characterized by a low dimension complexity. Treatment with the antidepressant desipramine affected both the dimension complexity of cell firing in the VTA and rate of DA release in the accumbens, as well as alleviating depressive-like behavior. Our findings indicate the potential usefulness of monitoring limbic dopaminergic dynamics in combination with non-linear analysis. Decoding the functionality of the dopaminergic system may help in development of future antidepressant drugs. PMID:17873290

  10. The novel influenza A virus protein PA-X and its naturally deleted variant show different enzymatic properties in comparison to the viral endonuclease PA

    PubMed Central

    Bavagnoli, Laura; Cucuzza, Stefano; Campanini, Giulia; Rovida, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Baldanti, Fausto; Maga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The PA protein of Influenza A virus (IAV) encoded by segment 3 acts as a specialized RNA endonuclease in the transcription of the viral genome. The same genomic segment encodes for a second shorter protein, termed PA-X, with the first 191 N-terminal aminoacids (aa) identical to PA, but with a completely different C-ter domain of 61 aa, due to a ribosomal frameshifting. In addition, it has been shown that several IAV isolates encode for a naturally truncated PA-X variant, PAXΔC20, missing the last 20 aa. The biochemical properties of PA-X and PAXΔC20 have been poorly investigated so far. Here, we have carried out an enzymatic characterization of PA-X and its naturally deleted form, in comparison with PA from the human IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Our results showed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that PA-X possesses an endonucleolytic activity. Both PA and PA-X preferentially cut single stranded RNA regions, but with some differences. In addition, we showed that PAXΔC20 has severely reduced nuclease activity. These results point to a previously undetected role of the last C-ter 20 aa for the catalytic activity of PA-X and support distinct roles for these proteins in the viral life cycle. PMID:26384413

  11. The novel influenza A virus protein PA-X and its naturally deleted variant show different enzymatic properties in comparison to the viral endonuclease PA.

    PubMed

    Bavagnoli, Laura; Cucuzza, Stefano; Campanini, Giulia; Rovida, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Baldanti, Fausto; Maga, Giovanni

    2015-10-30

    The PA protein of Influenza A virus (IAV) encoded by segment 3 acts as a specialized RNA endonuclease in the transcription of the viral genome. The same genomic segment encodes for a second shorter protein, termed PA-X, with the first 191 N-terminal aminoacids (aa) identical to PA, but with a completely different C-ter domain of 61 aa, due to a ribosomal frameshifting. In addition, it has been shown that several IAV isolates encode for a naturally truncated PA-X variant, PAXΔC20, missing the last 20 aa. The biochemical properties of PA-X and PAXΔC20 have been poorly investigated so far. Here, we have carried out an enzymatic characterization of PA-X and its naturally deleted form, in comparison with PA from the human IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Our results showed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that PA-X possesses an endonucleolytic activity. Both PA and PA-X preferentially cut single stranded RNA regions, but with some differences. In addition, we showed that PAXΔC20 has severely reduced nuclease activity. These results point to a previously undetected role of the last C-ter 20 aa for the catalytic activity of PA-X and support distinct roles for these proteins in the viral life cycle. PMID:26384413

  12. Friendship networks and physical activity and sedentary behavior among youth: a systematized review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity and increased participation in sedentary leisure-time activities are two important obesity-risk behaviors that impact the health of today’s youth. Friend’s health behaviors have been shown to influence individual health behaviors; however, current evidence on the specific role of friendship networks in relation to levels of physical activity and sedentary behavior is limited. The purpose of this review was to summarize evidence on friendship networks and both physical activity and sedentary behavior among children and adolescents. Method After a search of seven scientific databases and reference scans, a total of thirteen articles were eligible for inclusion. All assessed the association between friendship networks and physical activity, while three also assessed sedentary behavior. Results Overall, higher levels of physical activity among friends are associated with higher levels of physical activity of the individual. Longitudinal studies reveal that an individual’s level of physical activity changes to reflect his/her friends’ higher level of physical activity. Boys tend to be influenced by their friendship network to a greater extent than girls. There is mixed evidence surrounding a friend’s sedentary behavior and individual sedentary behavior. Conclusion Friends’ physical activity level appears to have a significant influence on individual’s physical activity level. Evidence surrounding sedentary behavior is limited and mixed. Results from this review could inform effective public health interventions that harness the influence of friends to increase physical activity levels among children and adolescents. PMID:24289113

  13. Effects of a Competency-Based Professional Development Training on Children's Physical Activity and Staff Physical Activity Promotion in Summer Day Camps

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background The YMCA of USA adopted Physical Activity (PA) Standards for summer day camps (SDC) in 2011. Standards call for increasing children's PA, as well as, increasing staff behaviors related to creating an activity-friendly environment, such as role modeling and verbally promoting PA. The objective of this study was to evaluate strategies designed to meet the YMCA PA Standards. Methods Four YMCA SDCs participated in this pre/multiple-post test study. Strategies to increase staff PA promotion included ongoing professional development training, workshops, and technical support. Changes in staff behaviors and child PA were measured via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition and the System for Observing Play and Leisure Time in Youth, respectively. Results Nine of 13 staff PA promotion behaviors demonstrated statistically significant changes in the desired direction. For example, staff engagement in PA with children increased by 11.4% (25.4% vs. 36.8%), while idle-time fell by 42.4% (53.1% vs. 10.7%) from baseline to final assessment. The percentage of girls and boys observed sedentary during scheduled PA decreased by 16.9% and 17.4%, while moderate-to-vigorous physical activity increased 3.3% and 3.5%, respectively. Changes in activity levels varied by grade level. Conclusions Strategies herein show promise for impacting staff behaviors and, in-turn, child PA. Continued support is likely required if changes are to be sustained. PMID:25530241

  14. Microfluidic manufacture of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Shekhar, Himanshu; Shaw, George J.; Papautsky, Ian; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-01-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), loaded with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles that act as cavitation nuclei, are under development for ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis. Conventional manufacturing techniques produce a polydisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP population with only a small percentage of particles containing microbubbles. Further, a polydisperse population of rt-PA-loaded ELIP has a broadband frequency response with complex bubble dynamics when exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In this work, a microfluidic flow-focusing device was used to generate monodisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP (µtELIP) loaded with a perfluorocarbon gas. The rt-PA associated with the µtELIP was encapsulated within the lipid shell as well as intercalated within the lipid shell. The µtELIP had a mean diameter of 5 µm, a resonance frequency of 2.2 MHz, and were found to be stable for at least 30 min in 0.5%bovine serum albumin. Additionally, 35 % of µtELIP particles were estimated to contain microbubbles, an order of magnitude higher than that reported previously for batch-produced rt-PA-loaded ELIP. These findings emphasize the advantages offered by microfluidic techniques for improving the encapsulation efficiency of both rt-PA and perflurocarbon microbubbles within echogenic liposomes. PMID:27206512

  15. Microfluidic manufacture of rt-PA -loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Shekhar, Himanshu; Shaw, George J; Papautsky, Ian; Holland, Christy K

    2016-06-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), loaded with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles that act as cavitation nuclei, are under development for ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis. Conventional manufacturing techniques produce a polydisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP population with only a small percentage of particles containing microbubbles. Further, a polydisperse population of rt-PA-loaded ELIP has a broadband frequency response with complex bubble dynamics when exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In this work, a microfluidic flow-focusing device was used to generate monodisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP (μtELIP) loaded with a perfluorocarbon gas. The rt-PA associated with the μtELIP was encapsulated within the lipid shell as well as intercalated within the lipid shell. The μtELIP had a mean diameter of 5 μm, a resonance frequency of 2.2 MHz, and were found to be stable for at least 30 min in 0.5 % bovine serum albumin. Additionally, 35 % of μtELIP particles were estimated to contain microbubbles, an order of magnitude higher than that reported previously for batch-produced rt-PA-loaded ELIP. These findings emphasize the advantages offered by microfluidic techniques for improving the encapsulation efficiency of both rt-PA and perflurocarbon microbubbles within echogenic liposomes. PMID:27206512

  16. 23 CFR Appendix F to Part 1200 - Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs F Appendix F to... HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANT PROGRAMS Pt. 1200, App. F Appendix F to Part 1200—Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs (a) Policy. Federal participation in P&A activities shall not exceed 50 percent of the total...

  17. 23 CFR Appendix F to Part 1200 - PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS F APPENDIX F TO... HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANT PROGRAMS Pt. 1200, App. F APPENDIX F TO PART 1200—PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS (a) Policy. Federal participation in P&A activities shall not exceed 50 percent of the total...

  18. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  19. Conduit Wall Failure as a Trigger for Transition From Strombolian to Phreatomagmatic Explosive Activity in the Cova de Paúl Crater Eruption on Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarff, R. W.; Day, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Episodes of hazardous phreatomagmatic explosive activity, including Surtseyan activity, occur within otherwise less dangerous effusive to mildly explosive magmatic eruptions at high-elevation vents on many oceanic island volcanoes. The water driving these explosions is sourced from freshwater aquifers within the volcanic edifices. Understanding volcanic and geophysical precursors to, and mechanisms of, the (frequently abrupt) transitions to explosive activity is required as a basis for effective warning and mitigation of the resulting hazards. Here we describe near-vent deposits around the large Cova de Paúl crater on the island of Santo Antão, Cape Verde Islands, which provide some insights into a transition from mild magmatic to violently explosive phreatomagmatic activity in one such eruption. This pre-historic but well-preserved crater formed in a single eruption that produced extensive low-temperature, lithic-rich phreatomagmatic pyroclastic flows and surge deposits; these are interbedded in proximal outcrops with airfall breccia and ash beds containing varying proportions of lithic and juvenile clasts, pointing to a series of climactic explosions within an extended period of milder explosive activity of broadly Surtseyan type. Prior to the transition to phreatomagmatic activity, the eruption had been characterized by mild Strombolian activity that produced scoria and spatter deposits of broadly tephritic composition. The Strombolian deposits contain a distinct population of strongly banded, low-vesicularity angular clasts with strongly prolate vesicles and a notably glassy appearance. These became markedly larger and more abundant just below the transition to the phreatomagmatic deposits. Comparisons of these clasts with the Strombolian scoria suggest that they are fragments of flow-banded chilled margins from the walls of the eruptive conduit. Thermal shattering of these margins to produce the angular glassy clasts may record the onset of groundwater flow

  20. Experienced Teachers' Informal Learning: Learning Activities and Changes in Behavior and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Annemarieke; Brekelmans, Mieke; Beijaard, Douwe; Korthagen, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this study on 32 teachers' learning in an informal learning environment, we analyzed changes in conceptions and behavior regarding students' active and self-regulated learning (ASL), and relations with the teachers' learning activities. Few relations were found between observed changes in "behavior" and learning activities. Changes in…

  1. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale-Short Form: Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manos, Rachel C.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Luo, Wen

    2011-01-01

    Following a landmark component analysis of cognitive therapy by Jacobson and colleagues (1996), there has been renewed interest in behavioral activation (BA) treatments for depression. The Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS) was developed to measure when and how clients become activated over the course of BA treatment. Multiple…

  2. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  3. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions. PMID:25935214

  4. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-san; Celentano, David D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Context Controlled trials of educational interventions are susceptible to contamination. Objectives To test a contamination measure based on recall of terms. Main study A randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among 1,123 injection drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms by intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds (OR) of recall of test vs. negative control terms between study arms. Results The contamination measure showed good discriminant ability only among participants from Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was evidence of diffusion and contamination of 4 of 5 terms tested. Conclusions Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in trials of educational interventions. PMID:25935214

  5. Perceived Environmental Church Support and Physical Activity among Black Church Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hooker, Steven P.; Hussey, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Churches are an appealing setting for implementing health-related behavior change programs. Purpose: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived environmental church support for physical activity (PA) and PA behaviors. Method: Black church members from South Carolina ("n" = 309) wore an…

  6. Crystal Structures of An F420-Dependent Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Fgd1 Involved in the Activation of the Anti-Tb Drug Candidate Pa-824 Reveal the Basis of Coenzyme And Substrate Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Bashiri, G.; Squire, C.J.; Moreland, N.J.; Baker, E.N.

    2009-05-11

    The modified flavin coenzyme F{sub 420} is found in a restricted number of microorganisms. It is widely distributed in mycobacteria, however, where it is important in energy metabolism, and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is implicated in redox processes related to non-replicating persistence. In Mtb, the F{sub 420}-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase FGD1 provides reduced F{sub 420} for the in vivo activation of the nitroimidazopyran prodrug PA-824, currently being developed for anti-tuberculosis therapy against both replicating and persistent bacteria. The structure of M. tuberculosis FGD1 has been determined by x-ray crystallography both in its apo state and in complex with F{sub 420} and citrate at resolutions of 1.90 and 1.95{angstrom}, respectively. The structure reveals a highly specific F{sub 420} binding mode, which is shared with several other F{sub 420}-dependent enzymes. Citrate occupies the substrate binding pocket adjacent to F{sub 420} and is shown to be a competitive inhibitor (IC{sub 50} 43 {micro}m). Modeling of the binding of the glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) substrate identifies a positively charged phosphate binding pocket and shows that G6P, like citrate, packs against the isoalloxazine moiety of F{sub 420} and helps promote a butterfly bend conformation that facilitates F{sub 420} reduction and catalysis.

  7. Behavior Disorders: The Need for Multiple and Integrated Treatment Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernes, Kerry

    In response to increasing demands that Canadian school boards provide behavior adaptation programs to counter the effects of disruptive home environments, school violence, and victimization, this paper explores definitions and diagnostic criteria for the following behavior disorders: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, oppositional defiant…

  8. Strategies to encourage physical activity in patients with hemophilia to improve quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Miwa; Takedani, Hideyuki; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder caused by a congenital abnormality of blood coagulation. Until the mid-1970s, patients with hemophilia (PWH) were advised to refrain from physical activity (PA) because of a perceived increased risk of bleeding. Since then, PA, which is recognized as being essential for health maintenance, is now recommended by the World Federation of Hemophilia. Moreover, a number of studies reported that PA can improve treatment efficacy and prevent bleeding in PWH. Physical assessment and intervention in PA are currently used in clinical practice. However, the necessity of PA is not emphasized, and many PWH generally have low- to- no PA. Therefore, a behavior change approach to encourage patient motivation is becoming ever more important. In this article, we review articles addressing PA in PWH and discuss strategies to encourage PA through a behavior change approach by focusing on factors relevant to hemophilia, such as benefits and bleeding risk of PA, risk management of bleeding, PA characteristics, and difficulty with exercise adherence. The trust relationship between clinicians and patients, a transtheoretical model of behavior change, and motivation theory as approaches to promote PA are introduced. Finally, we review a case report of the clinical success of a behavior change approach to promote PA. Many PWH find it difficult to continue PA because of aging, fear of bleeding, insufficient recognition of PA benefits, and psychological problems. Therefore, it is essential and important to perform prophylaxis with PWH and to heighten their understanding of the benefits and risks of PA, before initiating the exercise regimen. For those patients who find it difficult to participate in PA, it is necessary to plan individual-based behavior change approach and encourage self-efficacy. PMID:27274330

  9. Behavioral science in video games for children's diet and physical activity change: Key research needs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Innovative intervention programs are needed to overcome the limitations in previous programs that promoted change in diabetes risk behaviors in children. Serious video games show promise of changing dietary and physical activity behaviors, but research is needed on the optimal design of behavior-cha...

  10. Thyroid axis activity and suicidal behavior in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Duval, Fabrice; Mokrani, Marie-Claude; Lopera, Felix Gonzalez; Diep, Thanh Son; Rabia, Hassen; Fattah, Saïd

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between suicidal behavior and hypothalamic-pituitary thyroid (HPT) axis activity in depressed patients. The serum levels of thyrotropin (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and free triiodothyronine (FT3) were evaluated before and after 0800 and 2300 h thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) challenges, on the same day, in 95 medication-free DSM-IV euthyroid major depressed inpatients and 44 healthy hospitalized controls. Compared to controls: (1) patients with a positive suicide history (PSH; n=53) showed lower basal FT4 (at 0800 h: p<0.005; at 2300 h: p<0.03), but normal FT3 levels, while patients with a negative suicide history (NSH; n=42) showed normal FT4 and FT3 levels; (2) TSH responses to TRH (DeltaTSH) were blunted in NSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.03; at 2300 h: p<0.00001), but not in PSHs; (3) both NSHs and PSHs showed lower DeltaDeltaTSH values (differences between 2300 h-DeltaTSH and 0800 h-DeltaTSH) (p<0.000001 and p<0.003, respectively). Compared to NSHs, basal FT4 levels were reduced in PSHs (at 0800 h: p<0.002; at 2300h: p<0.006). HPT parameters were not significantly different between recent suicide attempters (n=32) and past suicide attempters (n=21). However, compared to controls, recent suicide attempters showed lower 2300 h-DeltaTSH (p<0.04) and DeltaDeltaTSH (p<0.002) values, and lower basal FT4 values (at 0800 h: p<0.006; at 2300 h: p<0.02). Our results, obtained in a large sample of depressed inpatients, indicate that various degrees of HPT axis dysregulation are associated with the history of suicide. PMID:20129737

  11. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing.

    PubMed

    Barrós-Loscertales, Alfonso; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Avila, César

    2010-03-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  12. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Ávila, César

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  13. The effect of simulated ostracism on physical activity behavior in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Assess the effects of simulated ostracism on children’s physical activity behavior, time allocated to sedentary behavior, and liking of physical activity. Methods: Nineteen (N=11 males, 8 females) children (11.7±1.3 years) completed two experimental sessions. During each session childre...

  14. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of…

  15. Weight Status in US Youth: The Role of Activity, Diet, and Sedentary Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peart, Tasha; Velasco Mondragon, H. Eduardo; Rohm-Young, Deborah; Bronner, Yvonne; Hossain, Mian B.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To assess associations of physical activity, diet, and sedentary behaviors with overweight and obesity. Methods: Analyses of the NHANES 2003-06 were conducted among 2368 US adolescents, ages 12-19. Self-reported diet and sedentary behavior measures were used; physical activity was assessed using accelerometers. Results:…

  16. BEACHES: An Observational System for Assessing Children's Eating and Physical Activity Behaviors and Associated Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health Evaluation System (BEACHES) codes direct observations of children's dietary and physical activity behaviors and associated environmental events, including physical location, antecedents, and consequences. The system's reliability and validity was assessed in a study of 42 children (ages…

  17. Association between Hypothesized Parental Influences and Preschool Children's Physical Activity Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Schary, David P.; Beets, Michael W.; Leary, Janie; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: To date, most research investigating the influence of parents on children"s physical activity behavior has been conducted among school-aged children. As a result, we have a limited understanding of the mechanisms through which parents can influence their young children's physical activity behavior. The purpose of this study was to…

  18. Parental Social Support and the Physical Activity-Related Behaviors of Youth: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Alderman, Brandon L.

    2010-01-01

    Social support from parents serves as one of the primary influences of youth physical activity-related behaviors. A systematic review was conducted on the relationship of parental social support to the physical activity-related behaviors of youth. Four categories of social support were identified, falling under two distinct mechanisms--tangible…

  19. Engagement in Vocational Activities Promotes Behavioral Development for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Smith, Leann E.; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations over time between behavioral functioning (autism symptoms, maladaptive behaviors, activities of daily living) and vocational/educational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 153 adults with ASD (M age = 30.2 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study.…

  20. Long-Term Tracking of Physical Activity Behaviors in Women: The WIN Study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, James R.; Bain, Tyson M.; Frierson, Georita M.; Trudelle-Jackson, Elaine; Haskell, William L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Interest lies in the prevalence of community-living women meeting 2008 Department of Health and Human Services physical activity guidelines across time. The purpose was to report prevalence and stability of long-term (up to 125 weeks) tracking of physical activity behaviors and compare self-reported physical activity behaviors using different measures. Methods The WIN study tracks nearly real-time physical activity behaviors in community-living women. At baseline, 918 women began weekly Internet reporting of physical activity behaviors, accessing a secure Internet site and answering 8 questions about physical activity behaviors for the previous week. Measures included days and minutes of moderate, vigorous, walking, and strengthening activities, and pedometer steps recorded weekly. Results Prevalence of meeting physical activity guidelines depended on the criterion used. Weekly averages across the surveillance period indicated 25% reported ≥150 mins of moderate physical activity, 47% reported ≥75 mins of vigorous physical activity, 57% reported ≥150 mins of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, 63% conducted ≥500 MET-mins of physical activity, 15% reported ≥2 days of strengthening activities per week, and 39% reported ≥7500 steps per week. Alpha coefficients (≥.97) indicated stable physical activity behaviors across all measures. Conclusion Across reporting methods, it is estimated that approximately 50% or more of these community-living women engage in sufficient physical activity for health benefits weekly across long-term follow-up. Self-report physical activity behaviors are stable across long periods in these community-living women not participating in a specific physical activity intervention. PMID:20473221

  1. Retirement Community Residents’ Physical Activity, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N = 38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults. PMID:24532671

  2. Associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Pate, R R; Heath, G W; Dowda, M; Trost, S G

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined the associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a representative sample of US adolescents. METHODS: In the 1990 Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 11631 high school students provided information on physical activity; diet; substance use; and other negative health behaviors. Logistic regression analyses examined associations between physical activity and other health behaviors in a subset of 2652 high-active and 1641 low-active students. RESULTS: Low activity was associated with cigarette smoking, marijuana use, lower fruit and vegetable consumption, greater television watching, failure to wear a seat belt, and low perception of academic performance. For consumption of fruit, television watching, and alcohol consumption, significant interactions were found with race/ethnicity or sex, suggesting that sociocultural factors may affect the relationships between physical activity and some health behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: Low physical activity was associated with several other negative health behaviors in teenagers. Future studies should examine whether interventions for increasing physical activity in youth can be effective in reducing negative health behaviors. PMID:8916523

  3. Psychological Well-Being (PWB) of School Adolescents Aged 12–18 yr, its Correlation with General Levels of Physical Activity (PA) and Socio-Demographic Factors In Gilgit, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093

  4. A novel method to promote behavioral improvement and enhance mitochondrial function following an embolic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lapchak, Paul A; Boitano, Paul D

    2016-09-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved treatment for stroke; tPA increases cerebral reperfusion, blood flow and improved behavior. Novel transcranial laser therapy (TLT) also enhances cerebral blood flow and activates mitochondrial function. Using the rabbit small clot embolic stroke model (RSCEM), we studied the effects of continuous wave TLT (7.5mW/cm(2)) alone or in combination with standardized intravenous (IV) tPA (3.3mg/kg) applied 1h post-embolization on 3 endpoints: 1) behavioral function measured 2 days [effective stroke dose (P50 in mg) producing neurological deficits in 50% of embolized rabbits], 2) intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) rate, and 3) cortical adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) content was measured 6h following embolization. TLT and tPA significantly (p<0.05) increased P50 values by 95% and 56% (p<0.05), respectively over control. TLT-tPA increased P50 by 136% over control (p<0.05). Embolization reduced cortical ATP content by 39%; decreases that were attenuated by either TLT or tPA treatment (p<0.05). TLT-tPA further enhanced cortical ATP levels 22% above that measured in naïve control. TLT and tPA both effectively and safely, without affecting ICH rate, improved behavioral outcome in embolized rabbits; and there was a trend (p>0.05) for the TLT-tPA combination to further increase P50. TLT and tPA both attenuated stroke-induced ATP deficits, and the combination of tPA and TLT produced an additive effect on ATP levels. This study demonstrates that the combination of TLT-tPA enhances ATP production, and suggests that tPA-induced reperfusion in combination with TLT neuroprotection therapy may optimally protect viable cells in the cortex measured using ATP levels as a marker. PMID:27180104

  5. The immunobiology of sexual behavior: gender differences in the suppression of sexual activity during illness.

    PubMed

    Avitsur, R; Yirmiya, R

    1999-12-01

    Following infection or injury, sick individuals experience profound psychological and behavioral changes, such as anorexia, depressed activity, and reduced self-care behavior. In the present review, we present evidence for a gender-difference in the behavioral response to sickness. Specifically, following immune activation, sexual activity is suppressed in female, but not in male rats. This gender difference is specific to sexually related responses, because other behaviors, such as locomotion, are equally affected by immune challenges in males and estrous females. The suppression of female sexual behavior, induced by either endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), or the cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1), are mediated by central mechanisms that are independent of alterations in ovarian hormone secretion. Furthermore, synergistic effects of the cytokines IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) are involved in modulating sexual behavior in sick females, and prostaglandins synthesis is required for the effects of IL-1 on female sexual behavior. The gender difference in the behavioral response to immune activation may be related to the findings that at the same doses and timing in which IL-1 suppressed sexual activity in female but not in male rats, females produced more prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the brain, and less corticosterone than males. Finally, we are suggesting that the suppressive effect of cytokines on female reproductive behavior may serve as a mechanism to reduce conception during infection, which exposes the mother and the fetus to dangers such as spontaneous abortions, preterm labor and maternal mortality. PMID:10593202

  6. Gender Differences in College Leisure Time Physical Activity: Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Integrated Behavioral Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beville, Jill M.; Umstattd Meyer, M. Renée; Usdan, Stuart L.; Turner, Lori W.; Jackson, John C.; Lian, Brad E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: National data consistently report that males participate in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) at higher rates than females. This study expanded previous research to examine gender differences in LTPA of college students using the theory of planned behavior (TPB) by including 2 additional constructs, descriptive norm and…

  7. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta.

