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Sample records for activity pa guidelines

  1. Middle School Physical Education Physical Activity Quantification: A Pedometer Steps/Min Guideline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Philip W.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to improve physical activity (PA) surveillance of the Healthy People 2010 Objective 22:10 (i.e., 50% of the lesson time engaged in PA) by establishing a pedometer steps/min guideline to quantify time engaged in PA during physical education. A sample of 180 middle school students had their PA measured via pedometry…

  2. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-03-22

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response.

  3. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  4. Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Rogers, Laura Q.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Verhulst, Steven; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine contribution of social cognitive constructs to meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in rural breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Rural BCS (N = 483) completed a mail-based survey. PA, fatigue, barriers and exercise self-efficacy, environment, social support, and perceived barriers to PA were assessed. PA was dichotomized into either meeting guidelines (150+minutes/week) or not. Results Our model fit the data well with less fatigue, greater efficacy, and lower barriers being associated with PA (χ²=804.532(418), p < .001, CFI=.948, RMSEA=.044, SRMR=.046). Conclusions Fatigue, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers are key targets for future interventions designed to increase PA in rural BCS. Enhancing self-efficacy and overcoming barriers will require strategies unique and relevant to BCS living in rural settings. PMID:25341266

  5. Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Mediates Neurotoxin-Induced Cell Death and Microglial Activation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-07-01

    Alzheimer’s disease and stroke. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a protease converting plasminogen to plasmin, is necessary for neurodegeneration. In mice lacking tPA (tPA-/1), neurons are resistant to neurotoxic death. Delivery of tPA into tpA-/- mice restores susceptibility to neuronal death, indicating that tPA is neurotoxic in the context of excitotoxic injury. Although tPA is synthesized by neurons, the increase in tPA upon injury derives primarily from activated microglia, the immune cells of the brain. Microglia in tPA-/- mice demonstrate reduced activation.

  6. Proteasome Activators, PA28α and PA28β, Govern Development of Microvascular Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy and Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudpour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) and diabetic retinopathy (DR) are major complications of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. DN and DR are mainly caused by injury to the perivascular supporting cells, the mesangial cells within the glomerulus, and the pericytes in the retina. The genes and molecular mechanisms predisposing retinal and glomerular pericytes to diabetic injury are poorly characterized. In this study, the genetic deletion of proteasome activator genes, PA28α and PA28β genes, protected the diabetic mice in the experimental STZ-induced diabetes model against renal injury and retinal microvascular injury and prolonged their survival compared with wild type STZ diabetic mice. The improved wellbeing and reduced renal damage was associated with diminished expression of Osteopontin (OPN) and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) in the glomeruli of STZ-injected PA28α/PA28β double knockout (Pa28αβDKO) mice and also in cultured mesangial cells and retinal pericytes isolated from Pa28αβDKO mice that were grown in high glucose. The mesangial PA28-mediated expression of OPN under high glucose conditions was suppressed by peptides capable of inhibiting the binding of PA28 to the 20S proteasome. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that diabetic hyperglycemia promotes PA28-mediated alteration of proteasome activity in vulnerable perivascular cells resulting in microvascular injury and development of DN and DR. PMID:27830089

  7. Impact of compliance with different guidelines on physical activity during pregnancy and perceived barriers to leisure physical activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Lopes, Diana; Santos, Rute; Alves, Odete; Silva, Pedro; Montenegro, Nuno; Mota, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the this prospective study were to analyse physical activity (PA) engagement during the first and second trimesters, considering the different guidelines published on PA, to document the individual characteristics associated with the accomplishment of these guidelines and to examine pregnant women's perceived barriers to leisure PA, using a socioecological framework. A sample of 133 pregnant women in two stages--at 10-12 weeks' gestation (T1) and 20-22 weeks' gestation (T2)--were evaluated. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the T1 and T2 evaluation stages. Socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and barriers to leisure PA were assessed via questionnaire. A large proportion of women (ranging from 32% to 96%) did not reach the levels of PA recommended by the guidelines. There were no significant differences between T1 and T2 with regard to compliance with PA recommendations. A decrease in PA levels from T1 to T2 was noted for all recommendations. No associations were found between participants' characteristics and adherence to the recommendations in T1 and T2. No significant differences were found in barriers to leisure PA between T1 and T2. The most commonly reported barriers to leisure PA were intrapersonal, not health related. Our results indicate that there were no differences between trimesters regarding compliance of PA recommendations, and perceived barriers were similar in both trimesters.

  8. Accelerometry-Determined Adherence to the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Douglas A.; Jankowiak, Noelle M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: A need exists to determine whether college students engage in sufficient physical activity (PA) using objective methodology. Purpose: Accelerometry-based activity monitors were used to evaluate adherence to the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Methods: College students (N =…

  9. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K.; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children’s physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students’ physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment’s impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards. PMID:26230850

  10. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    PubMed

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  11. Knowledge and awareness of Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines: a synthesis of existing evidence.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Allana G; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this review was to consolidate and synthesize existing evidence regarding current knowledge and awareness of the Canadian Physical Activity (PA) and Sedentary Behaviour (SB) Guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO were searched for peer-reviewed publications pertaining to the guidelines. Content experts, key organizations (i.e., ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute), journal Web sites, and service organizations (i.e., the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP) and the Public Health Agency of Canada) were consulted for additional evidence. Scientific publications (n = 6) and research from ParticipACTION and the Canadian Fitness and Lifestyle Research Institute reported that awareness of the guidelines is low, especially with respect to the SB guidelines. Less than 10% of survey respondents from the Canadian population were aware of the PA guidelines, and less than 5% were aware of the SB guidelines. Information on the guidelines was available on 51% of public health unit and CSEP partner Web sites. Online metrics (e.g., downloads, site accessions) from CSEP, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and journal Web sites showed that online accession of the guidelines was high (e.g., all "highly accessed" on journal Web sites). This review showed that awareness of the Canadian PA and SB Guidelines is low among the general population but higher among the scientific and stakeholder communities. Governmental, nongovernmental, and stakeholder organizations should collaborate in creating sustained, long-term, and well-resourced communication plans to reach the Canadian population to raise awareness of PA and SB guidelines and should implement programs to facilitate their uptake.

  12. Mothers’ perceptions of the UK physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines for the early years (Start Active, Stay Active): a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, Georgina F; Jago, Russell; Turner, Katrina M

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Higher levels of physical activity (PA) during early childhood have been associated with improved health outcomes, whereas sedentary behaviour (SB) has been associated with poorer health outcomes in children. In 2011, the UK produced guidelines for PA and SB in children under 5 years. Mothers have been identified as key influences in young children's PA and SB. The aim of this study was to use in-depth interviews with mothers of preschool children to examine attitudes to the guidance. Design Qualitative study using one-to-one, semistructured interviews; Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Setting Mothers were recruited from preschools, nurseries, and mother and toddler groups located in four areas of varying socioeconomic status within Bristol, UK. Participants 24 mothers who were considered the main or joint carer for a preschool child who was at least 2 years of age but had not yet started formal schooling. Results Mothers are not aware of the UK PA and SB guidelines for the early years. They believe that their child achieves the guideline targets for PA and SB and therefore, they do not believe these quidelines are relevant to them. Mothers feel that an increase in PA and reduction in SB (especially screen-viewing) would cause stress for mothers. Mothers found defining and quantifying PA and SB in their preschool child problematic. Conclusions As mothers do not identify with the need to increase PA or reduce SB in their child, awareness of the guidelines alone is unlikely to initiate behaviour change. Information on how mothers can make a more accurate assessment of their preschool child's PA and SB levels, and information about the benefits of increased PA and reduced SB should be provided alongside the guideline targets. Clear messages need to be developed that reframe the guidelines into pragmatic and usable targets. PMID:26351186

  13. Meeting physical activity guidelines is associated with lower allostatic load and inflammation in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Gay, Jennifer L; Salinas, Jennifer J; Buchner, David M; Mirza, Shaper; Kohl, Harold W; Fisher-Hoch, Susan P; McCormick, Joseph B

    2015-04-01

    Examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and allostatic load in Mexican-Americans as well as variations by gender. Self-reported PA as well as cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory markers were assessed in 330 Mexican-American adults in the Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (Brownsville, TX, USA). Dependent variables included total allostatic load, blood pressure, metabolic, and inflammatory scores. PA participation was categorized as sedentary, low, moderate, high, and by whether activity was sufficient to meet public health guidelines. Logistic regression analyses were conducted using cross-sectional data, and tested interaction effects of gender and PA. High active participants had lower allostatic load and inflammatory risk than sedentary participants. These relationships held for meeting versus not meeting guidelines. Males meeting guidelines were less likely to have high inflammation than other groups. The data did not suggest a dose-response association. These findings indicate that PA may reduce accumulation of allostatic load, highlighting the importance of a physically active lifestyle across the life span.

  14. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Jie; He, Xiaojing; Lv, Zongyang; Ge, Ruowen; Li, Xuemei; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Yingfang

    2009-11-10

    The heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase, containing the PA, PB1 and PB2 proteins, catalyses viral RNA replication and transcription in the nucleus of infected cells. PB1 holds the polymerase active site and reportedly harbours endonuclease activity, whereas PB2 is responsible for cap binding. The PA amino terminus is understood to be the major functional part of the PA protein and has been implicated in several roles, including endonuclease and protease activities as well as viral RNA/complementary RNA promoter binding. Here we report the 2.2 angstrom (A) crystal structure of the N-terminal 197 residues of PA, termed PA(N), from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. The PA(N) structure has an alpha/beta architecture and reveals a bound magnesium ion coordinated by a motif similar to the (P)DX(N)(D/E)XK motif characteristic of many endonucleases. Structural comparisons and mutagenesis analysis of the motif identified in PA(N) provide further evidence that PA(N) holds an endonuclease active site. Furthermore, functional analysis with in vivo ribonucleoprotein reconstitution and direct in vitro endonuclease assays strongly suggest that PA(N) holds the endonuclease active site and has critical roles in endonuclease activity of the influenza virus polymerase, rather than PB1. The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics.

  15. A novel plasminogen activator from Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis venom (ABUSV-PA): purification and characterization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuqing; Sun, Ming-Zhong; Greenaway, Frederick T

    2006-10-06

    A plasminogen activator with arginine ester hydrolysis activity (ABUSV-PA) has been identified and purified to homogeneity from Chinese Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis snake venom. ABUSV-PA, a monomeric protein with molecular mass of 27815.2 Da, was purified 180-fold with 0.02% recovery for protein and 3.6% recovery for esterase activity. ABUSV-PA reacts optimally with its substrate N(alpha)-tosyl-l-arginine-methyl ester (TAME) at approximately pH 7.5 and at 51 degrees C. Measurement from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) reveals that ABUSV-PA is a Zn(2+)-containing protein with a stoichiometry of 1:1 [Zn(2+)]:[ABUSV-PA]. Analyses of esterase hydrolysis and UV absorption and CD spectra indicate that Zn(2+) plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity rather than the esterase activity of ABUSV-PA. Divalent metal ions, including Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Cu(2+), Ni(2+), Mn(2+), and Co(2+), increase the TAME hydrolysis activity of ABUSV-PA. A red-shift of the emission wavelengths of the synchronous fluorescence of ABUSV-PA, compared to those of free Tyr and Trp, indicates a conformation where the Tyr and Trp residues are in exposed hydrophilic environments. The presence of zinc increases the hydrophobicity of the conformational environments surrounding the Trp residues of ABUSV-PA and affects the secondary structure of ABUSV-PA, as proved by UV absorption and CD spectroscopy.

  16. Genomic structural characterization and transcriptional expression analysis of proteasome activator PA28α and PA28β subunits from Oplegnathus fasciatus.

    PubMed

    Kasthuri, Saranya Revathy; Umasuthan, Navaneethaiyer; Whang, Ilson; Kim, Eunmi; Park, Hae-Chul; Lee, Jehee

    2013-10-01

    Proteasomes are multicatalytic subunit complexes involved in the degradation of cytosolic proteins and antigen presentation. In this study, we have characterized the alpha and beta subunits of proteasome activator complex from rock bream at the molecular level. RbPA28α and RbPA28β possessed the characteristic features of the subunits identified from mammals and teleosts. The RbPA28α and RbPA28β proteasome subunits contained a proline-rich motif (Region A), subunit-specific insert in the region corresponding to the KEKE motif of the known PA28α (Region B), conserved activation loop (Region C), a potential protein kinase C recognition site (Region D) and a highly homologous C-terminal region (Region E) among all three PA28 subunits. Multiple sequence alignment and pairwise alignment revealed that RbPA28α and RbPA28β proteins shared high homology with the teleosts and mammals. RbPA28α and RbPA28β genome possessed 11 exons interrupted by 10 introns. In silico promoter analysis of RbPA28α and RbPA28β revealed various transcription factor-binding sites displaying their regulation under various stress conditions. Tissue distribution profiling showed a higher expression in blood and gills. Transcriptional expression analysis of RbPA28α and RbPA28β showed up-regulation in the immune tissues following LPS and poly I:C challenges, providing further evidence for the immunological role of RbPA28α and RbPA28β.

  17. [Guidelines for good practice of sports activities].

    PubMed

    Scheen, A J; Crielaard, J M

    2001-05-01

    The present closing article summarizes some guidelines for the good practice of physical activities in order to develop and maintain cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness, and flexibility. Advice is given regarding the recommended quantity and quality of exercise in term of intensity, duration and frequency of training with the aim to optimize the risk/benefit ratio for health, in both aerobic endurance and resistance exercises. The crucial role of an appropriate warm-up and cool-down period, which would include flexibility exercises, is also emphasized. Finally, some practical examples illustrate this vademecum of physical activities.

  18. Physical activity (PA) among middle-aged women: initial and current influences and patterns of participation.

    PubMed

    Codina, Nuria; Pestana, José V; Armadans, Immaculada

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the initial and current influences for doing physical activity (PA), current levels of PA participation, and future plans for it. Participants were 200 women aged 45 to 64 years old. Factor loadings of influences were explored using Principal Components Analysis. Pearson bivariate correlations, t-test, and ANOVA were used to show the differences among the influences, sociodemographic characteristics, and present/future PA participation. Personal fulfillment was the main initial influence, while health benefits/self-care, and outdoor/family activities were the most important current influences. The results highlight the factors that best explain present PA participation and also plans for activity in the future.

  19. Interaction between plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) bound to fibrin and either tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) or urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). Binding of t-PA/PAI-1 complexes to fibrin mediated by both the finger and the kringle-2 domain of t-PA.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, O F; de Vries, C; Hohmann, C; Veerman, H; Pannekoek, H

    1989-01-01

    Plasminogen activation is catalyzed both by tissue-type-(t-PA) and by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). This reaction is controlled by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) that is either present in plasma or bound to fibrin, present in a thrombus. We studied the mechanism of in vitro inhibition of both t-PA and u-PA activity by PAI-1 bound to fibrin. It is shown that activation of latent PAI-1 unmasks a specific fibrin-binding site that is distinct from its reactive site. This reactive site of activated PAI-1 bound to fibrin is fully exposed to form complexes with t-PA and u-PA, that are unable to activate plasminogen. Upon complex formation with either one of the plasminogen activators, PAI-1 apparently undergoes a conformational change and loses its affinity for fibrin. Consequently, complexes of u-PA and PAI-1 dissociate from the fibrin matrix and are encountered in the fluid phase. In contrast, t-PA/PAI-1 complexes remain bound to fibrin. By employing recombinant t-PA deletion-mutant proteins, that precisely lack domains involved in fibrin binding, we demonstrate that binding of t-PA/PAI-1 complexes is mediated by both the "finger" (F) and the "kringle-2" (K2) domain of t-PA. A model is proposed that explains inhibition of the fibrinolytic process, at the level of plasminogen activation by t-PA, directed by PAI-1 bound to fibrin. An implication of the proposed model is that t-PA/PAI-1 complexes and free t-PA compete for the same binding sites on fibrin. Images PMID:2503541

  20. Summary of International Guidelines for Physical Activity Following Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Postpartum physical activity can improve mood, maintain cardiorespiratory fitness, improve weight control, promote weight loss, and reduce depression and anxiety. This review summarizes current guidelines for postpartum physical activity worldwide. PubMed (MedLINE) was searched for country-specific government and clinical guidelines on physical activity following pregnancy through the year 2013. Only the most recent guideline was included in the review. An abstraction form facilitated extraction of key details and helped to summarize results. Six guidelines were identified from five countries (Australia, Canada, Norway, United Kingdom, United States). All guidelines were embedded within pregnancy-related physical activity recommendations. All provided physical activity advice related to breastfeeding and three remarked about physical activity following Caesarean delivery. Recommended physical activities mentioned in the guidelines included aerobic (3/6), pelvic floor exercise (3/6), strengthening (2/6), stretching (2/6), and walking (2/6). None of the guidelines discussed sedentary behavior. The guidelines that were identified lacked specificity for physical activity. Greater clarity in guidelines would be more useful to both practitioners and the women they serve. Postpartum physical activity guidelines have the potential to assist women to initiate or resume physical activity following childbirth, so that they can transition to meeting recommended levels of physical activity. Health care providers have a critical role in encouraging women to be active at this time, and the availability of more explicit guidelines may assist them to routinely include physical activity advice in their postpartum care. PMID:25112589

  1. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity.

  2. Plasma tPA-Activity and Progression of Cerebral White Matter Hyperintensities in Lacunar Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    van Overbeek, Ellen C.; Staals, Julie; Knottnerus, Iris L. H.; ten Cate, Hugo; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-activity and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) antigen are considered to be haemostasis-related markers of endothelial activation and relate to presence of cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) as was earlier shown in a cross-sectional study. We investigated whether tPA-activity and PAI-1 levels are associated with WMH progression in a longitudinal study. Methods In 127 first-ever lacunar stroke patients in whom baseline brain MRI and plasma levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1-antigen were available, we obtained a 2-year follow-up MRI. We assessed WMH progression by a visual WMH change scale. We determined the relationship between levels of tPA-activity and PAI-1 and WMH progression, by logistic regression analysis. Results Plasma tPA-activity was associated with periventricular WMH progression (OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.01–5.49, with correction for age and sex and baseline presence of WMH), but not with deep or any (periventricular and/or deep) WMH progression. PAI-1 levels were lower in patients with WMH progression, but these results were not significant. Conclusion We found a relationship between plasma tPA-activity and progression of periventricular WMH. More research is needed to determine whether there is a (direct) role of tPA in the development and progression of WMH. PMID:26942412

  3. Molecular and functional characterization of a putative PA28γ proteasome activator orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Soares, Cláudia Sossai; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Machado, Carla Botelho; Moreira, Érika Bueno de Carvalho; Teixeira, Felipe Roberti; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Yoshino, Timothy P

    2013-05-01

    PA28γ is a proteasome activator involved in the regulation of the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth. In the present study, we identified and characterized a cDNA from Schistosoma mansoni exhibiting significant homology to PA28γ of diverse taxa ranging from mammals (including humans) to simple invertebrates. Designated SmPA28γ, this transcript has a 753bp predicted ORF encoding a protein of 250 amino acid residues. Alignment of SmPA28γ with multiple PA28γ orthologues revealed an average similarity of ~40% among the investigated organisms, and 90% similarity with PA28γ from Schistosoma japonicum. In addition, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close linkage between SmPA28γ to its sister group that contains well-characterized PA28γ sequences from Drosophila spp., as well as sharing the same branch with PA28γ from S. japonicum. Gene expression profiling of SmPA28γ using real-time quantitative PCR revealed elevated steady-state transcript levels in the eggs, miracidia and paired adult worms compared to other stages. In parallel with gene expression profiles, an affinity-purified anti-SmPA28γ antibody produced against recombinant protein exhibited strongest reactivity in Western blot analyses to endogenous SmPA28γ from miracidia, sporocysts and paired adult worms. Given its known regulatory function in other organisms, we hypothesized that the high level of SmPA28γ transcript and protein in these stages may be correlated with an important role of the PA28γ in the cellular growth and/or development of this parasite. To address this hypothesis, miracidia were transformed in vitro to sporocysts in the presence of SmPA28γ double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and cultivated for 4 days, after which time steady-state transcript and protein levels, and phenotypic changes were evaluated. SmPA28γ dsRNA treatment resulted in gene and protein knockdown of ~60% and ~80%, respectively, which were correlated with a significant decrease in larval length

  4. Inhibition of PA endonuclease activity of influenza virus RNA polymerase by Kampo medicines.

    PubMed

    Shirayama, Riku; Shoji, Masaki; Sriwilaijaroen, Nongluk; Hiramatsu, Hiroaki; Suzuki, Yasuo; Kuzuhara, Takashi

    To find a novel influenza inhibitor targeting the endonuclease activity of influenza A virus polymerase acidic protein (PA), which is essential for the acquisition of primers for viral mRNA transcription, seven Kampo extracts were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit endonuclease activity of the recombinant PA protein that was expressed and purified from Escherichia coli. The Kampo medicines Kakkonto, Shosaikoto, Saikokeishito, Keishito, Maobushisaishinto, and Maoto, but not Chikujountanto, inhibited PA endonuclease activity in a dose-dependent manner. Our results indicate that Kampo medicines are good sources providing a structural lead for optimization of an influenza endonuclease inhibitor.

  5. A novel plasminogen activator from Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis venom (ABUSV-PA): Purification and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shuqing; Sun Mingzhong . E-mail: ming-zhong.sun@case.edu; Greenaway, Frederick T.

    2006-10-06

    A plasminogen activator with arginine ester hydrolysis activity (ABUSV-PA) has been identified and purified to homogeneity from Chinese Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis snake venom. ABUSV-PA, a monomeric protein with molecular mass of 27815.2 Da, was purified 180-fold with 0.02% recovery for protein and 3.6% recovery for esterase activity. ABUSV-PA reacts optimally with its substrate N {sub {alpha}}-tosyl-L-arginine-methyl ester (TAME) at {approx}pH 7.5 and at 51 {sup o}C. Measurement from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) reveals that ABUSV-PA is a Zn{sup 2+}-containing protein with a stoichiometry of 1:1 [Zn{sup 2+}]:[ABUSV-PA]. Analyses of esterase hydrolysis and UV absorption and CD spectra indicate that Zn{sup 2+} plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity rather than the esterase activity of ABUSV-PA. Divalent metal ions, including Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+}, increase the TAME hydrolysis activity of ABUSV-PA. A red-shift of the emission wavelengths of the synchronous fluorescence of ABUSV-PA, compared to those of free Tyr and Trp, indicates a conformation where the Tyr and Trp residues are in exposed hydrophilic environments. The presence of zinc increases the hydrophobicity of the conformational environments surrounding the Trp residues of ABUSV-PA and affects the secondary structure of ABUSV-PA, as proved by UV absorption and CD spectroscopy.

  6. 32 CFR 147.14 - Guideline L-Outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Guideline L-Outside activities. 147.14 Section 147.14 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY... Adjudication § 147.14 Guideline L—Outside activities. (a) The concern. Involvement in certain types of...

  7. 32 CFR 147.14 - Guideline L-Outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Guideline L-Outside activities. 147.14 Section 147.14 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY... Adjudication § 147.14 Guideline L—Outside activities. (a) The concern. Involvement in certain types of...

  8. Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Chevilley, Arnaud; Lesept, Flavie; Lenoir, Sophie; Ali, Carine; Parcq, Jérôme; Vivien, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival. PMID:26528141

  9. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  10. Disparities in meeting physical activity guidelines for Asian Americans in two metropolitan areas in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Stella S.; Roberts, Calpurnyia; Lightstone, Amy S.; Shih, Margaret; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Physical activity (PA) levels in Asian American adults may be lower than other racial/ethnic groups. This analysis tested the hypothesis that Asian Americans are less likely to meet PA guidelines than other racial/ethnic groups regardless of location of residence. Methods The New York City (NYC) Community Health Survey (2010, 2012) and Los Angeles County (LAC) Health Survey (2011) are cross-sectional surveys conducted with similar sampling strategies (NYC: n=17,462; LAC: n=8,036). Meeting PA guidelines was calculated using self-reported moderate or vigorous minutes/week; multivariable regression models adjusted for demographics, insurance, nativity and language spoken at home. Data were weighted to be representative of their respective geographies. Results In both areas, Asian Americans had a low prevalence of meeting PA guidelines (NYC: 42.7 [39.2-46.3]; LAC: 55.8 [51.2-60.2]). Other racial/ethnic groups were more likely to meet PA guidelines versus Asian Americans after adjustment for covariates in NYC (white OR: 1.35 [1.09-1.68]; black OR: 1.61 [1.28-2.02]; Hispanic OR: 2.14 [1.74-2.62]) and in LAC (white OR: 1.45 [1.13-1.86]; Hispanic OR: 1.71 [1.32-2.22]). Conclusions Asian Americans were less likely to meet PA guidelines compared to other racial/ethnic groups in NYC and LAC. Description of cultural and neighborhood-level factors and of types of PA in specific Asian subgroups is needed. PMID:26065343

  11. Management of Hypertension: Adapting New Guidelines for Active Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.; Batt, Mark E.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent guidelines on hypertension from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and details the latest management protocols for patients with high blood pressure. The article helps physicians interpret the guidelines for treating active patients, highlighting diagnosis, step care revision, pharmacology, and sports participation…

  12. Labeling of human clots in vitro with an active-site mutant of t-PA

    SciTech Connect

    Fry, E.T.; Mack, D.L.; Monge, J.C.; Billadello, J.J.; Sobel, B.E. )

    1990-02-01

    Prompt detection of acute thrombosis and its response to treatment with thrombolytic agents generally require angiography. Scintigraphic approaches with labeled antibodies to or components of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems have been disappointing because of prolonged circulating half-lives of tracers and relatively slow or limited binding to thrombi. Accordingly, we developed and characterized a thrombolytically inactive, active-site mutant (Ser-478----Thr) of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) designed to detect thrombi in vivo. Binding of iodine-125-({sup 125}I) labeled Ser----Thr t-PA to thrombi in vitro was time- and concentration-dependent, and specific judging from inhibition by pre-incubation with anti-t-PA IgG. Clearance of 125I-labeled mutant t-PA in rabbits was rapid and biexponential (alpha t1/2 = 1.9 +/- 0.4 min, beta t1/2 = 39.8 +/- 11.2 min). Thus, the amidolytically inactive mutant of t-PA designed binds rapidly and specifically to human thrombi in vitro and is cleared rapidly from the circulation in vivo--properties rendering it attractive as a potentially useful clot imaging agent.

  13. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  14. PA28, an activator of the 20 S proteasome, is inactivated by proteolytic modification at its carboxyl terminus.

    PubMed

    Ma, C P; Willy, P J; Slaughter, C A; DeMartino, G N

    1993-10-25

    PA28, a protein activator of the 20 S proteasome, was previously identified in soluble extracts of bovine red blood cells (Ma, C.-P., Slaughter, C. A., and DeMartino, G. N. (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523). To determine whether this regulatory protein is as widely distributed as the proteasome, PA28 content and activity were examined in various eukaryotic tissues by immunoblot analysis and by functional assays of tissue extracts. PA28 protein was present in all sources examined. PA28 activity, however, was not detected in many of these sources, including those with the highest level of PA28 protein. To determine the biochemical basis of this result, PA28 was purified from extracts of rat liver, which had high levels of PA28 protein but no PA28 activity. The resulting purified PA28 had no detectable activity but had native and subunit molecular weights indistinguishable from the active PA28 of bovine red blood cells. Using the inactivation of purified PA28 as an assay, a protein that inactivated PA28 without altering its apparent molecular weight on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was identified, purified, and characterized from bovine liver. It had biochemical and catalytic characteristics similar to those of lysosomal carboxypeptidase B. When leupeptin, an inhibitor of lysosomal carboxypeptidase B, was included in the buffers used for the preparation of PA28, PA28 activity was detected in tissues which otherwise failed to demonstrate this activity. A similar result was obtained when extracts were prepared in a manner that minimized disruption of lysosomes. Other carboxypeptidases such as carboxypeptidase Y and pancreatic carboxypeptidase B also inactivated PA28 without altering its apparent molecular weight. Active PA28 binds to the proteasome to form a protease-activator complex that can be isolated after velocity sedimentation centrifugation through glycerol density gradients. Carboxypeptidase-inactivated PA28 failed to form such a complex

  15. Lower Odds of Poststroke Symptoms of Depression When Physical Activity Guidelines Met: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, Chris M.; Simpson, Annie N.

    2017-01-01

    Background One-third of individuals with stroke report symptoms of depression, which has a negative impact on recovery. Physical activity (PA) is a potentially effective therapy. Our objective was to examine the associations of subjectively assessed PA levels and symptoms of depression in a nationally representative stroke sample. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of 175 adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2012 cycle. Moderate, vigorous, and combination equivalent PA metabolic equivalent (MET)-minutes per week averages were derived from the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, and .the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines/American College of Sports Medicine recommendations of ≥500 MET-minutes per week of moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA were used as cut points. Depression symptoms were measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Results Meeting moderate PA guidelines resulted in 74% lower odds of having depression symptoms (P < .0001) and 89% lower odds of major symptoms of depression (P = .0003). Meeting vigorous guidelines showed a 91% lower odds of having mild symptoms of depression (P = .04). Participating in some moderate, vigorous, or combination equivalent PA revealed the odds of depression symptoms 13 times greater compared with meeting guidelines (P = .005); odds of mild symptoms of depression were 9 times greater (P = .01); and odds of major symptoms of depression were 15 times greater (P = .006). Conclusions There is a lower risk of developing mild symptoms of depression when vigorous guidelines for PA are met and developing major symptoms of depression when moderate guidelines met. Participating in some PA is not enough to reduce the risk of depression symptoms. PMID:27145542

  16. [Evidence-based guidelines for physical activity of adult Canadians].

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Rhodes, Ryan E; Shephard, Roy J

    2007-01-01

    This review of the literature provides an update on the scientific biological and psychosocial bases for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Health Active Living, with particular reference to the effect of physical activity on the health of adults aged 20-55 years. Existing physical activity guidelines for adults from around the world are summarized briefly and compared to the Canadian guidelines. The descriptive epidemiology of physical activity and inactivity in Canada is presented, and the strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated, with particular emphasis on minimal and optimal physical activity requirements. Finally, areas requiring further investigation are highlighted. Summarizing the findings, Canadian and most international physical activity guidelines advocate moderate-intensity physical activity on most days of the week. Physical activity appears to reduce the risk for over 25 chronic conditions, in particular coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, breast cancer, colon cancer, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis. Current literature suggests that if the entire Canadian population followed current physical activity guidelines, approximately one-third of deaths related to coronary heart disease, one quarter of deaths related to stroke and osteoporosis, 20% of deaths related to colon cancer, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes, and 14% of deaths related to breast cancer could be prevented. It also appears that the prevention of weight gain and the maintenance of weight loss require greater physical activity levels than current recommendations.

  17. Pyruvate and cilostazol protect cultured rat cortical pericytes against tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoon, Young Hee; Koh, Jae-Young

    2015-12-02

    Since even a brief ischemia can cause permanent brain damage, rapid restoration of blood flow is critical to limiting damage. Although intravenous tPA during the acute stage is the treatment of choice for achieving reperfusion, this treatment is sometimes associated with brain hemorrhage. Agents that reduce tPA-related bleeding risk may help expand its therapeutic window. This study assessed whether zinc dyshomeostasis underlies the toxic effect of tPA on brain vascular pericytes; whether pyruvate, an inhibitor of zinc toxicity, protects pericytes against tPA-induced cell death; and whether cilostazol, which protects pericytes against tPA-induced cell death, affects zinc dyshomeostasis associated with tPA toxicity. Cultured pericytes from newborn rat brains were treated with 10-200 μg/ml tPA for 24 h, inducing cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. tPA-induced cell death was preceded by increases in intracellular free zinc levels, and was substantially attenuated by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) or TPEN. Pyruvate completely blocked direct zinc toxicity and tPA-induced pericyte cell death. Both cAMP and cilostazol, a PDE3 inhibitor that attenuates tPA-induced pericyte cell death in vitro and tPA-induced brain hemorrhage in vivo, reduced zinc- and tPA-induced pericyte cell death, suggesting that zinc dyshomeostasis may be targeted by cilostazol in tPA toxicity. These findings show that tPA-induced pericyte cell death may involve zinc dyshomeostasis, and that pyruvate and cilostazol attenuate tPA-induced cell death by reducing the toxic cascade triggered by zinc dyshomeostasis. Since pyruvate is an endogenous metabolite and cilostazol is an FDA-approved drug, in vivo testing of both as protectors against tPA-induced brain hemorrhage may be warranted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection.

  18. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-02

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice.

  19. 76 FR 3150 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines...: The NIH Guidelines currently require that recombinant DNA experiments designed to create...

  20. Preventing Anabolic Steroid Use: Guidelines and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nutter, June; Rauhe, Betty

    1997-01-01

    Information about anabolic steroids should be included in the school health curriculum as early as possible. The paper presents suggestions for planning education programs and offers a variety of activities and strategies appropriate for many age groups, including case studies, story completion, posters, demonstrations, projects, creative writing,…

  1. Adherence to physical activity guidelines among cancer support group participants.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Lydon, A; Amir, Z

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity is recommended after cancer diagnosis for physical function, quality of life and survival benefits. This study provided preliminary data on the prevalence of physical activity among adult men and women with cancer in the UK. As part of a national survey of cancer support group participation, questionnaires including items on leisure-time physical activity and demographic information were completed by 748 cancer survivors. Overall, 395 (52.8%) participants reported no weekly moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity, 221 (29.5%) reported some activity but below minimum recommendations and 132 (17.6%) were meeting published guidelines. Gender, health status and socio-economic status were independently associated with meeting guidelines. Among participants in good or fair health who were not meeting guidelines, 59.9% thought that they ought to be more physically active. In conclusion, overall levels of physical activity are low among cancer survivors in the UK. However, the majority of insufficiently active participants showed awareness of the need to increase their activity, and may be receptive to interventions for promoting physical activity in this population.

  2. Exercise Do's and Don'ts: Guidelines for Fitness Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Sharon

    Many common exercises are contraindicated due to their potential for injury relative to benefit produced. Specific contraindicated exercises are discussed, and safer, more effective exercises are recommended. Current stretching and toning guidelines are also given which apply to all fitness activities. (Author)

  3. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion

    PubMed Central

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-01-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion. PMID:25210830

  4. School health guidelines to promote healthy eating and physical activity.

    PubMed

    2011-09-16

    During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6--19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating through policies, practices, and supportive environments. This report describes school health guidelines for promoting healthy eating and physical activity, including coordination of school policies and practices; supportive environments; school nutrition services; physical education and physical activity programs; health education; health, mental health, and social services; family and community involvement; school employee wellness; and professional development for school staff members. These guidelines, developed in collaboration with specialists from universities and from national, federal, state, local, and voluntary agencies and organizations, are based on an in-depth review of research, theory, and best practices in healthy eating and physical activity promotion in school health, public health, and education. Because every guideline might not be appropriate or feasible for every school to implement, individual schools should determine which guidelines have the highest priority based on the needs of the school and available resources.

  5. Brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

    PubMed

    Sebastião, Emerson; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek

    2014-08-01

    Public health actions endorsed by the federal government, for instance, health promotion initiatives, usually have greater impact at population level compared to other types of initiatives. This commentary aims to instigate debate on the importance and necessity of producing federally endorsed brazilian physical activity guidelines as a strategy for health promotion.

  6. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  7. Expression and biological activity of the cystine knot bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b).

    PubMed

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick "cut/paste" of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed.

  8. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  9. Lack of knowledge of physical activity guidelines: can physical activity promotion campaigns do better?

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Emily C L; Esliger, Dale W; Biddle, Stuart J H; Sherar, Lauren B

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the prevalence of knowledge of the current UK physical activity guidelines which were introduced in 2011 and prior physical activity guidelines (30 min on 5 days each week) within two large samples of UK adult's. To investigate whether knowledge of physical activity guidelines differs according to demographics such as ethnicity, age, education and employment status. Design Descriptive cross-sectional study comparing two distinctive adult samples. Setting National survey and online-administered survey conducted in England. Participants The 2007 Health Survey for England provides data on knowledge of physical activity guidelines from 2860 UK adults (56% women, 89% white, 63% under 45 years old). In 2013, an online survey was disseminated and data were collected from 1797 UK adults on knowledge of the most recent physical activity guidelines. The 2013 sample was 70% women, 92% white and 57% under 45 years old. All adults in both samples were >18 years old and without illnesses/disorders likely to restrict physical activity. Main outcomes Knowledge of physical activity guidelines in 2007 and 2013. Demographic correlates of knowledge of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity guidelines. Results 18% of the 2013 sample accurately recalled the current physical activity guidelines compared with 11% of the 2007 sample who accurately recalled the previous guidelines. The differences in knowledge of physical activity guidelines existed for marital status, gender, age, education and employment status within both 2007 and 2013 samples (p<0.05). Men with lower education and employment status (unemployed including student and retired) and older adults were less likely to know physical activity guidelines (p<0.05). Knowledge of physical activity guidelines remained higher in the 2013 sample after controlling for demographic differences (p<0.05). Conclusions Disadvantaged population groups are less knowledgeable about physical activity guidelines

  10. Induction of primary cutaneous melanocytic neoplasms in urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA)-deficient and wild-type mice: cellular blue nevi invade but do not progress to malignant melanoma in uPA-deficient animals.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, R L; Duquette, J G; Roses, D F; Nunes, I; Harris, M N; Kamino, H; Wilson, E L; Rifkin, D B

    1996-08-01

    Evidence suggests that the plasminogen activators (PAs), in particular urokinase-type PA (uPA), play a pivotal role in tumor invasion and metastasis. We studied the contribution of the PAs to the malignant phenotype through the chemical induction of melanocytic neoplasms in uPA-deficient mice. Primary tumors were induced and promoted concurrently in 35 uPA-/- deficient and 35 uPA+/+ wild-type mice using a single application of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene followed by repetitive applications of croton oil. Animals were sacrificed at 60-day intervals for 1 year. At necropsy, the four largest pigmented lesions in each animal were excised, characterized histologically, and evaluated microscopically for evidence of invasion. The regional lymph nodes, lungs, and solid abdominal visceral organs were sectioned and examined microscopically for evidence of metastatic disease. Cellular blue nevi were induced in 100% of uPA-/- and uPA+/+ promoted animals. Although a reduction in the radial and vertical progression of these lesions was noted in the uPA-deficient mice compared with the wild-type group, more than 95% of cellular blue nevi induced in both groups of animals invaded the underlying tissues. These lesions did not metastasize to the regional lymph nodes. Malignant melanoma arose in 5 of 35 (14.3%) of promoted wild-type mice. These tumors were locally aggressive, produced tissue-type PA, but were not metastatic to the regional nodes, lungs, or abdominal viscera. These results indicate that the invasive capability of melanocytic lesions may depend more on tissue-type PA than uPA activity. No melanomas were induced in the uPA-/- mice. The resistance of the uPA -/- strain to melanoma induction suggests that uPA contributes to malignant progression. We propose that the absence of uPA negatively affects tumorigenesis by decreasing the liberation and availability of growth factors such as basic fibroblast growth factor.

  11. Impact of National Physical Activity and Health Guidelines and Documents on Research on Teaching K-12 Physical Education in U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Xiang, Ping; Gao, Zan; Shen, Bo; Yin, Zhihua; Kong, Qingtao

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the impact of published national physical activity (PA) and health guidelines, documents, and initiatives on the evolution of research on teaching K-12 physical education (PE) in U.S.A. from 1996 to October 2013. Methods: A total of 262 peer-reviewed, data-based journal articles meeting our inclusion and exclusion…

  12. Spatial arrangement and functional role of α subunits of proteasome activator PA28 in hetero-oligomeric form

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Sahashi, Hiroki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Takata, Shin-ichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kanai, Keita; Sakata, Eri; Minami, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Keiji; Kato, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Homologous α and β subunits are alternatively arranged in the PA28 heptameric ring. ► The flexible loops of the three α subunits surround the site of substrate entry. ► The loops serve as gatekeepers that selectively hinder passage of longer peptides. - Abstract: A major form of proteasome activator PA28 is a heteroheptamer composed of interferon-γ-inducible α and β subunits, which share approximately 50% amino acid identity and possess distinct insert loops. This activator forms a complex with the 20S proteasome and thereby stimulates proteasomal degradation of peptides in an ATP-independent manner, giving rise to smaller antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this study, we performed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the structure and function of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. Deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated three α and four β subunits are alternately arranged in the heptameric ring. In this arrangement, PA28 loops surround the central pore of the heptameric ring (site for peptide entry). Activating the 20S proteasome with a PA28 mutant that lacked the α subunit loops cleaved model substrates longer than a nonapeptide with better efficiency when compared to wild-type PA28. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the flexible PA28 loops act as gatekeepers, which function to select the length of peptide substrates to be transported between the proteolytic chamber and the extra-proteasomal medium.

  13. Scale up and pharmacokinetic study of a novel mutated chimeric tissue plasminogen activator (mt-PA) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Raigani, Mozhgan; Rouini, Mohammad-Reza; Golabchifar, Ali-Akbar; Mirabzadeh, Esmat; Vaziri, Behrouz; Barkhordari, Farzaneh; Davami, Fatemeh; Mahboudi, Fereidoun

    2017-01-01

    Because of high mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases, various fibrinolytic agents with diverse pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties have been developed. A novel mutated chimeric tissue plasminogen activator (mt-PA) was developed by the removal of first three domains of t-PA, insertion of GHRP sequence and mutation towards resistance to plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). Mt-PA protein was expressed in Expi293F cells. The expression level of mt-PA was found to be 5000 IU/mL. Following purification, the pharmacokinetic properties of mt-PA were evaluated in three doses in rats. Data related to mt-PA were best fitted to two compartment model. With the increase in dose, the Area Under the plasma concentration-time Curve (AUC0→∞) increased. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of mt-PA was in the range of 19.1–26.1 min in three doses while that of Alteplase was 8.3 min. The plasma clearance (CLp) of mt-PA ranged from 3.8 to 5.9 mL/min in three doses, which was several times lower than that of Alteplase (142.6 mL/min). The mean residence time (MRT) of mt-PA ranged from 23.3–31.8 min in three doses, which was 4–5 times greater than that of Alteplase (6 min). Mt-PA showed extended half-life and mean residence time and is a good candidate for further clinical studies. PMID:28223717

  14. Guidelines for the intravenous application of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (alteplase), the second edition, October 2012: a guideline from the Japan Stroke Society.

    PubMed

    Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori; Hirano, Teruyuki; Kimura, Kazumi; Kondo, Rei; Mori, Etsuro; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Sakai, Nobuyuki; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Tanahashi, Norio; Yasaka, Masahiro; Katayama, Yasuo; Miyamoto, Susumu; Ogawa, Akira; Sasaki, Makoto; Suga, Sadao; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2013-07-01

    In Japan, intravenous alteplase, a recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), was approved for an indication of ischemic stroke in 2005 on the basis of the results of a clinical trial with a unique dose of the drug (0.6 mg/kg). The Japan Stroke Society published the guidelines for intravenous application of rt-PA and organized training sessions for proper use all over Japan in an effort to promote the safe, widespread use of intravenous alteplase. Seven years following its approval, clinical experience with intravenous alteplase has accumulated, additional evidence of intravenous alteplase has been found in Japan and overseas, and the medical environment has substantially changed, including approvals for new drugs and medical devices. Notably, the use of alteplase in the extended therapeutic time window (within 4.5 hours of symptom onset) became covered by insurance in Japan in August 2012. To address these changing situations, we have decided to prepare the revised guidelines. In preparing the second edition, we took care to make its contents more practical by emphasizing information needed in clinical practice. While the first edition was developed with emphasis on safety in light of limited clinical experience with intravenous alteplase in Japan in 2005, this second edition is a substantial revision of the first edition mainly in terms of eligibility criteria, on the basis of accumulated evidence and the clinical experience.

  15. Evidence-based physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors: current guidelines, knowledge gaps and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Buffart, L M; Galvão, D A; Brug, J; Chinapaw, M J M; Newton, R U

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity during and after cancer treatment has beneficial effects on a number of physical and psychosocial outcomes. This paper aims to discuss the existing physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors and to describe future research directions to optimize prescriptions. Studies on physical activity during and after cancer treatment were searched in PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and Dutch Trial registry. Physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors suggest that physical activity should be an integral and continuous part of care for all cancer survivors. However, the development of these guidelines has been limited by the research conducted. To be able to develop more specific guidelines, future studies should focus on identifying clinical, personal, physical, psychosocial, and intervention moderators explaining 'for whom' or 'under what circumstances' interventions work. Further, more insight into the working mechanisms of exercise interventions on health outcomes in cancer survivors is needed to improve the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Finally, existing programs should embrace interests and preferences of patients to facilitate optimal uptake of interventions. In conclusion, current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors are generic, and research is needed to develop more personalized physical activity guidelines.

  16. Evaluating the uptake of Canada's new physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines on service organizations' websites.

    PubMed

    Gainforth, Heather L; Berry, Tanya; Faulkner, Guy; Rhodes, Ryan E; Spence, John C; Tremblay, Mark S; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2013-06-01

    New evidence-based physical activity and sedentary behavior guidelines for Canadians were launched in 2011. As a consequence, service organizations that promote physical activity directly to the public needed to change their promotion materials to reflect the new guidelines. Little is known about the rate at which service organizations adopt and integrate new evidence-based guidelines and determinants of guideline adoption. In this natural observational study, we evaluated the rate of online adoption of the new guidelines among key service organizations that promote physical activity and examined participation in a booster webinar as a supplemental dissemination strategy. One hundred fifty nine service organization websites were coded by one of six raters prior to the release of the new guidelines as well as at 3, 6, and 9 months after the release. Online adoption of the guidelines increased during the coding period with 51 % of organizations posting the guidelines or related information on their websites. Organizations' engagement in a webinar was associated with their adoption of the guidelines. The release of new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines led to increased guideline adoption on service organizations' websites. However, adoption was not universal. In order for the uptake of the new guidelines to be successful, further efforts need to be taken to ensure that service organizations present physical activity guidelines on their websites. Comprehensive, active dissemination strategies tailored to address organizational barriers are needed to ensure online guideline adoption.

  17. Multifunctional roles of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in cancer stemness and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Stepanova, Victoria; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Holterman, AiXuan L.; Estes, Norman; Cines, Douglas B.; Rao, Jasti S.; Gondi, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost always lethal. One of the underlying reasons for this lethality is believed to be the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC), which impart chemoresistance and promote recurrence, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. Recently the poor prognosis of PDAC has been correlated with increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In the present study we examine the role of uPA in the generation of PDAC CSC. We observe a subset of cells identifiable as a side population (SP) when sorted by flow cytometry of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells that possess the properties of CSC. A large fraction of these SP cells are CD44 and CD24 positive, are gemcitabine resistant, possess sphere-forming ability, and exhibit increased tumorigenicity, known characteristics of cancer stemness. Increased tumorigenicity and gemcitabine resistance decrease after suppression of uPA. We observe that uPA interacts directly with transcription factors LIM homeobox-2 (Lhx2), homeobox transcription factor A5 (HOXA5), and Hey to possibly promote cancer stemness. uPA regulates Lhx2 expression by suppressing expression of miR-124 and p53 expression by repressing its promoter by inactivating HOXA5. These results demonstrate that regulation of gene transcription by uPA contributes to cancer stemness and clinical lethality. PMID:23864708

  18. Multifunctional roles of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in cancer stemness and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Stepanova, Victoria; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Holterman, Aixuan L; Estes, Norman; Cines, Douglas B; Rao, Jasti S; Gondi, Christopher S

    2013-09-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost always lethal. One of the underlying reasons for this lethality is believed to be the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC), which impart chemoresistance and promote recurrence, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. Recently the poor prognosis of PDAC has been correlated with increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In the present study we examine the role of uPA in the generation of PDAC CSC. We observe a subset of cells identifiable as a side population (SP) when sorted by flow cytometry of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells that possess the properties of CSC. A large fraction of these SP cells are CD44 and CD24 positive, are gemcitabine resistant, possess sphere-forming ability, and exhibit increased tumorigenicity, known characteristics of cancer stemness. Increased tumorigenicity and gemcitabine resistance decrease after suppression of uPA. We observe that uPA interacts directly with transcription factors LIM homeobox-2 (Lhx2), homeobox transcription factor A5 (HOXA5), and Hey to possibly promote cancer stemness. uPA regulates Lhx2 expression by suppressing expression of miR-124 and p53 expression by repressing its promoter by inactivating HOXA5. These results demonstrate that regulation of gene transcription by uPA contributes to cancer stemness and clinical lethality.

  19. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for the treatment of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD).

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S; Rodriguez, M; Lafuente, A; Mateos, P; Mehta, J; Singhal, S; Saso, R; Tait, D; Treleaven, J G; Powles, R L

    1999-04-01

    Seventeen patients who developed hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation were treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) with or without heparin. rtPA was started a median of 13 days post transplant (range 4-35). All patients received rtPA at a dose of 10 mg/day as a starting dose, and 12 patients also received heparin (1500 U bolus; then 100 U/kg/day as a continuous i.v. infusion). The median number of days of rtPA therapy was 2.5 (1-12). The median total serum bilirubin level was 116 mmol/l (range 63-194) at the beginning of treatment. Six patients showed a response to rtPA treatment (29%). It was observed that by day 2 of rtPA therapy, bilirubin levels in responders showed a downwards trend as compared to those in nonresponders. In all except one patient this response was observed after two doses of rtPA. Seven out of the 11 non-responders had a past history of liver dysfunction, compared with none of the responders. There were no differences between the two groups in terms of day of onset of liver dysfunction, manifestations of disease, maximum bilirubin and creatinine levels, and day of commencing treatment. No patient experienced severe hemorrhagic complications during therapy. Four responders survived for more than 100 days compared to none of the non-responders. Probability of survival was 33% at day 100. It is difficult to unequivocally establish the role of rtPA in the treatment of VOD. The importance of bilirubin levels on days 2 or 3 of therapy in predicting outcome should be established, as should the optimum dose of rtPA and optimum duration of therapy.

