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Sample records for activity pa intervention

  1. Effects of Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bernice C.; Norman, Joseph; Meza, Jane; Krogstrand, Kaye Stanek; Harrington, Susana; Shurmur, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Schumacher, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite proven efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in helping patients initiate physical activity and healthy eating changes, less than 50% of CR participants maintain changes 6 months later. Objective The objective of this feasibility study was to test the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention versus usual care (UC) in improving physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients and spouses. Methods An experimental, two-group (n = 17 couples/group), repeated measures design was used. CABG patients in both groups participated in Phase II outpatient CR. Spouses in the PaTH group attended CR with the patient and were asked to make the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the control group attended educational classes with patients. It was theorized that “two persons would be better than one” at making changes and sticking with them long-term. Physical activity behavior was measured using the Actiheart accelerometer; the activity biomarker was an exercise tolerance test. Eating behavior was measured using 3-day food records; the biomarker was the lipid profile. Data were collected at baseline (entrance in CR), 3-months (post-CR), and 6-months. Changes over time were examined using Mann-Whitney U statistics and effect sizes. Results The PaTH intervention was successful primarily in demonstrating improved trends in healthy eating behavior for patients and spouses. No differences were found between the PaTH and UC patients or spouses at 3 or 6 months in the number of minutes/week of physical activity. By 6 months, patients in both groups were, on average, below the national guidelines for PA recommendations (≥ 150 min/week at > 3 METs). Conclusions The couple-focused PaTH intervention demonstrated promise in offsetting the decline in dietary adherence typically seen 6 months after CR. PMID:24434826

  2. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  3. Physical Activity Interventions for Adolescents: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Garside, Hailey; Morones, Sandra; Hayman, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the decline in physical activity (PA) observed during adolescence. We used an ecological framework to review 30 publications of PA interventions published between 1977 and 2009 targeting youth aged 12-18 years (19 PA interventions). We included studies that measured a primary outcome of PA and also examined intervening…

  4. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  5. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions. PMID:22496702

  6. The effects of workplace physical activity interventions in men: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-07-01

    The workplace is cited as a promising setting for physical activity (PA) promotion, but workplace PA interventions tend not to specifically target men. The aim of this article was to review the literature on workplace PA interventions for men and to identify key issues for future intervention development. Articles targeting PA at the workplace were located through a structured database search. Information on intervention strategies and PA outcomes were extracted. Only 13 studies (10.5%) reviewed focused on men, of which 5 showed significant increases in PA. These studies used generic, multicomponent, health promotion strategies with a variety of timeframes, self-report PA measures, and PA outcomes. The systematic review identified that evidence on the effectiveness of workplace PA interventions for men is equivocal and highlighted methodological concerns. Future research should use reliable and valid measures of PA and interventions that focus specifically on men's needs and PA preferences. PMID:22442206

  7. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Center-Based or Combined Physical Activity Intervention among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Alexandre; Cloes, Marc

    2015-01-01

    With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among…

  8. Is School Community Readiness Related to Physical Activity before and after the Ready for Recess Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Diane K.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Beseler, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the effect of schools' baseline community readiness (CR) on youth physical activity (PA) at recess prior to the Ready for Recess intervention; (ii) if changes in PA due to the intervention were explained by baseline CR and (iii) if specific components of the intervention altered an association…

  9. Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (≥600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research

  10. Effect of a Low-Cost, Teacher-Directed Classroom Intervention on Elementary Students' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Beighle, Aaron; Morgan, Charles F.; Noland, Melody

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective physical activity (PA) interventions are warranted for youth, and schools have been identified as logical locations for such involvement. Experts and professionals in the field promote comprehensive school PA programs, including classroom PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a low-cost,…

  11. Worksite Physical Activity Intervention for Ambulatory Clinic Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon; Farrington, Michele; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Clark, M Kathleen; Dawson, Cindy; Quinn, Geralyn J; Laffoon, Trudy; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviors, including physical activity (PA), of registered nurses (RNs) and medical assistants (MAs) are suboptimal but may improve with worksite programs. Using a repeated-measures crossover design, the authors explored if integrating a 6-month worksite non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) intervention, with and without personalized health coaching via text messaging into workflow could positively affect sedentary time, PA, and body composition of nursing staff without jeopardizing work productivity. Two ambulatory clinics were randomly assigned to an environmental NEAT intervention plus a mobile text message coaching for either the first 3 months (early texting group, n = 27) or the last 3 months (delayed texting group, n = 13), with baseline 3-month and 6-month measurements. Sedentary and PA levels, fat mass, and weight improved for both groups, significantly only for the early text group. Productivity did not decline for either group. This worksite intervention is feasible and may benefit nursing staff. PMID:27143144

  12. School physical activity interventions: do not forget about obesity bias.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, P B; Li, W

    2008-01-01

    Obesity bias is the tendency to negatively judge an overweight or obese individual based on assumed and/or false character traits, such as being physically unattractive, incompetent, lazy and lacking self-discipline. Obesity biases, such as teasing or weight criticism during physical activity (PA), can be psychologically or emotionally damaging for overweight children and adolescents. Ultimately, the effects students experience over time may create a psychological barrier and students can become resistant to schools' health and PA interventions that promote lifestyle changes. Fortunately, the psychological effects of obesity bias are mediated by social buffers and coping mechanisms. Several PA-related researchers have proposed strategic intervention components, but no studies have been completed in PA settings. The purpose of this review was to discuss the nature and different types of obesity bias in PA settings. Major theoretical frameworks of the aetiology and change mechanisms of obesity biases from the psychological literature were reviewed and direct applications for strategic component interventions were made for PA settings. Because of the pervasiveness and entrenchment of obesity bias, it is obvious that multiple theoretical frameworks need to be considered and even combined to create safe and caring school PA environments for students. PMID:18154603

  13. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  14. A socio-ecological approach to physical activity interventions in childcare: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in young children requires effective interventions. This article reviews the evidence on PA interventions in childcare by applying a socio-ecological approach. A computer-based literature search for intervention studies aimed at increasing children’s PA levels was run across four databases: SPORTDiscus, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC. The participants had to be in childcare, aged 2-6-year-old, and their pre- and post- intervention PA levels measured. Selection was restricted to peer-reviewed publications and to studies conducted in childcare settings. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and their methodological quality was assessed. Seven studies exhibited high methodological quality; twelve were rated as moderate and four low. The effectiveness of the interventions was determined according to the post-intervention behavioral changes reported in children’s PA. Fourteen studies found increases in PA levels or reductions in sedentary time, although the changes were modest. The data remain too limited to allow firm conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of the components mediating PA interventions, although PA-specific in-service teacher training seems a potential strategy. The findings of this review indicate that children’s PA remained low and did not approach the 180 min/day criteria. It may be that more intensive multilevel and multicomponent interventions based on a comprehensive model are needed. PMID:24559188

  15. The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Workplace Physical Activity Intervention Promoting Pedometer Use and Step Count Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Cardon, Greet M.

    2010-01-01

    Pedometer use and step count goals have become popular in physical activity (PA) interventions in different settings. Previous pedometer-based workplace interventions were short term, uncontrolled and executed outside Europe. This European quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 20-week pedometer-based PA workplace intervention.…

  16. A diet and physical activity intervention for rural African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...

  17. t-PA activity in peripheral blood obtained from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ishii, A; Yamada, S; Yamada, R; Hamada, H

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were measured in blood obtained from pregnant women to elucidate the fluctuations in the fibrinolytic system which occur during the course of pregnancy. The t-PA activity was measured with a modified bioimmunoassay using anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody (SP-322) against a single chain of recombinant t-PA. The t-PA antigen was measured by ELISA using the same antibody. PAI activity was determined with a competitive inhibition assay of t-PA activity. In early pregnancy, t-PA activity was found to be close to the standard range seen in nonpregnant women, and gradually decreased during the course of pregnancy, then recovered to rise to the normal range within 48 hours after delivery. The t-PA antigen and PAI activity levels rose slowly during the course of pregnancy, and fell promptly after delivery. t-PA activity and t-PA antigen in levels in umbilical cord blood were higher after vaginal delivery than after cesarean section. These findings suggest that there may be an important physiological balance of the fibrinolytic system between mother and fetus during the course of pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:7965540

  18. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  19. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Jie; He, Xiaojing; Lv, Zongyang; Ge, Ruowen; Li, Xuemei; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Yingfang

    2009-11-10

    The heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase, containing the PA, PB1 and PB2 proteins, catalyses viral RNA replication and transcription in the nucleus of infected cells. PB1 holds the polymerase active site and reportedly harbours endonuclease activity, whereas PB2 is responsible for cap binding. The PA amino terminus is understood to be the major functional part of the PA protein and has been implicated in several roles, including endonuclease and protease activities as well as viral RNA/complementary RNA promoter binding. Here we report the 2.2 angstrom (A) crystal structure of the N-terminal 197 residues of PA, termed PA(N), from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. The PA(N) structure has an alpha/beta architecture and reveals a bound magnesium ion coordinated by a motif similar to the (P)DX(N)(D/E)XK motif characteristic of many endonucleases. Structural comparisons and mutagenesis analysis of the motif identified in PA(N) provide further evidence that PA(N) holds an endonuclease active site. Furthermore, functional analysis with in vivo ribonucleoprotein reconstitution and direct in vitro endonuclease assays strongly suggest that PA(N) holds the endonuclease active site and has critical roles in endonuclease activity of the influenza virus polymerase, rather than PB1. The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics.

  20. Low-Temperature Curable Photo-Active Anisotropic Conductive Films (PA-ACFs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Photo-active anisotropic conductive films (PA-ACFs) with curing temperatures below 120°C were introduced using photo-active curing agents. The PA-ACFs showed no curing before UV activation, and the crosslinking systems of the PA-ACFs were not activated under fluorescent light exposure. However, after UV activation, the PA-ACFs were completely cured at 120°C within 10 s. Flex-on-board (FOB) assembly using PA-ACFs had adhesion strength and joint resistances similar to those of the FOB assemblies using conventional epoxy-based ACFs. This study demonstrates that PA-ACFs provide reliable interconnection and minimal thermal deformation among all the commercially available ACFs, especially for low T g substrate applications.

  1. Accelerometer Use in a Physical Activity Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Borradaile, Kelley E.; Lewis, Beth A.; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Longval, Jaime L.; Parisi, Alfred F.; Albrecht, Anna E.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Jakicic, John M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of best practice recommendations for using accelerometers in a physical activity (PA) intervention trial, and the concordance of different methods for measuring PA. A subsample (n=63; 26%) of the 239 healthy, sedentary adults participating in a PA trial (mean age=47.5; 82% women) wore the ActiGraph monitor at all 3 assessment time points. ActiGraph data were compared with self-report (i.e., PA weekly recall and monthly log) and fitness variables. Correlations between the PA recall and ActiGraph for moderate intensity activity ranged from 0.16–0.48 and from 0.28–0.42 for vigorous intensity activity. ActiGraph and fitness [estimated VO2(ml/kg/min)] had correlations of 0.15–0.45. The ActiGraph and weekly self-report were significantly correlated at all time points (correlations ranged from 0.23–0.44). In terms of detecting intervention effects, intervention groups recorded more minutes of at least moderate-intensity PA on the ActiGraph than the control group at 6 months (min=46.47, 95% CI=14.36–78.58), but not at 12 months. Limitations of the study include a small sample size and only 3 days of ActiGraph monitoring. To obtain optimal results with accelerometers in clinical trials, the authors recommend following best practice recommendations: detailed protocols for monitor use, calibration of monitors and validation of data quality, and use of validated equations for analysis. The ActiGraph has modest concordance with other assessment tools and is sensitive to change over time. However, until more information validating the use of accelerometry in clinical trials becomes available, properly administered self-report measures of PA should remain part of the assessment battery. PMID:20723619

  2. Interventions to modify physical activity in patients with COPD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Rubio, Noah; McKinstry, Brian; MacNee, William; Rabinovich, Roberto A

    2016-07-01

    The broad range of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been systematically assessed. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the interventional studies that have assessed PA as an outcome in patients with COPD.A systematic search in five different databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science) was performed in March 2015. Two independent reviewers analysed the studies against the inclusion criteria (COPD defined by spirometry; prospective, randomised/nonrandomised studies, cohort and experimental studies with interventions using PA as an outcome), extracted the data and assessed the quality of evidence.60 studies were included. Seven intervention groups were identified. PA counselling increased PA levels in COPD, especially when combined with coaching. 13 studies showed positive effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on PA, while seven studies showed no changes. All three PR programmes >12 weeks in duration increased PA. Overall, the quality of evidence was graded as very low.Interventions focusing specifically on increasing PA, and longer PR programmes, may have greater impacts on PA in COPD. Well-designed clinical trials with objective assessment of PA in COPD patients are needed. PMID:27103381

  3. The Effect of an Active Transport to School Intervention at a Suburban Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bungum, Timothy J.; Clark, Sheila; Aguilar, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. One strategy that may enhance PA is to increase active transport to school (ATS) rates. Purpose: To assess the effects of an ATS intervention. Methods: A quasi-experimental design was used to compare ATS and vehicle traffic rates at a school that participated in a statewide…

  4. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity. PMID:25829338

  5. Parents’ views on child physical activity and their implications for physical activity parenting interventions: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Establishing healthy physical activity (PA) behaviours in early childhood is important for future PA behaviours. Parents play a central role in young children’s PA. However, there is currently little research on parenting interventions to increase child PA. This study was formative work to inform the content of a pilot randomised-controlled trial. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 32 parents of 6 to 8 year old children residing in two areas that varied in their socio-economic characteristics, in Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results Most parents described their child as being active or very active and indicated that they did not perceive a need for an increase in their child’s PA. Parents used a variety of visual cues to make this judgement, the most common being that they perceived their child as having lots of energy or that they did not view them as overweight. Parents reported environmental factors such as monetary cost, time constraints, lack of activity provision and poor weather as the main barriers to their child’s PA. Parental support and child’s enjoyment of PA appeared to be important facilitators to children participating in PA. Conclusion Improving parents’ knowledge of the PA recommendations for children, and increasing their awareness of the benefits of PA beyond weight status may be an important first step for a parenting PA intervention. Although parents commonly perceive environmental factors as the main barriers to their child’s PA, parental concern about low levels of child PA, their capacity to support behaviour change, child motivation, self confidence and independence may be key areas to address within an intervention to increase child PA. Effective methods of helping parents address the latter have been developed in the context of generic parenting programmes. PMID:23167910

  6. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. PMID:26916699

  7. A Cost Analysis of a Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3x weekly for 8 weeks, 2x weekly for weeks 9-24 and we...