    PubMed

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+)-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams. PMID:27063002

  8. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams.

  9. Effects of anthropogenic sound on digging behavior, metabolism, Ca2+/Mg2+ ATPase activity, and metabolism-related gene expression of the bivalve Sinonovacula constricta

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Chao; Zhao, Xinguo; Liu, Saixi; Shi, Wei; Han, Yu; Guo, Cheng; Jiang, Jingang; Wan, Haibo; Shen, Tiedong; Liu, Guangxu

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic sound has increased significantly in the past decade. However, only a few studies to date have investigated its effects on marine bivalves, with little known about the underlying physiological and molecular mechanisms. In the present study, the effects of different types, frequencies, and intensities of anthropogenic sounds on the digging behavior of razor clams (Sinonovacula constricta) were investigated. The results showed that variations in sound intensity induced deeper digging. Furthermore, anthropogenic sound exposure led to an alteration in the O:N ratios and the expression of ten metabolism-related genes from the glycolysis, fatty acid biosynthesis, tryptophan metabolism, and Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle (TCA cycle) pathways. Expression of all genes under investigation was induced upon exposure to anthropogenic sound at ~80 dB re 1 μPa and repressed at ~100 dB re 1 μPa sound. In addition, the activity of Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPase in the feet tissues, which is directly related to muscular contraction and subsequently to digging behavior, was also found to be affected by anthropogenic sound intensity. The findings suggest that sound may be perceived by bivalves as changes in the water particle motion and lead to the subsequent reactions detected in razor clams. PMID:27063002

  10. Physical Activity Behaviors, Motivation, and Self-Efficacy among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauline, Jeffrey S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the well documented benefits of an active lifestyle, lack of physical activity is a significant health problem in college students. The purpose of this descriptive study was to attain baseline physical activity behaviors, motivation factors, and self-efficacy levels to assist with developing tailored physical activity programs and…

  11. Circle Time: An Exploratory Study of Activities and Challenging Behavior in Head Start Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaghlawan, Hasan Y.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine circle time activities in eight Head Start classrooms. A total of 7 h of observations occurred in eight classrooms. Songs and academic activities were the most frequently occurring activities. Challenging behavior during circle time also was examined. The three activities with the highest…

  12. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2016-07-21

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7-20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT. PMID:27353199

  13. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Kenneth B.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D.; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-07-01

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7–20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT.

  14. Permissiveness and Premarital Sexual Activity: Behavioral Correlates of Attitudinal Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dignan, Mark; Anspaugh, David

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether undergraduates classified as high or low in sexual permissiveness could be differentiated using variables reflecting socioeconomic status, religious background, sexual behavior, and sexual knowledge. The derived discriminant functions were found to correctly classify 97.1 percent of the subjects.…

  15. A Secure Behavior Modification Sensor System for Physical Activity Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Alan

    2011-01-01

    Today, advances in wireless sensor networks are making it possible to capture large amounts of information about a person and their interaction within their home environment. However, what is missing is how to ensure the security of the collected data and its use to alter human behavior for positive benefit. In this research, exploration was…

  16. Instructional Activities for Children with Autistic Like Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingsley, Ronald F.; And Others

    A program for children with communication disorders (autistic-like behaviors) has been developed by the Kent (Ohio) Public Schools' Special Education program and is intended to eventually integrate the children served into other special education classrooms and, ultimately, into the home school special education program. Among the program's…

  17. The Contribution of Ideational Behavior to Creative Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paek, Sue Hyeon; Park, Hyeri; Runco, Mark A.; Choe, Ho-Seong

    2016-01-01

    The prediction of creative performance from ideation has shown promise, but questions remain. In this study, the relationship of ideational behavior and the creative performance of elementary school children (N = 255) was examined across 6 domains of creative performance: science, mathematics, technology, fine arts, music, and writing.…

  18. Engagement in vocational activities promotes behavioral development for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Smith, Leann E; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relations over time between behavioral functioning (autism symptoms, maladaptive behaviors, activities of daily living) and vocational/educational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Participants were 153 adults with ASD (M age = 30.2 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at two time points separated by 5.5 years. Cross-lag models were used, which accounted for stability over time while testing both directions of cross-lagged effects. Results suggested that greater vocational independence and engagement was related to subsequent reductions in autism symptoms and maladaptive behaviors, and improvements in activities of daily living. Relations between earlier behavioral variables (symptoms, behaviors, and activities of daily living) and later vocational independence were not statistically significant. PMID:24287880

  19. A Risk Function for Behavioral Disruption of Blainville’s Beaked Whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) from Mid-Frequency Active Sonar

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, David; Thomas, Len; Marques, Tiago; Harwood, John; Dilley, Ashley; Neales, Bert; Shaffer, Jessica; McCarthy, Elena; New, Leslie; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world’s oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville’s beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL) at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging) the individual members of a Blainville’s beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155) This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function. PMID:24465477

  20. A risk function for behavioral disruption of Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) from mid-frequency active sonar.

    PubMed

    Moretti, David; Thomas, Len; Marques, Tiago; Harwood, John; Dilley, Ashley; Neales, Bert; Shaffer, Jessica; McCarthy, Elena; New, Leslie; Jarvis, Susan; Morrissey, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing concern about the potential effects of noise pollution on marine life in the world's oceans. For marine mammals, anthropogenic sounds may cause behavioral disruption, and this can be quantified using a risk function that relates sound exposure to a measured behavioral response. Beaked whales are a taxon of deep diving whales that may be particularly susceptible to naval sonar as the species has been associated with sonar-related mass stranding events. Here we derive the first empirical risk function for Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) by combining in situ data from passive acoustic monitoring of animal vocalizations and navy sonar operations with precise ship tracks and sound field modeling. The hydrophone array at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center, Bahamas, was used to locate vocalizing groups of Blainville's beaked whales and identify sonar transmissions before, during, and after Mid-Frequency Active (MFA) sonar operations. Sonar transmission times and source levels were combined with ship tracks using a sound propagation model to estimate the received level (RL) at each hydrophone. A generalized additive model was fitted to data to model the presence or absence of the start of foraging dives in 30-minute periods as a function of the corresponding sonar RL at the hydrophone closest to the center of each group. This model was then used to construct a risk function that can be used to estimate the probability of a behavioral change (cessation of foraging) the individual members of a Blainville's beaked whale population might experience as a function of sonar RL. The function predicts a 0.5 probability of disturbance at a RL of 150 dBrms re µPa (CI: 144 to 155) This is 15dB lower than the level used historically by the US Navy in their risk assessments but 10 dB higher than the current 140 dB step-function. PMID:24465477

  1. Behavioral Assessment of Physical Activity in Obese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustyi, Kristin M.; Normand, Matthew P.; Larson, Tracy A.

    2011-01-01

    We measured changes in physical activity in 2 obese preschool children when a package intervention was evaluated in a reversal design. Physical activity was measured via direct observation and pedometers. Although the intervention produced only modest increases in activity, the results provide preliminary concurrent validation for the dependent…

  2. Active Reading Behaviors in Tablet-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palilonis, Jennifer; Bolchini, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Active reading is fundamental to learning. However, there is little understanding about whether traditional active reading frameworks sufficiently characterize how learners study multimedia tablet textbooks. This paper explores the nature of active reading in the tablet environment through a qualitative study that engaged 30 students in an active…

  3. Effect of wrist-worn activity monitor feedback on physical activity behavior: A randomized controlled trial in Finnish young men

    PubMed Central

    Jauho, Anna-Maiju; Pyky, Riitta; Ahola, Riikka; Kangas, Maarit; Virtanen, Paula; Korpelainen, Raija; Jämsä, Timo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the use of an activity monitor providing feedback has an effect on physical activity (PA) in young men. A population-based sample of 276 conscription-aged (mean = 17.9, SD = 0.7 years) men participated in a 3-month randomized controlled trial in Oulu in 2012. Participants were randomized to an intervention group (INT, N = 137) and a control group (CON, N = 139). INT received a wrist-worn monitor (Polar Active) showing daily activity, and CON received identical monitors without feedback. Main outcome was the change from baseline in objectively measured weekly time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary activity (SED), as assessed by generalized estimation equations (GEE). Other lifestyle factors were assessed by a questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months. Weekly physical activity data (≥ 4 days with ≥ 8 h each) were obtained from 72 (53%) and 90 (65%) men in the INT and CON, respectively. Based on GEE, time spent in MVPA increased (p = 0.012) and SED decreased (p = 0.032) in the INT compared with the CON. During the first 7 weeks, the INT spent on average 1 h less sedentary than the CON (t-test, p < 0.05). During the first week, the INT showed 12 minutes more MVPA compared to the CON (t-test, p = 0.034). Based on questionnaire data, the proportion of the most sedentary men decreased in the INT (Wilcoxon test, 28% vs. 10%, p = 0.029), with no change in the CON (20% vs. 19%, p = 0.546). To conclude, a wrist-worn activity monitor providing feedback had a short-term positive effect on PA and SED in young men. Trial registration This is a pilot study for a larger randomized controlled trial registered to the clinical trials register NCT01376986. PMID:26844128

  4. The child play behavior and activity questionnaire: a parent-report measure of childhood gender-related behavior in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong

    2010-06-01

    Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children's gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children's sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6-12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children's gender-related behavior in China. PMID:18719986

  5. The Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire: A Parent-Report Measure of Childhood Gender-Related Behavior in China

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Sam; Xie, Dong

    2008-01-01

    Boys and girls establish relatively stable gender stereotyped behavior patterns by middle childhood. Parent-report questionnaires measuring children’s gender-related behavior enable researchers to conduct large-scale screenings of community samples of children. For school-aged children, two parent-report instruments, the Child Game Participation Questionnaire (CGPQ) and the Child Behavior and Attitude Questionnaire (CBAQ), have long been used for measuring children’s sex-dimorphic behaviors in Western societies, but few studies have been conducted using these measures for Chinese populations. The current study aimed to empirically examine and modify the two instruments for their applications to Chinese society. Parents of 486 Chinese boys and 417 Chinese girls (6–12 years old) completed a questionnaire comprising items from the CGPQ and CBAQ, and an additional 14 items specifically related to Chinese gender-specific games. Items revealing gender differences in a Chinese sample were identified and used to construct a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ). Four new scales were generated through factor analysis: a Gender Scale, a Girl Typicality Scale, a Boy Typicality Scale, and a Cross-Gender Scale (CGS). These scales had satisfactory internal reliabilities and large effect sizes for gender. The CPBAQ is believed to be a promising instrument for measuring children’s gender-related behavior in China. PMID:18719986

  6. Oscillatory phase modulates the timing of neuronal activations and resulting behavior.

    PubMed

    Coon, W G; Gunduz, A; Brunner, P; Ritaccio, A L; Pesaran, B; Schalk, G

    2016-06-01

    Human behavioral response timing is highly variable from trial to trial. While it is generally understood that behavioral variability must be due to trial-by-trial variations in brain function, it is still largely unknown which physiological mechanisms govern the timing of neural activity as it travels through networks of neuronal populations, and how variations in the timing of neural activity relate to variations in the timing of behavior. In our study, we submitted recordings from the cortical surface to novel analytic techniques to chart the trajectory of neuronal population activity across the human cortex in single trials, and found joint modulation of the timing of this activity and of consequent behavior by neuronal oscillations in the alpha band (8-12Hz). Specifically, we established that the onset of population activity tends to occur during the trough of oscillatory activity, and that deviations from this preferred relationship are related to changes in the timing of population activity and the speed of the resulting behavioral response. These results indicate that neuronal activity incurs variable delays as it propagates across neuronal populations, and that the duration of each delay is a function of the instantaneous phase of oscillatory activity. We conclude that the results presented in this paper are supportive of a general model for variability in the effective speed of information transmission in the human brain and for variability in the timing of human behavior. PMID:26975551

  7. A unified framework for activity recognition-based behavior analysis and action prediction in smart homes.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Iram; Fahim, Muhammad; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, activity recognition in smart homes is an active research area due to its applicability in many applications, such as assistive living and healthcare. Besides activity recognition, the information collected from smart homes has great potential for other application domains like lifestyle analysis, security and surveillance, and interaction monitoring. Therefore, discovery of users common behaviors and prediction of future actions from past behaviors become an important step towards allowing an environment to provide personalized service. In this paper, we develop a unified framework for activity recognition-based behavior analysis and action prediction. For this purpose, first we propose kernel fusion method for accurate activity recognition and then identify the significant sequential behaviors of inhabitants from recognized activities of their daily routines. Moreover, behaviors patterns are further utilized to predict the future actions from past activities. To evaluate the proposed framework, we performed experiments on two real datasets. The results show a remarkable improvement of 13.82% in the accuracy on average of recognized activities along with the extraction of significant behavioral patterns and precise activity predictions with 6.76% increase in F-measure. All this collectively help in understanding the users" actions to gain knowledge about their habits and preferences. PMID:23435057

  8. A Unified Framework for Activity Recognition-Based Behavior Analysis and Action Prediction in Smart Homes

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Iram; Fahim, Muhammad; Lee, Young-Koo; Lee, Sungyoung

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, activity recognition in smart homes is an active research area due to its applicability in many applications, such as assistive living and healthcare. Besides activity recognition, the information collected from smart homes has great potential for other application domains like lifestyle analysis, security and surveillance, and interaction monitoring. Therefore, discovery of users common behaviors and prediction of future actions from past behaviors become an important step towards allowing an environment to provide personalized service. In this paper, we develop a unified framework for activity recognition-based behavior analysis and action prediction. For this purpose, first we propose kernel fusion method for accurate activity recognition and then identify the significant sequential behaviors of inhabitants from recognized activities of their daily routines. Moreover, behaviors patterns are further utilized to predict the future actions from past activities. To evaluate the proposed framework, we performed experiments on two real datasets. The results show a remarkable improvement of 13.82% in the accuracy on average of recognized activities along with the extraction of significant behavioral patterns and precise activity predictions with 6.76% increase in F-measure. All this collectively help in understanding the users” actions to gain knowledge about their habits and preferences. PMID:23435057

  9. [Behavioral activation and depression: a contextual treatment approach].

    PubMed

    Soucy Chartier, Isabelle; Blanchet, Valérie; Provencher, Martin D

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a widespread psychological disorder that affects approximately one in five North American. Typical reactions to depression include inactivity, isolation, and rumination. Several treatments and psychological interventions have emerged to address this problematic. Cognitive behavioural therapies have received increasingly large amounts of empirical support. A sub-component of cognitive behavioural therapy, behavioural activation, has been shown to in itself effectively treat symptoms of depression. This intervention involves efforts to re-activate the depressed client by having them engage in pleasant, gratifying, leisure, social, or physical activities, thereby counteracting the tendency to be inactive and to isolate oneself. Clients are guided through the process of establishing a list of potentially rewarding social, leisure, mastery-oriented or physical activities, to then establish a gradual hierarchy of objectives to be accomplished over the span of several weeks. Concrete action plans are devised, and solutions to potential obstacles are elaborated. The client is the asked to execute the targeted objective and to record their mood prior to and following the activity. Behavioural activation effectively reverses the downward spiral to depression. Interestingly, studies show that behavioural activation has a positive effect on cognitive activities. It has been shown to reduce rumination and favour cognitive restructuring, without requiring cognitively-based interventions. The advantage of this treatment is therefore that it is simpler to administer in comparison to full-packaged cognitive behavioural therapies, it requires a lesser number of sessions and can be disseminated in a low-intensity format. This article begins by summarizing the origins of the behavioural model of depression, which serves as a basis to the understanding of behavioural activation. This is followed by a detailed explanation of the different phases involved in a behavioural

  10. Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity Monitoring and Behavior Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a data generator that produces synthetic data to simulate observations from an array of environment monitoring sensors. The overall goal of our work is to monitor the well-being of one occupant in a home. Sensors are embedded in a smart home to unobtrusively record environmental parameters. Based on the sensor observations, behavior analysis and modeling are performed. However behavior analysis and modeling require large data sets to be collected over long periods of time to achieve the level of accuracy expected. A data generator - was developed based on initial data i.e. data collected over periods lasting weeks to facilitate concurrent data collection and development of algorithms. The data generator is based on statistical inference techniques. Variation is introduced into the data using perturbation models.

  11. Behavioral study of ultradian activity periods of mice enclosed in experimental cages of different dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guillot, A.

    1982-01-01

    Male mice are enclosed in cages of different dimensions (cage A - 23x8x8 cm., cage B - 36x27x17 cm.), in an alternating light/dark regimen, at an ambient temperature of 22 to 23 C. The successions of the behavioral sequences of ultradian activity periods are noticed by direct observation during 11 consecutive hours in light. The experimental situation modifies the mean duration time and the behavioral organization of each activity period. However, the comparison of the overall activity time lengths and the comparison of the overall behavioral frequencies suggest that the energy spent per mouse is constant.

  12. Validation of mercury tip-switch and accelerometer activity sensors for identifying resting and active behavior in bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jasmine Ware; Rode, Karyn D.; Pagano, Anthony M.; Bromaghin, Jeffrey; Charles T Robbins; Joy Erlenbach; Shannon Jensen; Amy Cutting; Nicole Nicassio-Hiskey; Amy Hash; Owen, Megan A.; Heiko Jansen

    2015-01-01

    Activity sensors are often included in wildlife transmitters and can provide information on the behavior and activity patterns of animals remotely. However, interpreting activity-sensor data relative to animal behavior can be difficult if animals cannot be continuously observed. In this study, we examined the performance of a mercury tip-switch and a tri-axial accelerometer housed in collars to determine whether sensor data can be accurately classified as resting and active behaviors and whether data are comparable for the 2 sensor types. Five captive bears (3 polar [Ursus maritimus] and 2 brown [U. arctos horribilis]) were fitted with a collar specially designed to internally house the sensors. The bears’ behaviors were recorded, classified, and then compared with sensor readings. A separate tri-axial accelerometer that sampled continuously at a higher frequency and provided raw acceleration values from 3 axes was also mounted on the collar to compare with the lower resolution sensors. Both accelerometers more accurately identified resting and active behaviors at time intervals ranging from 1 minute to 1 hour (≥91.1% accuracy) compared with the mercury tip-switch (range = 75.5–86.3%). However, mercury tip-switch accuracy improved when sampled at longer intervals (e.g., 30–60 min). Data from the lower resolution accelerometer, but not the mercury tip-switch, accurately predicted the percentage of time spent resting during an hour. Although the number of bears available for this study was small, our results suggest that these activity sensors can remotely identify resting versus active behaviors across most time intervals. We recommend that investigators consider both study objectives and the variation in accuracy of classifying resting and active behaviors reported here when determining sampling interval.

  13. Frontal Alpha EEG Asymmetry Before and After Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Gollan, Jackie K.; Hoxha, Denada; Chihade, Dietta; Pflieger, Mark E.; Rosebrock, Laina; Cacioppo, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Mid-frontal and mid-lateral (F3/F4 and F7/F8) EEG asymmetry has been associated with motivation and affect. We examined alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed and healthy participants before and after Behavioral Activation treatment for depression; examined the association between alpha EEG asymmetry and motivational systems and affect; and evaluated the utility of alpha EEG asymmetry in predicting remission. Methods Depressed (n = 37) and healthy participants (n = 35) were assessed before and after treatment using a clinical interview, a task to measure baseline EEG, and questionnaires of behavioral activation and inhibition, avoidance, and affect. Results Alpha EEG asymmetry was significantly higher in depressed than healthy participants at pre-treatment, positively correlated with negative affect and behavioral inhibition, and inversely correlated with lower behavioral activation sensitivity. Conclusions Heightened alpha EEG asymmetry in depressed participants was significantly associated with increased behavioral inhibition and negative emotion and was independent of clinical remission. PMID:24674708

  14. Promoting Healthy Lifestyle Behaviors: The Heart Smart Discussion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCalla, Judith R.; Juarez, Cheryl L.; Williams, Lucia E.; Brown, Judy; Chipungu, Katie; Saab, Patrice G.

    2012-01-01

    The health habits of high school students affect not only their current health but also their future risk for obesity and cardiovascular disease. The "Heart Smart Discussion Activity" was developed to provide information about heart health, good nutrition, physical activity, and stress management. It encourages students to discuss…

  15. Linking Employee Development Activity, Social Exchange and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Heather R.; Maurer, Todd J.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined "perceived beneficiary" of employee development (self, organization) for relationships with employee development activity. Perceived organizational support served as a moderator. The authors conclude that employees may engage in development activities to partly benefit their organization to the extent that a positive exchange…

  16. Adolescent Sexual Activity and the Development of Delinquent Behavior: The Role of Relationship Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Despite the well-established association between adolescent sexual activity and delinquent behavior, little research has examined the potential importance of relationship contexts in moderating this association. The current study used longitudinal, behavioral genetic data on 519 same-sex twin pairs (48.6% female) divided into two age cohorts…

  17. A Framework For Using GPS Data In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska, Marta M.; Schipperijn, Jasper; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are increasingly applied in activity studies, yet significant theoretical and methodological challenges remain. This paper presents a framework for integrating GPS data with other technologies to create dynamic representations of behaviors in context. Utilizing more accurate and sensitive measures to link behavior and environmental exposures allows for new research questions and methods to be developed. PMID:25390297

  18. Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior of Youth with Learning Disabilities and ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Bryan G.; Li, Dongmei; Heinrich, Katie M.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in childhood are important indicators of present and future health and are associated with school-related outcomes such as academic achievement, behavior, peer relationships, and self-esteem. Using logistic regression models that controlled for gender, age, ethnicity/race, and socioeconomic…

  19. Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: A randomized clinical trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Video games designed to promote behavior change are a promising venue to enable children to learn healthier behaviors. The purpose is to evaluate the outcome from playing "Escape from Diab" (Diab) and "Nanoswarm: Invasion from Inner Space" (Nano) video games on children's diet, physical activity, an...