  20. Report on activities and attitudes of organizations active in the clinical practice guidelines field.

    PubMed Central

    Carter, A O; Battista, R N; Hodge, M J; Lewis, S; Basinski, A; Davis, D

    1995-01-01

    The organizing committee of a workshop on clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) surveyed invited organizations on their attitudes and activities related to five topics to be covered during the workshop sessions: organizational roles, priority setting, guidelines implementation, guidelines evaluation and development of a network of those active in the CPG field. Organizational roles: The national specialty societies were felt to have the largest role to play; the smallest roles were assigned to consumers, who were seen to have a role mainly in priority setting, and to industry and government, both of which were seen to have primarily a funding role. Many barriers to collaboration were identified, the solutions to all of which appeared to be better communication, establishment of common principles and clear role definitions. Priority setting: There was considerable agreement on the criteria that should be used to set priorities for CPG activities: the burden of disease on population health, the state of scientific knowledge, the cost of treatment and the economic burden of disease on society were seen as important factors, whereas the costs of guidelines development and practitioner interest in guidelines development were seen as less important. Organizations were unable to give much information on how they set priorities. Guidelines implementation: Most of the organizations surveyed did not actively try to ensure the implementation of guidelines, although a considerable minority devoted resources to implementation. The 38% of organizations that implemented guidelines actively listed a wide variety of activities, including training, use of local opinion leaders, information technology, local consensus processes and counter detailing. Guidelines evaluation: Formal evaluation of guidelines was undertaken by fewer than 13% of the responding organizations. All the evaluations incorporated assessments before and after guideline implementation, and some used primary patient

  1. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  2. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  3. Guidelines for Physical Activity during Pregnancy: Comparisons From Around the World

    PubMed Central

    Evenson, Kelly R.; Barakat, Ruben; Brown, Wendy J.; Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Haruna, Megumi; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.; Mottola, Michelle F.; Owe, Katrine M.; Rousham, Emily K.; Yeo, SeonAe

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women attain numerous benefits from physical activity during pregnancy. However, due to physical changes that occur during pregnancy, special precautions are also needed. This review summarizes current guidelines for physical activity among pregnant women worldwide. Methods We searched PubMed (MedLINE) for country-specific governmental and clinical guidelines on physical activity during pregnancy through the year 2012. We cross-referenced with articles referring to guidelines, with only the most recent included. An abstraction form was used to extract key details and summarize. Results In total, 11 guidelines were identified from nine countries (Australia, Canada, Denmark, France, Japan, Norway, Spain, United Kingdom, United States). Most guidelines supported moderate intensity physical activity during pregnancy (10/11) and indicated specific frequency (9/11) and duration/time (9/11) recommendations. Most guidelines provided advice on initiating an exercise program during pregnancy (10/11). Six guidelines included absolute and relative contraindications to exercise. All guidelines generally ruled-out sports with risks of falls, trauma, or collisions. Six guidelines included indications for stopping exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion This review contrasted pregnancy-related physical activity guidelines from around the world, and can help to inform new guidelines as they are created or updated, and facilitate the development of a worldwide guideline. PMID:25346651

  4. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  5. pA2 values for antagonists of platelet activating factor on aggregation of rabbit platelets.

    PubMed Central

    O'Donnell, S. R.; Barnett, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    1. The relative potencies, and equilibrium dissociation constants, for nine antagonists of platelet activating factor (Paf) have been determined on rabbit platelets (in diluted platelet-rich plasma (PRP)) in experiments in which the aggregatory response to Paf was measured. 2. Log concentration-response (% maximum) curves to Paf were obtained in the absence (controls) and presence of different concentrations of each Paf antagonist drug. The antagonists shifted the Paf curves to a higher concentration range and the slopes of the Schild plots, constructed from these data, suggested that the drugs were competitive antagonists of Paf. The slopes of the Schild plots for CV-3988 and SRI 63-119 were greater than 1. 3. The pA2 values (pKB values in parentheses) were: WEB 2086 7.31 (7.63); SRI 63-119 6.95; L-652,731 6.71 (6.73); BN 52021 6.38 (6.47); SRI 63-072 6.36 (6.43); CV-3988 5.87; 48740 RP 4.97 (5.07); ketotifen 4.94 (4.95); thiazinamium 4.73 (4.76). 4. This study provides, for the first time, some functional response data for Paf antagonists (pKB values) which are in an appropriate form for use in classifying putative Paf receptors. The study also provides the comparative potencies of these Paf antagonists in inhibiting Paf-induced platelet aggregation. WEB 2086 was the most potent of the drugs examined. PMID:3293683

  6. Improved Antimicrobial Activities of Synthetic-Hybrid Bacteriocins Designed from Enterocin E50-52 and Pediocin PA-1

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Sutyak Noll, Katia; Cavera, Veronica L.

    2014-01-01

    Two hybrid bacteriocins, enterocin E50-52/pediocin PA-1 (EP) and pediocin PA-1/enterocin E50-52 (PE), were designed by combining the N terminus of enterocin E50-52 and the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and by combining the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and the N terminus of enterocin E50-52, respectively. Both hybrid bacteriocins showed reduced MICs compared to those of their natural counterparts. The MICs of hybrid PE and EP were 64- and 32-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of pediocin PA-1 and 8- and 4-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of enterocin E50-52. In this study, the effect of hybrid as well as wild-type (WT) bacteriocins on the transmembrane electrical potential (ΔΨ) and their ability to induce the efflux of intracellular ATP were investigated. Enterocin E50-52, pediocin PA-1, and hybrid bacteriocin PE were able to dissipate ΔΨ, but EP was unable to deplete this component. Both hybrid bacteriocins caused a loss of the intracellular concentration of ATP. EP, however, caused a faster efflux than PE and enterocin E50-52. Enterocin E50-52 and hybrids PE and EP were active against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, such as Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 20E1090, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The hybrid bacteriocins designed and described herein are antimicrobial peptides with MICs lower those of their natural counterparts. Both hybrid peptides induce the loss of intracellular ATP and are capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria, and PE dissipates the electrical potential. In this study, the MIC of hybrid bacteriocin PE decreased 64-fold compared to the MIC of its natural peptide counterpart, pediocin PA-1. Inhibition of Gram-negative pathogens confers an additional advantage for the application of these peptides in therapeutics. PMID:25527560

  7. Improved antimicrobial activities of synthetic-hybrid bacteriocins designed from enterocin E50-52 and pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Sutyak Noll, Katia; Cavera, Veronica L; Chikindas, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Two hybrid bacteriocins, enterocin E50-52/pediocin PA-1 (EP) and pediocin PA-1/enterocin E50-52 (PE), were designed by combining the N terminus of enterocin E50-52 and the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and by combining the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and the N terminus of enterocin E50-52, respectively. Both hybrid bacteriocins showed reduced MICs compared to those of their natural counterparts. The MICs of hybrid PE and EP were 64- and 32-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of pediocin PA-1 and 8- and 4-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of enterocin E50-52. In this study, the effect of hybrid as well as wild-type (WT) bacteriocins on the transmembrane electrical potential (ΔΨ) and their ability to induce the efflux of intracellular ATP were investigated. Enterocin E50-52, pediocin PA-1, and hybrid bacteriocin PE were able to dissipate ΔΨ, but EP was unable to deplete this component. Both hybrid bacteriocins caused a loss of the intracellular concentration of ATP. EP, however, caused a faster efflux than PE and enterocin E50-52. Enterocin E50-52 and hybrids PE and EP were active against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, such as Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 20E1090, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The hybrid bacteriocins designed and described herein are antimicrobial peptides with MICs lower those of their natural counterparts. Both hybrid peptides induce the loss of intracellular ATP and are capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria, and PE dissipates the electrical potential. In this study, the MIC of hybrid bacteriocin PE decreased 64-fold compared to the MIC of its natural peptide counterpart, pediocin PA-1. Inhibition of Gram-negative pathogens confers an additional advantage for the application of these peptides in therapeutics.

  8. [Guidelines for psychology activities in cardiologic rehabilitation and prevention].

    PubMed

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of these guidelines is to provide specific recommendations in regard to psychological activities in cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Based on scientific evidence and clinical experience, the present guidelines are targeted for psychologists working in the field of cardiac rehabilitation and for the core component of CR, as well as for the health care providers, insurers, policy makers and consumers. In the introduction, the framework of Italian cardiac rehabilitation and psychology as well as the methodology used are defined, in accordance with the recommendations of the National Guidelines Programme of the Italian Health Ministry. The first section illustrates the educational training and structural requirements necessary for psychologists intending to work in cardiac rehabilitation, and provides a summary of the principal models of organization. Section two describes the sequence of psychological activities based on the different phases of the process of care. The chapters devoted to selection and admission of cardiac patients define the clinical conditions for which patients should be referred to the psychologist and describe the models for the first "patient-psychologist" contact. The chapter dedicated to evaluation, which aims to identify the care needs of the patient describes the instruments available to the psychologist (interview, screening tests, clinical assessment tests, quality-of-life tests) and the areas of investigation in cardiac diseases patients. The chapter on intervention analyses the different tools including educational interventions, counselling, stress management and psychotherapy evidenced by the literature and common to the different cardiac pathologies. In the chapter on follow-up, are described tools for evaluation of patient satisfaction and for planning long-term care. Section three describes the psychological characterization and the specificity of psychological interventions in different cardiac patients populations

  9. Two-photon activation and excitation properties of PA-GFP in the 720-920-nm region.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Marc; Barozzi, Sara; Testa, Ilaria; Faretta, Mario; Diaspro, Alberto

    2005-08-01

    This report covers the two-photon activation and excitation properties of the PA-GFP, a photoactivatable variant of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein in the spectral region from 720 to 920 nm. It is known from this special form of the molecule that it has an increased level of fluorescence emission when excited at 488 nm after irradiation at lambda approximately 413 nm, under single-photon excitation conditions. Here, we show that upon two-photon irradiation, PA-GFP yields activation in the spectral region from 720 to 840 nm. After photoactivation, the excitation spectrum shifts maintaining the very same emission spectrum of the single-photon case for the native and photoactivated protein. Additionally, when comparing the conventional photoactivation at lambda = 405 nm with a two-photon one, a sharper and better controllable three-dimensional volume of activation is obtained.

  10. The Development and Content of the "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchner, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' "2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans" represents a major milestone in public health efforts to address inactivity. These comprehensive federal physical activity guidelines affirm the strong scientific evidence for the health benefits of regular physical activity. The…

  11. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  12. Murine monoclonal antibodies against murine uPA receptor produced in gene-deficient mice: inhibitory effects on receptor-mediated uPA activity in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Pass, Jesper; Jögi, Annika; Lund, Ida K; Rønø, Birgitte; Rasch, Morten G; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Lund, Leif R; Ploug, Michael; Rømer, John; Danø, Keld; Høyer-Hansen, Gunilla

    2007-06-01

    Binding of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) to its cellular receptor, uPAR, potentiates plasminogen activation and localizes it to the cell surface. Focal plasminogen activation is involved in both normal and pathological tissue remodeling processes including cancer invasion. The interaction between uPA and uPAR therefore represents a potential target for anti-invasive cancer therapy. Inhibitors of the human uPA-uPAR interaction have no effect in the murine system. To enable in-vivo studies in murine cancer models we have now generated murine monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against murine uPAR (muPAR) by immunizing uPAR-deficient mice with recombinant muPAR and screened for antibodies, which inhibit the muPA-muPAR interaction. Two of the twelve mAbs obtained, mR1 and mR2, interfered with the interaction between muPAR and the amino-terminal fragment of muPA (mATF) when analyzed by surface plasmon resonance. The epitope for mR1 is located on domain I of muPAR, while that of mR2 is on domains (II-III). In cell binding experiments using radiolabelled mATF, the maximal inhibition obtained with mR1 was 85% while that obtained with mR2 was 50%. The IC(50) value for mR1 was 0.67 nM compared to 0.14 nM for mATF. In an assay based on modified anthrax toxins, requiring cell-bound muPA activity for its cytotoxity, an approximately 50% rescue of the cells could be obtained by addition of mR1. Importantly, in-vivo efficacy of mR1 was demonstrated by the ability of mR1 to rescue mice treated with a lethal dose of uPA-activatable anthrax toxins.

  13. Factors Related to Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in Active College Students: A Social Cognitive Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farren, G. L.; Zhang, T.; Martin, S. B.; Thomas, K. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of sex, exercise self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and social support with meeting physical activity guidelines (PAGs). Participants: Three hundred ninety-six college students participated in this study in the summer 2013. Methods: Students completed online questionnaires that assessed physical activity…

  14. Development of evidence-informed physical activity guidelines for adults with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Hicks, Audrey L; Motl, Robert W; Pilutti, Lara A; Duggan, Mary; Wheeler, Garry; Persad, Ravin; Smith, Karen M

    2013-09-01

    Most adults with multiple sclerosis (MS) are physically inactive. Physical activity guidelines are an important tool for exercise prescription, promotion, and monitoring. This article describes the application of international standards for guideline development in the creation of evidence-based physical activity guidelines for people with MS. The development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II instrument. The evidence base for the guidelines consisted of a systematic review of research examining the effects of exercise on fitness, fatigue, mobility, and health-related quality of life among people with MS. A multidisciplinary consensus panel deliberated the evidence and generated the guidelines and a preamble. Expert and stakeholder reviews of the materials led to refinement of the wording of both components of the guidelines. The resulting guidelines state that to achieve important fitness benefits, adults with MS who have mild to moderate disability need at least 30 minutes of moderate intensity aerobic activity 2 times per week and strength training exercises for major muscle groups 2 times per week. Meeting these guidelines may also reduce fatigue, improve mobility, and enhance elements of health-related quality of life. People with MS and health professionals are encouraged to adopt these rigorously developed guidelines.

  15. High-level expression of a novel recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in the milk of transgenic rabbits and its thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Ge, Xin; Cheng, Yaobin; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Baoli; Ji, Xueqiao; Qi, Zhengqiang; Rong, Yao; Yuan, Yuguo; Cheng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key kinase of fibrinolysis that plays an important role in dissolving fibrin clots to promote thrombolysis. The recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) has more thrombolytic advantages than the wild type tPA. To increase the half-life and thrombolytic activity of tPA, a mutant containing only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P activating plasminogen domains of the wild type tPA was cloned. This fragment was then inserted into goat β-casein regulatory sequences. Then, a mammary gland-specific expression vector, PCL25/rhPA, was constructed, and the transgenic rabbits were generated. In this study, 18 live transgenic founders (12♀, 6♂) were generated using pronuclear microinjection. Six transgenic rabbits were obtained, and the expression levels of rhPA in the milk had a range of 15.2-630 µg/ml. A fibrin agarose plate assay of rhPA showed that it had strong thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro, and the highest specific activity was >360 (360 times more than that of alteplase). The results indicated that the rhPA containing only the K2 and P domains is efficiently expressed with higher thrombolytic bioactivity in the milk of transgenic rabbits. Our study also demonstrated a new method for the large-scale production of clinically relevant recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits.

  16. Static or dynamic predictors of physical activity (PA)? A tracking study based on 12- and 38-month follow-ups in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Souto Barreto, Philipe; Ferrandez, Anne-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Studies that investigated stability of PA in older populations are scarce. Moreover, no studies used dynamic indicators to predict PA trajectories. The purpose of the present study were to investigate PA stability overtime, and to examine if changes in self-reported physical function (dynamic indicator) are better predictors of trajectories of PA than baseline measures of physical function (static indicator). This is a prospective postal survey with two time-point follow-ups: 12 and 38 months. Participants were older adults aged ≥ 60 years, and members of the medical insurance scheme of the French national education system. They responded to a self-report questionnaire on PA and general health status at three different times: baseline, 12- and 38-month follow-ups (n=243 for the 12-month follow-up; n=164 for the 38-month follow-up). Overtime analyses of PA showed a moderate-to-good stability with regard to both duration and volume of PA; however, a decrease in stability for vigorous PA was found between 12- and 38-month follow-ups. Both baseline measure and changes in physical function predicted PA trajectories, but magnitudes of associations were stronger for the dynamic indicator. Moreover, change in physical function was the only predictor of both becoming active compared with Inactive (reduced probability) and becoming inactive compared to Active (increased probability). In conclusion, a dynamic indicator of physical function is a better predictor of PA variation than static indicators.

  17. Preclinical testing of the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 for activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a series of in vitro and in vivo models.

    PubMed

    Lenaerts, Anne J; Gruppo, Veronica; Marietta, Karen S; Johnson, Christine M; Driscoll, Diane K; Tompkins, Nicholas M; Rose, Jerry D; Reynolds, Robert C; Orme, Ian M

    2005-06-01

    This study extends earlier reports regarding the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of the nitroimidazopyran PA-824 against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PA-824 was tested in vitro against a broad panel of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates and was found to be highly active against all isolates (MIC<1 microg/ml). The activity of PA-824 against M. tuberculosis was also assessed grown under conditions of oxygen depletion. PA-824 showed significant activity at 2, 10, and 50 microg/ml, similar to that of metronidazole, in a dose-dependent manner. In a short-course mouse infection model, the efficacy of PA-824 at 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg of body weight formulated in methylcellulose or cyclodextrin/lecithin after nine oral treatments was compared with those of isoniazid, rifampin, and moxifloxacin. PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin was as active as moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg and isoniazid at 25 mg/kg and was slightly more active than rifampin at 20 mg/kg. Long-term treatment with PA-824 at 100 mg/kg in cyclodextrin/lecithin reduced the bacterial load below 500 CFU in the lungs and spleen. No significant differences in activity between PA-824 and the other single drug treatments tested (isoniazid at 25 mg/kg, rifampin at 10 mg/kg, gatifloxacin at 100 mg/kg, and moxifloxacin at 100 mg/kg) could be observed. In summary, its good activity in in vivo models, as well as its activity against multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis and against M. tuberculosis isolates in a potentially latent state, makes PA-824 an attractive drug candidate for the therapy of tuberculosis. These data indicate that there is significant potential for effective oral delivery of PA-824 for the treatment of tuberculosis.

  18. 76 FR 62816 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... recombinant DNA research. OBA is also specifying the risk group for several viruses not previously listed...

  19. 76 FR 44339 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... attenuated strains of bacteria and viruses that are frequently used in recombinant DNA research. OBA is...

  20. 76 FR 27653 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Action Under the NIH Guidelines for Research Involving Recombinant DNA Molecules (NIH Guidelines... Kluyveromyces lactis as a host-vector 1 system has been reviewed by the NIH ] Recombinant DNA Advisory...

  1. Increasing tPA Activity in Astrocytes Induced by Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Facilitate Neurite Outgrowth after Stroke in the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hongqi; Li, Yi; Shen, Li Hong; Liu, Xianshuang; Wang, Xinli; Zhang, Jing; Pourabdollah-Nejad D, Siamak; Zhang, Chunling; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Zheng Gang; Chopp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and its inhibitors contribute to neurite outgrowth in the central nervous system (CNS) after treatment of stroke with multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). In vivo, administration of MSCs to mice subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) significantly increased activation of tPA and downregulated PAI-1 levels in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) compared with control PBS treated mice, concurrently with increases of myelinated axons and synaptophysin. In vitro, MSCs significantly increased tPA levels and concomitantly reduced plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) expression in astrocytes under normal and oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) conditions. ELISA analysis of conditioned medium revealed that MSCs stimulated astrocytes to secrete tPA. When primary cortical neurons were cultured in the conditioned medium from MSC co-cultured astrocytes, these neurons exhibited a significant increase in neurite outgrowth compared to conditioned medium from astrocytes alone. Blockage of tPA with a neutralizing antibody or knock-down of tPA with siRNA significantly attenuated the effect of the conditioned medium on neurite outgrowth. Addition of recombinant human tPA into cortical neuronal cultures also substantially enhanced neurite outgrowth. Collectively, these in vivo and in vitro data suggest that the MSC mediated increased activation of tPA in astrocytes promotes neurite outgrowth after stroke. PMID:20140248

  2. Protease-Activated Receptor 2 (PAR2) Is Upregulated by Acanthamoeba Plasminogen Activator (aPA) and Induces Proinflammatory Cytokine in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Trivendra; Abdi, Mahshid; Alizadeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator (aPA) is a serine protease elaborated by Acanthamoeba trophozoites that facilitates the invasion of trophozoites to the host and contributes to the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). The aim of this study was to explore if aPA stimulates proinflammatory cytokine in human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells via the protease-activated receptors (PARs) pathway. Methods. Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites were grown in peptone-yeast extract glucose for 7 days, and the supernatants were collected and centrifuged. The aPA was purified using the fast protein liquid chromatography system, and aPA activity was determined by zymography assays. Human corneal epithelial cells were incubated with or without aPA (100 μg/mL), PAR1 agonists (thrombin, 10 μM; TRAP-6, 10 μM), and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2, 100 μM; AC 55541, 10 μM) for 24 and 48 hours. Inhibition of PAR1 and PAR2 involved preincubating the HCE cells for 1 hour with the antagonist of PAR1 (SCH 79797, 60 μM) and PAR2 (FSLLRY-NH2, 100 μM) with or without aPA. Human corneal epithelial cells also were preincubated with PAR1 and PAR2 antagonists and then incubated with or without PAR1 agonists (thrombin and TRAP-6) and PAR2 agonists (SLIGRL-NH2 and AC 55541). Expression of PAR1 and PAR2 was examined by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR), flow cytometry, and immunocytochemistry. Interleukin-8 expression was quantified by qRT-PCR and ELISA. Results. Human corneal epithelial cells constitutively expressed PAR1 and PAR2 mRNA. Acanthamoeba plasminogen activator and PAR2 agonists significantly upregulated PAR2 mRNA expression (1- and 2-fold, respectively) (P < 0.05). Protease-activated receptor 2 antagonist significantly inhibited aPA, and PAR2 agonists induced PAR2 mRNA expression in HCE cells (P < 0.05). Protease-activated receptor 1 agonists, but not aPA, significantly upregulated PAR1 mRNA expression, which was significantly inhibited by PAR1 antagonist in HCE cells

  3. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brassinga, Ann Karen C.; Belmonte, Mark F.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which should facilitate

  4. Control of active nitrogen species used for PA-MBE growth of group III nitrides on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohachi, Tadashi; Yamabe, Nobuhiko; Yamamoto, Yuka; Wada, Motoi; Ariyada, Osamu

    2011-03-01

    A new spiral parallel mesh electrode (PME) is presented to control active nitrogen species in plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxial (PA-MBE) growth of group III nitrides and their alloys. Direct flux of active nitrogen from radio frequency inductive coupled plasma (rf-ICP) discharge was able to be measured using a mesh electrode for filtering charge particles and electron emission due to the self-ionization of nitrogen atoms on a negatively biased electrode. In situ measurement of direct nitrogen atom fluxes using the spiral PME during PA-MBE growth of GaN and AlN on Si substrates is investigated. A linear rf power dependence of direct flux of active species on atoms such as nitrogen (N+N*), where N and N* were ground and excited atoms, respectively, from a rf-ICP was confirmed by the spiral PME. An indirect flux of nitrogen adsorbed (ADS) atoms (N+N*) during discharge was also monitored by the spiral PME and received influence of the wall surface of the growth chamber. ADS nitrogen atoms are able to be used for nitridation of Si surface to grow a double buffer layer (DBL) AlN/β-Si3N4/Si.

  5. Adherence to active play and electronic media guidelines in preschool children: gender and parental education considerations.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Schary, David P; Cardinal, Bradley J

    2013-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to examine adherence to current active play and electronic media use guidelines in a sample of US preschool-aged children and to examine whether differences occurred across gender and parental education. 164 parents completed an on-line survey to estimate preschool children's active play and sedentary behaviors. For weekdays, 50% of the sample met the active play guideline with this increasing to 65% during the weekend. With respect to electronic media use, 90% of the sample met guidelines during the week, with the percentage meeting guidelines dropping to 78% during the weekend. A greater percentage of preschool children from high parental education families (83.4 ± 3.3) met electronic media use guidelines on the weekends, compared to preschool children from low parental education families (59.4 ± 8.1) (p = 0.002). Our findings indicate that a substantial portion of preschool children are not meeting active play guidelines and that adherence to active play and electronic media use guidelines may be influenced by parental education.

  6. Critical Role of the PA-X C-Terminal Domain of Influenza A Virus in Its Subcellular Localization and Shutoff Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Tsuyoshi; Chaimayo, Chutikarn; McGuinness, James

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PA-X is a recently identified influenza virus protein that is composed of the PA N-terminal 191 amino acids and unique C-terminal 41 or 61 residues. We and others showed that PA-X has a strong ability to suppress host protein synthesis via host mRNA decay, which is mediated by endonuclease activity in its N-terminal domain (B. W. Jagger, H. M. Wise, J. C. Kash, K. A. Walters, N. M. Wills, Y. L. Xiao, R. L. Dunfee, L. M. Schwartzman, A. Ozinsky, G. L. Bell, R. M. Dalton, A. Lo, S. Efstathiou, J. F. Atkins, A. E. Firth, J. K. Taubenberger, and P. Digard, 2012, Science 337:199–204, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1222213, and E. A. Desmet, K. A. Bussey, R. Stone, and T. Takimoto, 2013, J Virol 87:3108–3118, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02826-12). However, the mechanism of host mRNA degradation, especially where and how PA-X targets mRNAs, has not been analyzed. In this study, we determined the localization of PA-X and the role of the C-terminal unique region in shutoff activity. Quantitative subcellular localization analysis revealed that PA-X was located equally in both cytoplasm and nucleus. By characterizing a series of PA-X C-terminal deletion mutants, we found that the first 9 amino acids were sufficient for nuclear localization, but an additional 6 residues were required to induce the maximum shutoff activity observed with intact PA-X. Importantly, forced nuclear localization of the PA-X C-terminal deletion mutant enhanced shutoff activity, highlighting the ability of nuclear PA-X to degrade host mRNAs more efficiently. However, PA-X also inhibited luciferase expression from transfected mRNAs synthesized in vitro, suggesting that PA-X also degrades mRNAs in the cytoplasm. Among the basic amino acids in the PA-X C-terminal region, 3 residues, 195K, 198K, and 199R, were identified as key residues for inducing host shutoff and nuclear localization. Overall, our data indicate a critical role for the 15 residues in the PA-X C-terminal domain in

  7. Antiviral Activity of Bay 41-4109 on Hepatitis B Virus in Humanized Alb-uPA/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brezillon, Nicolas; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Massinet, Hélène; Giang, Eric; Lamant, Céline; DaSilva, Lucie; Berissi, Sophie; Belghiti, Jacques; Hannoun, Laurent; Puerstinger, Gherard; Wimmer, Eva; Neyts, Johan; Hantz, Olivier; Soussan, Patrick; Morosan, Serban; Kremsdorf, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Current treatments for HBV chronic carriers using interferon alpha or nucleoside analogues are not effective in all patients and may induce the emergence of HBV resistant strains. Bay 41-4109, a member of the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine family, inhibits HBV replication by destabilizing capsid assembly. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of Bay 41-4109 in a mouse model with humanized liver and the spread of active HBV. Antiviral assays of Bay 41-4109 on HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV, displayed an IC50 of about 202 nM with no cell toxicity. Alb-uPA/SCID mice were transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Ten days post-infection, the mice were treated with Bay 41-4109 for five days. During the 30 days of follow-up, the HBV load was evaluated by quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, decreased HBV viremia of about 1 log(10) copies/ml was observed. By contrast, increased HBV viremia of about 0.5 log(10) copies/ml was measured in the control group. Five days after the end of treatment, a rebound of HBV viremia occurred in the treated group. Furthermore, 15 days after treatment discontinuation, a similar expression of the viral capsid was evidenced in liver biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that Bay 41-4109 displayed antiviral properties against HBV in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice and confirm the usefulness of Alb-uPA/SCID mice for the evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds. The administration of Bay 41-4109 may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of patients in escape from standard antiviral therapy. PMID:22162746

  8. PA residues in the 2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza virus enhance avian influenza virus polymerase activity in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Bussey, Kendra A; Desmet, Emily A; Mattiacio, Jonelle L; Hamilton, Alice; Bradel-Tretheway, Birgit; Bussey, Howard E; Kim, Baek; Dewhurst, Stephen; Takimoto, Toru

    2011-07-01

    The 2009 pandemic influenza virus (pH1N1) is a swine-origin reassortant containing human, avian, and swine influenza genes. We have previously shown that the polymerase complex of the pH1N1 strain A/California/04/2009 (Cal) is highly active in mammalian 293T cells, despite the avian origin of both its PA and PB2. In this study, we analyzed the polymerase residues that are responsible for high pH1N1 polymerase activity in the mammalian host. Characterization of polymerase complexes containing various combinations of Cal and avian influenza virus A/chicken/Nanchang/3-120/01 (H3N2) (Nan) by reporter gene assay indicates that Cal PA, but not PB2, is a major contributing factor to high Cal polymerase activity in 293T cells. In particular, Cal PA significantly activates the otherwise inactive Nan polymerase at 37 and 39°C but not at the lower temperature of 34°C. Further analysis using site-directed mutagenesis showed that the Cal PA residues 85I, 186S, and 336M contribute to enhanced activity of the Cal polymerase. Recombinant A/WSN/33 (H1N1) (WSN) viruses containing Nan NP and polymerase (PA, PB1, PB2) genes with individual mutations in PA at residues 85, 186, and 336 produced higher levels of viral protein than the virus containing wild-type (WT) Nan PA. Interestingly, compared to the WT, the virus containing the 85I mutation grew faster in human A549 cells and the 336M mutation most significantly enhanced pathogenicity in a mouse model, among the three PA mutations tested. Our results suggest that multiple mutations in PA, which were rarely present in previous influenza isolates, are involved in mammalian adaptation and pathogenicity of the 2009 pH1N1.

  9. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta, and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2015-12-01

    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far-UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines, which can be identified with broad wings. We produce Hα, Hβ, and Paα wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density {N}{{H} {{I}}} being roughly proportional to {N}{{H} {{I}}}1/2. In particular, with {N}{{H} {{I}}}={10}23 {{cm}}-2 the Hα wings typically show a width ∼ 2× {10}4 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We also find that Hα and Paα wing profiles are asymmetric with the red part stronger than the blue part and an opposite behavior is seen for Hβ wings.

  10. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  11. Urinary-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zonggao; Stack, M Sharon

    2007-10-15

    OSCC (oral squamous cell carcinoma) is the most common oral malignancy and is estimated to affect approx. 350000 new patients worldwide this year. OSCC is characterized by a high degree of morbidity and mortality, as most patients exhibit local, regional and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis. Recent genome-wide screening efforts have identified the serine proteinase uPA (urinary-type plasminogen activator, also known as urokinase) as a strong biomarker for prediction of poor disease outcome and a key candidate for molecular classification of oral neoplasms using a 'gene signature' approach. The proteinase uPA binds a surface-anchored receptor designated uPAR (uPA receptor), focalizing proteolytic activity to the pericellular milieu. Furthermore, uPA-uPAR can interact with transmembrane proteins to modify multiple signal transduction pathways and influence a wide variety of cellular behaviours. Correlative clinical data show elevated uPA-uPAR in oral tumour tissues, with tumours exhibiting high levels of both uPA and uPAR as the most invasive. Combined in vitro, pre-clinical and clinical data support the need for further analysis of uPA-uPAR as a prognostic indicator as well as a potential therapeutic target in OSCC.

  12. Postoperative Rehabilitation Guidelines for Hip Arthroscopy in an Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Voight, Michael L.; Robinson, Kevin; Gill, Lance; Griffin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Context: With the evolution of hip arthroscopy has come an increased recognition of intra-articular hip pathologies and improved techniques for their management. Whereas mechanical problems can often be corrected through surgery, functional deficits must be corrected through the rehabilitation process. Therefore, the evolution of hip arthroscopy has necessitated a progression in hip rehabilitation to ensure optimal postsurgical results. Evidence Acquisition: Literature review was conducted with PubMed, EMBASE, and PEDro (1992 to 2009) with the terms hip, rehabilitation, and physical therapy. Results: Although it is generally accepted that rehabilitation after hip arthroscopy is important, there is limited evidence-based research to support the rehabilitative guidelines. Conclusion: The common goal of hip rehabilitation should remain focused on the return to pain-free function of the hip joint. Outcome data indicate that this goal is being met; however, further data are required to completely validate the long-term success of hip rehabilitation after arthroscopy. PMID:23015942

  13. GSK-3β inhibitor TWS119 attenuates rtPA-induced hemorrhagic transformation and activates the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway after acute ischemic stroke in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Li, Mingchang; Wang, Yuefei; Li, Qian; Deng, Gang; Wan, Jieru; Yang, Qingwu

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a devastating complication for patients with acute ischemic stroke who are treated with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). It is associated with high morbidity and mortality, but no effective treatments are currently available to reduce HT risk. Therefore, methods to prevent HT are urgently needed. In this study, we used TWS119, an inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), to evaluate the role of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced HT. Sprague–Dawley rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of ischemic stroke and then were administered rtPA, rtPA combined with TWS119, or vehicle at 4 h. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after infarct induction. Rats treated with rtPA showed evident HT, had more severe neurologic deficit, brain edema, and blood–brain barrier breakdown, and had larger infarction volume than did the vehicle group. Rats treated with TWS119 had significantly improved outcomes compared with those of rats treated with rtPA alone. In addition, Western blot analysis showed that TWS119 increased the protein expression of β-catenin, claudin-3, and ZO-1 while suppressing the expression of GSK-3β. These results suggest that TWS119 reduces rtPA-induced HT and attenuates blood–brain barrier disruption, possibly through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. This study provides a potential therapeutic strategy to prevent tPA-induced HT after acute ischemic stroke. PMID:26671619

  14. Production of a urokinase plasminogen activator-IgG fusion protein (uPA-IgG) in the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Kost, T A; Ignar, D M; Clay, W C; Andrews, J; Leray, J D; Overton, L; Hoffman, C R; Kilpatrick, K E; Ellis, B; Emerson, D L

    1997-04-29

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor, uPAR, in the processes of tumor progression and metastasis. Thus, the uPA/uPAR interaction may represent an important target for inhibiting metastatic disease. The baculovirus expression system was used to produce high levels of a secreted uPA-Immunoglobulin G fusion protein (uPA-IgG) which could then be used for displacing uPA from the surface of tumor cells. The recombinant uPA-IgG fusion protein was placed under the control of either the viral polyhedrin promoter or a copy of the viral basic protein promoter. Recombinant viruses were then used to infect Sf9 and BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells. Infection of both cell types resulted in the production of secreted uPA-IgG. The molecular mass of the secreted protein as determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 40 kDa. The highest level of secreted uPA-IgG, 444 microg/ml, was found in the culture medium of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells 72 h post-infection with the basic protein promoter-uPA-IgG virus. In the case of Sf9 cells, the highest level of secreted protein was 195 microg/ml. The amount of cell-associated uPA-IgG in infected BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells was significantly less than that of infected Sf9 cells, reflecting the superior secretory capability of the BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells. The uPA-IgG was readily purified using a combination of zinc chelate and sephacryl S-100 column chromatography. Routinely, greater than 100 mg of greater than 95% pure protein could be obtained per liter of culture medium collected at 72 h post-infection of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells with the basic protein promoter virus. BIAcore analysis and competition binding assays using LOX human malignant melanoma cells expressing uPAR indicated that the purified recombinant protein possessed similar ligand binding characteristics to that of human uPA.

  15. TGF-β2 promotes RPE cell invasion into a collagen gel by mediating urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) expression.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Koji; Kodama, Aya; Okada, Kiyotaka; Iwata, Mihoko; Yoshida, Koji; Kusaka, Shunji; Matsumoto, Chota; Kaji, Hiroshi; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2013-10-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is one of the main epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing factors. In general, TGF-β-induced EMT promotes cell migration and invasion. TGF-β also acts as a potent regulator of pericellular proteolysis by regulating the expression and secretion of plasminogen activators. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine protease that binds to its cell surface receptor (uPAR) with high affinity. uPA binding to uPAR stimulates uPAR's interaction with transmembrane proteins, such as integrins, to regulate cytoskeletal reorganization and cell migration, differentiation and proliferation. However, the influence of TGF-β and the uPA/uPAR system on EMT in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of TGF-β2, which is the predominant isoform in the retina, and the uPA/uPAR system on RPE cells. In this study, we first examined the effect of TGF-β2 and/or the inhibitor of uPA (u-PA-STOP(®)) on the proliferation of a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19 cells). Treatment with TGF-β2 or u-PA-STOP(®) suppressed cell proliferation. Combination treatment of TGF-β2 and u-PA-STOP(®) enhanced cell growth suppression. Furthermore, western blot analysis, fibrin zymography and real-time reverse transcription PCR showed that that TGF-β2 induced EMT in ARPE-19 cells and that the expression of uPA and uPAR expression was up-regulated during EMT. The TGF-β inhibitor SB431542 suppressed TGF-β2-stimulated uPA expression and secretion but did not suppress uPAR expression. Furthermore, we seeded ARPE-19 cells onto Transwell chambers and allowed them to invade the collagen matrix in the presence of TGF-β2 alone or with TGF-β2 and u-PA-STOP(®). TGF-β2 treatment induced ARPE-19 cell invasion into the collagen gel. Treatment with a combination of TGF-β2 and the uPA inhibitor strongly inhibited ARPE-19 cell invasion compared with treatment with

  16. Active surveillance for prostate cancer: a narrative review of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Bangma, Chris H; Carroll, Peter R; Leapman, Michael S; Rannikko, Antti; Petrides, Neophytos; Weerakoon, Mahesha; Bokhorst, Leonard P; Roobol, Monique J

    2016-03-01

    In the past decade active surveillance (AS) of men with localized prostate cancer has become an increasingly popular management option, and a range of clinical guidelines have been published on this topic. Existing guidelines regarding AS for prostate cancer vary widely, but predominantly state that the most suitable patients for AS are those with pretreatment clinical stage T1c or T2 tumours, serum PSA levels <10 ng/ml, biopsy Gleason scores of 6 or less, a maximum of one or two tumour-positive biopsy core samples and/or a maximum of 50% of cancer per core sample. Following initiation of an AS programme, most guidelines recommend serial serum PSA measurements, digital rectal examinations and surveillance biopsies to check for and identify pathological indications of tumour progression. Definitions of disease reclassification and progression differ among guidelines and multiple criteria for initiation of definitive treatment are proposed. The variety of descriptions of criteria for clinically insignificant prostate cancer indicates a lack of consensus on optimal AS and intervention thresholds. A single set of guidelines are needed in order to reduce variations in clinical practice and to optimize clinical decision-making. To enable truly evidence-based guidelines, further research that combines existing evidence, while also gathering information from more long-term studies is needed.

  17. [Guides and guidelines for physical activity for Canadians: facts and future].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Shephard, Roy J; Brawley, Lawrence R; Cameron, Christine; Craig, Cora Lynn; Duggan, Mary; Esliger, Dale W; Hearst, William; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Latimer, Amy E; McGuire, Ashlee; Paterson, Donald H; Sharratt, Michael; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian; Warburton, Darren; Young, T Kue; Zehr, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings from the papers included in this journal supplement. It consolidates the evidence currently available to inform and advance the development of physical activity guidelines for Canadians, and it highlights the specific needs of various population subgroups. The challenges of translating guideline information into effective and persuasive physical activity messages, of campaigns to disseminate messages and of related evaluations are underlined. Recommendations on how to proceed are based on the evidence base provided by this series of papers; the immediate next steps mandated by this initiative are outlined and priorities for future research are indicated.

  18. TESTING GUIDELINES FOR TECHNETIUM-99 ABSORPTION ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME

    2010-09-08

    CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) is currently evaluating the potential use of activated carbon adsorption for removing technetium-99 from groundwater as a treatment method for the Hanford Site's 200 West Area groundwater pump-and-treat system. The current pump-and-treat system design will include an ion-exchange (IX) system for selective removal of technetium-99 from selected wells prior to subsequent treatment of the water in the central treatment system. The IX resin selected for technetium-99 removal is Purolite A530E. The resin service life is estimated to be approximately 66.85 days at the design technetium-99 loading rate, and the spent resin must be replaced because it cannot be regenerated. The resulting operating costs associated with resin replacement every 66.85 days are estimated at $0.98 million/year. Activated carbon pre-treatment is being evaluated as a potential cost-saving measure to offset the high operating costs associated with frequent IX resin replacement. This document is preceded by the Literature Survey of Technetium-99 Groundwater Pre-Treatment Option Using Granular Activated Carbon (SGW-43928), which identified and evaluated prior research related to technetium-99 adsorption on activated carbon. The survey also evaluated potential operating considerations for this treatment approach for the 200 West Area. The preliminary conclusions of the literature survey are as follows: (1) Activated carbon can be used to selectively remove technetium-99 from contaminated groundwater. (2) Technetium-99 adsorption onto activated carbon is expected to vary significantly based on carbon types and operating conditions. For the treatment approach to be viable at the Hanford Site, activated carbon must be capable of achieving a designated minimum technetium-99 uptake. (3) Certain radionuclides known to be present in 200 West Area groundwater are also likely to adsorb onto activated carbon. (4) Organic solvent contaminants of concern (COCs) will

  19. Coagulation alterations due to local fibrinolytic therapy with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rauber, Klaus; Heidinger, Kathrin S.; Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To determine the systemic effects of local fibrinolytic therapy with low-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods. Ten patients received intrathrombal infusion of 20 mg rt-PA and heparin for local thrombolysis and had subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Eight controls underwent PTA and received heparin alone. We measured t-PA, D-Dimer, and fibrinogen levels before, directly after, and 20, 40, and 60 min and 24 hr after therapy. Results. In the thrombolysis group the t-PA level peaked immediately after infusion and then declined within 1 hr. D-Dimer increased and remained elevated, whereas in the control group only t-PA levels increased, and only after 24 hr. Fibrinogen remained within the normal range in both groups. Eight of ten patients in the thrombolysis group and seven of eight with PTA had clinical improvement after the procedure. Conclusions. The increase in D-Dimer in the rt-PA group indicates a good local fibrinolytic effect. The fact that fibrinogen levels remained unchanged indicates that there is a lack of systemic fibrinogenolysis.

  20. Expression of the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its ligand (uPA) in brain tissues of human immunodeficiency virus patients with opportunistic cerebral diseases.

    PubMed

    Nebuloni, Manuela; Cinque, Paola; Sidenius, Nicolai; Ferri, Angelita; Lauri, Eleonora; Omodeo-Zorini, Elisabetta; Zerbi, Pietro; Vago, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) and its ligand (uPA) play an important role in cell migration and extracellular proteolysis. We previously described uPAR/uPA overexpression in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissues of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related cerebral diseases. In this study, we examined uPAR/uPA expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in brains of HIV patients with opportunistic cerebral lesions and in HIV-positive/negative controls. uPAR was found in macrophages/microglia with the highest levels in cytomegalovirus (CMV) encephalitis, toxoplasmosis, and lymphomas; in cryptococcosis and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) cases, only a few positive cells were found and no positivity was observed in controls. uPA expression was demonstrated only in a few macrophages/microglia and lymphocytes in all the cases and HIV-positive controls without different pattern of distribution; no uPA immunostaining was found in cryptococcosis and HIV-negative controls. The higher expression of uPAR/uPA in most of the opportunistic cerebral lesions supports their role in these diseases, suggesting their contribution to tissue injury.

  1. 75 FR 43809 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    .... PA-28, PA-32, PA- 34, and PA-44 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) PA-28, PA-32, PA-34, and PA-44 series airplanes. This AD requires you to inspect the... apply to certain Piper Aircraft, Inc. (Piper) PA-28, PA-32, PA- 34, and PA-44 series airplanes....

  2. Voluntary Religious Activities in Public Schools: Policy Guidelines. Fastback 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jan C.

    This booklet was written to help school officials understand the law concerning public forums and voluntary religious activities in public schools. Compliance dilemmas arising from the First Amendment establishment of religion clause and the accompanying free speech and free expression clauses, along with 14th Amendment equal protection…

  3. 32 CFR 147.14 - Guideline L-Outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... responsibilities and could create an increased risk of unauthorized disclosure of classified information. (b... protected technology. (c) Conditions that could mitigate security concerns include: (1) Evaluation of the... responsibilities; (2) The individual terminates the employment or discontinues the activity upon being...

  4. 32 CFR 147.14 - Guideline L-Outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... responsibilities and could create an increased risk of unauthorized disclosure of classified information. (b... protected technology. (c) Conditions that could mitigate security concerns include: (1) Evaluation of the... responsibilities; (2) The individual terminates the employment or discontinues the activity upon being...

  5. 32 CFR 147.14 - Guideline L-Outside activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... responsibilities and could create an increased risk of unauthorized disclosure of classified information. (b... protected technology. (c) Conditions that could mitigate security concerns include: (1) Evaluation of the... responsibilities; (2) The individual terminates the employment or discontinues the activity upon being...

  6. Biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties of rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of human tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Nelles, L; Li, X K; Vanlinthout, I; De Cock, F; Lijnen, H R; Collen, D

    1992-04-02

    rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), in which proline at position 47 and lysine at position 49 were replaced by glycine and asparagine respectively, was previously described by Ahern et al. (J Biol Chem 1990; 265:5540-5) to have an extended in vivo half-life with unaltered in vitro fibrinolytic properties. Because this variant might possess an increased in vivo thrombolytic potency, we have constructed its cDNA, expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells and determined its biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties relative to those of home-made rt-PA and of alteplase (Actilyse). The specific fibrinolytic activities on fibrin plates were 160,000 +/- 17,000, 210,000 +/- 88,000 and 460,000 +/- 72,000 IU/mg (mean +/- SEM) for rt-PA P47G, K49N, rt-PA and alteplase, respectively, while the catalytic efficiencies for plasminogen activation (k2/Km) in the absence of fibrin were comparable (1.1 to 1.7 x 10(-3) microM-1s-1). Fibrin enhanced the rate of plasminogen activation by rt-PA P47G, K49N 100-fold and by both wild-type molecules 390-fold. Binding of the variant rt-PA to fibrin was significantly reduced, but its affinity for lysine-Sepharose was unaltered. In an in vitro clot lysis system, consisting of a radiolabeled human plasma clot submersed in plasma, 50% clot lysis in 2 h required 0.67 +/- 0.14 micrograms/ml rt-PA P47G, K49N, 0.36 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml rt-PA and 0.17 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml alteplase, respectively (mean +/- SEM; n = 3 or 4). At these doses residual fibrinogen levels at 2 h were in excess of 80%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Maduramicin Rapidly Eliminates Malaria Parasites and Potentiates the Gametocytocidal Activity of the Pyrazoleamide PA21A050

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Maxim I.; Magle, Crystal T.; Czesny, Beata; Turturice, Benjamin A.; Huang, Ruili; Zheng, Wei; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2015-01-01

    New strategies targeting Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual-stage parasites that are responsible for malaria transmission, are needed to eradicate this disease. Most commonly used antimalarials are ineffective against P. falciparum gametocytes, allowing patients to continue to be infectious for over a week after asexual parasite clearance. A recent screen for gametocytocidal compounds demonstrated that the carboxylic polyether ionophore maduramicin is active at low nanomolar concentrations against P. falciparum sexual stages. In this study, we showed that maduramicin has an EC50 (effective concentration that inhibits the signal by 50%) of 14.8 nM against late-stage gametocytes and significantly blocks in vivo transmission in a mouse model of malaria transmission. In contrast to other reported gametocytocidal agents, maduramicin acts rapidly in vitro, eliminating gametocytes and asexual schizonts in less than 12 h without affecting uninfected red blood cells (RBCs). Ring stage parasites are cleared by 24 h. Within an hour of drug treatment, 40% of the normally crescent-shaped gametocytes round up and become spherical. The number of round gametocytes increases to >60% by 2 h, even before a change in membrane potential as monitored by MitoProbe DiIC1 (5) is detectable. Maduramicin is not preferentially taken up by gametocyte-infected RBCs compared to uninfected RBCs, suggesting that gametocytes are more sensitive to alterations in cation concentration than RBCs. Moreover, the addition of 15.6 nM maduramicin enhanced the gametocytocidal activity of the pyrazoleamide PA21A050, which is a promising new antimalarial candidate associated with an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration that is proposed to be due to inhibition of PfATP4, a putative Na+ pump. These results underscore the importance of cation homeostasis in sexual as well as asexual intraerythrocytic-stage P. falciparum parasites and the potential of targeting this pathway for drug development

  8. Overexpression of Hsp27 in a human melanoma cell line: regulation of E-cadherin, MUC18/MCAM, and plasminogen activator (PA) system

    PubMed Central

    Aldrian, Silke; Kindas-Mügge, Ingela; Trautinger, Franz; Fröhlich, Ilse; Gsur, Andrea; Herbacek, Irene; Berger, Walter; Micksche, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hsp27 is considered a potential marker for cell differentiation in diverse tissues. Several aspects linked to the differentiation process and to the transition from high to low metastatic potential were analyzed in melanoma cells transfected with Hsp27. E-cadherin plays a central role in cell differentiation, migration, and normal development. Loss of expression or function of E-cadherin has been documented in a variety of human malignancies. We observed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter (FACS) as well as immunofluorescence (IF) analysis a pronounced expression of E-cadherin in Hsp27-transfected A375 melanoma cells compared with control melanoma cells. The expression of the adhesion molecule MUC18/MCAM correlates directly with the metastatic potential of melanoma cells. In contrast to wild-type and neotransfected melanoma cells, in Hsp27-transfected cells the expression of MUC18/MCAM could not be detected by FACS and IF analysis. The plasminogen activator (PA) system plays a central role in mediating extracellular proteolysis and also in nonproteolytic events such as cell adhesion, migration, and transmembrane signaling. Hsp27 transfectants revealed elevated messenger ribonucleic acid expression of the urokinase-type PA (uPA) and its inhibitor, PA inhibitor type 1, which might indicate a neutralization effect of the proteolytic activity of uPA. Control cells failed to express both these molecules. The influence of Hsp27 expression on uPA activity and the involvement of E-cadherin could be demonstrated by use of anti–E-cadherin–blocking antibody. Our data provide evidence for an inhibitory-regulatory role of Hsp27 in tumor progression as found in our system. PMID:14984058

  9. Step-based translation of physical activity guidelines in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine how many steps/day equate to current moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines in a population from the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of the United States, 58 overweight adults wore an Actigraph accelerometer (GT3X) for up to two weeks. Minutes/day in MVPA was a good pred...

  10. The Marfan Syndrome. Fact Sheet [and] Physical Education and Activity Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Marfan Foundation, Port Washington, NY.

    This document consists of two brochures, the first explaining the Marfan Syndrome and a second providing guidelines for physical education and activity for people who have this syndrome are provided. The brochure on factual information about Marfan syndrome outlines the associated medical problems involving the cardiovascular system, the skeleton,…

  11. The Marfan Syndrome: Physical Activity Guidelines for Physical Educators, Coaches and Physicians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romeo, Thomas J.

    Intended for physical educators, this manual provides guidelines for providing safe and effective physical activity programs for children with Marfan syndrome, a congenital condition involving the connective tissues and the probable cause of sudden death by heart failure of some young competitive athletes in recent cases. The manual includes…

  12. Evidence-based practice guideline: increasing physical activity in schools--kindergarten through 8th grade.

    PubMed

    Bagby, Karen; Adams, Susan

    2007-06-01

    Because of the growing obesity epidemic across all age groups in the United States, interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have become a priority. Evidence is growing that interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have positive results and are generally inexpensive to implement. National and international health organizations are calling for a comprehensive approach for reducing obesity in children that includes increasing physical activity in the school setting. Although the call to increase activity levels in schools is clear, little guidance has been given to schools on specific methods to accomplish this task. This article provides an overview of an evidence-based guideline developed by a physical education teacher and a school nurse to provide inexpensive, easy-to-implement, effective strategies to increase physical activity in students. Tools are also included in the guideline to measure the effectiveness of the intervention.