  8. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  9. A novel plasminogen activator from Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis venom (ABUSV-PA): Purification and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shuqing; Sun Mingzhong . E-mail: ming-zhong.sun@case.edu; Greenaway, Frederick T.

    2006-10-06

    A plasminogen activator with arginine ester hydrolysis activity (ABUSV-PA) has been identified and purified to homogeneity from Chinese Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis snake venom. ABUSV-PA, a monomeric protein with molecular mass of 27815.2 Da, was purified 180-fold with 0.02% recovery for protein and 3.6% recovery for esterase activity. ABUSV-PA reacts optimally with its substrate N {sub {alpha}}-tosyl-L-arginine-methyl ester (TAME) at {approx}pH 7.5 and at 51 {sup o}C. Measurement from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) reveals that ABUSV-PA is a Zn{sup 2+}-containing protein with a stoichiometry of 1:1 [Zn{sup 2+}]:[ABUSV-PA]. Analyses of esterase hydrolysis and UV absorption and CD spectra indicate that Zn{sup 2+} plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity rather than the esterase activity of ABUSV-PA. Divalent metal ions, including Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+}, increase the TAME hydrolysis activity of ABUSV-PA. A red-shift of the emission wavelengths of the synchronous fluorescence of ABUSV-PA, compared to those of free Tyr and Trp, indicates a conformation where the Tyr and Trp residues are in exposed hydrophilic environments. The presence of zinc increases the hydrophobicity of the conformational environments surrounding the Trp residues of ABUSV-PA and affects the secondary structure of ABUSV-PA, as proved by UV absorption and CD spectroscopy.

  10. Effects of Short-Term Physical Activity Interventions on Simple and Choice Response Times

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Kevin; Norton, Lynda; Lewis, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Response time (RT) is important for health and human performance and provides insight into cognitive processes. It deteriorates with age, is associated with chronic physical activity (PA), and improves with PA interventions. We investigated associations between the amount and type of PA undertaken and the rate of change in RT for low-active adults across the age range 18–63 yr. Methods. Insufficiently active adults were assigned to either a walking (n = 263) or higher-intensity (n = 380) exercise program conducted over 40 days. Active controls were also recruited (n = 135). Simple response time (SRT) and choice response time (CRT) were measured before and after the intervention and at 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-up. Results. SRT and CRT slowed across the age range; however, habitually active participants at baseline had significantly faster CRT (p < 0.05). The interventions increased weekly PA with corresponding increases in physical fitness. These changes were mirrored in faster CRT across the study for both intervention groups (p < 0.05). No changes were found for SRT. Conclusions. Both PA interventions resulted in improvements in CRT among adults starting from a low activity base. These improvements were relatively rapid and occurred in both interventions despite large differences in exercise volume, type, and intensity. There were no effects on SRT in either intervention. PMID:27190993

  11. The Differentiated Effectiveness of a Printed versus a Web-Based Tailored Physical Activity Intervention among Adults Aged over 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peels, D. A.; van Stralen, M. M.; Bolman, C.; Golsteijn, R. H. J.; de Vries, H.; Mudde, A. N.; Lechner, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight in the effectiveness of a print-delivered and a Web-based physical activity (PA) intervention (with or without additional environmental information on local PA possibilities) among people aged over 50. Intervention groups (print-delivered basic [PB; n = 439], print-delivered environmental [PE; n = 435], Web-based basic…

  12. Peer 2 Peer: Efficacy of a Course-Based Peer Education Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Jennifer; Mattern, Craig O.; Lassiter, Jill W.; Ritzler, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    There are few physical activity (PA) interventions in higher education, and they have been only minimally effective. Objective: To determine if a course-based, peer education intervention was associated with increases in PA and physical fitness. Participants: Participants were 178 students enrolled in a personal health class during the 2007-2008…

  13. Psychosocial Mediators of a Faith-Based Physical Activity Intervention: Implications and Lessons Learned from Null Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steve; Hooker, Steve; Hussey, Jim; Saunders, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Mediation analyses in faith-based physical activity (PA) interventions targeting African-American adults are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial mediators of a faith-based PA intervention with African-American adults. Churches were randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed (1-year later) training in PA…

  14. Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive Affect Induction to Promote Physical Activity After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration

  15. Adherence to the physical activity intervention in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders pilot (LIFE-P) study.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  16. Interferon gamma regulates accumulation of the proteasome activator PA28 and immunoproteasomes at nuclear PML bodies.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, R P; Wigley, W C; Thomas, P J; DeMartino, G N

    2001-01-01

    PA28 is an interferon (gamma) (IFN(gamma)) inducible proteasome activator required for presentation of certain major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigens. Under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, a portion of nuclear PA28 is concentrated at promyelocytic leukemia oncoprotein (PML)-containing bodies also commonly known as PODs or ND10. IFN(gamma) treatment greatly increased the number and size of the PA28- and PML-containing bodies, and the effect was further enhanced in serum-deprived cells. PML bodies are disrupted in response to certain viral infections and in diseases such as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Like PML, PA28 was delocalized from PML bodies by expression of the cytomegalovirus protein, IE1, and in NB4 cells, an APL model line. Moreover, retinoic acid treatment, which causes remission of APL in patients and reformation of PML-containing bodies in NB4 cells, relocalized PA28 to this site. In contrast, the proteasome, the functional target of PA28, was not detected at PML bodies under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, but IFN(gamma) promoted accumulation of 'immunoproteasomes' at this site. These results establish PA28 as a novel component of nuclear PML bodies, and suggest that PA28 may assemble or activate immunoproteasomes at this site as part of its role in proteasome-dependent MHC class I antigen presentation. PMID:11112687

  17. Meta-Analysis of Patient Education Interventions to Increase Physical Activity among Chronically Ill Adults

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Brown, Sharon A.; Brown, Lori M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This meta-analysis integrates primary research testing the effect of patient education to increase physical activity (PA) on behavior outcomes among adults with diverse chronic illnesses. Methods Extensive literature searching strategies located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured PA behavior outcomes. Primary study results were coded. Fixed- and random-effects meta-analytic procedures included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 22,527 subjects from 213 samples in 163 reports. The overall mean weighted effect size for two-group comparisons was 0.45 (higher mean for treatment than control). This effect size is consistent with a difference of 48 minutes of PA per week or 945 steps per day. Preliminary moderator analyses suggest interventions were most effective when they targeted only PA behavior, used behavioral strategies (vs. cognitive strategies), and encouraged PA self-monitoring. Differences among chronic illnesses were documented. Individual strategies unrelated to PA outcomes included supervised exercise sessions, exercise prescription, fitness testing, goal setting, contracting, problem solving, barriers management, and stimulus/cues. PA outcomes were unrelated to gender, age, ethnicity, or socioeconomic distribution among samples. Conclusion These findings suggest that some patient education interventions to increase PA are effective, despite considerable heterogeneity in the magnitude of intervention effect. Practice Implications Moderator analyses are preliminary and provide suggestive evidence for further testing of interventions to inform practice. PMID:18023128

  18. Conformations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) orchestrate neuronal survival by a crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, T; Lesept, F; Chevilley, A; Lenoir, S; Aimable, M; Briens, A; Hommet, Y; Bardou, I; Parcq, J; Vivien, D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a pleiotropic serine protease of the central nervous system (CNS) with reported neurotrophic and neurotoxic functions. Produced and released under its single chain form (sc), the sc-tPA can be cleaved by plasmin or kallikrein in a two chain form, tc-tPA. Although both sc-tPA and tc-tPA display a similar fibrinolytic activity, we postulated here that these two conformations of tPA (sc-tPA and tc-tPA) could differentially control the effects of tPA on neuronal survival. Using primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons, our present study reveals that sc-tPA is the only one capable to promote N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced calcium influx and subsequent excitotoxicity. In contrast, both sc-tPA and tc-tPA are capable to activate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), a mechanism mediating the antiapoptotic effects of tPA. Interestingly, we revealed a tPA dependent crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR in which a tPA-dependent activation of EGFRs leads to downregulation of NMDAR signaling and to subsequent neurotrophic effects. PMID:26469972

  19. In Vitro Activities of the New Antitubercular Agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  20. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  1. Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Chevilley, Arnaud; Lesept, Flavie; Lenoir, Sophie; Ali, Carine; Parcq, Jérôme; Vivien, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival. PMID:26528141

  2. Demethylation-linked Activation of uPA is Involved in Progression of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulukuri, Sai MuraliKrishna; Estes, Norman; Patel, Jitendra; Rao, Jasti S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) has been reported in various malignancies including prostate cancer. However, the mechanism by which uPA is abnormally expressed in prostate cancer remains elusive. Here, we show that uPA is aberrantly expressed in a high-percentage of human prostate cancer tissues, but rarely expressed either in tumor-matched, non-neoplastic adjacent tissues (NNAT) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples. This aberrant expression is associated with cancer-linked demethylation of the uPA promoter. Furthermore, treatment with demethylation inhibitor S-Adenosylmethionine (Ado-Met) or stable expression of uPA shRNA significantly inhibits uPA expression and tumor cell invasion in vitro and tumor growth and incidence of lung metastasis in vivo. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that DNA demethylation is a common mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of uPA and is a critical contributing factor to the malignant progression of human prostate tumors. PMID:17283123

  3. A systematic review of physical activity interventions among African American adults: evidence from 2009 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Whitt-Glover, M C; Keith, N R; Ceaser, T G; Virgil, K; Ledford, L; Hasson, R E

    2014-10-01

    This review extends findings from four previous reviews of physical activity (PA) interventions among African Americans (AA) and includes papers published between January 2009 and August 2013. Eligible papers were retrieved using strategies employed in previous reviews. Overall, 16 relevant papers were identified, including four pilot studies and 12 full trials. Interventions were based on a variety of behavioural sciences theories. The most common setting for interventions was churches. Most interventions lasted >6 months; few interventions included >6 months of post-intervention follow-up. Overall, studies identified within-group differences showing positive improvements in PA, and most studies showed statistically significant between-group differences in at least one measure of PA. A quality score was used to rate various elements of the studies and provide a numerical assessment of each paper; scores ranged from 3 to 10 out of 13 possible points. The current review indicates a continued need for studies that use objective PA measures, assess long-term intervention impact, provide specific PA goals for interventions, include more attention to strategies that can increase retention and adherence among AA study participants, include AA men and determine the independent and synergistic effects of individual and environmental (socio-cultural and built) change strategies. PMID:25196410

  4. Production of human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Mishaneh; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Masoumiasl, Asad; Abdolinasab, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease with 72 kD molecular mass and 527 amino acids plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The collective production of this drug in plants such as cucumber, one of the most important vegetables in the world, could reduce its production costs. In this study, after scrutiny of the appropriate regeneration of cucumber plant (Isfahan variety) on MS medium with naphthalene acetic acid hormone (NAA; 0/1 mg L⁻¹) and benzyl amino purine hormone (BAP; 3 mg L⁻¹) hormones, the cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into cotyledon explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Subsequent to the regeneration of inoculated explants on the selective medium, the persistence of tPA gene in recombinant plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. To evaluate the tPA gene expression in transgenic plants, RNA was extracted and the tPA gene transcription was confirmed by reverse-transcription (RT) PCR. Followed the extraction of protein from the leaves of transgenic plants, the presence of tPA protein was confirmed by dot blot and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis in order to survey the production of recombinant tPA protein. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for recombinant tPA protein level in transgenic cucumber plants. It was counted between 0.8 and 1%, and based on this, it was concluded that the presence of three expressions of regulatory factors (CaMV 35S, Kozak, NOS) and KDEL signal in the construct caused the increase of the tPA gene expression in cucumber plants. PMID:24152103

  5. Inhibition of PAI-1 Antiproteolytic Activity Against tPA by RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Damare, Jared; Brandal, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) inhibits the plasminogen activators: tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been correlated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Pharmacologically suppressing PAI-1 might prevent, or successfully treat PAI-1 related vascular diseases. This can potentially be accomplished by using small RNA molecules (aptamers). This study's goal is to develop RNA aptamers to a region of PAI-1 that will prevent the ability of PAI-1 to interact with the plasminogen activators. The aptamers were generated through a systematic evolution of ligands via exponential enrichment approach that ensures the creation of RNA molecules that bind to our target protein, PAI-1. In vitro assays were used to determine the effect of these aptamers on PAI-1's inhibitory activity. Three aptamers that bind to PAI-1 with affinities in the nanomolar range were isolated. The aptamer clones R10-4 and R10-2 inhibited PAI-1's antiproteolytic activity against tPA and disrupted PAI-1's ability to form a stable covalent complex with tPA. Increasing aptamer concentrations correlated positively with an increase in cleaved PAI-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of RNA molecules that inhibit the antiproteolytic activity of PAI-1. PMID:24922319

  6. Women Bound to Be Active: a pilot study to explore the feasibility of an intervention to increase physical activity and self-worth in women.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Sidman, Cara; Meendering, Jessica; Blissmer, Bryan; Schulte, Laura; Flohr, Judith A; Ransdell, Lynda B

    2008-01-01

    Increasing physical activity (PA) has become a national health objective due to its associated health benefits, but low participation rates. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of an 8-month (September 2006-April 2007) PA book club (Women Bound to Be Active-WBA) in increasing PA and self-worth (SW) among women. Fifty-six adult women participated in an 8-month intervention consisting of weekly meetings designed to improve PA knowledge, awareness, confidence, and SW. Results indicated a significant increase in PA and SW. The WBA program represents a creative theory-based approach to empowering women to be more active. PMID:18843841