  20. Randomized Controlled Trial of Behavioral Activation Smoking Cessation Treatment for Smokers with Elevated Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Laura; Tull, Matthew T.; Matusiewicz, Alexis K.; Rodman, Samantha; Strong, David R.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Hopko, Derek R.; Zvolensky, Michael J.; Brown, Richard A.; Lejuez, C. W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Depressive symptoms are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes, and there remains continued interest in behavioral interventions that simultaneously target smoking and depressive symptomatology. In this pilot study, we examined whether a behavioral activation treatment for smoking (BATS) can enhance cessation outcomes. Method:…

  1. A Physical Activity Program Improves Behavior and Cognitive Functions in Children with ADHD: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verret, Claudia; Guay, Marie-Claude; Berthiaume, Claude; Gardiner, Phillip; Beliveau, Louise

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to explore the effects of a moderate- to high-intensity physical activity program on fitness, cognitive functions, and ADHD-related behavior in children with ADHD. Method: Fitness level, motor skills, behaviors, and cognitive functions are assessed by standardized tests before and after a 10-week training…

  2. Effect of Behavioral Activation Treatment on Fibromyalgia-Related Pain Anxiety Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundervold, Duane A.; Talley, Chris; Buermann, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Effects of Behavioral Activation Treatment (BAT) on pain anxiety, depression, and pain interference on a 43-year-old female with an 11-year history of chronic fibromyalgia pain are described. Analgesic, anxyiolytic, and antidepressant medications were stabilized prior to participation. Dependent measures were the Behavioral Relaxation Scale, a…

  3. Initial Open Trial of a Computerized Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spates, C. Richard; Kalata, Alyssa H.; Ozeki, Satoshi; Stanton, Cory E.; Peters, Sofia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings from use of a novel computer program that implements an evidence-based psychological intervention to treat depression based on behavioral activation (BA) therapy. The program is titled “Building a Meaningful Life Through Behavioral Activation”. The findings derive from an open trial with moderate to…

  4. Social Behaviors and Gender Differences among Preschoolers: Implications for Science Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desouza, Josephine M. Shireen; Czerniak, Charlene M.

    2002-01-01

    A 2-year ethnographic study focused on social behaviors and gender differences among preschoolers engaging in science activities. Findings indicated that boys exhibited curiosity, spontaneity, extensive prior knowledge about nature, and tended toward aggressive, competitive, and sometimes violent behavior. Girls displayed a submissive countenance,…

  5. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  6. Physiological-behavioral coupling research in the Soviet science of higher nervous activity: a visitation report.

    PubMed

    Ray, R D

    1977-01-01

    Behavioral research paradigms presently used by Soviet scientists to explore relations between behavioral and physiological activities are discussed. Each laboratory represented was physically visited by the author during a six month exhange visit to the Soviet Union. Research ranging from central concommitants of language and meaning to biofeedback and peripheral autonomic functions are described. PMID:854371

  7. Development of modified cable models to simulate accurate neuronal active behaviors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In large network and single three-dimensional (3-D) neuron simulations, high computing speed dictates using reduced cable models to simulate neuronal firing behaviors. However, these models are unwarranted under active conditions and lack accurate representation of dendritic active conductances that greatly shape neuronal firing. Here, realistic 3-D (R3D) models (which contain full anatomical details of dendrites) of spinal motoneurons were systematically compared with their reduced single unbranched cable (SUC, which reduces the dendrites to a single electrically equivalent cable) counterpart under passive and active conditions. The SUC models matched the R3D model's passive properties but failed to match key active properties, especially active behaviors originating from dendrites. For instance, persistent inward currents (PIC) hysteresis, frequency-current (FI) relationship secondary range slope, firing hysteresis, plateau potential partial deactivation, staircase currents, synaptic current transfer ratio, and regional FI relationships were not accurately reproduced by the SUC models. The dendritic morphology oversimplification and lack of dendritic active conductances spatial segregation in the SUC models caused significant underestimation of those behaviors. Next, SUC models were modified by adding key branching features in an attempt to restore their active behaviors. The addition of primary dendritic branching only partially restored some active behaviors, whereas the addition of secondary dendritic branching restored most behaviors. Importantly, the proposed modified models successfully replicated the active properties without sacrificing model simplicity, making them attractive candidates for running R3D single neuron and network simulations with accurate firing behaviors. The present results indicate that using reduced models to examine PIC behaviors in spinal motoneurons is unwarranted. PMID:25277743

  8. BE-ACTIV: A Staff-Assisted Behavioral Intervention for Depression in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Suzanne; Looney, Stephen W.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article (a) describes a 10-week, behavioral, activities-based intervention for depression that can be implemented in nursing homes collaboratively with nursing home activities staff and (b) presents data related to its development, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes. Design and Methods: We developed BE-ACTIV, which stands for…

  9. Modulation of spontaneous fMRI activity in human visual cortex by behavioral state

    PubMed Central

    Bianciardi, Marta; Fukunaga, Masaki; van Gelderen, Peter; Horovitz, Silvina G.; de Zwart, Jacco A.; Duyn, Jeff H.

    2009-01-01

    The phenomenon of spontaneous fMRI activity is increasingly being exploited to investigate the connectivity of functional networks in human brain with high spatial-resolution. Although mounting evidence points towards a neuronal contribution to this activity, its functional role and dependence on behavioral state remain unclear. In this work, we used BOLD fMRI at 7 T to study the modulation of spontaneous activity in occipital areas by various behavioral conditions, including resting with eyes closed, eyes open with visual fixation, and eyes open with fixation and focal visual stimulation. Spontaneous activity was separated from evoked activity and from signal fluctuations related to cardiac and respiratory cycles. We found that spontaneous activity in visual areas was substantially reduced (amplitude (44%) and coherence (25%)) with the fixation conditions relative to the eyes-closed condition. No significant further modulation was observed when the visual stimulus was added. The observed dependence on behavioral condition suggests that part of spontaneous fMRI signal fluctuations represents neuronal activity. Possible mechanisms for the modulation of spontaneous activity by behavioral state are discussed. The observed linear superposition of spontaneous fMRI activity with focal evoked activity related to visual processing has important implications for fMRI studies, which ideally should take into account the effect of spontaneous activity to properly define brain activations during task conditions. PMID:19028588

  10. Using Antecedent Physical Activity to Increase On-Task Behavior in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luke, Sara; Vail, Cynthia O.; Ayres, Kevin M.

    2014-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to investigate how physical activity affects on-task behavior of young children with significant developmental delays in a special education preschool classroom. Five preschool age children with significant developmental delays engaged in either physical activity or seated center activities for 20 min prior to a 15-min…

  11. Temporal self-regulation theory: a neurobiologically informed model for physical activity behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Peter A.; Fong, Geoffrey T.

    2015-01-01

    Dominant explanatory models for physical activity behavior are limited by the exclusion of several important components, including temporal dynamics, ecological forces, and neurobiological factors. The latter may be a critical omission, given the relevance of several aspects of cognitive function for the self-regulatory processes that are likely required for consistent implementation of physical activity behavior in everyday life. This narrative review introduces temporal self-regulation theory (TST; Hall and Fong, 2007, 2013) as a new explanatory model for physical activity behavior. Important features of the model include consideration of the default status of the physical activity behavior, as well as the disproportionate influence of temporally proximal behavioral contingencies. Most importantly, the TST model proposes positive feedback loops linking executive function (EF) and the performance of physical activity behavior. Specifically, those with relatively stronger executive control (and optimized brain structures supporting it, such as the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC)) are able to implement physical activity with more consistency than others, which in turn serves to strengthen the executive control network itself. The TST model has the potential to explain everyday variants of incidental physical activity, sport-related excellence via capacity for deliberate practice, and variability in the propensity to schedule and implement exercise routines. PMID:25859196

  12. The use of dendrograms to describe the electrical activity of motoneurons underlying behaviors in leeches

    PubMed Central

    Juárez-Hernández, León J.; Bisson, Giacomo; Torre, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The present manuscript aims at identifying patterns of electrical activity recorded from neurons of the leech nervous system, characterizing specific behaviors. When leeches are at rest, the electrical activity of neurons and motoneurons is poorly correlated. When leeches move their head and/or tail, in contrast, action potential (AP) firing becomes highly correlated. When the head or tail suckers detach, specific patterns of electrical activity are detected. During elongation and contraction the electrical activity of motoneurons in the Medial Anterior and Dorsal Posterior nerves increase, respectively, and several motoneurons are activated both during elongation and contraction. During crawling, swimming, and pseudo-swimming patterns of electrical activity are better described by the dendrograms of cross-correlations of motoneurons pairs. Dendrograms obtained from different animals exhibiting the same behavior are similar and by averaging these dendrograms we obtained a template underlying a given behavior. By using this template, the corresponding behavior is reliably identified from the recorded electrical activity. The analysis of dendrograms during different leech behavior reveals the fine orchestration of motoneurons firing specific to each stereotyped behavior. Therefore, dendrograms capture the subtle changes in the correlation pattern of neuronal networks when they become involved in different tasks or functions. PMID:24098274

  13. The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals

    PubMed Central

    Bargh, John A.; Lee-Chai, Annette; Barndollar, Kimberly; Gollwitzer, Peter M.; Trötschel, Roman

    2010-01-01

    It is proposed that goals can be activated outside of awareness and then operate nonconsciously to guide self-regulation effectively (J. A. Bargh, 1990). Five experiments are reported in which the goal either to perform well or to cooperate was activated, without the awareness of participants, through a priming manipulation. In Experiment 1 priming of the goal to perform well caused participants to perform comparatively better on an intellectual task. In Experiment 2 priming of the goal to cooperate caused participants to replenish a commonly held resource more readily. Experiment 3 used a dissociation paradigm to rule out perceptual-construal alternative explanations. Experiments 4 and 5 demonstrated that action guided by nonconsciously activated goals manifests two classic content-free features of the pursuit of consciously held goals. Nonconsciously activated goals effectively guide action, enabling adaptation to ongoing situational demands. PMID:11761304

  14. The importance of behavior theory in control system modeling of physical activity sensor data.

    PubMed

    Riley, William T; Martin, Cesar A; Rivera, Daniel E

    2014-01-01

    Among health behaviors, physical activity has the most extensive record of research using passive sensors. Control systems and other system dynamic approaches have long been considered applicable for understanding human behavior, but only recently has the technology provided the precise and intensive longitudinal data required for these analytic approaches. Although sensors provide intensive data on the patterns and variations of physical activity over time, the influences of these variations are often unmeasured. Health behavior theories provide an explanatory framework of the putative mediators of physical activity changes. Incorporating the intensive longitudinal measurement of these theoretical constructs is critical to improving the fit of control system model of physical activity and for advancing behavioral theory. Theory-based control models also provide guidance on the nature of the controllers which serve as the basis for just-in-time adaptive interventions based on these control system models. PMID:25571577

  15. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression during the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117)…

  16. Behavioral Economic Factors Related to Pediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Greenwald, Mark K

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral economics (BE) suggests that food and activity choices are governed by costs, available alternatives, and reinforcement. This article reviews basic, translational, and intervention research using a BE framework with overweight or obese children up to age 18. We address BE concepts and methods, and discuss developmental issues, the continuum of BE intervention approaches, findings of studies focused on increasing the cost of unwanted behaviors (ie, energy-dense food intake and sedentary behavior) and decreasing the cost of desired behaviors (ie, healthy food intake and PA), and our team's recent basic behavioral studies using BE approaches with minority adolescents. PMID:27261543

  17. High baseline activity in inferior temporal cortex improves neural and behavioral discriminability during visual categorization

    PubMed Central

    Emadi, Nazli; Rajimehr, Reza; Esteky, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous firing is a ubiquitous property of neural activity in the brain. Recent literature suggests that this baseline activity plays a key role in perception. However, it is not known how the baseline activity contributes to neural coding and behavior. Here, by recording from the single neurons in the inferior temporal cortex of monkeys performing a visual categorization task, we thoroughly explored the relationship between baseline activity, the evoked response, and behavior. Specifically we found that a low-frequency (<8 Hz) oscillation in the spike train, prior and phase-locked to the stimulus onset, was correlated with increased gamma power and neuronal baseline activity. This enhancement of the baseline activity was then followed by an increase in the neural selectivity and the response reliability and eventually a higher behavioral performance. PMID:25404900

  18. Blood flow changes in arteriovenous malformation during behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, G

    1983-01-01

    Striking task-dependent fluctuations were observed in the cerebral blood flow pattern of a patient with a left posterior hemispheric arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Two-dimensional measures of regional cerebral flow in the resting state, using the xenon 133 inhalation technique, revealed a region of high flow coincident with the AVM seen on the patient's arteriograms. In subsequent studies, the AVM stood out as a region of high blood flow during a relaxed state, while it approached normal levels of flow when there was attentional demand. These observations suggest that focal regulatory mechanisms exist at the AVM or else that very substantial redistributions of blood flow are taking place which the flow rate in the AVM reflects only passively. Patients considered for embolic treatment of an AVM would benefit from an assessment of behavioral influences on flow in the AVM. PMID:6830163

  19. Harnessing endogenous growth factor activity modulates stem cell behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hudalla, Gregory A.; Kouris, Nicholas A.; Koepsel, Justin T.; Ogle, Brenda M.; Murphy, William L.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of specific serum-borne biomolecules (e.g. heparin) on growth factor-dependent cell behavior is often difficult to elucidate in traditional cell culture due to the random, non-specific nature of biomolecule adsorption from serum. We hypothesized that chemically well-defined cell culture substrates could be used to study the influence of sequestered heparin on human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) behavior. Specifically, we used bio-inert self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) chemically modified with a bioinspired heparin-binding peptide (termed “HEPpep”) and an integrin-binding peptide (RGDSP) as stem cell culture substrates. Our results demonstrate that purified heparin binds to HEPpep SAMs in a dose-dependent manner, and serum-borne heparin binds specifically and in a dose-dependent manner to HEPpep SAMs. These heparin-sequestering SAMs enhance hMSC proliferation by amplifying endogenous fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling, and enhance hMSC osteogenic differentiation by amplifying endogenous bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. The effects of heparin-sequestering are similar to the effects of supraphysiologic concentrations of recombinant FGF-2. hMSC phenotype is maintained over multiple population doublings on heparin-sequestering substrates in growth medium, while hMSC osteogenic differentiation is enhanced in a bone morphogenetic protein-dependent manner on the same substrates during culture in osteogenic induction medium. Together, these observations demonstrate that the influence of the substrate on stem cell phenotype is sensitive to the culture medium formulation. Our results also demonstrate that enhanced hMSC proliferation can be spatially localized by patterning the location of HEPpep on the substrate. Importantly, the use of chemically well-defined SAMs in this study eliminated the confounding factor of random, non-specific biomolecule adsorption, and identified serum-borne heparin as a key mediator of hMSC response to endogenous

  20. Marked behavioral activation from inhibitory stimulation of locus coeruleus α1-adrenoceptors by a full agonist

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Eric A.; Lin, Yan; Sarfraz, Yasmeen; Quartermain, David

    2009-01-01

    α1-Adrenoceptors are concentrated in the locus coeruleus (LC) where they appear to regulate various active behaviors but have been difficult to stimulate effectively. The present study examined the behavioral, pharmacological and neural effects of possible stimulation of these receptors with 6-fluoronorepinephrine (6FNE), the only known selective α-agonist that has full efficacy at all brain α-receptors. Infusion of this compound in the mouse LC was found to produce extreme activation of diverse motivated behaviors of exploration, wheel running and operant approach responding in different environments consistent with a global behavioral function of the dorsal noradrenergic system. Infusion of selective antagonists of α1- (terazosin) or α2-(atipamezole) receptors or of either the partial α1-agonist, phenylephrine, or full α2-agonist, dexmedetomidine, indicated that the behavioral effects of 6FNE were due largely due to activation of LC α1-receptors consistent with the known greater density of α1-than α2-adrenoreceptors in the mouse nucleus. Immunohistochemistry of fos in tyrosine hydroxylase-positive LC neurons following IV ventricular infusions indicated that 6FNE markedly depressed whereas terazosin strongly enhanced the apparent functional activity of the nucleus. The changes in fos expression following 6FNE and terazosin were significantly greater than those following dexmedetomidine and atipamezole. It is hypothesized that the α1-receptors of the mouse LC are strongly activated by 6FNE and serve to potently inhibit its tonic or stress-induced activity which in turn disinhibits prepotent motivated behaviors. PMID:19632210

  1. Family leadership styles and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Transformational leadership is conceptualized as a set of behaviors designed to inspire, energize and motivate others to achieve higher levels of functioning, and is associated with salient health-related outcomes in organizational settings. Given (a) the similarities that exist between leadership within organizational settings and parenting within families, and (b) the importance of the family environment in the promotion of adolescent health-enhancing behaviors, the purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the cross-sectional relationships between parents’ transformational leadership behaviors and adolescent dietary and physical activity behaviors. Methods 857 adolescents (aged 13–15, mean age = 14.70 yrs) completed measures of transformational parenting behaviors, healthful dietary intake and leisure-time physical activity. Regression analyses were conducted to examine relationships between family transformational leadership and adolescent health outcomes. A further ‘extreme group analysis’ was conducted by clustering families based on quartile splits. A MANCOVA (controlling for child gender) was conducted to examine differences between families displaying (a) HIGH levels of transformational parenting (consistent HIGH TP), (b) LOW levels of transformational parenting (consistent LOW TP), and (c) inconsistent levels of transformational parenting (inconsistent HIGH-LOW TP). Results Results revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of family transformational parenting were associated with both healthy dietary intake and physical activity. Adolescents who perceived their families to display the highest levels of transformational parenting (HIGH TP group) displayed greater healthy eating and physical activity behaviors than adolescents who perceived their families to display the lowest levels of transformational parenting behaviors (LOW TP group). Adolescents who perceived their families to display inconsistent levels of transformational

  2. Predicting Physical Activity of First-Year University Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to apply Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) and a measure of past physical activity behavior to predict first-year students' physical activity intentions and behavior. Participants and Methods: First-year university students (N = 212) completed measures of TPB variables and past physical activity at…

  3. Avoidance behavior and swimming activity of fish to detect pH changes

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, F.

    1986-12-01

    Usually, the initial response of an animal to an environmental perturbation is changing its behavior. With fish, this may hold an alteration in swimming activity or reactions like avoidance or attraction. The usefulness of fish behavior to detect the changes in chemical water quality was recognized more than 70 years ago. Since that time, many laboratory studies have been performed on the behavioral reactions of aquatic organisms to pollutants, including those resulting from pH changes. However, still there is no conclusive evidence that fish behavior offers an adequate tool to detect chemical pollution. In this study, the use of R-value for swimming activity and D/sup 2/-value for avoidance behavior of toxic warning methods to indicate the development of toxic condition is discussed based on experimental data on pH effects.

  4. Learning Behavior Characterization with Multi-Feature, Hierarchical Activity Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ye, Cheng; Segedy, James R.; Kinnebrew, John S.; Biswas, Gautam

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses Multi-Feature Hierarchical Sequential Pattern Mining, MFH-SPAM, a novel algorithm that efficiently extracts patterns from students' learning activity sequences. This algorithm extends an existing sequential pattern mining algorithm by dynamically selecting the level of specificity for hierarchically-defined features…

  5. The Benford law behavior of the religious activity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, T. A.

    2014-08-01

    An important aspect of religious association is that adherents, as part of their religious duty, carry out various activities. One religious group known for keeping the elaborate records of day-to-day activities of its members is the Jehovah's Witnesses (JWs)-a worldwide Christian religious group. We analyse the historical records of the country-wide data associated with twelve different religious activities of JWs to see if there are any patterns in the distribution of the first digits as predicted by Benford's law. This law states that the first digits of numbers in data sets are not uniformly distributed but often, not always, follow a logarithmic distribution such that the numbers beginning with smaller digits appear more frequently than those with larger ones. We find that the data on religious activities like peak publishers, pioneer publishers, baptizations, public meetings, congregations, bible studies, time spent in door-to-door contacts, attendances at the memorial services, total literature and individual magazines distributed, new subscriptions and back-calls received excellently conforms to Benford's law.

  6. A Behavior-Based Approach for Educational Robotics Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cristoforis, P.; Pedre, S.; Nitsche, M.; Fischer, T.; Pessacg, F.; Di Pietro, C.