  13. Genome-Wide Association Study for Circulating Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Levels and Functional Follow-up Implicates Endothelial STXBP5 and STX2

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jie; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Yamkauchi, Munekazu; Trompet, Stella; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Sabater-Lleal, Maria; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Chen, Wei-Min; Smith, Nicholas L.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Shin, So-Youn; Becker, Diane M.; Tang, Weihong; Dehghan, Abbas; Johnson, Andrew D.; Truong, Vinh; Folkersen, Lasse; Yang, Qiong; Oudot-Mellakh, Tiphaine; Buckley, Brendan M.; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Frances M.K.; Campbell, Harry; Silbernagel, Günther; Vitart, Veronique; Rudan, Igor; Tofler, Geoffrey H.; Navis, Gerjan J.; DeStefano, Anita; Wright, Alan F.; Chen, Ming-Huei; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; Rumley, Ann; Bookman, Ebony B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Chen, Fang; Keene, Keith L.; Franco, Oscar H.; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Carter, Angela M.; Jukema, J. Wouter; Sattar, Naveed; Bis, Joshua C.; Ikram, Mohammad A.; Sale, Michèle M.; McKnight, Barbara; Fornage, Myriam; Ford, Ian; Taylor, Kent; Slagboom, P. Eline; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Franco-Cereceda, Anders; Goodall, Alison H.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Furie, Karen L.; Cushman, Mary; Hofman, Albert; Witteman, Jacqueline CM.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Basu, Saonli; Matijevic, Nena; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Wilson, James F.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Reilly, Muredach P.; Tracy, Russell P.; Polasek, Ozren; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Grant, Peter J.; Hillege, Hans L.; Cambien, Francois; Stott, David J.; Lowe, Gordon D.; Spector, Timothy D.; Meigs, James B.; Marz, Winfried; Eriksson, Per; Becker, Lewis C.; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel; Soranzo, Nicole; Williams, Scott M.; Hayward, Caroline; van der Harst, Pim; Hamsten, Anders; Lowenstein, Charles J.; Strachan, David P.; O'Donnell, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA. Approach and Results Fourteen cohort studies with tPA measures (N=26,929) contributed to the meta-analysis. Three loci were significantly associated with circulating tPA levels (P <5.0×10−8). The first locus is on 6q24.3, with the lead SNP (rs9399599, P=2.9×10−14) within STXBP5. The second locus is on 8p11.21. The lead SNP (rs3136739, P=1.3×10−9) is intronic to POLB and less than 200kb away from the tPA encoding gene PLAT. We identified a non-synonymous SNP (rs2020921) in modest LD with rs3136739 (r2 = 0.50) within exon 5 of PLAT (P=2.0×10−8). The third locus is on 12q24.33, with the lead SNP (rs7301826, P=1.0×10−9) within intron 7 of STX2. We further found evidence for association of lead SNPs in STXBP5 and STX2 with expression levels of the respective transcripts. In in vitro cell studies, silencing STXBP5 decreased release of tPA from vascular endothelial cells, while silencing of STX2 increased tPA release. Through an in-silico lookup, we found no associations of the three lead SNPs with coronary artery disease or stroke. Conclusions We identified three loci associated with circulating tPA levels, the PLAT region, STXBP5 and STX2. Our functional studies implicate a novel role for STXBP5 and STX2 in regulating tPA release. PMID:24578379

  14. The Mexican Dietary and Physical Activity Guidelines: Moving Public Nutrition Forward in a Globalized World.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this article is to explain the process of the development of and to assess the Mexican food-based dietary and physical activity guidelines (FBDGs). The FBDGs were developed by an intersectoral and interdisciplinary committee of 11 national experts with input from 11 external advisors. The sectors represented were research and academic institutions, the Ministry of Health, and a nongovernmental organization. The evidence-based process included the following: literature reviews of local, national, and international evidence; review of dietary patterns of the Mexican population; key national and international recommendations; and review of FBDGs and visual icons from other countries. The guidelines' report follows the life-course socioecological model rooted in a deep understanding of the epidemiology and underlying causes of malnutrition in Mexico. The guidelines are summarized in 10 pretested main recommendations that include, and go beyond, simply promoting the consumption of a healthy and varied diet that includes fresh fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains and staying within caloric needs and staying active. The guidelines strongly emphasize healthy cooking habits, enjoyable meals with family and friends, drinking water, and avoiding the consumption of sweetened beverages, grain-based desserts, and highly processed foods. Detailed guidelines specific to different groups (on the basis of age and physiologic status) are also included. An innovative aspect of the Mexican FBDGs is the inclusion of dietary guidance of children <2 y of age. Future editions of these guidelines should consider removing their emphasis on dietary cholesterol and total dietary fat and placing more attention on the substitution of saturated and trans fats with healthy oils. The process of national agenda setting, policy articulation, and implementation of the Mexican FBDGs in the context of addressing the national obesity epidemic deserves to be initiated and

  15. Iron oxide nanoparticles protected by NIR-active multidentate-polymers as multifunctional nanoprobes for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yayun; Gao, Duyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Chuansheng; Wan, Qian; Chen, Chi; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Cai, Lintao

    2016-01-14

    We designed and synthesized new kinds of near-infrared catechol-based multidentate polymers which were intended to yield compact NIR-active iron oxide nanoparticles with excellent stability and biocompatibility. The resulted multifunctional nanoprobes showed great potential as multimodal contrast agents for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging in vivo.

  16. Tissue-type Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Modulates the Postsynaptic Response of Cerebral Cortical Neurons to the Presynaptic Release of Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Jeanneret, Valerie; Wu, Fang; Merino, Paola; Torre, Enrique; Diaz, Ariel; Cheng, Lihong; Yepes, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase released by the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons following membrane depolarization (Echeverry et al., 2010). Recent studies indicate that the release of tPA triggers the synaptic vesicle cycle and promotes the exocytosis (Wu et al., 2015) and endocytic retrieval (Yepes et al., 2016) of glutamate-containing synaptic vesicles. Here we used electron microscopy, proteomics, quantitative phosphoproteomics, biochemical analyses with extracts of the postsynaptic density (PSD), and an animal model of cerebral ischemia with mice overexpressing neuronal tPA to study whether the presynaptic release of tPA also has an effect on the postsynaptic terminal. We found that tPA has a bidirectional effect on the composition of the PSD of cerebral cortical neurons that is independent of the generation of plasmin and the presynaptic release of glutamate, but depends on the baseline level of neuronal activity and the extracellular concentrations of calcium (Ca2+). Accordingly, in neurons that are either inactive or incubated with low Ca2+ concentrations tPA induces phosphorylation and accumulation in the PSD of the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα (pCaMKIIα), followed by pCaMKIIα-mediated phosphorylation and synaptic recruitment of GluR1-containing α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors. In contrast, in neurons with previously increased baseline levels of pCaMKIIα in the PSD due to neuronal depolarization in vivo or incubation with high concentrations of either Ca2+ or glutamate in vitro, tPA induces pCaMKIIα and pGluR1 dephosphorylation and their subsequent removal from the PSD. We found that these effects of tPA are mediated by synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5)-induced phosphorylation of the protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) at T320. Our data indicate that by regulating the pCaMKIIα/PP1 balance in the PSD tPA acts

  17. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  18. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  19. Synergistic transcriptional activation of the mouse urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene and of its enhancer activator protein 1 (AP1) site by cAMP and retinoic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Mira-Y-Lopez, R; Jaramillo, S; Jing, Y

    1998-01-01

    We have investigated the mechanism whereby all-trans retinoic acid (tRA) potentiates the 8-bromo-cAMP (8-BrcAMP)-dependent transcription of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) gene in SC115 mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Photoaffinity labelling experiments showed that tRA did not alter the cellular content of cAMP-dependent protein kinase regulatory subunits I and II. In agreement with this, nuclear run-on analysis in the presence of the translational inhibitor puromycin demonstrated that the effect of 8-BrcAMP and its potentiation by tRA were independent of protein synthesis. A transiently transfected 6.6 kb uPA 5'-flanking region-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) fusion gene mimicked the response of the endogenous uPA gene. Thus 1 mM 8-BrcAMP induced a 100-200% increase in CAT content, 100 nM tRA had no effect and 100 nM tRA+1 mM 8-BrcAMP induced a 300-500% increase in cells co-transfected with tRA receptor and/or 9-cis-RA receptor. Analysis of 5'-deleted constructs showed that the tRA effect required at least two cis regions: -2657 to -2186, encompassing the 100 bp uPA enhancer, and -709 to -324, which exhibited silencing activity. Neither region contained a tRA-response element-like motif. Because tRA receptor and 9-cis-RA receptor interact with activator protein 1 (AP1), we tested whether tRA regulated the uPA enhancer AP1 site in the presence of 8-BrcAMP. We found that a dimer of this site fused to a minimal uPA-CAT fusion gene was responsive to 1 mM 8-BrcAMP (100% CAT increase), not responsive to 100 nM tRA, and synergistically responsive to 100 nM tRA+1 mM 8-BrcAMP (240% CAT increase) in cells co-transfected with Fos and Jun. Synergistic activation of the same construct and of the 6.6 kb uPA-CAT fusion gene was also obtained using tRA and 100 nM PMA. We conclude that multiple cis elements, probably including the uPA enhancer AP1 site, mediate the tRA potentiation of uPA transcription. PMID:9560322

  20. Iron oxide nanoparticles protected by NIR-active multidentate-polymers as multifunctional nanoprobes for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yayun; Gao, Duyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Chuansheng; Wan, Qian; Chen, Chi; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Cai, Lintao

    2015-12-01

    We designed and synthesized new kinds of near-infrared catechol-based multidentate polymers which were intended to yield compact NIR-active iron oxide nanoparticles with excellent stability and biocompatibility. The resulted multifunctional nanoprobes showed great potential as multimodal contrast agents for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging in vivo.We designed and synthesized new kinds of near-infrared catechol-based multidentate polymers which were intended to yield compact NIR-active iron oxide nanoparticles with excellent stability and biocompatibility. The resulted multifunctional nanoprobes showed great potential as multimodal contrast agents for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging in vivo. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experiment and Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06660c

  1. A review of physical activity measures used among U.S. Latinos: Guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Suzanna M.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Elder, John

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. population continues to grow and diversify, there is a need for progressive physical activity measurement and cross-cultural research. Studies suggest that U.S.-Latinos are among the most sedentary of ethnic groups compared to others; however, study findings may be biased given that some measures may not be culturally sensitive for assessing behaviors that are not characterized as leisure time physical activity. The primary objective of this review was to identify and evaluate measures used to quantify physical activity among U.S. Latinos. A review of the literature was performed and studies examining levels of physical activity among Spanish and English speaking Latinos were documented. This process involved identifying existing guidelines for the purpose of culturally adapting and/or translating [into Spanish] physical activity measures for the Latino population. These guidelines were used as the minimal criteria for the evaluation of the 13 identified measures of physical activity. Of these 13 measures, four were available in English and nine were available in Spanish. One English measure met the guidelines for being culturally adapted for assessing physical activity among Latinos. There were no Spanish measures that met all the guidelines for physical activity assessment among Spanish speaking Latinos. Lastly, the identified guidelines for developing culturally appropriate measures were improved to advance physical activity measurement among ethnic and cultural groups. Future research should merit the use of culturally appropriate guidelines to increase the understanding of physical activity patterns in the U.S. PMID:18855091

  2. PtrA Is Functionally Intertwined with GacS in Regulating the Biocontrol Activity of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nidhi; Klaponski, Natasha; Selin, Carrie; Rudney, Rachel; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Belmonte, Mark F.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro inhibition of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is reliant upon a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) called PtrA. In the current study, we show that Sclerotinia stem rot and leaf infection are significantly increased in canola plants inoculated with the ptrA-mutant compared to the wild type, establishing PtrA as an essential regulator of PA23 biocontrol. LTTRs typically regulate targets that are upstream of and divergently transcribed from the LTTR locus. We identified a short chain dehydrogenase (scd) gene immediately upstream of ptrA. Characterization of a scd mutant revealed that it is phenotypically identical to the wild type. Moreover, scd transcript abundance was unchanged in the ptrA mutant. These findings indicate that PtrA regulation does not involve scd, rather this LTTR controls genes located elsewhere on the chromosome. Employing a combination of complementation and transcriptional analysis we investigated whether connections exist between PtrA and other regulators of biocontrol. Besides ptrA, gacS was the only gene able to partially rescue the wild-type phenotype, establishing a connection between PtrA and the sensor kinase GacS. Transcriptomic analysis revealed decreased expression of biosynthetic (phzA, prnA) and regulatory genes (phzI, phzR, rpoS, gacA, rsmX, rsmZ, retS) in the ptrA mutant; conversely, rsmE, and rsmY were markedly upregulated. The transcript abundance of ptrA was nine-fold higher in the mutant background indicating that this LTTR negatively autoregulates itself. In summary, PtrA is an essential regulator of genes required for PA23 biocontrol that is functionally intertwined with GacS. PMID:27713742

  3. 26S and PA28-20S Proteasome Activity in Cytosolic Extracts from Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Hernebring, Malin

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is a complex multisubunit protease that plays a major role in the degradation of proteins in eukaryotic cells. Proteasome function is one of the key players regulating the proteome and it is vital for many cellular processes. The method described here makes it possible to assay the proteolytic capacities of proteasome complexes separately in crude cytosolic extracts from ES cells. The method is based on hydrolysis of a fluorogenic peptide substrate in lysates prepared under conditions that favor the interactions of the 20S proteasomal catalytical core with either the 19S or the PA28αβ proteasome regulator.

  4. Have guidelines addressing physical activity been established in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease?

    PubMed Central

    Finelli, Carmine; Tarantino, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to highlight, in relation to the currently accepted pathophysiology of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the known exercise habits of patients with NAFLD and to detail the benefits of lifestyle modification with exercise (and/or physical activity) on parameters of metabolic syndrome. More rigorous, controlled studies of longer duration and defined histopathological end-points comparing exercise alone and other treatment are needed before better, evidence-based physical activity modification guidelines can be established, since several questions remain unanswered. PMID:23239917

  5. Changes to the school food and physical activity environment after guideline implementation in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High rates of childhood obesity have generated interest among policy makers to improve the school food environment and increase students’ levels of physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine school-level changes associated with implementation of the Food and Beverage Sales in Schools (FBSS) and Daily Physical Activity (DPA) guidelines in British Columbia, Canada. Methods Elementary and middle/high school principals completed a survey on the school food and physical activity environment in 2007–08 (N = 513) and 2011–12 (N = 490). Hierarchical mixed effects regression was used to examine changes in: 1) availability of food and beverages; 2) minutes per day of Physical Education (PE); 3) delivery method of PE; and 4) school community support. Models controlled for school enrollment and community type, education and income. Results After policy implementation was expected, more elementary schools provided access to fruits and vegetables and less to 100% fruit juice. Fewer middle/high schools provided access to sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries, baked goods, salty snacks and chocolate/candy. Schools were more likely to meet 150 min/week of PE for grade 6 students, and offer more minutes of PE per week for grade 8 and 10 students including changes to PE delivery method. School community support for nutrition and physical activity policies increased over time. Conclusion Positive changes to the school food environment occurred after schools were expected to implement the FBSS and DPA guidelines. Reported changes to the school environment are encouraging and provide support for guidelines and policies that focus on increasing healthy eating and physical activity in schools. PMID:24731514

  6. Physical Activity Promotion on Campus: Using Empirical Evidence to Recommend Strategic Approaches to Target Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Sidman, Cara Lynn; Venezia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Problem: A large number of American adults do not meet national physical activity (PA) guidelines for aerobic PA and muscle strengthening. Similarly, many American college students, specifically females do not engage in regular PA. Self Determination Theory can provide a basis for investigating motivational processes of PA. The purpose of this…

  7. Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dinh, Thy; Duggan, Mary; Faulkner, Guy; Gray, Casey E; Gruber, Reut; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; LeBlanc, Claire; Okely, Anthony D; Olds, Timothy; Pate, Russell R; Phillips, Andrea; Poitras, Veronica J; Rodenburg, Sophie; Sampson, Margaret; Saunders, Travis J; Stone, James A; Stratton, Gareth; Weiss, Shelly K; Zehr, Lori

    2016-06-01

    Leaders from the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology convened representatives of national organizations, content experts, methodologists, stakeholders, and end-users who followed rigorous and transparent guideline development procedures to create the Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Sleep. These novel guidelines for children and youth aged 5-17 years respect the natural and intuitive integration of movement behaviours across the whole day (24-h period). The development process was guided by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and systematic reviews of evidence informing the guidelines were assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. Four systematic reviews (physical activity, sedentary behaviour, sleep, integrated behaviours) examining the relationships between and among movement behaviours and several health indicators were completed and interpreted by expert consensus. Complementary compositional analyses were performed using Canadian Health Measures Survey data to examine the relationships between movement behaviours and health indicators. A stakeholder survey was employed (n = 590) and 28 focus groups/stakeholder interviews (n = 104) were completed to gather feedback on draft guidelines. Following an introductory preamble, the guidelines provide evidence-informed recommendations for a healthy day (24 h), comprising a combination of sleep, sedentary behaviours, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Proactive dissemination, promotion, implementation, and evaluation plans have been prepared in an effort to optimize uptake and activation of the new guidelines. Future research should consider the integrated relationships among movement behaviours, and similar integrated guidelines for other age groups should be developed.

  8. Physical activity guideline in Mexican-Americans: does the built environment play a role?

    PubMed

    Oluyomi, Abiodun O; Whitehead, Lawrence W; Burau, Keith D; Symanski, Elaine; Kohl, Harold W; Bondy, Melissa

    2014-04-01

    Given disproportionate burden of physical inactivity among US Hispanics and emerging interests in the potential role of the built environment on physical activity, we tested the hypothesis that residing in a more walkable block group is associated with increased physical activity in a cohort of Mexican-American adults. 10,183 Mexican-American adults from Houston, TX, USA were studied. Physical activity was assessed through self-report. Geographical information systems were used to create a "walkability index" (WI). We examined the relationship between WI and physical activity using regression models. Findings for the entire study population suggested a direct association between neighborhood walkability and physical activity that approached statistical significance (High WI vs. Low WI: OR = 1.16; 95% CI 0.95-1.40). Furthermore, participants who lived in a higher WI neighborhood were more likely to meet physical activity guidelines in 2 groups: (1) men whose recreational physical activity included walking (High WI vs. Low WI: OR = 5.43; 95% CI 1.30-22.73) and (2) men whose only recreational physical activity was (High WI vs. Low WI: OR = 9.54; 95% CI 1.84-49.60). Our findings suggest gender differences in the association between the built environment and physical activity in Mexican-American adults. Attempts to encourage walking among Mexican-American adults may be easier in high-walkability neighborhoods than in low-walkability neighborhoods.

  9. How Much Walking Is Needed to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness? An Examination of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Duncan, Glenn E.; Limacher, Marian C.; Martin, Anthony D.; Perri, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) indicated that two approaches can be used to achieve the activity threshold needed to derive health benefits. Individuals may engage in either 150 min (2 hr 30 min) of moderate intensity activity (e.g., moderate-paced walking), or 75 min (1 hr…

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Defensin PaDef from Avocado Fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) Expressed in Endothelial Cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C.; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27–38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52–65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens. PMID:24319695

  11. Defense activation triggers differential expression of phospholipase-C (PLC) genes and elevated temperature induces phosphatidic acid (PA) accumulation in tomato

    PubMed Central

    Abd-El-Haliem, Ahmed; Meijer, Harold J.G.; Tameling, Wladimir I.L.; Vossen, Jack H.; Joosten, Matthieu H.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, we provided the first genetic evidence for the requirement of tomato PLC4 and PLC6 genes in defense activation and disease resistance. The encoded enzymes were catalytically active as they were able to degrade phosphatidylinositol (PI), thereby producing diacylglycerol (DG). Here we report differential PLC gene expression following the initiation of defense signaling by the interaction between Cladosporium fulvum resistance (R) protein Cf-4 and its matching effector Avr4 in tomato hybrid seedlings that express both Cf-4 and Avr4. Furthermore, we observed that PLC3 and PLC6 gene expression is upregulated by elevated temperature in the control seedlings. This upregulation coincides with an increase in the levels of phosphatidic acid (PA) and a decrease in the levels of PI and phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP). The decrease in PI and PIP levels matches with the activation of PLC. In addition, the levels of the structural phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) declined transiently during recovery after the exposure to elevated temperature., Further studies will be required to explain the mechanism causing the sustained accumulation of PA during recovery, combined with a reduction in the levels of structural phospholipids. PMID:22899083

  12. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens.

  13. American Cancer Society Guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kushi, Lawrence H; Doyle, Colleen; McCullough, Marji; Rock, Cheryl L; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Bandera, Elisa V; Gapstur, Susan; Patel, Alpa V; Andrews, Kimberly; Gansler, Ted

    2012-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and, ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published approximately every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and they reflect the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines focus on recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or creates barriers to healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents recommendations for community action to accompany the 4 recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. These recommendations for community action recognize that a supportive social and physical environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans.

  14. A systematic review of the evidence for Canada's Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This systematic review examines critically the scientific basis for Canada's Physical Activity Guide for Healthy Active Living for adults. Particular reference is given to the dose-response relationship between physical activity and premature all-cause mortality and seven chronic diseases (cardiovascular disease, stroke, hypertension, colon cancer, breast cancer, type 2 diabetes (diabetes mellitus) and osteoporosis). The strength of the relationship between physical activity and specific health outcomes is evaluated critically. Literature was obtained through searching electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE), cross-referencing, and through the authors' knowledge of the area. For inclusion in our systematic review articles must have at least 3 levels of physical activity and the concomitant risk for each chronic disease. The quality of included studies was appraised using a modified Downs and Black tool. Through this search we identified a total of 254 articles that met the eligibility criteria related to premature all-cause mortality (N = 70), cardiovascular disease (N = 49), stroke (N = 25), hypertension (N = 12), colon cancer (N = 33), breast cancer (N = 43), type 2 diabetes (N = 20), and osteoporosis (N = 2). Overall, the current literature supports clearly the dose-response relationship between physical activity and the seven chronic conditions identified. Moreover, higher levels of physical activity reduce the risk for premature all-cause mortality. The current Canadian guidelines appear to be appropriate to reduce the risk for the seven chronic conditions identified above and all-cause mortality. PMID:20459783

  15. Mercury Inhibits Soil Enzyme Activity in a Lower Concentration than the Guideline Value.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Khandaker Rayhan; Krishnan, Kannan; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Three soil types - neutral, alkaline and acidic were experimentally contaminated with nine different concentrations of inorganic mercury (0, 5, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 mg/kg) to derive effective concentrations of mercury that exert toxicity on soil quality. Bioavailability of mercury in terms of water solubility was lower in acidic soil with higher organic carbon. Dehydrogenase enzyme activity and nitrification rate were chosen as indicators to assess soil quality. Inorganic mercury significantly inhibited (p < 0.001) microbial activities in the soils. The critical mercury contents (EC10) were found to be less than the available safe limits for inorganic mercury which demonstrated inadequacy of existing guideline values.

  16. What do patients really know? An evaluation of patients’ physical activity guideline knowledge within general practice 1

    PubMed Central

    Morton, S.; Thompson, D.; Wheeler, P.; Easton, G.; Majeed, A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Physical inactivity is well recognised as one of the leading causes of preventable death. However, little is known about the general public’s knowledge surrounding national physical activity guidelines, particularly within general practice (GP). Setting Two GPs (York and Maidenhead, UK). Question Are GP patients aware of the national physical guidelines? Also, are health care professionals routinely raising the issue of physical inactivity and would patients welcome support from health care professionals regarding inactivity? Methodology A questionnaire was distributed in two GPs over a one-week period to evaluate patients knowledge of the national physical activity guidelines. Results Ninety-four participants completed the questionnaire over one week (60 female; 34 male), with an average age of 54.2 (standard deviation: 19.9 years). 14% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 8–22%) of the total participants correctly knew the recommended national guidelines for physical activity. 52% (95% CI: 42–63%) recalled being asked by a health care professional about their activity levels. 46% (95% CI: 35–56%) would welcome support from a health care professional around improving their activity levels. Discussion/Conclusion Only 14% of responders correctly knew the current national minimum activity guidelines. Encouragingly 46% of participants in our study were interested in physical activity advice from a health care professional. Health care professionals need to be aware that many patients do not know the current physical activity guidelines and recognise that primary care may be an underutilised opportunity to educate and promote physical activity. PMID:28250834

  17. Active surveillance for the management of localized prostate cancer: Guideline recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Morash, Chris; Tey, Rovena; Agbassi, Chika; Klotz, Laurence; McGowan, Tom; Srigley, John; Evans, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The objective is to provide guidance on the role of active surveillance (AS) as a management strategy for low-risk prostate cancer patients and to ensure that AS is offered to appropriate patients assessed by a standardized protocol. Prostate cancer is often a slowly progressive or sometimes non-progressive indolent disease diagnosed at an early stage with localized tumours that are unlikely to cause morbidity or death. Standard active treatments for prostate cancer include radiotherapy (RT) or radical prostatectomy (RP), but the harms from over diagnosis and overtreatment are of a significant concern. AS is increasingly being considered as a management strategy to avoid or delay the potential harms caused by unnecessary radical treatment. Methods: A literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane library, guideline databases and relevant meeting proceedings was performed and a systematic review of identified evidence was synthesized to make recommendations relating to the role of AS in the management of localized prostate cancer. Results: No exiting guidelines or reviews were suitable for use in the synthesis of evidence for the recommendations, but 59 reports of primary studies were identified. Due to studies being either non-comparative or heterogeneous, pooled meta-analyses were not conducted. Conclusion: The working group concluded that for patients with low-risk (Gleason score ≤6) localized prostate cancer, AS is the preferred disease management strategy. Active treatment (RP or RT) is appropriate for patients with intermediate-risk (Gleason score 7) localized prostate cancer. For select patients with low-volume Gleason 3+4=7 localized prostate cancer, AS can be considered. PMID:26225165

  18. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18–23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  19. American Cancer Society guidelines on nutrition and physical activity for cancer prevention: Reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Byers, Tim; Nestle, Marion; McTiernan, Anne; Doyle, Colleen; Currie-Williams, Alexis; Gansler, Ted; Thun, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) has set aggressive challenge goals for the nation to decrease cancer incidence and mortality--and to improve the quality of life of cancer survivors--by the year 2015. To address these critical goals, the ACS publishes the Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These guidelines, published every five years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and as such, they represent the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The American Cancer Society guidelines include recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or interferes with healthy behaviors. Therefore, this committee presents one key recommendation for community action to accompany the four recommendations for individual choices for nutrition and physical activity to reduce cancer risk. This recommendation for community action underscores just how important community measures are to the support of healthy behaviors by means of increasing access to healthful food choices and opportunities to be physically active. The ACS guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the Department of Health and Human Services' 2000 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  20. Step-based translation of physical activity guidelines in the Lower Mississippi Delta.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Deirdre M; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Champagne, Catherine M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Harsha, David W; Kennedy, Betty M; Johnson, William D; Allen, Ray; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2011-08-01

    To determine how many steps·day(-1) equate to current moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines in a population from the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) of the United States, 58 overweight adults wore an Actigraph accelerometer (GT3X) for up to 2 weeks. Min·day(-1) in MVPA was a good predictor of steps·day(-1) (r(2) = 0.62; p < 0.001; linear regression), such that 30 min of daily MVPA equated to 9154 steps·day(-1) (mixed-model approach). Using receiver operating characteristic analysis, sensitivity and specificity were optimized at 8357 steps·day(-1). Results indicate that overweight residents of the LMD should be accumulating at least 8300-9100 steps·day(-1) to meet the recommendation of 30 min·day(-1) MVPA.

  1. Acute stroke therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) since it was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

    PubMed

    Zivin, Justin A

    2009-07-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for acute ischemic stroke was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1996. Since then it has been severely underutilized. At the time when most practitioners were first being exposed to the literature concerning tPA, there were many concerns about safety and the restrictions on use were quite onerous. Since then a good deal of further work has been done to loosen the restrictions and allay concerns about the risks. The true risk to benefit ratio is far better than is generally realized. Now it is mostly economic problems related to the costs of constantly supplying emergency care that is limiting access. Furthermore, in the current litigious environment, failure to treat is likely to be a more hazardous course of action than legal exposure due to poor outcomes. It must be emphasized that the drug is quite safe and highly effective, and current utilization rates are unacceptably low. Ann Neurol 2009;66:6-10.

  2. Family history of chronic disease and meeting public health guidelines for physical activity: the cooper center longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Shuval, Kerem; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Barlow, Carolyn E; Gabriel, Kelley Pettee; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Balasubramanian, Bijal A

    2013-06-01

    We aimed to assess whether a family history of coronary heart disease, diabetes, or cancer is linked to meeting public health guidelines for health-promoting physical activity. To achieve this objective, we analyzed data on 29,513 adults who came to the Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) between January 1, 1990, and December 31, 2010, for a preventive medicine visit. Patients completed a comprehensive medical survey including information on family medical history, physical activity, and other lifestyle behaviors. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression were used to examine the relationship between having a family history of chronic disease and meeting physical activity guidelines. The results indicated that individuals with a family history of disease had reduced odds for meeting or exceeding physical activity guidelines. For example, participants with a family history of 3 diseases were 36% less likely to meet or exceed physical activity guidelines than their counterparts without a family history of disease (odds ratio, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.58-0.72), while controlling for covariates. Among this large sample of adults, those with a family history of chronic disease were less inclined to regularly engage in physical activity. Thus, targeted programs encouraging adoption and maintenance of health-promoting physical activity might be warranted, specifically targeting individuals with familial history of disease.

  3. American Cancer Society Guidelines on Nutrition and Physical Activity for cancer prevention: reducing the risk of cancer with healthy food choices and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Kushi, Lawrence H; Byers, Tim; Doyle, Colleen; Bandera, Elisa V; McCullough, Marji; McTiernan, Anne; Gansler, Ted; Andrews, Kimberly S; Thun, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    The American Cancer Society (ACS) publishes Nutrition and Physical Activity Guidelines to serve as a foundation for its communication, policy, and community strategies and ultimately, to affect dietary and physical activity patterns among Americans. These Guidelines, published every 5 years, are developed by a national panel of experts in cancer research, prevention, epidemiology, public health, and policy, and as such, they represent the most current scientific evidence related to dietary and activity patterns and cancer risk. The ACS Guidelines include recommendations for individual choices regarding diet and physical activity patterns, but those choices occur within a community context that either facilitates or interferes with healthy behaviors. Community efforts are essential to create a social environment that promotes healthy food choices and physical activity. Therefore, this committee presents one key recommendation for community action to accompany the four recommendations for individual choices to reduce cancer risk. This recommendation for community action recognizes that a supportive social environment is indispensable if individuals at all levels of society are to have genuine opportunities to choose healthy behaviors. The ACS Guidelines are consistent with guidelines from the American Heart Association and the American Diabetes Association for the prevention of coronary heart disease and diabetes, as well as for general health promotion, as defined by the Department of Health and Human Services' 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

  4. Focal Colonic FDG Activity with PET/CT: Guidelines for Recommendation of Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianye; Behr, Spencer; Khan, Sana; Osterhoff, Robert; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2015-01-01

    Focal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) colonic activity can be incidentally seen in positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Its clinical significance is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of focal FDG activity in PET/CT scans by correlating the imaging findings to colonoscopy results, and come up with some guidelines for recommendation of follow-up colonoscopy. A total of 133 patients who underwent both 18F-FDG PET/CT for different oncological indications and colonoscopy within 3 months were retrospectively studied. Imaging, colonoscopy and pathology results were analyzed. Of the 133 FDG-PET/CT scans, 109/133 (82%) did not show focal colonic FDG activity, and 24/133 (18%) did. Of the 109/133 PET/CTs without focal colonic FDG activity, 109/109 (100%) did not have evidence of colon cancer after colonoscopy and histology. Of the 24/133 PET/CTs with focal colonic FDG activity, 10/24 (42%) had pathologic confirmation of colon cancer and 14/24 (58%) did not have evidence of colon cancer after colonoscopy and histological analysis. Sensitivity was 10/10 (100%), specificity 109/123 (89%), positive predictive value (PPV) 10/24 (42%) and negative predictive value (NPV) 109/109 (100%). Incidental focal 18FDG activity in PET/CT imaging shows a high sensitivity, specificity and NPV for malignancy, with a not so high PPV of 42%. Although some people would argue that a 42% chance of malignancy justifies colonoscopy, this maybe is not possible in all cases. However, the high sensitivity of the test does not allow these studies to be overlooked. We provide our recommendations as per when to send patients with focal FDG colonic activity to have further characterization with colonoscopy. PMID:25709541

  5. Oxidation of gas-phase protactinium ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: formation and properties of PaO2(2+)(g), protactinyl.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Tyagi, Rajni; Pitzer, Russell M

    2006-05-04

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N(2)O to the relatively weak CH(2)O-all oxidized Pa(+) to PaO(+) and PaO(+) to PaO(2)(+). On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa(+)-O] and D[OPa(+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). Estimates for D[Pa(+)-O], D[OPa(+)-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO(2)] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa(2+) to produce PaO(2+), indicating that D[Pa(2+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO(2+) by N(2)O to PaO(2)(2+), a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO(2)(2+) suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {O-Pa-O}(2+). The experimentally determined IE[PaO(2)(+)] approximately 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO(2)(+) and PaO(2)(2+). These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial "6p hole" in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO(2)(2+) catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N(2)O-such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO(2)(2+) is capable of activating H(2) to form the stable PaO(2)H(2+) ion.

  6. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H.; Sugar, Linda M.; Kiss, Alexander; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-08-28

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. Results: The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by the combination when compared to that of either treatment alone in PC3 cells (p < 0.01). The anti-tumor effect of this combination treatment was associated with down-regulation of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in PC3 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to elucidate the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. - Highlights: • Desmopressin inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. • The expression of cyclin A and CDK2

  7. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Associations Between Neighborhood Social Cohesion and Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines, United States, 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Yen, Irene H.; Kwon, Simona C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Neighborhood factors are increasingly recognized as determinants of health. Neighborhood social cohesion may be associated with physical activity, but previous studies examined data aggregated across racial/ethnic groups. We assessed whether neighborhood social cohesion was associated with physical activity in a nationally representative data set and explored the role of race/ethnicity. Methods We combined National Health Interview Survey data from 2013 and 2014 (n = 64,754) and constructed a neighborhood social cohesion score by summing responses to 4 questions. The outcome of meeting aerobic physical activity guidelines was defined as 150 or more minutes per week of moderate activity or 75 or more minutes of vigorous activity. Multivariable models regressing physical activity on neighborhood social cohesion were adjusted for demographic factors; interaction analyses assessed effect modification by race/ethnicity. Results In adjusted analyses, a 1-unit increase in the neighborhood social cohesion score was associated with higher odds of meeting physical activity guidelines (odds ratio [OR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03–1.05). Neighborhood social cohesion and physical activity were associated among non-Hispanic white adults (OR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.20–1.42) and Hispanic adults (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.03–1.34]) but not among non-Hispanic black or Asian American adults (Chinese, Filipino, and Asian Indians). Conclusion Neighborhood social cohesion was associated with meeting physical activity guidelines in a nationally representative sample; this association may be most meaningful for non-Hispanic white and Hispanic populations. Additional studies are needed to identify neighborhood factors that help non-Hispanic black and Asian Americans to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:27930284

  8. Reduction in ATP levels triggers immunoproteasome activation by the 11S (PA28) regulator during early antiviral response mediated by IFNβ in mouse pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Freudenburg, Wieke; Gautam, Madhav; Chakraborty, Pradipta; James, Jared; Richards, Jennifer; Salvatori, Alison S; Baldwin, Aaron; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark L; Corbett, John A; Skowyra, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells is the hallmark of type I diabetes. One of the key molecules implicated in the disease onset is the immunoproteasome, a protease with multiple proteolytic sites that collaborates with the constitutive 19S and the inducible 11S (PA28) activators to produce immunogenic peptides for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Despite its importance, little is known about the function and regulation of the immunoproteasome in pancreatic β-cells. Of special interest to immunoproteasome activation in β-cells are the effects of IFNβ, a type I IFN secreted by virus-infected cells and implicated in type I diabetes onset, compared to IFNγ, the classic immunoproteasome inducer secreted by cells of the immune system. By qPCR analysis, we show that mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells and mouse islets accumulate the immune proteolytic β1(i), β2(i) and β5(i), and 11S mRNAs upon exposure to IFNβ or IFNγ. Higher concentrations of IFNβ than IFNγ are needed for similar expression, but in each case the expression is transient, with maximal mRNA accumulation in 12 hours, and depends primarily on Interferon Regulatory Factor 1. IFNs do not alter expression of regular proteasome genes, and in the time frame of IFNβ-mediated response, the immune and regular proteolytic subunits co-exist in the 20S particles. In cell extracts with ATP, these particles have normal peptidase activities and degrade polyubiquitinated proteins with rates typical of the regular proteasome, implicating normal regulation by the 19S activator. However, ATP depletion rapidly stimulates the catalytic rates in a manner consistent with levels of the 11S activator. These findings suggest that stochastic combination of regular and immune proteolytic subunits may increase the probability with which unique immunogenic peptides are produced in pancreatic β-cells exposed to IFNβ, but primarily in cells with reduced ATP levels that stimulate the 11S

  9. Tumour-associated urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in normal and neoplastic tissues of patients with squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity - clinical relevance and prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Hundsdorfer, Brigitte; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Bock, Klaus Peter; Dettmar, Peer; Schmitt, Manfred; Kolk, Andreas; Pautke, Christoph; Horch, Hans-Henning

    2005-06-01

    The central role of the serine protease urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor, the plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), in tumour invasion and metastasis becomes more and more evident. In several studies, uPA and PAI-1 proved to be of prognostic relevance as shown for different types of cancer (e.g. breast, stomach, lung). Elevated antigen levels of uPA and/or PAI-1 predict poor outcome (relapse-free survival) for patients afflicted with cancer. For oral squamous cell carcinomas, however, the prognostic relevance of the tumour-associated proteolytic factors uPA and PAI-1 has still to be evaluated. In the present study, using tissue extracts of 79 oral cancer cases, 58 specimens of normal oral cavity mucosa and of 16 tumour positive lymph nodes taken from the same patients, uPA and PAI-1 antigen were determined by highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation was found between uPA and PAI-1 in tumour tissue, when compared with the normal mucosa of the same oral cavity. Median levels showed significant elevations in cancer tissue and in tumour positive lymph nodes versus normal oral mucosa. In patients with high levels of uPA or PAI-1, there were significantly more tumour relapses. There was no significant correlation between pathological TNM categories, grading, residual tumour category, tumour site and patient age. In summary, tumour uPA/PAI-1 content (as determined by ELISA) appears to be a strong independent prognostic factor for relapse-free survival in squamous cell cancer of the oral cavity. These observations might help to select patients with poor prognosis for additional adjuvant therapy in conjunction with complete surgical resection.

  10. Compliance of physical activity guidelines by chilean low-income children: difference between school and weekend days and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lorena; Cano, Marcelo; Orellana, Yasna; Kain, Juliana

    2015-05-01

    The main objectives of this study were to compare in 6-9 y Chilean low-income children, daily minutes of moderate/ vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and compliance of the guideline of 60 min of daily MVPA on weekdays versus weekends, by sex and nutritional status (NS). The sample included 250 children (139 boys). Weight and height were measured; MVPA was assessed with NL1000 pedometers during 7 days. The sample was categorized into normal-weight (N) and overweight (OW) according to BMI z score (WHO reference 2007). Comparisons between weekdays and weekends included: a) MVPA by sex, using t-test b) MVPA of N and OW by sex, using ANOVA c) Compliance of guideline by sex and NS, using test of proportions. 66% of the children were OW, accumulating significantly more MVPA on weekdays, 50.5 min versus 40.3; boys more than girls; this result was similar by NS, except for N girls who spent similarly on weekdays as on weekends. Only 33 % boys and 15% girls (p= 0.03) and 17 and 9% (p=0.058) met the guideline on weekdays and weekends respectively, similarly by NS. A very small proportion of children met the MVPA guideline; adopting an active lifestyle is key, considering their high overweight prevalence.

  11. Degradation of Internalized αvβ5 Integrin Is Controlled by uPAR Bound uPA: Effect on β1 Integrin Activity and α-SMA Stress Fiber Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Pedroja, Benjamin S.; Meyers, Erin E.; Garcia, Angelo L.; Twining, Sally S.; Bernstein, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Myofibroblasts (Mfs) that persist in a healing wound promote extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and excessive tissue contraction. Increased levels of integrin αvβ5 promote the Mf phenotype and other fibrotic markers. Previously we reported that maintaining uPA (urokinase plasminogen activator) bound to its cell-surface receptor, uPAR prevented TGFβ-induced Mf differentiation. We now demonstrate that uPA/uPAR controls integrin β5 protein levels and in turn, the Mf phenotype. When cell-surface uPA was increased, integrin β5 levels were reduced (61%). In contrast, when uPA/uPAR was silenced, integrin β5 total and cell-surface levels were increased (2–4 fold). Integrin β5 accumulation resulted from a significant decrease in β5 ubiquitination leading to a decrease in the degradation rate of internalized β5. uPA-silencing also induced α-SMA stress fiber organization in cells that were seeded on collagen, increased cell area (1.7 fold), and increased integrin β1 binding to the collagen matrix, with reduced activation of β1. Elevated cell-surface integrin β5 was necessary for these changes after uPA-silencing since blocking αvβ5 function reversed these effects. Our data support a novel mechanism by which downregulation of uPA/uPAR results in increased integrin αvβ5 cell-surface protein levels that regulate the activity of β1 integrins, promoting characteristics of the persistent Mf. PMID:22470492

  12. 32 CFR 701.123 - PA fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... duplication for free. (1) DON activities shall waive fees automatically if the direct cost for reproduction of... made on a case-to-case basis. (c) PA fee deposits. Checks or money orders shall be made payable to...

  13. A higher body temperature is associated with haemorrhagic transformation in patients with acute stroke untreated with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rtPA).

    PubMed

    Leira, Rogelio; Sobrino, Tomás; Blanco, Miguel; Campos, Francisco; Rodríguez-Yáñez, Manuel; Castellanos, Mar; Moldes, Octavio; Millán, Mónica; Dávalos, Antoni; Castillo, José

    2012-02-01

    Higher body temperature is a prognostic factor of poor outcome in acute stroke. Our aim was to study the relationship between body temperature, HT (haemorrhagic transformation) and biomarkers of BBB (blood-brain barrier) damage in patients with acute ischaemic stroke untreated with rtPA (recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator). We studied 229 patients with ischaemic stroke <12 h from symptom onset. Body temperature was determined at admission and every 6 h during the first 3 days. HT was evaluated according to ECASS II (second European Co-operative Acute Stroke Study) criteria in a multimodal MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) at 72 h. We found that 55 patients (34.1%) showed HT. HT was associated with cardioembolic stroke (64.2% against 23.0%; P<0.0001), higher body temperature during the first 24 h (36.9°C compared with 36.5°C; P<0.0001), more severe stroke [NIHSS (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) score, 14 (9-20) against 10 (7-15); P=0.002], and greater DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) lesion volume at admission (23.2 cc compared with 13.2 cc; P<0.0001). Plasma MMP-9 (matrix metalloproteinase 9) (187.3 ng/ml compared with 44.2 ng/ml; P<0.0001) and cFn (cellular fibronectin) levels (16.3 μg/ml compared with 7.1 μg/ml; P=0.001) were higher in patients with HT. Body temperature within the first 24 h was independently associated with HT {OR (odds ratio), 7.3 [95% CI (confidence interval), 2.4-22.6]; P<0.0001} after adjustment for cardioembolic stroke subtype, baseline NIHSS score and DWI lesion volume. This effect remained unchanged after controlling for MMP-9 and cFn. In conclusion, high body temperature within the first 24 h after ischaemic stroke is a risk factor for HT in patients untreated with rtPA. This effect is independent of some biological signatures of BBB damage.

  14. PA Discussion Topics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-04

    Vehicle Power & Mobility PA Discussion Topics UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public releas Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...0188 Public reporting burden for the collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports , 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302

  15. Guideline to good practices for types of maintenance activities at DOE nuclear facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The purpose of the Guideline to Good Practices for Types of Maintenance at DOE Nuclear Facilities is to provide contractor maintenance organizations with information that may be used for the development and implementation of a properly balanced corrective, preventive and predictive maintenance program at DOE nuclear facilities. This document is intended to be an example guideline for the implementation of DOE Order 4330.4A, Maintenance Management Program, Chapter II, Element 4. DOE contractors should not feel obligated to adopt all parts of this guide. Rather, they should use the information contained herein as a guide for developing maintenance programs that are applicable to their facility.

  16. 78 FR 12074 - Office of Biotechnology Activities; Recombinant DNA Research: Actions Under the NIH Guidelines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... practices should be developed for transport of infectious materials to designated alternate location(s... sent to the CDC for testing (RT-PCR and confirmatory sequencing). The revised Appendix G-II-C-5-(2) now... (RT-PCR and confirmatory sequencing). When the NIH Guidelines were revised in 2009, Appendix...

  17. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions.

  18. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  19. Management guidelines for participation in collision activities with congenital, developmental, or post-injury lesions involving the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Torg, J S; Ramsey-Emrhein, J A

    1997-01-01

    Conditions involving the cervical spine in the athlete requiring management decisions are numerous. The purpose of this paper is to present appropriate guidelines for return to collision activities in those with congenital, developmental, or post-injury lesions. Collision activities include boxing, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, rugby and wrestling. Information compiled from over 1200 cervical spine lesions documented by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry, an extensive literature review, as well as an understanding of injury mechanisms have resulted in reasonable management guidelines. Each of the congenital, developmental and post-traumatic conditions presented are identified as either no contraindication, relative contraindication, or an absolute contraindication on the basis of a variety of parameters. Conditions involved in the discussion include: odontoid anomalies, spina bifida occulta, atlanto-occipital fusion, K1ippel-Feil syndrome, cervical canal stenosis, spear tackler's spine; and traumatic conditions of the upper, middle and lower cervical spine including ligamentous injuries and fractures, intervertebral disc injuries and post-cervical spine fusion. It should be emphasized that the proposed guidelines should be used in the decision making process and in conjunction with other such factors as age, experience, ability of the individual, level of participation, position played, as well as the attitude and desires of the athlete and his parents, where applicable following an informed discussion of the problem with particular regard to potential risk.

  20. Perspective: Guidelines for reporting team-based learning activities in the medical and health sciences education literature.

    PubMed

    Haidet, Paul; Levine, Ruth E; Parmelee, Dean X; Crow, Sheila; Kennedy, Frances; Kelly, P Adam; Perkowski, Linda; Michaelsen, Larry; Richards, Boyd F

    2012-03-01

    Medical and health sciences educators are increasingly employing team-based learning (TBL) in their teaching activities. TBL is a comprehensive strategy for developing and using self-managed learning teams that has created a fertile area for medical education scholarship. However, because this method can be implemented in a variety of ways, published reports about TBL may be difficult to understand, critique, replicate, or compare unless authors fully describe their interventions.The authors of this article offer a conceptual model and propose a set of guidelines for standardizing the way that the results of TBL implementations are reported and critiqued. They identify and articulate the seven core design elements that underlie the TBL method and relate them to educational principles that maximize student engagement and learning within teams. The guidelines underscore important principles relevant to many forms of small-group learning. The authors suggest that following these guidelines when writing articles about TBL implementations should help standardize descriptive information in the medical and health sciences education literature about the essential aspects of TBL activities and allow authors and reviewers to successfully replicate TBL implementations and draw meaningful conclusions about observed outcomes.

  1. Understanding the accuracy of parental perceptions of child physical activity: a mixed methods analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kesten, Joanna M.; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon J.; Edwards, Mark J.; Pool, Laura; Zahra, Jesmond; Thompson, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions to increase children’s physical activity (PA) have achieved limited success. This may be attributed to inaccurate parental perceptions of their children’s PA and a lack of recognition of a need to change activity levels. Methods Fifty-three parents participated in semi-structured interviews to determine perceptions of child PA. Perceptions were compared to children’s measured MVPA (classified as meeting or not meeting UK guidelines) to produce three categories: “accurate”, “over-estimate”, “under-estimate”. Deductive content analysis was performed to understand the accuracy of parental perceptions. Results All parents of children meeting the PA guidelines accurately perceived their child’s PA; whilst the majority of parents whose child did not meet the guidelines overestimated their PA. Most parents were unconcerned about their child’s PA level, viewing them as naturally active and willing to be active. Qualitative explanations for perceptions of insufficient activity included children having health problems and preferences for inactive pursuits, and parents having difficulty facilitating PA in poor weather and not always observing their child’s PA level. Social comparisons also influenced parental perceptions. Conclusions Strategies to improve parental awareness of child PA are needed. Perceptions of child PA may be informed by child “busyness”, being unaware of activity levels, and social comparisons. PMID:25872227

  2. Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver in Korean patients following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT): efficacy of recombinant human tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment.

    PubMed

    Lee, J H; Lee, K H; Choi, J S; Zang, D Y; Kim, S B; Kim, S W; Suh, C; Lee, J S; Kim, W K; Lee, Y S; Kim, S H

    1996-04-01

    Veno-occlusive disease (VOD) of the liver is a clinical syndrome characterized by hyperbilirubinemia, painful hepatomegaly, and fluid retention. In the bone marrow transplantation (BMT) setting, VOD is caused by dose-intensive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy used to prepare patients for transplant. VOD occurs in up to 50% of the patients who undergo BMT and is usually associated with a high mortality rate. Until recently, there was no proven effective medical therapy for this condition once it was clinically apparent. We report here on the frequency and treatment result of VOD with rt-PA in our allogeneic BMT patients. Eight patients (median age 28.5 years) underwent allogeneic BMT from December, 1993 to June, 1995 in Asan Medical Center. Six leukemia patients were prepared for BMT with busulfan and cyclophosphmide, while two aplastic anemia patients received cyclophosphamide and antithymocyte globulin. VOD was defined as having two of the following features before day 20 posttransplant: jaundice (bilirubin > or = 2 mg/dL), tender hepatomegaly and/or right upper quadrant pain, ascites and/or unexplained weight gain (> 2% from baseline). All patients who were diagnosed with VOD received rt-PA (10-20 mg/day) and heparin (10,000 U/day). Three (37.5%) of the eight patients developed VOD that occurred between 6 and 10 days posttransplant. All three patients developed jaundice, weight gain, and tender hepatomegaly. Ascites and renal insufficiency occurred in two patients and pleural effusion in one patient. rt-PA and heparin were begun 6 to 26 days posttransplant and rt-PA was administered for 7 to 14 days. All three patients responded to the therapy; bilirubin levels began to decrease at 4 to 13 days from the start of therapy. They are all alive at day 111, 316, and 548 days posttransplant. None of the patients had significant hemorrhagic complications after rt-PA treatment. Prolonged administration of rt-PA was feasible without bleeding episode and it seems that rt-PA

  3. Public informations guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    1986-06-01

    The purpose of these Public Information Guidelines is to provide principles for the implementation of the NWPA mandate and the Mission Plan requirements for the provision of public information. These Guidelines set forth the public information policy to be followed by all Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) performance components. The OCRWM offices should observe these Guidelines in shaping and conducting public information activities.