  7. Physical activity levels six months after a randomised controlled physical activity intervention for Pakistani immigrant men living in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have aimed at improving the PA level in south Asian immigrant men residing in Western countries, and few studies have considered the relevance of SCT constructs to the PA behaviour of this group in the long term. The observed low physical activity (PA) level among south Asian immigrants in Western countries may partly explain the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in this group. We have shown previously in a randomised controlled trial, the Physical Activity and Minority Health study (PAMH) that a social cognitive based intervention can beneficially influence PA level and subsequently reduce waist circumference and insulin resistance in the short-term. In an extended follow-up of the PAMH study: we aimed 1) to determine if the intervention produced long-term positive effects on PA level six months after intervention (follow-up 2 (FU2)), and 2) to identify the social cognitive mediators of any intervention effects. Methods Physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men (n = 150) who were free of CVD and T2D were randomly assigned to a five months PA intervention or a control group. Six months after the intervention ended, we telephoned all those who attended FU1 and invited them for a second follow-up test (FU2) (n = 133). PA was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Statistical differences between groups were determined by use of ANCOVA. Results Significant differences (baseline to FU2) between the groups were found for all PA variables (e.g., total PA level, sedentary time, PA intensity). Support from family and outcome expectancies increased more in the intervention group compared with the control group. Self-efficacy did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions Our results show that a multi component PA programme can increase PA over the short and long term in a group of immigrant Pakistani men. However, we could not identify the factors that mediated these

  8. Making Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Policy Practice: Process Evaluation of a Group Randomized Controlled Intervention in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P.; Moore, Justin B.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Ward, Dianne S.; Pate, Russell R.; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying…

  9. Development of a universal approach to increase physical activity among adolescents: the GoActive intervention

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Kirsten; Schiff, Annie; Kesten, Joanna M; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To develop a physical activity (PA) promotion intervention for adolescents using a process addressing gaps in the literature while considering participant engagement. We describe the initial development stages; (1) existing evidence, (2) large scale opinion gathering and (3) developmental qualitative work, aiming (A) to gain insight into how to increase PA among the whole of year 9 (13–14 years-old) by identifying elements for intervention inclusion (B) to improve participant engagement and (C) to develop and refine programme design. Methods Relevant systematic reviews and longitudinal analyses of change were examined. An intervention was developed iteratively with older adolescents (17.3±0.5 years) and teachers, using the following process: (1) focus groups with (A) adolescents (n=26) and (B) teachers (n=4); (2) individual interviews (n=5) with inactive and shy adolescents focusing on engagement and programme acceptability. Qualitative data were analysed thematically. Results Limitations of the existing literature include lack of evidence on whole population approaches, limited adolescent involvement in intervention development, and poor participant engagement. Qualitative work suggested six themes which may encourage adolescents to do more PA; choice, novelty, mentorship, competition, rewards and flexibility. Teachers discussed time pressures as a barrier to encouraging adolescent PA and suggested between-class competition as a strategy. GoActive aims to increase PA through increased peer support, self-efficacy, group cohesion, self-esteem and friendship quality, and is implemented in tutor groups using a student-led tiered-leadership system. Conclusions We have followed an evidence-based iterative approach to translate existing evidence into an adolescent PA promotion intervention. Qualitative work with adolescents and teachers supported intervention design and addressed lack of engagement with health promotion programmes within this age group

  10. Motivational interviewing in a web-based physical activity intervention: questions and reflections.

    PubMed

    Friederichs, Stijn A H; Oenema, Anke; Bolman, Catherine; Guyaux, Janneke; Van Keulen, Hilde M; Lechner, Lilian

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify which question/reflection format leads to the most favorable results in terms of effect on autonomous motivation and appreciation for the intervention in a web-based computer-tailored physical activity (PA) intervention, based on principles from self-determination theory (SDT) and motivational interviewing (MI). For this purpose, a randomized trial was conducted among 465 Dutch adults, comparing three web-based computer-tailored MI/SDT PA interventions, including (i) exclusively open-ended questions (without skillful reflections), (ii) exclusively multiple choice questions (with skillful reflections) and (iii) including both question types (with skillful reflections). Measurements included motivation-related determinants of PA and process variables, measured at baseline, directly following the intervention and 1-month post-intervention. Results suggest that open-ended questions represent an important element in web-based MI in terms of effect on autonomous motivation. In order to optimize appreciation of the intervention, a combination of both open-ended and multiple choice question types seems to hold most promise. The findings of this study suggest that both open-ended and multiple choice questions should be included in web-based computer-tailored SDT/MI PA interventions. More research is needed to reveal the optimal configuration of this novel intervention type. PMID:24101160

  11. Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Campion, Suzanne; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol; Sidenius, Nicolai; Docagne, Fabian; Cunningham, Colm

    2009-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-linked cell surface protein that facilitates focused plasmin proteolytic activity at the cell surface. uPAR has been detected in macrophages infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) and soluble uPAR has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid during a number of CNS pathologies. However, its expression by resident microglial cells in vivo remains uncertain. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the murine CNS expression of uPAR and uPA as well as that of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during insults generating distinct and well-characterized inflammatory responses; acute intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute kainate-induced neurodegeneration, and chronic neurodegeneration induced by prion disease inoculation. All three insults induced marked expression of uPAR at both mRNA and protein level compared to controls (naïve, saline, or control inoculum-injected). uPAR expression was microglial in all cases. Conversely, uPA transcription and activity was only markedly increased during chronic neurodegeneration. Dissociation of uPA and uPAR levels in acute challenges is suggestive of additional proteolysis-independent roles for uPAR. PAI-1 was most highly expressed upon LPS challenge, whereas tissue plasminogen activator mRNA was constitutively present and less responsive to all insults studied. These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed. PMID:19459212

  12. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of stroke: therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James F

    2008-06-01

    Today there exists only one FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke; i.e., the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In the aftermath of the failed stroke clinical trials with the nitrone spin trap/radical scavenger, NXY-059, a number of articles raised the question: are we doing the right thing? Is the animal research truly translational in identifying new agents for stroke treatment? This review summarizes the current state of affairs with plasminogen activators in thrombolytic therapy. In addition to therapeutic value, potential side effects of tPA also exist that aggravate stroke injury and offset the benefits provided by reperfusion of the occluded artery. Thus, combinational options (ultrasound alone or with microspheres/nanobubbles, mechanical dissociation of clot, activated protein C (APC), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), neuroserpin and CDP-choline) that could offset tPA toxic side effects and improve efficacy are also discussed here. Desmoteplase, a plasminogen activator derived from the saliva of Desmodus rotundus vampire bat, antagonizes vascular tPA-induced neurotoxicity by competitively binding to low-density lipoprotein related-receptors (LPR) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) interface, minimizing the tPA uptake into brain parenchyma. tPA can also activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endopeptidases comprised of 24 mammalian enzymes that primarily catalyze the turnover and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs have been implicated in BBB breakdown and neuronal injury in the early times after stroke, but also contribute to vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and axonal regeneration during the later repair phase after stroke. tPA, directly or by activation of MMP-9, could have beneficial effects on recovery after stroke by promoting neurovascular repair through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, any treatment regimen directed at MMPs must consider their

  13. Intervention Effects on Adolescent Physical Activity in the Multicomponent SPACE Study: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Toftager, Mette; Christiansen, Lars B.; Ersbøll, Annette K.; Kristensen, Peter L.; Due, Pernille; Troelsen, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Background Multicomponent school-based interventions have the potential to reduce the age-related decline in adolescents' physical activity (PA), yet there is not consistent evidence to guide non-curricular and school environment interventions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent environmental school-based intervention, designed to reduce the age-related decline in PA among adolescents. Methods A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 7 intervention and 7 control schools. Baseline measurements were carried out in spring 2010 with 2 years of follow-up. A total of 1,348 students (11–13 years, in grade 5 and 6) enrolled in the study at baseline. The 14 schools included in the study were located in the Region of Southern Denmark. The intervention consisted of organizational and physical changes in the school environment with a total of 11 intervention components. The primary outcome measure was overall PA (cpm, counts per minute) and was supported by analyses of time spent in MVPA, and time spent sedentary. Furthermore, a secondary outcome measure was PA in school time and during recess. PA was measured using accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X). Results A total of 797 students completed the trial and had valid accelerometer data. No significant difference was found for overall PA with an adjusted difference of −19.1 cpm (95% CI: −93, 53) or for school time activity with an adjusted difference of 6 cpm (95% CI: −73, 85). A sensitivity analysis revealed a positive significant intervention effect of PA in recess with an adjusted difference of 95 cpm. Conclusions No evidence was found of the overall effect of a non-curricular multicomponent school-based intervention on PA among Danish adolescents. The intervention was positively associated with PA during school time and recess, however, with small estimates. Lack of effect on overall PA could be due to both program theory and different degrees of implementation

  14. Pilot surveillance for childhood encephalitis in Australia using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network.

    PubMed

    Britton, P N; Dale, R C; Elliott, E; Festa, M; Macartney, K; Booy, R; Jones, C A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records. Comprehensive clinical data were prospectively collected on consented participants and subsequently reviewed by an expert panel. Cases were categorized as confirmed encephalitis or 'not encephalitis'; encephalitis cases were sub-categorized as infectious, immune-mediated or unknown. We performed an ICD-10 diagnostic code audit of hospitalizations for the pilot period. We compared case ascertainment in the four screening methods and with the ICD code audit. Forty-eight cases of suspected encephalitis were identified by one or more methods. PAEDS was the most efficient mechanism (yield 34%), followed by MRI, CSF, and pharmacy audits (yield 14%, 12%, and 7% respectively). Twenty-five cases met the criteria for confirmed encephalitis. PAEDS was the most sensitive of the mechanisms for confirmed encephalitis (92%) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72%. The ICD audit was moderately sensitive (64%) but poorly specific (Sp 9%, PPV 14%). Of the 25 confirmed encephalitis cases, 19 (76%) were sub-categorized as infectious, three (12%) were immune-mediated, and three (12%) were 'unknown'. We identified encephalitis cases associated with two infectious disease outbreaks (enterovirus 71, parechovirus 3). PAEDS is an efficient, sensitive and accurate surveillance mechanism for detecting cases of childhood encephalitis including those

  15. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3',5' -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  16. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3’,5’ -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  17. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  18. Factors and associations for physical activity in severely obese adults during a two-year lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Jepsen, Randi; Aadland, Eivind; Robertson, Lesley; Kristiansen, Merete; Andersen, John Roger; Natvig, Gerd Karin

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study of severely obese adults participating in a two-year lifestyle intervention investigates associations between the independent variables: change in self-efficacy for physical activity (PA) in the face of psychological barriers, perceived behavioural control over PA, and PA self-identity and the dependent variable of change in objectively assessed PA. The intervention comprised four residential periods in a rehabilitation centre and combined diet, physical activity, and cognitive behavioural therapy. Materials and Methods. Forty-nine severely obese adults (37 women, mean body mass index 42.1 kg/m(2)) were included in the study. Assessment was done four times using questionnaires and an accelerometer. A linear mixed model based on restricted maximum likelihood was used in analyses for change over time. Associations were studied using linear regression analyses. Age, gender, and change in body mass index were used as control variables. Results. In the adjusted analyses, change in perceived behavioural control over PA was associated with change in PA (Stand. coeff. = 0.32, p = .005). Change in PA was not associated with either change in self-efficacy over PA in the face of psychological barriers (Stand. coeff. = 0.13, p = .259) or PA self-identity (Stand. coeff. = -0.07, p = .538). Conclusion. Perceived behavioural control may be a valid target to increase and maintain PA in severely obese adults participating in lifestyle interventions. More research is needed to investigate the process of behaviour change in this population. PMID:25165622

  19. The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Activity plus Diet Interventions on Body Weight in Overweight or Obese Women who are Pregnant or in Postpartum: A Systematic Review and Meta Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Fukuoka, Yoshimi; Lee, Ji Hyeon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the effectiveness of physical activity (PA) and PA plus diet interventions in managing weight among overweight or obese (OW/OB) pregnant or postpartum women. Methods Four databases were searched for randomized controlled studies published between January 2000 and December 2011 that reported weight change outcomes of PA interventions in OW/OB pregnant or postpartum women. PA alone as well as PA plus diet interventions were included. Results Of 681 abstracts identified, 11 were included (7 trials with pregnant women and 4 trials with postpartum women). Overall, we found that PA interventions were effective for OW/OB pregnant as well as postpartum women. On average, pregnant women in the intervention groups gained 0.91 kg less (95% CI: −1.76, −0.06) compared to those in the usual care groups. Postpartum women in the intervention groups significantly lost more body weight (−1.22 kg; 95% CI: −1.89, −0.56) than those in the control groups. In the subgroup analyses by PA intervention types, supervised PA plus diet interventions were the most effective. Conclusions PA plus diet interventions may require more than advice; supervised PA programs or personalized prescription/goals are needed to prevent excessive weight gain for OW/OB pregnant women and excessive weight retention for OW/OB postpartum women. PMID:23480971

  20. A systematic review of school-based interventions targeting physical activity and sedentary behaviour among older adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hynynen, S-T.; van Stralen, M. M.; Sniehotta, F. F.; Araújo-Soares, V.; Hardeman, W.; Chinapaw, M. J. M.; Vasankari, T.; Hankonen, N.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lack of physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB) have been associated with health problems. This systematic review evaluates the effectiveness of school-based interventions to increase PA and decrease SB among 15–19-year-old adolescents, and examines whether intervention characteristics (intervention length, delivery mode and intervention provider) and intervention content (i.e. behaviour change techniques, BCTs) are related to intervention effectiveness. A systematic search of randomised or cluster randomised controlled trials with outcome measures of PA and/or SB rendered 10 results. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Intervention content was coded using Behaviour Change Technique Taxonomy v1. Seven out of 10 studies reported significant increases in PA. Effects were generally small and short-term (Cohen's d ranged from 0.132 to 0.659). Two out of four studies that measured SB reported significant reductions in SB. Interventions that increased PA included a higher number of BCTs, specific BCTs (e.g., goal setting, action planning and self-monitoring), and were delivered by research staff. Intervention length and mode of delivery were unrelated to effectiveness. More studies are needed that evaluate long-term intervention effectiveness and target SBs among older adolescents. PMID:26807143

  1. Formative Research Conducted in Rural Appalachia to Inform a Community Physical Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Tina M.; Swanson, Mark; Davis, Rian E.; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Katie; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite the well-established benefits of physical activity (PA), most Americans, especially those in rural, traditionally underserved areas, engage in considerably less PA than recommended. This study examines perceived barriers to and facilitators of PA and promising organized PA programs among rural Appalachians. Design Eight focus groups and seven group key informant interviews were conducted. Setting This study was conducted in eastern Kentucky, in Central Appalachia. Subjects 114 rural Appalachian residents (74% female, 91% White) participated. Measures Open-ended, semi-structured, and structured questions regarding perceptions of, barriers to/facilitators of, and examples of successful/failed PA programs were asked. Analysis Qualitative data analysis was conducted, including codebook development and steps taken to ensure rigor and transferability. Interrater reliability was over 94%. Results In addition to barriers that are consistent with other populations, rural Appalachian residents indicated that travel time, family commitments, and inadequate community resources undermine PA. Suggested avenues to increase PA include partnership with churches and the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service; programs that include families, are well-advertised, focus on health rather than appearance; and, underlying all suggestions, culturally-relevant yet non-stereotyping activities. Conclusions When developing PA interventions in rural Appalachia, it is important to employ community-based participatory approaches that leverage unique assets of the population and show potential in overcoming challenges to PA. PMID:22208411