    2013-01-01

    Educational robotics proposes the use of robots as a teaching resource that enables inexperienced students to approach topics in fields unrelated to robotics. In recent years, these activities have grown substantially in elementary and secondary school classrooms and also in outreach experiences to interest students in science, technology,…

  7. Behavioral Activation and Therapeutic Exposure: An Investigation of Relative Symptom Changes in PTSD and Depression During the Course of Integrated Behavioral Activation, Situational Exposure, and Imaginal Exposure Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Gros, Daniel F.; Price, Matthew; Strachan, Martha; Yuen, Erica K.; Milanak, Melissa E.; Acierno, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Effectiveness of exposure therapy for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be adversely influenced by comorbid disorders. The present study investigated behavioral activation and therapeutic exposure (BA-TE), a new integrated treatment designed specifically for comorbid symptoms of PTSD and depression. Combat veterans with PTSD (N = 117) completed eight sessions of BA-TE that included two phases of treatment: (a) behavioral activation (BA) in which some activities involved situational exposures and (b) BA and situational exposures with imaginal exposures. Findings supported improvements in symptoms of PTSD, and overlapping symptoms of PTSD and depression, but not in nonoverlapping symptoms of depression. The findings also demonstrated a relatively consistent rate of change in PTSD and depression symptoms during BA-TE, despite the addition of imaginal exposures midway through the treatment. Together, these findings provide preliminary support for BA-TE as a treatment for PTSD and depression, and highlight the utility of transdiagnostic treatments in addressing comorbidity and symptom overlap. PMID:22679240

  8. Psychosocial and Environmental Determinants of Eating Behaviors, Physical Activity, and Weight Change among College Students: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaCaille, Lara J.; Dauner, Kim Nichols; Krambeer, Rachel J.; Pedersen, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to identify factors that college students perceived as contributing to healthy and unhealthy eating patterns, physical activity (PA) levels, and weight change. Participants: Forty-nine 18- to 22-year-old students at a midwestern university participated. Methods: Six focus groups (3 with each gender) were…

  9. Reduced locomotor activity and exploratory behavior in CC chemokine receptor 4 deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Ambrée, Oliver; Klassen, Irene; Förster, Irmgard; Arolt, Volker; Scheu, Stefanie; Alferink, Judith

    2016-11-01

    Chemokines and their receptors are key regulators of immune cell trafficking and activation. Recent findings suggest that they may also play pathophysiological roles in psychiatric diseases like depression and anxiety disorders. The CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) and its two ligands, CCL17 and CCL22, are functionally involved in neuroinflammation as well as anti-infectious and autoimmune responses. However, their influence on behavior remains unknown. Here we characterized the functional role of the CCR4-CCL17 chemokine-receptor axis in the modulation of anxiety-related behavior, locomotor activity, and object exploration and recognition. Additionally, we investigated social exploration of CCR4 and CCL17 knockout mice and wild type (WT) controls. CCR4 knockout (CCR4(-/-)) mice exhibited fewer anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze, diminished locomotor activity, exploratory behavior, and social exploration, while their recognition memory was not affected. In contrast, CCL17 deficient mice did not show an altered behavior compared to WT mice regarding locomotor activity, anxiety-related behavior, social exploration, and object recognition memory. In the dark-light and object recognition tests, CCL17(-/-) mice even covered longer distances than WT mice. These data demonstrate a mechanistic or developmental role of CCR4 in the regulation of locomotor and exploratory behaviors, whereas the ligand CCL17 appears not to be involved in the behaviors measured here. Thus, either CCL17 and the alternative ligand CCL22 may be redundant, or CCL22 is the main activator of CCR4 in these processes. Taken together, these findings contribute to the growing evidence regarding the involvement of chemokines and their receptors in the regulation of behavior. PMID:27469058

  10. Hypocretinergic neurons are activated in conjunction with goal-oriented survival-related motor behaviors.

    PubMed

    Torterolo, Pablo; Ramos, Oscar V; Sampogna, Sharon; Chase, Michael H

    2011-10-24

    Hypocretinergic neurons are located in the area of the lateral hypothalamus which is responsible for mediating goal-directed, survival-related behaviors. Consequently, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system functions to promote these behaviors including those patterns of somatomotor activation upon which they are based. Further, we hypothesize that the hypocretinergic system is not involved with repetitive motor activities unless they occur in conjunction with the goal-oriented behaviors that are governed by the lateral hypothalamus. In order to determine the veracity of these hypotheses, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (as a marker of neuronal activity) in hypocretinergic neurons in the cat during: a) Exploratory Motor Activity; b) Locomotion without Reward; c) Locomotion with Reward; and d) Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Significantly greater numbers of hypocretinergic neurons expressed c-fos when the animals were exploring an unknown environment during Exploratory Motor Activity compared with all other paradigms. In addition, a larger number of Hcrt+Fos+neurons were activated during Locomotion with Reward than during Wakefulness without Motor Activity. Finally, very few hypocretinergic neurons were activated during Locomotion without Reward and Wakefulness without Motor Activity, wherein there was an absence of goal-directed activities. We conclude that the hypocretinergic system does not promote wakefulness per se or motor activity per se but is responsible for mediating specific goal-oriented behaviors that take place during wakefulness. Accordingly, we suggest that the hypocretinergic system is responsible for controlling the somatomotor system and coordinating its activity with other systems in order to produce successful goal-oriented survival-related behaviors that are controlled by the lateral hypothalamus. PMID:21839102

  11. Reliability of Accelerometer Scores for Measuring Sedentary and Physical Activity Behaviors in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Zhu, Weimo; Motl, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    This brief research note examined the reliability of scores from an accelerometer as measures of sedentary and physical activity behaviors in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The analysis was performed on a combined data set from 2 previous longitudinal investigations of physical activity in MS. We focused on the number of days required to reliably estimate sedentary behavior, based on time spent in sedentary behavior per day and number of sedentary breaks, number of long sedentary bouts, and average length of sedentary bouts per day. We further examined the number of days required to reliably estimate physical activity behavior, based on time spent in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average length of activity bouts per day. Between 4-6 days of monitoring and 3-7 days of monitoring were necessary for good reliability of scores from all sedentary outcomes and physical activity outcomes, respectively. These results should guide research and practice examining sedentary and physical activity behaviors using accelerometry in persons with MS. PMID:27078272

  12. Effects of methamidophos on acetylcholinesterase activity, behavior, and feeding rate of the white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    García-de la Parra, L M; Bautista-Covarrubias, J C; Rivera-de la Rosa, N; Betancourt-Lozano, M; Guilhermino, L

    2006-11-01

    The toxicity of methamidophos on the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei was evaluated using acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, behavior, and feeding rate as effect criteria. The biochemical characterization of the soluble cholunesterase (ChE) present in both muscle and eye tissues of L. vannamei was performed in a first phase of the study. In both tissues, almost full inhibition of enzyme activity by eserine sulfate was found, indicating that the measured activity is mainly from ChE and not from other esterases. The highest rate of substrate hydrolysis was found when acetylthiocholine was used as substrate. To evaluate the effects of methamidophos on L. vannamei AChE, behavior, and feeding rate, shrimps were exposed for 24h to several sublethal concentrations of methamidophos. Significant effects of the pesticide on behavior and AChE were found, with behavior being a more sensitive endpoint than AChE inhibition. Feeding rate was not a sensible endpoint under conditions tested. PMID:16249032

  13. Chronic social stress in puberty alters appetitive male sexual behavior and neural metabolic activity.

    PubMed

    Bastida, Christel C; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J; Wommack, Joel C; Delville, Yvon

    2014-07-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation were altered by social subjugation. PMID:24852486

  14. Chronic Social Stress in Puberty Alters Appetitive Male Sexual Behavior and Neural Metabolic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Bastida, Christel C.; Puga, Frank; Gonzalez-Lima, Francisco; Jennings, Kimberly J.; Wommack, Joel C.; Delville, Yvon

    2014-01-01

    Repeated social subjugation in early puberty lowers testosterone levels. We used hamsters to investigate the effects of social subjugation on male sexual behavior and metabolic activity within neural systems controlling social and motivational behaviors. Subjugated animals were exposed daily to aggressive adult males in early puberty for postnatal days 28 to 42, while control animals were placed in empty clean cages. On postnatal day 45, they were tested for male sexual behavior in the presence of receptive female. Alternatively, they were tested for mate choice after placement at the base of a Y-maze containing a sexually receptive female in one tip of the maze and an ovariectomized one on the other. Social subjugation did not affect the capacity to mate with receptive females. Although control animals were fast to approach females and preferred ovariectomized individuals, subjugated animals stayed away from them and showed no preference. Cytochrome oxidase activity was reduced within the preoptic area and ventral tegmental area in subjugated hamsters. In addition, the correlation of metabolic activity of these areas with the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and anterior parietal cortex changed significantly from positive in controls to negative in subjugated animals. These data show that at mid-puberty, while male hamsters are capable of mating, their appetitive sexual behavior is not fully mature and this aspect of male sexual behavior is responsive to social subjugation. Furthermore, metabolic activity and coordination of activity in brain areas related to sexual behavior and motivation was altered by social subjugation. PMID:24852486

  15. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control

    PubMed Central

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load. PMID:25954172

  16. Amplitude of the SCN Clock Enhanced by the Behavioral Activity Rhythm

    PubMed Central

    van Oosterhout, Floor; Lucassen, Eliane A.; Houben, Thijs; vanderLeest, Henk Tjebbe; Antle, Michael C.; Meijer, Johanna H.

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are regulated by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a small structure at the base of the hypothalamus. While light effects on the SCN are well established, little is known of behavioral effects. This study elucidates direct modulating action of behavioral activity on the SCN by use of in vivo electrophysiology recordings, assessments of general locomotor behavior, and video-tracking of mice. The results show suppression of SCN neuronal activity by spontaneous behavior, the magnitude being dependent on the intensity, duration and type of behavioral activity. The suppression was moderate (32% of circadian amplitude) for low-intensity behavior and considerable (59%) for locomotor activity. Mild manipulation of the animals had reversed effects on the SCN indicating that different mechanisms are involved in the regulatory effect of spontaneous versus induced activity. The results indicate that exercise at the proper time of the cycle can boost the amplitude of the rhythm of the SCN clock itself. This has potentially beneficial effects for other rhythmic functions that are under the control of the SCN. PMID:22761873

  17. Aversive emotional interference impacts behavior and prefronto-striatal activity during increasing attentional control.

    PubMed

    Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal-directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RT) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load. PMID:25954172

  18. Behavioral responses of north American Elk to recreational activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naylor, L.M.; Wisdom, M.J.; Anthony, R.G.

    2009-01-01

    Off-road recreation on public lands in North America has increased dramatically in recent years. Wild ungulates are sensitive to human activities, but the effect of off-road recreation, both motorized and nonmotorized, is poorly understood. We measured responses of elk (Cervus elaphus) to recreational disturbance in northeast Oregon, USA, from April to October, 2003 and 2004. We subjected elk to 4 types of recreational disturbance: all-terrain vehicle (ATV) riding, mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Motion sensors inside radiocollars worn by 13 female elk recorded resting, feeding, and travel activities at 5-minute intervals throughout disturbance and control periods. Elk fed and rested during control periods, with little time spent traveling. Travel time increased in response to all 4 disturbances and was highest in mornings. Elk travel time was highest during ATV exposure, followed by exposure to mountain biking, hiking, and horseback riding. Feeding time decreased during ATV exposure and resting decreased when we subjected elk to mountain biking and hiking disturbance in 2003. Our results demonstrated that activities of elk can be substantially affected by off-road recreation. Mitigating these effects may be appropriate where elk are a management priority. Balancing management of species like elk with off-road recreation will become increasingly important as off-road recreational uses continue to increase on public lands in North America.

  19. Behaviorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, J.

    2011-01-01

    Early forms of psychology assumed that mental life was the appropriate subject matter for psychology, and introspection was an appropriate method to engage that subject matter. In 1913, John B. Watson proposed an alternative: classical S-R behaviorism. According to Watson, behavior was a subject matter in its own right, to be studied by the…

  20. Cluster CAA Module for PaPCo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faden, J.; Åsnes, A.; Friedel, R.; Taylor, M.; McCaffrey, S.; Perry, C.; Goldstein, M. L.

    A PaPCo module for visualization of data from the CAA has been developed. This module retrieves data from the CAA web interface, and allows for discovery and plotting of new datasets. PaPCo is modular, open source IDL software that uses plug-in modules to bring new datasets on to a stack of time series plots (www.papco.org). PaPCo includes modules for plotting data from Cluster/PEACE and Cluster/RAPID, CDA Web data which includes Cluster Prime Parameters, and various modules from CRRES, POLAR, GPS, and many other spacecraft. The Cluster CAA module is presented, as well as a brief description of PaPCo's use and installation procedure.

  1. 78 FR 47814 - Pennsylvania Disaster # PA-00059

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00059 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY.... Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road, Fort Worth,...

  2. Investigation of the salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone scaffold for inhibition of influenza virus PA endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Rogolino, Dominga; Bacchi, Alessia; De Luca, Laura; Rispoli, Gabriele; Sechi, Mario; Stevaert, Annelies; Naesens, Lieve; Carcelli, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    The influenza virus PA endonuclease is an attractive target for the development of novel anti-influenza virus therapeutics, which are urgently needed because of the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Reported PA inhibitors are assumed to chelate the divalent metal ion(s) (Mg²⁺ or Mn²⁺) in the enzyme's catalytic site, which is located in the N-terminal part of PA (PA-Nter). In the present work, a series of salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their ability to inhibit the PA-Nter catalytic activity. Compounds 1-6 have been evaluated against influenza virus, both in enzymatic assays with influenza virus PA-Nter and in virus yield assays in MDCK cells. In order to establish a structure-activity relationship, the hydrazone analogue of the most active thiosemicarbazone has also been evaluated. Since chelation may represent a mode of action of such class of molecules, we studied the interaction of two of them, one with and one without biological activity versus the PA enzyme, towards Mg²⁺, the ion that is probably involved in the endonuclease activity of the heterotrimeric influenza polymerase complex. The crystal structure of the magnesium complex of the o-vanillin thiosemicarbazone ligand 1 is also described. Moreover, docking studies of PA endonuclease with compounds 1 and 2 were performed, to further analyse the possible mechanism of action of this class of inhibitors. PMID:26323352

  3. Systemic immune activation leads to neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Biesmans, Steven; Meert, Theo F; Bouwknecht, Jan A; Acton, Paul D; Davoodi, Nima; De Haes, Patrick; Kuijlaars, Jacobine; Langlois, Xavier; Matthews, Liam J R; Ver Donck, Luc; Hellings, Niels; Nuydens, Rony

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates an association between clinical depression and altered immune function. Systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is commonly used to study inflammation-associated behavioral changes in rodents. In these experiments, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral immune activation leads to neuroinflammation and depressive-like behavior in mice. We report that systemic administration of LPS induced astrocyte activation in transgenic GFAP-luc mice and increased immunoreactivity against the microglial marker ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 in the dentate gyrus of wild-type mice. Furthermore, LPS treatment caused a strong but transient increase in cytokine levels in the serum and brain. In addition to studying LPS-induced neuroinflammation, we tested whether sickness could be separated from depressive-like behavior by evaluating LPS-treated mice in a panel of behavioral paradigms. Our behavioral data indicate that systemic LPS administration caused sickness and mild depressive-like behavior. However, due to the overlapping time course and mild effects on depression-related behavior per se, it was not possible to separate sickness from depressive-like behavior in the present rodent model. PMID:23935246

  4. II. Physical activity: measurement and behavioral patterns in children and youth.

    PubMed

    Wójcicki, Thomas R; McAuley, Edward

    2014-12-01

    With physical activity levels among children and adolescents at an all-time low, there is a critical need for scientists and public health officials alike to further examine the physical activity behaviors of this population. Accordingly, this chapter will act as an entrée to the rest of the monograph by providing a general overview of the epidemiology of physical activity among youth in the United States. In so doing, we discuss the following: public health guidelines for youth-based physical activity, current rates and trends of physical activity participation in youth, issues related to physical education rates in school systems, lifestyle practices that encourage sedentary behaviors and attendant disease states, a synopsis of the health-related benefits of a physically active lifestyle, promotion of and opportunities for increased engagement, and comparisons of objective and subjective methods of measuring physical activity. PMID:25387413

  5. A Daily Process Analysis of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Perceived Cognitive Abilities

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimmons, Patrick T.; Maher, Jaclyn P.; Doerksen, Shawna E.; Elavsky, Steriani; Rebar, Amanda L.; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the role of both physical activity and sedentary behavior in daily perceptions of cognitive abilities and whether these relations exist within-person, between-person, or both. Design Non-experimental, intensive longitudinal research using ecological momentary assessments. Method College students wore accelerometers and provided end-of-day reports on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and perceived cognitive abilities for 14 days. Results Across self-reports and objective measures of behavior, daily deviations in physical activity were positively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Daily deviations in self-reported, but not objectively-assessed, sedentary behavior also were negatively associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Contrary to previous research, overall levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviors were not associated with perceived cognitive abilities. Conclusions These findings indicate that physical activity has a within- rather than between-person association with perceived cognitive abilities although between-person associations effects may require longer monitoring periods to manifest. Further research is needed to establish the direction of causality and resolve whether the nature (rather than quantity) of sedentary activities influences cognition. PMID:25419176

  6. The Relationship Between Parental Physical Activity and Screen Time Behaviors and the Behaviors of their Young Children.

    PubMed

    Carson, Valerie; Stearns, Jodie; Janssen, Ian

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between parental and children's physical activity and screen time behaviors in a large sample of children in the early years. The results are based on 738 children aged 0-5 years and their parents from the Kingston, Canada area. Parents completed a questionnaire from May to September 2011 that assessed sociodemographic characteristics, their physical activity and screen time, and their child's physical activity and screen time. Logistic regression models, adjusted for potential confounders, were conducted. Parents in the lowest quartile of physical activity were 2.77 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-4.57) times more likely to have a child in the lowest quartile of physical activity compared with parents in the highest quartile of physical activity. Relationships were stronger in two parent homes compared with single-parent homes. Parents in the second (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.36-3.78), third (2.30, 1.32-3.99), and fourth (7.47, 4.53-12.33) screen time quartiles were significantly more likely to have a child in the highest quartile of screen time compared with parents in quartile one. To optimize healthy growth and development in the early years, future family-centered interventions targeting both physical activity and screen time appear important. PMID:25918825

  7. Telephone intervention promoting weight-related health behaviors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent national surveys have documented that the majority of adults in the United States do not meet the recommended levels of healthy lifestyle-related behaviors. The Nutrition and Physical Activity (NuPA) study was designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity, and weight ...

  8. Psychostimulants and Cognition: A Continuum of Behavioral and Cognitive Activation

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Suzanne; Sage, Jennifer R.; Shuman, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as cocaine have been used as performance enhancers throughout recorded history. Although psychostimulants are commonly prescribed to improve attention and cognition, a great deal of literature has described their ability to induce cognitive deficits, as well as addiction. How can a single drug class be known to produce both cognitive enhancement and impairment? Properties of the particular stimulant drug itself and individual differences between users have both been suggested to dictate the outcome of stimulant use. A more parsimonious alternative, which we endorse, is that dose is the critical determining factor in cognitive effects of stimulant drugs. Herein, we review several popular stimulants (cocaine, amphetamine, methylphenidate, modafinil, and caffeine), outlining their history of use, mechanism of action, and use and abuse today. One common graphic depiction of the cognitive effects of psychostimulants is an inverted U–shaped dose-effect curve. Moderate arousal is beneficial to cognition, whereas too much activation leads to cognitive impairment. In parallel to this schematic, we propose a continuum of psychostimulant activation that covers the transition from one drug effect to another as stimulant intake is increased. Low doses of stimulants effect increased arousal, attention, and cognitive enhancement; moderate doses can lead to feelings of euphoria and power, as well as addiction and cognitive impairment; and very high doses lead to psychosis and circulatory collapse. This continuum helps account for the seemingly disparate effects of stimulant drugs, with the same drug being associated with cognitive enhancement and impairment. PMID:24344115

  9. Characterization and water activation behavior of tourmaline nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sun, S; Wei, C D; Liu, Y X

    2010-03-01

    Tourmaline nanoparticles were prepared by using a wet mechanochemisty method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results showed that the tourmaline grain size is in the range from tens of nanometers to several hundred nanometers. Through characterization by Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, it was found that the milled tourmaline had a better far infrared emitting performance due to the increase of radiation surface area. The structure change of liquid water clusters induced by the addition of tourmaline nanoparticles was observed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The results showed that the addition of tourmaline nanoparticles reduced the 17O NMR full width at half maximum intensity (FWHM) for treated water and the volume of water molecule clusters. The feature of activated water was enhanced with decreasing tourmaline nanoparticles size due to the cooperation of strong surface electric field and high far infrared emissivity. Moreover the activation time can be maintained at 480 h suggesting the potential application of tourmaline in wastewater treatment. PMID:20355638

  10. Integrated Brain Circuits: Astrocytic Networks Modulate Neuronal Activity and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Halassa, Michael M.; Haydon, Philip G.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen an explosion of research on roles of neuron-astrocyte interactions in the control of brain function. We highlight recent studies performed on the tripartite synapse, the structure consisting of pre- and postsynaptic elements of the synapse and an associated astrocytic process. Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity and neuro-transmitters, through the activation of metabotropic receptors, and can release the gliotransmitters ATP, D-serine, and glutamate, which act on neurons. Astrocyte-derived ATP modulates synaptic transmission, either directly or through its metabolic product adenosine. D-serine modulates NMDA receptor function, whereas glia-derived glutamate can play important roles in relapse following withdrawal from drugs of abuse. Cell type–specific molecular genetics has allowed a new level of examination of the function of astrocytes in brain function and has revealed an important role of these glial cells that is mediated by adenosine accumulation in the control of sleep and in cognitive impairments that follow sleep deprivation. PMID:20148679

  11. Active Assistance Technology for Health-Related Behavior Change: An Interdisciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Catriona M; Powell, John; Payne, Thomas H; Ainsworth, John; Boyd, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background Information technology can help individuals to change their health behaviors. This is due to its potential for dynamic and unbiased information processing enabling users to monitor their own progress and be informed about risks and opportunities specific to evolving contexts and motivations. However, in many behavior change interventions, information technology is underused by treating it as a passive medium focused on efficient transmission of information and a positive user experience. Objective To conduct an interdisciplinary literature review to determine the extent to which the active technological capabilities of dynamic and adaptive information processing are being applied in behavior change interventions and to identify their role in these interventions. Methods We defined key categories of active technology such as semantic information processing, pattern recognition, and adaptation. We conducted the literature search using keywords derived from the categories and included studies that indicated a significant role for an active technology in health-related behavior change. In the data extraction, we looked specifically for the following technology roles: (1) dynamic adaptive tailoring of messages depending on context, (2) interactive education, (3) support for client self-monitoring of behavior change progress, and (4) novel ways in which interventions are grounded in behavior change theories using active technology. Results The search returned 228 potentially relevant articles, of which 41 satisfied the inclusion criteria. We found that significant research was focused on dialog systems, embodied conversational agents, and activity recognition. The most covered health topic was physical activity. The majority of the studies were early-stage research. Only 6 were randomized controlled trials, of which 4 were positive for behavior change and 5 were positive for acceptability. Empathy and relational behavior were significant research themes in

  12. Positive Behavior Interventions and Support in a Physical Activity Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in a summer camp. The camp provided physical activity opportunities to underserved children attending a summer program at a local, rural public school. Certified physical education teachers led activity stations. Participants in…

  13. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  14. Reliability and Convergent Validity of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey Physical Activity Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinger, Mary K.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of the National College Health Risk Behavior Survey (NCHRBS) vigorous physical activity (VPA), moderate physical activity (MPA), flexibility (FLEX), and muscular strength and/or endurance (MSE) questions. Twenty college students completed the four items twice during the same day. During the next 7…

  15. Participatory Learning through Behavioral and Cognitive Engagements in an Online Collective Information Searching Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ching; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between college students' behavioral and cognitive engagements while performing an online collective information searching (CIS) activity. The activity aimed to assist the students in utilizing a social bookmarking application to exploit the Internet in a collective manner. A group of 101 college…

  16. Activity Level, Organization, and Social-Emotional Behaviors in Post-Institutionalized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadlec, Mary Beth; Cermak, Sharon A.