  4. Public Health Guidelines for Physical Activity: Is There an App for That? A Review of Android and Apple App Stores

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity participation is an important behavior for modifying lifestyle-related disease risk. Mobile health apps for chronic disease management and prevention are being developed at a rapid rate. However, it is unclear whether these apps are evidence-based. Current public health recommendations for physical activity participation for adults highlight the importance of engaging in 150 minutes weekly of purposeful exercise, and muscle strengthening activities on at least 2 days of the week. Objective The aims of the present review were to (1) identify available evidence-based physical activity apps, and (2) identify technological features that could be leveraged to improve health outcomes. Methods iTunes and Google Play mobile app stores were searched using keyword and category searching during a single day (February 18, 2014) for physical activity apps available in English. The description pages of eligible apps were reviewed by 4 independent reviewers for evidence-based content, technological, and descriptive features. An a priori subset of apps was downloaded for further review (n=6 affiliated with a non-commercial agency; n=10 top rated; n=10 random selection), and developers were contacted for information regarding evidence-informed content. Results The initial search yielded 2400 apps, of which 379 apps (n=206 iTunes; n=173 Google Play) were eligible. Primary results demonstrated no apps (n=0) adhering to evidence-based guidelines for aerobic physical activity, and 7 out of 379 implementing evidence-based guidelines for resistance training physical activity. Technological features of apps included social networking (n=207), pairing with a peripheral health device (n=61), and measuring additional health parameters (n=139). Secondary results revealed 1 app that referenced physical activity guidelines (150 minutes/weekly of exercise), and demonstrated that apps were based on various physical activity reports (n=4) or personal expertise (n=2

  5. Adherence to Canadian physical activity and sedentary behaviour guidelines among children 2 to 13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pujadas Botey, Anna; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Carson, Valerie; Vinturache, Angela; Tough, Suzanne

    2016-06-01

    Active living is relevant for healthy child development and disease prevention. In 2011-2012 new Canadian Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines were developed for children under four and 5-17 years of age. This cross-sectional study assessed children's adherence to the national guidelines, using a large sample of Alberta children ages 2-4 and 5-13 years in 2013. The proportions of children achieving the average daily duration of physical activity and screen time recommended were determined, and child and parental predictors of non-achievement were identified. Participants were 631 parent and child dyads. Data were collected by parental reports of physical activity and screen time during weekdays, and analysed using univariate and multivariate techniques (p < 0.05). Logistic regression models were used to examine factors associated with children's non-achievement of physical activity and screen time recommendations while adjusting for covariates. Sixty-two percent of children aged 2-4 and 26% of children aged 5-13 did not meet physical activity time recommendations, and 64% of children aged 2-4 and 23% of children aged 5-13 exceeded the maximum screen time recommendation. Several associations between parental age and education with non-achievement were observed but associations were not consistent across age groups or behaviours. Among preschoolers, those with middle-age parents were more likely to not achieve physical activity recommendations. Evidence of high non-achievement of the recommendations among children 2-4 years highlights the need for increased programming targeting preschool children. Further research is required to identify modifiable risk factors that may inform future health promotion efforts.

  6. How family support affects physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and elderly people before and after they suffer from chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Su-Chuan; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Chia-Hui; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The more support elderly people have from their family, the less likely they are to suffer from chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate how family support affects the PA middle-aged and elderly people engage in before and after they suffer from chronic diseases. We interviewed 428 middle-aged and elderly people using a structured questionnaire to measure their aerobic PA. Eighteen percent of middle-aged and elderly people did participate in PA after suffering from chronic diseases. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found that middle-aged and elderly people who rely on family members when they are sick (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.08-3.25) and who are accompanied by family members (OR=2.09, 95%CI=1.20-3.62) when they are healthy are more likely to exercise. The more middle-aged and elderly people are supported by their family, the more likely they are to exercise. Strengthening family relationships should help reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among middle-aged and elderly people.

  7. Accelerometer steps/day translation of moderate-to-vigorous activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) guidelines are typically communicated in terms of duration, frequency, and intensity, e.g., 30 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) on at least 5 days/week. Step counters can be used to collect objective PA expressed as steps/day; howeverc the associat...

  8. The Effect of an Active Transport to School Intervention at a Suburban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…

  9. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  10. Melatonin induces cell apoptosis in Mia PaCa-2 cells via the suppression of nuclear factor-κB and activation of ERK and JNK: A novel therapeutic implication for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Weimin; Wu, Jiansheng; Li, Zhiyin; Zhou, Zhibo; Zheng, Chao; Lin, Le; Tan, Binbin; Huang, Min; Fan, Mengdi

    2016-11-01

    Melatonin is synthesized by the pineal gland and is released into the blood. In the last several years, some studies have shown that melatonin has anticancer properties; however, the mechanisms behind the antitumour traits are unclear, especially in pancreatic cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the antitumour effects of melatonin on the human pancreatic carcinoma cell line MIA PaCa‑2 and explored its biological mechanisms. MIA PaCa‑2 cells were treated with melatonin, and we used a CCK‑8 assay to evaluate the cell viability. We also used flow cytometry to observe cell apoptosis and western blot analysis to assess the protein expression. Our study found that melatonin inhibited cell viability, suppressed colony formation and reduced cell migration and invasion and induced cell apoptosis in MIA PaCa‑2 cells. Our results showed that melatonin treatment inhibited NF‑κB p65 activation. Moreover, melatonin treatment activated the mitogen‑activated protein kinase pathways (c‑jun N‑terminal kinase and extracellular‑regulated kinase 1/2), which increased Bax protein expression and caspase‑3 cleavage and decreased Bcl‑2 protein expression. These new developments demonstrate that melatonin plays a potential role in anticancer treatment and may act as an effective therapeutic agent in the future.

  11. School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Schools play a critical role in improving the dietary and physical activity behaviors of students. Schools can create an environment supportive of students' efforts to eat healthily and be active by implementing policies and practices that support healthy eating and regular physical activity and by providing opportunities for students to learn…

  12. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  13. H-bonded supramolecular assembly via proton transfer: Isolation, X-ray crystallographic characterization and SOD mimic activity of [Cu(dipic)2]2[PA-H]4·5H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddiqi, Zafar A.; Khalid, Mohd; Shahid, M.; Kumar, Sarvendra; Sharma, Prashant K.; Siddique, Armeen; Anjuli

    2013-02-01

    The title proton transfer complex was isolated from the reaction of CuCl2·2H2O with pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (dipic-H2) in presence of 3-amino-1-propanol (PA) under reflux condition. It was thoroughly characterized by FAB-mass, FT-IR, electronic (ligand field), EPR spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. The complex crystallizes in the space group C1c1 of the monoclinic system. The unit cell parameters are, a = 17.247(5), b = 20.058(5) Å, c = 15.320(4) Å and β = 109.235(5)°. Extensive H-bonding between the complex anion [Cu(dipic)2]2- and the surrounding cations [PA-H]+ results in a 3D network, supported with additional π-π interactions of the ligand (dipic)2- neighboring units. The SOD mimic activity of the present complex was also examined using NBT assay.

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa.

  15. Aerobic and resistance exercise reinforcement and discomfort tolerance predict meeting activity guidelines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Understanding individual-differences of those people who do and do not meet physical activity recommendations could inform targets for increasing physical activity. Exercise reinforcement may be one such individual-level determinate, but it is not yet known whether those who meet activi...

  16. Evidence-Based Practice Guideline: Increasing Physical Activity in Schools--Kindergarten through 8th Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagby, Karen; Adams, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Because of the growing obesity epidemic across all age groups in the United States, interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have become a priority. Evidence is growing that interventions to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors have positive results and are generally inexpensive to implement.…

  17. The relationship of physical activity (PA) and walking with sarcopenia in Korean males aged 60 years and older using the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-2, 3), 2008-2009.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Ho; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Although a variety of studies have reported the association between age related changes in muscle mass and the functional impairments of the elderly, few have reported on the modifiable lifestyle factors that are related to sarcopenia. Three thousand five hundred ninety-eight men in nationally representative cross-sectional, population-representative sampled survey using data from the KNHANES IV aged 19 years and older who completed a body composition using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were measured. To determine whether there are any associations between physical activities, nutritional status and sarcopenia were examined in 1156 men among those over 60 years of age. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was calculated as the sum of skeletal muscle in the arms and legs. Sarcopenia was defined as the ASM/Ht(2) of less than two standard deviations (SD) below the sex-specific normal mean for the younger reference group. The prevalence of sarcopenia in Korean men aged 60 years and older was 9.9%. Sarcopenia was negatively associated with the third quartile (OR=0.40, 95% CI=0.20-0.80) and fourth quartile of PA (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.11-0.52), and negatively associated with the highest quartile of protein intake (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.14-0.76). In logistic regression models, sarcopenia was negatively associated with walking PA (OR=0.49, 95% CI=0.29-0.83) after an adjustment for age, smoking habits, alcohol drinking, family income, education status and protein intake. Sarcopenia was associated with PA, especially walking PA.

  18. Does perceived neighborhood walkability and safety mediate the association between education and meeting physical activity guidelines?

    PubMed

    Pratt, Michael; Yin, Shaoman; Soler, Robin; Njai, Rashid; Siegel, Paul Z; Liao, Youlian

    2015-04-09

    The role of neighborhood walkability and safety in mediating the association between education and physical activity has not been quantified. We used data from the 2010 and 2012 Communities Putting Prevention to Work Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and structural equation modeling to estimate how much of the effect of education level on physical activity was mediated by perceived neighborhood walkability and safety. Neighborhood walkability accounts for 11.3% and neighborhood safety accounts for 6.8% of the effect. A modest proportion of the important association between education and physical activity is mediated by perceived neighborhood walkability and safety, suggesting that interventions focused on enhancing walkability and safety could reduce the disparity in physical activity associated with education level.

  19. PaR-PaR laboratory automation platform.

    PubMed

    Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Poust, Sean; Bi, Changhao; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2013-05-17

    Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.

  20. PaR-PaR Laboratory Automation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Linshiz, G; Stawski, N; Poust, S; Bi, CH; Keasling, JD; Hilson, NJ

    2013-05-01

    Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.

  1. [Basic guidelines for detecting sedentarism and recommendations for physical activity in primary care].

    PubMed

    Crespo-Salgado, Juan José; Delgado-Martín, José Luis; Blanco-Iglesias, Orlando; Aldecoa-Landesa, Susana

    2015-03-01

    The detection of physical inactivity in adults, using simple and useful tools is primary objective in both public health and in clinical settings, since this risk factor is one of the major causes of non-communicable disease in the world, and is very prevalent in developed societies such as in Spain. Two validated instruments are described that are simple and useful for detecting and/or monitoring physical inactivity in adults: (i)the international physical activity questionnaire in its short version, and (ii)the pedometer to measure the number of steps taken in a day. Increased levels of physical activity are important for the primary prevention of some chronic diseases (coronary heart disease, type2 diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer) and to improve the quality of life. Medical personnel must determine the motivation level and the availability of patients and their families to change their behavior towards physical activity. Moderate-intensity physical activities have hardly any contraindications and the risks are few.

  2. Defining Standards and Policies for Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Wallner, Megan; Beighle, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Background: National guidelines exist that define "quality" afterschool programs (3-6 pm, ASP). No widely adopted national standards/policies exist, however, for ASP providers for the promotion of physical activity (PA). To address this gap, state-level ASP organizations have developed or adopted standards/policies related to PA. The extent to…

  3. Guidelines International Network: toward international standards for clinical practice guidelines.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Forland, Frode; Macbeth, Fergus; Ollenschläger, Günter; Phillips, Sue; van der Wees, Philip

    2012-04-03

    Guideline development processes vary substantially, and many guidelines do not meet basic quality criteria. Standards for guideline development can help organizations ensure that recommendations are evidence-based and can help users identify high-quality guidelines. Such organizations as the U.S. Institute of Medicine and the United Kingdom's National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence have developed recommendations to define trustworthy guidelines within their locales. Many groups charged with guideline development find the lengthy list of standards developed by such organizations to be aspirational but infeasible to follow in entirety. Founded in 2002, the Guidelines International Network (G-I-N) is a network of guideline developers that includes 93 organizations and 89 individual members representing 46 countries. The G-I-N board of trustees recognized the importance of guideline development processes that are both rigorous and feasible even for modestly funded groups to implement and initiated an effort toward consensus about minimum standards for high-quality guidelines. In contrast to other existing standards for guideline development at national or local levels, the key components proposed by G-I-N will represent the consensus of an international, multidisciplinary group of active guideline developers. This article presents G-I-N's proposed set of key components for guideline development. These key components address panel composition, decision-making process, conflicts of interest, guideline objective, development methods, evidence review, basis of recommendations, ratings of evidence and recommendations, guideline review, updating processes, and funding. It is hoped that this article promotes discussion and eventual agreement on a set of international standards for guideline development.

  4. Antagonistic Activity and Mode of Action of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid, Produced by Marine Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA31x, Against Vibrio anguillarum In vitro and in a Zebrafish In vivo Model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Tian, Xueying; Kuang, Shan; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Chengsheng; Sun, Chaomin

    2017-01-01

    Phenazine and its derivatives are very important secondary metabolites produced from Pseudomonas spp. and have exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal and antibacterial activities. However, till date, there are few reports about marine derived Pseudomonas and its production of phenazine metabolites. In this study, we isolated a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA31x which produced natural product inhibiting the growth of Vibrio anguillarum C312, one of the most serious bacterial pathogens in marine aquaculture. Combining high-resolution electro-spray-ionization mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses, the functional compound against V. anguillarum was demonstrated to be phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), an important phenazine derivative. Molecular studies indicated that the production of PCA by P. aeruginosa PA31x was determined by gene clusters phz1 and phz2 in its genome. Electron microscopic results showed that treatment of V. anguillarum with PCA developed complete lysis of bacterial cells with fragmented cytoplasm being released to the surrounding environment. Additional evidence indicated that reactive oxygen species generation preceded PCA-induced microbe and cancer cell death. Notably, treatment with PCA gave highly significant protective activities against the development of V. anguillarum C312 on zebrafish. Additionally, the marine derived PCA was further found to effectively inhibit the growth of agricultural pathogens, Acidovorax citrulli NP1 and Phytophthora nicotianae JM1. Taken together, this study reveals that marine Pseudomonas derived PCA carries antagonistic activities against both aquacultural and agricultural pathogens, which broadens the application fields of PCA.

  5. Antagonistic Activity and Mode of Action of Phenazine-1-Carboxylic Acid, Produced by Marine Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA31x, Against Vibrio anguillarum In vitro and in a Zebrafish In vivo Model

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Linlin; Tian, Xueying; Kuang, Shan; Liu, Ge; Zhang, Chengsheng; Sun, Chaomin

    2017-01-01

    Phenazine and its derivatives are very important secondary metabolites produced from Pseudomonas spp. and have exhibited broad-spectrum antifungal and antibacterial activities. However, till date, there are few reports about marine derived Pseudomonas and its production of phenazine metabolites. In this study, we isolated a marine Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PA31x which produced natural product inhibiting the growth of Vibrio anguillarum C312, one of the most serious bacterial pathogens in marine aquaculture. Combining high-resolution electro-spray-ionization mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy analyses, the functional compound against V. anguillarum was demonstrated to be phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA), an important phenazine derivative. Molecular studies indicated that the production of PCA by P. aeruginosa PA31x was determined by gene clusters phz1 and phz2 in its genome. Electron microscopic results showed that treatment of V. anguillarum with PCA developed complete lysis of bacterial cells with fragmented cytoplasm being released to the surrounding environment. Additional evidence indicated that reactive oxygen species generation preceded PCA-induced microbe and cancer cell death. Notably, treatment with PCA gave highly significant protective activities against the development of V. anguillarum C312 on zebrafish. Additionally, the marine derived PCA was further found to effectively inhibit the growth of agricultural pathogens, Acidovorax citrulli NP1 and Phytophthora nicotianae JM1. Taken together, this study reveals that marine Pseudomonas derived PCA carries antagonistic activities against both aquacultural and agricultural pathogens, which broadens the application fields of PCA. PMID:28289406

  6. Meeting Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Relation to Preventive Health Behavior and Health Status Among Adults

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of meeting the recommended levels of physical activity (PA) with health status and preventive health behavior in adults. Methods A total of 5630 adults 18 years of age or older were included in this study. PA was assessed using a series of questions that categorized activities based on their metabolic equivalent values and then categorized individuals based on the reported frequency and duration of such activities. Participants reporting 150 minutes or more of moderate-intensity PA per week were considered to have met the PA guidelines. Multiple logistic regression was used to model the relationships between meeting PA guidelines and health status and preventive health behavior, while controlling for confounding variables. Results Overall, 53.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51.9 to 55.9%) of adults reported meeting the recommended levels of PA. Among adults with good general health, 56.9% (95% CI, 54.7 to 59.1%) reported meeting the recommended levels of PA versus 43.1% (95% CI, 40.9 to 45.3%) who did not. Adults who met the PA guidelines were significantly more likely not to report high cholesterol, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, arthritis, asthma, depression, or overweight. Furthermore, adults meeting the PA guidelines were significantly more likely to report having health insurance, consuming fruits daily, consuming vegetables daily, and not being a current cigarette smoker. Conclusions In this study, we found meeting the current guidelines for PA to have a protective relationship with both health status and health behavior in adults. Health promotion programs should focus on strategies that help individuals meet the current guidelines of at least 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity PA. PMID:28173688

  7. Defining the Utility of Clinically Acceptable Variations in Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines for Evaluation of Quality Improvement Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lescoe-Long, Mary; Long, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Examined the usefulness of systematically accounting for acceptable physician variations in guideline application. Review of 141 cases of treatment of acute myocardial infarction in a Canadian hospital show that even seemingly noncontentious guideline protocols do not offer a threshold of variation similar to conventional Continuous Quality…

  8. Effluent Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  9. Interconnection Guidelines

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Interconnection Guidelines provide general guidance on the steps involved with connecting biogas recovery systems to the utility electrical power grid. Interconnection best practices including time and cost estimates are discussed.

  10. Pilot study: can older inactive adults learn how to reach the required intensity of physical activity guideline?

    PubMed Central

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Langlois, Marie-France; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Farand, Paul; Paulin, Mathieu; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals do not reach the recommended physical activity level of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise (AE) at moderate-to-vigorous intensity per week. For example, only 13% of older Canadian adults reach World Health Organization physical activity guideline (PAG). One of the reasons might be a difficulty identifying the required intensity. Twenty-five inactive older adults received one session about the AE-PAG and how to use a tool or strategy to help them identify AE intensity: heart-rate (HR) monitor (% of maximal HR; N = 9); manual pulse (% of maximal HR; N = 8); or pedometer (walking cadence; N = 8). Participants had 8 weeks to implement their specific tool with the aim of reaching the PAG by walking at home. At pre- and post-intervention, the capacity to identify AE intensity and AE time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity were evaluated. Only the two groups using a tool increased total AE time (both P < 0.01), but no group improved the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity. No significant improvement was observed in the ability to correctly identify AE intensity in any of the groups, but a tendency was observed in the pedometer group (P = 0.07). Using walking cadence with a pedometer should be explored as a tool to reach the PAG as it is inexpensive, easy to use, and seemed the best tool to improve both AE time and perception of intensity. PMID:23662053

  11. Pilot study: can older inactive adults learn how to reach the required intensity of physical activity guideline?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Danielle R; Langlois, Marie-France; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Farand, Paul; Paulin, Mathieu; Baillargeon, Jean-Patrice

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals do not reach the recommended physical activity level of at least 150 minutes of aerobic exercise (AE) at moderate-to-vigorous intensity per week. For example, only 13% of older Canadian adults reach World Health Organization physical activity guideline (PAG). One of the reasons might be a difficulty identifying the required intensity. Twenty-five inactive older adults received one session about the AE-PAG and how to use a tool or strategy to help them identify AE intensity: heart-rate (HR) monitor (% of maximal HR; N = 9); manual pulse (% of maximal HR; N = 8); or pedometer (walking cadence; N = 8). Participants had 8 weeks to implement their specific tool with the aim of reaching the PAG by walking at home. At pre- and post-intervention, the capacity to identify AE intensity and AE time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity were evaluated. Only the two groups using a tool increased total AE time (both P < 0.01), but no group improved the time spent at moderate-to-vigorous intensity. No significant improvement was observed in the ability to correctly identify AE intensity in any of the groups, but a tendency was observed in the pedometer group (P = 0.07). Using walking cadence with a pedometer should be explored as a tool to reach the PAG as it is inexpensive, easy to use, and seemed the best tool to improve both AE time and perception of intensity.

  12. Recording sympathetic nerve activity in conscious humans and other mammals: guidelines and the road to standardization.

    PubMed

    Hart, Emma C J; Head, Geoffrey A; Carter, Jason R; Wallin, Gunnar; May, Clive N; Hamza, Shereen M; Hall, John E; Charkoudian, Nisha; Osborn, John W

    2017-03-31

    Over the past several decades, studies of the sympathetic nervous system in humans, sheep, rabbits, rats and mice have substantially increased mechanistic understanding of cardiovascular function and dysfunction. Recently, interest in sympathetic neural mechanisms contributing to blood pressure control has grown, due in part to the development of devices or surgical procedures, which treat hypertension by manipulating sympathetic outflow. Studies in animal models have provided important insights into physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms, which are not accessible in human studies. Across species and among laboratories, various approaches have been developed to record, quantify, analyze and interpret sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In general, SNA demonstrates "bursting" behavior, where groups of action potentials are synchronized and linked to the cardiac cycle via the arterial baroreflex. In humans, it is common to quantify SNA as bursts/minute or bursts/100 heartbeats. This type of quantification can be done in other species, but is only commonly reported in sheep, which have heart rates similar to humans. In rabbits, rats and mice, SNA is often recorded relative to a maximal level elicited in the laboratory to control for differences in electrode position among animals or on different study days. SNA in humans can also be presented as total activity, where normalization to the largest burst is a common approach. The goal of the present paper is to put together a summary of "best practices" in several of the most common experimental models, and to discuss opportunities and challenges relative to the optimal measurement of SNA across species.

  13. Puerto Rican parrot (Amazona vittata) reproductive behavior: a guideline for management of active nests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    One explanation for the failure of intensively monitored Puerto Rican Parrot nests is that observers may lack the information needed to evaluate pair behavior and to recognize behaviors indicative of nest problems. I examined the behavior of Puerto Rican Parrots during eight non-problematic and six problematic nesting attempts to 1) describe behavior of pairs that experienced no notable nest problems and 2) to identify and describe behaviors associated with nest problems. I examined nest attendance, duration of attentive periods, and frequency of nest visits for both males and females, and duration of periods away from the nest for females only. Adult behavior during incubation and early chick rearing at non-problematic nests was well-defined. Females spent an average of 93.2 to 97.3% of the observation period in their nests during incubation and generally left their nests for average periods of 5 to 12 min. Female nest attendance generally declined and recesses became longer as chick rearing progressed. Males rarely entered their nests during incubation, but they generally established a regular pattern of nest visits within seven to 10 days of hatching of their young. In some cases, incidents of human disturbance to nest pairs during incubation and early chick rearing were associated with sudden changes in behavior. The key indicator of nest problems (abandonment during incubation or loss of young) was unexpected declines in female nest attendance. Declines were often accompanied by unexpected increases in female recesses or frequency of female nest visits, and sometimes by increases in male nest visits. Abandonment of nests during incubation was associated with repeated incidents of potentially disturbing activities (e.g., nest inspections). Deaths of embryos and young were associated with behaviors that allowed increased cooling of embryos.

  14. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katelyn N.; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40–70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  15. Fidelity to Theory in PA Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Fleury, Julie; Sidani, Souraya; Ainsworth, Barbara

    2009-04-01

    Research using theory-based interventions to promote regular physical activity (PA) has increased substantially over the past decade. The purpose of this article is to provide a review and summary of PA intervention research specific to fidelity to intervention theory, providing an overview of the concept of fidelity to intervention theory, defining the evaluative components of fidelity: (a) conceptualization of the problem, (b) operationalization of the theory, (c) specification of mediating processes, and (d) specification of outcome variables. Using journal scans and computerized literature database searches, the authors identified 470 PA activity intervention studies that incorporated a theoretical perspective. A validity framework explicated by was used to summarize intervention research in light of fidelity to intervention theory. In all, 15 intervention studies met the inclusion criteria and were incorporated into the review. Theoretical models for health behavior change, including social cognitive theory (SCT), cognitive behavioral theory (CBT), the transtheoretical model (TTM, the TTM combined with SCT), the reversal theory (theory of psychological reversals), and the disconnected values theory, were used as a basis for intervention design and evaluation.

  16. Scoring Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamir, Pinchas; Doran, Rodney L.

    1992-01-01

    Scoring guidelines are given for four forms of the practical skills tests of the Second International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Improvement Science Study conducted in the following countries in the 1980s: (1) Hungary; (2) Japan; (3) Korea; (4) Singapore; (5) Israel; and (6) the United States. (SLD)

  17. Copyright Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Educational Communication (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Office of Education has prepared Guidelines on authorizing copyright protection for materials developed under project grants or contracts as effective June 8, 1970. A supplement is available as LI 002 915. This booklet supersedes OE-11018 entitled "Limited Copyright Protection for Materials Developed Under Project Grants and…

  18. The Relationship of Actigraph Accelerometer Cut-Points for Estimating Physical Activity with Selected Health Outcomes: Results from NHANES 2003-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.; Crespo, Carlos J.; Andersen, Ross E.; Smit, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of child and adult cut-points on physical activity (PA) intensity, the prevalence of meeting PA guidelines, and association with selected health outcomes. Participants (6,578 adults greater than or equal to 18 years, and 3,174 children and adolescents less than or equal to 17 years) from the…

  19. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    compatibility with existing CBP expertise and already-planned activities. Based on these criteria, the five original topics were down-selected to two: external sulfate attack and mechanistic geochemical prediction. For each of the selected topics, the CBP communicated with the PA analysts and subject matter experts at Savannah River to acquire input data specific to the Saltstone facility and related laboratory experiments. Simulations and analyses were performed for both topics using STADIUM (SIMCO 2008), LeachXS/ORCHESTRA (ECN 2007, Meeussen 2003), and other software tools. These supplemental CBP analyses produced valuable technical insights that can be used to strengthen the Saltstone PA using the ongoing PA maintenance process. This report in part summarizes key information gleaned from more comprehensive documents prepared by Sarkar et al. (2010), Samson (2010), and Sarkar (2010).

  20. Anti-listeria activity of poly(lactic acid)/sawdust particle biocomposite film impregnated with pediocin PA-1/AcH and its use in raw sliced pork.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Kingcha, Yutthana; Amonphanpokin, Pannawit; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2013-10-15

    A novel poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/sawdust particle (SP) biocomposite film with anti-listeria activity was developed by incorporation of pediocin PA-1/AcH (Ped) using diffusion coating method. Sawdust particle played an important role in embedding pediocin into the hydrophobic PLA film. The anti-listeria activity of the PLA/SP biocomposite film incorporated with Ped (PLA/SP+Ped) was detected, while no activity against the tested pathogen was observed for the control PLA films (without SP and/or Ped). Dry-heat treatment of film before coating with Ped resulted in the highest Ped adsorption (11.63 ± 3.07 μg protein/cm(2)) and the highest anti-listeria activity. A model study of PLA/SP+Ped as a food-contact antimicrobial packaging on raw sliced pork suggests a potential inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes (99% of total listerial population) on raw sliced pork during the chilled storage. This study supports the feasibility of using PLA/SP+Ped film to reduce the initial load of L. monocytogenes on the surface of raw pork.

  1. Osteoporosis guidelines.

    PubMed

    Barlow, D H

    2007-10-01

    The Position Statement from the International Menopause Society (IMS) in 2004 recommends the use of hormone therapy for the 'avoidance of bone-wasting and fractures'. It also states that 'prevention, not treatment, is the most feasible goal'. In updating the Statement, this paper considers the relevance of Osteoporosis Guidelines. Relevant documents will be of two broad types. These may be consensus statements/position statements that summarize the 'state of the art' for practitioners, based on the work of expert groups, or they may be formal Guidelines generated through formal 'evidence-based' methodology. The former approach is generally used by Societies and can be generated through relatively efficient consensus processes. The latter approach will normally involve extensive work and cost, necessarily becomes very detailed, involving systematic review and technology appraisal and can lead to highly specific recommendations on intervention thresholds. For the revision of the general IMS Position Statement, the specific IMS Paper on Postmenopausal Osteoporosis (2005) must be a key reference document. This provides a description of the international consensus on the management of osteoporosis up to late 2004 and which remains relevant today. Additionally, other consensus statements and systematic guidelines need to be considered. Across these documents providing guidance, the substantial influence of the International Osteoporosis Foundation/National Osteoporosis Foundation Position Paper, defining a 'New approach to the development of assessment guidelines for osteoporosis', can be seen. This flagged the importance of a shift from guidance, tying the diagnostic threshold to the intervention threshold, and instead advised linking the intervention threshold to estimated fracture risk probability. This moves the intervention decision away from a simple bone density threshold to a more complex, but more realistic, threshold estimate, taking into account a range of

  2. Guidelines for Preschool Learning Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Sandra Putnam; Lamana, Annette; Van Thiel, Lisa

    This document presents guidelines for preschool learning experiences in Massachusetts programs for 3- and 4-year-olds and is designed to be used by teachers and program administrators in planning and evaluating curricula. The guidelines structure learning through play and meaningful activities in a developmental sequence and are based on the…

  3. Elucidating Protactinium Hydrolysis: The Relative Stabilities of PaO2(H2O)(+) and PaO(OH)2(+).

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Wilson, Richard E; Gibson, John K

    2015-08-03

    It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series.

  4. The Dietary guideline 2005 and physical activities role in weight management of University Arkansas at Pine Bluff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the effectiveness of the weight loss initiative, researchers at the University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff conducted an obesity prevention intervention based on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans approach. A 12 month study was conducted that focused on interventions to improve physical ...

  5. Guidelines for Project Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ben-Arieh, David

    2001-01-01

    Project management is an important part of the professional activities at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Project management is the means by which many of the operations at KSC take shape. Moreover, projects at KSC are implemented in a variety of ways in different organizations. The official guidelines for project management are provided by NASA headquarters and are quite general. The project reported herein deals with developing practical and detailed project management guidelines in support of the project managers. This report summarizes the current project management effort in the Process Management Division and presents a new modeling approach of project management developed by the author. The report also presents the Project Management Guidelines developed during the summer.

  6. Guidelines for drug donations.

    PubMed Central

    Hogerzeil, H. V.; Couper, M. R.; Gray, R.

    1997-01-01

    Drug donations are usually given in response to acute emergencies, but they can also be part of development aid. Donations may be given directly by governments, by non-governmental organisations, as corporate donations (direct or through private voluntary organisations), or as private donations to single health facilities. Although there are legitimate differences between these donations, basic rules should apply to them all. This common core of "good donation practice" is the basis for new guidelines which have recently been issued by the World Health Organisation after consultation with all relevant United Nations agencies, the Red Cross, and other major international agencies active in humanitarian emergency relief. This article summarises the need for such guidelines, the development process, the core principles, and the guidelines themselves and gives practical advice to recipients and donor agencies. PMID:9116555

  7. Oxidation of Gas-Phase Protactinium Ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: Formation and Properties of PaO22+(g), Protactinyl

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M.; de Matos, A. Pires; Marcalo, J.; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard {Dick} G; Tyagi, R.; Pitzer, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N{sub 2}O to the relatively weak CH{sub 2}O - all oxidized Pa{sup +} to PaO{sup +} and PaO{sup +} to PaO{sub 2}{sup +}. On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa{sup +}-O] and D[OPa{sup +}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. Estimates for D[Pa{sup +}-O], D[OPa{sup +}-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO{sub 2}] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa{sup 2+} to produce PaO{sup 2+}, indicating that D[Pa{sup 2+}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO{sup 2+} by N{sub 2}O to PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {l_brace}O-Pa-O{r_brace}{sup 2+}. The experimentally determined IE[PaO{sub 2}{sup +}] {approx} 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO{sub 2}{sup +} and PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial '6p hole' in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N{sub 2}O - such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} is capable of activating H{sub 2} to form the stable PaO{sub 2}H{sup 2+} ion.

  8. Microfluidic manufacture of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Shekhar, Himanshu; Shaw, George J.; Papautsky, Ian; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-01-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), loaded with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles that act as cavitation nuclei, are under development for ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis. Conventional manufacturing techniques produce a polydisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP population with only a small percentage of particles containing microbubbles. Further, a polydisperse population of rt-PA-loaded ELIP has a broadband frequency response with complex bubble dynamics when exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In this work, a microfluidic flow-focusing device was used to generate monodisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP (µtELIP) loaded with a perfluorocarbon gas. The rt-PA associated with the µtELIP was encapsulated within the lipid shell as well as intercalated within the lipid shell. The µtELIP had a mean diameter of 5 µm, a resonance frequency of 2.2 MHz, and were found to be stable for at least 30 min in 0.5%bovine serum albumin. Additionally, 35 % of µtELIP particles were estimated to contain microbubbles, an order of magnitude higher than that reported previously for batch-produced rt-PA-loaded ELIP. These findings emphasize the advantages offered by microfluidic techniques for improving the encapsulation efficiency of both rt-PA and perflurocarbon microbubbles within echogenic liposomes. PMID:27206512

  9. Disease Combinations Associated with Physical Activity Identified: The SMILE Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Dörenkamp, Sarah; Mesters, Ilse; Schepers, Jan; Vos, Rein; van den Akker, Marjan; Teijink, Joep; de Bie, Rob

    2016-01-01

    In the search of predictors of inadequate physical activity, an investigation was conducted into the association between multimorbidity and physical activity (PA). So far the sum of diseases used as a measure of multimorbidity reveals an inverse association. How specific combinations of chronic diseases are associated with PA remains unclear. The objective of this study is to identify clusters of multimorbidity that are associated with PA. Cross-sectional data of 3,386 patients from the 2003 wave of the Dutch cohort study SMILE were used. Ward's agglomerative hierarchical clustering was executed to establish multimorbidity clusters. Chi-square statistics were used to assess the association between clusters of chronic diseases and PA, measured in compliance with the Dutch PA guideline. The highest rate of PA guideline compliance was found in patients the majority of whom suffer from liver disease, back problems, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and inflammatory joint disease (62.4%). The lowest rate of PA guideline compliance was reported in patients with heart disease, respiratory disease, and diabetes mellitus (55.8%). Within the group of people with multimorbidity, those suffering from heart disease, respiratory disease, and/or diabetes mellitus may constitute a priority population as PA has proven to be effective in the prevention and cure of all three disorders. PMID:26881231

  10. Crystal Structures of An F420-Dependent Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Fgd1 Involved in the Activation of the Anti-Tb Drug Candidate Pa-824 Reveal the Basis of Coenzyme And Substrate Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Bashiri, G.; Squire, C.J.; Moreland, N.J.; Baker, E.N.

    2009-05-11

    The modified flavin coenzyme F{sub 420} is found in a restricted number of microorganisms. It is widely distributed in mycobacteria, however, where it is important in energy metabolism, and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is implicated in redox processes related to non-replicating persistence. In Mtb, the F{sub 420}-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase FGD1 provides reduced F{sub 420} for the in vivo activation of the nitroimidazopyran prodrug PA-824, currently being developed for anti-tuberculosis therapy against both replicating and persistent bacteria. The structure of M. tuberculosis FGD1 has been determined by x-ray crystallography both in its apo state and in complex with F{sub 420} and citrate at resolutions of 1.90 and 1.95{angstrom}, respectively. The structure reveals a highly specific F{sub 420} binding mode, which is shared with several other F{sub 420}-dependent enzymes. Citrate occupies the substrate binding pocket adjacent to F{sub 420} and is shown to be a competitive inhibitor (IC{sub 50} 43 {micro}m). Modeling of the binding of the glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) substrate identifies a positively charged phosphate binding pocket and shows that G6P, like citrate, packs against the isoalloxazine moiety of F{sub 420} and helps promote a butterfly bend conformation that facilitates F{sub 420} reduction and catalysis.

  11. The Relationship Between the Social Environment and Lifestyle-Related Physical Activity in a Low-Income African American Inner-City Southern Neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Lori; Gustat, Jeanette; Becker, Adam B

    2015-10-01

    The social ecological model was used to examine individual, interpersonal, and neighborhood characteristics related to lifestyle-related physical activity (PA) in a low-income African American (AA) population in New Orleans, Louisiana. Interviewers administered surveys to randomly-sampled household participants from three low-income, AA neighborhoods in New Orleans, Louisiana. Questions included the social and physical environment, physical activity, interpersonal factors, demographics, height and weight. Logistic regression multivariable models were built predicting whether the respondent met PA guidelines, controlling for neighborhood. Females were less as likely to engage in lifestyle-related PA compared to males (OR 0.46, CI 0.30-0.70). Support specific for PA was correlated with engaging in lifestyle-related PA (OR 1.45, CI 1.14-1.83). The individual and social environment should be considered for increasing PA in AA. Interventions targeting the AA population could consider ways of enhancing social support for PA.

  12. Exercise prescription: perceptions and physical activity habits in chiropractic students at CMCC

    PubMed Central

    Howitt, Scott; Ethridge, Eric; Nelson, Eric; Gotuaco, Mike; Demello, Louis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Health care practitioner’s physical activity (PA) habits are associated with their likelihood to recommend PA to their patients. The intent of this project is to better understand the Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) students’ perceptions and practices of PA and exercise prescription as this may predict exercise counselling they will provide to future patients. Methods: A 27-item survey was distributed to Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CMCC) students (N = 744). The survey determined the proportion of CMCC students that meet the (2012) Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. Additionally the survey recorded students’ perceptions of PA counselling during patient visits and their own example of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Results: The response rate for the survey was 46% (N = 343). By using average estimates, it was determined that 72% of the respondents meet the (2012) Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines. 86% of the respondents perceived PA counselling to be usually or always relevant during patient interactions, and approximately 73% believed that exercise counselling is highly relevant to chiropractic practice. Furthermore, at least 88% percent believed that chiropractors must adhere to a healthy lifestyle in order to effectively model a healthy lifestyle to their patients. Conclusions: A high proportion of CMCC students meet PA guidelines, and perceive PA counselling to be highly relevant and important to patient encounters. PMID:28065988

  13. Crystal structure of the flavoenzyme PA4991 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    SciTech Connect

    Jacewicz, Agata; Schnell, Robert; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    2016-01-22

    PA4991 is a FAD-dependent oxidoreductase from the pathogen P. aeruginosa that is essential for virulence and survival in the infected host. The structure of this enzyme, determined to 2.4 Å resolution, reveals that PA4991 belongs to the GR{sub 2} family of flavoenzymes. The locus PA4991 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an open reading frame that has been identified as essential for the virulence and/or survival of this pathogenic organism in the infected host. Here, it is shown that this gene encodes a monomeric FAD-binding protein of molecular mass 42.2 kDa. The structure of PA4991 was determined by a combination of molecular replacement using a search model generated with Rosetta and phase improvement by a low-occupancy heavy-metal derivative. PA4991 belongs to the GR{sub 2} family of FAD-dependent oxidoreductases, comprising an FAD-binding domain typical of the glutathione reductase family and a second domain dominated by an eight-stranded mixed β-sheet. Most of the protein–FAD interactions are via the FAD-binding domain, but the isoalloxazine ring is located at the domain interface and interacts with residues from both domains. A comparison with the structurally related glycine oxidase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase shows that in spite of very low amino-acid sequence identity (<18%) several active-site residues involved in substrate binding in these enzymes are conserved in PA4991. However, enzymatic assays show that PA4991 does not display amino-acid oxidase or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting that it requires different substrates for activity.

  14. WWTP design in warm climates - guideline comparison and parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant using mass balancing.

    PubMed

    Walder, C; Lindtner, S; Proesl, A; Klegraf, F; Weissenbacher, N

    2013-01-01

    The ATV-A-131 guideline and the design approach published in 'Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Reuse (WE)' are widely used for the design of activated sludge plants. They are both based on simplified steady-state assumptions tailored to the boundary conditions of temperate climates. Using design guidelines beyond the designated temperature range may lead to inappropriate results. The objectives of this paper are (1) to summarise temperature relevant differences between ATV-A-131 and WE; (2) to show the related design components; and (3) to demonstrate a procedure for design parameter adaptation for a full-scale activated sludge plant located in a warm climate region. To gain steady-state data required for wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) design according to ATV-A-131 and WE, full-scale plant data were acquired for a period of 6 months as a basis for analyses and adaptation. Mass balances were calculated for the verification of the measurements and for analysing excess sludge production. The two approaches showed relevant temperature related differences. WE default application resulted in lower deviation in the mass balance results for excess sludge production. However, with the adaptation of the heterotrophic decay rates for both approaches and the inert organic and mineral solids fraction additionally for ATV-A-131, a good fit to the observed excess sludge production could be achieved.

  15. [Co-integration of BLG-LAtPA and WAP improved the expression of LAtPA in transgenic mouse milk].

    PubMed

    Zhou, J; Deng, J X; Cheng, X; Lu, Y F; Yang, X; Huang, P T

    2001-01-01

    In order to improve the expression of longer acting tissue plasminogen activator in the mammary epithelium of transgenic mice, the fragment of BLG-LAtPA hydrid gene was microinjected into mouse embryos with mice whey acid protein gene. Three mouse were tested as being Co-integration of BLG-LAtPA and WAP transgene by PCR and Southern blot. Milk obtained from lactating females contains biologically active tPA, and the concentration of tPA was calculated to be about 10 micrograms/mL.

  16. The Pediocin PA-1 Accessory Protein Ensures Correct Disulfide Bond Formation in the Antimicrobial Peptide Pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Oppegård, Camilla; Fimland, Gunnar; Anonsen, Jan Haug; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2015-05-19

    Peptides, in contrast to proteins, are generally not large enough to form stable and well-defined three-dimensional structures. However, peptides are still able to form correct disulfide bonds. Using pediocin-like bacteriocins, we have examined how this may be achieved. Some pediocin-like bacteriocins, such as pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C], have four cysteines. There are three possible ways by which the four cysteines may combine to form two disulfide bonds, and the three variants are expected to be produced in approximately equal amounts if their formation is random. Pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C] with correct disulfide bonds were the main products when they were secreted by the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and accessory protein, but when they were secreted by the corresponding secretion machinery for sakacin A, a pediocin-like bacteriocin with one disulfide bond (two cysteines), peptides with all three possible disulfide bonds were produced in approximately equal amounts. All five cysteines in the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and the two cysteines (that form a CxxC motif) in the accessory protein were individually replaced with serines to examine their involvement in disulfide bond formation in pediocin PA-1. The Cys86Ser mutation in the accessory protein caused a 2-fold decrease in the amount of pediocin PA-1 with correct disulfide bonds, while the Cys83Ser mutation nearly abolished the production of pediocin PA-1 and resulted in the production of all three disufide bond variants in equal amounts. The Cys19Ser mutation in the ABC transporter completely abolished secretion of pediocin PA-1, suggesting that Cys19 is in the proteolytic active site and involved in cleaving the prebacteriocin. Replacing the other four cysteines in the ABC transporter with serines caused a slight reduction in the overall amount of secreted pediocin PA-1, but the relative amount with the correct disulfide bonds remained large. These results indicate that the pediocin

  17. Crystal structure of the flavoenzyme PA4991 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Jacewicz, Agata; Schnell, Robert; Lindqvist, Ylva; Schneider, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    The locus PA4991 in Pseudomonas aeruginosa encodes an open reading frame that has been identified as essential for the virulence and/or survival of this pathogenic organism in the infected host. Here, it is shown that this gene encodes a monomeric FAD-binding protein of molecular mass 42.2 kDa. The structure of PA4991 was determined by a combination of molecular replacement using a search model generated with Rosetta and phase improvement by a low-occupancy heavy-metal derivative. PA4991 belongs to the GR2 family of FAD-dependent oxidoreductases, comprising an FAD-binding domain typical of the glutathione reductase family and a second domain dominated by an eight-stranded mixed β-sheet. Most of the protein–FAD interactions are via the FAD-binding domain, but the isoalloxazine ring is located at the domain interface and interacts with residues from both domains. A comparison with the structurally related glycine oxidase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase shows that in spite of very low amino-acid sequence identity (<18%) several active-site residues involved in substrate binding in these enzymes are conserved in PA4991. However, enzymatic assays show that PA4991 does not display amino-acid oxidase or glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activities, suggesting that it requires different substrates for activity. PMID:26841760

  18. FELASA Guidelines and Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Guillen, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations (FELASA) has been releasing guidelines and recommendations on several laboratory animal science disciplines for more than 15 y. The Working Groups producing these documents comprise specialists in each of the addressed topics, are nominated by the FELASA constituent associations, and are elected by the FELASA Board of Management. The FELASA guidelines and recommendations are not regulatory but rather are proposals based on scientific knowledge and the state of the art of laboratory animal science activities. Because they are supported by laboratory animal science associations that represent the vast majority of European professionals, these guidelines and recommendations have influenced the development of various regulatory requirements in Europe, including those related to education and training, routine laboratory animal activities, and animal health monitoring. Some reports fill existing gaps in the European legal framework or complement it. The Working Groups occasionally collaborate with other European organizations, thus enhancing the professional input and effect of the documents produced. The recently established AALAS–FELASA Liaison Body may result in future international cooperation that benefits laboratory animal science and welfare in a global context. PMID:22776188

  19. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  20. Psychological Well-Being (PWB) of School Adolescents Aged 12–18 yr, its Correlation with General Levels of Physical Activity (PA) and Socio-Demographic Factors In Gilgit, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093

  1. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  2. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected.

  3. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Kenneth B.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D.; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-07-01

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7-20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT.

  4. Exercise prescription for the older population: The interactions between physical activity, sedentary time, and adequate nutrition in maintaining musculoskeletal health.

    PubMed

    Shad, Brandon J; Wallis, Gareth; van Loon, Luc J C; Thompson, Janice L

    2016-11-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) promotes musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, the majority of older individuals do not meet current PA guidelines and are also highly sedentary. Emerging evidence indicates that large amounts of sedentary time accelerate the loss of skeletal muscle mass (i.e., sarcopenia) and physical function with advancing age. However, current PA recommendations for sedentary time are non-specific (i.e., keep sedentary time to a minimum). Research indicates that physical inactivity and large amounts of sedentary time accelerate sarcopenic muscle loss by inducing skeletal muscle 'anabolic resistance'. These findings suggest a critical interaction between engaging in 'sufficient' levels of PA, minimising sedentary time, and consuming 'adequate' nutrition to promote optimal musculoskeletal health in older adults. However, current PA recommendations do not take into account the important role that nutrition plays in ensuring older adults can maximise the benefits from the PA in which they engage. The aim of this narrative review is: (1) to briefly summarise the evidence used to inform current public health recommendations for PA and sedentary time in older adults; and (2) to discuss the presence of 'anabolic resistance' in older adults, highlighting the importance of regular PA and minimising sedentary behaviour. It is imperative that the synergy between PA, minimising sedentary behaviour and adequate nutrition is integrated into future PA guidelines to promote optimal musculoskeletal health and metabolic responses in the growing ageing population.

  5. [Effect of physical activity on longevity].

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Mateusz M; Krupienicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-25

    Multiple population studies have reported a positive correlation between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and longer lifespan. It has been generally accepted that it occurs due to PA having a direct effect on longevity. However, this idea is negated by experiments on animal models and an observational study on a twin cohort published recently by Karvinen et al. This unique study includes a pairwise comparison of monozygotic twins discordant for PA, therefore eliminating any influence of genetic factors on both mortality and tendency to take up exercise. The intriguing lack of differences in lifespan in such pairs implies that PA is not an important life prolonging factor. This discovery casts doubt on the validity of PA recommendations found in numerous medical guidelines. Nevertheless, the mentioned results apply only to the plain PA - longevity relation. They do not consider health benefits of PA, for which solid evidence exists. In particular, PA clearly reduces the risk of obesity-related diseases. This may indirectly yet significantly affect the length and quality of life, even if the direct relationship between PA and lifespan will be proven false in further research.

  6. Exposure guidelines for magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, G.

    1987-12-01

    The powerful magnetic fields produced by a controlled fusion experiment at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) necessitated the development of personnel-exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. A literature search and conversations with active researchers showed that it is currently possible to develop preliminary exposure guidelines for steady magnetic fields. An overview of the results of past research into the bioeffects of magnetic fields was compiled, along with a discussion of hazards that may be encountered by people with sickle-cell anemia or medical electronic and prosthetic implants. The LLNL steady magnetic-field exposure guidelines along with a review of developments concerning the safety of time-varying fields were also presented in this compilation. Guidelines developed elsewhere for time varying fields were also given. Further research is needed to develop exposure standards for both steady or time-varying fields.

  7. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1006 Is a Persulfide-Modified Protein That Is Critical for Molybdenum Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tombline, Gregory; Schwingel, Johanna M.; Lapek, John D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Darrah, Thomas; Maguire, Michael; Van Alst, Nadine E.; Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    A companion manuscript revealed that deletion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae) PA1006 gene caused pleiotropic defects in metabolism including a loss of all nitrate reductase activities, biofilm maturation, and virulence. Herein, several complementary approaches indicate that PA1006 protein serves as a persulfide-modified protein that is critical for molybdenum homeostasis in Pae. Mutation of a highly conserved Cys22 to Ala or Ser resulted in a loss of PA1006 activity. Yeast-two-hybrid and a green-fluorescent protein fragment complementation assay (GFP-PFCA) in Pae itself revealed that PA1006 interacts with Pae PA3667/CsdA and PA3814/IscS Cys desulfurase enzymes. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) “top-down” analysis of PA1006 purified from Pae revealed that conserved Cys22 is post-translationally modified in vivo in the form a persulfide. Inductively-coupled-plasma (ICP)-MS analysis of ΔPA1006 mutant extracts revealed that the mutant cells contain significantly reduced levels of molybdenum compared to wild-type. GFP-PFCA also revealed that PA1006 interacts with several molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) biosynthesis proteins as well as nitrate reductase maturation factor NarJ and component NarH. These data indicate that a loss of PA1006 protein’s persulfide sulfur and a reduced availability of molybdenum contribute to the phenotype of a ΔPA1006 mutant. PMID:23409003

  8. 75 FR 69468 - Metlife Moosic, PA, Metlife Clarks Summit, PA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Metlife Moosic, PA, Metlife Clarks Summit, PA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration By application dated August 2, 2010, the...

  9. Do radiographic disease and pain account for why people with or at high risk of knee osteoarthritis do not meet Physical Activity Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    White, Daniel K.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Felson, David T.; Gross, K. Doug; Niu, Jingbo; Nevitt, Michael; Lewis, Cora E.; Torner, James; Neogi, Tuhina

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Knee Osteoarthritis (OA) and pain are assumed to be barriers for meeting physical activity guidelines, but this has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of people with and without knee OA and knee pain who met recommended physical activity levels through walking. METHODS Cross-sectional analysis of community dwelling adults who have or who are at high risk of knee OA from The Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study. Participants wore a StepWatch activity monitor to record steps/day over 7 days. The proportion that met the recommended physical activity levels was determined as those accumulating ≥150 minutes/week at ≥100 steps/minute in bouts lasting ≥10 minutes. These proportions were also determined for those with and without knee OA, as classified by radiograph, and by severity of knee pain. RESULTS Of the 1788 study participants (age 67 sd 8 yrs, BMI 31 sd 6 kg/m2, 60% female), lower overall percentages of participants with radiographic knee OA and knee pain met recommended physical activity levels. However, these differences were not statistically significant between those with and without knee OA; 7.3% and 10.1% of men (p=0.34), and 6.3% and 7.8% of women (p=0.51), respectively, met recommended physical activity levels. Similarly, for those with moderate/severe pain versus no pain, 12.9% and 10.9% of men (p=0.74) and 6.7% and 11.0% (p=0.40) of women met recommended physical activity levels. CONCLUSIONS Disease and pain have little impact on achieving recommended physical activity levels among people with or at high risk of knee OA. PMID:23124774

  10. Guidelines for makeup water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Cline, D.A. Jr.; Shields, K.J. Associates, Baltimore, MD )

    1990-03-01

    The EPRI Fossil Plant Cycle Chemistry Program, RP 2712, was developed in recognition of the importance of controlling cycle water and steam purity in attainment of maximized unit availability, reliability and efficiency. This guideline characterizes the state-of-the-art technology for production of cycle makeup water. It is intended to complement other RP 2712 projects in the areas of cycle chemistry guidelines, instrumentation and control, guideline demonstration and verification, and related subject areas. This guideline reviews available technology for and preferred approaches to production of fossil plant cycle makeup from various raw water supplies. Subject areas covered include makeup water source and source characteristics, unit processes comprising makeup treatment systems, guidelines for process selection, resin and membrane selection guidelines, techniques for monitoring performance and cost effectiveness, and waste disposal considerations. The report also identifies additional research activity needed to advance the state-of-the-art for makeup water treatment, results of a utility industry survey and other related topics. 72 refs., 60 figs., 74 tabs.