  2. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  3. Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Increase Physical Activity among Cardiac Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Moore, Shirley M.; Nielsen, Paul J.; Brown, Lori M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Extensive primary research has tested interventions to increase physical activity (PA) among adults with cardiovascular disease. This meta-analysis integrates the extant research about how to increase PA in cardiac samples. Methods Extensive literature searching located published and unpublished intervention studies that measured PA outcomes. Results were coded from primary studies. Fixed-and random-effects meta-analytic procedures included moderator analyses. Results Data were synthesized across 11,877 subjects from 79 eligible research reports. The overall mean PA effect size for 2-group comparisons was 0.35 (higher mean for treatment than control), which is consistent with a difference of 1984 kilocalories/week for treatment subjects versus 1615 for control subjects. The fitness effect size for 2-group comparisons was .17. Other statistically significantly positive 2-group effect sizes were .24 for quality of life and .23 for subsequent cardiac events. Effect sizes for anthropometric measures and blood pressure did not differ significantly from 0. Exploratory moderator analyses found large effect sizes for PA among studies that had (1) an exclusive focus on PA versus diverse health behaviors, (2) more contact between interventionists and subjects, (3) supervised exercise sessions, (4) fitness testing, (5) face-to-face encounters versus mediated intervention delivery, and (6) more minutes of activity per week. Effect sizes were unrelated to funding status, dissemination vehicle, gender distribution, or attrition rate. Conclusions These findings document that interventions can be effective in increasing PA among patients with cardiovascular diseases. Primary research should compare interventions in randomized trials to confirm causal relationships. PMID:18582959

  4. Neighbourhood walkability and physical activity among family members of people with heart disease who participated in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioural risk reduction intervention.

    PubMed

    Riley, Dana L; Mark, Amy E; Kristjansson, Elizabeth; Sawada, Michael C; Reid, Robert D

    2013-05-01

    This study adds to the current literature investigating the relationship between individuals' physical activity (PA) and the built environment. Self-reported PA from a prospective behavioural risk reduction intervention was explored in the context of objectively measured Walk Score(®) and neighbourhood walkability in Ottawa, Canada. Participants in the intervention arm had significantly higher odds of meeting PA guidelines at 12-weeks compared to the standard care control group. This was not influenced by Walk Score(®) or walkability. This individual-level intervention was effective in assisting participants to overcome potential structural barriers presented by their neighbourhood to meet PA guidelines at 12-weeks. PMID:23474354

  5. Interventions to Promote Physical Activity among Young and Adolescent Girls: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho-Minano, Maria J.; LaVoi, Nicole M.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J.

    2011-01-01

    A narrative systematic review was conducted to describe the available evidence from physical activity (PA) interventions that targeted girls aged 5-18 years and to determine their effectiveness and key characteristics of success. Systematic literature searches were conducted using four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, PsychInfo and SPORTDiscus…

  6. Long-term effects of 4-year longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention on the physical fitness of children and youth during 7-year followup assessment.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Gregor; Cooper, Ashley; Leskosek, Bojan; Kovac, Marjeta

    2013-12-01

    Many school-based physical activity (PA) interventions have been developed, but only a few have assessed their long-term effects. A PA intervention taking place in the first four years of some Slovenian primary schools entails an enhanced physical education (PE) curriculum, including two extra lessons of PE per week, a wider selection of PE content, and additional outdoor education delivered by both a specialist PE teacher and a general teacher. The effects of the intervention on children's physical fitness (motor tasks and anthropometry) were evaluated within a quasi-experimental study. In total, 324 children from nine Slovenian primary schools either received the enhanced curriculum (intervention (n=160)) or standard PE (control (n=164)), and were followed for a four-year intervention period and seven years post intervention. Data from the SLOFIT database were used to compare differences in the physical fitness of children each year. Linear Mixed Models were used to test the influence of the PA intervention. Over an 11-year period, the PA intervention group significantly differed in all motor tasks, but not in anthropometric measures or body mass index, after controlling for year of measurement and sex. Differences between the control and intervention groups decreased with time. This study highlights the importance of tracking the long term effects of PA interventions. PA intervention in the first four years of Slovenian primary school offers the possibility of improving physical performance in children; initiatives aiming to increase their performance (physical fitness, physical activity) and health outcomes are warranted. PMID:24592722

  7. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  8. Cost effectiveness of the LIFE physical activity intervention for older adults at increased risk for mobility disability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Losing the ability to walk safely and independently is a major concern for many older adults. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders study recently demonstrated that a physical activity (PA) intervention can delay the onset of major mobility disability. Our objective is ...

  9. Physical Activity Interventions in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Hoehner, Christine M.; Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Azevedo, Mario R.; Hino, Adriano A.; Soares, Jesus; Hallal, Pedro C.; Simões, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Systematic reviews of public health interventions are useful for identifying effective strategies for informing policy and practice. The goals of this review were to (1) update a previous systematic review of physical activity interventions in Latin America which found that only school-based physical education had sufficient evidence to recommend widespread adoption; (2) assess the reporting of external validity elements; and (3) develop and apply an evidence typology for classifying interventions. Evidence acquisition In 2010–2011, community-level, physical activity intervention studies from Latin America were identified, categorized, and screened based on the peer-reviewed literature or Brazilian theses published between 2006 and 2010. Articles meeting inclusion criteria were evaluated using U.S. Community Guide methods. External validity reporting was assessed among a subset of articles reviewed to date. An evidence rating typology was developed and applied to classify interventions along a continuum based on evidence about their effectiveness in the U.S. context, reach, adoption, implementation, institutionalization, and benefits and costs. Evidence synthesis Thirteen articles published between 2006 and 2010 met inclusion criteria and were abstracted systematically, yet when combined with evidence from articles from the previous systematic review, no additional interventions could be recommended for practice. Moreover, the reporting of external validity elements was low among a subset of 19 studies published to date (median=21% of elements reported). By applying the expanded evidence rating typology, one intervention was classified as evidence-based, seven as promising, and one as emerging. Conclusions Several physical activity interventions have been identified as promising for future research and implementation in Latin America. Enhanced reporting of external validity elements will inform the translation of research into practice. PMID:23415133

  10. Bari-Active: A randomized controlled trial of a preoperative intervention to increase physical activity in bariatric surgery patients

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Unick, Jessica L.; Jakicic, John M.; Pohl, Dieter; Ryder, Beth A.; Roye, G. Dean; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Habitual physical activity (PA) may help to optimize bariatric surgery outcomes; however objective PA measures show that most patients have low PA preoperatively and make only modest PA changes postoperatively. Patients require additional support to adopt habitual PA. Objectives: Test the efficacy of a preoperative PA intervention (PAI) versus standard pre-surgical care (SC) for increasing daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) in bariatric surgery patients. Setting: University Hospital, United States. Methods: Outcomes analysis included 75 participants (86.7% women; 46.0±8.9 years; Body Mass Index [BMI]=45.0±6.5 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned preoperatively to 6 weeks of PAI (n=40) or SC (n=35). PAI received weekly individual face-to-face sessions with tailored instruction in behavioral strategies (e.g., self-monitoring, goal-setting) to increase home-based walking exercise. The primary outcome, pre- to post-intervention change in daily bout-related (≥10-min bouts) and total (≥1-minute bouts) MVPA minutes, was assessed objectively via a multi-sensor monitor worn for 7 days at baseline- and post-intervention. Results: Retention was 84% at the post-intervention primary end point. In intent-to-treat analyses with baseline value carried forward for missing data and adjusted for baseline MVPA, PAI achieved a mean increase of 16.6±20.6 minutes/day in bout-related MVPA (baseline: 4.4±5.5 to post-intervention: 21.0±21.4 minutes/day) compared to no change (−0.3±12.7 minutes/day; baseline: 7.9±16.6 to post-intervention: 7.6±11.5 minutes/day) for SC (p=0.001). Similarly, PAI achieved a mean increase of 21.0±26.9 minutes/day in total MVPA (baseline: 30.9±21.2 to post-intervention: 51.9±30.0 minutes/day), whereas SC demonstrated no change (− 0.1±16.3 minutes/day; baseline: 33.7±33.2 to post-intervention: 33.6±28.5 minutes/day) (p=0.001). Conclusions: With behavioral intervention, patients can significantly increase MVPA before bariatric

  11. BioKnife, a uPA activity-dependent oncolytic Sendai virus, eliminates pleural spread of malignant mesothelioma via simultaneous stimulation of uPA expression.

    PubMed

    Morodomi, Yosuke; Yano, Tokujiro; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Harada, Yui; Saito, Satoru; Kyuragi, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Kumi; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Shoji, Fumihiro; Yoshida, Tsukihisa; Ito, Kensaku; Shikada, Yasunori; Maruyama, Riichiroh; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu

    2012-04-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is highly intractable and readily spreads throughout the surface of the pleural cavity, and these cells have been shown to express urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We here examined the potential of our new and powerful recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV), which shows uPAR-specific cell-to-cell fusion activity (rSeV/dMFct14 (uPA2), named "BioKnife"), for tumor cell killing in two independent orthotopic xenograft models of human. Multicycle treatment using BioKnife resulted in the efficient rescue of these models, in association with tumor-specific fusion and apoptosis. Such an effect was also seen on both MSTO-211H and H226 cells in vitro; however, we confirmed that the latter expressed uPAR but not uPA. Of interest, infection with BioKnife strongly facilitated the uPA release from H226 cells, and this effect was completely abolished by use of either pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or BioKnife expressing the C-terminus-deleted dominant negative inhibitor for retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-IC), indicating that BioKnife-dependent expression of uPA was mediated by the RIG-I/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) axis, detecting RNA viral genome replication. Therefore, these results suggest a proof of concept that the tumor cell-killing mechanism via BioKnife may have significant potential to treat patients with MPM that is characterized by frequent uPAR expression in a clinical setting. PMID:22314292

  12. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  13. Effects of a Promotor-Based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity: Familias Sanas y Activas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. This within-participants, single time-series study tested a train-the-trainer, promotor-based physical activity (PA) intervention to improve fitness and health indicators. Methods. Thirty unpaid promotores were trained to promote PA through free exercise classes. Measurements of 337 female community participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months assessed changes in health indicators, including systolic and diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference, body mass index (defined as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters), aerobic fitness, and hamstring flexibility, as well as self-reported health indicators (PA, depression) and psychosocial factors (barriers, self-efficacy, and social support—all specific to PA). Results. Mixed effects models showed intervention participation improved systolic blood pressure (P ≤ .001), waist circumference (P ≤ .001), fitness (P ≤ .001), and hamstring flexibility (P ≤ .001). We also noted improvements in use of community resources (P ≤ .05), depressed mood and anhedonia (P ≤ .01), perceived barriers to be physically active (P ≤ .05), and community support for PA (P ≤ .001). Self-efficacy decreased (P ≤ .05), and participation dose (i.e., exposure), as measured by attendance at exercise classes, was not associated with observed changes. Conclusions. Promotores can promote PA in their community and achieve meaningful changes in the residents' health. PMID:22021294

  14. A self-regulation-based intervention to increase physical activity in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Ungar, Nadine; Sieverding, Monika; Weidner, Gerdi; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Wiskemann, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether a behavior-change intervention focusing on self-regulatory strategies and emphasizing role model support increases physical activity (PA) among insufficiently active (not meeting PA guidelines of 150 min/week) cancer patients. Ambulatory cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION-study, a 4-week intervention (1-hr counseling, followed by weekly phone calls), with pretest (T1), posttest (T2) and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise or to a stress management intervention (active control). The exercise intervention emphasized self-regulatory strategies (e.g. action- and coping planning and self-monitoring); patients were also encouraged to contact a physically active same-sex role model as a potential exercise partner. The active control condition consisted of coping and relaxation techniques. Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA and a measure of perceived stress. PA was validated by Actigraph accelerometry. At T2, 46% of the patients in the exercise group and 19% of stress management patients increased their activity levels to meet PA guidelines (>150 min/week; χ(2)(1) = 5.51, p = .019). At T3, participants in the exercise intervention maintained their exercise level (46%), but also 31% of the stress management patients met the guidelines. All patients reported reductions in perceived stress. Additional analyses comparing patients in the exercise group by role model contact (63% realized contact) revealed that those who had contact with their role model were significantly more likely to adhere to the recommended guidelines (T2:50%; T3:64%) compared to those who did not have contact with a role model (T2:39%; T3:15%), suggesting the potential of mobilizing role model support to facilitate PA. In sum, cancer patients may not only benefit from an exercise

  15. Active travel intervention and physical activity behaviour: an evaluation.

    PubMed

    Norwood, Patricia; Eberth, Barbara; Farrar, Shelley; Anable, Jillian; Ludbrook, Anne

    2014-07-01

    A physically active lifestyle is an important contributor to individual health and well-being. The evidence linking higher physical activity levels with better levels of morbidity and mortality is well understood. Despite this, physical inactivity remains a major global risk factor for mortality and, consequently, encouraging individuals to pursue physically active lifestyles has been an integral part of public health policy in many countries. Physical activity promotion and interventions are now firmly on national health policy agendas, including policies that promote active travel such as walking and cycling. This study evaluates one such active travel initiative, the Smarter Choices, Smarter Places programme in Scotland, intended to encourage uptake of walking, cycling and the use of public transport as more active forms of travel. House to house surveys were conducted before and after the programme intervention, in May/June 2009 and 2012 (12,411 surveys in 2009 and 9542 in 2012), for the evaluation of the programme. This paper analyses the physical activity data collected, focussing on what can be inferred from the initiative with regards to adult uptake of physical activity participation and whether, for those who participated in physical activity, the initiative impacted on meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. The results suggest that the initiative impacted positively on the likelihood of physical activity participation and meeting the recommended physical activity guidelines. Individuals in the intervention areas were on average 6% more likely to meet the physical activity guidelines compared to individuals in the non intervention areas. However, the absolute prevalence of physical activity participation declined in both intervention and control areas over time. Our evaluation of this active transport initiative indicates that similar programmes may aid in contributing to achieving physical activity targets and adds to the international