    2002-01-01

    Compared activity and behaviors of 36- to 82-month-olds adopted from Romanian orphanages and with varying lengths of institutionalization (more than 6 months or less than 2 months) with those of age- and gender-matched American-born control groups. Found that each Romanian group exhibited more problems in activity level, organization, and…

  17. Does Alcohol Use among Sexually Active College Students Moderate HIV Risk Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, John E.; Malow, Robert M.; Norman, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    College students frequently use alcohol and are very sexually active, but do the two behaviors result in greater HIV risk? We employed the AIDS Risk Reduction Model to assess condom use during vaginal intercourse for sexually active college students using and not using alcohol proximal to sex. Students reported multiple lifetime sex partners and…

  18. Relationship between Frequency and Intensity of Physical Activity and Health Behaviors of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delisle, Tony T.; Werch, Chudley E.; Wong, Alvin H.; Bian, Hui; Weiler, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Background: While studies have determined the importance of physical activity in advancing health outcomes, relatively few have explored the relationship between exercise and various health behaviors of adolescents. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between frequency and intensity of physical activity and both health risk…

  19. Role Modeling Attitudes and Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors of HPERD Professionals and Preprofessionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of health, physical education, recreation, and dance professionals and preprofessionals. Survey data indicated that most respondents were physically active. Overall, overweight and obesity rates were considerably lower than rates reported in the general U.S. adult population. Role…

  20. Physical activity and sedentary behavior during the early years in Canada: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity and sedentary behavior habits are established during early childhood, yet only recently has objectively measured data been available on children aged 5 years and younger. This study presents data on the physical activity and sedentary behaviors of Canadian children aged 3–5 years. Methods Data were collected as part of the Canadian Health Measures Survey between 2009 and 2011. A nationally-representative sample (n = 459) of children aged 3–5 years wore Actical accelerometers during their waking hours for 7 consecutive days. Data were collected in 60-sec epochs and respondents with ≥4 valid days were retained for analysis. Parents reported their child’s physical activity and screen time habits in a questionnaire. Results Eighty-four percent of 3–4 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 180 minutes of total physical activity every day while 18% met the screen time target of <1 hour per day. Fourteen percent of 5 year old children met the physical activity guideline of 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while 81% met the screen time target of <2 hours per day. Children aged 3–4 years accumulated an average of 352 min/d of total physical activity and 66 minutes of MVPA while 5 year old children accumulated an average of 342 min/d of total physical activity and 68 minutes of MVPA. Children were sedentary for approximately half of their waking hours and spent an average of 2 hours per day in front of screens. Only 15% of 3–4 year olds and 5% of 5 year olds are meeting both the physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines. Conclusions Promoting physical activity while reducing sedentary behavior is important at all stages of life. The findings of the present study indicate that there remains significant room for improvement in these behaviors among young Canadian children. PMID:23642258

  1. Helping behavior induced by empathic concern attenuates anterior cingulate activation in response to others' distress.

    PubMed

    Kawamichi, Hiroaki; Yoshihara, Kazufumi; Sugawara, Sho K; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Makita, Kai; Hamano, Yuki H; Tanabe, Hiroki C; Sadato, Norihiro

    2016-04-01

    Helping behavior is motivated by empathic concern for others in distress. Although empathic concern is pervasive in daily life, its neural mechanisms remain unclear. Empathic concern involves the suppression of the emotional response to others' distress, which occurs when individuals distance themselves emotionally from the distressed individual. We hypothesized that helping behavior induced by empathic concern, accompanied by perspective-taking, would attenuate the neural activation representing aversive feelings. We also predicted reward system activation due to the positive feeling resulting from helping behavior. Participant underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while playing a virtual ball-toss game. In some blocks ("concern condition"), one player ("isolated player") did not receive ball-tosses from other players. In this condition, participants increased ball-tosses to the isolated player (helping behavior). Participants then evaluated the improved enjoyment of the isolated player resulting from their helping behavior. Anterior cingulate activation during the concern condition was attenuated by the evaluation of the effect of helping behavior. The right temporoparietal junction, which is involved in perspective-taking and the dorsal striatum, part of the reward system, were also activated during the concern condition. These results suggest that humans can attenuate affective arousal by anticipating the positive outcome of empathic concern through perspective-taking. PMID:26032190

  2. Effects of decreasing sedentary behaviors on activity choice in obese children.

    PubMed

    Epstein, L H; Saelens, B E; Myers, M D; Vito, D

    1997-03-01

    In this study, methods of decreasing highly preferred sedentary behaviors were compared and the consequent effects on activity choice were examined. Following free choice of sedentary and physical activities, 34 obese children either were positively reinforced for decreases in high-preference sedentary activity, were punished for high-preference sedentary activity, had access to high-preference sedentary activity restricted, or had no contingencies on activity (control group). Children randomized to reinforcement and punishment were more physically active on intervention days than the control group. Liking for targeted sedentary activity decreased in the reinforcement group, but increased in the restriction and control groups. Results suggest that reinforcing decreases in high-preference sedentary activity can increase physical activity and decrease liking for targeted sedentary activities. PMID:9269880

  3. New insights into the behavior of muscle during active lengthening.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, D L

    1990-01-01

    A muscle fiber was modeled as a series-connected string of sarcomeres, using an A. V. Hill type model for each sarcomere and allowing for some random variation in the properties of the sarcomeres. Applying stretches to this model led to the prediction that lengthening of active muscle on or beyond the plateau of the length tension curve will take place very nonuniformly, essentially by rapid, uncontrolled elongation of individual sarcomeres, one at a time, in order from the weakest toward the strongest. Such a "popped" sarcomere, at least in a single fiber, will be stretched to a length where there is no overlap between thick and thin filaments, and the tension is borne by passive components. This prediction allows modeling of many results that have previously been inexplicable, notably the permanent extra tension after stretch on the descending limb of the length tension curve, and the continued rise of tension during a continued stretch. PMID:2317547

  4. The Behavior of Total Lightning Activity in Severe Florida Thunderstorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Earle; Boldi, Bob; Matlin, Anne; Weber, Mark; Hodanish, Steve; Sharp, Dave; Goodman, Steve; Raghavan, Ravi; Buechler, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    The development of a new observational system called LISDAD (Lightning Imaging Sensor Demonstration and Display) has enabled a study of severe weather in central Florida. The total flash rates for storms verified to be severe are found to exceed 60 flashes/min, with some values reaching 500 flashes/min. Similar to earlier results for thunderstorm microbursts, the peak flash rate precedes the severe weather at the ground by 5-20 minutes. A distinguishing feature of severe storms is the presence of lightning "jumps"-abrupt increases in flash rate in advance of the maximum rate for the storm. ne systematic total lightning precursor to severe weather of all kinds-wind, hail, tornadoes-is interpreted in terms of the updraft that sows the seeds aloft for severe weather at the surface and simultaneously stimulates the ice microphysics that drives the lightning activity.

  5. Suppression of growth and invasive behavior of human prostate cancer cells by ProstaCaid™: mechanism of activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiahua; Eliaz, Isaac; Sliva, Daniel

    2011-06-01

    Since the use of dietary supplements as alternative treatments or adjuvant therapies in cancer treatment is growing, a scientific verification of their biological activity and the detailed mechanisms of their action are necessary for the acceptance of dietary supplements in conventional cancer treatments. In the present study we have evaluated the anti-cancer effects of dietary supplement ProstaCaid™ (PC) which contains mycelium from medicinal mushrooms (Ganoderma lucidum, Coriolus versicolor, Phellinus linteus), saw palmetto berry, pomegranate, pumpkin seed, green tea [40% epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)], Japanese knotweed (50% resveratrol), extracts of turmeric root (BCM-95®), grape skin, pygeum bark, sarsaparilla root, Scutellaria barbata, eleuthero root, Job's tears, astragalus root, skullcap, dandelion, coptis root, broccoli, and stinging nettle, with purified vitamin C, vitamin D3, selenium, quercetin, citrus bioflavonoid complex, β sitosterolzinc, lycopene, α lipoic acid, boron, berberine and 3.3'-diinodolymethane (DIM). We show that PC treatment resulted in the inhibition of cell proliferation of the highly invasive human hormone refractory (independent) PC-3 prostate cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with IC50 56.0, 45.6 and 39.0 µg/ml for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. DNA-microarray analysis demonstrated that PC inhibits proliferation through the modulation of expression of CCND1, CDK4, CDKN1A, E2F1, MAPK6 and PCNA genes. In addition, PC also suppresses metastatic behavior of PC-3 by the inhibition of cell adhesion, cell migration and cell invasion, which was associated with the down-regulation of expression of CAV1, IGF2, NR2F1, and PLAU genes and suppressed secretion of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) from PC-3 cells. In conclusion, the dietary supplement PC is a promising natural complex with the potency to inhibit invasive human prostate cancer. PMID:21468543

  6. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with physical activity in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity in adolescents is associated with short- and long-term health benefits. Physical activity can occur in various domains and is influenced by a complex network of factors. The aims of this study are 1) to describe the physical activity of Brazilian adolescents in physical education classes, during leisure time, and during active commuting and 2) to investigate the socio-demographic and behavioral factors associated with physical activity. Methods The representative sample included 109,104 Brazilian students in the final year of elementary school from 2,842 schools. The weekly frequency and duration of physical activity were assessed. A variety of socio-demographic and behavioral factors were studied. A multiple Poisson regression analysis was used to test for associations between physical activity and the socio-demographic and behavioral variables. Results Most of the students (97.0%) engaged in physical activity in at least one of the domains studied, especially physical education at school (81.7%) and leisure time physical activity (67.5%). However, only 29% of the adolescents reached the recommended level of physical activity. Among the adolescents who reached the minimum recommended time for physical activity, the various domains contributed the following proportions to total physical activity: leisure time physical activity (PR 12.5; 95% CI 11.17-13.97), active commuting (PR 1.63; 95% CI 1.59-1.67), and physical education at school (PR 1.36; 95% CI 1.29-1.44). The weekly frequency of all activities was greater among boys than among girls. Moreover, nearly two-thirds (61.8%) of students spent more than two hours per day engaging in sedentary behaviors; the prevalence of sedentary behaviors was similar between boys and girls (59.0 and 64.5%, respectively). Total level of physical activity, leisure time physical activity, and active commuting were associated with higher nutritional scores. Conclusions Physical activity is important in

  7. New Insight into Metal Ion-Driven Catalysis of Nucleic Acids by Influenza PA-Nter

    PubMed Central

    Kotlarek, Daria; Worch, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    PA subunit of influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase deserves constantly increasing attention due to its essential role in influenza life cycle. N-terminal domain of PA (PA-Nter) harbors endonuclease activity, which is indispensable in viral transcription and replication. Interestingly, existing literature reports on in vitro ion preferences of the enzyme are contradictory. Some show PA-Nter activity exclusively with Mn2+, whereas others report Mg2+ as a natural cofactor. To clarify it, we performed a series of experiments with varied ion concentrations and substrate type. We observed cleavage in the presence of both ions, with a slight preference for manganese, however PA-Nter activity highly depended on the amount of residual, co-purified ions. Furthermore, to quantify cleavage reaction rate, we applied fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), providing highly sensitive and real-time monitoring of single molecules. Using nanomolar ssDNA in the regime of enzyme excess, we estimated the maximum reaction rate at 0.81± 0.38 and 1.38± 0.34 nM/min for Mg2+ and Mn2+, respectively. However, our calculations of PA-Nter ion occupancy, based on thermodynamic data, suggest Mg2+ to be a canonical metal in PA-Nter processing of RNA in vivo. Presented studies constitute a step toward better understanding of PA-Nter ion-dependent activity, which will possibly contribute to new successful inhibitor design in the future. PMID:27300442

  8. Predicting adolescent eating and activity behaviors: the role of social norms and personal agency.

    PubMed

    Baker, Christina Wood; Little, Todd D; Brownell, Kelly D

    2003-03-01

    Guided by the theory of planned behavior, this 2-week longitudinal study examined health behaviors in a sample of 279 adolescents. Social norms and perceived behavioral control (PBC) were tested as predictors of self-reported intentions and behaviors in 2 domains, eating and physical activity. Differentiating, as opposed to aggregating, parent and peer norms provided unique information. For PBC, the authors distinguished global causality beliefs from self-related agency beliefs and intraself (effort, ability) from extraself (parents, teachers) means. Intraself agency beliefs strongly predicted healthy intentions, whereas intraself causality beliefs had a negative influence. Patterns differed somewhat across behaviors and gender. Results highlight theoretical issues and provide potential targets for research on health promotion programs for youth. PMID:12683739

  9. Behavioral responses of goitered gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa) to parasitic activity of botflies.

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-02-01

    We studied behavioral responses of goitered gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa) to hypodermic botfly (family Hypodermatidae) activity in the naturally arid conditions of Kazakhstan. We found that the reactions of goitered gazelles are very similar to the insect-repelling behaviors of other ruminants and that most behavioral responses of goitered gazelles, such as frantic running, tail movements, and grooming, are not specific to botflies. The seasonal and diurnal changes in the intensity of the behavioral responses of the goitered gazelles coincided with the parasitic activities of botfly maggots. Surprisingly, the group size of the goitered gazelles decreased during the breeding of these parasitic insects instead of increasing, as was expected according to our predictions. As an alternative, the goitered gazelles chose an opposite strategy of dispersion throughout the area to avoid infestation. This strategy is well-known for other species of ungulates and was quite effective, because their infestation rate was relatively low. PMID:24171698

  10. Factors predicting health behaviors among Army Reserve, active duty Army, and civilian hospital employees.

    PubMed

    Wynd, Christine A; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy A

    2004-12-01

    This study identified health-risk and health-promoting behaviors in military and civilian personnel employed in hospitals. Intrinsic self-motivation and extrinsic organizational workplace factors were examined as predictors of health behaviors. Because reservists represent a blend of military and civilian lifestyles, descriptive analyses focused on comparing Army Reserve personnel (n = 199) with active duty Army (n = 218) and civilian employees (n = 193), for a total sample of 610. Self-motivation and social support were significant factors contributing to the adoption of health-promoting behaviors; however, organizational workplace cultures were inconsistent predictors of health among the three groups. Only the active Army subgroup identified a hierarchical culture as having an influence on health promotion, possibly because of the Army's mandatory physical fitness and weight control standards. Social support and self-motivation are essential to promoting health among employees, thus hospital commanders and chief executive officers should encourage strategies that enhance and reward these behaviors. PMID:15646182

  11. Calcium Imaging of Basal Forebrain Activity during Innate and Learned Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Thomas C.; Pinto, Lucas; Brock, Julien R.; Dan, Yang

    2016-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays crucial roles in arousal, attention, and memory, and its impairment is associated with a variety of cognitive deficits. The BF consists of cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic neurons. Electrical or optogenetic stimulation of BF cholinergic neurons enhances cortical processing and behavioral performance, but the natural activity of these cells during behavior is only beginning to be characterized. Even less is known about GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. Here, we performed microendoscopic calcium imaging of BF neurons as mice engaged in spontaneous behaviors in their home cages (innate) or performed a go/no-go auditory discrimination task (learned). Cholinergic neurons were consistently excited during movement, including running and licking, but GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons exhibited diverse responses. All cell types were activated by overt punishment, either inside or outside of the discrimination task. These findings reveal functional similarities and distinctions between BF cell types during both spontaneous and task-related behaviors. PMID:27242444

  12. Differential Hedonic Experience and Behavioral Activation in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Ivy F.; Grove, Tyler B.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2014-01-01

    The Kraepelinian distinction between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) emphasizes affective and volitional impairment in the former, but data directly comparing the two disorders for hedonic experience are scarce. This study examined whether hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be useful phenotypes distinguishing SZ and BP. Participants were 39 SZ and 24 BP patients without current mood episode matched for demographics and negative affect, along with 36 healthy controls (HC). They completed the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS). SZ and BP showed equally elevated levels of self-report negative affect and trait anhedonia compared to HC. However, SZ reported significantly lower pleasure experience (TEPS) and behavioral activation (BAS) than BP, who did not differ from HC. SZ and BP showed differential patterns of relationships between the hedonic experience and behavioral activation measures. Overall, the results suggest that reduced hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be effective phenotypes distinguishing SZ from BP even when affective symptoms are minimal. However, hedonic experience differences between SZ and BP are sensitive to measurement strategy, calling for further research on the nature of anhedonia and its relation to motivation in these disorders. PMID:24999173

  13. EEG spectra, behavioral states and motor activity in rats exposed to acetylcholinesterase inhibitor chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Timofeeva, Olga A; Gordon, Christopher J

    2002-06-01

    Exposure to organophosphates (OP) has been associated with sleep disorders such as insomnia and "excessive dreaming." The central mechanisms of these effects are not well understood. OPs inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, leading to a hyperactivity of the brain cholinergic systems that are involved in sleep regulation. We studied alterations in the EEG, behavioral states, motor activity and core temperature in rats orally administered with 10 or 40 mg/kg of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CHP). Occipital EEG, motor activity and core temperature were recorded with telemetric transmitters. Behavioral sleep-wake states were visually scored. Both doses of CHP produced alterations of the EEG (decrease in power of sigma/beta and increase in slow theta and fast gamma bands) characteristic of arousal. EEG alterations were consistent with behavioral changes such as an increase in wakefulness and a decrease in sleep. Waking immobility was a prevalent behavior. We did not detect any overt signs of CHP toxicity, such as an abnormal posture or gait, suggesting that reduced locomotion can be a result of central effects of CHP (such as activation of cholinergic motor inhibitory system) rather than peripheral (such as an impairment of neuromuscular function). Changes in the EEG and behavior occurred independently of the decrease in core temperature. Increased wakefulness together with reduced motor activity after exposure to CHP seems to be a result of hyperactivity in brain cholinergic neuronal networks. PMID:12175464

  14. Differential hedonic experience and behavioral activation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Tso, Ivy F; Grove, Tyler B; Taylor, Stephan F

    2014-11-30

    The Kraepelinian distinction between schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) emphasizes affective and volitional impairment in the former, but data directly comparing the two disorders for hedonic experience are scarce. This study examined whether hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be useful phenotypes distinguishing SZ and BP. Participants were 39 SZ and 24 BP patients without current mood episode matched for demographics and negative affect, along with 36 healthy controls (HC). They completed the Chapman Physical and Social Anhedonia Scales, Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale (TEPS), and Behavioral Activation Scale (BAS). SZ and BP showed equally elevated levels of self-report negative affect and trait anhedonia compared to HC. However, SZ reported significantly lower pleasure experience (TEPS) and behavioral activation (BAS) than BP, who did not differ from HC. SZ and BP showed differential patterns of relationships between the hedonic experience and behavioral activation measures. Overall, the results suggest that reduced hedonic experience and behavioral activation may be effective phenotypes distinguishing SZ from BP even when affective symptoms are minimal. However, hedonic experience differences between SZ and BP are sensitive to measurement strategy, calling for further research on the nature of anhedonia and its relation to motivation in these disorders. PMID:24999173

  15. Active Fish Tracking Sonar (AFTS) for Assessing Fish Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Hedgepeth, J; Johnson, Gary E. ); Skalski, John R.; Burczynski, J

    2002-11-01

    Active fish tracking sonars (AFTS) were used in 2001 to study fish movement in response to intake occlusion plates at The Dalles Dam on the Columbia River. AFTS provides three-dimensional fish tracks by aligning the axis of a split-beam transducer with a fish target. High-speed stepper motors move the transducer so that a tracked target remains on-axis. Occlusion plates with lateral extensions covered the top half of the turbine intakes to produce a fish friendly near-dam environment. Two AFTS were positioned at the center of Main Unit 1, one each for monitoring installed and removed plate conditions. A regression analysis showed that occlusion plates had pronounced effects on fish movement along the dam. The plates appeared to inhibit movement toward the spillway, movement toward the dam (especially in front of the turbine intake), and movement downward toward the turbines. Fish fate (as opposed to movement directions from regression slopes) into particular areas was determined using Markov-chain analysis. The sluiceway (a safer passage route above the turbine intake) zone of influence was larger with the occlusion plates installed, contrary to the regression results. In addition, the probability of passage out the near turbine and bottom sides of the sample volume was about 50% lower with occlusion plates installed.

  16. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  17. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  18. Mapping social behavior-induced brain activation at cellular resolution in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yongsoo; Venkataraju, Kannan Umadevi; Pradhan, Kith; Mende, Carolin; Taranda, Julian; Turaga, Srinivas C.; Arganda-Carreras, Ignacio; Ng, Lydia; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Rockland, Kathleen; Seung, H. Sebastian; Osten, Pavel

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how brain activation mediates behaviors is a central goal of systems neuroscience. Here we apply an automated method for mapping brain activation in the mouse in order to probe how sex-specific social behaviors are represented in the male brain. Our method uses the immediate early gene c-fos, a marker of neuronal activation, visualized by serial two-photon tomography: the c-fos-GFP-positive neurons are computationally detected, their distribution is registered to a reference brain and a brain atlas, and their numbers are analyzed by statistical tests. Our results reveal distinct and shared female and male interaction-evoked patterns of male brain activation representing sex discrimination and social recognition. We also identify brain regions whose degree of activity correlates to specific features of social behaviors and estimate the total numbers and the densities of activated neurons per brain areas. Our study opens the door to automated screening of behavior-evoked brain activation in the mouse. PMID:25558063

  19. Behavioral activities of male Cerulean Warblers in relation to habitat characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, Petra Bohall; Perkins, Kelly A.

    2012-01-01

    Activities of 29 male Cerulean Warblers (Setophaga cerulea) were quantified on two sites in West Virginia during May–June 2005. Singing and foraging were the most common of 11 observed behavioral activities (81.6%), while maintenance and mating behaviors were uncommonly observed. Male activity differed among vegetative strata (P  =  0.02) with lower- and mid-canopy strata used most often (70% of observations), especially for foraging, perching, and preening. The upper-canopy was used primarily for singing, particularly within core areas of territories and in association with canopy gaps. Foraging occurred more than expected outside of core areas. Males were associated with canopy gaps during 30% of observations, but the distribution of behavioral activities was not significantly related (P  =  0.06) to gap presence. Males used 23 different tree species for a variety of activities with oaks (Quercus spp.) used most often on the xeric site and black cherry (Prunus serotina) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) on the mesic site. Tree species used for singing differed between core and non-core areas (P < 0.0001) but distribution of singing and foraging activity did not differ among tree species (P  =  0.13). Cerulean Warblers appear to be flexible in use of tree species. Their use of different canopy strata for different behavioral activities provides an explanation for the affinity this species exhibits for a vertically stratified forest canopy.

  20. 231Pa and 233Pa Neutron-Induced Fission Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, V.M.; Tetereva, N.A.; Baba, M.; Hasegawa, A.; Kornilov, N.V.; Kagalenko, A.B.

    2005-05-24

    The 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission cross-section database is analyzed within the Hauser-Feshbach approach. The consistency of neutron-induced fission cross-section data and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer-reaction data. The present estimate of the 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section above the emissive fission threshold is supported by smooth level-density parameter systematics, validated in the case of the 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En =20 MeV.