  11. Physical activity in older people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) in older people is critically important in the prevention of disease, maintenance of independence and improvement of quality of life. Little is known about the physical activity of the older adults or their compliance with current physical activity guidelines. Methods A systematic literature search of the published literature was conducted. Included were published reports of original research that independently reported: the PA level of non-institutional older adults (aged 60 years and over); and the proportion of older adults in the different samples who met PA recommendations or guidelines. The review was restricted to studies published since 2000 to provide a current picture of older adults’ PA levels. Results Fifty three papers were included in the review. The percentage of older adults meeting recommended physical activity ranged from 2.4 – 83.0% across the studies. Definitions of “recommended” physical activity in older adults varied across the studies as did approaches to measurement which posed methodological challenges to data analysis. Older age groups were less likely than the reference group to be regularly active, and women were less likely than men to achieve regular physical activity, especially leisure time physical activity, when measured by both subjective and objective criteria. Conclusion The review highlights the need for studies which recruit representative random samples of community based older people and employ validated measurement methods consistently to enable comparison of PA levels over time and between countries. PMID:23648225

  12. Using health promotion guidelines for persons with disabilities to develop and evaluate a physical activity program for individuals with multiple sclerosis: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Dixon-Ibarra, Alicia; Nery-Hurwit, Mara; Driver, Simon; MacDonald, Megan

    2017-04-01

    The Health Education for Persons with Multiple Sclerosis (HEMS) program was developed in response to the need for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity for individuals with Multiple Sclerosis (MS). It was developed and evaluated using Drum and colleagues (2009) guidelines for implementing health promotion programs for individuals with disabilities. The purpose of this feasibility study is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of the HEMS program. Thirteen individuals with MS completed the 8-week health education program. A mixed method approach for evaluation was implemented (i.e., survey and focus groups). Process and resource feasibility demonstrated that over half of the participants attended at least 80% of the weekly sessions. Focus group data provided valuable feedback for future iterations of the program including critiques on the delivery, content, and group support provided. Outcome evaluation showed increases in self-efficacy (survey), improvements in theoretical constructs (focus groups), and increased physical activity (focus groups). Results show that health promotion programs for persons with MS can improve physical activity and related constructs. Next steps will be to revise, implement, and reevaluate the HEMS program in a larger randomized control trial.

  13. Physical Activity Levels in Women Attending Breast Screening, Receiving Chemotherapy and Post-Breast Cancer Treatment; A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lahart, Ian M.; Metsios, George S.; Nevill, Alan M.; Carmichael, Amtul R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A lack of physical activity (PA) is a well-recognised risk factor in the development of breast cancer (BC) and evidence-base research on the impact of PA on BC survival is consolidating. However, evidence reveals that BC survivors have low levels of PA, suggesting the need of targeted interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of BC survivors. Unfortunately, there is lack of data from the UK about the PA behaviours of women at various stages of diagnosis and treatment of BC. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess PA levels in women at different stages of BC pathway. Patients and Methods: A convenient sample of patients was selected at various stages of presentation and treatment of BC. Patients attending for breast screening for NHSBSP (n = 188), post-operative patients attending for chemotherapy (n = 41) and BC patients within one year’s post-treatment (n = 80) were invited to take part in this cross-sectional study. Results: Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of a chemotherapy participant not meeting PA guidelines (i.e., being in the low activity category) were three times higher than the odds of a NHSBPS attendee not meeting PA guidelines, and compared to post-treatment participants, the chemotherapy patient’s odds of not meeting PA guidelines was four times higher. The odds of NHSBPS attendees being in the high activity category compared to the moderate category were three times higher than that of a post-treatment participant. Conclusions: The current study suggests the need to establish robust PA interventions to enhance the PA behaviour of breast cancer survivors. PMID:24852599

  14. [Epilepsy guidelines: Japanese and international guidelines].

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2011-04-01

    Many guidelines for the management of epilepsy have been published since the introduction of evidence-based medicine. In Japan, the first clinical guideline for epilepsy management was published by the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) in 2002. The Japan Epilepsy Society (JES) has been publishing guidelines for several topics since 2005. However, owing to recent advances in epileptology and the accumulation of related knowledge, it has become necessary to revise these guidelines. Four medical societies-JSN, JES, the Japanese Society of Neurological Therapeutics, and the Japanese Society of Child Neurology-have together published new epilepsy-related clinical guidelines for practitioners. The guideline committee consists of 23 specialists representing the 4 societies. The guidelines primary target general practitioners treating epilepsy patients and are designed to be user friendly-in the form of 81 "clinical questions" (CQs). The CQs comprehensively cover various aspects of epilepsy management including those related to diagnosis, treatment, surgery, pregnancy, and social issues. Recommendations are concisely described with levels from A to D. The evidence level (I to IV) of the references is based on the literature review conducted by the committee. These guidelines were published in October 2010.

  15. Knowledge, Engagement, and Perceptions of the American College of Sports Medicine Guidelines for Cardiovascular Physical Activity: A University Undergraduate Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, George Milton

    2010-01-01

    Background: The early onset of chronic disease is a major health concern facing the nation. Leading health indicators support physical activity to reduce the mortality and morbidity rates among individuals. The college years represent a time of transition and potential for improved adherence to positive health behaviors. As institutions of higher…

  16. 78 FR 45282 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00058

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00058 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... determined to be adversely affected by the disaster: Primary Counties: Clearfield; Fayette;...

  17. PA impairment due to HIV infection. Part II: Building a professional support network. Forum.

    PubMed

    Behar, M; Bogstad, J R; Gage, L; James, D A; Mott, J S

    1989-11-01

    Several members of the AAPA's Lesbian and Gay Physician Assistants Caucus who participated in the roundtable PAs and HIV-Antibody Testing: The Need for Guidelines When the Practitioner Is at Risk (1989;13[5]:146-158) met with members of the 12-Step/Caduceus Caucus to begin developing a cooperative effort to assist PAs who test positive for antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus, and to explore other HIV-associated impairment issues. Part II focuses on concerns of the provider who is HIV-antibody positive as well as ways PA groups can cooperate to raise the profession's conciousness further and recommend guidelines and policy.

  18. A Transformerless Hybrid Active Filter Capable of Complying with Harmonic Guidelines for Medium-Voltage Motor Drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Ryota; Akagi, Hirofumi

    This paper presents a transformerless hybrid active filter that is integrated into medium-voltage adjustable-speed motor drives for fans, pumps, and compressors without regenerative braking. The authors have designed and constructed a three-phase experimental system rated at 400V and 15kW, which is a downscaled model from a feasible 6.6-kV 1-MW motor drive system. This system consists of the hybrid filter connecting a passive filter tuned to the 7th harmonic filter in series with an active filter that is based on a three-level diode-clamped PWM converter, as well as an adjustable-speed motor drive in which a diode rectifier is used as the front end. The hybrid filter is installed on the ac side of the diode rectifier with no line-frequency transformer. The downscaled system has been exclusively tested so as to confirm the overall compensating performance of the hybrid filter and the filtering performance of a switching-ripple filter for mitigating switching-ripple voltages produced by the active filter. Experimental results verify that the hybrid filter achieves harmonic compensation of the source current in all the operating regions from no-load to the rated-load conditions, and that the switching-ripple filter reduces the switching-ripple voltages as expected.

  19. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  20. Access to fracture risk assessment by FRAX and linked National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG) guidance in the UK-an analysis of anonymous website activity.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, E V; Johansson, H; Harvey, N C; Compston, J; Kanis, J A

    2017-01-01

    In the UK, fracture risk guidance is provided by the National Osteoporosis Guideline Group (NOGG). NOGG usage showed widespread access through direct web-based linkage to FRAX. The facilitated interaction between fracture risk assessment and clinical guidelines could usefully be adopted in other countries.

  1. How feasible is it to conform to the European guidelines on administration of activated charcoal within one hour of an overdose?

    PubMed Central

    Karim, A; Ivatts, S; Dargan, P; Jones, A

    2001-01-01

    Methods—63 patients who had taken potentially serious overdoses and required hospital admission from a London teaching hospital A&E department were identified over a six month period. The patients' case notes were analysed for age, sex, substances taken, and the timing of their management within the A&E department. Results—Median time of arrival after overdose was 136 minutes, and only 15 patients presented within an hour. Ten of these 15 patients were given activated charcoal, and only four of the 10 received it within the one hour limit. Sixteen patients received charcoal outside the time limit. Subanalysis of the individual cases given charcoal shows that triaging is fast (median five minutes), but a significant time delay occurs after this before charcoal is administered (median 21 minutes). Conclusions—These results are likely to be exaggerated in rural hospitals and demonstrate the difficulty of adhering to the recommended guidelines, unless activated charcoal can be safely administered to appropriate patients in the prehospital environment. PMID:11559618

  2. Career Development Guidelines. A Handbook for Program Planning and Review--Five Phases Focusing on Individual Student Competencies with Suggested Activities and Counselor-Team Counseling and Placement Program Strategies, for All Students 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Community Coll. and Occupational Education System, Denver.

    This handbook is designed to help counselors take leadership in providing comprehensive career development activities for students in grades 9-12. The guidelines are intended as a tool for counselors to use in working with their colleagues to develop realistic and workable counseling and placement program strategies. A five-phase schema is…

  3. National Bookmobile Guidelines, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Library, Columbus.

    These guidelines were developed by the bookmobile community that has met in Columbus, Ohio, since 1985 for their annual conference. The guidelines comprise the collaborative effort of hundreds of conference participants and representatives from 79 libraries throughout the United States and Canada, who discussed the guidelines in regional and state…

  4. National Bookmobile Guidelines, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Library, Columbus.

    This publication is based on the work of The State Library of Ohio, the National Bookmobile Guidelines Committee, and staff of local Ohio bookmobile programs. Draft guidelines were approved by the 7th National Bookmobile Conference (May 31-June 2, 1992). The Guidelines provide brief statements of standards followed by specifics which indicate…

  5. Hindi Proficiency Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambhir, Vijay; And Others

    The Hindi language proficiency guidelines are based on the 1986 generic ACTFL (American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages) proficiency guidelines. They represent a hierarchy of global characterizations of integrated performance in four skill areas (speaking, listening, reading, and writing) in Hindi. The guidelines for each skill area…

  6. Prekindergarten Curriculum Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Marilyn; Meyers, Margaret E.; Morris, Pam Bell; Gonzales, Peggy Freedson; Uphaus, Anita

    Following adoption of the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) in 1998, new prekindergarten curriculum guidelines were developed. These voluntary guidelines articulate what 3- and 4-year-olds should know and be able to do and provide a means to align prekindergarten programs with the TEKS curriculum. The guidelines are intended to assist…

  7. Presidential Search Guidelines and Directory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a recent Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB) survey, nearly 67 percent of four-year independent and public colleges, universities, and systems secured an executive search firm to help with their presidential search activity. This edition of the Guidelines and Directory profiles 16 North American-based…

  8. Intravenous tPA Therapy Does Not Worsen Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Foerch, Christian; Rosidi, Nathanael L.; Schlunk, Frieder; Lauer, Arne; Cianchetti, Flor A.; Mandeville, Emiri; Arai, Ken; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Fan, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoying; van Leyen, Klaus; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Schaffer, Chris B.; Lo, Eng H.

    2013-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved treatment for reperfusing ischemic strokes. But widespread use of tPA is still limited by fears of inadvertently administering tPA in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Surprisingly, however, the assumption that tPA will worsen ICH has never been biologically tested. Here, we assessed the effects of tPA in two models of ICH. In a mouse model of collagenase-induced ICH, hemorrhage volumes and neurological deficits after 24 hrs were similar in saline controls and tPA-treated mice, whereas heparin-treated mice had 3-fold larger hematomas. In a model of laser-induced vessel rupture, tPA also did not worsen hemorrhage volumes, while heparin did. tPA is known to worsen neurovascular injury by amplifying matrix metalloproteinases during cerebral ischemia. In contrast, tPA did not upregulate matrix metalloproteinases in our mouse ICH models. In summary, our experimental data do not support the assumption that intravenous tPA has a deleterious effect in acute ICH. However, due to potential species differences and the inability of models to fully capture the dynamics of human ICH, caution is warranted when considering the implications of these findings for human therapy. PMID:23408937

  9. Intravenous tPA therapy does not worsen acute intracerebral hemorrhage in mice.

    PubMed

    Foerch, Christian; Rosidi, Nathanael L; Schlunk, Frieder; Lauer, Arne; Cianchetti, Flor A; Mandeville, Emiri; Arai, Ken; Yigitkanli, Kazim; Fan, Xiang; Wang, Xiaoying; van Leyen, Klaus; Steinmetz, Helmuth; Schaffer, Chris B; Lo, Eng H

    2013-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only FDA-approved treatment for reperfusing ischemic strokes. But widespread use of tPA is still limited by fears of inadvertently administering tPA in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Surprisingly, however, the assumption that tPA will worsen ICH has never been biologically tested. Here, we assessed the effects of tPA in two models of ICH. In a mouse model of collagenase-induced ICH, hemorrhage volumes and neurological deficits after 24 hrs were similar in saline controls and tPA-treated mice, whereas heparin-treated mice had 3-fold larger hematomas. In a model of laser-induced vessel rupture, tPA also did not worsen hemorrhage volumes, while heparin did. tPA is known to worsen neurovascular injury by amplifying matrix metalloproteinases during cerebral ischemia. In contrast, tPA did not upregulate matrix metalloproteinases in our mouse ICH models. In summary, our experimental data do not support the assumption that intravenous tPA has a deleterious effect in acute ICH. However, due to potential species differences and the inability of models to fully capture the dynamics of human ICH, caution is warranted when considering the implications of these findings for human therapy.

  10. 231Pa and 233Pa Neutron-Induced Fission Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, V.M.; Tetereva, N.A.; Baba, M.; Hasegawa, A.; Kornilov, N.V.; Kagalenko, A.B.

    2005-05-24

    The 231Pa and 233Pa neutron-induced fission cross-section database is analyzed within the Hauser-Feshbach approach. The consistency of neutron-induced fission cross-section data and data extracted from transfer reactions is investigated. The fission probabilities of Pa, fissioning in 231,233Pa(n,nf) reactions, are defined by fitting (3He,d) or (3He,t) transfer-reaction data. The present estimate of the 233Pa(n,f) fission cross section above the emissive fission threshold is supported by smooth level-density parameter systematics, validated in the case of the 231Pa(n,f) data description up to En =20 MeV.

  11. A Novel Antimicrobial Endolysin, LysPA26, against Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mingquan; Feng, Chunyan; Ren, Jie; Zhuang, Xuran; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Yongzhang; Dong, Ke; He, Ping; Guo, Xiaokui; Qin, Jinhong

    2017-01-01

    The global increase in multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria has led to phage therapy being refocused upon. A novel endolysin, LysPA26, containing a lysozyme-like domain, was screened against Pseudomonas aeruginosa in this study. It had activity against MDR P. aeruginosa without pretreatment with an outer-membrane permeabilizer. LysPA26 could kill up to 4 log units P. aeruginosa in 30 min. In addition, temperature and pH effect assays revealed that LysPA26 had good stability over a broad range of pH and temperatures. Moreover, LysPA26 could kill other Gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumonia, Acinetobacter baumannii and Escherichia coli, but not Gram-positive bacteria. Furthermore, LysPA26 could eliminate P. aeruginosa in biofilm formation. Our current results show that LysPA26 is a new and promising antimicrobial agent for the combat of Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:28289407

  12. Playing outdoor and practising sport: A study of physical activity levels in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Paula; Santos, Maria Paula

    2017-03-01

    In outdoor activities, it seems reasonable that the longer children spend in spontaneous physical activity (PA), the higher the probability of being active. Indeed, the time spent outdoor has been identified as a variable consistently associated with the children's PA. Outdoor playing, such as the organized sports practice, appears associated with healthier lifestyle standards. All the recommendations mention the importance of increasing daily PA practice in children and teenagers, but few studies highlight the relationship between outdoor play and the recommended PA levels. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between the frequency of outdoor play, the frequency of the organized sports practice, and the compliance of the recommendations for PA practice in children in the inner city area of Porto. The sample of this study is composed of 422 individuals (mean age of 11.6 years). Two hundred and twenty-five of them were girls and 197 were boys from the sixth grade (elementary schools located in the inner city area of Porto). PA was objectively evaluated using accelerometers. Participants reported frequency of participation in different PA contexts, such as sports practice and outdoor play. The results show a predictor effect of participating in sports three or more times per week on compliance of PA guidelines. In conclusion, organized sports practice seems more effective than outdoor play to reach the recommended levels of PA in children.

  13. Ask Here PA: Large-Scale Synchronous Virtual Reference for Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariner, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Ask Here PA is Pennsylvania's new statewide live chat reference and information service. This article discusses the key strategies utilized by Ask Here PA administrators to recruit participating libraries to contribute staff time to the service, the importance of centralized staff training, the main aspects of staff training, and activating the…

  14. New Insight into Metal Ion-Driven Catalysis of Nucleic Acids by Influenza PA-Nter

    PubMed Central

    Kotlarek, Daria; Worch, Remigiusz

    2016-01-01

    PA subunit of influenza RNA-dependent RNA polymerase deserves constantly increasing attention due to its essential role in influenza life cycle. N-terminal domain of PA (PA-Nter) harbors endonuclease activity, which is indispensable in viral transcription and replication. Interestingly, existing literature reports on in vitro ion preferences of the enzyme are contradictory. Some show PA-Nter activity exclusively with Mn2+, whereas others report Mg2+ as a natural cofactor. To clarify it, we performed a series of experiments with varied ion concentrations and substrate type. We observed cleavage in the presence of both ions, with a slight preference for manganese, however PA-Nter activity highly depended on the amount of residual, co-purified ions. Furthermore, to quantify cleavage reaction rate, we applied fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy (FCCS), providing highly sensitive and real-time monitoring of single molecules. Using nanomolar ssDNA in the regime of enzyme excess, we estimated the maximum reaction rate at 0.81± 0.38 and 1.38± 0.34 nM/min for Mg2+ and Mn2+, respectively. However, our calculations of PA-Nter ion occupancy, based on thermodynamic data, suggest Mg2+ to be a canonical metal in PA-Nter processing of RNA in vivo. Presented studies constitute a step toward better understanding of PA-Nter ion-dependent activity, which will possibly contribute to new successful inhibitor design in the future. PMID:27300442

  15. PA28 modulates antigen processing and viral replication during coxsackievirus B3 infection

    PubMed Central

    Respondek, Dorota; Voss, Martin; Kühlewindt, Ina; Klingel, Karin; Krüger, Elke

    2017-01-01

    The function of the proteasome is modulated at the level of subunit expression and by association with its regulatory complexes. During coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis, IFN-induced formation of immunoproteasomes (ip) is known to be critical for regulating immune modulating molecules. The function of the IFN-γ-inducible proteasome regulator subunits PA28 α and β, however, in this context was unknown. During viral myocarditis, we found an increased abundance of PA28β subunits in heart tissue. PA28α/β exists in PA28-20S-PA28 and PA700-20S-PA28 hybrid proteasome complexes in cells both with either predominant ip and standard proteasome (sp) expression. Being in line with reduced proteasome activity in PA28α/β-deficient cells, we observed increased levels of oxidized and poly-ubiquitinated proteins upon TLR3-activation in these cells. Moreover, PA28α/β is capable to interfere directly with viral replication of CVB3 and facilitates the generation of CVB3-derived MHC class I epitopes by the proteasome. In contrast to a distinct function of PA28α/β in vitro, gene ablation of PA28α/β in mice being on a genetic background with resistance towards the development of severe infection had no significant impact on disease progression. Other than reported for the ip, in this host PA28α/β is dispensable to meet the demand of increased peptide hydrolysis capacity by the proteasome during viral myocarditis. PMID:28278207

  16. PA28 modulates antigen processing and viral replication during coxsackievirus B3 infection.

    PubMed

    Respondek, Dorota; Voss, Martin; Kühlewindt, Ina; Klingel, Karin; Krüger, Elke; Beling, Antje

    2017-01-01

    The function of the proteasome is modulated at the level of subunit expression and by association with its regulatory complexes. During coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) myocarditis, IFN-induced formation of immunoproteasomes (ip) is known to be critical for regulating immune modulating molecules. The function of the IFN-γ-inducible proteasome regulator subunits PA28 α and β, however, in this context was unknown. During viral myocarditis, we found an increased abundance of PA28β subunits in heart tissue. PA28α/β exists in PA28-20S-PA28 and PA700-20S-PA28 hybrid proteasome complexes in cells both with either predominant ip and standard proteasome (sp) expression. Being in line with reduced proteasome activity in PA28α/β-deficient cells, we observed increased levels of oxidized and poly-ubiquitinated proteins upon TLR3-activation in these cells. Moreover, PA28α/β is capable to interfere directly with viral replication of CVB3 and facilitates the generation of CVB3-derived MHC class I epitopes by the proteasome. In contrast to a distinct function of PA28α/β in vitro, gene ablation of PA28α/β in mice being on a genetic background with resistance towards the development of severe infection had no significant impact on disease progression. Other than reported for the ip, in this host PA28α/β is dispensable to meet the demand of increased peptide hydrolysis capacity by the proteasome during viral myocarditis.

  17. Exogenous t-PA Administration Increases Hippocampal Mature BDNF Levels. Plasmin- or NMDA-Dependent Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling. PMID:24670989

  18. Exogenous t-PA administration increases hippocampal mature BDNF levels. plasmin- or NMDA-dependent mechanism?

    PubMed

    Rodier, Marion; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) through TrkB activation is central for brain functioning. Since the demonstration that plasmin is able to process pro-BDNF to mature BDNF and that these two forms have opposite effects on neuronal survival and plasticity, a particular attention has been paid to the link between tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin system and BDNF metabolism. However, t-PA via its action on different N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits is also considered as a neuromodulator of glutamatergic transmission. In this context, the aim of our study was to investigate the effect of recombinant (r)t-PA administration on brain BDNF metabolism in rats. In the hippocampus, we found that rt-PA (10 mg/kg) administration induced a progressive increase in mature BDNF levels associated with TrkB activation. In order to delineate the mechanistic involved, plasmin activity was assessed and its inhibition was attempted using tranexamic acid (30 or 300 mg/kg, i.v.) while NMDA receptors were antagonized with MK801 (0.3 or 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with rt-PA treatment. Our results showed that despite a rise in rt-PA activity, rt-PA administration failed to increase hippocampal plasmin activity suggesting that the plasminogen/plasmin system is not involved whereas MK801 abrogated the augmentation in mature BDNF levels observed after rt-PA administration. All together, our results show that rt-PA administration induces increase in hippocampal mature BDNF expression and suggests that rt-PA contributes to the control of brain BDNF synthesis through a plasmin-independent potentiation of NMDA receptors signaling.

  19. [Clinical guideline 'Turner syndrome'].

    PubMed

    van den Akker, Erica L T; van Alfen, A A E M Janiëlle; Sas, Theo C J; Kerstens, Michiel N; Cools, Martine; Lambalk, Cornelis B

    2014-01-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in women who are missing one X chromosome. The most obvious symptoms are small stature and ovarian failure. Turner patients have an increased risk of a large number of disorders, and should therefore have lifelong medical supervision. Recent insights into patient management have been incorporated into the guidelines. Patients are increasingly involved in their own treatment. In patients with 45,X karyotype, Y-chromosomal material is actively sought in a larger number of cells and/or other tissues, using FISH. Pubertal induction therapy, if required, is initiated at an appropriate age. Egg donation or vitrification are new therapeutic options for fertility treatment. Monitoring for cardiac and vascular disease using cardiac ultrasound and MRI is performed more often, partly in connection with the risk of aortal dissection. The coordination of care of patients with Turner syndrome is concentrated in specialized centres in the Netherlands and Belgium.

  20. Pediatric guidelines for dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Stephen R

    2015-01-01

    Clinical guidelines are developed to assist clinicians in complex clinical decision making. Modern guideline development includes a systematic review and grading of relevant literature and then using the evidence review to construct recommendations for clinical care which are also graded regarding the level of evidence supporting them. Pediatric guidelines for dyslipidemia were first published in 1992. There was then a gap during which no formal guidelines were developed. In 2011, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction in Children were published. This included an evidence review and clinical recommendations regarding dyslipidemia. This review process began in 2006. The evidence review ended in 2008, and they were published in 2011 because of an extensive and prolonged review process. These guidelines recommend universal screening for dyslipidemia at age 9 to 11 y with a focus on identifying young individuals with genetic dyslipidemia such as familial hypercholesterolemia. The guidelines also include lifestyle recommendations and recommendations for pharmacologic treatment for children with markedly elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The guideline process should include review of the implementation of guidelines in practice and should also include ongoing review of the guidelines with respect to a growing evidence base with new research findings.

  1. Growth inhibition of human melanoma tumor cells by the combination of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) and substituted dextrans and one NaPA-dextran conjugate.

    PubMed

    Gervelas, C; Avramoglou, T; Crépin, M; Jozefonvicz, J

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the cytostatic effects of sodium phenylacetate (NaPA) in association with several substituted dextrans on human tumor melanoma 1205LU cells. We show that NaPA alone inhibits the growth of these cells (IC50 = 3.9 mM) while a weak inhibitory effect appears at a concentration of 37 microM (10 microg/ml) for a dextran methyl carboxylate benzylamide (LS17-DMCB). The precursors of LS17-DMCB [T40 Dextran and carboxymethyl dextran (LS17-DMC)] did not affect the growth of 1205LU cells. To potentiate the inhibitory activity of NaPA at low concentrations (below 5.6 mM), we have tested NaPA and LS17-DMCB in physical mixture (association) or linked together covalently (this conjugate is termed 'LS17-NaPaC'). We have observed an increase of the 1205LU cell growth inhibition effect with NaPA in association (IC50 1.8 mM). For a concentration of 5 mM of NaPA (free in the case of association or linked in the case of conjugate), the association with dextran derivative exhibits a 4.6-fold higher efficacy than with NaPA alone (9 versus 41% surviving fraction), while the conjugate is 1.3-fold smaller (52% growth inhibition). By performing isobologram analysis of the IC50 data, we have shown a synergistic effect for a particular molar ratio of NaPA and LS17-DMCB (NaPA:LS17-DMCB = 0.35).

  2. The value of forced expiratory volume in 1 s in screening subjects with stable COPD for PaO2 < 7.3 kPa qualifying for long-term oxygen therapy.

    PubMed

    Lim, S; MacRae, K D; Seed, W A; Roberts, C M

    1998-09-01

    Guidelines on the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) issued by the European Respiratory Society (ERS), British Thoracic Society (BTS), American Thoracic Society (ATS), and Department of Health for England and Wales (DoH) suggest differing values of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) below which arterial blood gas analysis should be performed to determine the presence of severe hypoxaemia and possible long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) requirement. This study aimed to determine the value of FEV1 at these different levels in screening for LTOT requirement defined as PaO2 < 7.3 kPa in subjects with stable COPD. Comparative measures were taken against other lung function tests of volume and diffusing capacity. A retrospective analysis of paired lung function and arterial oxygen measurements in 491 subjects was made. The positive and negative predictive values, sensitivity and specificity of FEV1 < 70% predicted (ERS), FEV1 < 50% predicted (ATS), FEV1 < 40% predicted (BTS) and FEV1 < 1.51 (DoH) were determined for fulfilling LTOT criteria (PaO2 < 7.3 kPa). The correlation between lung function variables and PaO2 was established. Logistic regression analysis was used to classify subjects with PaO2 < 7.3 kPa and PaO2 > or = 7.3 kPa. Using FEV1 to screen for LTOT requirement produced a high negative predictive value at all four suggested limits (FEV1 < 70% 100%, FEV1 < 50% 96%, FEV1 < 40% 95%, FEV1 < 1.51 97%). However, the positive predictive values were low (FEV1 < 70% 13%, FEV1 < 50% 16%, FEV1 < 40% 19%, FEV1 < 1.51 15%) as were sensitivities. No single lung function variable was a strong determinant of PaO2. FEV1 % pred (r = 0.40), FVC % pred (r = 0.34) and TLCO % pred (r = 0.27) had the strongest relationships. Logistic regression also placed FEV1 % pred and TLCO % pred as the best predictors of PaO2 < 7.3 kPa. We conclude no lung function variable correlates well with PaO2 in subjects with stable COPD. The best predictor of PaO2 < 7.3 kPa was

  3. Modulation of Cellular Migration and Survival by c-Myc through the Downregulation of Urokinase (uPA) and uPA Receptor▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Alfano, Daniela; Votta, Giuseppina; Schulze, Almut; Downward, Julian; Caputi, Mario; Stoppelli, Maria Patrizia; Iaccarino, Ingram

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that c-Myc proapoptotic activity accounts for most of its restraint of tumor formation. We established a telomerase-immortalized human epithelial cell line expressing an activatable c-Myc protein. We found that c-Myc activation induces, in addition to increased sensitivity to apoptosis, reductions in cell motility and invasiveness. Transcriptome analysis revealed that urokinase (uPA) and uPA receptor (uPAR) were strongly downregulated by c-Myc. Evidence is provided that the repression of uPA and uPAR may account for most of the antimigratory and proapoptotic activities of c-Myc. c-Myc is known to cooperate with Ras in cellular transformation. We therefore investigated if this cooperation could converge in the control of uPA/uPAR expression. We found that Ras is able to block the effects of c-Myc activation on apoptosis and cellular motility but not on cell invasiveness. Accordingly, the activation of c-Myc in the context of Ras expression had only minor influence on uPAR expression but still had a profound repressive effect on uPA expression. Thus, the differential regulation of uPA and uPAR by c-Myc and Ras correlates with the effects of these two oncoproteins on cell motility, invasiveness, and survival. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel link between c-Myc and uPA/uPAR. We propose that reductions of cell motility and invasiveness could contribute to the inhibition of tumorigenesis by c-Myc and that the regulation of uPA and uPAR expression may be a component of the ability of c-Myc to reduce motility and invasiveness. PMID:20123981

  4. [Clinical guidelines for epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2014-05-01

    Many international guidelines for epilepsy from the countries in Europe, USA and Asia have been published since the introduction of evidence-based medicine. In Japan, the clinical guidelines for epilepsy management were published by the Japanese Society of Neurology (JSN) in 2002 and 2010. The clinical guideline for epilepsy 2010 primarily targets general practitioners treating epilepsy patients. The Japan Epilepsy Society has been publishing 16 guidelines for several topics since 2005. The clinical guideline for epilepsy 2010 recommends that carbamazepine can be regarded for new onset partial epilepsy and sodium valproate is for new onset generalized epilepsy as anti-epileptic drug (AED) monotherapy. The new AEDs received approval by the Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan, mainly in the add-on treatment of adults with partial epilepsy. The clinical guideline for epilepsy 2010 will contribute to improvement in the management of epilepsy in Japan.

  5. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.113 PA exemptions. (a) Exempt systems of records. 5 U.S.C. 552a authorizes SECNAV to adopt rules designating eligible systems of records as exempt from... responsible for proposing an exemption rule. Exempt systems of records are identified at...

  6. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.113 PA exemptions. (a) Exempt systems of records. 5 U.S.C. 552a authorizes SECNAV to adopt rules designating eligible systems of records as exempt from... responsible for proposing an exemption rule. Exempt systems of records are identified at...

  7. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.113 PA exemptions. (a) Exempt systems of records. 5 U.S.C. 552a authorizes SECNAV to adopt rules designating eligible systems of records as exempt from... responsible for proposing an exemption rule. Exempt systems of records are identified at...

  8. 76 FR 5647 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00036

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident: Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period: 01/10/2011. Effective Date:...

  9. 77 FR 65044 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00054

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident: Cheltenham Township Condominium Complex Fire. Incident Period:...

  10. 75 FR 2165 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00030

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident: Bellefonte Borough Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period:...

  11. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident: Apartment Building Fire in Bellefonte Borough. Incident Period:...

  12. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 06/24/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  13. 78 FR 4967 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00057

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... locations. The following areas have been determined to be adversely affected by the disaster:...

  14. Plasmin-dependent modulation of the blood–brain barrier: a major consideration during tPA-induced thrombolysis?

    PubMed Central

    Niego, Be'eri; Medcalf, Robert L

    2014-01-01

    Plasmin, the principal downstream product of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), is known for its potent fibrin-degrading capacity but is also recognized for many non-fibrinolytic activities. Curiously, plasmin has not been conclusively linked to blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption during recombinant tPA (rtPA)-induced thrombolysis in ischemic stroke. This is surprising given the substantial involvement of tPA in the modulation of BBB permeability and the co-existence of tPA and plasminogen in both blood and brain throughout the ischemic event. Here, we review the work that argues a role for plasmin together with endogenous tPA or rtPA in BBB alteration, presenting the overall controversy around the topic yet creating a rational case for an involvement of plasmin in this process. PMID:24896566

  15. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on lidocaine and articaine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, K C; Furtado, D P; Ramacciato, J C; Cabral, A M; Haas, D A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO₂ can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO₂ and PaO₂ on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 : 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO₂, and PaO₂ were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO₂ from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO₂ from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO₂ and/or increase in PaO₂ raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity.

  16. Effect of PaCO2 and PaO2 on Lidocaine and Articaine Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Barcelos, K.C; Furtado, D.P; Ramacciato, J.C; Cabral, A.M; Haas, D.A

    2010-01-01

    Alterations in arterial PaCO2 can influence local anesthetic toxicity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of stress-induced changes in PaCO2 and PaO2 on the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. Lidocaine (2% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) or articaine (4% with 1 ∶ 100,000 epinephrine) was administered intravenously under rest or stress conditions to 36 rats separated into 4 groups. Propranolol and prazosin were administered preoperatively to minimize cardiovascular effects of epinephrine. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and arterial pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 were measured. Results showed no differences in MAP, HR, or pH. Stress significantly increased the latency period for the first tonic-clonic seizure induced by a toxic dose of both lidocaine and articaine (P < .05). Seizures were brought on more rapidly by articaine. No significant difference between toxic doses of lidocaine and articaine was noted. Stress raised the seizure threshold dose for both drugs and significantly (P < .01) increased arterial PaO2 from 94.0 ± 1.90 mm Hg to 113.0 ± 2.20 mm Hg, and reduced PaCO2 from 36.0 ± 0.77 mm Hg to 27.0 ± 0.98 mm Hg. In conclusion, reduction in PaCO2 and/or increase in PaO2 raised the seizure threshold of lidocaine and articaine. This study also confirmed that lidocaine and articaine have equipotent central nervous system toxicity. PMID:20843225

  17. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Host range of the potential biopesticide Pea Albumin 1b (PA1b) is limited to insects.

    PubMed

    Rahioui, Isabelle; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Sasse, Florenz; Carre-Pierrat, Maïté; Qin, An; Zheng, Ming H; Toepfer, Stefan; Sivignon, Catherine; Royer, Corinne; Da Silva, Pedro; Gressent, Frédéric

    2014-10-01

    The Pea Albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b) peptide is an entomotoxin extracted from legume seeds with lethal activity towards several insect pests. Its toxic activity occurs after the perception of PA1b by a plasmalemmic proton pump (V-ATPase) in the insects. Assays revealed that PA1b showed no activity towards mammalian cells displaying high V-ATPase activity. Similarly, PA1b displayed no binding activity and no biological activity towards other non-insect organisms. We demonstrate here that binding to labelled PA1b was found in all the insect families tested, regardless of the sensitivity or insensitivity of the individual species. The coleopteran Bruchidae, which are mainly legume seed pests, were found to be fully resistant. A number of insect species were seen to be insensitive to the toxin although they exhibited binding activity for the labelled PA1b. The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera), was generally insensitive when maintained on an agar diet, but the fly appeared to be sensitive to PA1b in bioassays using a different diet. In conclusion, the PA1b toxin provides legumes with a major source of resistance to insects, and insects feeding on legume seeds need to overcome this plant resistance by disrupting the PA1b - V-ATPase interaction.

  19. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  20. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on ventilation cooling is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  1. Drug Education Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing.

    In order to supply drug education guidelines for its schools, the Michigan State Board of Education created an advisory council of professionals from the fields of drugs and education, parents, and high school and college students. The council developed the present set of guidelines designed to define the role of the school in drug education and…

  2. Guidelines for OPAC Displays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Martha M.

    This paper describes the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions) guidelines for librarians charged with customizing OPAC (online public access catalog) software and vendors and producers of this software. The guidelines are intended to apply to all types of catalog, including World Wide Web-based catalogs, GUI…

  3. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  4. Guideline 3: Psychosocial Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Journal on Mental Retardation, 2000

    2000-01-01

    The third in seven sets of guidelines based on the consensus of experts in the treatment of psychiatric and behavioral problems in mental retardation (MR) focuses on psychosocial treatment. Guidelines cover general principles, choosing among psychosocial treatments, severity of MR and psychiatric/behavior symptoms, diagnosable disorders, target…

  5. Communication Disorders Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Special Education Services Unit.

    These guidelines outline procedures for the communication disorders specialist/speech-language pathologist employed in the Utah public schools. The guidelines are designed to ensure that all students with communication disorders, ages 3-21, will be provided with appropriate speech-language services in the public schools, that the criteria for…

  6. Guidelines for Career Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Rosemary; And Others

    These extensive guidelines for integrated career education programs at the elementary level were developed by a regional coordinator, an elementary teacher, and an intermediate teacher at a 2-week regional workshop in western Kentucky. The ten chapters include: (1) a rationale for developing career awareness, (2) self-evaluation guidelines for the…

  7. Engineering Technology Curriculum Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gershon, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    Summarizes curriculum guidelines for the following engineering technologies: chemical, industrial, mining, petroleum, nuclear, civil, mechanical, electrical, automotive, and manufacturing. In a few years, these Engineering Council for Professional Development committee guidelines are intended to become the criteria by which programs will be judged…

  8. Dietary guidelines in singapore.

    PubMed

    Lee, Benjamin Lc

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Dietary Guidelines were developed with the aim of providing guidance on what dietary strategies can best address increasing rates of obesity and non-communicable chronic disease in Singapore. This set of dietary guidelines was developed with a local expert committee based on a review of scientific literature and data on current dietary patterns from the 2010 National Nutrition Survey. Projected nutrient intakes from a diet adhering to the 2011 Dietary Guidelines were calculated using a local food composition database (FOCOS) and validated against nutrient recommendations. Acknowledging that dietary requirements differ between age groups, different sets of dietary guidelines have been developed and customised for different segments of the population. To date, Singapore has produced dietary guidelines for children and adolescents (focusing on establishing healthy lifelong eating patterns), adults (focusing on preventing obesity and reinforcing healthy eating patterns), and most recently, guidelines for older adults (>50 years of age) that address the issue of potential dietary insufficiency caused by age-related increases in nutrient requirements combined with a reduction in energy requirements. In Singapore, dietary guidelines have been used to inform and direct public policy and promote dietary patterns that meet nutrient requirements while reducing the risk of non-communicable chronic diseases. Examples of public policy include: national guidelines on food advertising and standards for food served in nursing homes; examples of public health promotion programmes include: the Healthier Choice Symbol Programme for packaged food products and programmes encouraging provision of healthier meals in hawker centres, restaurants, and school or workplace canteens.

  9. Maintenance Trades Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weidner, Theodore J.

    2008-01-01

    In 2002, APPA published "Maintenance Staffing Guidelines for Educational Facilities," the first building maintenance trades staffing guideline designed to assist educational facilities professionals with their staffing needs. addresses how facilities professionals can determine the appropriate size and mix of their organization. Contents…

  10. Changes in physical activity during the transition from primary to secondary school in Belgian children: what is the role of the school environment?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Key life periods have been associated with changes in physical activity (PA). This study investigated (1) how PA changes when primary school children transfer to secondary school, (2) if school environmental characteristics differ between primary and secondary schools and (3) if changes in school environmental characteristics can predict changes in PA in Belgian schoolchildren. Moderating effects of gender and the baseline level of PA were investigated for the first and third research question. Methods In total, 736 children (10–13 years) of the last year of primary school participated in the first phase of this longitudinal study. Two years later, 502 of these children (68.2%) agreed to participate in the second phase. Accelerometers, pedometers and the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire were used to measure PA. School environmental characteristics were reported by the school principals. Cross-classified regression models were conducted to analyze the data. Results S elf-reported active transport to school and accelerometer weekday moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) increased after the transition to secondary school while self-reported extracurricular PA and total PA decreased. Pedometer weekday step counts decreased, but this decrease was only apparent among those who achieved the PA guidelines in primary school. Secondary schools scored higher on the school environmental characteristics: provision of sports and PA during lunch break, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy but lower on sports and PA after-school than primary schools. Changes in the school environmental characteristics: active commuting to school, active schoolyards and playgrounds and health education policy resulted in changes in self-reported extracurricular PA, total PA , pedometer/accelerometer determined step counts and accelerometer determined MVPA. Moderating effects were found for baseline PA and gender. Conclusion PA changed after the transition to

  11. Structure investigations of PP-PA blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janicki, Jaroslaw; Wlochowicz, Andrzej; Slusarczyk, Czeslaw

    1997-02-01

    In the paper we have used the SAXS method in order to determine the supermolecular structure parameters, including the transition layer thickness, of polypropylene/polyamide-6 (PP/PA) blends. The transition layer thickness has been obtained by means of two methods elaborated by Koberstein and co-workers and by Ruland, respectively. Both these methods assume that changes of the electron density in the transition region can be described by a Gaussian function with a standard deviation (sigma) . The parameter (sigma) have been determined graphically from the appropriate plots. Then, the thickness of the phase boundary E was estimated as (root)12(sigma) . The investigated PP/PA blends are multiphase systems and the problem of determination of the boundary width is more complicated because the meaning of Porod's law must be considered with caution. This problem is discussed based on wide range of the investigated samples prepared over various pressure and crystallization temperature conditions.

  12. Fluoranthene degradation in Pseudomonas alcaligenes PA-10.

    PubMed

    Gordon, L; Dobson, A D

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas alcaligenes strain PA-10 degrades the four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon fluoranthene, co-metabolically. HPLC analysis of the growth medium identified four intermediates, 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid; 9-hydroxy-1-fluorene carboxylic acid; 9-fluorenone and 9-fluorenol, formed during fluoranthene degradation. Pre-exposure of PA-10 to 9-fluorenone-1-carboxylic acid and 9-hydroxy-1-fluorene-carboxylic acid resulted in increases in fluoranthene removal, while pre-exposure to 9-fluorenone and 9-fluorenol resulted in a decrease in fluoranthene degradation. The rate of indole transformation was similarly affected by pre-exposure to these metabolic intermediates, indicating a link between fluoranthene degradation and indigo formation in this strain.

  13. {sup 231}Pa photofission cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Soldatov, A.S.; Rudnikov, V.E.; Smirenkin, G.N.

    1995-12-01

    The measurements of the {sup 231}Pa yield and cross section photofission in the energy range 7-9 MeV are presented. These measurements are a continuation of similar measurements performed for the {gamma}-ray energy range 4.8-7 MeV. The entire collection of experimental data which combine the results obtained in the present work and in Ref. 1 was analyzed.

  14. Graphs for Isotopes of 91-Pa (Protactinium)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides a graphic representation of nucleon separation energies and residual interaction parameters for isotopes of the chemical element 91-Pa (Protactinium, atomic number Z = 91).

  15. Virtual Screening and Biological Validation of Novel Influenza Virus PA Endonuclease Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The influenza virus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase complex (RdRp), a heterotrimeric protein complex responsible for viral RNA transcription and replication, represents a primary target for antiviral drug development. One particularly attractive approach is interference with the endonucleolytic “cap-snatching” reaction by the RdRp subunit PA, more precisely by inhibiting its metal-dependent catalytic activity which resides in the N-terminal part of PA (PA-Nter). Almost all PA inhibitors (PAIs) thus far discovered bear pharmacophoric fragments with chelating motifs able to bind the bivalent metal ions in the catalytic core of PA-Nter. More recently, the availability of crystallographic structures of PA-Nter has enabled rational design of original PAIs with improved binding properties and antiviral potency. We here present a coupled pharmacophore/docking virtual screening approach that allowed us to identify PAIs with interesting inhibitory activity in a PA-Nter enzymatic assay. Moreover, antiviral activity in the low micromolar range was observed in cell-based influenza virus assays. PMID:26288686

  16. Sensor Kinase PA4398 Modulates Swarming Motility and Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14

    PubMed Central

    Strehmel, Janine; Neidig, Anke; Nusser, Michael; Geffers, Robert; Brenner-Weiss, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is able to sense and adapt to numerous environmental stimuli by the use of transcriptional regulators, including two-component regulatory systems. In this study, we demonstrate that the sensor kinase PA4398 is involved in the regulation of swarming motility and biofilm formation in P. aeruginosa PA14. A PA4398− mutant strain was considerably impaired in swarming motility, while biofilm formation was increased by approximately 2-fold. The PA4398− mutant showed no changes in growth rate, rhamnolipid synthesis, or the production of the Pel exopolysaccharide but exhibited levels of the intracellular second messenger cyclic dimeric GMP (c-di-GMP) 50% higher than those in wild-type cells. The role of PA4398 in gene regulation was investigated by comparing the PA4398− mutant to the wild-type strain by using microarray analysis, which demonstrated that 64 genes were up- or downregulated more than 1.5-fold (P < 0.05) under swarming conditions. In addition, more-sensitive real-time PCR studies were performed on genes known to be involved in c-di-GMP metabolism. Among the dysregulated genes were several involved in the synthesis and degradation of c-di-GMP or in the biosynthesis, transport, or function of the iron-scavenging siderophores pyoverdine and pyochelin, in agreement with the swarming phenotype observed. By analyzing additional mutants of selected pyoverdine- and pyochelin-related genes, we were able to show that not only pvdQ but also pvdR, fptA, pchA, pchD, and pchH are essential for the normal swarming behavior of P. aeruginosa PA14 and may also contribute to the swarming-deficient phenotype of the PA4398− mutant in addition to elevated c-di-GMP levels. PMID:25501476

  17. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Axonal Outgrowth Alone and Synergistically with Astrocytes via tPA

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Jian-Yong; Chopp, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We reported that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) enhance neurological recovery from experimental stroke and increase tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) expression in astrocytes. Here, we investigate mechanisms by which tPA mediates MSC enhanced axonal outgrowth. Primary murine neurons and astrocytes were isolated from wild-type (WT) and tPA-knockout (KO) cortices of embryos. Mouse MSCs (WT) were purchased from Cognate Inc. Neurons (WT or KO) were seeded in soma side of Xona microfluidic chambers, and astrocytes (WT or KO) and/or MSCs in axon side. The chambers were cultured as usual (normoxia) or subjected to oxygen deprivation. Primary neurons (seeded in plates) were co-cultured with astrocytes and/or MSCs (in inserts) for Western blot. In chambers, WT axons grew significantly longer than KO axons and exogenous tPA enhanced axonal outgrowth. MSCs increased WT axonal outgrowth alone and synergistically with WT astrocytes at both normoxia and oxygen deprivation conditions. The synergistic effect was inhibited by U0126, an ERK inhibitor, and receptor associated protein (RAP), a low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 1 (LRP1) ligand antagonist. However, MSCs exerted neither individual nor synergistic effects on KO axonal outgrowth. Western blot showed that MSCs promoted astrocytic tPA expression and increased neuronal tPA alone and synergistically with astrocytes. Also, MSCs activated neuronal ERK alone and synergistically with astrocytes, which was inhibited by RAP. We conclude: (1) MSCs promote axonal outgrowth via neuronal tPA and synergistically with astrocytic tPA; (2) neuronal tPA is critical to observe the synergistic effect of MSC and astrocytes on axonal outgrowth; and (3) tPA mediates MSC treatment-induced axonal outgrowth through the LRP1 receptor and ERK. PMID:27959956

  18. Crystallization behavior of PA6/SiO{sub 2} organic-inorganic hybrid material

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Hualin; Shi Tiejun . E-mail: stjdean@hfut.edu.cn; Yang Shanzhong; Hang Guopei

    2006-02-02

    Poly 2-hydroxy propylmethacrylate-methyl methacrylate/SiO{sub 2} (PHPMA-MMA/SiO{sub 2}), an active composite was used to synthesize polyamide-6/SiO{sub 2} (PA6/SiO{sub 2}) organic-inorganic hybrid materials via blending method. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) results showed that the addition of PHPMA-MMA/SiO{sub 2} composite induced PA6 to transit from {alpha} to {gamma} crystal form. The nonisothermal crystallization kinetics of PA6 and PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Jeziorny method derived from Avrami analysis and a method developed by Liu were employed to describe the nonisothermal crystallization process of PA6 and PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials. Based on our experimental data, if the relative degree of crystallinity was approximately 60% or more, the Jeziorny method was not valid to describe the nonisothermal crystallization process, while Liu method was successful to describe the whole nonisothermal crystallization process. When X(t) was below about 60%, the crystallization rates of PA6 and PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials were very approximate, but when X(t) was approximately 60% or more, the crystallization rate of PA6 was quicker than that of PA6/SiO{sub 2} hybrid materials. Moreover, the addition of PHPMA-MMA/SiO{sub 2} composite decreased the crystallization activation energy {delta}E calculated by Kissinger equation because of the {gamma} transition.

  19. Qualitative study among African American parents to inform an intervention to promote adoption of the dietary guidelines for Americans food and phyical activity recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This qualitative study was conducted to enable the research team to culturally tailor an intervention to increase adherence to the dietary guidelines for Americans (DGA) in African American parents and their children living in Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) Communities. Focus group results guided the...

  20. Processing of FENDL-PA/1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, F.M.; Lessor, D.E.; Carter, L.L.

    1994-02-01

    The Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL) is an evaluated nuclear data library based upon the best evaluations from the world community. The library is maintained by the Nuclear Data Section of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). However, before the data can be used in computer codes, it must be processed into the appropriate format. The library containing the transmutation (or activation) cross sections that are part of FENDL is designated as FENDL-PA (P designating pointwise). The evaluations in Version 1.1 of this activation library were selected in the following two steps. For the most important reactions ({approximately}250), consultants to the IAEA compared evaluations submitted for consideration with experimental data. These evaluations included those from ENDF/B, JEF, BROND, JENDL, as well as ``complete`` activation libraries, such as EAF and REAC. The consultants then chose the ``best`` evaluation for each of the reactions. The evaluations for the remaining ({approximately}12,000) reactions were taken from EAF-3. The pointwise FENDL-PA/1.1 activation library was processed into two formats. Continuous energy format as used by the Monte Carlo neutron/photon transport code MCNP. ASCII 175 group multigroup format as used by the transmutation code REAC*2/3.