  16. Structural details of light activation of the LOV2-based photoswitch PA-Rac1.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andreas; Barends, Thomas R M; Udvarhelyi, Anikó; Lenherr-Frey, Daniel; Lomb, Lukas; Menzel, Andreas; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-02-20

    Optical control of cellular processes is an emerging approach for studying biological systems, affording control with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically designed artificial photoswitches add an interesting extension to naturally occurring light-regulated functionalities. However, despite a great deal of structural information, the generation of new tools cannot be based fully on rational design yet; in many cases design is limited by our understanding of molecular details of light activation and signal transduction. Our biochemical and biophysical studies on the established optogenetic tool PA-Rac1, the photoactivatable small GTPase Rac1, reveal how unexpected details of the sensor-effector interface, such as metal coordination, significantly affect functionally important structural elements of this photoswitch. Together with solution scattering experiments, our results favor differences in the population of pre-existing conformations as the underlying allosteric activation mechanism of PA-Rac1, rather than the assumed release of the Rac1 domain from the caging photoreceptor domain. These results have implications for the design of new optogenetic tools and highlight the importance of including molecular details of the sensor-effector interface, which is however difficult to assess during the initial design of novel artificial photoswitches. PMID:25368973

  17. Efficacy of theory-based interventions to promote physical activity. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Gourlan, M; Bernard, P; Bortolon, C; Romain, A J; Lareyre, O; Carayol, M; Ninot, G; Boiché, J

    2016-01-01

    Implementing theory-based interventions is an effective way to influence physical activity (PA) behaviour in the population. This meta-analysis aimed to (1) determine the global effect of theory-based randomised controlled trials dedicated to the promotion of PA among adults, (2) measure the actual efficacy of interventions against their theoretical objectives and (3) compare the efficacy of single- versus combined-theory interventions. A systematic search through databases and review articles was carried out. Our results show that theory-based interventions (k = 82) significantly impact the PA behaviour of participants (d = 0.31, 95% CI [0.24, 0.37]). While moderation analyses revealed no efficacy difference between theories, interventions based on a single theory (d = 0.35; 95% CI [0.26, 0.43]) reported a higher impact on PA behaviour than those based on a combination of theories (d = 0.21; 95% CI [0.11, 0.32]). In spite of the global positive effect of theory-based interventions on PA behaviour, further research is required to better identify the specificities, overlaps or complementarities of the components of interventions based on relevant theories. PMID:25402606

  18. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice. PMID:26944602

  19. Physical activity interventions to prevent falls among older people: update of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Sherrington, C; Lord, S R; Finch, C F

    2004-04-01

    Injuries resulting from falls are a significant public health issue, particularly for older people. This review provides an update of the evidence on the effects of various physical activity (PA) or exercise intervention strategies for the prevention of unintentional falls among older people. Six systematic reviews, and three randomised controlled trials not incorporated in previous reviews, were located with a literature search. There is clear evidence that a targeted supervised home exercise program of strength and balance exercise and walking practice, prescribed by a trained health professional, can prevent falls among older community dwellers. There is also an indication that untargeted group exercise (ie, not individually prescribed) can prevent falls among community dwellers, particularly if it involves Tai Chi or other exercises which challenge balance. There is some indication that individual prescription of PA is more important in frailer groups. Further investigation is required to establish the effects of PA in residential aged care, and the relative effects of different types of PA in different populations. In addition, multidisciplinary, multifactorial. health/environmental risk factor screening/intervention programs have been found to be effective in preventing falls. For many individuals with physical risk factors for falls (eg, impaired strength, balance or functional ability), PA alone is likely to reduce the risk of falls. For those with additional risk factors (eg, visual impairments, psychoactive medication use), other interventions may also be required. PMID:15214601

  20. Development of an mHealth Intervention (iSTEP) to Promote Physical Activity among People Living with HIV.

    PubMed

    Montoya, Jessica L; Wing, David; Knight, Adam; Moore, David J; Henry, Brook L

    2015-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial is being conducted in the United States to test the efficacy of a personalized interactive mobile health intervention (iSTEP) designed to increase physical activity (PA) and improve neurocognitive functioning among HIV-positive persons. This article describes an initial qualitative study performed to develop iSTEP for the HIV-positive population, including assessment of PA barriers and facilitators. Two focus groups, with 9 and 12 unique HIV-positive individuals, respectively, were administered to evaluate barriers limiting PA and potential iSTEP content created to encourage greater PA. Group discussions revealed prominent PA barriers, including HIV symptoms (neuropathy, lipoatrophy), antiretroviral medication effects, and fatigue; significant PA facilitators included self-monitoring and family support. Participants provided feedback on strategies to increase PA and expressed positive support for a mobile intervention adapted to personal priorities. These findings will assist the development of novel PA interventions focused on treating the epidemic of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. PMID:26307212

  1. TMPRSS4 upregulates uPA gene expression through JNK signaling activation to induce cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Yunhee; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Myung Kyu; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Semi

    2014-02-01

    TMPRSS4 is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that is highly expressed in pancreatic, thyroid, colon, and other cancer tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 mediates tumor cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 induced the transcription of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene through activating the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-1 in mainly a JNK-dependent manner and that the induction of uPA was required for TMPRSS4-mediated cancer cell invasion and signaling events. In addition, the uPA receptor was involved in TMPRSS4-induced signaling activation and subsequent uPA expression probably through its association with TMPRSS4 on the cell surface. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that uPA expression was significantly correlated with TMPRSS4 expression in human lung and prostate cancers. These observations suggest that TMPRSS4 is an important regulator of uPA gene expression; the upregulation of uPA by TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion and may represent a novel mechanism for the control of invasion. PMID:23978400

  2. Spatial arrangement and functional role of α subunits of proteasome activator PA28 in hetero-oligomeric form

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Sahashi, Hiroki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Takata, Shin-ichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kanai, Keita; Sakata, Eri; Minami, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Keiji; Kato, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Homologous α and β subunits are alternatively arranged in the PA28 heptameric ring. ► The flexible loops of the three α subunits surround the site of substrate entry. ► The loops serve as gatekeepers that selectively hinder passage of longer peptides. - Abstract: A major form of proteasome activator PA28 is a heteroheptamer composed of interferon-γ-inducible α and β subunits, which share approximately 50% amino acid identity and possess distinct insert loops. This activator forms a complex with the 20S proteasome and thereby stimulates proteasomal degradation of peptides in an ATP-independent manner, giving rise to smaller antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this study, we performed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the structure and function of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. Deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated three α and four β subunits are alternately arranged in the heptameric ring. In this arrangement, PA28 loops surround the central pore of the heptameric ring (site for peptide entry). Activating the 20S proteasome with a PA28 mutant that lacked the α subunit loops cleaved model substrates longer than a nonapeptide with better efficiency when compared to wild-type PA28. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the flexible PA28 loops act as gatekeepers, which function to select the length of peptide substrates to be transported between the proteolytic chamber and the extra-proteasomal medium.

  3. Molecular requirements for the insecticidal activity of the plant peptide pea albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Pedro; Rahioui, Isabelle; Laugier, Christian; Jouvensal, Laurence; Meudal, Hervé; Chouabe, Christophe; Delmas, Agnès F; Gressent, Frédéric

    2010-10-22

    PA1b (pea albumin 1, subunit b) is a small and compact 37-amino acid protein, isolated from pea seeds (Pisum sativum), that adopts a cystine knot fold. It acts as a potent insecticidal agent against major pests in stored crops and vegetables, making it a promising bioinsecticide. Here, we investigate the influence of individual residues on the structure and bioactivity of PA1b. A collection of 13 PA1b mutants was successfully chemically synthesized in which the residues involved in the definition of PA1b amphiphilic and electrostatic characteristics were individually replaced with an alanine. The three-dimensional structure of PA1b was outstandingly tolerant of modifications. Remarkably, receptor binding and insecticidal activities were both dependent on common well defined clusters of residues located on one single face of the toxin, with Phe-10, Arg-21, Ile-23, and Leu-27 being key residues of the binding interaction. The inactivity of the mutants is clearly due to a change in the nature of the side chain rather than to a side effect, such as misfolding or degradation of the peptide, in the insect digestive tract. We have shown that a hydrophobic patch is the putative site of the interaction of PA1b with its binding site. Overall, the mutagenesis data provide major insights into the functional elements responsible for PA1b entomotoxic properties and give some clues toward a better understanding of the PA1b mode of action. PMID:20660598

  4. Contribution of the Nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the Activity of Novel Regimens in Murine Models of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E.; Upton, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. PMID:25331697

  5. Contribution of the nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the activity of novel regimens in murine models of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E; Upton, Anna M; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2015-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. PMID:25331697

  6. Multifunctional roles of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in cancer stemness and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Stepanova, Victoria; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Holterman, AiXuan L.; Estes, Norman; Cines, Douglas B.; Rao, Jasti S.; Gondi, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost always lethal. One of the underlying reasons for this lethality is believed to be the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC), which impart chemoresistance and promote recurrence, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. Recently the poor prognosis of PDAC has been correlated with increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In the present study we examine the role of uPA in the generation of PDAC CSC. We observe a subset of cells identifiable as a side population (SP) when sorted by flow cytometry of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells that possess the properties of CSC. A large fraction of these SP cells are CD44 and CD24 positive, are gemcitabine resistant, possess sphere-forming ability, and exhibit increased tumorigenicity, known characteristics of cancer stemness. Increased tumorigenicity and gemcitabine resistance decrease after suppression of uPA. We observe that uPA interacts directly with transcription factors LIM homeobox-2 (Lhx2), homeobox transcription factor A5 (HOXA5), and Hey to possibly promote cancer stemness. uPA regulates Lhx2 expression by suppressing expression of miR-124 and p53 expression by repressing its promoter by inactivating HOXA5. These results demonstrate that regulation of gene transcription by uPA contributes to cancer stemness and clinical lethality. PMID:23864708

  7. Current perspectives on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sherita N; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Johansen, Michelle C; McMurry, Timothy L; Johnston, Karen C; Southerland, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) Stroke Study Group published the results of a large multicenter clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of intravenous tPA by revealing a 30% relative risk reduction (absolute risk reduction 11%–15%) compared with placebo at 90 days in the likelihood of having minimal or no disability. Since approval in 1996, tPA remains the only drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the years, an abundance of research and clinical data has supported the safe and efficacious use of intravenous tPA in all eligible patients. Despite such supporting data, it remains substantially underutilized. Challenges to the utilization of tPA include narrow eligibility and treatment windows, risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, perceived lack of efficacy in certain high-risk subgroups, and a limited pool of neurological and stroke expertise in the community. With recent US census data suggesting annual stroke incidence will more than double by 2050, better education and consensus among both the medical and lay public are necessary to optimize the use of tPA for all eligible stroke patients. Ongoing and future research should continue to improve upon the efficacy of tPA through more rapid stroke diagnosis and treatment, refinement of advanced neuroimaging and stroke biomarkers, and successful demonstration of alternative means of reperfusion. PMID:24591838

  8. A Community-Based Intervention Increases Physical Activity and Reduces Obesity in School-Age Children in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Namenek Brouwer, Rebecca J.; Østbye, Truls; Evenson, Kelly R.; Neelon, Brian; Martinie, Annie; Bennett, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Community-based interventions are promising approaches to obesity prevention, but few studies have prospectively evaluated them. The aim of this study was to evaluate a natural experiment—a community intervention designed to promote active living and decrease obesity within a small southern town. Methods: In 2011, community leaders implemented the Mebane on the Move intervention—a community-wide effort to promote physical activity (PA) and decrease obesity among residents of Mebane, North Carolina. We measured child PA and BMI before and after the intervention, using a nearby town not implementing an intervention as the comparison. In total, we assessed 64 children from Mebane and 40 from the comparison community 6 months before, as well as 34 and 18 children 6 months after the intervention. We assessed PA with accelerometers worn for 7 days and calculated BMI z-scores using children's height and weight. We conducted multivariable linear regressions examining pre- to postintervention change in minutes of PA and BMI z-score, adjusting for confounders. Results: At follow-up, children in Mebane modestly increased their moderate-to-vigorous PA (1.3 minutes per hour; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.2, 2.3; p=0.03) and vigorous activity (0.8 minutes per hour; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.5; p=0.04) more than comparison children. In intervention children, BMI z-scores decreased 0.5 units (kg/m2; 95% CI: −0.9, −0.02; p=0.045), compared to children in the comparison community. Conclusions: We observed positive effects on PA level and weight status of children in Mebane, despite high rates of attrition, suggesting that the community-based intervention may have been successful. PMID:25938983

  9. Effect of a School-Based Intervention on Physical Activity and Quality of Life through Serial Mediation of Social Support and Exercise Motivation: The PESSOA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quaresma, A. M.; Palmeira, A. L.; Martins, S. S.; Minderico, C. S.; Sardinha, L. B.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the effects of social support and behavioral regulation of exercise on physical activity (PA) and quality of life (QoL), in a Portuguese school-based intervention. We hypothesized that serial mediation effects would be present leading to greater levels of PA and QoL. The sample comprised 1042 students (549…

  10. QSAR study of substituted 2-pyridinyl guanidines as selective urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, C; Moorthy, N S Hari Narayana; Trivedi, Piyush

    2009-02-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis was conducted on two different series of pyridinylguanidines acting as inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator using QuaSAR descriptors of molecular modeling software MOE. Multiple linear regression analysis following a stepwise scheme was employed to generate QSARs that relate molecular descriptors to uPA inhibitory activity data of the title compounds. Among the several QSARs generated by MLR analysis, the best models were selected on the basis of their statistical significance and predictive potential. The interpretation of the selected QSAR models suggest that uPA inhibitory activity of compounds in series 1 is influenced by their molecular shape, molecular flexibility and halogen atoms in the molecule whereas the uPA inhibitory potency of compounds in series 2 is dependent on molecular lipophilicity, number of double bonds and spatial orientation of bulky substituents in the molecule. PMID:19012070

  11. Sustainability of physical activity promoting environments and influences on sustainability following a structural intervention in residential children's homes.