  1. A Review of eHealth Interventions for Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Adams, Marc A.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review eHealth intervention studies for adults and children that targeted behavior change for physical activity, healthy eating, or both behaviors. Data Sources Systematic literature searches were performed using five databases: Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Articles published in scientific journals were included if they evaluated an intervention for physical activity and/or dietary behaviors, or focused on weight loss; used randomized or quasi-experimental designs; measured outcomes at baseline and a follow-up period; and included an intervention where participants interacted with some type of electronic technology either as the main intervention or an adjunct component. All studies were published between 2000 and 2005. Results Eighty-six publications were initially identified, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria (13 physical activity publications, 16 dietary behaviors publications, and 20 weight loss or both physical activity and diet publications), and represented 47 different studies. Studies were described on multiple dimensions, including sample characteristics, design, intervention, measures, and results. eHealth interventions were superior to comparison groups for 21/41 (51%) studies (3 physical activity, 7 diet, 11 weight loss/physical activity and diet). Twenty-four studies had indeterminate results, and in four studies the comparison conditions outperformed eHealth interventions. Conclusions Published studies of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change are in their infancy. Results indicated mixed findings related to the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. Interventions that feature interactive technologies need to be refined and more rigorously evaluated to fully determine their potential as tools to facilitate health behavior change. PMID:17888860

  2. Psychosocial and demographic correlates of objectively measured physical activity in structured and unstructured after-school recreation sessions.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Welk, Gregory J; Hastmann, Tanis J; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2011-07-01

    Most studies of psychosocial and demographic correlates of physical activity (PA) have examined relationships across various types of physical and social environments, rather than within a specific environmental behavior setting. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates of PA in structured and unstructured after-school recreation sessions. This study is cross-sectional. School records, questionnaires, and anthropometry were used to obtain demographic and psychosocial variables. Third and fourth-grade children (n = 230) from seven schools wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers up to six times per year during after-school programming. Accelerometer data were processed to determine percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (T scores, reflective of an individual child's PA level relative to group mean, were computed for each session and averaged across sessions). Pearson correlations, point-biserial correlations, and mixed-model analyses were used to determine significant associations with PA for each session type (structured and unstructured). For structured sessions, gender, PA barriers self-efficacy, and PA enjoyment were significantly related to PA. For unstructured sessions, only gender was related to PA. Despite equivalent opportunities to participate in active recreation, boys were more active than girls, and children varied in PA level partly due to psychosocial factors. Our results showed that PA self-efficacy and enjoyment explained variability in structured PA sessions. PMID:21349765

  3. Aspects of the Behavior and Activity Rhythms of Rowlandius potiguar (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae)

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcus Paulo Alves; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Although organisms of the order Schizomida are not widely distributed in caves throughout the world, they can, eventually, be abundant in certain regions, becoming a major faunal element in some caves. The majority of works on this order includes species descriptions, with rare references to behavioral aspects. As such, the present study describes the behavioral repertoire, and the activity and feeding periods of Rowlandius potiguar (Schizomida: Hubbardiidae) in the laboratory. The specimens were maintained in a terrarium, in an aphotic room, with temperature and humidity levels similar to the cave of origin. We used the focal-animal and ad libitum methods to describe behavior with qualitative and quantitative evaluations of behavioral acts. We witnessed nineteen behavioral acts, which is considered representative for observations in captivity. Two activity periods were observed: between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. and between 10 p.m. and 4 a.m., characterizing an ultradian rhythm. In adaptive terms, this condition may be important for population maintenance in oligotrophic environments such as caverns. Necrophagy and cannibalism were also registered and could have been selected in the subterranean environment due to oligotrophy. The observation of rare and unprecedented behavior in this group, as well as the presence of rhythmicity in activity patterns, contribute to a better understanding of the ecological aspects of the species of this still little known Order. PMID:24643024

  4. Behavior of piezoelectric wafer active sensor in various media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamas, Tuncay

    The dissertation addresses structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques using ultrasonic waves generated by piezoelectric wafer active sensors (PWAS) with an emphasis on the development of theoretical models of standing harmonic waves and guided waves. The focal objective of the research is to extend the theoretical study of electro-mechanical coupled PWAS as a resonator/transducer that interacts with standing and traveling waves in various media through electro-mechanical impedance spectroscopy (EMIS) method and guided wave propagation. The analytical models are developed and the coupled field finite element analysis (CF-FEA) models are simulated and verified with experiments. The dissertation is divided into two parts with respect to the developments in EMIS methods and GWP methods. In the first part, analytical and finite element models have been developed for the simulation of PWAS-EMIS in in-plane (longitudinal) and out-of-plane (thickness) mode. Temperature effects on free PWAS-EMIS are also discussed with respect to the in-plane mode. Piezoelectric material degradation on certain electrical and mechanical properties as the temperature increases is simulated by our analytical model for in-plane circular PWAS-EMIS that agrees well with the sets of experiments. Then the thickness mode PWAS-EMIS model was further developed for a PWAS resonator bonded on a plate-like structure. The latter analytical model was to determine the resonance frequencies for the normal mode expansion method through the global matrix method by considering PWAS-substrate and proof mass-PWAS-substrate models. The proof mass concept was adapted to shift the systems resonance frequencies in thickness mode. PWAS in contact with liquid medium on one of its surface has been analytically modeled and simulated the electro-mechanical response of PWAS with various liquids with different material properties such as the density and the viscosity. The second part discusses the guided wave propagation

  5. Organization and activation of sexual and agonistic behavior in the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius.

    PubMed

    Rhen, T; Crews, D

    2000-04-01

    Gonadal sex is determined by the temperature experienced during incubation in the leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Furthermore, both factors, incubation temperature and gonadal sex, influence adult sexual and agonistic behavior in this species. Yet it is unclear whether such differences in behavior are irreversibly organized during development or are mediated by differences in hormone levels in adulthood. To address this question, we gonadectomized adult females and males generated from a female-biased (30 degrees C) and a male-biased (32.5 degrees C) incubation temperature and treated them with equivalent levels of various sex steroids. We found that 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) activated sexual receptivity in females but not males, suggesting an organized sex difference in behavioral sensitivity to E(2). There were also organized and activated sex differences in attractivity to stimulus males. Although females were more attractive than males when treated with E(2), both sexes were equally unattractive when treated with dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or testosterone (T). Likewise, sex differences in aggressive and submissive behavior were organized and activated. Attacks on stimulus males were activated by T in males but not in females. In contrast, hormones did not influence flight behavior in males but did affect female submissiveness. Overall, males also evoked more attacks by stimulus males than did females. Nevertheless, females and males treated with androgens evoked more attacks than animals of the same sex that were treated with cholesterol or E(2). Incubation temperature had some weak effects on certain behaviors and no effect on others. This suggests that temperature effects in gonadally intact geckos may be due primarily to differences in circulating levels of hormones in adulthood. We conclude that gonadal sex has both organizational and activational effects on various behaviors in the leopard gecko. PMID:10773745

  6. Behavior Change Techniques Implemented in Electronic Lifestyle Activity Monitors: A Systematic Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Zakkoyya H; Mayrsohn, Brian G; Rowland, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Background Electronic activity monitors (such as those manufactured by Fitbit, Jawbone, and Nike) improve on standard pedometers by providing automated feedback and interactive behavior change tools via mobile device or personal computer. These monitors are commercially popular and show promise for use in public health interventions. However, little is known about the content of their feedback applications and how individual monitors may differ from one another. Objective The purpose of this study was to describe the behavior change techniques implemented in commercially available electronic activity monitors. Methods Electronic activity monitors (N=13) were systematically identified and tested by 3 trained coders for at least 1 week each. All monitors measured lifestyle physical activity and provided feedback via an app (computer or mobile). Coding was based on a hierarchical list of 93 behavior change techniques. Further coding of potentially effective techniques and adherence to theory-based recommendations were based on findings from meta-analyses and meta-regressions in the research literature. Results All monitors provided tools for self-monitoring, feedback, and environmental change by definition. The next most prevalent techniques (13 out of 13 monitors) were goal-setting and emphasizing discrepancy between current and goal behavior. Review of behavioral goals, social support, social comparison, prompts/cues, rewards, and a focus on past success were found in more than half of the systems. The monitors included a range of 5-10 of 14 total techniques identified from the research literature as potentially effective. Most of the monitors included goal-setting, self-monitoring, and feedback content that closely matched recommendations from social cognitive theory. Conclusions Electronic activity monitors contain a wide range of behavior change techniques typically used in clinical behavioral interventions. Thus, the monitors may represent a medium by which

  7. Oxidized trilinoleate and tridocosahexaenoate induce pica behavior and change locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fuki; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Umeno, Aya; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Kurata, Kenji; Gotoh, Naohiro

    2013-01-01

    Pica behavior, a behavior that is characterized by eating a nonfood material such as kaolin and relates to the degree of discomfort in animals, and the variations of locomotor activity of rats after eating deteriorated fat and oil extracted from instant noodles were examined in our previous study. The result shows that oxidized fat and oil with at least 100 meq/kg in peroxide value (PV) increase pica behavior and decrease locomotor activity. In the present study, the same two behaviors were measured using autoxidized trilinoleate (tri-LA) and tridocosahexaenoate (tri-DHA) as a model of vegetable and fish oil, respectively, to compare fatty acid differences against the induction of two behaviors. The oxidized levels of tri-LA and tri-DHA were analyzed with PV and p-anisidine value (AnV), the method to analyze secondary oxidized products. The oxidation levels of respective triacylglycerol (TAG) samples were carefully adjusted to make them having almost the same PV and AnV. As the results, 600 or more meq/kg in PV of both TAGs significantly increased the consumption of kaolin pellets compared to the control group. Furthermore, 300 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-LA and 200 or more meq/kg in PV of tri-DHA demonstrated significant decrease in locomotor activity compared to control group. These results would indicate that the oxidized TAG having the same PV and/or AnV would induce the same type of pica behavior and locomotor activity. Furthermore, that the structure of oxidized products might not be important and the amount of hydroperoxide group and/or aldehyde group in deteriorated fats and oils might affect the pica behavior and locomotor activity were thought. PMID:23535307

  8. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression

    PubMed Central

    McGrath, Patrick J.; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  9. A Systematic Review of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy and Behavioral Activation Apps for Depression.

    PubMed

    Huguet, Anna; Rao, Sanjay; McGrath, Patrick J; Wozney, Lori; Wheaton, Mike; Conrod, Jill; Rozario, Sharlene

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common mental health condition for which many mobile apps aim to provide support. This review aims to identify self-help apps available exclusively for people with depression and evaluate those that offer cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural activation (BA). One hundred and seventeen apps have been identified after searching both the scientific literature and the commercial market. 10.26% (n = 12) of these apps identified through our search offer support that seems to be consistent with evidence-based principles of CBT or BA. Taking into account the non existence of effectiveness/efficacy studies, and the low level of adherence to the core ingredients of the CBT/BA models, the utility of these CBT/BA apps are questionable. The usability of reviewed apps is highly variable and they rarely are accompanied by explicit privacy or safety policies. Despite the growing public demand, there is a concerning lack of appropiate CBT or BA apps, especially from a clinical and legal point of view. The application of superior scientific, technological, and legal knowledge is needed to improve the development, testing, and accessibility of apps for people with depression. PMID:27135410

  10. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  11. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  12. A randomized open trial assessing the feasibility of behavioral activation for pathological grief responding.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anthony; Sewell, M Todd; Garrison-Diehn, Christina; Rummel, Clair

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using behavioral activation to treat enduring postbereavement mental health difficulties using a two-arm, multiple baseline design comparing an immediate start group to a delayed start group at baseline, 12-, 24-, and 36-weeks postrandomization. Participants received 12-14 sessions of behavioral activation within a 12-week intervention period starting immediately after the first assessment or after 12weeks for the delayed start group. Prolonged grief, posttraumatic stress, and depression symptoms were assessed as outcomes. Compared with no treatment, behavioral activation was associated with large reductions in prolonged, complicated, or traumatic grief; posttraumatic stress disorder; and depression symptoms in the intent-to-treat analyses. Seventy percent of the completer sample at posttreatment and 75 percent at follow-up responded to treatment with 45 percent at posttreatment and 40 percent at follow-up being classified as evidencing high-end state functioning at 12-week follow-up. PMID:24094789

  13. Spatial Patterns of Persistent Neural Activity Vary with the Behavioral Context of Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daie, Kayvon

    2015-01-01

    Summary A short-term memory can be evoked by different inputs and control separate targets in different behavioral contexts. To address the circuit mechanisms underlying context-dependent memory function, we determined through optical imaging how memory is encoded at the whole-network level in two behavioral settings. Persistent neural activity maintaining a memory of desired eye position was imaged throughout the oculomotor integrator after saccadic or optokinetic stimulation. While eye position was encoded by the amplitude of network activity, the spatial patterns of firing were context-dependent: cells located caudally generally were most persistent following saccadic input, whereas cells located rostrally were most persistent following optokinetic input. To explain these data, we computationally identified four independent modes of network activity and found these were differentially accessed by saccadic and optokinetic inputs. These results show how a circuit can simultaneously encode memory value and behavioral context, respectively, in its amplitude and spatial pattern of persistent firing. PMID:25661184

  14. Whole-brain activity maps reveal stereotyped, distributed networks for visuomotor behavior

    PubMed Central

    Portugues, Ruben; Feierstein, Claudia E.; Engert, Florian; Orger, Michael B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Most behaviors, even simple innate reflexes, are mediated by circuits of neurons spanning areas throughout the brain. However, in most cases, the distribution and dynamics of firing patterns of these neurons during behavior are not known. We imaged activity, with cellular resolution, throughout the whole brains of zebrafish performing the optokinetic response. We found a sparse, broadly distributed network that has an elaborate, but ordered, pattern, with a bilaterally symmetrical organization. Activity patterns fell into distinct clusters reflecting sensory and motor processing. By correlating neuronal responses with an array of sensory and motor variables, we find that the network can be clearly divided into distinct functional modules. Comparing aligned data from multiple fish, we find that the spatiotemporal activity dynamics and functional organization are highly stereotyped across individuals. These experiments reveal, for the first time in a vertebrate, the comprehensive functional architecture of the neural circuits underlying a sensorimotor behavior. PMID:24656252

  15. Cognitive control in the self-regulation of physical activity and sedentary behavior

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Jude; Cohen, Jason D.; Kramer, Arthur F.; McAuley, Edward; Mullen, Sean P.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive control of physical activity and sedentary behavior is receiving increased attention in the neuroscientific and behavioral medicine literature as a means of better understanding and improving the self-regulation of physical activity. Enhancing individuals’ cognitive control capacities may provide a means to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behavior. First, this paper reviews emerging evidence of the antecedence of cognitive control abilities in successful self-regulation of physical activity, and in precipitating self-regulation failure that predisposes to sedentary behavior. We then highlight the brain networks that may underpin the cognitive control and self-regulation of physical activity, including the default mode network, prefrontal cortical networks and brain regions and pathways associated with reward. We then discuss research on cognitive training interventions that document improved cognitive control and that suggest promise of influencing physical activity regulation. Key cognitive training components likely to be the most effective at improving self-regulation are also highlighted. The review concludes with suggestions for future research. PMID:25324754

  16. Effect of Low Frequency Ultrasound on Combined rt-PA and Eptifibatide Thrombolysis in Human Clots

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Jason M.; Holland, Christy K.; Pancioli, Arthur M.; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Shaw, George J.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Fibrinolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) are used to treat thrombotic disease such as acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and ischemic stroke. Interest in increasing efficacy and reducing side effects has led to the study of adjuncts such as GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and ultrasound (US) enhanced thrombolysis. Currently, GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor and fibrinolytic treatment are often used in AMI, and are under investigation for stroke treatment. However, little is known of the efficacy of combined GP IIb-IIIa inhibitor, fibrinolytic and ultrasound treatment. We measure the lytic efficacy of rt-PA, eptifibatide (Epf) and 120 kHz ultrasound treatment in an in-vitro human clot model. Materials and Methods Blood was drawn from 15 subjects after IRB approval. Clots were made in 20 μL pipettes, and placed in a water tank for microscopic visualization during lytic treatment. Clots were exposed to control, rt-PA (rt-PA), eptifibatide (Epf), or rt-PA+eptifibatide (rt-PA+Epf), with or without ultrasound for 30 minutes at 37°C in human plasma. Clot lysis was measured over time, using a microscopic imaging technique. The fractional clot loss (FCL) and initial lytic rate (LR) were used to quantify lytic efficacy. Results and Conclusions LR values for (−US) treated clots were 0.8±0.1(control), 1.8±0.3 (Epf), 1.5±0.2 (rt-PA), and 1.3±0.4 (rt-PA+Epf) (% clot width/minute) respectively. In comparison, the (+US) group exhibited LR values of 1.6±0.2 (control), 4.3±0.4 (Epf), 6.3±0.4 (rt-PA), and 4.6±0.6 (rt-PA+Epf). For (−US) treated clots, FCL was 6.0±0.8 (control), 9.2±2.5 (Epf), 15.6±1.7 (rt-PA), and 28.0±2.2% (rt-PA+Epf) respectively. FCL for (+US) clots was 13.5±2.4 (control), 20.7±6.4 (Epf), 44.4±3.6 (rt-PA) and 30.3±3.6% (rt-PA+Epf) respectively. Although the addition of eptifibatide enhances the in-vitro lytic efficacy of rt-PA in the absence of ultrasound, the efficacy of ultrasound and rt-PA is greater than that of

  17. Brainstem Neuronal and Behavioral Activation by Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone Depend on the Behavioral State of the Animal

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Catherine S.; Rose, James D.

    2011-01-01

    Central administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is known to enhance locomotion across a wide range of vertebrates, including the roughskin newt, Taricha granulosa. The present study aimed to identify the CRH effects on locomotor-controlling medullary neurons that underlie the peptide’s behavioral stimulating actions. Single neurons were recorded from the rostral medullary reticular formation before and after intraventricular infusion of CRH in freely behaving newts and newts paralyzed with a myoneural blocking agent. In behaving newts, most medullary neurons showed increased firing 3-23 min after CRH infusion. Decreases in firing were less common. Of particular importance was the finding that in behaving newts, medullary neurons showed a cyclic firing pattern that was strongly associated with an increase in the incidence of walking bouts, an effect blocked by pretreatment with the CRH antagonist, alpha-helical CRH and not seen following vehicle administration. In contrast, the majority of medullary neurons sampled in immobilized newts lacked temporal cyclicity in their firing patterns following intraventricular infusion of CRH. That is, there was no evidence for a fictive locomotor activity pattern. Our results indicate that the actual expression of locomotion is a critical factor in regulating the behavior-activating effects of CRH and underscore the importance of using an awake, unrestrained animal for analysis of a hormone’s neurobehavioral actions. PMID:22137972

  18. 'Small changes' to diet and physical activity behaviors for weight management.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Byrne, Nuala M; Lindstrom, Rachel; Hill, James O

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous short- and long-term health consequences. Low levels of physical activity and poor dietary habits are consistent with an increased risk of obesity in an obesogenic environment. Relatively little research has investigated associations between eating and activity behaviors by using a systems biology approach and by considering the dynamics of the energy balance concept. A significant body of research indicates that a small positive energy balance over time is sufficient to cause weight gain in many individuals. In contrast, small changes in nutrition and physical activity behaviors can prevent weight gain. In the context of weight management, it may be more feasible for most people to make small compared to large short-term changes in diet and activity. This paper presents a case for the use of small and incremental changes in diet and physical activity for improved weight management in the context of a toxic obesogenic environment. PMID:23711772

  19. Maternal immune activation affects litter success, size and neuroendocrine responses related to behavior in adult offspring.

    PubMed

    French, Susannah S; Chester, Emily M; Demas, Gregory E

    2013-07-01

    It is increasingly evident that influences other than genetics can contribute to offspring phenotype. In particular, maternal influences are an important contributing factor to offspring survival, development, physiology and behavior. Common environmental pathogens such as viral or bacterial microorganisms can induce maternal immune responses, which have the potential to alter the prenatal environment via multiple independent pathways. The effects of maternal immune activation on endocrine responses and behavior are less well studied and provide the basis for the current study. Our approach in the current study was two-pronged: 1) quantify sickness responses during pregnancy in adult female hamsters experiencing varying severity of immune responsiveness (i.e., differing doses of lipopolysaccharide [LPS]), and 2) assess the effects of maternal immune activation on offspring development, immunocompetence, hormone profiles, and social behavior during adulthood. Pregnancy success decreased with increasing doses of LPS, and litter size was reduced in LPS dams that managed to successfully reproduce. Unexpectedly, pregnant females treated with LPS showed a hypothermic response in addition to the more typical anorexic and body mass changes associated with sickness. Significant endocrine changes related to behavior were observed in the offspring of LPS-treated dams; these effects were apparent in adulthood. Specifically, offspring from LPS treated dams showed significantly greater cortisol responses to stressful resident-intruder encounters compared with offspring from control dams. Post-behavior cortisol was elevated in male LPS offspring relative to the offspring of control dams, and was positively correlated with the frequency of bites during agonistic interactions, and cortisol levels in both sexes were related to defensive behaviors, suggesting that changes in hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responsiveness may play a regulatory role in the observed behavioral

  20. Perceptions of Midwest rural women related to their physical activity and eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Jane; Schmer, Carol; Ward-Smith, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    The study aim was to describe the perceptions of 65 Midwestern rural women related to healthy eating, physical activity, and weight management. A semistructured interview guide was used to elicit data. Theory of planned behavior constructs were used to categorize the data into 4 predominant themes related to healthy lifestyle behaviors, (a) knowledge and attitudes, (b) rural cultural influences, (c) facilitators, and (d) barriers. Analyses revealed that facilitators and barriers consisted of social and environmental factors, and personal life situations. Results suggest key elements for developing and implementing effective physical activity and weight management interventions for Midwestern rural women. PMID:23659220

  1. tPA promotes cortical neuron survival via mTOR-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Grummisch, Julia A; Jadavji, Nafisa M; Smith, Patrice D

    2016-07-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is a thrombolytic agent commonly used in the treatment of ischemic stroke. While the thrombolytic effects of tPA have been well established, the impact of this blood-brain barrier (BBB) crossing drug on neurons is not known. Given the widespread use of tPA in the clinical setting and the strict therapeutic window established for effective use of the drug, we examined the molecular mechanisms mediating the impact of tPA on postnatal cortical neurons isolated from the mouse brain. Dissociated postnatal primary cortical neurons were treated with tPA and the effects on neuron survival were evaluated. Pharmacological inhibitors of several signaling pathways previously implicated in neuroprotection (mTOR, JAK/STAT, MAPK and PKA-dependent mechanisms) were used to pinpoint the mechanistic effectors of tPA on neuron survival in vitro. We report here that tPA treatment results in a time-dependent neuroprotective effect on postnatal cortical neurons that relies predominantly on Janus kinase (JAK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling mechanisms. Taken together, these data suggest that tPA promotes neuroprotection in a temporally-regulated manner and that both JAK and mTOR signaling effectors are critical mediators of this neuroprotective effect. The results suggest the possibility of targeting these defined mechanisms to potentially expand the therapeutic window for tPA. PMID:26995507

  2. Dodecafluoropentane Emulsion Extends Window for tPA Therapy in a Rabbit Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    Brown, A. T.; Lowery, J. D.; Arthur, M. C.; Roberson, P. K.; Skinner, R. D.