  1. Guidelines for Better Heart Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Guidelines for Better Heart Health Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of Contents For ... Heart Association (AHA) released new guidelines for preventing heart disease and stroke ... health. Those guidelines, still in effect today, adopted the ...

  2. [Guidelines for clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Vleugels, A M

    1997-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements that are intended to support medical decision making in well-defined clinical situations. Essentially, their object is to reduce the variability in medical practice, to improve quality, and to make appropriated control of the financial resources possible. Internationally, ever more organisations, associations, and institutions are concerned with the development of guidelines in many different areas of care. Making implicit knowledge explicit is one of the associated advantages of guidelines: they have a potential utility in training, in process evaluation, and in the reevaluation of outcome studies. In liability issues, their existence has a double effect: they can be used to justify medical behaviour, and they constitute a generally accepted reference point. A derivative problem is the legal liability of the compilers of the guidelines. The principle of the guideline approach can be challenged academically: science cannot give a definition of optimal care with absolute certainty. What is called objectivity often rests on methodologically disputable analyses; also the opinion of opinion leaders is not always a guarantee for scientific soundness. Moreover, patients are not all identical: biological variability, situational factors, patient expectations, and other elements play a role in this differentiation. Clinicians are often hesitant with respect to clinical guidelines: they are afraid of cookbook medicine and curtailment of their professional autonomy. Patients fear reduction of individualization of care and the use of guidelines as a rationing instrument. The effects of the introduction of clinical practice guidelines on medical practice, on the results and on the cost of care vary but are generally considered to be favourable. The choice of appropriate strategies in development, dissemination, and implementation turns out to be of critical importance. The article ends with concrete

  3. Bridging the Guideline Implementation Gap: A Systematic, Document-Centered Approach to Guideline Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Shiffman, Richard N.; Michel, George; Essaihi, Abdelwaheb; Thornquist, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    Objective: A gap exists between the information contained in published clinical practice guidelines and the knowledge and information that are necessary to implement them. This work describes a process to systematize and make explicit the translation of document-based knowledge into workflow-integrated clinical decision support systems. Design: This approach uses the Guideline Elements Model (GEM) to represent the guideline knowledge. Implementation requires a number of steps to translate the knowledge contained in guideline text into a computable format and to integrate the information into clinical workflow. The steps include: (1) selection of a guideline and specific recommendations for implementation, (2) markup of the guideline text, (3) atomization, (4) deabstraction and (5) disambiguation of recommendation concepts, (6) verification of rule set completeness, (7) addition of explanations, (8) building executable statements, (9) specification of origins of decision variables and insertions of recommended actions, (10) definition of action types and selection of associated beneficial services, (11) choice of interface components, and (12) creation of requirement specification. Results: The authors illustrate these component processes using examples drawn from recent experience translating recommendations from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's guideline on management of chronic asthma into a workflow-integrated decision support system that operates within the Logician electronic health record system. Conclusion: Using the guideline document as a knowledge source promotes authentic translation of domain knowledge and reduces the overall complexity of the implementation task. From this framework, we believe that a better understanding of activities involved in guideline implementation will emerge. PMID:15187061

  4. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  5. [French guidelines on electroencephalogram].

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, N; Sauleau, P; Cheliout-Heraut, F; Convers, P; Debs, R; Eisermann, M; Gavaret, M; Isnard, J; Jung, J; Kaminska, A; Kubis, N; Lemesle, M; Maillard, L; Mazzola, L; Michel, V; Montavont, A; N'Guyen, S; Navarro, V; Parain, D; Perin, B; Rosenberg, S D; Sediri, H; Soufflet, C; Szurhaj, W; Taussig, D; Touzery-de Villepin, A; Vercueil, L; Lamblin, M D

    2014-12-01

    Electroencephalography allows the functional analysis of electrical brain cortical activity and is the gold standard for analyzing electrophysiological processes involved in epilepsy but also in several other dysfunctions of the central nervous system. Morphological imaging yields complementary data, yet it cannot replace the essential functional analysis tool that is EEG. Furthermore, EEG has the great advantage of being non-invasive, easy to perform and allows control tests when follow-up is necessary, even at the patient's bedside. Faced with the advances in knowledge, techniques and indications, the Société de Neurophysiologie Clinique de Langue Française (SNCLF) and the Ligue Française Contre l'Épilepsie (LFCE) found it necessary to provide an update on EEG recommendations. This article will review the methodology applied to this work, refine the various topics detailed in the following chapters. It will go over the summary of recommendations for each of these chapters and underline proposals for writing an EEG report. Some questions could not be answered by the review of the literature; in those cases, an expert advice was given by the working and reading groups in addition to the guidelines.

  6. [Youth Healthcare guideline 'Skin disorders'].

    PubMed

    Deurloo, Jacqueline A; van Gameren-Oosterom, Helma B M; Kamphuis, Mascha

    2012-01-01

    There is a high incidence of skin disorders; these are also frequently encountered within Youth Healthcare (YHC). Some skin disorders are caused by an underlying disease, syndrome or child abuse. Therefore, detection of these causes in an early stage is important. Skin disorders can have a huge psychosocial impact on both child and parents. This is one of the reasons why prevention, detection, diagnosis, treatment, referral, and uniform advice and guidance are of great importance. The YHC Guideline examines counselling and advice, criteria for referral to primary or secondary healthcare, and skincare in general. It also describes the disorders that should be actively detected. The Guideline also looks at specific aspects of dark skins and ethnic diversity, and the impact of skin disorders on general wellbeing. The accompanying web-based tool includes argumentation and opinions from experts on more than 75 skin disorders, including illustrations and decision trees, to aid the drawing up of a treatment plan.

  7. [Multidisciplinary practice guideline 'Marfan syndrome'].

    PubMed

    Hilhorst-Hofstee, Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    Marfan syndrome is a multi-system disorder of dominant inheritance in which the cardiovasculature, in particular the aorta, the eyes and the skeleton are affected. Diagnostic assessment and treatment of patients who are suspected of or have Marfan syndrome should preferably be done by multidisciplinary teams such as those found in specialised Marfan syndrome centres. The practice guideline is intended for all care givers involved with the recognition, diagnosis, consultations and the medicinal and surgical treatment of Marfan patients; it includes referral criteria and information on the referral process. A diagnosis of Marfan syndrome is based on international criteria in which aortic root dilatation and dissection, ectopia lentis, an affected first-degree family member and a pathogenic FBN1 mutation are the cardinal features. Alternative diagnoses are also included in the practice guideline. Recommendations are given for the monitoring and treatment of Marfan patients during pregnancy and delivery. Advice on lifestyle is mainly focussed on sports activities.

  8. rt-PA with Antithrombotic Therapies in a Case with Capsular Warning Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fuseya, Yasuhiro; Kawamura, Miyuki; Matsuda, Eri; Takada, Kozue; Watanabe, Kiwamu; Fujitake, Junko; Nakaya, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    We herein report a case of capsular warning syndrome (CWS) that was successfully treated with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). A 70-year-old woman had repeated stereotyped transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) of right hemiparesis and dysarthria. After hospitalization, argatroban, aspirin, and cilostazol were started but were ineffective. Thirteen hours after the first episode of TIAs, severe symptoms occurred. Magnetic resonance imaging showed acute infarctions in the internal capsule to corona radiata, so we used rt-PA. Since then, the TIAs have not occurred, and the symptoms have considerably improved. This case suggests that rt-PA might be effective and safe for use in treating CWS. PMID:28202868

  9. Pyruvate minimizes rtPA toxicity from in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Choudhury, Gourav Roy; Winters, Ali; Xie, Luokun; Mallet, Robert T; Yang, Shao-Hua

    2013-09-12

    Clinical application of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) for stroke is limited by hemorrhagic transformation, which narrows rtPA's therapeutic window. In addition, mounting evidence indicates that rtPA is potentially neurotoxic if it traverses a compromised blood brain barrier. Here, we demonstrated that pyruvate protects cultured HT22 neuronal and primary microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with primary astrocytes from oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD)/reoxygenation stress and rtPA cytotoxicity. After 3 or 6h OGD, cells were reoxygenated with 11mmol/L glucose±pyruvate (8mmol/L) and/or rtPA (10µg/ml). Measured variables included cellular viability (calcein AM and annexin-V/propidium iodide), reactive oxygen species (ROS; mitosox red and 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate), NADPH, NADP(+) and ATP contents (spectrophotometry), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activities (gelatin zymography), and cellular contents of MMP2, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP2), and phosphor-activation of anti-apoptotic p70s6 kinase, Akt and Erk (immunoblot). Pyruvate prevented the loss of HT22 cells after 3h OGD±rtPA. After 6h OGD, rtPA sharply lowered cell viability; pyruvate dampened this effect. Three hours OGD and 4h reoxygenation with rtPA increased ROS formation by about 50%. Pyruvate prevented this ROS formation and doubled cellular NADPH/NADP(+) ratio and ATP content. In endothelial cell monolayers, 3h OGD and 24h reoxygenation increased FITC-dextran leakage, indicating disruption of intercellular junctions. Although rtPA exacerbated this effect, pyruvate prevented it while sharply lowering MMP2/TIMP2 ratio and increasing phosphorylation of p70s6 kinase, Akt and Erk. Pyruvate protects neuronal cells and microvascular endothelium from hypoxia-reoxygenation and cytotoxic action of rtPA while reducing ROS and activating anti-apoptotic signaling. These results support the proposed use of pyruvate as an adjuvant to dampen the side effects of rtPA

  10. Fear of Movement and Low Self-Efficacy Are Important Barriers in Physical Activity after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Klaassen, Gerald; Schutte, Elise; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and exercise are commonly used as preventive measures for cardiovascular disease in the general population, and could be effective in the management of post-transplantation cardiovascular risk. PA levels are low after renal transplantation and very few renal transplant recipients (RTR) meet the PA guidelines. Identification of barriers to regular PA is important to identify targets for intervention to improve PA levels after renal transplantation. We investigated fear of movement and physical self-efficacy as barriers to PA in RTR. Methods RTR were investigated between 2001–2003. The Tampa Score of Kinesiophobia–Dutch Version (TSK-11) was used to assess fear of movement. Physical self-efficacy was measured with the LIVAS-scale. PA was assessed using validated questionnaires (Tecumseh Occupational Activity Questionnaire and the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire). Results A total of 487 RTR (age 51±12 years, 55% men) were studied. Median score [interquartile range] on TSK-11 was 22 [17–26]. Low physical self-efficacy (Exp B:0.41[0.31–0.54], p<0.001) and history of myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular accident (Exp B:1.30[1.03–1.63],p = 0.03) were independent determinants for fear of movement. Fear of movement was associated with lower daily PA, occupational, sports and leisure time PA. Mediation-analysis showed that a large part (73%) of the effect of fear of movement on PA was explained by low physical self-efficacy. Conclusions This study was the first to examine fear of movement and self-efficacy in relation to PA in RTR. Fear of movement was associated with a low PA level, and the larger part of this relation was mediated by low physical self-efficacy. Both fear of movement and physical self-efficacy level are important targets for intervention during rehabilitation after renal transplantation. PMID:26844883

  11. Curriculum Guidelines for Periodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Guidelines describe the interrelationships of this and other dental fields, give an overview of the curriculum and its primary educational objectives, and outline the suggested prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives, sequencing, and faculty requirements. (MSE)

  12. LIFE CYCLE ENGINEERING GUIDELINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document provides guidelines for the implementation of LCE concepts, information, and techniques in engineering products, systems, processes, and facilities. To make this document as practical and useable as possible, a unifying LCE framework is presented. Subsequent topics ...

  13. Mucosal immunization with attenuated Salmonella Typhi expressing anthrax PA83 primes monkeys for accelerated serum antibody responses to parenteral PA83 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Galen, James E.; Chinchilla, Magaly; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Wang, Jin Yuan; Zhao, Licheng; Arciniega-Martinez, Ivonne; Silverman, David J.; Levine, Myron M.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA was genetically engineered for stable plasmid-based expression of protective antigen of anthrax toxin (PA83) fused with the export protein ClyA (ClyA-PA83). The priming potential of CVD 908-htrA expressing ClyA-PA83 was assessed in 12 rhesus and 20 cynomolgus macaques immunized mucosally (intranasally) on days 0 and 14. A parenteral boost with purified PA83 plus alum was given to rhesus macaques on days 42 and 225; cynomolgus monkeys were boosted only once, 3 months after priming, with either PA or licensed anthrax vaccine (Biothrax®). Monkeys primed with S. Typhi expressing ClyA-PA83 developed high levels of serum toxin neutralization activity (TNA) antibodies (> 1.3 ×103 ED50), 7 days after boosting, while unprimed controls lacked serum TNA (0 ED50). The success in non-human primates of this anthrax vaccine strategy based on heterologous mucosal prime followed by parenteral subunit vaccine boost paves the way for clinical trials. PMID:19099487

  14. Electrical safety guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  15. Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, M. M.; Dooling, D.

    1999-01-01

    Multilayer Insulation Material Guidelines provides data on multilayer insulation materials used by previous spacecraft such as Spacelab and the Long-Duration Exposure Facility and outlines other concerns. The data presented in the document are presented for information only. They can be used as guidelines for multilayer insulation design for future spacecraft provided the thermal requirements of each new design and the environmental effects on these materials are taken into account.

  16. [Neonatal conventional ventilation guidelines].

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    Respiratory pathology is a frequent problem in Neonatal Intensive Care Units; the last few years, our knowledge about its management has improved enormously. Conventional Ventilatory support is a high-specialized technique that maintains a correct alveolar gas exchange while the primary aetiology is to present some clinical guidelines for every professional working with newborns who have respiratory failure improves. The aim of this document is to present some clinical guidelines for every professional working with newborns who have respiratory pathology

  17. Guidelines for strategic planning

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    Strategic planning needs to be done as one of the integral steps in fulfilling our overall Departmental mission. The role of strategic planning is to assure that the longer term destinations, goals, and objectives which the programs and activities of the Department are striving towards are the best we can envision today so that our courses can then be set to move in those directions. Strategic planning will assist the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, and Under Secretary in setting the long-term directions and policies for the Department and in making final decisions on near-term priorities and resource allocations. It will assist program developers and implementors by providing the necessary guidance for multi-year program plans and budgets. It is one of the essential steps in the secretary's Strategic Planning Initiative. The operational planning most of us are so familiar with deals with how to get things done and with the resources needed (people, money, facilities, time) to carry out tasks. Operating plans like budgets, capital line item projects, R D budgets, project proposals, etc., are vital to the mission of the Department. They deal, however, with how to carry out programs to achieve some objective or budget assumption. Strategic planning deals with the prior question of what it is that should be attempted. It deals with what objectives the many programs and activities of the Department of Department should be striving toward. The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to those organizations and personnel starting the process for the first time as well as those who have prepared strategic plans in the past and now wish to review and update them. This guideline should not be constructed as a rigid, restrictive or confining rulebook. Each organization is encouraged to develop such enhancements as they think may be useful in their planning. The steps outlined in this document represent a very simplified approach to strategic planning. 9 refs.

  18. Web Accessibility and Guidelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Simon; Yesilada, Yeliz

    Access to, and movement around, complex online environments, of which the World Wide Web (Web) is the most popular example, has long been considered an important and major issue in the Web design and usability field. The commonly used slang phrase ‘surfing the Web’ implies rapid and free access, pointing to its importance among designers and users alike. It has also been long established that this potentially complex and difficult access is further complicated, and becomes neither rapid nor free, if the user is disabled. There are millions of people who have disabilities that affect their use of the Web. Web accessibility aims to help these people to perceive, understand, navigate, and interact with, as well as contribute to, the Web, and thereby the society in general. This accessibility is, in part, facilitated by the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) currently moving from version one to two. These guidelines are intended to encourage designers to make sure their sites conform to specifications, and in that conformance enable the assistive technologies of disabled users to better interact with the page content. In this way, it was hoped that accessibility could be supported. While this is in part true, guidelines do not solve all problems and the new WCAG version two guidelines are surrounded by controversy and intrigue. This chapter aims to establish the published literature related to Web accessibility and Web accessibility guidelines, and discuss limitations of the current guidelines and future directions.

  19. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  20. Apparatus to measure the vapor pressure of slowly decomposing compounds from 1 Pa to 105 Pa

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes an apparatus and method for measuring vapor pressures in the range from 1 Pa to 105 Pa. Its three distinctive elements are : (1) the static pressure measurements were made with only a small temperature difference between the vapor and the condensed phase, (2) the sample was degassed in situ, and (3) the temperature range extended up to 200 °C. The apparatus was designed to measure metal-organic precursors, which often are toxic, pyrophoric, or unstable. Vapor pressures are presented for naphthalene, ferrocene, diethyl phthalate, and TEMAH (tetrakisethylmethylaminohafnium). Also presented are data for the temperature-dependent decomposition rate of TEMAH. PMID:27274567

  1. N-acylhydrazone inhibitors of influenza virus PA endonuclease with versatile metal binding modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Gatti, Anna; de Luca, Laura; Sechi, Mario; Kumar, Gyanendra; White, Stephen W.; Stevaert, Annelies; Naesens, Lieve

    2016-08-01

    Influenza virus PA endonuclease has recently emerged as an attractive target for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics. This is an enzyme with divalent metal ion(s) (Mg2+ or Mn2+) in its catalytic site: chelation of these metal cofactors is an attractive strategy to inhibit enzymatic activity. Here we report the activity of a series of N-acylhydrazones in an enzymatic assay with PA-Nter endonuclease, as well as in cell-based influenza vRNP reconstitution and virus yield assays. Several N-acylhydrazones were found to have promising anti-influenza activity in the low micromolar concentration range and good selectivity. Computational docking studies are carried on to investigate the key features that determine inhibition of the endonuclease enzyme by N-acylhydrazones. Moreover, we here describe the crystal structure of PA-Nter in complex with one of the most active inhibitors, revealing its interactions within the protein’s active site.

  2. N-acylhydrazone inhibitors of influenza virus PA endonuclease with versatile metal binding modes

    PubMed Central

    Carcelli, Mauro; Rogolino, Dominga; Gatti, Anna; De Luca, Laura; Sechi, Mario; Kumar, Gyanendra; White, Stephen W.; Stevaert, Annelies; Naesens, Lieve

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus PA endonuclease has recently emerged as an attractive target for the development of novel antiviral therapeutics. This is an enzyme with divalent metal ion(s) (Mg2+ or Mn2+) in its catalytic site: chelation of these metal cofactors is an attractive strategy to inhibit enzymatic activity. Here we report the activity of a series of N-acylhydrazones in an enzymatic assay with PA-Nter endonuclease, as well as in cell-based influenza vRNP reconstitution and virus yield assays. Several N-acylhydrazones were found to have promising anti-influenza activity in the low micromolar concentration range and good selectivity. Computational docking studies are carried on to investigate the key features that determine inhibition of the endonuclease enzyme by N-acylhydrazones. Moreover, we here describe the crystal structure of PA-Nter in complex with one of the most active inhibitors, revealing its interactions within the protein’s active site. PMID:27510745

  3. Benefits and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Cardinal, Bradley J; Loprinzi, Kristina L; Lee, Hyo

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we identify the health benefits associated with physical activity (PA); address the physical activity and sedentary guidelines issued by public health scientists as well as children's compliance to these guidelines; discuss the importance of motor skill acquisition during early childhood; and identify different settings that contribute to physical activity participation and strategies for improving PA in these settings. Results show that regular participation in PA during childhood has numerous immediate benefits, including positive changes in adiposity, skeletal health, psychological health, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Additionally, motor skill development during early childhood may have immediate health benefits as well as long-lasting effects in adulthood. Furthermore, the benefits of PA during childhood also appear to positively influence adult health outcomes, such as increased bone mineral density. Key environmental settings that have been shown to influence children's PA behavior include child care, active commuting to and from school, school recess, school physical education, after-school programs, churches, medical settings, and the home environment. Recommendations for practitioners and researchers are discussed.

  4. Overexpression of PaFT gene in the wild orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semiarti, Endang; Mercuriani, Ixora S.; Rizal, Rinaldi; Slamet, Agus; Utami, Bekti S.; Bestari, Ida A.; Aziz-Purwantoro, Moeljopawiro, S.; Jang, Soenghoe; Machida, Y.; Machida, C.

    2015-09-01

    To shorten vegetative stage and induce transition from vegetative to reproductive stage in orchids, we overexpressed Phalaenopsis amabilis Flowering LocusT (PaFT) gene under the control of Ubiquitin promoter into protocorm of Indonesian Wild Orchid Phalaenopsis amabilis (L.) Blume. The dynamic expression of vegetative gene Phalaenopsis Homeobox1 (POH1) and flowering time gene PaFT has been analyzed. Accumulation of mRNA was detected in shoot and leaves of both transgenic and non transgenic plants by using Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with specific gene primers for POH1 and PaFT in 24 months old plants. To analyze the POH1 and PaFT genes, three pairs of degenerate primers PaFT degF1R1, F2R2 and F3R3 that amplified 531 bp PaFT cDNA were used. We detected 700 bp PaFTcDNA from leaves and shoots of transgenic plants, but not in NT plants. POH1 mRNA was detected in plants. PaFT protein consists of Phospatidyl Ethanolamine-Binding Protein (PEBP) in interval base 73-483 and CETS family protein at base 7-519, which are important motif for transmembrane protein. We inserted Ubipro::PaFT/pGAS101 into P. amabilis protocorm using Agrobacterium. Analysis of transgenic plants showed that PaFTmRNA was accumulated in leaves of 12 months after sowing, although it is not detected in non transgeic plants. Compare to the wild type (NT plants), ectopic expression of PaFT shows alter phenotype as follows: 31% normal, 19% with short-wavy leaves, 5% form rosette leaves and 45% produced multishoots. Analysis of protein profiles of trasgenic plants showed that a putative PaFT protein (MW 19,7 kDa) was produced in 1eaves and shoots.This means that at 12 months, POH1 gene expression gradually decreased/negatively regulated, the expression of PaFT gene was activated, although there is no flower initiation yet. Some environmental factors might play a role to induce inflorescens. This experiment is in progress.

  5. 5. ISLAND ROAD BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. ISLAND ROAD BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 5.58. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. 6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 4. COBBS CREEK BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. COBBS CREEK BRIDGE. COLWYN, DELAWARE CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 5.73 - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. [Guidelines for nursing methodology implantation].

    PubMed

    Alberdi Castell, Rosamaría; Artigas Lelong, Berta; Cuxart Ainaud, Núria; Agüera Ponce, Ana

    2003-09-01

    The authors introduce three guidelines as part of the process to implant the nursing methodology based on the Virginia Henderson Conceptual Model; they propose to help nurses adopt the aforementioned method in their daily practice. These three guidelines shall be published in successive articles: Guidelines to identify attitudes and aptitudes related to the nursing profession; Guidelines to implant the nursing methodology based on the Virginia Henderson Conceptual Model; and Guidelines to plan areas for improvement.

  10. Accelerometer‐determined physical activity, muscle mass, and leg strength in community‐dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Foong, Yi Chao; Chherawala, Nabil; Aitken, Dawn; Winzenberg, Tania; Jones, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between accelerometer‐determined physical activity (PA), muscle mass, and lower‐limb strength in community‐dwelling older adults. Methods Six hundred thirty‐six community‐dwelling older adults (66 ± 7 years) were studied. Muscle mass was measured using dual‐energy x‐ray absorptiometry, whilst lower limb strength was measured via dynamometry. We measured minutes/day spent in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity activity using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Results Participants spent a median of 583(Interquartile ratio (IQR) 522–646), 225(176–271), 27(12–45) and 0(0–0) min in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous activity, respectively. PA intensity was positively associated with both lean mass percentage and lower limb strength in a dose–response fashion. Sedentary activity was negatively associated with lean mass percentage, but not lower‐limb strength. There was a positive association between PA and appendicular lean mass in men only. There was an interaction between age and activity; as age increased, the magnitude of the association of PA with lean mass percentage decreased. Those who adhered to the Australian Department of Health PA guidelines (moderate/vigorous PA >/=150 min/week) had greater lean mass percentage, appendicular lean mass, and lower limb strength. Conclusions Using accelerometer technology, both the amount and intensity of accelerometer‐determined PA had an independent, dose–response relationship with lean mass percentage and lower limb strength, with the largest effect for vigorous activity. Time spent in sedentary activity was negatively associated with lean mass percentage, but was not associated with lower limb strength. The magnitude of the association between PA and lean mass percentage decreased with age, suggesting that PA programmes may need to be modified with increasing age. PMID:27239404

  11. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries.

  12. Strategy Guideline: Quality Management in Existing Homes - Cantilever Floor Example

    SciTech Connect

    Taggart, J.; Sikora, J.; Wiehagen, J.; Wood, A.

    2011-12-01

    This guideline is designed to highlight the QA process that can be applied to any residential building retrofit activity. The cantilevered floor retrofit detailed in this guideline is included only to provide an actual retrofit example to better illustrate the QA activities being presented.

  13. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  14. GSFC Ada programming guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roy, Daniel M.; Nelson, Robert W.

    1986-01-01

    A significant Ada effort has been under way at Goddard for the last two years. To ease the center's transition toward Ada (notably for future space station projects), a cooperative effort of half a dozen companies and NASA personnel was started in 1985 to produce programming standards and guidelines for the Ada language. The great richness of the Ada language and the need of programmers for good style examples makes Ada programming guidelines an important tool to smooth the Ada transition. Because of the natural divergence of technical opinions, the great diversity of our government and private organizations and the novelty of the Ada technology, the creation of an Ada programming guidelines document is a difficult and time consuming task. It is also a vital one. Steps must now be taken to ensure that the guide is refined in an organized but timely manner to reflect the growing level of expertise of the Ada community.

  15. Self-determination theory and physical activity among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Milne, Helen M; Wallman, Karen E; Guilfoyle, Andrew; Gordon, Sandy; Corneya, Kerry S

    2008-02-01

    The study aim was to examine constructs of autonomy support and competence as well as the motivation continuum from the self-determination theory (SDT) as a framework for understanding physical activity (PA) motivation and behavior in breast cancer survivors. Questionnaires assessing demographics, medical factors, PA, motivation continuum, perceived autonomy support, and competence were completed by 558 breast cancer survivors. Results showed that lymphedema (chi2 = 7.9, p < .01) (chi2 = 4.6, p < .05) were associated with meeting PA guidelines. Moreover, survivors meeting PA guidelines reported more identified regulations and intrinsic motivation (p < .01), autonomy support (p < .01), and competence (p < .01). Forced entry hierarchical regression analysis showed that SDT constructs explained 20.2% (p < .01) of the PA variance. Significant independent SDT predictors included identified regulation (Beta = .14, p < .05) and competence (Beta = .23, p < .01), with autonomy support approaching significance (Beta = .9, p = .057). SDT may be a useful model for understanding PA motivation and behavior in breast cancer survivors.

  16. A Phosphatidic Acid (PA) conveyor system of continuous intracellular transport from cell membrane to nucleus maintains EGF receptor homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Henkels, Karen M.; Miller, Taylor E.; Ganesan, Ramya; Wilkins, Brandon A.; Fite, Kristen; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2016-01-01

    The intracellular concentration of the mitogen phosphatidic acid (PA) must be maintained at low levels until the need arises for cell proliferation. How temporal and spatial trafficking of PA affects its target proteins in the different cellular compartments is not fully understood. We report that in cancer cells, PA cycles back and forth from the cellular membrane to the nucleus, affecting the function of epidermal growth factor (EGF), in a process that involves PPARα/LXRα signaling. Upon binding to its ligand, EGF receptor (EGFR)-initiated activation of phospholipase D (PLD) causes a spike in intracellular PA production that forms vesicles transporting EGFR from early endosomes (EEA1 marker) and prolonged internalization in late endosomes and Golgi (RCAS marker). Cells incubated with fluorescent-labeled PA (NBD-PA) show PA in “diffuse” locations throughout the cytoplasm, punctae (small, <0.1 μm) vesicles) and large (>0.5 μm) vesicles that co-localize with EGFR. We also report that PPARα/LXRα form heterodimers that bind to new Responsive Elements (RE) in the EGFR promoter. Nuclear PA enhances EGFR expression, a role compatible with the mitogenic ability of the phospholipid. Newly made EGFR is packaged into PA recycling vesicles (Rab11 marker) and transported back to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. However, a PLD+PA combination impedes binding of PPARα/LXRα to the EGFR promoter. Thus, if PA levels inside the nucleus reach a certain threshold (>100 nM) PA outcompetes the nuclear receptors and transcription is inhibited. This new signaling function of PLD-PA targeting EGFR trafficking and biphasically modulating its transcription, could explain cell proliferation initiation and its maintenance in cancer cells. PMID:27256981

  17. A Phosphatidic Acid (PA) conveyor system of continuous intracellular transport from cell membrane to nucleus maintains EGF receptor homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Henkels, Karen M; Miller, Taylor E; Ganesan, Ramya; Wilkins, Brandon A; Fite, Kristen; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2016-07-26

    The intracellular concentration of the mitogen phosphatidic acid (PA) must be maintained at low levels until the need arises for cell proliferation. How temporal and spatial trafficking of PA affects its target proteins in the different cellular compartments is not fully understood. We report that in cancer cells, PA cycles back and forth from the cellular membrane to the nucleus, affecting the function of epidermal growth factor (EGF), in a process that involves PPARα/LXRα signaling. Upon binding to its ligand, EGF receptor (EGFR)-initiated activation of phospholipase D (PLD) causes a spike in intracellular PA production that forms vesicles transporting EGFR from early endosomes (EEA1 marker) and prolonged internalization in late endosomes and Golgi (RCAS marker). Cells incubated with fluorescent-labeled PA (NBD-PA) show PA in "diffuse" locations throughout the cytoplasm, punctae (small, <0.1 μm) vesicles) and large (>0.5 μm) vesicles that co-localize with EGFR. We also report that PPARα/LXRα form heterodimers that bind to new Responsive Elements (RE) in the EGFR promoter. Nuclear PA enhances EGFR expression, a role compatible with the mitogenic ability of the phospholipid. Newly made EGFR is packaged into PA recycling vesicles (Rab11 marker) and transported back to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane. However, a PLD+PA combination impedes binding of PPARα/LXRα to the EGFR promoter. Thus, if PA levels inside the nucleus reach a certain threshold (>100 nM) PA outcompetes the nuclear receptors and transcription is inhibited. This new signaling function of PLD-PA targeting EGFR trafficking and biphasically modulating its transcription, could explain cell proliferation initiation and its maintenance in cancer cells.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, C.; Hunt, A.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  19. Strategy Guideline. Demonstration Home

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, A.; Savage, C.

    2012-12-01

    This guideline will provide a general overview of the different kinds of demonstration home projects, a basic understanding of the different roles and responsibilities involved in the successful completion of a demonstration home, and an introduction into some of the lessons learned from actual demonstration home projects. Also, this guideline will specifically look at the communication methods employed during demonstration home projects. And lastly, we will focus on how to best create a communication plan for including an energy efficient message in a demonstration home project and carry that message to successful completion.

  20. EPRI condensate polisher guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, B.A.; Webb, L.C.; Sawochka, S.G.; Crits, G.J.; Pocock, F.J.; Wirth, L.

    1995-01-01

    Cycle chemistry is one of the most important contributors to the loss of availability of generating units. Condensate polishing can significantly improve cycle chemistry by improving cycle water quality and minimizing the transport of contaminants in the power cycle. The EPRI-funded project described in this paper developed comprehensive guidelines for condensate polishing based upon information gathered from utility surveys, equipment vendors, and resin suppliers. Existing literature was also surveyed for pertinent input. Comprehensive guidelines which outline guidance for design, operation, maintenance, surveillance, management, and retrofitting of condensate polishing systems were developed. Economics of condensate polishing were evaluated and a roadmap for economic evaluation for utilities to follow was produced.

  1. Reassortment and mutation of the avian influenza virus polymerase PA subunit overcome species barriers.

    PubMed

    Mehle, Andrew; Dugan, Vivien G; Taubenberger, Jeffery K; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2012-02-01

    The emergence of new pandemic influenza A viruses requires overcoming barriers to cross-species transmission as viruses move from animal reservoirs into humans. This complicated process is driven by both individual gene mutations and genome reassortments. The viral polymerase complex, composed of the proteins PB1, PB2, and PA, is a major factor controlling host adaptation, and reassortment events involving polymerase gene segments occurred with past pandemic viruses. Here we investigate the ability of polymerase reassortment to restore the activity of an avian influenza virus polymerase that is normally impaired in human cells. Our data show that the substitution of human-origin PA subunits into an avian influenza virus polymerase alleviates restriction in human cells and increases polymerase activity in vitro. Reassortants with 2009 pandemic H1N1 PA proteins were the most active. Mutational analyses demonstrated that the majority of the enhancing activity in human PA results from a threonine-to-serine change at residue 552. Reassortant viruses with avian polymerases and human PA subunits, or simply the T552S mutation, displayed faster replication kinetics in culture and increased pathogenicity in mice compared to those containing a wholly avian polymerase complex. Thus, the acquisition of a human PA subunit, or the signature T552S mutation, is a potential mechanism to overcome the species-specific restriction of avian polymerases and increase virus replication. Our data suggest that the human, avian, swine, and 2009 H1N1-like viruses that are currently cocirculating in pig populations set the stage for PA reassortments with the potential to generate novel viruses that could possess expanded tropism and enhanced pathogenicity.

  2. Effect of PaO2 and social circumstances on outcomes in out-patient treatment of COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Khalid, S; Elliott, A C; Pilling, A; Wolstenholme, R J

    2007-01-01

    The current British Thoracic Society guidelines on COPD recommend that patients with COPD exacerbations should be admitted to hospital if they either have partial pressure of arterial oxygen of <7.0 kilopascals (kPa) or if they are living alone. This study was carried out to see if either of these factors have any effect on the outcome in patients presenting with COPD exacerbation in the setting of well established COPD services. This study was to see if patients with PaO2 < 7.0 kPa or those living alone were readmitted more frequently or had higher mortality than other patients discharged through the same scheme. A retrospective analysis was carried out on 1078 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD who were discharged home through Wigan "hospital at home" scheme in the period between November 1999 and February 2004 prior to the introduction of the new guidelines. This study found that there was no statistically significant difference in the rates of readmissions in patients with low PaO2 or those living in adverse social circumstances compared to other groups of patients. The number of patients dying in this period was too small to analyse with adequate power. This study indicates that such patients can be safely managed at home in the context of well established COPD services.

  3. Guidelines for Guidance Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education and Training, Winnipeg.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide direction and assistance to school divisions as they develop responsive, effective, and accountable guidance services and programs at the school level. The guidelines presented provide a broad conceptual framework of definitions and goals and outline expectations for service standards. Models and…

  4. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    This measure guideline on evaporative condensers provides information on properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices.

  5. Curricular Guidelines in Microbiology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilett, Norman P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' guidelines for curriculum development in microbiology outline the scope of the subject, interrelationships with other disciplines and specialties, primary educational goals, prerequisites, core content, specific behavioral objectives in each subarea, sequencing, and faculty and facilities requirements.…

  6. Guidelines on Open Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia.

    These Guidelines on open expression at the University of Pennsylvania include: (1) a statement of principles, expressing support for freedom of thought, inquiry, speech and lawful assembly, and for the need to ensure continuing openness and effectiveness of channels of communication; (2) a description of the newly created Committee on Open…

  7. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  8. Noise Assessment Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Theodore J.; McMahon, Nancy M.

    The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), in its efforts to provide decent housing and a suitable living environment, is concerned with noise as a major source of environmental pollution. To this end, these guidelines are presented to provide site screening techniques. The procedures described have been developed so that people…

  9. Children's Advertising Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Better Business Bureaus, Inc., New York, NY.

    These guidelines have been developed for the use of advertisers and advertising agencies and for the self-regulatory mechanism which these groups have established, the National Advertising Division, to help ensure that advertising directed to children is truthful, accurate, and fair to children's perceptions. Preliminary sections set forth basic…

  10. Curriculum Guidelines for Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, David H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Pharmacology embraces the physical and chemical properties of drugs; the preparation of pharmaceutical agents; the absorption, fate, and excretion of drugs; and the effects of drugs on living systems. These guidelines represent a consensus on what would constitute a minimally acceptable pharmacology course for predoctoral dental students. (MLW)

  11. Training Guidelines: Bricks Operatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceramics, Glass, and Mineral Products Industry Training Board, Harrow (England).

    This manual offers guidelines for training of personnel involved in the manufacture of bricks, including employment practices; handling and preparation of raw materials; making, drying, firing, sorting, packing, and loading of bricks. A major emphasis is placed on industrial safety. (MF)

  12. Consumer Economics Education Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanPatten, Muriel; And Others

    These guidelines are designed to assist school districts in the development and implementation of new programs or in strengthening existing programs in consumer economics education at all levels. A variety of resources are included. The need for consumer economics education is discussed and a definition is provided. Goals are listed. Objectives,…

  13. Curricular Guidelines for Neuroanatomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presented are the curricular guidelines for Neuroanatomy developed by the Section on Anatomical Sciences of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. Included are recommendations for primary educational goals, prerequisites, scope, content, behavioral objectives,…

  14. Field Campaign Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Voyles, J. W.; Chapman, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    This document establishes a common set of guidelines for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility for planning, executing, and closing out field campaigns. The steps that guide individual field campaigns are described in the Field Campaign Tracking System and are specifically tailored to meet the scope of each field campaign.

  15. Record Keeping Guidelines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2007

    2007-01-01

    These guidelines are designed to educate psychologists and provide a framework for making decisions regarding professional record keeping. State and federal laws, as well as the American Psychological Association's "Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct," generally require maintenance of appropriate records of psychological…

  16. Camp Unit Design Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultsman, John T.; Cottrell, Richard L.

    This document provides a set of generalized guidelines for the design of units in large family campgrounds. Managers of recreational lands have two responsibilities and goals: to protect the natural resources, and to provide an enjoyable experience for users. With these goals in mind, unique variables to each unit such as shade, site aesthetics,…

  17. Children's Programming Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cumberland County Public Library and Information Center, Fayetteville, NC.

    Suggestions for establishing children's library programs in the Cumberland County, North Carolina, library system include descriptions of types of audiences, types of programs, and elements of programs. Selection guidelines for topics and materials cover the following areas: (1) art projects; (2) costumes; (3) creative dramatics; (4) drawing; (5)…

  18. European Study Tour Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Vicki L.; Mitchell, Kenneth E.

    Guidelines are presented for planning and financing European study tours at the community college level. First, a rationale for incorporating study tours of Europe within the community college curriculum is presented and the benefits of such tours in providing students with experiences they could not normally have are outlined. Next, the paper…

  19. Space Guidelines for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Coordinating Committee for Higher Education, Madison.

    The following guidelines are recommended: stack space--for each 10 volumes, one square foot of space; reading room--25 square feet per station x 20% of the total undergraduate population; carrel space--25% of the graduate enrollment x 45 square feet; office and auxilliary space--135 square feet x full time equivalent staff. (NI)

  20. Instructional Guidelines. Welding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce, H. L.; Doshier, Dale

    Using the standards of the American Welding Society and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, this welding instructional guidelines manual presents a course of study in accordance with the current practices in industry. Intended for use in welding programs now practiced within the Federal Prison System, the phases of the program are…

  1. NANETS Treatment Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Kulke, Matthew H.; Anthony, Lowell B.; Bushnell, David L.; de Herder, Wouter W.; Goldsmith, Stanley J.; Klimstra, David S.; Marx, Stephen J.; Pasieka, Janice L.; Pommier, Rodney F.; Yao, James C.; Jensen, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    Well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of the stomach and pancreas represent 2 major subtypes of gastrointestinal NETs. Historically, there has been little consensus on the classification and management of patients with these tumor subtypes. We provide an overview of well-differentiated NETs of the stomach and pancreas and describe consensus guidelines for the treatment of patients with these malignancies. PMID:20664472

  2. Curricular Guidelines in Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, A. Birk; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Curricular guidelines for biochemistry are presented, developed by the Section on Biochemistry and Nutrition and the Section on Oral Diagnosis and Oral Medicine of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids. (MLW)

  3. Price Estimation Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, R. G.; Aster, R. W.; Firnett, P. J.; Miller, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Improved Price Estimation Guidelines, IPEG4, program provides comparatively simple, yet relatively accurate estimate of price of manufactured product. IPEG4 processes user supplied input data to determine estimate of price per unit of production. Input data include equipment cost, space required, labor cost, materials and supplies cost, utility expenses, and production volume on industry wide or process wide basis.

  4. Representing clinical guidelines in UMl: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Hederman, Lucy; Smutek, Daniel; Wade, Vincent; Knape, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Clinical guidelines can be represented using models, such as GLIF, specifically designed for healthcare guidelines. This paper demonstrates that they can also be modelled using a mainstream business modelling language such as UML. The paper presents a guideline in GLIF and as UML activity diagrams, and then presents a mapping of GLIF primitives to UML. The potential benefits of using a mainstream modelling language are outlined. These include availability of advanced modelling tools, transfer between modelling tools, and automation via business workflow technology.

  5. Mucosal priming of newborn mice with S. Typhi Ty21a expressing anthrax protective antigen (PA) followed by parenteral PA-boost induces B and T cell-mediated immunity that protects against infection bypassing maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Karina; Ditamo, Yanina; Galen, James E; Baillie, Les W J; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2010-08-23

    The currently licensed anthrax vaccine has several limitations and its efficacy has been proven only in adults. Effective immunization of newborns and infants requires adequate stimulation of their immune system, which is competent but not fully activated. We explored the use of the licensed live attenuated S. Typhi vaccine strain Ty21a expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen [Ty21a(PA)] followed PA-alum as a strategy for immunizing the pediatric population. Newborn mice primed with a single dose of Ty21a(PA) exhibited high frequencies of mucosal IgA-secreting B cells and IFN-gamma-secreting T cells during the neonatal period, none of which was detected in newborns immunized with a single dose of PA-alum. Priming with Ty21a(PA) followed by PA-boost resulted in high levels of PA-specific IgG, toxin neutralizing and opsonophagocytic antibodies and increased frequency of bone marrow IgG plasma cells and memory B cells compared with repeated immunization with PA-alum alone. Robust B and T cell responses developed even in the presence of maternal antibodies. The prime-boost protected against systemic and respiratory infection. Mucosal priming with a safe and effective S. Typhi-based anthrax vaccine followed by PA-boost could serve as a practical and effective prophylactic approach to prevent anthrax early in life.

  6. Mucosal priming of newborn mice with S. Typhi Ty21a expressing anthrax protective antigen (PA) followed by parenteral PA-boost induces B and T cell-mediated immunity that protects against infection bypassing maternal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Karina; Ditamo, Yanina; Galen, James E.; Baillie, Les W. J.; Pasetti, Marcela F.

    2010-01-01

    The currently licensed anthrax vaccine has several limitations and its efficacy has been proven only in adults. Effective immunization of newborns and infants requires adequate stimulation of their immune system, which is competent but not fully activated. We explored the use of the licensed live attenuated S. Typhi vaccine strain Ty21a expressing Bacillus anthracis protective antigen [Ty21a(PA)] followed PA-alum as a strategy for immunizing the pediatric population. Newborn mice primed with a single dose of Ty21a(PA) exhibited high frequencies of mucosal IgA-secreting B cells and IFN-γ-secreting T cells during the neonatal period, none of which was detected in newborns immunized with a single dose of PA-alum. Priming with Ty21a(PA) followed by PA-boost resulted in high levels of PA-specific IgG, toxin-neutralizing and opsonophagocytic antibodies and increased frequency of bone marrow IgG plasma cells and memory B cells compared with repeated immunization with PA-alum alone. Robust B and T cell responses developed even in the presence of maternal antibodies. The prime-boost protected against systemic and respiratory infection. Mucosal priming with a safe and effective S. Typhi-based anthrax vaccine followed by PA-boost could serve as a practical and effective prophylactic approach to prevent anthrax early in life. PMID:20619377

  7. Guideline.gov: A Database of Clinical Specialty Guidelines.

    PubMed

    El-Khayat, Yamila M; Forbes, Carrie S; Coghill, Jeffrey G

    2017-01-01

    The National Guidelines Clearinghouse (NGC), also known as Guideline.gov, is a database of resources to assist health care providers with a central depository of guidelines for clinical specialty areas in medicine. The database is provided free of charge and is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The guidelines for treatment are updated regularly, with new guidelines replacing older guidelines every five years. There are hundreds of current guidelines with more added each week. The purpose and goal of NGC is to provide physicians, nurses, and other health care providers, insurance companies, and others in the field of health care with a unified database of the most current, detailed, relevant, and objective clinical practice guidelines.

  8. Developing clinical practice guidelines: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and accounting for comorbid conditions in guideline development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this third paper we discuss the issues of: reviewing, reporting, and publishing guidelines; updating guidelines; and the two emerging issues of enhancing guideline implementability and how guideline developers should approach dealing with the issue of patients who will be the subject of guidelines having co-morbid conditions. PMID:22762242

  9. Te mahi niho hauora ki Ratana Pa: the dental health project at Ratana Pa.

    PubMed

    Broughton, J

    1995-09-01

    Following the success of a dental health project provided for Maori communities along the Wanganui River by the Royal New Zealand Dental Corps, the people of Ratana Pa, 20 km south of Wanganui, requested a similar service. Funding for a pilot project was provided by the Central Regional Health Authority through Good Health Wanganui. The project was a joint venture between the Health Committee of Ratana Pa and Dental Health of Good Health Wanganui. The dental health of the people at Ratana Pa was generally poor, featuring a high rate of decay and serious periodontal disease. Severe halitosis was common. As a result of poor oral health, many patients, especially young women, were whakama, a state of embarrassment and shame that caused them to keep their teeth hidden. An increase in self-esteem and greater interest in dental health occurred after treatment. A second treatment phase began in March 1995. This community-driven Maori health initiative, in partnership with a Regional Health Authority, fulfils obligations under the Treaty of Waitangi.

  10. Barriers, Facilitators and Priorities for Implementation of WHO Maternal and Perinatal Health Guidelines in Four Lower-Income Countries: A GREAT Network Research Activity

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Joshua P.; Moore, Julia E.; Timmings, Caitlyn; Khan, Sobia; Khan, Dina N.; Defar, Atkure; Hadush, Azmach; Minwyelet Terefe, Marta; Teshome, Luwam; Ba-Thike, Katherine; Than, Kyu Kyu; Makuwani, Ahmad; Mbaruku, Godfrey; Mrisho, Mwifadhi; Mugerwa, Kidza Yvonne; Puchalski Ritchie, Lisa M.; Rashid, Shusmita; Straus, Sharon E.; Gülmezoglu, A. Metin

    2016-01-01

    Background Health systems often fail to use evidence in clinical practice. In maternal and perinatal health, the majority of maternal, fetal and newborn mortality is preventable through implementing effective interventions. To meet this challenge, WHO’s Department of Reproductive Health and Research partnered with the Knowledge Translation Program at St. Michael’s Hospital (SMH), University of Toronto, Canada to establish a collaboration on knowledge translation (KT) in maternal and perinatal health, called the GREAT Network (Guideline-driven, Research priorities, Evidence synthesis, Application of evidence, and Transfer of knowledge). We applied a systematic approach incorporating evidence and theory to identifying barriers and facilitators to implementation of WHO maternal heath recommendations in four lower-income countries and to identifying implementation strategies to address these. Methods We conducted a mixed-methods study in Myanmar, Uganda, Tanzania and Ethiopia. In each country, stakeholder surveys, focus group discussions and prioritization exercises were used, involving multiple groups of health system stakeholders (including administrators, policymakers, NGOs, professional associations, frontline healthcare providers and researchers). Results Despite differences in guideline priorities and contexts, barriers identified across countries were often similar. Health system level factors, including health workforce shortages, and need for strengthened drug and equipment procurement, distribution and management systems, were consistently highlighted as limiting the capacity of providers to deliver high-quality care. Evidence-based health policies to support implementation, and improve the knowledge and skills of healthcare providers were also identified. Stakeholders identified a range of tailored strategies to address local barriers and leverage facilitators. Conclusion This approach to identifying barriers, facilitators and potential strategies for

  11. Functional characterization of PaLAX1, a putative auxin permease, in heterologous plant systems.

    PubMed

    Hoyerová, Klára; Perry, Lucie; Hand, Paul; Lanková, Martina; Kocábek, Tomás; May, Sean; Kottová, Jana; Paces, Jan; Napier, Richard; Zazímalová, Eva

    2008-03-01

    We have isolated the cDNA of the gene PaLAX1 from a wild cherry tree (Prunus avium). The gene and its product are highly similar in sequences to both the cDNAs and the corresponding protein products of AUX/LAX-type genes, coding for putative auxin influx carriers. We have prepared and characterized transformed Nicotiana tabacum and Arabidopsis thaliana plants carrying the gene PaLAX1. We have proved that constitutive overexpression of PaLAX1 is accompanied by changes in the content and distribution of free indole-3-acetic acid, the major endogenous auxin. The increase in free indole-3-acetic acid content in transgenic plants resulted in various phenotype changes, typical for the auxin-overproducing plants. The uptake of synthetic auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, was 3 times higher in transgenic lines compared to the wild-type lines and the treatment with the auxin uptake inhibitor 1-naphthoxyacetic acid reverted the changes caused by the expression of PaLAX1. Moreover, the agravitropic response could be restored by expression of PaLAX1 in the mutant aux1 plants, which are deficient in auxin influx carrier activity. Based on our data, we have concluded that the product of the gene PaLAX1 promotes the uptake of auxin into cells, and, as a putative auxin influx carrier, it affects the content and distribution of free endogenous auxin in transgenic plants.

  12. Sage-Grouse Lek Guideline Review Report

    SciTech Connect

    John Reisenauer

    2011-05-01

    On April 21, 2011, an Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Land Use Committee meeting was convened to support a Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office (DOE-ID) unofficial request to obtain Land Use Committee comments pertaining to the proposed Sage-Grouse Breeding Habitat Regulations. Two documents were provided from DOE-ID pertaining to the proposed regulations: “Guidelines for INL Site Activities within Sage-grouse Breeding Habitat” and “Guidelines for New Infrastructure Development and Future Activities on the INL Site.” The INL Land Use Committee agreed to conduct this unofficial review in the spirit of collaboration between DOE-ID and the INL Land Use Committee. However, through this cursory review, significant concerns were raised regarding the guidelines, INL financial obligations, and the draft Candidate Conservation Agreement, which was not part of the requested review but is referred to by the guideline. Therefore, it is the position of the INL Land Use Committee, based on the issues raised in its cursory review, that DOE-ID request INL (through contractual channels) to conduct a formal review of the draft Candidate Conservation Agreement and guidelines. A formal review would allow ample time to thoroughly review the extensive draft regulations, identify areas of concern, and establish impacts (e.g., cost and project delays).