    PubMed

    Dominick, Gregory M; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T; Saunders, Ruth P

    2016-04-01

    Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity (PA) among residential youth. This study examines the sustainability of PA promoting environments and influences on sustainability within RCHs. A sustainability survey was administered to 14 RCHs 2 years after receiving ENRICH. Variables included sustainability of PA promoting environments, Organizational Influences, perceived organizational and individual benefits, and implementation of PA and general (i.e. Global) wellness activities. Activities reported as sustained and barriers were used descriptively to inform sustainability. Path analyses explained the relationship between sustainability influences and sustainability of PA promoting environments. Sustainability was found in 8 of 14 (57%) RCHs. Sustained activities reflected greater Global versus PA implementation. Global implementation mediated the relationship between Organizational Influences and sustainability, which may have been more easily achieved since Global activities were most likely controlled by WTs and did not require extensive organizational support from RCH administrators. Results highlight the importance of defining and assessing different implementation types when measuring sustainability and influences on sustainability within RCHs organizations. PMID:26944869

  12. Late Quaternary mass-wasting records in the actively uplifting Pa-chang catchment, southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Ching, Kuo-En; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen

    2014-07-01

    Although dominated by erosion over long term, the tectonically active mountains of Taiwan commonly contain thick landslide and debris-flow gravels capping hillslopes or forming alluvial terraces. These deposits and their associated landforms serve to study ancient mass-wasting histories and their controls on fluvial processes. This study focuses on the Pa-chang River draining the < 2000 m high Ali-shan area in southwestern Taiwan (current tectonic uplift: 5-8 mm yr- 1). Although small (catchment area: 83 km2), the Pa-chang exhibits one of the largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, which stretches from the outlet of the catchment for 9 km along the river and comprises fluvial and debris-flow gravels up to 150 m thick. Totally 55 radiocarbon dates have been obtained, tracing the mass-wasting records back to 14.8 ka. The largest events, which created the studied major terraces, occurred in 10.0-11.3 and 8.7-9.4 ka. These events are synchronous with the formation of some regionally largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, and may have been triggered by the frequent heavy rains associated with the early Holocene East Asian summer-monsoon maximum. More mass-wasting events have been dated at ~ 5.4, ~ 1.9, 1.2-1.7, 0.7-0.9, ~ 0.6, and < 0.3 ka. The vast supply of sediment from the recorded mass-wasting events not only caused river aggradation but also regulated the subsequent incision by forming boulder armors. As a result, the bedrock incision in the upper part of the catchment has been negligible since the early Holocene debris-flow deposition. The incision rates increase to the downstream direction as the size and concentration of boulders reduce. Still, the 14.8 ka-averaged bedrock incision rate (< 4.5 mm yr- 1) at the catchment outlet is lower than the current uplift rate (6 mm yr- 1). At the same site, however, the bedrock incision rate is 23 mm yr- 1 averaged over the past 0.6 ka. Even higher rates of incision (> 50 mm yr- 1) are detected further downstream after the

  13. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  14. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  15. Web-based Intervention to Promote Physical Activity by Sedentary Older Adults: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gelatt, Vicky A; Seeley, John R; Macfarlane, Pamela; Gau, Jeff M

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) for older adults has well-documented physical and cognitive benefits, but most seniors do not meet recommended guidelines for PA, and interventions are lacking. Objectives This study evaluated the efficacy of a 12-week Internet intervention to help sedentary older adults over 55 years of age adopt and maintain an exercise regimen. Methods A total of 368 sedentary men and women (M=60.3; SD 4.9) were recruited, screened, and assessed online. They were randomized into treatment and control groups and assessed at pretest, at 12 weeks, and at 6 months. After treatment group participants rated their fitness level, activity goals, and barriers to exercise, the Internet intervention program helped them select exercise activities in the areas of endurance, flexibility, strengthening, and balance enhancement. They returned to the program weekly for automated video and text support and education, with the option to change or increase their exercise plan. The program also included ongoing problem solving to overcome user-identified barriers to exercise. Results The multivariate model indicated significant treatment effects at posttest (P=.001; large effect size) and at 6 months (P=.001; medium effect size). At posttest, intervention participation showed significant improvement on 13 of 14 outcome measures compared to the control participants. At 6 months, treatment participants maintained large gains compared to the control participants on all 14 outcome measures. Conclusions These results suggest that an online PA program has the potential to positively impact the physical activity of sedentary older adult participants. More research is needed to replicate the study results, which were based on self-report measures. Research is also needed on intervention effects with older populations. PMID:23470322

  16. Formative evaluation of a motivational intervention for increasing physical activity in underserved youth.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Dawn K; Griffin, Sarah; Saunders, Ruth P; Evans, Alexandra; Mixon, Gary; Wright, Marcie; Beasley, Amelia; Umstattd, M Renee; Lattimore, Diana; Watts, Ashley; Freelove, Julie

    2006-08-01

    The present study was designed to develop an innovative motivational intervention (based on Self-Determination Theory and Social Cognitive Theory) to increase physical activity (PA) in underserved adolescents. Sixty-four adolescents (35 females, 29 males; 50% minority; 65% on reduced lunch program; ages 11-13 yr) participated in either an 8-week motivational intervention after-school (n = 32) or a typical after-school program (n = 32). The conceptual framework for the intervention targeted the social environment (perceived autonomy, perceived social support, participation, fun), cognitive mediators (perceived choice, self-efficacy, and relatedness/belongingness), and motivational orientation (intrinsic motivation, commitment, positive self-concept). Formative evaluation data was collected by staff through daily forms throughout the 8-week program and through observational data completed by independent objective observers during 2 weeks of the program. The major themes that were identified addressed theoretical concepts regarding the intervention and logistical issues in delivering the intervention. The data revealed information regarding the importance of the cognitive appropriateness of the PA and motivational activities, the environmental climate for promoting nurturing relationships, developing specific strategies for increasing intrinsic rather than extrinsic reinforcement, and developing methods for preventing social "cliques" and gender conflicts to maintain an appropriate level of support in the social climate. Themes for training staff included focusing on team building, leadership, and nurturing. This formative evaluation is being used to formalize a randomized trial to test the effects of a student-centered motivational intervention on increasing PA in underserved 6th graders. PMID:21048891

  17. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  18. Interruption pf physcial activity due to illness in the Lifestyle Interventions and Indepencence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) compared to a health education control on measures of disability in sedentary older adults. Medical suspensions were examined for the first 12 months of the trial in th...

  19. Changes in Physical Activity Following a Genetic-Based Internet-Delivered Personalized Intervention: Randomized Controlled Trial (Food4Me)

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Fallaize, Rosalind; Kolossa, Silvia; Hallmann, Jacqueline; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Forster, Hannah; Moschonis, George; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Hoonhout, Jettie; Goris, Annelies; Macready, Anna L; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Drevon, Christian A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Martinez, J Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Saris, Wim HM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is evidence that physical activity (PA) can attenuate the influence of the fat mass- and obesity-associated (FTO) genotype on the risk to develop obesity. However, whether providing personalized information on FTO genotype leads to changes in PA is unknown. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if disclosing FTO risk had an impact on change in PA following a 6-month intervention. Methods The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs9939609 in the FTO gene was genotyped in 1279 participants of the Food4Me study, a four-arm, Web-based randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 7 European countries on the effects of personalized advice on nutrition and PA. PA was measured objectively using a TracmorD accelerometer and was self-reported using the Baecke questionnaire at baseline and 6 months. Differences in baseline PA variables between risk (AA and AT genotypes) and nonrisk (TT genotype) carriers were tested using multiple linear regression. Impact of FTO risk disclosure on PA change at 6 months was assessed among participants with inadequate PA, by including an interaction term in the model: disclosure (yes/no) × FTO risk (yes/no). Results At baseline, data on PA were available for 874 and 405 participants with the risk and nonrisk FTO genotypes, respectively. There were no significant differences in objectively measured or self-reported baseline PA between risk and nonrisk carriers. A total of 807 (72.05%) of the participants out of 1120 in the personalized groups were encouraged to increase PA at baseline. Knowledge of FTO risk had no impact on PA in either risk or nonrisk carriers after the 6-month intervention. Attrition was higher in nonrisk participants for whom genotype was disclosed (P=.01) compared with their at-risk counterparts. Conclusions No association between baseline PA and FTO risk genotype was observed. There was no added benefit of disclosing FTO risk on changes in PA in this personalized intervention. Further RCT studies

  20. Antihypertensive use and the effect of a physical activity intervention in the prevention of major mobility disability among older adults: The LIFE study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: This subgroup analysis of the Lifestyle Intervention and Independence for Elders trial evaluates the impact of a long-term physical activity (PA) intervention on rates of major mobility disability (MMD) among older adults according to their antihypertensive medication use. METHODS: Lifes...

  1. Does school-based physical activity decrease overweight and obesity in children aged 6–9 years? A two-year non-randomized longitudinal intervention study in the Czech Republic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Globally, efforts aimed at the prevention of childhood obesity have led to the implementation of a range of school-based interventions. This study assessed whether augmenting physical activity (PA) within the school setting resulted in increased daily PA and decreased overweight/obesity levels in 6-9-year-old children. Methods Across the first to third primary school years, PA of 84 girls and 92 boys was objectively monitored five times (each for seven successive days) using Yamax pedometer (step counts) and Caltrac accelerometer (activity energy expenditure AEE - kcal/kg per day). Four schools were selected to participate in the research (2 intervention, 2 controls), comprising intervention (43 girls, 45 boys) and control children (41 girls, 47 boys). The study was non-randomized and the intervention schools were selected on the basis of existing PA-conducive environment. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures examined the PA programme and gender effects on the step counts and AEE. Logistic regression (Enter method) determined the obesity and overweight occurrence prospect over the course of implementation of the PA intervention. Results There was a significant increase of school-based PA during schooldays in intervention children (from ≈ 1718 to ≈ 3247 steps per day; and from 2.1 to ≈ 3.6 Kcal/Kg per day) in comparison with the control children. Increased school-based PA of intervention children during schooldays contributed to them achieving >10,500 steps and >10.5 Kcal/Kg per school day across the 2 years of the study, and resulted in a stop of the decline in PA levels that is known to be associated with the increasing age of children. Increased school-based PA had also positive impact on leisure time PA of schooldays and on PA at weekends of intervention children. One year after the start of the PA intervention, the odds of being overweight or obese in the intervention children was almost three times lower than that of

  2. Effects of a Theory Based Intervention on Physical Activity Among Female Employees: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Shafieinia, Masoud; Hidarnia, Alireza; Kazemnejad, Anoushirvan; Rajabi, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Regular physical activity has been highlighted as an important factor in decreasing about 25 factors harmful to health, such as obesity, diabetes, heart failure, depression and osteoporosis. Female office workers, because of the long hours they stay seated in their workplace, are seriously threatened by immobility. The Theory of Planned Behavior has been successfully used several times to predict PA behaviorphysical activity (PA). The TPB studies also have identified perceived behavioral control as the key determinant of walking intentions. Objectives The present study aims to assess the effectiveness of an intervention based on TPB to improve attitude, perceived behavioral control, Subjective norms, behavioral intention and PA behavior among female office workers. Materials and Methods The present study is an interventional, quasi-experimental study. Participants were 95 female office workers of the Tehran University that divided randomly in two case and control groups. Using the theory of planned behavior questionnaire and the International physical activity questionnaire, the participants were evaluated before the training and three months after that. The training was provided in the form of four 90-minute training sessions and some electronic messages sent through office automation system once every two weeks. Results The intervention increased PBC, attitudes, intentions and objectively measured PA behavior. The effects of the intervention on intentions and behavior were mediated by PBC. Conclusions The present study has provided some of the data toward understanding determinants of physical activity behavior in female office workers. Specifically, the results suggest that interventions designed to promote physical activity in this population should focus on the development of PBC as well as positive attitude toward PA. PMID:27625759

  3. Evaluating the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on children’s quality of life, enjoyment and participation in physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An emerging public health strategy is to enhance children’s opportunities to be physically active during school break periods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Lunchtime Enjoyment Activity and Play (LEAP) school playground intervention on primary school children’s quality of life (QOL), enjoyment and participation in physical activity (PA). Methods This study consisted of a movable/recycled materials intervention that included baseline, a 7-week post-test and an 8-month follow-up data collection phase. Children within an intervention school (n = 123) and a matched control school (n = 152) aged 5-to-12-years-old were recruited for the study. Children’s PA was measured using a combination of pedometers and direct observation (SOPLAY). Quality of life, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of lunchtime activities were assessed in the 8-12 year children. A multi-level mixed effect linear regression model was applied in STATA (version 12.0) using the xtmixed command to fit linear mixed models to each of the variables to examine whether there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the intervention and control school at the three time points (pre, post and follow-up). Results Significant overall interaction effects (group × time) were identified for children’s mean steps and distance (pedometers) in the intervention school compared to the control school. Intervention school children also spent significantly higher proportions within specified target areas engaged in higher PA intensities in comparison to the control school at both the 7-week post-test and 8-month follow-up. A short-term treatment effect was revealed after 7-weeks for children’s physical health scale QOL, enjoyment of PA and enjoyment of intra-personal play activities. Conclusions Examining the effects of this school playground intervention over a school year suggested that the introduction of movable/recycled materials can have a significant

  4. A participatory parent-focused intervention promoting physical activity in preschools: design of a cluster-randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background With rates of childhood obesity increasing, physical activity (PA) promotion especially in young children has assumed greater importance. Given the limited effectiveness of most interventions to date, new approaches are needed. The General Systems theory suggests that involving parents as intervention targets may be effective in fostering healthier life styles in children. We describe the development of a parent-focused participatory intervention and the procedures used to evaluate its effectiveness in increasing daily PA in preschoolers. Methods/Design Thirty-seven South German preschools were identified for this study and agreed to participate. Using a two-armed, controlled cluster-randomized trial design we test a participatory intervention with parents as the primary target group and potential agents of behavioural change. Specifically, the intervention is designed to engage parents in the development, refinement and selection of project ideas to promote PA and in incorporating these ideas into daily routines within the preschool community, consisting of children, teachers and parents. Our study is embedded within an existing state-sponsored programme providing structured gym lessons to preschool children. Thus, child-based PA outcomes from the study arm with the parent-focused intervention and the state-sponsored programme are compared with those from the study arm with the state-sponsored programme alone. The evaluation entails baseline measurements of study outcomes as well as follow-up measurements at 6 and 12 months. Accelerometry measures PA intensity over a period of six days, with the mean over six days used as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include childrens' BMI, a sum of averaged skin fold thickness measurements across multiple sites, and PA behaviour. Longitudinal multilevel models are used to assess within-subject change and between-group differences in study outcomes, adjusted for covariates at the preschool and

  5. The effect of a school-centered multicomponent intervention on daily physical activity and sedentary behavior in primary school children: The Active Living study.