    2016-01-01

    Dodecafluoropentane emulsion (DDFPe) nanodroplets are exceptional oxygen transporters and can protect ischemic brain in stroke models 24 h without reperfusion. Current stroke therapy usually fails to reach patients because of delays following stroke onset. We tested using DDFPe to extend the time window for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Longer treatment windows will allow more patients more complete stroke recovery. We test DDFPe to safely extend the time window for tPA thrombolysis to 9 h after stroke. With IACUC approval, randomized New Zealand white rabbits (3.4–4.7 kg, n=30) received angiography and 4-mm blood clot in the internal carotid artery for flow-directed middle cerebral artery occlusion. Seven failed and were discarded. Groups were IV tPA (n=11), DDFPe + tPA (n=7), and no therapy controls (n=5). DDFPe (0.3 ml/kg, 2 % emulsion) IV dosing began at 1 h and continued at 90 min intervals for 6 doses in one test group; the other received saline injections. Both got standard IV tPA (0.9 mg/kg) therapy starting 9 h post stroke. At 24 h, neurological assessment scores (NAS, 0–18) were determined. Following brain removal percent stroke volume (%SV) was measured. Outcomes were compared with Kruskal-Wallis analysis. For NAS, DDFPe + tPA was improved overall, p=0.0015, and vs. tPA alone, p=0.0052. For %SV, DDFPe + tPA was improved overall, p=0.0003 and vs. tPA alone, p=0.0018. NAS controls and tPA alone were not different but %SV was, p=0.0078. With delayed reperfusion, DDFPe + tPAwas more effective than tPA alone in preserving functioning brain after stroke. DDFPe significantly extends the time window for tPA therapy. PMID:26055229

  3. Correlates of distances traveled to use recreational facilities for physical activity behaviors

    PubMed Central

    McCormack, Gavin R; Giles-Corti, Billie; Bulsara, Max; Pikora, Terri J

    2006-01-01

    Background Information regarding how far people are willing to travel to use destinations for different types of recreational physical activity behaviors is limited. This study examines the demographic characteristics, neighborhood opportunity and specific-physical activity behaviors associated with distances traveled to destinations used for recreational physical activity. Methods A secondary analysis was undertaken of data (n = 1006) from a survey of Western Australian adults. Road network distances between respondents' homes and 1) formal recreational facilities; 2) beaches and rivers; and 3) parks and ovals used for physical activity were determined. Associations between distances to destinations and demographic characteristics, neighborhood opportunity (number of destinations within 1600 meters of household), and physical activity behaviors were examined. Results Overall, 56.3% of respondents had used a formal recreational facility, 39.9% a beach or river, and 38.7% a park or oval. The mean distance traveled to all destinations used for physical activity was 5463 ± 5232 meters (m). Distances traveled to formal recreational facilities, beaches and rivers, and parks and ovals differed depending on the physical activity undertaken. Younger adults traveled further than older adults (7311.8 vs. 6012.6 m, p = 0.03) to use beaches and rivers as did residents of socio-economically disadvantaged areas compared with those in advantaged areas (8118.0 vs. 7311.8 m, p = 0.02). Club members traveled further than non-members to use parks and ovals (4156.3 vs. 3351.6 meters, p = 0.02). The type of physical activity undertaken at a destination and number of neighborhood opportunities were also associated with distance traveled for all destination types. Conclusion The distances adults travel to a recreational facility depends on the demographic characteristics, destination type, physical activity behavior undertaken at that destination, and number of neighborhood

  4. Exploring Behavioral Markers of Long-term Physical Activity Maintenance: A Case Study of System Identification Modeling within a Behavioral Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hekler, Eric B.; Buman, Matthew P.; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Morgan, Adrienne Aiken; McCrae, Christina S.; Roberts, Beverly L.; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R.

    2013-01-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects and identifying key behavioral patterns that may foster behavioral maintenance. The Active Adult Mentoring Program (AAMP) was a 16-week randomized controlled trial of a group-based, peer-delivered physical activity intervention targeting older adults. Time intensive (i.e., daily) physical activity reports were collected throughout the intervention. We explored differential patterns of behavior among participants who received the active intervention (N=34; 88% women, 64.1±8.3 years of age) and either maintained 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; n=10) or did not (n=24) at 18 months following the intervention period. We used dynamical systems modeling to explore whether key intervention components (i.e., self-monitoring, access to an exercise facility, behavioral initiation training, behavioral maintenance training) and theoretically plausible behavioral covariates (i.e., indoor vs. outdoor activity) predicted differential patterns of behavior among maintainers and non-maintainers. We found that maintainers took longer to reach a steady-state of MVPA. At week 10 of the intervention, non-maintainers began to drop whereas maintainers increased MVPA. Self-monitoring, behavioral initiation training, % outdoor activity, and behavioral maintenance training, but not access to an exercise facility, were key variables that explained patterns of change among maintainers. Future studies should be conducted to systematically explore these concepts within a priori idiographic (i.e., N-of-1) experimental designs. PMID:24084400

  5. Exploring behavioral markers of long-term physical activity maintenance: a case study of system identification modeling within a behavioral intervention.

    PubMed

    Hekler, Eric B; Buman, Matthew P; Poothakandiyil, Nikhil; Rivera, Daniel E; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Morgan, Adrienne Aiken; McCrae, Christina S; Roberts, Beverly L; Marsiske, Michael; Giacobbi, Peter R

    2013-10-01

    Efficacious interventions to promote long-term maintenance of physical activity are not well understood. Engineers have developed methods to create dynamical system models for modeling idiographic (i.e., within-person) relationships within systems. In behavioral research, dynamical systems modeling may assist in decomposing intervention effects and identifying key behavioral patterns that may foster behavioral maintenance. The Active Adult Mentoring Program was a 16-week randomized controlled trial of a group-based, peer-delivered physical activity intervention targeting older adults. Time-intensive (i.e., daily) physical activity reports were collected throughout the intervention. We explored differential patterns of behavior among participants who received the active intervention (N = 34; 88% women, 64.1 ± 8.3 years of age) and either maintained 150 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA; n = 10) or did not (n = 24) at 18 months following the intervention period. We used dynamical systems modeling to explore whether key intervention components (i.e., self-monitoring, access to an exercise facility, behavioral initiation training, behavioral maintenance training) and theoretically plausible behavioral covariates (i.e., indoor vs. outdoor activity) predicted differential patterns of behavior among maintainers and nonmaintainers. We found that maintainers took longer to reach a steady-state of MVPA. At week 10 of the intervention, nonmaintainers began to drop whereas maintainers increased MVPA. Self-monitoring, behavioral initiation training, percentage of outdoor activity, and behavioral maintenance training, but not access to an exercise facility, were key variables that explained patterns of change among maintainers. Future studies should be conducted to systematically explore these concepts within a priori idiographic (i.e., N-of-1) experimental designs. PMID:24084400

  6. Modulation of Cellular Migration and Survival by c-Myc through the Downregulation of Urokinase (uPA) and uPA Receptor▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Daniela; Votta, Giuseppina; Schulze, Almut; Downward, Julian; Caputi, Mario; Stoppelli, Maria Patrizia; Iaccarino, Ingram

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that c-Myc proapoptotic activity accounts for most of its restraint of tumor formation. We established a telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cell line expressing an activatable c-Myc protein. We found that c-Myc activation induces, in addition to increased sensitivity to apoptosis, reductions in cell motility and invasiveness. Transcriptome analysis revealed that urokinase (uPA) and uPA receptor (uPAR) were strongly downregulated by c-Myc. Evidence is provided that the repression of uPA and uPAR may account for most of the antimigratory and proapoptotic activities of c-Myc. c-Myc is known to cooperate with Ras in cellular transformation. We therefore investigated if this cooperation could converge in the control of uPA/uPAR expression. We found that Ras is able to block the effects of c-Myc activation on apoptosis and cellular motility but not on cell invasiveness. Accordingly, the activation of c-Myc in the context of Ras expression had only minor influence on uPAR expression but still had a profound repressive effect on uPA expression. Thus, the differential regulation of uPA and uPAR by c-Myc and Ras correlates with the effects of these two oncoproteins on cell motility, invasiveness, and survival. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel link between c-Myc and uPA/uPAR. We propose that reductions of cell motility and invasiveness could contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis by c-Myc and that the regulation of uPA and uPAR expression may be a component of the ability of c-Myc to reduce motility and invasiveness. PMID:20123981

  7. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  8. Multiple Behavior Change in Diet and Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial Using Mobile Technology

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Bonnie; Schneider, Kristin; McFadden, H.G.; Vaughn, Jocelyn; Kozak, Andrea T.; Smith, Malaina; Moller, Arlen C.; Epstein, Leonard H.; DeMott, Andrew; Hedeker, Donald; Siddique, Juned; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients exhibit multiple chronic disease risk behaviors. Research provides little information about advice that can maximize simultaneous health behavior changes. Methods To test which combination of diet and activity advice maximizes healthy change, we randomized 204 adults with elevated saturated fat and low fruit/vegetable intakes, high sedentary leisure time and low physical activity to one of four treatments: increase fruit/vegetable and physical activity; decrease fat and sedentary leisure; decrease fat and increase physical activity; increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure. Treatments provided three weeks of remote coaching supported by mobile decision support technology and financial incentives. During treatment, incentives were contingent on using the mobile device to self-monitor and attain behavioral targets; during follow-up they were contingent only on recording. The outcome was standardized, composite improvement on the four diet and activity behaviors at end of treatment and five month follow-up. Results Of those randomized, 200 (98%) completed follow-up. The increase fruit/vegetable and decrease sedentary leisure treatment improved more than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Specifically, fruit/vegetables increased from 1.2 servings/day to 5.5; sedentary leisure decreased from 219.2 minutes/day to 89.3; saturated fat decreased from 12.0% of calories consumed to 9.5%. Differences between treatment groups were maintained through follow-up. Traditional dieting (decrease fat and increase physical activity) improved less than the other 3 treatments (p<.001). Conclusions Remote coaching supported by mobile technology and financial incentives holds promise to improve diet and activity. Targeting fruits/vegetables and sedentary leisure together maximizes overall adoption and maintenance of multiple healthy behavior changes. PMID:22636824

  9. Body-related self-conscious emotions relate to physical activity motivation and behavior in men.

    PubMed

    Castonguay, Andree L; Pila, Eva; Wrosch, Carsten; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between the body-related self-conscious emotions of shame, guilt, and pride and physical activity motivation and behavior among adult males. Specifically, motivation regulations (external, introjected, indentified, intrinsic) were examined as possible mediators between each of the body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity behavior. A cross-sectional study was conducted with adult men (N = 152; Mage = 23.72, SD = 10.92 years). Participants completed a questionnaire assessing body-related shame, guilt, authentic pride, hubristic pride, motivational regulations, and leisure-time physical activity. In separate multiple mediation models, body-related shame was positively associated with external and introjected regulations and negatively correlated with intrinsic regulation. Guilt was positively linked to external, introjected, and identified regulations. Authentic pride was negatively related to external regulation and positively correlated with both identified and intrinsic regulations and directly associated with physical activity behavior. Hubristic pride was positively associated with intrinsic regulation. Overall, there were both direct and indirect effects via motivation regulations between body-related self-conscious emotions and physical activity (R(2) shame = .15, guilt = .16, authentic pride = .18, hubristic pride = .16). These findings highlight the importance of targeting and understanding self-conscious emotions contextualized to the body and links to motivation and positive health behavior among men. PMID:24899517

  10. Dissociation of Subjectively Reported and Behaviorally Indexed Mind Wandering by EEG Rhythmic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jungang; Perdoni, Christopher; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Inattention to current activity is ubiquitous in everyday situations. Mind wandering is an example of such a state, and its related brain areas have been examined in the literature. However, there is no clear evidence regarding neural rhythmic activities linked to mind wandering. Using a vigilance task with thought sampling and electroencephalography recording, the current study simultaneously examined neural oscillatory activities related to subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering. By implementing time-frequency analysis, we found that subjectively reported mind wandering, relative to behaviorally indexed, showed increased gamma band activity at bilateral frontal-central areas. By means of beamformer source imaging, we found subjectively reported mind wandering within the gamma band to be characterized by increased activation in bilateral frontal cortices, supplemental motor area, paracentral cortex and right inferior temporal cortex in comparison to behaviorally indexed mind wandering. These findings dissociate subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering and suggest that a higher degree of executive control processes are engaged in subjectively reported mind wandering. PMID:21915257

  11. A spinal opsin controls early neural activity and drives a behavioral light response

    PubMed Central

    Friedmann, Drew; Hoagland, Adam; Berlin, Shai; Isacoff, Ehud Y.

    2014-01-01

    Non-visual detection of light by the vertebrate hypothalamus, pineal, and retina is known to govern seasonal and circadian behaviors [1]. However, the expression of opsins in multiple other brain structures [2–4] suggests a more expansive repertoire for light-regulation of physiology, behavior, and development. Translucent zebrafish embryos express extra-retinal opsins early on [5, 6], at a time when spontaneous activity in the developing central nervous system plays a role in neuronal maturation and circuit formation [7]. Though the presence of extra-retinal opsins is well documented, the function of direct photoreception by the central nervous system remains largely unknown. Here we show that early activity in the zebrafish spinal central pattern generator (CPG) and the earliest locomotory behavior are dramatically inhibited by physiological levels of environmental light. We find that the photo-sensitivity of this circuit is conferred by vertebrate ancient long opsin (VALopA), which we show to be a Gαi-coupled receptor that is expressed in the neurons of the spinal network. Sustained photo-activation of VALopA not only suppresses spontaneous activity but also alters the maturation of time-locked correlated network patterns. These results uncover a novel role for non-visual opsins and a mechanism for environmental regulation of spontaneous motor behavior and neural activity in a circuit previously thought to be governed only by intrinsic developmental programs. PMID:25484291

  12. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attractiveness for bicycling significantly predicted post-intervention accelerometer-measured PA. Greater traffic control devices and crossing aids were associated with greater PA among women assigned to the PA intervention group, and greater street amenities were associated with greater PA among those in the comparison group. Neighborhood factors may interact favorably with behavioral interventions to promote PA adoption and maintenance, and should be considered in health promotion efforts. PMID:22243907

  13. Society of Behavioral Medicine position statement: elementary school-based physical activity supports academic achievement.

    PubMed

    Buscemi, Joanna; Kong, Angela; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Bustamante, Eduardo E; Davis, Catherine L; Pate, Russell R; Wilson, Dawn K

    2014-12-01

    The Society of Behavioral Medicine (SBM) urges elementary schools to provide children with ample opportunities to engage in physical activity during school hours. In addition to promoting overall child health, physical activity also supports academic achievement. In addition to improving their aerobic fitness, regular physical activity improves cognitive function, influences the brain, and improves mood in children. Better aerobic fitness and physical activity are associated with increased grade point averages and standardized test scores. Despite the documented relationship between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement, few schools have implemented physical activity as a tool to improve academic performance. SBM recommends that elementary schools provide children with the recommended 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during school hours. Further, SBM urges schools to work with the local school districts and state education departments to mandate minimum physical activity time for elementary school physical education. PMID:25584093

  14. Influence of monkey dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal activity on behavioral choice during attention tasks.

    PubMed

    Katsuki, Fumi; Saito, Mizuki; Constantinidis, Christos

    2014-09-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal and the posterior parietal cortex have both been implicated in the guidance of visual attention. Traditionally, posterior parietal cortex has been thought to guide visual bottom-up attention and prefrontal cortex to bias attention through top-down information. More recent studies suggest a parallel time course of activation of the two areas in bottom-up attention tasks, suggesting a common involvement, though these results do not necessarily imply identical roles. To address the specific roles of the two areas, we examined the influence of neuronal activity recorded from the prefrontal and parietal cortex of monkeys as they performed attention tasks based on choice probability and on correlation between reaction time and neuronal activity. The results revealed that posterior parietal but not dorsolateral prefrontal activity correlated with behavioral choice during the fixation period, prior to the appearance of the stimulus, resembling a bias factor. This preferential influence of posterior parietal activity on behavior was transient, so that dorsolateral prefrontal activity predicted choice after the appearance of the stimulus. Additionally, reaction time was better predicted by posterior parietal activity. These findings confirm the involvement of both dorsolateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex in the bottom-up guidance of visual attention, but indicate different roles of the two areas in the guidance of attention and a dynamic time course of their effects, influencing behavior at different stages of the task. PMID:24964224

  15. Effects of lithium on behavioral reactivity: relation to increases in brain cholinergic activity.

    PubMed

    Russell, R W; Pechnick, R; Jope, R S

    1981-01-01

    Suppression of behavior accompanying increased ACh synthesis in the brain might account, at least in part, for the preferred use of lithium in antimanic therapy. Three experiments using rats as subjects were designed to test hypotheses about relationships among lithium, ACh synthesis and behavior. Experiment 1 established that hyporeactivity and greater exploratory behavior occurred in animals under LiCl treatment conditions shown to stimulate cholinergic activity in brain. Experiment 2 provided evidence of significant differences between controls and animals on the LiCl diet. Groups tested after 1 or 2 days of LiCl showed the decrease in reactivity to successive presentations of a loud auditory stimulus which characterizes the normal process of habituation. Groups tested after 5 or 10 days of liCl showed no evidence of habituation, their reactivity throughout the period of stimulation being at a level attained by the other groups when habituation reached its final asymptote. Experiment 3 established that effects of LiCl treatment were not manifested in all aspects of behavior: there was no evidence of impairment of motor activity or coordination; no analgesia; no impairment in sensory input nor in acquisition of new behaviors. The effect of the LiCl treatment was not complete inhibition but instead suppression of reactivity to environmental stimulation under conditions shown previously to increase cholinergic activity in brain. PMID:6785802

  16. Nucleus accumbens core acetylcholine is preferentially activated during acquisition of drug- vs food-reinforced behavior.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Jose A; Stöckl, Petra; Zorn, Katja; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2008-12-01

    Acquisition of drug-reinforced behavior is accompanied by a systematic increase of release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) rather than dopamine, the expected prime reward neurotransmitter candidate, in the nucleus accumbens core (AcbC), with activation of both muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors in the AcbC by ACh volume transmission being necessary for the drug conditioning. The present findings suggest that the AcbC ACh system is preferentially activated by drug reinforcers, because (1) acquisition of food-reinforced behavior was not paralleled by activation of ACh release in the AcbC whereas acquisition of morphine-reinforced behavior, like that of cocaine or remifentanil (tested previously), was, and because (2) local intra-AcbC administration of muscarinic or nicotinic ACh receptor antagonists (atropine or mecamylamine, respectively) did not block the acquisition of food-reinforced behavior whereas acquisition of drug-reinforced behavior had been blocked. Interestingly, the speed with which a drug of abuse distributed into the AcbC and was eliminated from the AcbC determined the size of the AcbC ACh signal, with the temporally more sharply delineated drug stimulus producing a more pronounced AcbC ACh signal. The present findings suggest that muscarinic and nicotinic ACh receptors in the AcbC are preferentially involved during reward conditioning for drugs of abuse vs sweetened condensed milk as a food reinforcer. PMID:18418362

  17. The effects of chlorpyrifos on cholinesterase activity and foraging behavior in the dragonfly, Anax junius (Odonata)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Atchison, G.J.

    1999-01-01

    We examined head capsule cholinesterase (ChE) and foraging behavior in nymphs of the dragonfly, Anax junius, exposed for 24 h to 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 ??g l-1 of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate]. The invertebrate community is an important component of the structure and function of wetland ecosystems, yet the potential effects of insecticides on wetland ecosystems are largely unknown. Our objectives were to determine if exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of chlorpyrifos affected foraging behavior and ChE activity in head capsules of dragonfly nymphs. Nymphs were exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos and different prey densities in a factorial design. ChE activities and foraging behaviors of treated nymphs were not statistically different (p ??? 0.05) from control groups. Prey density effects exerted a greater effect on dragonfly foraging than toxicant exposures. Nymphs offered higher prey densities exhibited more foraging behaviors but also missed their prey more often. High variability in ChE activities within the control group and across treated groups precluded determination of relationships between ChE and foraging behaviors. It appears that A. junius is relatively tolerant of chlorpyrifos, although the concentrations we tested have been shown in other work to adversely affect the prey base; therefore the introduction of this insecticide may have indirect adverse affects on top invertebrate predators such as Odonata.

  18. Effect of individual behavior on epidemic spreading in activity-driven networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzo, Alessandro; Frasca, Mattia; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2014-10-01

    In this work we study the effect of behavioral changes of individuals on the propagation of epidemic diseases. Specifically, we consider a susceptible-infected-susceptible model over a network of contacts that evolves in a time scale that is comparable to the individual disease dynamics. The phenomenon is modeled in the context of activity-driven networks, in which contacts occur on the basis of activity potentials. To offer insight into behavioral strategies targeting both susceptible and infected individuals, we consider two separate behaviors that may emerge in respiratory syndromes and sexually transmitted infections. The first is related to a reduction in the activity of infected individuals due to quarantine or illness. The second is instead associated with a selfish self-protective behavior of susceptible individuals, who tend to reduce contact with the rest of the population on the basis of a risk perception. Numerical and theoretical results suggest that behavioral changes could have a beneficial effect on the disease spreading, by increasing the epidemic threshold and decreasing the steady-state fraction of infected individuals.