  13. Decreased levels of physical activity in adolescents with down syndrome are related with low bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Down syndrome (DS) has been described as one of the main contributors for low bone mineral density (BMD). Physical activity (PA) is a key factor in skeletal health and thus, PA levels might be associated to the risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the aims were (1) to describe PA patterns in adolescents with DS compared to their counterparts and (2) to determine the relationships between PA and the risk of having low bone mass in adolescents with DS. Methods Nineteen adolescents (10 girls) with DS and 14 without disabilities (7 girls) participated in the study. Minutes in different PA intensities were objectively assessed with accelerometers (ActiTrainer). Moreover adolescents with DS were classified into PA tertiles taking into account the amount of total minutes of PA at any intensity, resulting in those performing low, medium or high of PA (lowPA, medPA and highPA). BMD was measured at the whole body, hip and lumbar spine with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the BMD Z-score was calculated for each region taking into account age- and sex-matched reference data. Student’s unpaired t-tests and analysis of covariance were used to compare variables between different conditions (DS vs. control) and PA levels (low, medium and high). Results None of the adolescents with DS achieved the minimum of 60 min of daily moderate to vigorous PA (VPA) intensity recommended by PA guidelines; adolescents with DS group spent less time in sedentary and in VPA and more time in light PA than those without DS (p < 0.05). Adolescents with DS showed lower BMD Z-score values than those without (p < 0.05). Those adolescents with DS allocated in the lowPA tertile showed significant lower BMD Z-score at the hip and a general tendency towards lower BMD Z-score was found at whole body and lumbar spine compared to those in highPA tertile and (p < 0.05). Conclusions Adolescents with DS in the highPA tertile showed lower risk of developing future osteoporosis by having

  14. Cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects of a novel phenylacetate-dextran derivative (NaPaC) on breast cancer cells in interactions with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Séverine; Crépin, Michel; Legrand, Chantal; Wei, Ming Xing

    2004-11-01

    We have tested a novel hybrid molecule made of carboxymethylbenzylamide dextran (CMDB) and sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) groups, called the CMDB-NaPa ester (NaPaC), on the proliferation of breast cancer and endothelial cells as well as paracrine effects between these two cell types. Our results showed that NaPaC inhibited the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 cells and MCF-7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. NaPaC was 20-fold more active on highly invasive MDA-MB-231 cells than the NaPa parental molecule. On MCF-7 cells, which present a less aggressive phenotype, NaPaC was only 3-fold more active than the NaPa parental molecule. Furthermore, NaPaC had only a slight effect on the proliferation of primary cultured endothelial cells (HUVEC). A cytostatic effect of NaPaC on tumor cells was observed with cells accumulating in G0/G1 phase after 96 h of treatment. In addition, NaPaC induced a strong apoptotic effect on the two breast cancer cell lines. Conditioned media (CM) from tumor cells inhibited HUVEC proliferation, and this effect was enhanced in the presence of NaPaC (6 mM) and NaPa (10 mM). In addition to this cytostatic effect, CM from tumor cells induced a HUVEC early apoptosis which was increased, mainly, in the presence of NaPa (15 mM). Thus, this study shows that NaPaC is a more powerful anti-proliferative molecule than its parental NaPa molecule, with cytostatic and pro-apoptotic effects on MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 tumor cells. Also, both molecules increased a pro-apoptotic effect of tumor cells on HUVEC.

  15. Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Guidelines for Home Energy Professionals project (hereafter the Guidelines) fosters the growth of a high quality residential energy upgrade industry and a skilled and credentialed workforce.

  16. Current Fat Guidelines and Recommendations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current dietary guidelines, including those of the US government [Dietary Guidelines (USDA/DHHS, 2005), Dietary Reference Intakes [reference DRI macronutrient book], National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP, 2001)], American Heart Association (AHA, 2206), American Diabetes Association (2006) and...

  17. Physical activity versus cardiorespiratory fitness: two (partly) distinct components of cardiovascular health?

    PubMed

    DeFina, Laura F; Haskell, William L; Willis, Benjamin L; Barlow, Carolyn E; Finley, Carrie E; Levine, Benjamin D; Cooper, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) both have inverse relationships to cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Recent position papers and guidelines have identified the important role of both of these factors in CV health. The benefits of PA and CRF in the prevention of CV disease and risk factors are reviewed. In addition, assessment methodology and utilization in the research and clinical arenas are discussed. Finally, the benefits, methodology, and utilization are compared and contrasted to better understand the two (partly) distinct components and their impact on CV health.

  18. UROTRAUMA: AUA GUIDELINE

    PubMed Central

    Morey, Allen F.; Brandes, Steve; Dugi, Daniel David; Armstrong, John H.; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Broghammer, Joshua A.; Erickson, Bradley A.; Holzbeierlein, Jeff; Hudak, Steven J.; Mirvis, Stuart; Pruitt, Jeffrey H.; Reston, James T.; Santucci, Richard A.; Smith, Thomas G.; Wessells, Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The authors of this guideline reviewed the urologic trauma literature to guide clinicians in the appropriate methods of evaluation and management of genitourinary injuries. Methods A systematic review of the literature using the MEDLINE® and EMBASE databases (search dates 1/1/90-9/19/12) was conducted to identify peer-reviewed publications relevant to urotrauma. The review yielded an evidence base of 372 studies after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria. These publications were used to inform the statements presented in the guideline as Standards, Recommendations or Options. When sufficient evidence existed, the body of evidence for a particular treatment was assigned a strength rating of A (high), B (moderate) or C (low). In the absence of sufficient evidence, additional information is provided as Clinical Principles and Expert Opinions. PMID:24857651

  19. Maintenance Staffing Guidelines For Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    APPA: Association of Higher Education Facilities Officers, Alexandria, VA.

    The purpose of this publication is to provide a resource or guide for educational facilities in establishing or developing a maintenance trades organization that is sufficient to accomplish basic facilities maintenance functions. The guidelines are intended to suggest staffing levels for those routine facilities maintenance activities that are…

  20. Guidelines for Transitional Education Plan Preparation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lattanzio, Raphaëlle Martinez; Bethke, Lynne; Haas, Anna; Perrier, Janne Kjaersgaard; De Grauwe, Anton; Sigsgaard, Morten; Bird, Lyndsay; Coury, Diane; Gay, Dorian; MacEwan, Leonora; Seeger, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The "Guidelines for the Transitional Education Plan Preparation" are the result of an extensive consultation process and the product of fruitful guidance and contributions from key partners active in the field of education in emergencies and protracted crises. The new global education agenda 2030 places strong emphasis on countries…

  1. The global regulator ANR is essential for Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brawerman, Gabriel; Fernando, W G Dilantha; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2016-12-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is a biocontrol agent capable of protecting canola from stem rot disease caused by the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The focus of the current study was to elucidate the role of the transcriptional regulator ANR in the biocontrol capabilities of this bacterium. An anr mutant was created, PA23anr, that was devoid antifungal activity. In other pseudomonads, ANR is essential for regulating HCN production. Characterization of PA23anr revealed that, in addition to HCN, ANR controls phenazine (PHZ), pyrrolnitrin (PRN), protease and autoinducer (AHL) signal molecule production. In gene expression studies, hcnA, phzA, prnA and phzI were found to be downregulated, consistent with our endproduct analysis. Because the phenotype of PA23anr closely resembles that of quorum sensing (QS)-deficient strains, we explored whether there is a connection between ANR and the PhzRI QS system. Both phzI and phzR are positively regulated by ANR, whereas PhzR represses anr transcription. Complementation of PA23anr with pUCP-phzR, C6-HSL or both yielded no change in phenotype. Conversely, PA23phzR harbouring pUCP23-anr exhibited partial-to-full restoration of antifungal activity, HCN, PRN and AHL production together with hcnA, prnA, phzI and rpoS expression. PHZ and protease production remained unchanged indicating that ANR can complement the QS-deficient phenotype with respect to some but not all traits. Our experiments were conducted at atmospheric O2 levels underscoring the fact that ANR has a profound effect on PA23 physiology under aerobic conditions.

  2. Use of clinical guidelines: perspectives from clinicians in paediatric and maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Graham, H; Tokhi, M; Edward, A; Salehi, A S; Turkmani, S; Duke, T; Bartlett, L

    2015-04-02

    This study explored the perceived value, role and reported use of clinical guidelines by clinicians in urban paediatric and maternity hospital settings, and the effect of current implementation strategies on clinician attitudes, knowledge and behaviour. A total of 63 clinicians from 7 paediatric and maternity hospitals in Kabul, Afghanistan participated in structured focus groups; content analysis methodology was used for identification and analysis of key themes. Seven sets of guidelines, protocols or standards were identified (including 5 WHO-endorsed guidelines). However, most are failing to achieve high levels of use. Factors associated with guideline use included: clinician involvement in guideline development; multidisciplinary training; demonstrable results; and positive clinician perceptions regarding guideline quality and contextual appropriateness. Implementation activities should fulfil 3 major objectives: promote guideline awareness and access; stimulate motivation among clinical guideline users; and actively facilitate adherence to guidelines.

  3. Test Analysis Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, Frank F.

    2007-01-01

    Development of analysis guidelines for Exploration Life Support (ELS) technology tests was completed. The guidelines were developed based on analysis experiences gained from supporting Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) technology development in air revitalization systems and water recovery systems. Analyses are vital during all three phases of the ELS technology test: pre-test, during test and post test. Pre-test analyses of a test system help define hardware components, predict system and component performances, required test duration, sampling frequencies of operation parameters, etc. Analyses conducted during tests could verify the consistency of all the measurements and the performance of the test system. Post test analyses are an essential part of the test task. Results of post test analyses are an important factor in judging whether the technology development is a successful one. In addition, development of a rigorous model for a test system is an important objective of any new technology development. Test data analyses, especially post test data analyses, serve to verify the model. Test analyses have supported development of many ECLSS technologies. Some test analysis tasks in ECLSS technology development are listed in the Appendix. To have effective analysis support for ECLSS technology tests, analysis guidelines would be a useful tool. These test guidelines were developed based on experiences gained through previous analysis support of various ECLSS technology tests. A comment on analysis from an experienced NASA ECLSS manager (1) follows: "Bad analysis was one that bent the test to prove that the analysis was right to begin with. Good analysis was one that directed where the testing should go and also bridged the gap between the reality of the test facility and what was expected on orbit."

  4. Measure Guideline: Evaporative Condensers

    SciTech Connect

    German, A.; Dakin, B.; Hoeschele, M.

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline on evaporative condensers is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for energy and demand savings in homes with cooling loads. This is a prescriptive approach that outlines selection criteria, design and installation procedures, and operation and maintenance best practices. This document has been prepared to provide a process for properly designing, installing, and maintaining evaporative condenser systems as well as understanding the benefits, costs, and tradeoffs.

  5. TORIS Data Preparation Guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Guinn, H.; Remson, D.

    1999-03-11

    The objective of this manual is to present guidelines and procedures for the preparation of new data for the Tertiary Oil Recovery Information System (TORIS) data base. TORIS is an analytical system currently maintained by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Bartlesville Project Office. It uses an extensive field- and reservoir-level data base to evaluate the technical and economic recovery potential of specific crude oil reservoirs.

  6. Pea Albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b), a promising bioinsecticide of plant origin.

    PubMed

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-12-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships.

  7. Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b (PA1b), a Promising Bioinsecticide of Plant Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gressent, Frédéric; Da Silva, Pedro; Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Royer, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) is a peptide extract from pea seeds showing significant insecticidal activity against certain insects, such as cereal weevils (genus Sitophilus), the mosquitoes Culex pipiens and Aedes aegyptii, and certain species of aphids. PA1b has great potential for use on an industrial scale and for use in organic farming: it is extracted from a common plant; it is a peptide (and therefore suitable for transgenic applications); it can withstand many steps of extraction and purification without losing its activity; and it is present in a seed regularly consumed by humans and mammals without any known toxicity or allergenicity. The potential of this peptide to limit pest damage has stimulated research concerning its host range, its mechanism of action, its three-dimensional structure, the natural diversity of PA1b and its structure-function relationships. PMID:22295174

  8. 41 CFR 109-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Utilization guidelines... Management System Vehicles § 109-39.301 Utilization guidelines. DOE activities utilizing GSA IFMS motor vehicles will receive and review vehicle utilization statistics in order to determine if miles...

  9. 41 CFR 109-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Utilization guidelines... Management System Vehicles § 109-39.301 Utilization guidelines. DOE activities utilizing GSA IFMS motor vehicles will receive and review vehicle utilization statistics in order to determine if miles...

  10. 41 CFR 109-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Utilization guidelines... Management System Vehicles § 109-39.301 Utilization guidelines. DOE activities utilizing GSA IFMS motor vehicles will receive and review vehicle utilization statistics in order to determine if miles...

  11. 41 CFR 109-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Utilization guidelines... Management System Vehicles § 109-39.301 Utilization guidelines. DOE activities utilizing GSA IFMS motor vehicles will receive and review vehicle utilization statistics in order to determine if miles...

  12. 41 CFR 109-39.301 - Utilization guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Utilization guidelines... Management System Vehicles § 109-39.301 Utilization guidelines. DOE activities utilizing GSA IFMS motor vehicles will receive and review vehicle utilization statistics in order to determine if miles...

  13. The Dietary Guidelines For Americans 2005: Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Educator, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Dietary Guidelines for Americans [Dietary Guidelines] provides science-based advice to promote health and to reduce risk for major chronic diseases through diet and physical activity. Major causes of morbidity and mortality in the United States are related to poor diet and a sedentary lifestyle. Some specific diseases linked to poor diet and…

  14. Guideline implementation: Surgical attire.

    PubMed

    Cowperthwaite, Liz; Holm, Rebecca L

    2015-02-01

    Surgical attire helps protect patients from microorganisms that may be shed from the hair and skin of perioperative personnel. The updated AORN "Guideline for surgical attire" provides guidance on scrub attire, shoes, head coverings, and masks worn in the semirestricted and restricted areas of the perioperative setting, as well as how to handle personal items (eg, jewelry, backpacks, cell phones) that may be taken into the perioperative suite. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel adhere to facility policies and regulatory requirements for attire. The key points address the potential benefits of wearing scrub attire made of antimicrobial fabric, covering the arms when in the restricted area of the surgical suite, removing or confining jewelry when wearing scrub attire, disinfecting personal items that will be taken into the perioperative suite, and sending reusable attire to a health care-accredited laundry facility after use. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  15. AhV_aPA-induced vasoconstriction involves the IP₃Rs-mediated Ca²⁺ releasing.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Fuxing; Zou, Zhisong; Niu, Liwen; Li, Xu; Teng, Maikun

    2013-08-01

    AhV_aPA, the acidic PLA₂ purified from Agkistrodon halys pallas venom, was previously reported to possess a strong enzymatic activity and can remarkably induce a further contractile response on the 60 mM K⁺-induced contraction with an EC₅₀ in 369 nM on mouse thoracic aorta rings. In the present study, we found that the p-bromo-phenacyl-bromide (pBPB), which can completely inhibit the enzymatic activity of AhV_aPA, did not significantly reduce the contractile response on vessel rings induced by AhV_aPA, indicating that the vasoconstrictor effects of AhV_aPA are independent of the enzymatic activity. The inhibitor experiments showed that the contractile response induced by AhV_aPA is mainly attributed to the Ca²⁺ releasing from Ca²⁺ store, especially sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Detailed studies showed that the Ca²⁺ release from SR is related to the activation of inositol trisphosphate receptors (IP₃Rs) rather than ryanodine receptors (RyRs). Furthermore, the vasoconstrictor effect could be strongly reduced by pre-incubation with heparin, indicating that the basic amino acid residues on the surface of AhV_aPA may be involved in the interaction between AhV_aPA and the molecular receptors. These findings offer new insights into the functions of snake PLA₂ and provide a novel pathogenesis of A. halys pallas venom.

  16. Physical Activity and Suicide Attempt of South Korean Adolescents - Evidence from the Eight Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kang-Ok

    2014-01-01

    Suicide is the leading cause of death among South Korean adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between suicidal thoughts (ST) and suicidal attempts (SA) with the level of physical activity (PA) among South Korean adolescents. Based on data from the eighth Korea Youth Risk Behaviors Web-Based Survey, 74,186 South Korean adolescents were evaluated in terms of their relationship between meeting guidelines for vigorous PA (VPA), moderate PA (MPA), and low PA (LPA) and in respect of ST and SA status. The adjusted odds ratio in adolescents who thought about suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.02 in males, 1.21 in females with VPA, 1.10 in males, 1.18 in females with MPA, and 1.16 in males, 1.20 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not think about suicide. In addition, the AOR in adolescents who attempted suicide increased significantly with PA levels (1.16 in males, 1.36 in females with VPA, 1.13 in males, 1.15 in females with MPA, and 1.26 in males, 1.15 in females with LPA) compared to participants who did not attempt suicide. These results show that VPA, MPA, and LPA are positively associated with ST and SA prevention in South Korean adolescents. Therefore, to prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including PA participation. Key Points South Korean male adolescents, compared to female adolescents, showed relatively high values for physical activity-related variables such as vigorous, moderate, and low PA. Regardless of gender, more physical activity participation is positively associated with prevention of suicidal thought and attempts of South Korean adolescents. To prevent suicide of South Korean adolescents, we support public health program including meeting guidelines for vigorous, moderate, and low physical activity. PMID:25435782

  17. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Burstein, Gale R; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2003-08-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are a major health problem for adolescents. Health care providers for adolescents play a critical role in preventing and treating STDs. In May 2002, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention published the Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines 2002. These evidence-based guidelines are based on a systematic literature review focusing on information that had become available since the 1998 Guidelines for Treatment of STDs. This article reviews the new STD treatment guidelines for gonorrhea, chlamydia, bacterial vaginosis, trichomonas, vulvovaginal candidiasis, pelvic inflammatory disease, genital warts, herpes simplex virus infection, syphilis, and scabies. Although these guidelines emphasize treatment, prevention strategies and diagnostic recommendations also are discussed.

  18. Contextual and temporal clinical guidelines.

    PubMed Central

    Guarnero, A.; Marzuoli, M.; Molino, G.; Terenziani, P.; Torchio, M.; Vanni, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach for managing clinical guidelines. We sketch a modular architecture, allowing us to separate conceptually distinct aspects in the management and use of clinical guidelines. In particular, we describe the clinical guidelines knowledge representation module and we sketch the acquisition module. The main focus of the paper is the definition of an expressive formalism for representing clinical guidelines, which allows one to deal with the context dependent character of clinical guidelines and takes into account different temporal aspects. PMID:9929306

  19. uPA Binding to PAI-1 Induces Corneal Myofibroblast Differentiation on Vitronectin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingyan; Ly, Christine M.; Ko, Chun-Ying; Meyers, Erin E.; Lawrence, Daniel A.; Bernstein, Audrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. Vitronectin (VN) in provisional extracellular matrix (ECM) promotes cell migration. Fibrotic ECM also includes VN and, paradoxically, strongly adherent myofibroblasts (Mfs). Because fibrotic Mfs secrete elevated amounts of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), we tested whether increased extracellular uPA promotes the persistence of Mfs on VN. Methods. Primary human corneal fibroblasts (HCFs) were cultured in supplemented serum-free medium on VN or collagen (CL) with 1ng/mL transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1). Adherent cells were quantified using crystal violet. Protein expression was measured by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Transfection of short interfering RNAs was performed by nucleofection. Mfs were identified by α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) stress fibers. Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) levels were quantified by ELISA. Results. TGFβ1-treated HCFs secreted PAI-1 (0.5uM) that bound to VN, competing with αvβ3/αvβ5 integrin/VN binding, thus promoting cell detachment from VN. However, addition of uPA to cells on VN increased Mf differentiation (9.7-fold), cell-adhesion (2.2-fold), and binding by the VN integrins αvβ3 and -β5 (2.2-fold). Plasmin activity was not involved in promoting these changes, as treatment with the plasmin inhibitor aprotinin had no effect. A dominant negative PAI-1 mutant (PAI-1R) that binds to VN but does not inhibit uPA prevented the increase in uPA-stimulated cell adhesion and reduced uPA-stimulated integrin αvβ3/αvβ5 binding to VN by 73%. Conclusions. uPA induction of TGFβ1-dependent Mf differentiation on VN supports the hypothesis that elevated secretion of uPA in fibrotic tissue may promote cell adhesion and the persistence of Mfs. By blocking uPA-stimulated cell adhesion, PAI-1R may be a useful agent in combating corneal scarring. PMID:22700714

  20. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  1. Uniform guidelines improve client care.

    PubMed

    Barnett, B

    1994-12-01

    Uniform national guidelines on the delivery of family planning methods and services improve client care, assuming these guidelines are based on current scientific information. Compliance with these guidelines yields safe and efficient delivery of family planning services. Service providers need information, training, supplies, and guidelines to deliver quality services. Guidelines contribute to consistency among family planning programs in different settings. Even though clinics may not provide the same services, the guidelines allow them to provide the same standards of care. Specifically, eligibility criteria, contraindications, and follow-up schedules are the same regardless of the service delivery point. Various international health organizations (such as World Health Organization, USAID, Program for International Training in Health, International Planned Parenthood Federation, and Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception) have developed guidelines for family planning service delivery. Governments can use these documents to develop national family planning guidelines and policies. They should adapt the guidelines to local needs and consider program resources. After development of the national guidelines, training, workshops, and dissemination of written materials should be provided for policymakers, physicians, nurses, and other health providers. Countries that have either developed or are working to draft their own national guidelines are Cameroon, Ghana, Mexico, and Nepal.

  2. RBC-coupled tPA prevents cerebrovasodilatory impairment and tissue injury in pediatric cerebral hypoxia/ischemia through inhibition of ERK MAPK unregulation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, Kumkum; Armstead, William M; Kiessling, J W; Chen, Xiao - Han; Smith, Douglas H; Higazi, Abd Ar; Cines, Douglas B; Bdeir, Khalil; Zaitsev, Sergei; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2008-01-01

    Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist, also maintained cerebrovasodilation post H/I. Neuronal degeneration in CA1 hippocampus and parietal cortex after H/I was exacerbated by tPA, but ameliorated by RBC-tPA and U 0126. These data suggest that coupling tPA to RBCs may offer a novel approach towards increasing the benefit/risk ratio of thrombolytic therapy for CNS disorders associated with H/I.

  3. A Count Model to Study the Correlates of 60 Min of Daily Physical Activity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alessandra; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Santos, Daniel; Pereira, Sara; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to present data on Portuguese children (aged 9–11 years) complying with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) guidelines, and to identify the importance of correlates from multiple domains associated with meeting the guidelines. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed by accelerometry throughout seven days on 777 children. A count model using Poisson regression was used to identify the best set of correlates that predicts the variability in meeting the guidelines. Only 3.1% of children met the recommended daily 60 min of MVPA for all seven days of the week. Further, the Cochrane–Armitage chi-square test indicated a linear and negative trend (p < 0.001) from none to all seven days of children complying with the guidelines. The count model explained 22% of the variance in meeting MVPA guidelines daily. Being a girl, having a higher BMI, belonging to families with higher income, sleeping more and taking greater time walking from home to a sporting venue significantly reduced the probability of meeting daily recommended MVPA across the seven days. Furthermore, compared to girls, increasing sleep time in boys increased their chances of compliance with the MVPA recommendations. These results reinforce the relevance of considering different covariates’ roles on PA compliance when designing efficient intervention strategies to promote healthy and active lifestyles in children. PMID:25730296

  4. Intensity of commonly-reported classroom-based physical activity opportunities in public schools.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Timothy K; Holeva, Whitney M; Carpenter, Dick; Tucker, Elizabeth; Luna, Carmen; Donovan, John; Field, Julaine; Kelly, Cheryl

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the intensity levels of PA opportunities offered in public school classrooms. Schools (N = 101) in school districts (N = 25) reported PA opportunities offered in classrooms using an online data collection tool over a two-year period (2014-2016). Using a randomized sampling technique, 20-30% of teachers in each school were selected each week to report PA in their classroom. These responses resulted in N = 18,210 usable responses. A researcher determined the intensity of PA opportunities using the 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities as a guideline; two additional researchers confirmed the coded categories. A descriptive analysis of PA opportunities was conducted to describe the proportion of opportunities whose intensity levels were light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), sedentary (SED), and those of unknown intensity. Chi-square analyses were utilized to examine differences between proportions of intensity levels offered by semester. Kruskal-Wallace tests were utilized to examine differences in proportion of physical activity opportunity intensity offered by grade level. Most PA opportunities were MPA (58.7%), followed by VPA (17.6%) and LPA (11.5%). Few responses were SED (0.5%), and 11.6% were of indeterminate intensity. A greater proportion of more physically intense activities reported during the fall versus spring semesters (p < 0.0001). Differences in the intensity levels of PA offered by grade also differed, with a trend of decreasing intensity as grade level increased (p < 0.0001). This study provides insight into the PA actually occurring in classrooms; a previously underexplored construct of school-based PA.

  5. 32 CFR 701.109 - Privacy Act (PA) appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Privacy Act (PA) appeals. 701.109 Section 701.109 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.109 Privacy Act (PA) appeals....

  6. 32 CFR 701.109 - Privacy Act (PA) appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Privacy Act (PA) appeals. 701.109 Section 701.109 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY... OF THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.109 Privacy Act (PA) appeals....

  7. Genome Sequence of Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23

    PubMed Central

    Loewen, Peter C.; Villenueva, Jacylyn; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a plant-beneficial bacterium that is able to suppress disease caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum through a process known as biological control. Here we present a 7.1-Mb assembly of the PA23 genome. PMID:25035328

  8. 78 FR 48297 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Bedford, PA AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E Airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace at Bedford County Airport, Bedford, PA. (78 FR...

  9. Exercise guidelines for adults: past, present & future.

    PubMed

    Burns, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    The importance of regular physical exercise in promoting health has been well established by several large, primarily observational studies over the past 25 years. Despite current government and specialty organization recommendations, many adult Americans are not engaged in any physical activity. This article will review current guidelines for exercise, some of the research supporting the recommendations, and what role low-intensity physical activity may have in the future.

  10. Deriving cleanup guidelines for radionuclides at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Meinhold, A.F.; Morris, S.C.; Dionne, B.; Moskowitz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Past activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) resulted in soil and groundwater contamination. As a result, BNL was designated a Superfund site under the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). BNL`s Office of Environmental Restoration (OER) is overseeing environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory. With the exception of radium, there are no regulations or guidelines to establish cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soils at BNL. BNL must derive radionuclide soil cleanup guidelines for a number of Operable Units (OUs) and Areas of Concern (AOCs). These guidelines are required by DOE under a proposed regulation for radiation protection of public health and the environment as well as to satisfy the requirements of CERCLA. The objective of this report is to propose a standard approach to deriving risk-based cleanup guidelines for radionuclides in soil at BNL. Implementation of the approach is briefly discussed.

  11. Prostate cancer brachytherapy: guidelines overview

    PubMed Central

    Białas, Brygida

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer, due to wide availability of PSA tests, is very often diagnosed in early stage, nowadays. This makes management of this disease even harder in every day oncology care. There is a wide range of treatment options including surgery, radiotherapy and active surveillance, but essential question is which treatment patient and oncologist should decide for. Due to recent publication of Prostate Cancer Results Study Group, in which brachytherapy is one of supreme curative options for prostate cancer, we decided to overview most present european and north american recommendations. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Brachytherapy Society, European Association of Urology and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology guidelines are overviewed, particularly focusing on HDR and LDR brachytherapy. PMID:23349655

  12. Prostate cancer brachytherapy: guidelines overview.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszek, Piotr; Białas, Brygida

    2012-06-01

    Prostate cancer, due to wide availability of PSA tests, is very often diagnosed in early stage, nowadays. This makes management of this disease even harder in every day oncology care. There is a wide range of treatment options including surgery, radiotherapy and active surveillance, but essential question is which treatment patient and oncologist should decide for. Due to recent publication of Prostate Cancer Results Study Group, in which brachytherapy is one of supreme curative options for prostate cancer, we decided to overview most present european and north american recommendations. National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Society for Radiation Oncology, American Brachytherapy Society, European Association of Urology and Groupe Européen de Curiethérapie of European Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology guidelines are overviewed, particularly focusing on HDR and LDR brachytherapy.

  13. Melatonin attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Su, Hongyan; Li, Jingyuan; Chen, Tongshuai; Li, Na; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Shujian; Guo, Xiaobin; Yang, Yi; Bu, Peili

    2016-11-01

    Melatonin is well known for its cardioprotective effects; however, whether melatonin exerts therapeutic effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remains to be investigated, as do the mechanisms underlying these effects, if they exist. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) and its corresponding receptor, CD147, which exists in a variety of cells, play crucial roles in modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this study, we explored the role of the CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the protective effects exerted by melatonin against Ang II-induced injury in cultured H9C2 cells. Cyclosporine A, a specific CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway inhibitor, was used to manipulate CyPA/CD147 activity. H9C2 cells were then subjected to Ang II or CyPA treatment in either the absence or presence of melatonin. Our results indicate that Ang II induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway and promotes ROS production, which can be blocked by melatonin pretreatment in a concentration-dependent manner, in cultured H9C2 cells and that CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway inhibition protects against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The protective effects of melatonin against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy depend at least partially on CyPA/CD147 inhibition.

  14. Vitamin D supplementation guidelines.

    PubMed

    Pludowski, Pawel; Holick, Michael F; Grant, William B; Konstantynowicz, Jerzy; Mascarenhas, Mario R; Haq, Afrozul; Povoroznyuk, Vladyslav; Balatska, Nataliya; Barbosa, Ana Paula; Karonova, Tatiana; Rudenka, Ema; Misiorowski, Waldemar; Zakharova, Irina; Rudenka, Alena; Łukaszkiewicz, Jacek; Marcinowska-Suchowierska, Ewa; Łaszcz, Natalia; Abramowicz, Pawel; Bhattoa, Harjit P; Wimalawansa, Sunil J

    2017-02-12

    Research carried out during the past two-decades extended the understanding of actions of vitamin D, from regulating calcium and phosphate absorption and bone metabolism to many pleiotropic actions in organs and tissues in the body. Most observational and ecological studies report association of higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations with improved outcomes for several chronic, communicable and non-communicable diseases. Consequently, numerous agencies and scientific organizations have developed recommendations for vitamin D supplementation and guidance on optimal serum 25(OH)D concentrations. The bone-centric guidelines recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 20ng/mL (50nmol/L), and age-dependent daily vitamin D doses of 400-800IU. The guidelines focused on pleiotropic effects of vitamin D recommend a target 25(OH)D concentration of 30ng/mL (75nmol/L), and age-, body weight-, disease-status, and ethnicity dependent vitamin D doses ranging between 400 and 2000IU/day. The wise and balanced choice of the recommendations to follow depends on one's individual health outcome concerns, age, body weight, latitude of residence, dietary and cultural habits, making the regional or nationwide guidelines more applicable in clinical practice. While natural sources of vitamin D can raise 25(OH)D concentrations, relative to dietary preferences and latitude of residence, in the context of general population, these sources are regarded ineffective to maintain the year-round 25(OH)D concentrations in the range of 30-50ng/mL (75-125nmol/L). Vitamin D self-administration related adverse effects, such as hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria are rare, and usually result from taking extremely high doses of vitamin D for a prolonged time.

  15. uPA Attenuated LPS-induced Inflammatory Osteoclastogenesis through the Plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK Axis

    PubMed Central

    Kanno, Yosuke; Ishisaki, Akira; Kawashita, Eri; Kuretake, Hiromi; Ikeda, Kanako; Matsuo, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontitis-caused bone destruction, results from an increase of bone-resorbing osteoclasts (OCs) induced by inflammation. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying this disorder remain unclear. We herein investigated that the effect of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which is a potent stimulator of bone resorption in inflammatory diseases. We found that the uPA deficiency promoted inflammatory osteoclastogenesis and bone loss induced by LPS. We also showed that LPS induced the expression of uPA, and the uPA treatment attenuated the LPS-induced inflammatory osteoclastogenesis of RAW264.7 mouse monocyte/macrophage lineage cells. Additionally, we showed that the uPA-attenuated inflammatory osteoclastgenesis is associated with the activation of plasmin/protease-activated receptor (PAR)-1 axis by uPA. Moreover, we examined the mechanism underlying the effect of uPA on inflammatory osteoclastogenesis, and found that uPA/plasmin/PAR-1 activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway through Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) activation, and attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis by inactivation of NF-κB in RAW264.7 cells. These data suggest that uPA attenuated inflammatory osteoclastogenesis through the plasmin/PAR-1/Ca2+/CaMKK/AMPK axis. Our findings may provide a novel therapeutic approach to bone loss caused by inflammatory diseases. PMID:26722218

  16. Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice.

    PubMed

    Tateno, Chise; Kawase, Yosuke; Tobita, Yoshimi; Hamamura, Satoko; Ohshita, Hiroki; Yokomichi, Hiroshi; Sanada, Harumi; Kakuni, Masakazu; Shiota, Akira; Kojima, Yuha; Ishida, Yuji; Shitara, Hiroshi; Wada, Naoko A; Tateishi, Hiromi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Nagatsuka, Shin-Ichiro; Jishage, Kou-Ichi; Kohara, Michinori

    2015-01-01

    We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression-not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for

  17. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  18. Effects of The 1999-guidelines For Hazard Zoning In Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höller, P.

    Hazard Zoning in Austria has a long tradition. While the first maps already were developed at the end of the 1960s the legal regulations followed in 1976. These regulations defined that hazard maps have to be elaborated for each community on a basis of avalanche occurences over a period of 150 years (return period); the Red Zone includes areas which are endangered by avalanches to such an extent that their permanent use for settlements infrastructures and traffic facilities is not possible. TheYellow Zone covers areas with a reduced danger of avalanches; buildings and infrastructures are allowed to be built in the Yellow Zone but they must be protected by special architectural designing. As a result of the avalanches in 1999 (Galtür, Valzur) new guidelines were proposed by the Ministry of Agriculture. These guidelines provide new design criteria for hazard maps in Austria. While the old decree determined 25 kPa for the Red Zone and 2 kPa for the Yellow Zone, the modified guidelines have extended it to 10 kPa, respectively 1 kPa. However, the new design criteria will result in an increase of existing hazard zones (especially the Red Zones). To get an idea about the effects of the new guidelines a simple calculation was used. Taking into account the velocity at the Red Zone (vR) and theYellow Zone (vY) we can write the following equation v2R/aR = v 2 Y /(aR ­ a), where a is the distance between the Red and Yellow Zone and aR is the distance from the calculated point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone. Thus aR is 1.087a. The distance from the point of furthest reach of the debris to the Red Zone according to the new guidelines (aRnew) was calculated in the same way. With aRnew = 0.435a it was possible to calculate the value x (which is the distance from the actual Red Zone to the New Red Zone). Analysing some different hazard maps it can be found, that the distance between the existing Red and Yellow Zones (a) is between 30 m (small avalanches) and 200

  19. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... access to their records. (ii) “(j)(2)”—this exemption protects criminal law enforcement records... performs, as one of its principal functions, the enforcement of criminal laws. For example, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service and military police activities qualify for this exemption. Criminal...

  20. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... access to their records. (ii) “(j)(2)”—this exemption protects criminal law enforcement records... performs, as one of its principal functions, the enforcement of criminal laws. For example, the Naval Criminal Investigative Service and military police activities qualify for this exemption. Criminal...

  1. [Planning guidelines for prosthodontic treatment].

    PubMed

    Shiga, Hiroshi; Terada, Yoshihiro; Shinya, Akiyoshi; Ikebe, Kazunori; Tamazawa, Yoshinori; Nagadome, Hatsumi; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2008-01-01

    In recent years "practice guidelines" based on EBM techniques have even been attracting attention at a societal level, and guidelines modeled after the procedure for preparing practice guideline (described at http://www.niph.go.jp/glgl-4.3rev.htm) have begun to be drafted and made public. With the aim of ensuring the quality and presenting the basic concepts of prosthodontic therapy, the Japan Prosthodontic Society, which bears a great obligation and responsibility toward society and the Japanese public, has decided to undertake the formulation of guidelines related to prosthodontic therapy, and decided to first undertake the formulation of "Practice guideline for denture relining and rebasing", and to prepare a guideline model. We tried to prepare the guidelines according to the "Procedure for preparing practice guidelines", but because of the scientific uniqueness of prosthodontic treatment and dentistry, research to elucidate the basis of treatment has been insufficient, and we ultimately reconfirmed the current state of affairs in which it is difficult to perform. We therefore prepared the guidelines based on the limited evidence obtained in a search of the scientific literature and on the consensus of experts. The Japan Prosthodontic Society has investigated and prepared a Society guideline "model" to the extent possible at the present time, and it has prepared "Guidelines for adhesion bridge" and "Practice guidelines for denture prosthodontics" based on it. Nevertheless, the fact of the matter is that we are faced with numerous problems, and we think that in the future new bases and clinical knowledge will be accumulated by promoting scientific clinical research, and that the guidelines should be revised regularly based on them.

  2. Suppression of endothelial t-PA expression by prolonged high laminar shear stress

    SciTech Connect

    Ulfhammer, Erik; Carlstroem, Maria; Bergh, Niklas; Larsson, Pia; Karlsson, Lena; Jern, Sverker

    2009-02-06

    Primary hypertension is associated with an impaired capacity for acute release of endothelial tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), which is an important local protective response to prevent thrombus extension. As hypertensive vascular remodeling potentially results in increased vascular wall shear stress, we investigated the impact of shear on regulation of t-PA. Cultured human endothelial cells were exposed to low ({<=}1.5 dyn/cm{sup 2}) or high (25 dyn/cm{sup 2}) laminar shear stress for up to 48 h in two different experimental models. Using real-time RT-PCR and ELISA, shear stress was observed to time and magnitude-dependently suppress t-PA transcript and protein secretion to approximately 30% of basal levels. Mechanistic experiments revealed reduced nuclear protein binding to the t-PA specific CRE element (EMSA) and an almost completely abrogated shear response with pharmacologic JNK inhibition. We conclude that prolonged high laminar shear stress suppresses endothelial t-PA expression and may therefore contribute to the enhanced risk of arterial thrombosis in hypertensive disease.

  3. Single PA mutation as a high yield determinant of avian influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ilseob; Il Kim, Jin; Park, Sehee; Bae, Joon-Yong; Yoo, Kirim; Yun, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Joo-Yeon; Kim, Kisoon; Kang, Chun; Park, Man-Seong

    2017-01-01

    Human infection with an avian influenza virus persists. To prepare for a potential outbreak of avian influenza, we constructed a candidate vaccine virus (CVV) containing hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) genes of a H5N1 virus and evaluated its antigenic stability after serial passaging in embryonated chicken eggs. The passaged CVV harbored the four amino acid mutations (R136K in PB2; E31K in PA; A172T in HA; and R80Q in M2) without changing its antigenicity, compared with the parental CVV. Notably, the passaged CVV exhibited much greater replication property both in eggs and in Madin-Darby canine kidney and Vero cells. Of the four mutations, the PA E31K showed the greatest effect on the replication property of reverse genetically-rescued viruses. In a further luciferase reporter, mini-replicon assay, the PA mutation appeared to affect the replication property by increasing viral polymerase activity. When applied to different avian influenza CVVs (H7N9 and H9N2 subtypes), the PA E31K mutation resulted in the increases of viral replication in the Vero cell again. Taken all together, our results suggest the PA E31K mutation as a single, substantial growth determinant of avian influenza CVVs and for the establishment of a high-yield avian influenza vaccine backbone. PMID:28084423

  4. Absolute and Relative Contraindications to IV rt-PA for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Rabinstein, Alejandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the contraindications to the administration of intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) originated as exclusion criteria in major stroke trials. These were derived from expert consensus for the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) trial. Despite the fact that the safety and efficacy of IV rtPA has been repeatedly confirmed in large international observational studies over the past 20 years, most patients with acute ischemic stroke disappointingly still do not receive thrombolytic treatment. Some of the original exclusion criteria have proven to be unnecessarily restrictive in real-world clinical practice. It has been suggested that application of relaxed exclusion criteria might increase the IV thrombolysis rate up to 20% with comparable outcomes to thrombolysis with more conventional criteria. We review the absolute and relative contraindications to IV rtPA for acute ischemic stroke, discussing the underlying rationale and evidence supporting these exclusion criteria. PMID:26288669

  5. PA014-- Deception and Doubt --Strategies for Undermining and Supporting Global Climate Science--PA014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, C.

    2012-12-01

    DECEPTION AND DOUBT--STRATEGIES FOR UNDERMINING AND SUPPORTING GLOBAL CLIMATE SCIENCE--PA014 The fundamental strategy for undermining confidence in the now substantial scientific consensus about global warming is to sow doubt about the degree of consensus. Rather than mount an obvious anti-science stance, commercial interests seek to champion science, arguing for better science, more complete and definitive science. This strategy has a sixty-year history, beginning with the tobacco industry in the 1950s and proceeding through the chemical, energy, paint, and other industries. Thousands of faculty members have quietly sold themselves as public spokespersons or confidential consultants to industry in the service of this strategy. A multipart program--involving educating people about this history and exposing faculty collaboration--may help free climate science from those who aim to distort its conclusions.

  6. Guidelines for reporting experiments involving animals: the ARRIVE guidelines.

    PubMed

    McGrath, J C; Drummond, G B; McLachlan, E M; Kilkenny, C; Wainwright, C L

    2010-08-01

    British Journal of Pharmacology (BJP) is pleased to publish a new set of guidelines for reporting research involving animals, simultaneously with several other journals; the 'ARRIVE' guidelines (Animals in Research: Reporting In Vivo Experiments). This editorial summarizes the background to the guidelines, gives our view of their significance, considers aspects of specific relevance to pharmacology, re-states BJP's guidelines for authors on animal experiments and indicates our commitment to carrying on discussion of this important topic. We also invite feedback via the British Pharmacological Society website.

  7. Sliding friction study of the oscillating translational motion for steel on PA66 and PA46 type materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lates, M. T.; Velicu, R. G.; Papuc, R.

    2016-08-01

    The paper presents the study of the friction, by using tests, in the sliding translational oscillating motion of the steel on PA46 relative to the steel on PA66 type materials by considering as variables the testing parameters as: the load, the velocity and the operating temperature. The paper starts with a study of the literature and, according to that, presents the main conclusions regarding the sliding friction of the steel on PA66 and PA46 type materials and identifies the lacks of the results. The tests are performed on an oscillating motion type tribometer module. First, it is made a running-in program, for each of the materials, at 25 and 90°C, a load of 5 N and a frequency of 1 Hz for one hour; after that, there are performed tests at 90°C and 120°C, at loads of 3 N, 5 N, 7 N and at frequencies at 0.25 Hz, 5 Hz and 1 Hz. The results are presented for the PA46 type material relative to the PA66 material. The conclusions indicate in which conditions and with which advantages are used the PA66 and PA46 polyamides in the case of oscillating translational motions.

  8. [Anemia: guidelines comparison].

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Lucia

    2009-01-01

    The development of recombinant human erythropoietin and its introduction into the market in the late 1980s has significantly improved the quality of life of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and reduced the need for blood transfusions. Starting from a cautious target, a progressive increase in the recommended hemoglobin levels has been observed over the years, in parallel with an increase in the obtained levels. This trend has gone together with the publication of findings of observational studies showing a relationship between the increase in hemoglobin levels and a reduction in the mortality risk, with the conduction of clinical trials testing the effects of complete anemia correction, and with the compilation of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients by scientific societies and organizations. In the last two years, evidence of a possible increase in the mortality risk in those patients who were randomized to high hemoglobin levels has resulted in a decrease in the upper limit of the recommended Hb target to be obtained with erythropoietin stimulating agents (ESA), and consequently in a narrowing of the target range. Comparison of guidelines on anemia control in CKD patients is an interesting starting point to discuss single recommendations, strengthen their importance, or suggest new topics of research to fill up important gaps in knowledge.

  9. Postdoctoral program guidelines.

    SciTech Connect

    Teich-McGoldrick, Stephanie; Miller, Andrew W.; Sava, Dorina Florentina; Liu, Yanli; Ferreira, Summer Rhodes; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Hall, Lisa Michelle; Liu, Xiaohua H.; Ekoto, Isaac

    2012-04-01

    We, the Postdoc Professional Development Program (PD2P) leadership team, wrote these postdoc guidelines to be a starting point for communication between new postdocs, their staff mentors, and their managers. These guidelines detail expectations and responsibilities of the three parties, as well as list relevant contacts. The purpose of the Postdoc Program is to bring in talented, creative people who enrich Sandia's environment by performing innovative R&D, as well as by stimulating intellectual curiosity and learning. Postdocs are temporary employees who come to Sandia for career development and advancement reasons. In general, the postdoc term is 1 year, renewable up to five times for a total of six years. However, center practices may vary; check with your manager. At term, a postdoc may apply for a staff position at Sandia or choose to move to university, industry or another lab. It is our vision that those who leave become long-term collaborators and advocates whose relationships with Sandia have a positive effect upon our national constituency.

  10. Relevance of Post-Stroke Circulating BDNF Levels as a Prognostic Biomarker of Stroke Outcome. Impact of rt-PA Treatment.

    PubMed

    Rodier, Marion; Quirié, Aurore; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant form of tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only curative treatment for ischemic stroke. Recently, t-PA has been linked to the metabolism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a major neurotrophin involved in post-stroke neuroplasticity. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate the impact of rt-PA treatment on post-stroke circulating BDNF levels in humans and in animals. Serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were measured at hospital admission and at up to 90 days in stroke patients receiving (n = 24) or not (n = 14) rt-PA perfusion. We investigated the relationships between serum BDNF with concurrent t-PA/plasmin activity, neurological outcomes and cardiovascular scores at admission. In parallel, serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were assessed before and after (1, 4 and 24h) the induction of ischemic stroke in rats. Our study revealed higher serum BDNF levels and better neurological outcome in rt-PA-treated than non-treated patients. However, serum BDNF levels did not predict stroke outcome when the whole cohort of stroke patients was analyzed. By contrast, serum BDNF levels when measured at admission and at day 90 correlated with cardiovascular scores, and those at day 1 correlated with serum t-PA/plasmin activity in the whole cohort of patients whereas no association could be found in the rt-PA-treated group. In rats devoid of cardiovascular risk, no difference in post-stroke serum BDNF levels was detected between rt-PA- and vehicle-treated animals and no correlation was found between serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity. Overall, the data suggest that serum BDNF levels may not be useful as a prognostic biomarker of stroke outcome and that endothelial dysfunction could be a confounding factor when serum BDNF levels after stroke are used to reflect of brain BDNF levels.

  11. Relevance of Post-Stroke Circulating BDNF Levels as a Prognostic Biomarker of Stroke Outcome. Impact of rt-PA Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rodier, Marion; Quirié, Aurore; Prigent-Tessier, Anne; Béjot, Yannick; Jacquin, Agnès; Mossiat, Claude; Marie, Christine; Garnier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The recombinant form of tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) is the only curative treatment for ischemic stroke. Recently, t-PA has been linked to the metabolism of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a major neurotrophin involved in post-stroke neuroplasticity. Thus, the objective of our study was to investigate the impact of rt-PA treatment on post-stroke circulating BDNF levels in humans and in animals. Serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were measured at hospital admission and at up to 90 days in stroke patients receiving (n = 24) or not (n = 14) rt-PA perfusion. We investigated the relationships between serum BDNF with concurrent t-PA/plasmin activity, neurological outcomes and cardiovascular scores at admission. In parallel, serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity were assessed before and after (1, 4 and 24h) the induction of ischemic stroke in rats. Our study revealed higher serum BDNF levels and better neurological outcome in rt-PA-treated than non-treated patients. However, serum BDNF levels did not predict stroke outcome when the whole cohort of stroke patients was analyzed. By contrast, serum BDNF levels when measured at admission and at day 90 correlated with cardiovascular scores, and those at day 1 correlated with serum t-PA/plasmin activity in the whole cohort of patients whereas no association could be found in the rt-PA-treated group. In rats devoid of cardiovascular risk, no difference in post-stroke serum BDNF levels was detected between rt-PA- and vehicle-treated animals and no correlation was found between serum BDNF levels and t-PA/plasmin activity. Overall, the data suggest that serum BDNF levels may not be useful as a prognostic biomarker of stroke outcome and that endothelial dysfunction could be a confounding factor when serum BDNF levels after stroke are used to reflect of brain BDNF levels. PMID:26469350

  12. Evidence-based guidelines in labor management.

    PubMed

    Millen, Katherine Rodewald; Kuo, Kelly; Zhao, Lulu; Gecsi, Kimberly

    2014-04-01

    Evidence-based care of women in labor requires a thorough understanding of both "normal" and abnormal labor progress. In response to the growing cesarean delivery rate for dystocia at our institution, a multidisciplinary team of attending physicians, nurse-midwives, resident physicians, and nurses was established to review the literature and create evidence-based guidelines. This article describes the background literature and consensus guidelines reached for the diagnosis of active phase labor, active phase arrest, second-stage arrest, protraction of the active phase, and failed induction of labor. Our review illustrates that slower labor patterns than traditionally described often result in a vaginal delivery without unacceptable increases in maternal or neonatal morbidity.

  13. SFE/SFHTA/AFCE consensus on primary aldosteronism, part 1: Epidemiology of PA, who should be screened for sporadic PA?

    PubMed

    Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Steichen, Olivier; Mounier-Véhier, Claire; Gosse, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Depending on the study, the prevalence of primary aldosteronism (PA) in patients with hypertension varies from 6 to 18%. Prevalence is higher in each of the following conditions, any one of which requires screening for PA: severe hypertension (systolic blood pressure [BP]≥180mmHg and/or diastolic BP≥110mmHg); resistant hypertension (systolic BP≥140mmHg and/or diastolic BP≥90mmHg despite adherence to a tritherapy including a thiazide diuretic); hypertension associated with hypokalemia (either spontaneous or associated with a diuretic); Hypertension or hypokalemia associated with adrenal incidentaloma. It should be borne in mind that PA can induce hypertension without hypokalemia or, less frequently, hypokalemia without hypertension. Finally, as cardiovascular and renal morbidity in PA is greater than in essential hypertension of equivalent level, screening for PA is indicated when cardiovascular or renal morbidity is more severe than predicted from BP level.

  14. A Conjugate of Two tPA-Binding RNA Aptamers Efficiently Inhibits Fibrinolysis.

    PubMed

    Bjerregaard, Nils; Dupont, Daniel M; Andreasen, Peter A

    2017-04-01

    Uncontrolled bleeding is a major cause of mortality. Lysine analogues are routinely used in the management of bleeding, but several studies indicate a risk of serious detrimental effects upon their administration. In this study, we report a bivalent conjugate "3218" of two RNA aptamers selected for binding to the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), the principal initiator of fibrinolysis in mammals. The constituent monomeric aptamers, K32v2 and K18v2, were previously demonstrated to weakly inhibit fibrinolysis. We now show that K32v2 and K18v2 recognize distinct binding sites, presumably in the A- and B-chain of tPA, respectively. Both aptamers bind tPA with low nanomolar affinity and inhibit tPA-mediated activities in a way that is consistent with the proposed localization of their binding sites. The 3218 conjugate possesses the inhibitory activities of both K32v2 and K18v2 and additionally exhibits increased inhibitory efficiency relative to the monomeric aptamers. The 3218 conjugate proved an efficient inhibitor of fibrinolysis and may find application in the management of bleeding as a substitute for, or in combination with, currently used lysine analogues.