    PubMed

    Van Kann, D H H; Kremers, S P J; de Vries, N K; de Vries, S I; Jansen, M W J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of a school-centered multicomponent PA intervention, called 'Active Living', on children's daily PA levels. A quasi-experimental design was used including 9 intervention schools and 9 matched control schools located in the Netherlands. The baseline measurement took place between March-June 2013, and follow-up measurements were conducted 12months afterwards. Accelerometer (ActiGraph, GT3X+) data of 520 children aged 8-11years were collected and supplemented with demographics and weather conditions data. Implementation magnitude of the interventions was measured by keeping logbooks on the number of implemented physical environmental interventions (PEIs) and social environmental interventions (SEIs). Multilevel multivariate linear regression analyses were used to study changes in sedentary behavior (SB), light physical activity (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between baseline and follow-up. Finally, effect sizes (ESs) were calculated using Cohen's d. No pooled effects on PA and SB were found between children exposed and not exposed to Active Living after 12months. However, children attending Active Living schools that implemented larger numbers of both PEIs and SEIs engaged in 15 more minutes of LPA per weekday at follow-up than children in the control condition (ES=0.41; p<.05). Moreover, children attending these schools spent less time in SB at follow-up (ES=0.33), although this effect was non-significant. No significant effects were found on MVPA. A school-centered multicomponent PA intervention holds the potential to activate children, but a comprehensive set of intervention elements with a sufficient magnitude is necessary to achieve at least moderate effect sizes. PMID:27235606

  6. The effectiveness of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity behaviour: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    McEwan, Desmond; Harden, Samantha M; Zumbo, Bruno D; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Kaulius, Megan; Ruissen, Geralyn R; Dowd, A Justine; Beauchamp, Mark R

    2016-03-01

    Drawing from goal setting theory (Latham & Locke, 1991; Locke & Latham, 2002; Locke et al., 1981), the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multi-component goal setting interventions for changing physical activity (PA) behaviour. A literature search returned 41,038 potential articles. Included studies consisted of controlled experimental trials wherein participants in the intervention conditions set PA goals and their PA behaviour was compared to participants in a control group who did not set goals. A meta-analysis was ultimately carried out across 45 articles (comprising 52 interventions, 126 effect sizes, n = 5912) that met eligibility criteria using a random-effects model. Overall, a medium, positive effect (Cohen's d(SE) = .552(.06), 95% CI = .43-.67, Z = 9.03, p < .001) of goal setting interventions in relation to PA behaviour was found. Moderator analyses across 20 variables revealed several noteworthy results with regard to features of the study, sample characteristics, PA goal content, and additional goal-related behaviour change techniques. In conclusion, multi-component goal setting interventions represent an effective method of fostering PA across a diverse range of populations and settings. Implications for effective goal setting interventions are discussed. PMID:26445201

  7. Identifying solutions to increase participation in physical activity interventions within a socio-economically disadvantaged community: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an urgent need to increase population levels of physical activity, particularly amongst those who are socio-economically disadvantaged. Multiple factors influence physical activity behaviour but the generalisability of current evidence to such ‘hard-to-reach’ population subgroups is limited by difficulties in recruiting them into studies. Also, rigorous qualitative studies of lay perceptions and perceptions of community leaders about public health efforts to increase physical activity are sparse. We sought to explore, within a socio-economically disadvantaged community, residents’ and community leaders’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) interventions and issues regarding their implementation, in order to improve understanding of needs, expectations, and social/environmental factors relevant to future interventions. Methods Within an ongoing regeneration project (Connswater Community Greenway), in a socio-economically disadvantaged community in Belfast, we collaborated with a Community Development Agency to purposively sample leaders from public- and voluntary-sector community groups and residents. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 leaders. Residents (n = 113), of both genders and a range of ages (14 to 86 years) participated in focus groups (n = 14) in local facilities. Interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a thematic framework. Results Three main themes were identified: awareness of PA interventions; factors contributing to intervention effectiveness; and barriers to participation in PA interventions. Participants reported awareness only of interventions in which they were involved directly, highlighting a need for better communications, both inter- and intra-sectoral, and with residents. Meaningful engagement of residents in planning/organisation, tailoring to local context, supporting volunteers, providing relevant resources and an ‘exit strategy

  8. Effects of a Web-Based Personalized Intervention on Physical Activity in European Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Celis-Morales, Carlos; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L; Kolossa, Silvia; Woolhead, Clara; O'Donovan, Clare B; Forster, Hannah; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Moschonis, George; Surwillo, Agnieszka; Godlewska, Magdalena; Goris, Annelies; Hoonhout, Jettie; Drevon, Christian A; Manios, Yannis; Traczyk, Iwona; Walsh, Marianne C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Martinez, J Alfredo; Lovegrove, Julie A; Gibney, Michael J; Daniel, Hannelore; Mathers, John C; Saris, Wim HM

    2015-01-01

    measured physical activity level (P<.05), moderate PA (P<.01), and sedentary time (P<.001) for individuals advised to increase PA, but these changes were similar across all groups. Conclusions Different levels of personalization produced similar small changes in objective PA. We found no evidence that personalized advice is more effective than conventional “one size fits all” guidelines to promote changes in PA in our Web-based intervention when PA was measured objectively. Based on self-reports, PA increased to a greater extent with more personalized advice. Thus, it is crucial to measure PA objectively in any PA intervention study. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01530139; http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01530139 (Archived by WebCite at: http://www.webcitation.org/6XII1QwHz) PMID:26467573

  9. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  10. Reliability of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey, physical activity (CAPANS-PA) questionnaire among chinese-australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that differences exist in physical activity (PA) participation among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) children and adolescents. It is possible that these differences could be influenced by variations in measurement technique and instrument reliability. However, culturally sensitive instruments for examining PA behaviour among CALD populations are lacking. This study tested the reliability of the Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS-PA) recall questionnaire among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods The psychometric property of the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was examined among a sample of 77 Chinese-Australian youth (aged 11 - 14 y) who completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days. Test-retest reliability of individual items and scales within the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was determined using Kappa statistics for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Results The CAPANS-PA questionnaire demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for frequency and duration of time spent in weekly Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) (ICC ≥ 0.70) for all participants. Test-retest reliability for time spent in weekly sedentary activities was acceptable for females (ICC = 0.82) and males (ICC = 0.72). Conclusions The results suggest the CAPANS-PA questionnaire provides reliable estimates for type, frequency and duration of MVPA participation among Chinese-Australian youth. Further investigation into the reliability of the sedentary items within the CAPANS-PA is required before these items can be used with confidence. This study is novel in that the reliability of instruments among CALD groups nationally and internationally remains sparse and this study contributes to the wider body of available psychometrically tested instruments. In addition, this study is the first to our knowledge to successfully engage and investigate the basic health

  11. An Adaptive Physical Activity Intervention for Overweight Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Sallis, James F.; Norman, Gregory J.; Hovell, Melbourne F.; Hekler, Eric B.; Perata, Elyse

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible. Objective To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention. Methods Participants (N = 20) were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1) static intervention (SI) or 2) adaptive intervention (AI). Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9±9.2 years, 35% non-white) in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data. Results A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001) and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p = .017). The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74). Conclusions The adaptive

  12. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  13. Hemothorax under thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue: plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in a 16-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Varnholt, V; Ringe, H; Nietsch, L; Gaedicke, G

    1999-12-01

    We present the case of a 16-year-old girl with an extended thrombosis of the femoral and iliac vein and the inferior vena cava during pleuropneumonia; predisposing risk factors for thrombophilia were: use of contraceptives, nicotine abuse and congenital deficiency of antithrombin III (not previously diagnosed). Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; initial dose: 0.08 mg/kg/h) was started. 2 days later--after diagnosis of an extended hemothorax: 1500 ml blood were obtained after thoracocentesis, transfusion of packed red blood cells was necessary--rt-PA was stopped, with only heparin (400 U/kg/d) being administered. 36 h later--the thrombosis had not yet changed--the thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA was continued in a markedly reduced dose (0.015 mg/kg/d) with no further bleeding complications. 8 days later--after successful thrombolysis--t-PA was stopped, heparin was given for another 10 days, then cumarin was administered orally. PMID:10650854

  14. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-03-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using 'bouts' of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  15. Social marketing: approach to cultural and contextual relevance in a community-based physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Colleen; Vega-López, Sonia; Ainsworth, Barbara; Nagle-Williams, Allison; Records, Kathie; Permana, Paska; Coonrod, Dean

    2014-01-01

    We report the social marketing strategies used for the design, recruitment and retention of participants in a community-based physical activity (PA) intervention, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health). The study example used to illustrate the use of social marketing is a 48-week prescribed walking program, Madres para la Salud (Mothers for Health), which tests a social support intervention to explore the effectiveness of a culturally specific program using ‘bouts’ of PA to effect the changes in body fat, fat tissue inflammation and postpartum depression symptoms in sedentary Hispanic women. Using the guidelines from the National Benchmark Criteria, we developed intervention, recruitment and retention strategies that reflect efforts to draw on community values, traditions and customs in intervention design, through partnership with community members. Most of the women enrolled in Madres para la Salud were born in Mexico, largely never or unemployed and resided among the highest crime neighborhoods with poor access to resources. We developed recruitment and retention strategies that characterized social marketing strategies that employed a culturally relevant, consumer driven and problem-specific design. Cost and benefit of program participation, consumer-derived motivation and segmentation strategies considered the development transition of the young Latinas as well as cultural and neighborhood barriers that impacted retention are described. PMID:23002252

  16. High-level expression of a novel recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in the milk of transgenic rabbits and its thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Ge, Xin; Cheng, Yaobin; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Baoli; Ji, Xueqiao; Qi, Zhengqiang; Rong, Yao; Yuan, Yuguo; Cheng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key kinase of fibrinolysis that plays an important role in dissolving fibrin clots to promote thrombolysis. The recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) has more thrombolytic advantages than the wild type tPA. To increase the half-life and thrombolytic activity of tPA, a mutant containing only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P activating plasminogen domains of the wild type tPA was cloned. This fragment was then inserted into goat β-casein regulatory sequences. Then, a mammary gland-specific expression vector, PCL25/rhPA, was constructed, and the transgenic rabbits were generated. In this study, 18 live transgenic founders (12♀, 6♂) were generated using pronuclear microinjection. Six transgenic rabbits were obtained, and the expression levels of rhPA in the milk had a range of 15.2-630 µg/ml. A fibrin agarose plate assay of rhPA showed that it had strong thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro, and the highest specific activity was >360 (360 times more than that of alteplase). The results indicated that the rhPA containing only the K2 and P domains is efficiently expressed with higher thrombolytic bioactivity in the milk of transgenic rabbits. Our study also demonstrated a new method for the large-scale production of clinically relevant recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits. PMID:27230577

  17. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  18. Activity-Focused Motor Interventions for Children with Neurological Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valvano, Joanne

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a model to guide activity-focused physical therapy and occupational therapy interventions for children with neurological conditions. Activity-focused interventions involve structured practice and repetition of functional actions and are directed toward the learning of motor tasks that will increase independence and…

  19. Citizen participation in police crisis intervention activities.

    PubMed

    Baumann, D J; Schultz, D F; Brown, C; Paredes, R; Hepworth, J

    1987-08-01

    A naturalistic experiment tested the proposition that police time could be saved in nondangerous crisis intervention calls through the use of citizen participants. Results showed that police officers who used citizen intervention spent less time per call than officers who did not. However, police time was not saved in family disturbance calls. Family disturbance control group calls were rated by police as having a higher degree of physical danger present than other calls. PMID:3673956

  20. A Classroom-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Urban Kindergarten and First-Grade Students: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Wylie-Rosett, Judith; Kim, Mimi; Ozuah, Philip O.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Urban elementary schools in minority communities with high obesity prevalence may have limited resources for physical education (PE) to achieve daily activity recommendations. Little is known whether integrating physical activity (PA) into classrooms can increase activity levels of students attending such schools. Methods: We conducted a cluster randomized, controlled trial among kindergarten and first-grade students from four Bronx, New York, schools to determine feasibility and impact of a classroom-based intervention on students' PA levels. Students in two intervention schools received the Children's Hospital at Montefiore Joining Academics and Movement (CHAM JAM), an audio CD consisting of 10-minute, education-focused aerobic activities led by teachers three times a day. PA was objectively measured by pedometer. Each subject wore a sealed pedometer during the 6-hour school day for 5 consecutive days at baseline (Time 1) and 8 weeks postintervention (Time 2). Hierarchical linear models were fit to evaluate differences in mean number of steps between the two groups. Results: A total of 988 students participated (intervention group, n=500; control group, n=488). There was no significant difference at baseline between the two groups on mean number of steps (2581 [standard deviation (SD), 1284] vs. 2476 [SD, 1180]; P=0.71). Eight weeks post–CHAM JAM, intervention group students took significantly greater mean number of steps than controls (2839 [SD, 1262] vs. 2545 [SD, 1153]; P=0.0048) after adjusting for baseline number of steps and other covariates (grade, gender, recess, and PE class). CHAM JAM was equally effective in gender, grade level, and BMI subgroups. Conclusions: CHAM JAM significantly increased school-based PA among kindergarten and first-grade students in inner-city schools. This approach holds promise as a cost-effective means to integrate the physical and cognitive benefits of PA into high-risk schools. PMID:25747719

  1. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-San; Celentano, David D; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-10-01

    Controlled trials of HIV prevention and care interventions are susceptible to contamination. In a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among people who inject drugs and their risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand, we tested a contamination measure based on recall of intervention terms. We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms among intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds of recall of test versus negative control terms between study arms. The contamination measures showed good discriminant ability among participants in Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was strong evidence of diffusion and contamination. Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in experimental interventions. PMID:25935214