  19. Human sexual behavior related to pathology and activity of the brain.

    PubMed

    Komisaruk, Barry R; Rodriguez Del Cerro, Maria Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Reviewed in this chapter are: (1) correlations among human sexual behavior, brain pathology, and brain activity, including caveats regarding the interpretation of "cause and effect" among these factors, and the degree to which "hypersexuality" and reported changes in sexual orientation correlated with brain pathology are uniquely sexual or are attributable to a generalized disinhibition of brain function; (2) the effects, in some cases inhibitory, in others facilitatory, on sexual behavior and motivation, of stroke, epileptic seizures, traumatic brain injury, and brain surgery; and (3) insights into sexual motivation and behavior recently gained from functional brain imaging research and its interpretive limitations. We conclude from the reviewed research that the neural orchestra underlying the symphony of human sexuality comprises, rather than brain "centers," multiple integrated brain systems, and that there are more questions than answers in our understanding of the control of human sexual behavior by the brain - a level of understanding that is still in embryonic form. PMID:26003240

  20. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  1. Increasing brain angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity decreases anxiety-like behavior in male mice by activating central Mas receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; de Kloet, Annette D; Pati, Dipanwita; Hiller, Helmut; Smith, Justin A; Pioquinto, David J; Ludin, Jacob A; Oh, S Paul; Katovich, Michael J; Frazier, Charles J; Raizada, Mohan K; Krause, Eric G

    2016-06-01

    Over-activation of the brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) inhibits RAS activity by converting angiotensin-II, the effector peptide of RAS, to angiotensin-(1-7), which activates the Mas receptor (MasR). Whether increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety by stimulating central MasR is unknown. To test the hypothesis that increasing brain ACE2 activity reduces anxiety-like behavior via central MasR stimulation, we generated male mice overexpressing ACE2 (ACE2 KI mice) and wild type littermate controls (WT). ACE2 KI mice explored the open arms of the elevated plus maze (EPM) significantly more than WT, suggesting increasing ACE2 activity is anxiolytic. Central delivery of diminazene aceturate, an ACE2 activator, to C57BL/6 mice also reduced anxiety-like behavior in the EPM, but centrally administering ACE2 KI mice A-779, a MasR antagonist, abolished their anxiolytic phenotype, suggesting that ACE2 reduces anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR. To identify the brain circuits mediating these effects, we measured Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, subsequent to EPM exposure and found that ACE2 KI mice had decreased Fos in the bed nucleus of stria terminalis but had increased Fos in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Within the BLA, we determined that ∼62% of GABAergic neurons contained MasR mRNA and expression of MasR mRNA was upregulated by ACE2 overexpression, suggesting that ACE2 may influence GABA neurotransmission within the BLA via MasR activation. Indeed, ACE2 overexpression was associated with increased frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (indicative of presynaptic release of GABA) onto BLA pyramidal neurons and central infusion of A-779 eliminated this effect. Collectively, these results suggest that ACE2 may reduce anxiety-like behavior by activating central MasR that facilitate GABA release onto pyramidal neurons within the

  2. Physical activity recognition based on rotated acceleration data using quaternion in sedentary behavior: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Shin, Y E; Choi, W H; Shin, T M

    2014-01-01

    This paper suggests a physical activity assessment method based on quaternion. To reduce user inconvenience, we measured the activity using a mobile device which is not put on fixed position. Recognized results were verified with various machine learning algorithms, such as neural network (multilayer perceptron), decision tree (J48), SVM (support vector machine) and naive bayes classifier. All algorithms have shown over 97% accuracy including decision tree (J48), which recognized the activity with 98.35% accuracy. As a result, physical activity assessment method based on rotated acceleration using quaternion can classify sedentary behavior with more accuracy without considering devices' position and orientation. PMID:25571109

  3. Neuronal Heterotopias Affect the Activities of Distant Brain Areas and Lead to Behavioral Deficits.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kazuhiro; Kubo, Ken-ichiro; Endo, Toshihiro; Yoshida, Keitaro; Benner, Seico; Ito, Yukiko; Aizawa, Hidenori; Aramaki, Michihiko; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Tanaka, Kohichi; Takata, Norio; Tanaka, Kenji F; Mimura, Masaru; Tohyama, Chiharu; Kakeyama, Masaki; Nakajima, Kazunori

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal heterotopia refers to brain malformations resulting from deficits of neuronal migration. Individuals with heterotopias show a high incidence of neurological deficits, such as epilepsy. More recently, it has come to be recognized that focal heterotopias may also show a range of psychiatric problems, including cognitive and behavioral impairments. However, because focal heterotopias are not always located in the brain areas responsible for the symptoms, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. In this study, we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited spatial working memory deficit and low competitive dominance behavior, which have been shown to be closely associated with the activity of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in rodents. Analysis of the mPFC activity revealed that the immediate-early gene expression was decreased and the local field potentials of the mPFC were altered in the mice with heterotopias compared with the control mice. Moreover, activation of these ectopic and overlying sister neurons using the DREADD (designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug) system improved the working memory deficits. These findings suggest that cortical regions containing focal heterotopias can affect distant brain regions and give rise to behavioral abnormalities. Significance statement: Recent studies reported that patients with heterotopias have a variety of clinical symptoms, such as cognitive disturbance, psychiatric symptoms, and autistic behavior. However, the causal relationship between the symptoms and heterotopias remains elusive. Here we showed that mice with focal heterotopias in the somatosensory cortex generated by in utero electroporation exhibited behavioral deficits that have been shown to be associated with the mPFC activity in rodents. The existence of heterotopias indeed altered the neural activities of the mPFC, and

  4. After-School Physical Activity and Eating Behaviors of Middle School Students in Relation to Adult Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Wayne C.; Hering, Michelle; Cothran, Carrie; Croteau, Kim; Dunlap, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Examine after-school activity patterns, eating behaviors, and social environment of overweight and normal weight middle school students. Design: Eating and physical activity behaviors of 141 students, ages 10-14, were monitored. Students completed a diary documenting type of activity, location, adult supervision, accompanying…

  5. Motivational effects of smoked marijuana: behavioral contingencies and low-probability activities.

    PubMed Central

    Foltin, R W; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V; Bernstein, D J; Capriotti, R M; Nellis, M J; Kelly, T H

    1990-01-01

    Six adult male research volunteers, in two groups of 3 subjects each, lived in a residential laboratory for 15 days. All contact with the experimenters was through a networked computer system, and subjects' behavior was monitored continuously and recorded. During the first part of each day, they were allowed to socialize. Two cigarettes containing active marijuana (2.7% delta 9-THC) or placebo were smoked during the private work period and the period of access to social activities. Three-day contingency conditions requiring subjects to engage in a low-probability work activity (instrumental activity) in order to earn time that could be spent engaging in a high-probability work activity (contingent activity) were programmed during periods of placebo and active-marijuana smoking. During placebo administration, the contingency requirement reliably increased the amount of time that subjects spent engaged in the low-probability instrumental activity and decreased the time spent engaged in the high-probability activity. During active-marijuana administration, however, the increases in instrumental activity were consistently larger than observed under placebo conditions. The decreases in contingent activity were similar to those seen under placebo conditions. Smoking active marijuana was thus observed to produce increments in instrumental activity under motivational conditions involving contingencies for "work activities." PMID:2299291

  6. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  7. The Effect of Human Activities and Their Associated Noise on Ungulate Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Casey L.; Hardy, Amanda R.; Barber, Jesse R.; Fristrup, Kurt M.; Crooks, Kevin R.; Angeloni, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Background The effect of anthropogenic noise on terrestrial wildlife is a relatively new area of study with broad ranging management implications. Noise has been identified as a disturbance that has the potential to induce behavioral responses in animals similar to those associated with predation risk. This study investigated potential impacts of a variety of human activities and their associated noise on the behavior of elk (Cervus elaphus) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) along a transportation corridor in Grand Teton National Park. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted roadside scan surveys and focal observations of ungulate behavior while concurrently recording human activity and anthropogenic noise. Although we expected ungulates to be more responsive with greater human activity and noise, as predicted by the risk disturbance hypothesis, they were actually less responsive (less likely to perform vigilant, flight, traveling and defensive behaviors) with increasing levels of vehicle traffic, the human activity most closely associated with noise. Noise levels themselves had relatively little effect on ungulate behavior, although there was a weak negative relationship between noise and responsiveness in our scan samples. In contrast, ungulates did increase their responsiveness with other forms of anthropogenic disturbance; they reacted to the presence of pedestrians (in our scan samples) and to passing motorcycles (in our focal observations). Conclusions These findings suggest that ungulates did not consistently associate noise and human activity with an increase in predation risk or that they could not afford to maintain responsiveness to the most frequent human stimuli. Although reduced responsiveness to certain disturbances may allow for greater investment in fitness-enhancing activities, it may also decrease detections of predators and other environmental cues and increase conflict with humans. PMID:22808175

  8. Activation of Progestin Receptors in Female Reproductive Behavior: Interactions with Neurotransmitters

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Shaila; Portillo, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    The steroid hormone, progesterone (P), modulates neuroendocrine functions in the central nervous system resulting in alterations in physiology and reproductive behavior in female mammals. A wide body of evidence indicates that these neural effects of P are predominantly mediated via their intracellular progestin receptors (PRs) functioning as “ligand-dependent” transcription factors in the steroid-sensitive neurons regulating genes and genomic networks. In addition to P, intracellular PRs can be activated by neurotransmitters, growth factors and cyclic nucleotides in a ligand-independent manner via crosstalk and convergence of pathways. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that rapid signaling events associated with membrane PRs and/or extra-nuclear, cytoplasmic PRs converge with classical PR activated pathways in neuroendocrine regulation of female reproductive behavior. The molecular mechanisms, by which multiple signaling pathways converge on PRs to modulate PR-dependent female reproductive behavior, are discussed in this review. PMID:20116396

  9. Neuroimaging supports behavioral personality assessment: Overlapping activations during reflective and impulsive risk taking.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; M Ortner, Tuulia

    2016-09-01

    Personality assessment has been challenged by the fact that different assessment methods (implicit measures, behavioral measures and explicit rating scales) show little or no convergence in behavioral studies. In this neuroimaging study we address for the first time, whether different assessment methods rely on separate or overlapping neuronal systems. Fifty nine healthy adult participants completed two objective personality tests of risk propensity: the more implicit Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART) and the more explicit Game of Dice Task (GDT). Significant differences in activation, as well as connectivity patterns between both tasks were observed. In both tasks, risky decisions yielded significantly stronger activations than safe decisions in the bilateral caudate, as well as the bilateral Insula. The finding of overlapping brain areas validates different assessment methods, despite their behavioral non-convergence. This suggests that neuroimaging can be an important tool of validation in the field of personality assessment. PMID:27373370

  10. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  11. Structure of a putative acetyltransferase (PA1377) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, Anna M.; Tata, Renée; Chauviac, François-Xavier; Sutton, Brian J.; Brown, Paul R.

    2008-05-01

    The crystal structure of an acetyltransferase encoded by the gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been determined at 2.25 Å resolution. Comparison with a related acetyltransferase revealed a structural difference in the active site that was taken to reflect a difference in substrate binding and/or specificity between the two enzymes. Gene PA1377 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes a 177-amino-acid conserved hypothetical protein of unknown function. The structure of this protein (termed pitax) has been solved in space group I222 to 2.25 Å resolution. Pitax belongs to the GCN5-related N-acetyltransferase family and contains all four sequence motifs conserved among family members. The β-strand structure in one of these motifs (motif A) is disrupted, which is believed to affect binding of the substrate that accepts the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA.

  12. 76 FR 58327 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00044

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00044 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of... 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small...

  13. 76 FR 64419 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00045

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00045 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Kingsport Road, Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of...

  14. 76 FR 58328 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00042

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00042 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for the Commonwealth of..., Fort Worth, TX 76155. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance,...

  15. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... INFORMATION CONTACT: A. Escobar, Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409...

  16. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.113 PA exemptions. (a) Exempt systems of records. 5 U.S.C. 552a authorizes SECNAV to adopt rules designating eligible systems of records as exempt from... responsible for proposing an exemption rule. Exempt systems of records are identified at...

  17. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

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  18. Context-Specific Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognition in Children.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Daniel; Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. Activity levels were also measured objectively. Cognition was assessed using the British Ability Scales. General linear models were used to assess longitudinal associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior, measured both objectively and via self-report, with cognition. Analyses were adjusted for prespecified covariates. Sports/physical activity club attendance (B = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.1), doing homework (B = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.9), and objectively measured sedentary time (B = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) at age 7 years were positively associated with cognition at age 11 years in final the models. Television viewing was negatively associated with cognition (B = -1.7, 95% CI: -2.4, -1.0), although the association was attenuated to the null after adjustments for baseline cognition. Objectively measured light physical activity was inversely associated with cognition (B = -0.7, 95% CI: -1.3, -0.1). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was also inversely associated with cognition in girls only (B = -1.1, 95% CI: -2.0, -0.3). Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with cognition appear to be context-specific in young people. PMID:27226249

  19. Checking the determinants of physical activity based on the theory of planned behavior in the housewives

    PubMed Central

    Saber, Fatemeh; Shanazi, Hossein; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hasanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sedentary life has been recognized as a serious problem in today's Iranian society. Promoting the lifestyle with increased physical activity and prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is imperative. The purpose of this study was identifying the determinants of physical activity in the housewives of Nain city in 2012 based on the theory of planned behavior. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 120 housewives were selected by simple random sampling method. Data collection tool was a questionnaire designed based on a standardized and fabricated questionnaire and consisted of four parts. The questionnaire included awareness variables, theory of structures, planned behavior, and physical activity. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS software version 18 and associated statistical tests. Findings: The 120 housewives under study had a mean age of 34.58 ± 6.86 years. The mean scores of awareness, attitude, motivation to perform, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control variables were 74.1 ± 18.5, 82.6 ± 12.1, 59.4 ± 21.7, 63.2 ± 21.2, and 48.1 ± 12.9 respectively. There was a significant relationship between the motivation for physical activity among women and knowledge (P = 0.02) attitude (P = 0.04) subjective norms (P = 0.002) perceived behavioral control (P = 0.001), and physical activity (P = 0.04). Conclusions: It seems that the housewives, despite being aware of and having a positive attitude on the benefits of physical activity, had a poor lifestyle. Perhaps further studies can help in finding the causes of this issue and the barriers to physical activity such as the conditions and plan for greater measures for improving physical activity, in order to promote women's health which has a significant role in family and community health. PMID:25250360

  20. Context-Specific Associations of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior With Cognition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Aggio, Daniel; Smith, Lee; Fisher, Abigail; Hamer, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated how overall and specific domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at the age of 7 years were associated with cognition at the age of 11 years in 8,462 children from the Millennium Cohort Study. Data were collected from 2001 to 2013. Participation in domains of physical activity and sedentary behavior at 7 years of age were reported. Activity levels were also measured objectively. Cognition was assessed using the British Ability Scales. General linear models were used to assess longitudinal associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior, measured both objectively and via self-report, with cognition. Analyses were adjusted for prespecified covariates. Sports/physical activity club attendance (B = 0.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 1.1), doing homework (B = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.0, 0.9), and objectively measured sedentary time (B = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.1, 1.4) at age 7 years were positively associated with cognition at age 11 years in final the models. Television viewing was negatively associated with cognition (B = −1.7, 95% CI: −2.4, −1.0), although the association was attenuated to the null after adjustments for baseline cognition. Objectively measured light physical activity was inversely associated with cognition (B = −0.7, 95% CI: −1.3, −0.1). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was also inversely associated with cognition in girls only (B = −1.1, 95% CI: −2.0, −0.3). Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with cognition appear to be context-specific in young people. PMID:27226249

  1. Active recognition enhances the representation of behaviorally relevant information in single auditory forebrain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Daniel P.

    2013-01-01

    Sensory systems are dynamic. They must process a wide range of natural signals that facilitate adaptive behaviors in a manner that depends on an organism's constantly changing goals. A full understanding of the sensory physiology that underlies adaptive natural behaviors must therefore account for the activity of sensory systems in light of these behavioral goals. Here we present a novel technique that combines in vivo electrophysiological recording from awake, freely moving songbirds with operant conditioning techniques that allow control over birds' recognition of conspecific song, a widespread natural behavior in songbirds. We show that engaging in a vocal recognition task alters the response properties of neurons in the caudal mesopallium (CM), an avian analog of mammalian auditory cortex, in European starlings. Compared with awake, passive listening, active engagement of subjects in an auditory recognition task results in neurons responding to fewer song stimuli and a decrease in the trial-to-trial variability in their driven firing rates. Mean firing rates also change during active recognition, but not uniformly. Relative to nonengaged listening, active recognition causes increases in the driven firing rates in some neurons, decreases in other neurons, and stimulus-specific changes in other neurons. These changes lead to both an increase in stimulus selectivity and an increase in the information conveyed by the neurons about the animals' behavioral task. This study demonstrates the behavioral dependence of neural responses in the avian auditory forebrain and introduces the starling as a model for real-time monitoring of task-related neural processing of complex auditory objects. PMID:23303858

  2. Copper acutely impairs behavioral function and muscle acetylcholinesterase activity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Haverroth, Gabriela M B; Welang, Chariane; Mocelin, Riciéri N; Postay, Daniela; Bertoncello, Kanandra T; Franscescon, Francini; Rosemberg, Denis B; Dal Magro, Jacir; Dalla Corte, Cristiane L

    2015-12-01

    Copper is a heavy metal found at relatively high concentrations in surface waters around the world. Copper is a micronutrient at low concentrations and is essential to several organisms. At higher concentrations copper can become toxic, which reveal the importance of studying the toxic effects of this metal on the aquatic life. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the toxic effects of copper on the behavior and biochemical parameters of zebrafish (Danio rerio). Zebrafish were exposed for 24h at a concentration of 0.006 mg/L Cu. After the exposure period, behavioral profile of animals was recorded through 6 min using two different apparatuses tests: the Novel Tank and the Light-Dark test. After behavioral testing, animals were euthanized with a solution of 250 mg/L of tricaine (MS-222). Brain, muscle, liver and gills were extracted for analysis of parameters related to oxidative stress and accumulation of copper in these tissues. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was determined in brain and muscle. Results showed acute exposure to copper induces significant changes in behavioral profile of zebrafish by changing locomotion and natural tendency to avoid brightly lit area. On the other hand, there were no significant effects on parameters related to oxidative stress. AChE activity decreased significantly in zebrafish muscle, but there were no significant changes in cerebral AChE activity. Copper levels in tissues did not increase significantly compared to the controls. Taken together, these results indicate that a low concentration of copper can acutely affect behavioral profile of adult zebrafish which could be partially related to an inhibition on muscle AChE activity. These results reinforce the need of additional tests to establishment of safe copper concentrations to aquatic organisms and the importance of behavioral parameters in ecotoxicological studies. PMID:26386335

  3. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity and Children's Behavioral Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisonbee, Jared A.; Pendry, Patricia; Mize, Jacquelyn; Gwynn, Eugenia Parrett

    2010-01-01

    Self-regulation ability is an important component of children's academic success. Physiological reactivity may relate to brain activity governing attention and behavioral regulation. Saliva samples collected from 186 preschool children (101 boys, mean age = 53 months, 34% minority) before and after a series of mildly challenging games and again 30…

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Distance Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özkan, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between physical activity levels and healthy life-style behaviors in distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University. In total, 526 distance education students in Hoca Ahmet Yesevi University participated in this study voluntarily. The short form of International Physical…

  5. The declining prevalence of overweight among Russian children: income, diet, and physical activity behavior changes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Household income has been shown to be positively associated with overweight among post-Soviet Russian adults. The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among income, diet, physical activity behaviors and overweight among Russian children during a period of economic upheaval. Subjects inc...

  6. Pubertal Development and Behavior: Hormonal Activation of Social and Motivational Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of dramatic changes including rapid physical growth, the onset of sexual maturation, the activation of new drives and motivations, and a wide array of social and affective changes and challenges. This review focuses on behavioral changes in this interval and is organized by the claim that a key set of these adolescent changes…

  7. Behavioral Activation Treatment for Depression in Older Adults Delivered via Videoconferencing: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzari, Claudia; Egan, Sarah J.; Rees, Clare S.

    2011-01-01

    Depression affects up to 25% of older adults. Underdetection and subsequent undertreatment of depression in older adults has been attributed in part to difficulties in older adults being able to access treatment. This uncontrolled pilot study, N = 3, explored the acceptability and efficacy of a brief behavioral activation treatment delivered via…

  8. Dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking among pregnant Puerto Rican women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have examined predictors of meeting health guidelines in pregnancy among Latina women. We assessed dietary behaviors, physical activity, and cigarette smoking in the Latina Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Study, a prospective cohort of 1231 prenatal care patients. Self-reported information...

  9. Ninth Graders' Energy Balance Knowledge and Physical Activity Behavior: An Expectancy-Value Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy beliefs and task values are two essential motivators in physical education. This study was designed to identify the relation between the expectancy-value constructs (Eccles & Wigfield, 1995) and high school students' physical activity behavior as associated with their energy balance knowledge. High school students (N = 195) in two…

  10. Improving Homework Compliance in Career Counseling with a Behavioral Activation Functional Assessment Procedure: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, David E.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Bowe, William M.; Pfennig, Sherri L.

    2011-01-01

    Behavioral activation has emerged as a widely used treatment for depression in a number of health care settings due to its concrete, straightforward emphasis on out-of-session client homework, but it lacks explicit guidelines for identifying and overcoming barriers that interfere with homework completion. The purpose of this pilot study was to…

  11. Behavioral Activation in the Treatment of Comorbid Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulick, Patrick S.; Naugle, Amy E.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of 10-weeks of Behavioral Activation (BA) in the treatment of comorbid Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in four adults using a nonconcurrent multiple baseline across participants design. All participants met full "DSM-IV" criteria for both MDD and PTSD at the outset of…

  12. Design of video games for children's diet and physical activity behavior change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serious video games (VG) offer new opportunities for promoting health related diet, and physical activity change among children. Games can be designed to use storylines, characters, and behavior change procedures, including modeling (e.g., engaging characters make changes themselves, and face and ov...

  13. Dance Class Structure Affects Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: A Study of Seven Dance Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez Castillo, Maria A.; Carlson, Jordan A.; Cain, Kelli L.; Bonilla, Edith A.; Chuang, Emmeline; Elder, John P.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims were to determine: (a) how class structure varies by dance type, (b) how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior vary by dance class segments, and (c) how class structure relates to total MVPA in dance classes. Method: Participants were 291 boys and girls ages 5 to 18 years old enrolled in 58…

  14. Socioemotional Behavior and School Achievement in Relation to Extracurricular Activity Participation in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metsapelto, Riitta-Leena; Pulkkinen, Lea

    2012-01-01

    This 3-year longitudinal study investigated the associations of student (aged 9 to 10 years at the beginning of the study; n = 281; 51% girls) participation in extracurricular activities with teacher-rated socioemotional behavior and school achievement. MANOVA results showed that, after controlling for the grade level and the initial level of the…

  15. Associations between Physical Activity and Reduced Rates of Hopelessness, Depression, and Suicidal Behavior among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Pigg, R. Morgan; Miller, M. David; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors explored associations among types of physical activity and hopelessness, depression, and suicidal behavior among college students. Participants: Participants included 43,499 college students aged 18 to 25 who completed the 2005 National College Health Assessment conducted by the American College Health Association. Methods:…

  16. Social-Cognitive Influences on Students' Physical Activity Behavior across the First College Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barfield, J. P.; Hutchinson, Jasmin

    2012-01-01

    Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal influence of specific social-cognitive variables on students' physical activity behavior across the first college year. Methods. First-year college students (N = 406) from a regional higher education institution participated. Email solicitation was sent to…

  17. Commentary on Hyper-Activity in Children Having Behavior Disorders (Childers, 1935)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Russell A.

    2009-01-01

    Commenting on an historically significant article by A. T. Childers ("Hyper-Activity in Children Having Behavior Disorders," "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry," 5:227-243 1935), Barkley states that it is evident that the Childers' article deserves a place of importance in the history of ADHD, as much of what Childers found to be associated with…

  18. Adolescent Sexual Activity and Mildly Deviant Behavior: Sibling and Friendship Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rowe, David C.

    1990-01-01

    Examined the relationship between adolescent sexual activity and mildly deviant behavior. Analyzed data of 1,739 adolescents from the Carolina Population Center's Sexuality Project which contained linkable responses of siblings, best friends, and other friends. Results showed overlap between sexuality and mild deviance but also indicated that the…

  19. Using Computers to Initiate Active Learning for Students with Severe Behavior Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reganick, Karol A.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a desktop publishing project that uses computer-assisted instruction to engage students with severe behavioral problems in a more active learning environment. Topics discussed include the reinforcement from computers; benefits of computer-assisted instruction; hardware and software selection; staff training; evaluation; and future…

  20. Daun02 Inactivation of Behaviorally Activated Fos-Expressing Neuronal Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Koya, Eisuke; Margetts-Smith, Gabriella; Hope, Bruce T

    2016-01-01

    Learned associations about salient experiences (e.g., drug exposure, stress) and their associated environmental stimuli are mediated by a minority of sparsely distributed, behaviorally activated neurons coined 'neuronal ensembles.' For many years, it was not known whether these neuronal ensembles played causal roles in mediating learned behaviors. However, in the last several years the 'Daun02 inactivation technique' in Fos-lacZ transgenic rats has proved very useful in establishing causal links between neuronal ensembles that express the activity-regulated protein Fos and learned behaviors. Fos-expressing neurons in these rats also express the bacterial protein β-galactosidase (β-gal) in strongly activated neurons. When the prodrug Daun02 is injected into the brains of these rats 90 min after a behavior (e.g., drug-seeking) or cue exposure, then Daun02 is converted into daunorubicin by β-gal, which selectively inactivates Fos- and β-gal-expressing neurons that were activated 90 min before the Daun02 injection. This unit presents protocols for breeding the Fos-lacZ rats and conducting appropriate Daun02 inactivation experiments. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:27367964