  15. Impacts of different expressions of PA-X protein on 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinhwa; Yu, Hai; Li, Yonghai; Ma, Jingjiao; Lang, Yuekun; Duff, Michael; Henningson, Jamie; Liu, Qinfang; Li, Yuhao; Nagy, Abdou; Bawa, Bhupinder; Li, Zejun; Tong, Guangzhi; Richt, Juergen A; Ma, Wenjun

    2017-04-01

    Although several studies have investigated the functions of influenza PA-X, the impact of different expressions of PA-X protein including full-length, truncated or PA-X deficient forms on virus replication, pathogenicity and host response remains unclear. Herein, we generated two mutated viruses expressing a full-length or deficient PA-X protein based on the A/California/04/2009 (H1N1) virus that expresses a truncated PA-X to understand three different expressions of PA-X protein on virus replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses. The results showed that expression of either full-length or truncated PA-X protein enhanced viral replication and pathogenicity as well as reduced host innate immune response in mice by host shutoff activity when compared to the virus expressing the deficient PA-X form. Furthermore, the full-length PA-X expression exhibited a greater effect on virus pathogenicity than the truncated PA-X form. Our results provide novel insights of PA-X on viral replication, pathogenicity and host immune responses.

  16. Cold response in Phalaenopsis aphrodite and characterization of PaCBF1 and PaICE1.

    PubMed

    Peng, Po-Hsin; Lin, Chia-Hui; Tsai, Hui-Wen; Lin, Tsai-Yun

    2014-09-01

    Phalaenopsis is a winter-blooming orchid genus commonly cultivated in tropical Asian countries. Because orchids are one of the most economically important flower crops in Taiwan, it is crucial to understand their response to cold and other abiotic stresses. The present study focused on gene regulation of P. aphrodite in response to abiotic stress, mainly cold. Our results demonstrate that P. aphrodite is sensitive to low temperatures, especially in its reproductive stage. We found that after exposure to 4°C, plants in the vegetative stage maintained better membrane integrity and photosynthetic capacity than in the flowering stage. At the molecular level, C-repeat binding factor1 (PaCBF1) and its putative target gene dehydrin1 (PaDHN1) mRNAs were induced by cold, whereas inducer of CBF expression1 (PaICE1) mRNA was constitutively expressed. PaICE1 transactivated MYC motifs in the PaCBF1 promoter, indicating that up-regulation of PaCBF1 may be mediated by the binding of PaICE1 to MYC motifs. Overexpression of PaCBF1 in transgenic Arabidopsis induced AtCOR6.6 and RD29a without cold stimulus and maintained better membrane integrity after cold stress. Herein, we present evidence that cold induction of PaCBF1 transcripts in P. aphrodite may be transactivated by PaICE1 and consequently protect plants from cold damage through up-regulation of cold-regulated (COR) genes, such as DHN. To our knowledge, this study is the first report of the isolation and characterization of CBF, DHN and ICE genes in the Orchidaceae family.

  17. Biogeography in 231Pa/230Th ratios and a balanced 231Pa budget for the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Christopher T.; Anderson, Robert F.; Fleisher, Martin Q.; Serno, Sascha; Winckler, Gisela; Gersonde, Rainer

    2014-04-01

    The ratio of unsupported protactinium-231 to thorium-230 in marine sediments, (Pa/Th)xs, is potentially sensitive to several processes of oceanographic and climatological interest: deep ocean circulation, marine biological productivity (as it relates to total particle flux) and particle composition (specifically, biogenic opal and authigenic Mn). In order to attribute variations in (Pa/Th)xs observed in sediment records to changes in specific processes through time, a better understanding of the chemical cycling of these elements in the modern ocean is necessary. To this end, a survey was undertaken of (Pa/Th)xs in surface sediments from the subarctic Pacific (SO202-INOPEX expedition) in combination with a Pacific-wide compilation of published data. Throughout the Pacific, (Pa/Th)xs is robustly correlated with the opal content of sediments. In the North and equatorial Pacific, simultaneous positive correlations with productivity indicators suggest that boundary scavenging and opal scavenging combine to enhance the removal of Pa in the eastern equatorial Pacific and subarctic Pacific. Deep ocean water mass ageing (>3.5 km) associated with the Pacific overturning appears to play a secondary role in determining the basin scale distribution of (Pa/Th)xs. A basin-wide extrapolation of Pa removal is performed which suggests that the Pacific Pa budget is nearly in balance. We hypothesize that through time (Pa/Th)xs distributions in the Pacific could define the evolving boundaries of contrasting biogeographic provinces in the North Pacific, while the influence of hydrothermal scavenging of Pa potentially confounds this approach in the South Pacific.

  18. Are Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm Applicable to Other Malignancies—Assessment of Nodal Distribution in Gynecological Malignancies

    SciTech Connect

    Kabolizadeh, Peyman; Fulay, Suyash; Beriwal, Sushil

    2013-09-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy is used to reduce dose to adjacent critical structures while maintaining adequate target coverage, but it requires precise target localization. We report the 3-dimensional distribution of para-aortic (PA) lymph nodes (LN) in pelvic malignancies. We propose a guideline to accurately define the PA LN by anatomic landmarks and compare our data with published guidelines for pancreatic cancer. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis was performed on 46 patients with pelvic malignancies and positive PA LNs. Positive LNs were defined based on size and morphology or fluorodeoxyglucose avidity. All PA LNs were characterized into 3 groups based on location: left PA (between aorta and left psoas muscle), aortocaval (between aorta and inferior vena cava), and right paracaval (between inferior vena cava and right psoas muscle). Patients with retrocrural LNs were also analyzed. Results: One hundred thirty-three positive PA LNs were evaluated. The majority of the PA LNs were in the left PA (59%) and aortocaval (35) regions, and only 8% were in the right paracaval region. All patients with positive right paracaval LNs also had involved left PA LNs, with only 1 exception. The highest PA LN involvement was at the level of the renal vessels and was seen in 28% of patients. Of these patients with disease extending to renal vessels, 38% had retrocrural LN involvement. Conclusions: The nodal contouring for the PA region should not be defined by a fixed circumferential margin around the vessels. The left PA and aortocaval spaces should be covered adequately because these are common locations of PA LNs. For microscopic disease superiorly, contouring should extend up to renal vessels rather than a fixed bony landmark. For patients who have nodal involvement at renal vessels, one can consider including retrocrural LNs. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Para-aortic Contouring Guidelines for Pancreatic Neoplasm are not applicable to

  19. Developing Guidelines for IRM: A Grassroots Process in a Decentralized Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balkan, Lore; Sheldon, Philip

    1990-01-01

    The offices of Information Resource Management and Institutional Research at Virginia Tech developed a set of guidelines for information management. This article describes the historical evolution, the forces that motivated the development of the guidelines, and the consensus-building activities that led to the acceptance of the guidelines.…

  20. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    PubMed

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery.

  1. Executing clinical guidelines: temporal issues.

    PubMed Central

    Terenziani, P.; Mastromonaco, F.; Molino, G.; Torchio, M.

    2000-01-01

    In our previous work, we proposed a domain-independent language to describe clinical guidelines and a graphical tool to acquire them. In this paper, we describe an approach to execute clinical guidelines. We propose a flexible execution engine that can be used in clinical decision support applications, and also for medical education, or for integrating guidelines into the clinical workflow. We also focus our attention on temporal issues in the execution of guidelines, including the treatment of composite, concurrent and/or cyclic actions. PMID:11080004

  2. Design of antibacterial biointerfaces by surface modification of poly (ε-caprolactone) with fusion protein containing hydrophobin and PA-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiangxiang; Mao, Jiwei; Chen, Yiming; Song, Dongmin; Gao, Zhendong; Zhang, Xiuming; Bai, Yanling; Saris, Per E J; Feng, Hui; Xu, Haijin; Qiao, Mingqiang

    2017-03-01

    Class IIa bacteriocin pediocin PA-1 has broad-spectrum activity and is a well-characterized candidate food biopreservative. Here, a simple approach is designed to extend the application of pediocin PA-1 in improving the antibacterial activity of electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) grafts through combining PA-1 with HGFI, which is a self-assembled protein with characteristics allowing the modulation of surface properties of other materials originated from Grifola frondosa. Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used as the host for expression of fusion protein PA-1-linker-HGFI (pH) and his-tag purification was used to purify recombinant protein pH. An antibacterial activity assay showed the fusion protein pH retained the biological property of native PA-1. Water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, immunofluorescence assay and atomic force microscopy indicated the surface properties of HGFI were greatly preserved by the fusion protein pH. Finally, antibacterial activity of pH-modified PCL substrate measurements implied the fusion protein significantly improved the bacterial-resistance of the PCL film through dressing the PCL fibers with the recombinant pH protein. This work presents a new perspective on the application of hydrophobin and pediocin PA-1 in antibacterial medical devices.

  3. School Health Guidelines to Promote Healthy Eating and Physical Activity. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Recommendations and Reports. Volume 60, Number 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Teresa F., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    During the last 3 decades, the prevalence of obesity has tripled among persons aged 6-19 years. Multiple chronic disease risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and high blood glucose levels are related to obesity. Schools have a responsibility to help prevent obesity and promote physical activity and healthy eating…

  4. Development and Validation of Career Development Guidelines by Task/Activity Analysis of Occupational Safety and Health Professions: Industrial Hygiene and Safety Professional. Final Report. Technical Report XII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Ralph J.; And Others

    This report summarizes research findings which resulted in development of curricula for occupational safety and health professions based on task/activity analyses and related performance objectives. The first seven chapters focus on the seven objectives. Chapter 1, Literature Review and Selection of Employers, concerns tasks required for…

  5. U.S. Dietary and Physical Activity Guideline Knowledge and Corresponding Behaviors among 4th and 5th Grade Students: A Multi-Site Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bea, Jennifer W.; Martinez, Stephanie; Armstrong-Florian, Traci; Farrell, Vanessa; Martinez, Cathy; Whitmer, Evelyn; Hartz, Vern; Blake, Samuel; Nicolini, Ariana; Misner, Scottie

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of U.S. dietary and physical activity recommendations and corresponding behaviors were surveyed among 4th and 5th graders in five Arizona counties to determine the need for related education in SNAP-Ed eligible schools. A <70% target response rate was the criterion. Participants correctly identified recommendations for: fruit, 20%;…

  6. Appraisal of guidelines for pre-operative body wash.

    PubMed

    Edström, Elisabet; Westerberg, Lisa; Henricson, Maria

    The pre-operative body wash is a strategy for reducing post-operative infection. However, there is a lack of knowledge about its importance. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the quality of guidelines for the pre-operative body wash using the AGREE instrument--35 guidelines containing instructions for the pre-operative body wash or preparation were included. The AGREE instrument was employed to establish a quality assessment framework that facilitated a comparison of the guidelines. The results were based on the six domains of the AGREE instrument, all of which were found to have low adherence. Descriptive statistics were used to present the assessment score. The AGREE instrument is useful for evaluating the quality of clinical guidelines. The development of evidence-based guidelines must include clinical activities. Further research is required to clarify the pre-operative body wash process and how it should be performed to reduce post-operative infection.

  7. Standard operating procedures for ESPEN guidelines and consensus papers.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, Stephan C; Singer, Pierre; Koller, Michael; Barazzoni, Rocco; Cederholm, Tommy; van Gossum, André

    2015-12-01

    The ESPEN Guideline standard operating procedures (SOP) is based on the methodology provided by the Association of Scientific Medical Societies of Germany (AWMF), the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN), and the Centre for Evidence-based Medicine at the University of Oxford. The SOP is valid and obligatory for all future ESPEN-sponsored guideline projects aiming to generate high-quality guidelines on a regular basis. The SOP aims to facilitate the preparation of guideline projects, to streamline the consensus process, to ensure quality and transparency, and to facilitate the dissemination and publication of ESPEN guidelines. To achieve this goal, the ESPEN Guidelines Editorial board (GEB) has been established headed by two chairmen. The GEB will support and supervise the guideline processes and is responsible for the strategic planning of ESPEN guideline activities. Key elements of the SOP are the generation of well-built clinical questions according to the PICO system, a systemic literature search, a classification of the selected literature according to the SIGN evidence levels providing an evidence table, and a clear and straight-forward consensus procedure consisting of online voting's and a consensus conference. Only experts who meet the obligation to disclosure any potential conflict of interests and who are not employed by the Industry can participate in the guideline process. All recommendations will be graded according to the SIGN grading and novel outcome models besides biomedical endpoints. This approach will further extent the leadership of ESPEN in creating up-to-date and suitable for implementation guidelines and in sharing knowledge on malnutrition and clinical nutrition.

  8. Protection of neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells from hypoxia-induced apoptosis by cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA).

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Mari; Sano-Maeda, Katsura; Murofushi, Hiromu; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2012-01-01

    Cyclic phosphatidic acid (cPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid mediator with a unique cyclic phosphate ring at the sn-2 and sn-3 positions of its glycerol backbone. We have previously shown that cPA significantly suppresses ischemia-induced delayed neuronal death and the accumulation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These results indicated that the systemic administration of cPA can protect hippocampal neurons against ischemia-induced delayed neuronal cell death. In the current study, we investigated the effects of cPA on neuronal cell death caused by hypoxia in vitro and the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects. We used cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) to expose cells to hypoxic conditions in vitro. Treating mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro2A) cells with CoCl(2) induced nuclear DNA condensation and phosphatidylserine exposure. However, adding cPA led to the suppression of CoCl(2)-induced apoptosis in a cPA dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increase in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio caused by CoCl(2). Quantitative PCR analysis showed that Neuro2A cells strongly express the LPA(1), LPA(2), and LPA(6), which are G-protein coupled receptors that can be activated by cPA. To date, LPA(1) and LPA(2) have been reported to exhibit antiapoptotic activity. Therefore, to assess the roles of LPA(1) and LPA(2) on cPA-induced neuroprotective functions, Ki16425, a selective LPA(1) and LPA(3) antagonist, was adopted to know the LPA(1) function and siRNA was used to knockdown the expression of LPA(2). On the basis of our results, we propose that cPA-induced protection of Neuro2A cells from CoCl(2)-induced hypoxia damage is mediated via LPA(2).

  9. Antibody-based PET of uPA/uPAR signaling with broad applicability for cancer imaging

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Casey A.; Lombardi, Rachel; Chen, Daiqin; Van Dort, Marcian E.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Ross, Brian D.; Mazar, Andrew P.; Hong, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) play a central role in tumor progression. The goal of this study was to develop an 89Zr-labeled, antibody-based positron emission tomography (PET) tracer for quantitative imaging of the uPA/uPAR system. An anti-uPA monoclonal antibody (ATN-291) was conjugated with a deferoxamine (Df) derivative and subsequently labeled with 89Zr. Flow cytometry, microscopy studies, and competitive binding assays were conducted to validate the binding specificity of Df-ATN-291 against uPA. PET imaging with 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 was carried out in different tumors with distinct expression levels of uPA. Biodistribution, histology examination, and Western blotting were performed to correlate tumor uptake with uPA or uPAR expression. ATN-291 retained uPA binding affinity and specificity after Df conjugation. 89Zr-labeling of ATN-291 was achieved in good radiochemical yield and high specific activity. Serial PET imaging demonstrated that, in most tumors studied (except uPA- LNCaP), the uptake of 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 was higher compared to major organs at 120 h post-injection, providing excellent tumor contrast. The tumor-to-muscle ratio of 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 in U87MG was as high as 45.2 ± 9.0 at 120 h p.i. In vivo uPA specificity of 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 was confirmed by successful pharmacological blocking of tumor uptake with ATN-291 in U87MG tumors. Although the detailed mechanisms behind in vivo 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 tumor uptake remained to be further elucidated, quantitative PET imaging with 89Zr-Df-ATN-291 in tumors can facilitate oncologists to adopt more relevant cancer treatment planning. PMID:27729618

  10. [Guidelines of the Spanish Society of Cardiology for car driving, airplane flying,and underwater activities in subjects with heart disease].

    PubMed

    García-Cosío Mir, F; Alberca Vela, T; Rubio Sanz, J; Grande Ruiz, A; Viqueira Caamaño, J A; Curcio Ruigómez, A; Navarro Ruiz, V

    2001-04-01

    Car driving, airplane piloting and underwater activities by subjects with heart disease may cause sudden incapacitation leading to the loss of the safety margins necessary to avoid accidents. In the case of car driving and airplane piloting the risk affects, not only the driver or pilot, but also passengers and/or bystanders within an accident zone. In the case of diving the risk resides basically in the loss of control of the vital support mechanisms necessary in a very hostile medium. This document reviews the possible causes of unexpected incapacitation, with or without loss of consciousness, in the light of the pathophysiologic consequences of fatigue, hypoxia, stress or barotrauma posed by each activity. Detailed recommendations are made for limiting driving, piloting and diving, based on official Spanish and European regulations and the addresses of specialized centers are provided for consultation. Moreover, recommendations for airplane travel for patients with heart disease are indicated.

  11. Guidelines for catastrophic emergency situations involving asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    These guidelines are intended to assist regional, state, and local agencies in managing potential asbestos hazards resulting from a catastrophic accident or disaster. The guidelines may be used as a reference for advanced planning or, once the emergency presents itself, to help ensure that, to the extent feasible and compatible with other emergency measures, all appropriate steps are taken to safely handle and dispose of all asbestos, while avoiding unnecessary exposures to asbestos. The guidelines provide information that may be helpful to EPA Regional offices and delegated NESHAP agencies that must respond to emergencies involving asbestos. The guidelines review the experiences of EPA Regional and state enforcement agencies in dealing with asbestos during recent emergencies. Information is included on statutes and regulations that may be applicable in emergency situations, including the emergency provisions of the asbestos NESHAP. Lines of communication within EPA and between EPA and emergency management agencies are discussed. A list of contacts responsible at the state level for emergency and disaster activities is provided. Information is provided to help identify potential sources of asbestos releases, and factors are identified that should be considered in planning for the cleanup and disposal of asbestos.

  12. Clinical use of the activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time for screening: a review of the literature and current guidelines for testing.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jerrold H; Szlam, Fania; Wolberg, Alisa S; Winkler, Anne

    2014-09-01

    Although the activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, and international normalized ratio are widely used in routine preoperative testing, these hemostatic tests are not reliable predictors of perioperative bleeding in patients without known bleeding risk factors. In contrast, a preoperative bleeding history and physical examination are usually obtained in an attempt to identify important bleeding risk factors. However, these coagulation tests are used extensively for monitoring anticoagulation with different pharmacologic agents.

  13. Summary Report for the Technical Interchange Meeting on Development of Baseline Material Properties and Design Guidelines for In-Space Manufacturing Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prater, T. J.; Bean, Q. A.; Werkheiser, N. J.; Johnston, M. M.; Ordonez, E. A.; Ledbetter, F. E.; Risdon, D. L.; Stockman, T. J.; Sandridge, S. K. R.; Nelson, G. M.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the Agency as a whole are currently engaged in a number of in-space manufacturing (ISM) activities that have the potential to reduce launch costs, enhance crew safety, and provide the capabilities needed to undertake long-duration spaceflight. The recent 3D Printing in Zero-G experiment conducted on board the International Space Station (ISS) demonstrated that parts of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastic can be manufactured in microgravity using fused deposition modeling (FDM). This project represents the beginning of the development of a capability that is critical to future NASA missions. Current and future ISM activities will require the development of baseline material properties to facilitate design, analysis, and certification of materials manufactured using in-space techniques. The purpose of this technical interchange meeting (TIM) was to bring together MSFC practitioners and experts in materials characterization and development of baseline material properties for emerging technologies to advise the ISM team as we progress toward the development of material design values, standards, and acceptance criteria for materials manufactured in space. The overall objective of the TIM was to leverage MSFC's shared experiences and collective knowledge in advanced manufacturing and materials development to construct a path forward for the establishment of baseline material properties, standards development, and certification activities related to ISM. Participants were asked to help identify research and development activities that will (1) accelerate acceptance and adoption of ISM techniques among the aerospace design community; (2) benefit future NASA programs, commercial technology developments, and national needs; and (3) provide opportunities and avenues for further collaboration.

  14. 32 CFR 701.124 - PA self assessments/inspections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECNAVINST 5210.8D). These reports shall be made available to PA program officials and to CNO (DNS-36)/CMC... until the next self-assessment is completed. Make these reports available, upon request, to CNO...

  15. Former Baldwin Hardware Corp. – Reading, PA PAD00235083

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA is announcing its proposed decision that includes groundwater remediation, soil vapor capture and treatment as well as restrictions on land and groundwater uses under RCRA for the Baldwin Hardware Corporation facility in Reading PA, EPA ID PAD00235083

  16. Orion PA-1 Flight Test Crew Module Back at Dryden

    NASA Video Gallery

    The boilerplate Orion crew module and separation ring that was flown in the Launch Abort system PA-1 flight test at White Sands Missile Range, N.M., May 6 were airlifted back to NASA Dryden at Edwa...

  17. 78 FR 7848 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing...

  18. RadNet Air Data From Bloomsburg, PA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Bloomsburg, PA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  19. RadNet Air Data From Pittsburgh, PA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Pittsburgh, PA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  20. RadNet Air Data From Philadelphia, PA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page presents radiation air monitoring and air filter analysis data for Philadelphia, PA from EPA's RadNet system. RadNet is a nationwide network of monitoring stations that measure radiation in air, drinking water and precipitation.

  1. Structural and functional evaluation of the palindromic alanine-rich antimicrobial peptide Pa-MAP2.

    PubMed

    Migliolo, Ludovico; Felício, Mário R; Cardoso, Marlon H; Silva, Osmar N; Xavier, Mary-Ann E; Nolasco, Diego O; de Oliveira, Adeliana Silva; Roca-Subira, Ignasi; Vila Estape, Jordi; Teixeira, Leandro D; Freitas, Sonia M; Otero-Gonzalez, Anselmo J; Gonçalves, Sónia; Santos, Nuno C; Franco, Octavio L

    2016-07-01

    Recently, several peptides have been studied regarding the defence process against pathogenic microorganisms, which are able to act against different targets, with the purpose of developing novel bioactive compounds. The present work focuses on the structural and functional evaluation of the palindromic antimicrobial peptide Pa-MAP2, designed based on the peptide Pa-MAP from Pleuronectes americanus. For a better structural understanding, molecular modelling analyses were carried out, together with molecular dynamics and circular dichroism, in different media. Antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and positive bacteria was evaluated, as well as cytotoxicity against human erythrocytes, RAW 264.7, Vero and L6 cells. In silico docking experiments, lipid vesicle studies, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging were carried out to explore the activity of the peptide. In vivo studies on infected mice were also done. The palindromic primary sequence favoured an α-helix structure that was pH dependent, only present on alkaline environment, with dynamic N- and C-terminals that are stabilized in anionic media. Pa-MAP2 only showed activity against Gram-negative bacteria, with a MIC of 3.2 μM, and without any cytotoxic effect. In silico, lipid vesicles and AFM studies confirm the preference for anionic lipids (POPG, POPS, DPPE, DPPG and LPS), with the positively charged lysine residues being essential for the initial electrostatic interaction. In vivo studies showed that Pa-MAP2 increases to 100% the survival rate of mice infected with Escherichia coli. Data here reported indicated that palindromic Pa-MAP2 could be an alternative candidate for use in therapeutics against Gram-negative bacterial infections.

  2. Coordinating locally 'owned' treatment guidelines.

    PubMed

    Collier, J; Picton, C; Littlejohns, P

    1994-01-01

    South West Thames Regional Health Authority established and commissioned a regional guidelines unit to coordinate the introduction of a set of treatment guidelines on the management of common medical emergencies into all the acute intaking National Health Service (NHS) hospitals throughout the region. All hospitals were offered a set of template guidelines to be used at their discretion for producing their own customised equivalent. They were also offered full typing and production facilities, together with printing costs if publication was achieved by a target deadline (1 August 1993). In 11 of the 14 NHS hospitals guidelines were available to hospital staff by the target deadline, and one set was produced for a non-NHS hospital. In two hospitals the target date was not met, and one other declined to take part. As part of the project the unit assessed the extent to which the published guidelines were adapted to meet the requirements of each individual hospital. The template offered guidelines on 34 topic titles. No hospital used all core titles of the original template; titles were omitted or replaced in some, and added in others. Where the original guideline titles were used, there was almost always some customisation--changes in sentence structure, names or contact numbers, alterations in drugs and doses or the addition or omission of entire sections. By using an established resource, sets of customised, locally determined treatment guidelines were introduced with relative ease into most of the acute hospitals in a UK health region.

  3. MANUAL: GUIDELINES FOR WATER REUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water reclamation for nonpotable reuse has been adopted in the United States and elsewhere without the benefit of national or international guidelines or standards. However, in recent years, many states in the U.S. have adopted standards or guidelines, and the World Health Organi...

  4. Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychologist, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In the past 50 years forensic psychological practice has expanded dramatically. Because the practice of forensic psychology differs in important ways from more traditional practice areas (Monahan, 1980) the "Specialty Guidelines for Forensic Psychologists" were developed and published in 1991 (Committee on Ethical Guidelines for Forensic…

  5. A systematic approach to implementing and evaluating clinical guidelines: The results of fifteen years of Preventive Child Health Care guidelines in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fleuren, Margot A H; van Dommelen, Paula; Dunnink, Trudy

    2015-07-01

    Preventive Child Health Care (PCHC) services are delivered to all children in the Netherlands by approximately 5500 doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants. In 1996, The Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports asked for the development of evidence-based PCHC guidelines. Since 1998, twenty-five guidelines have been published. Levels of implementation affect outcomes and so implementation and evaluation of the actual use of guidelines are essential. At the outset, there was a national implementation plan with six main activities: a) determinant analysis before the implementation of a guideline, b) innovation strategies tailored to the determinants, c) dissemination to all professionals, d) ongoing evaluation of the awareness and use of the guidelines, e) trained implementation coordinator(s) in each PCHC organization and f) a national help desk. The awareness and use of the guidelines in random samples of doctors, nurses and doctor's assistants were surveyed using questionnaires. The respondents stated (on a 7-point scale) the proportion of all children they had exposed to given core elements in a guideline. The aim is for at least 90% of the professionals to be aware of the guideline and for 80% to perform the core elements for all (or nearly all) children. The six main activities, with the exception of ongoing evaluation, were gradually put into place, albeit only gradually, between 1998 and 2015 for all guidelines. In 2012, the use of individual core elements in all guidelines, dating from before 2012, varied from 28% to 100%. One guideline met both criteria of 90% awareness and 80% use, and three guidelines nearly met these criteria. Looking back on fifteen years of PCHC guidelines, we may conclude that the guidelines produced recently are implemented in accordance with the national implementation plan. Unfortunately, the evaluation of guideline use continues to be a difficulty.

  6. Towards In-Flight Applications? - Requirements on the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) Plasma Actuator (PA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriegseis, Jochen; Simon, Bernhard; Grundmann, Sven

    2016-11-01

    Most of today's flow control (FC) efforts with DBD show a rather one-sided picture. Typically, either the discharge properties are discussed extensively or FC achievements are reported. The former group of contributions only pays limited attention to implications and consequences of most characteristics with respect to subsequent control steps for successful DBD-based FC - the latter group mostly ignores changing discharge properties, thus varying control authority for the respective applications when changes of environment, PA health state or simply a varied angle-of-attack are to be considered. In addition, there still remains a fair bit of uncertainty regarding a universal PA-evaluation metric, such that some of the most promising quantities/characteristics for successful controller operation remain largely untouched from the community. The purpose of the present work is to outline the requirement profile of PAs in one coherent story starting from electrical issues all the way down the road to in-flight FC success, where particular emphasis is placed on the interplay of the involved subtopics. It is hypothesized that such a clear guideline is the only way to advance beyond the present level of lab studies, where there still is an obvious lack of real flight applications.

  7. Prevailing PA Mutation K356R in Avian Influenza H9N2 Virus Increases Mammalian Replication and Pathogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Guanlong; Zhang, Xuxiao; Gao, Weihua; Wang, Chenxi; Wang, Jinliang; Sun, Honglei; Sun, Yipeng; Guo, Lu; Zhang, Rui; Chang, Kin-Chow; Liu, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adaptation of the viral polymerase complex comprising PB1, PB2, and PA is necessary for efficient influenza A virus replication in new host species. We found that PA mutation K356R (PA-K356R) has become predominant since 2014 in avian H9N2 viruses in China as with seasonal human H1N1 viruses. The same mutation is also found in most human isolates of emergent avian H7N9 and H10N8 viruses whose six internal gene segments are derived from the H9N2 virus. We further demonstrated the mammalian adaptive functionality of the PA-K356R mutation. Avian H9N2 virus with the PA-K356R mutation in human A549 cells showed increased nuclear accumulation of PA and increased viral polymerase activity that resulted in elevated levels of viral transcription and virus output. The same mutant virus in mice also enhanced virus replication and caused lethal infection. In addition, combined mutation of PA-K356R and PB2-E627K, a well-known mammalian adaptive marker, in the H9N2 virus showed further cooperative increases in virus production and severity of infection in vitro and in vivo. In summary, PA-K356R behaves as a novel mammalian tropism mutation, which, along with other mutations such as PB2-E627K, might render avian H9N2 viruses adapted for human infection. IMPORTANCE Mutations of the polymerase complex (PB1, PB2, and PA) of influenza A virus are necessary for viral adaptation to new hosts. This study reports a novel and predominant mammalian adaptive mutation, PA-K356R, in avian H9N2 viruses and human isolates of emergent H7N9 and H10N8 viruses. We found that PA-356R in H9N2 viruses causes significant increases in virus replication and severity of infection in human cells and mice and that PA-K356R cooperates with the PB2-E627K mutation, a well-characterized human adaptive marker, to exacerbate mammalian infection in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the PA-K356R mutation is a significant adaptation in H9N2 viruses and related H7N9 and H10N8 reassortants toward human

  8. Physical Activity: A Viable Way to Reduce the Risks of Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer's Disease, and Vascular Dementia in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Gallaway, Patrick J; Miyake, Hiroji; Buchowski, Maciej S; Shimada, Mieko; Yoshitake, Yutaka; Kim, Angela S; Hongu, Nobuko

    2017-02-20

    A recent alarming rise of neurodegenerative diseases in the developed world is one of the major medical issues affecting older adults. In this review, we provide information about the associations of physical activity (PA) with major age-related neurodegenerative diseases and syndromes, including Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and mild cognitive impairment. We also provide evidence of PA's role in reducing the risks of these diseases and helping to improve cognitive outcomes in older adults. Finally, we describe some potential mechanisms by which this protective effect occurs, providing guidelines for future research.

  9. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  10. 10 CFR 960.4 - Postclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Postclosure guidelines. 960.4 Section 960.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4 Postclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  11. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  12. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  13. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  14. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  15. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  16. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  17. 10 CFR 960.4 - Postclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Postclosure guidelines. 960.4 Section 960.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4 Postclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  18. 10 CFR 960.4 - Postclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Postclosure guidelines. 960.4 Section 960.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4 Postclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  19. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  20. 10 CFR 960.3 - Implementation guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Implementation guidelines. 960.3 Section 960.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Implementation Guidelines § 960.3 Implementation guidelines. The guidelines of this...

  1. 10 CFR 960.5 - Preclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preclosure guidelines. 960.5 Section 960.5 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines § 960.5 Preclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  2. 10 CFR 960.4 - Postclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Postclosure guidelines. 960.4 Section 960.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4 Postclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  3. 10 CFR 960.4 - Postclosure guidelines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Postclosure guidelines. 960.4 Section 960.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Postclosure Guidelines § 960.4 Postclosure guidelines. The guidelines in this subpart specify...

  4. Retinal safety of intravitreal rtPA in healthy rats and under excitotoxic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Daruich, Alejandra; Parcq, Jérôme; Delaunay, Kimberley; Naud, Marie-Christine; Le Rouzic, Quentin; Picard, Emilie; Crisanti, Patricia; Vivien, Denis; Berdugo, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intravitreal recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) is used off-label for the surgical management of submacular hemorrhage, a severe complication of neovascular age-related macular degeneration. rtPA is approved for coronary and cerebral thrombolysis. However, in ischemic stroke rtPA is known to increase excitotoxic neural cell death by interacting with the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. We therefore investigated the retinal toxicity of rtPA in healthy rats and in a model of NMDA-induced retinal excitotoxicity. Methods First, rtPA at three different doses (2.16 µg/5 µl, 0.54 µg/5 µl, and 0.27 µg/5 µl) or vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) was injected intravitreally in healthy rat eyes. Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed at 24 h or 7 days. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled apoptotic retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were counted on flatmounted retinas at 24 h or 7 days. Next, NMDA + vehicle or NMDA + rtPA (0.27 µg/5 µl) was injected intravitreally to generate excitotoxic conditions. Apoptotic annexin V-FITC-labeled RGCs and surviving Brn3a-labeled RGCs were quantified on flatmounted retinas and radial sections, 18 h after treatment. Results In healthy rat eyes, the number of apoptotic RGCs was statistically significantly increased 24 h after the administration of rtPA at the highest dose (2.16 µg/5 µl; p = 0.0250) but not at the lower doses of 0.54 and 0.27 µg/5 µl (p = 0.36 and p = 0.20), compared to vehicle. At day 7, there was no difference in the apoptotic RGC count between the rtPA- and vehicle-injected eyes (p = 0.70, p = 0.52, p = 0.11). ERG amplitudes and implicit times were not modified at 24 h or 7 days after injection of any tested rtPA doses, compared to the baseline. Intravitreal administration of NMDA induced RGC death, but under these excitotoxic conditions, coadministration of rtPA did not increase the number of dead RGCs (p = 0.70). Similarly, the number of surviving RGCs on the flatmounted retinas and

  5. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development. PMID:22762776

  6. Detection of anthrax protective antigen (PA) using europium labeled anti-PA monoclonal antibody and time-resolved fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn A; Quinn, Conrad P; Schiffer, Jarad M; Boyer, Anne E; Goldstein, Jason; Bagarozzi, Dennis A; Soroka, Stephen D; Dauphin, Leslie A; Hoffmaster, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a rare but acute infectious disease following adsorption of Bacillus anthracis spores through the lungs. The disease has a high fatality rate if untreated, but early and correct diagnosis has a significant impact on case patient recovery. The early symptoms of inhalation anthrax are, however, non-specific and current anthrax diagnostics are primarily dependent upon culture and confirmatory real-time PCR. Consequently, there may be a significant delay in diagnosis and targeted treatment. Rapid, culture-independent diagnostic tests are therefore needed, particularly in the context of a large scale emergency response. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of monoclonal antibodies to detect anthrax toxin proteins that are secreted early in the course of B. anthracis infection using a time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) immunoassay. We selected monoclonal antibodies that could detect protective antigen (PA), as PA83 and also PA63 and LF in the lethal toxin complex. The assay reliable detection limit (RDL) was 6.63×10(-6)μM (0.551ng/ml) for PA83 and 2.51×10(-5)μM (1.58ng/ml) for PA63. Despite variable precision and accuracy of the assay, PA was detected in 9 out of 10 sera samples from anthrax confirmed case patients with cutaneous (n=7), inhalation (n=2), and gastrointestinal (n=1) disease. Anthrax Immune Globulin (AIG), which has been used in treatment of clinical anthrax, interfered with detection of PA. This study demonstrates a culture-independent method of diagnosing anthrax through the use of monoclonal antibodies to detect PA and LF in the lethal toxin complex.

  7. Insights Into the PA Neutral Atom: from AN Evaluation of PA2+ Outer-Core Correlation Energy Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrozik, Michael K.; Pitzer, Russell M.; Bursten, Bruce E.

    2010-06-01

    Since the identification of f-orbital contribution to the bonding in PaO+, investigations into Pa cations have hoped to characterize as many of the electronic states possible.1 Electronic states of the Pan+ (n=0-4) ions have been investigated using multi-reference spin-orbit configuration interaction (MR-SOCI). Initial investigations using Dunning style correlation consistent double-{ζ} basis sets are re-examined with a larger triple-{ζ} basis, with the hope of supporting the order of electronic states. Calculations using Hartree-Fock and CI calculations on the neutral atom did not produce the known order of states. A case study was deemed necessary on similar electron configurations present in the low energy states of Pa2+ more specifically those generated from the 5f26d1 and 5f16d2 configurations. Comparison in the Pa2+ ion is complicated by the lack of experimental results, but the states are presumed to be similar sequence as those in the neutral atom, with the addition of two electrons in the 7s shell. In evaluating the impact of inclusion of the outer core, calculations including valence-outer core correlation were completed for the 5d, 6s, and 6p shells of the Pa2+ ion. The magnitude of these individual shell correlation calculations will allow for identification of the energy level shifts associated with even and odd configurations, better describing the energy order in both the Pa2+ ion case study and for the neutral Pa atom. Upon completion of this aspect of the Pa neutral atom study, the knowledge of the energy levels in the Pan+ (n=0-4) family of ions will be greatly expanded, and may yield a model for future studies of atomic actinide systems. Gibson {et al.} Organometallics 2007, 26, 3947-3956.

  8. Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology (KSSMA) Guideline on Erectile Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ji Kan; Cho, Kang Su; Kim, Su Jin; Oh, Kyung Jin; Kam, Sung Chul; Seo, Kyung Keun; Shin, Hong Seok

    2013-01-01

    In February 2011, the Korean Society for Sexual Medicine and Andrology (KSSMA) realized the necessity of developing a guideline on erectile dysfunction (ED) appropriate for the local context, and established a committee for the development of a guideline on ED. As many international guidelines based on objective evidence are available, the committee decided to adapt these guidelines for local needs instead of developing a new guideline. Considering the extensive research activities on ED in Korea, data with a high level of evidence among those reported by Korean researchers have been collected and included in the guideline development process. The latest KSSMA guideline on ED has been developed for urologists. The KSSMA hopes that this guideline will help urologists in clinical practice. PMID:24044105

  9. A 48-amino-acid region of influenza A virus PB1 protein is sufficient for complex formation with PA.

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, D R; Donis, R O

    1995-01-01

    The concerted activity of four influenza virus proteins, PB1, PB2, PA, and NP is necessary and sufficient for transcription and replication of the viral genome in the nucleus of the cell. The three P proteins form a heterotrimeric complex in virions and the nuclei of infected cells. Biochemical analyses have shown specific interactions between PB1 and PA as well as PB1 and PB2, indicating that PB1 is the backbone of the complex. To identify domains of PB1 involved in binding PA, a two-hybrid system adapted for mammalian cells (CV-1) was implemented. First, we demonstrate the ability of PB1 and PA to interact efficiently and specifically in reciprocal combinations of two-hybrid reporter moieties, suggesting that transcription factor module fusion did not interfere sterically or allosterically with interaction between PB1 and PA. Subsequent analyses with a set of chimeric proteins with truncations of the PB1 C termini, N termini, or internal sequences led to the identification of a region at the N terminus of PB1 responsible for binding PA. Forty-eight amino acids at the N terminus of PB1 were sufficient for binding PA in vivo with the same efficiency as the complete PB1 protein. This region of PB1 responsible for binding PA does not overlap with other previously described PB1 functional domains involved in nuclear transport and RNA polymerization. We propose to name this region of interaction with PA domain alpha, to differentiate it from other functional domains described for PB1. PMID:7474111

  10. Tropical fevers: Management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Singhi, Sunit; Chaudhary, Dhruva; Varghese, George M; Bhalla, Ashish; Karthi, N; Kalantri, S; Peter, J V; Mishra, Rajesh; Bhagchandani, Rajesh; Munjal, M; Chugh, T D; Rungta, Narendra

    2014-02-01

    Tropical fevers were defined as infections that are prevalent in, or are unique to tropical and subtropical regions. Some of these occur throughout the year and some especially in rainy and post-rainy season. Concerned about high prevalence and morbidity and mortality caused by these infections, and overlapping clinical presentations, difficulties in arriving at specific diagnoses and need for early empiric treatment, Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine (ISCCM) constituted an expert committee to develop a consensus statement and guidelines for management of these diseases in the emergency and critical care. The committee decided to focus on most common infections on the basis of available epidemiologic data from India and overall experience of the group. These included dengue hemorrhagic fever, rickettsial infections/scrub typhus, malaria (usually falciparum), typhoid, and leptospira bacterial sepsis and common viral infections like influenza. The committee recommends a 'syndromic approach' to diagnosis and treatment of critical tropical infections and has identified five major clinical syndromes: undifferentiated fever, fever with rash / thrombocytopenia, fever with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), fever with encephalopathy and fever with multi organ dysfunction syndrome. Evidence based algorithms are presented to guide critical care specialists to choose reliable rapid diagnostic modalities and early empiric therapy based on clinical syndromes.

  11. Aquifer-nomenclature guidelines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Laney, R.L.; Davidson, C.B.

    1986-01-01

    Guidelines and recommendations for naming aquifers are presented to assist authors of geohydrological reports in the United States Geological Survey, Water Resources Division. The hierarchy of terms that is used for water- yielding rocks from largest to smallest is aquifer system, aquifer, and zone. If aquifers are named, the names should be derived from lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units, or geographic names. The following items are not recommended as sources of aquifer names: time-stratigraphic names, relative position, alphanumeric designations, depositional environment, depth of occurrence, acronyms, and hydrologic conditions. Confining units should not be named unless doing so clearly promotes understanding of a particular aquifer system. Sources of names for confining units are similar to those for aquifer names, i.e. lithologic terms, rock-stratigraphic units or geographic names. Examples of comparison charts and tables that are used to define the geohydrologic framework are included. Aquifers are defined in 11 hypothetical examples that characterize geohydrologic settings throughout the country. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  13. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Cognitive Function in Older Adults - The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Vena, John E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Rhodes, David; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Participants Older adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=7,098). Measurements Actical™ accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables for 4–7 consecutive days. PA count cut-points of 50 counts per minute (cpm) and 1065 cpm were applied to differentiate between being sedentary and light PA, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener (scored <4 out of 6). Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall), were conducted to assess memory and executive function. Results Of 7,098 participants (70.1 ± 8.5 yr, 54.2% women, 31.5% black), 359 (5.1%) exhibited impaired cognition within ±12 months of PA measurement. The average proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA%) was 1.4 ± 1.9%. Participants in the highest quartile of MVPA% (approximately 258.3 min/wk of MVPA) were less likely to be cognitively impaired than those in the lowest quartile (OR [95%C.I.] = 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). MVPA% was also significantly associated with z-scores of executive function and memory (P<0.001). Similar analyses of proportion of time spent in light PA (LPA%) and sedentary time (ST%) showed no significant associations with cognitive function. Conclusion Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA%, rather than LPA% or ST%, were associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment and better performance in memory and executive function in aging people. The amount of MVPA associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment is consistent with meeting PA guidelines. PMID:26691697

  14. Enhancing the effectiveness of clearance for physical activity participation: background and overall process.

    PubMed

    Jamnik, Veronica K; Warburton, Darren E R; Makarski, Julie; McKenzie, Donald C; Shephard, Roy J; Stone, James A; Charlesworth, S; Gledhill, Norman

    2011-07-01

    Recent feedback from physical activity (PA) participants, fitness professionals, and physicians has indicated that there are limitations to the utility and effectiveness of the existing PAR-Q and PARmed-X screening tools for PA participation. The aim of this study was to have authorities in exercise and chronic disease management to work with an expert panel to increase the effectiveness of clearance for PA participation using an evidence-based consensus approach and the well-established Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) Instrument. Systematic reviews were conducted to develop a new PA clearance protocol involving risk stratification and a decision-tree process. Evidence-based support was sought for enabling qualified exercise professionals to have a direct role in the PA participation clearance process. The PAR-Q+ was developed to use formalized probes to clarify problematic responses and to explore issues arising from currently diagnosed chronic disease or condition. The original PARmed-X tool is replaced with an interactive computer program (ePARmed-X+) to clear prospective PA participants for either unrestricted or supervised PA or to direct them to obtain medical clearance. Evidence-based validation was also provided for the direct role of highly qualified university-educated exercise professionals in the PA clearance process. The risks associated with exercise during pregnancy were also evaluated. The systematic review and consensus process, conforming to the AGREE Instrument, has provided a sound evidence base for enhanced effectiveness of the clearance process for PA participation of both asymptomatic populations and persons with chronic diseases or conditions.

  15. Protective-antigen (PA) based anthrax vaccines confer protection against inhalation anthrax by precluding the establishment of a systemic infection.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Tod J; Perera, Pin-Yu; Lee, Gloria M; Verma, Anita; Hiroi, Toyoko; Yokote, Hiroyuki; Waldmann, Thomas A; Perera, Liyanage P

    2013-09-01

    An intense effort has been launched to develop improved anthrax vaccines that confer rapid, long lasting protection preferably with an extended stability profile amenable for stockpiling. Protective antigen (PA)-based vaccines are most favored as immune responses directed against PA are singularly protective, although the actual protective mechanism remains to be unraveled. Herein we show that contrary to the prevailing view, an efficacious PA-based vaccine confers protection against inhalation anthrax by preventing the establishment of a toxin-releasing systemic infection. Equally importantly, antibodies measured by the in vitro lethal toxin neutralization activity assay (TNA) that is considered as a reliable correlate of protection, especially for PA protein-based vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum salts appear to be not absolutely essential for this protective immune response.

  16. Regulation to Create Environments Conducive to Physical Activity: Understanding the Barriers and Facilitators at the Australian State Government Level

    PubMed Central

    Shill, Jane; Mavoa, Helen; Crammond, Brad; Loff, Bebe; Peeters, Anna; Lawrence, Mark; Allender, Steven; Sacks, Gary; Swinburn, Boyd A.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Policy and regulatory interventions aimed at creating environments more conducive to physical activity (PA) are an important component of strategies to improve population levels of PA. However, many potentially effective policies are not being broadly implemented. This study sought to identify potential policy/regulatory interventions targeting PA environments, and barriers/facilitators to their implementation at the Australian state/territory government level. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with senior representatives from state/territory governments, statutory authorities and non-government organisations (n = 40) to examine participants': 1) suggestions for regulatory interventions to create environments more conducive to PA; 2) support for preselected regulatory interventions derived from a literature review. Thematic and constant comparative analyses were conducted. Results Policy interventions most commonly suggested by participants fell into two areas: 1) urban planning and provision of infrastructure to promote active travel; 2) discouraging the use of private motorised vehicles. Of the eleven preselected interventions presented to participants, interventions relating to walkability/cycling and PA facilities received greatest support. Interventions involving subsidisation (of public transport, PA-equipment) and the provision of more public transport infrastructure received least support. These were perceived as not economically viable or unlikely to increase PA levels. Dominant barriers were: the powerful ‘road lobby’, weaknesses in the planning system and the cost of potential interventions. Facilitators were: the provision of evidence, collaboration across sectors, and synergies with climate change/environment agendas. Conclusion This study points to how difficult it will be to achieve policy change when there is a powerful ‘road lobby’ and government investment prioritises road infrastructure over PA

  17. 42 CFR 81.22 - General guidelines for use of NIOSH-IREP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES GUIDELINES FOR DETERMINING PROBABILITY OF CAUSATION... entering personal, diagnostic, and exposure data; setting/confirming appropriate values for variables...

  18. Guidelines for severe uncontrolled asthma.

    PubMed

    Cisneros Serrano, Carolina; Melero Moreno, Carlos; Almonacid Sánchez, Carlos; Perpiñá Tordera, Miguel; Picado Valles, César; Martínez Moragón, Eva; Pérez de Llano, Luis; Soto Campos, José Gregorio; Urrutia Landa, Isabel; García Hernández, Gloria

    2015-05-01

    Since the publication, 9 years ago, of the latest SEPAR (Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery) Guidelines on Difficult-to-Control Asthma (DCA), much progress has been made in the understanding of asthmatic disease. These new data need to be reviewed, analyzed and incorporated into the guidelines according to their level of evidence and recommendation. Recently, consensus documents and clinical practice guidelines (CPG) addressing this issue have been published. In these guidelines, specific mention will be made of what the previous DCA guidelines defined as "true difficult-to-control asthma". This is asthma that remains uncontrolled after diagnosis and a systematic evaluation to rule out factors unrelated to the disease itself that lead to poor control ("false difficult-to-control asthma"), and despite an appropriate treatment strategy (Spanish Guidelines for the Management of Asthma [GEMA] steps 5 and 6): severe uncontrolled asthma. In this respect, the guidelines propose a revised definition, an attempt to classify the various manifestations of this type of asthma, a proposal for a stepwise diagnostic procedure, and phenotype-targeted treatment. A specific section has also been included on DCA in childhood, aimed at assisting healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients.

  19. First year physical activity findings from turn up the HEAT (Healthy Eating and Activity Time) in summer day camps

    PubMed Central

    Brazendale, Keith; Chandler, Jessica L.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Moore, Justin B.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Beets, Michael W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Summer day camps (SDCs) serve 14 million children yearly in the U.S. and aim to provide participating children with 60 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study evaluated an intervention designed to increase the percent of children meeting this MVPA guideline. Design Two-group, pre-post quasi-experimental. Setting/Participants Twenty SDCs serving 1,830 children aged 5–12 years were assigned to MVPA intervention (n = 10) or healthy eating attention control (n = 10). Intervention The STEPs (Strategies to Enhance Practice) intervention is a capacity-building approach grounded in the Theory of Expanded, Extended and Enhanced Opportunities. Camp leaders and staff receive training to expand (e.g., introduction of activity breaks/active field trips), extend (e.g., schedule minimum of 3 hours/day for PA opportunities), and enhance (e.g., maximize MVPA children accumulate during schedule activity) activity opportunities. Camps in the comparison condition received support for improving the types of foods/beverages served. Main outcome measures Percent of children accumulating the 60min/d MVPA guideline at baseline (summer 2015) and post-test (summer 2016) measured via wrist-accelerometry. Results Multilevel logistic regression conducted fall 2016 indicated boys and girls attending intervention SDCs were 2.04 (95CI = 1.10,3.78) and 3.84 (95CI = 2.02,7.33) times more likely to meet the 60min/d guideline compared to boys and girls attending control SDCs, respectively. This corresponded to increases of +10.6% (78–89%) and +12.6% (69–82%) in the percentage of boys and girls meeting the guideline in intervention SDCs, respectively. Boys in comparison SDCs increased by +1.6% (81–83%) and girls decreased by -5.5% (76–71%). Process data indicated intervention SDCs successfully extended and enhanced PA opportunities, but were unable to expand PA opportunities, compared to control SDCs. Conclusions Although substantial proportions of

  20. 3D localized photoactivation of pa-GFP in living cells using two-photon interactions.

    PubMed

    Diaspro, Alberto; Testa, Ilaria; Faretta, Mario; Magrassi, Raffaella; Barozzi, Sara; Parazzoli, Dario; Vicidomini, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    We report about two-photon activation of a photoactivatable derivative of the Aequorea Victoria green fluorescent protein (paGFP). This special form of the molecule increases its fluorescence intensity when excited by 488 nm after irradiation with high intensity light at 413 nm. The aim in this work was to evaluate the use of two-photon interactions for confining the molecular switching of pa-GFP in the bright state. Therefore experiments were performed using fixed and living cells which were expressing the paGFP fluorophore and microspheres whose surface was modified by specific adsorption of the chromophores. The molecular switches were activated in a range of wavelength from 720 nm to 840 nm. The optimal wavelength for activation was then chosen for cell imaging. A comparison between the conventional activation and two-photon mode demonstrates clearly the better three- dimensional (3D) confinement and the possibility of selection of cell volumes of interest. This enables molecular trafficking studies at high signal to noise ratio.