  2. CFTR suppresses tumor progression through miR-193b targeting urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, C; Jiang, X H; Zhang, J T; Sun, T T; Dong, J D; Sanders, A J; Diao, R Y; Wang, Y; Fok, K L; Tsang, L L; Yu, M K; Zhang, X H; Chung, Y W; Ye, L; Zhao, M Y; Guo, J H; Xiao, Z J; Lan, H Y; Ng, C F; Lau, K M; Cai, Z M; Jiang, W G; Chan, H C

    2013-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in the epithelial cells of a wide range of organs/tissues from which most cancers are derived. Although accumulating reports have indicated the association of cancer incidence with genetic variations in CFTR gene, the exact role of CFTR in cancer development and the possible underlying mechanism have not been elucidated. Here, we report that CFTR expression is significantly decreased in both prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissue samples. Overexpression of CFTR in prostate cancer cell lines suppresses tumor progression (cell growth, adhesion and migration), whereas knockdown of CFTR leads to enhanced malignancies both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that CFTR knockdown-enhanced cell proliferation, cell invasion and migration are significantly reversed by antibodies against either urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or uPA receptor (uPAR), which are known to be involved in various malignant traits of cancer development. More interestingly, overexpression of CFTR suppresses uPA by upregulating the recently described tumor suppressor microRNA-193b (miR-193b), and overexpression of pre-miR-193b significantly reverses CFTR knockdown-enhanced malignant phenotype and abrogates elevated uPA activity in prostate cancer cell line. Finally, we show that CFTR gene transfer results in significant tumor repression in prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated a previously undefined tumor-suppressing role of CFTR and its involvement in regulation of miR-193b in prostate cancer development. PMID:22797075

  3. Action 3:30: protocol for a randomized feasibility trial of a teaching assistant led extracurricular physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many children do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. Extracurricular programmes could provide a mechanism to increase the PA levels of primary-school-aged children. Teaching assistants (TAs) are a valuable resource in all UK primary schools and could be trained to delivery after-school PA programmes. The aim of this feasibility study is to examine whether the Action 3:30 PA intervention, which is delivered by TAs, could be effective in increasing the PA of Year 5 and 6 children. Methods/Design A feasibility trial will be conducted in 20 primary schools. Schools will be randomly assigned to intervention or control arms. Intervention schools will receive a 25-hour TA training programme for two TAs, a first-aid certificate course for two TAs; ongoing TA support; 40 one-hour session plans that can be delivered by TAs; Action 3:30 clubs that run twice a week for 20 weeks; and ten sets of parent information sheets that are distributed biweekly. All measures will be assessed at baseline (Time 0), at the end of the intervention period (Time 1) and four months after the intervention has ended (Time 2). As this is a feasibility study, our primary interest is in estimating the recruitment of schools and children, adherence to the intervention, and completeness of data collection for outcomes and costs. As the most likely primary outcome measure in a future definitive trial will be accelerometer-determined minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per day, participants will wear accelerometers for five days (including two weekend days). Several psychosocial variables that could act as mediators in a future trial will be assessed via a questionnaire. Process evaluations of the session attendance, perceived enjoyment and perceived exertion will be assessed during the intervention. At the end of the intervention period, qualitative assessments will be conducted to identify how the programme could be improved before proceeding to a larger trial. Discussion The

  4. Longitudinal associations with changes in outdoor recreation area use for physical activity during a community-based intervention.

    PubMed

    Schoffman, Danielle E; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Forthofer, Melinda; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent; Child, Stephanie T; Hughey, S Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Outdoor recreation areas (ORA) are important resources for physical activity (PA) and health promotion. While past research has identified correlates of ORA use, few studies have examined predictors of longitudinal changes in park- and trail-based PA in community settings. Using data from a 6-month community-based walking intervention study, we examined cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of PA in ORAs. Data were collected from baseline and 6-month assessments from participants (n=295) in a group walking intervention in South Carolina; participants enrolled from January 2012-May 2013. A decomposition scheme was used to examine the cross-sectional and longitudinal predictors of average group ORA use for PA, including social support, self-efficacy for PA, perceptions of neighborhood environment, and accelerometer-based PA, adjusting for gender. On average, participants were 49.4+13.3years old, 66.1% were Black, and the majority were women. There was a mean increase in group ORA use of 2.1+0.4days/month from baseline to 6months. Cross-sectionally, higher levels of the percentage of time in MVPA, self-efficacy, and social support were associated with greater group-average ORA use. Longitudinally, increased social support from friends and rating of lighter motorized traffic were associated with increased group ORA use. Additionally, longitudinal increases in percentage of MVPA and more favorable rating of the neighborhood as a place to walk were both associated with decreased group ORA use. Better understanding how social and physical environmental characteristics impact ORA use for PA can lead to more effective intervention strategies and warrants greater attention in future research and public health promotion efforts. PMID:26096192

  5. Evidence, Theory and Context: Using intervention mapping to develop a worksite physical activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    McEachan, Rosemary RC; Lawton, Rebecca J; Jackson, Cath; Conner, Mark; Lunt, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background The workplace is an ideal setting for health promotion. Helping employees to be more physically active can not only improve their physical and mental health, but can also have economic benefits such as reduced sickness absence. The current paper describes the development of a three month theory-based intervention that aims to increase levels of moderate intensity physical activity amongst employees in sedentary occupations. Methods The intervention was developed using an intervention mapping protocol. The intervention was also informed by previous literature, qualitative focus groups, an expert steering group, and feedback from key contacts within a range of organisations. Results The intervention was designed to target awareness (e.g. provision of information), motivation (e.g. goal setting, social support) and environment (e.g. management support) and to address behavioural (e.g. increasing moderate physical activity in work) and interpersonal outcomes (e.g. encourage colleagues to be more physically active). The intervention can be implemented by local facilitators without the requirement for a large investment of resources. A facilitator manual was developed which listed step by step instructions on how to implement each component along with a suggested timetable. Conclusion Although time consuming, intervention mapping was found to be a useful tool for developing a theory based intervention. The length of this process has implications for the way in which funding bodies allow for the development of interventions as part of their funding policy. The intervention will be evaluated in a cluster randomised trial involving 1350 employees from 5 different organisations, results available September 2009. PMID:18808709

  6. Systematic review of active workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The workplace is used as a setting for interventions to prevent and reduce sickness absence, regardless of the specific medical conditions and diagnoses. Aims To give an overview of the general effectiveness of active workplace interventions aimed at preventing and reducing sickness absence. Methods We systematically searched PubMed, Embase, Psych-info, and ISI web of knowledge on 27 December 2011. Inclusion criteria were (i) participants over 18 years old with an active role in the intervention, (ii) intervention done partly or fully at the workplace or at the initiative of the workplace and (iii) sickness absence reported. Two reviewers independently screened articles, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. A narrative synthesis was used. Results We identified 2036 articles of which, 93 were assessed in full text. Seventeen articles were included (2 with low and 15 with medium risk of bias), with a total of 24 comparisons. Five interventions from four articles significantly reduced sickness absence. We found moderate evidence that graded activity reduced sickness absence and limited evidence that the Sheerbrooke model (a comprehensive multidisciplinary intervention) and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) reduced sickness absence. There was moderate evidence that workplace education and physical exercise did not reduce sickness absence. For other interventions, the evidence was insufficient to draw conclusions. Conclusions The review found limited evidence that active workplace interventions were not generally effective in reducing sickness absence, but there was moderate evidence of effect for graded activity and limited evidence for the effectiveness of the Sheerbrooke model and CBT. PMID:23223750

  7. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of Two Internet-enhanced Culturally Relevant Physical Activity Interventions for Young Overweight African-American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori W.; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2014-01-01

    This research team has designed and implemented 2 culturally relevant, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) interventions for overweight/obese African-American female college students. Presumably, these are the only prospectively designed, culturally relevant interventions using the Internet to promote PA among African-American women. Due to the limited research on this topic, the experiences associated the design and implementation of these studies were syntesized and 5 key lessons learned from this research were formulated. Findings provide insight for researchers to consider when developing Internet-based PA promotion interventions for African-American women. Lessons learned included: 1) Elicit and incorporate feedback from the target population throughout development of an Internet-based PA promotion tool; 2) Incorporate new and emerging technologies into Internet-enhanced PA programs; 3) Maintain frequent participant contact and provide frequent incentives to promote participant engagement; 4) Supplement Internet-based efforts with face-to-face interactions; 5) Include diverse images of African-American women and culturally relevant PA-related information in Internet-based PA promotion materials. PMID:25653465

  8. Assessment of contamination and misclassification biases in a randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention to reduce HIV risk behaviors among drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Nicole; Donnell, Deborah; Ou, San-san; Celentano, David D.; Aramrattana, Apinun; Davis-Vogel, Annet; Metzger, David; Latkin, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Context Controlled trials of educational interventions are susceptible to contamination. Objectives To test a contamination measure based on recall of terms. Main study A randomized controlled trial of a social network peer education intervention among 1,123 injection drug users and risk partners in Philadelphia, PA and Chiang Mai, Thailand. Methods We assessed the recall of test, negative and positive control terms by intervention and control arm participants and compared the relative odds (OR) of recall of test vs. negative control terms between study arms. Results The contamination measure showed good discriminant ability only among participants from Chiang Mai. In Philadelphia there was no evidence of contamination and little evidence of diffusion. In Chiang Mai there was evidence of diffusion and contamination of 4 of 5 terms tested. Conclusions Network structure and peer education in Chiang Mai likely led to contamination. Recall of intervention materials can be a useful method to detect contamination in trials of educational interventions. PMID:25935214

  9. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brassinga, Ann Karen C; Belmonte, Mark F; Fernando, W G Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C; de Kievit, Teresa R

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which should facilitate

  10. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brassinga, Ann Karen C.; Belmonte, Mark F.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which should facilitate

  11. Development of a Fully Automated, Web-Based, Tailored Intervention Promoting Regular Physical Activity Among Insufficiently Active Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Integrating the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing Components

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Michel; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that fewer than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the recommendations, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity (PA) are in demand for this population. Many researchers argue that Web-based, tailored interventions targeting PA are a promising and effective avenue for sedentary populations like Canadians with type 2 diabetes, but few have described the detailed development of this kind of intervention. Objective This paper aims to describe the systematic development of the Web-based, tailored intervention, Diabète en Forme, promoting regular aerobic PA among adult Canadian francophones with type 2 diabetes. This paper can be used as a reference for health professionals interested in developing similar interventions. We also explored the integration of theoretical components derived from the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing, which is a potential path for enhancing the effectiveness of tailored interventions on PA adoption and maintenance. Methods The intervention development was based on the program-planning model for tailored interventions of Kreuter et al. An additional step was added to the model to evaluate the intervention’s usability prior to the implementation phase. An 8-week intervention was developed. The key components of the intervention include a self-monitoring tool for PA behavior, a weekly action planning tool, and eight tailored motivational sessions based on attitude, self-efficacy, intention, type of motivation, PA behavior, and other constructs and techniques. Usability evaluation, a step added to the program-planning model, helped to make several improvements to the intervention prior to the implementation phase. Results The intervention development cost was

  12. Associations between physical activity and quality of life outcomes in adults with severe obesity: a cross-sectional study prior to the beginning of a lifestyle intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severely obese individuals who seek lifestyle interventions have impaired quality of life (QoL). Research suggests that physical activity (PA) plays a role in weight reduction and improved health in this group, but knowledge about the association of PA with QoL outcomes is sparse and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a higher level of PA was independently associated with higher QoL in severely obese individuals prior to the beginning of a lifestyle intervention. Methods During 2010, a total of 49 severely obese individuals who began a lifestyle intervention programme in Western Norway agreed to participate in the study. Data were collected prior to the beginning of the intervention. QoL was measured by a one-item scale on life satisfaction and the SF-36, PA was measured by an accelerometer, and clinical data were collected by health staff. Linear regression analyses were used to determine the associations between PA and QoL outcomes (life satisfaction, physical functioning, and mental health), adjusting for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Results In the adjusted analyses, we found positive relationships between PA and life satisfaction (Stand. coeff. 0.39, p = 0.024) and physical functioning (Stand. coeff. 0.34, p = 0.025). There was no association between PA and mental health (Stand. coeff. 0.15, p = 0.376). Conclusion This study detected associations between objectively measured PA and life satisfaction as well as physical functioning in a group of severely obese individuals before they began a lifestyle intervention programme. PMID:24188415

  13. MHEALTH INTERVENTION DEVELOPMENT TO SUPPORT PATIENTS WITH ACTIVE TUBERCULOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Iribarren, Sarah J.; Beck, Susan L.; Pearce, Patricia F.; Chirico, Cristina; Etchevarria, Mirta; Rubinstein, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile Health (mHealth) based interventions have been increasingly used to improve a broad range of health outcomes. However, few researchers have reported on the process or the application of theory to guide the development of mHealth based interventions, or specifically for tuberculosis (TB) treatment management. Aims To describe the steps, process, and considerations in developing a text messaging-based intervention to promote treatment adherence and provide support to patients with active TB. Methods Traditional qualitative techniques, including semi-structured interviews, field notes, content analysis, iterative coding, and thematic analysis, were used to design and document the intervention development with a multidisciplinary team of researchers, clinicians, administrators, and patients who were in active TB treatment. The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model was used to guide the coding scheme for content analysis of patient-directed TB educational material and intervention development. Results The development steps included: a) establishing intervention components, including justifications, considerations, timing and frequency of components; b) developing educational messages, including cultural adaption, text or short message service (SMS) formatting, and prioritizing message delivery order; and c) determining implementation protocol. A set of 16 IMB-based messages were developed for the educational component. Final intervention development was achieved in 3 months. Conclusion A collaborative approach and application of a theory to guide the intervention design and development is supported. Although a collaborative approach was more time consuming, it resulted in a more responsive, culturally appropriate, and comprehensive intervention. Considerations for developing a text messaging based intervention are provided and may serve as a guide for similar interventions. Further empirical evidence is needed for applying the IMB model

  14. Antiviral Activity of Bay 41-4109 on Hepatitis B Virus in Humanized Alb-uPA/SCID Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brezillon, Nicolas; Brunelle, Marie-Noëlle; Massinet, Hélène; Giang, Eric; Lamant, Céline; DaSilva, Lucie; Berissi, Sophie; Belghiti, Jacques; Hannoun, Laurent; Puerstinger, Gherard; Wimmer, Eva; Neyts, Johan; Hantz, Olivier; Soussan, Patrick; Morosan, Serban; Kremsdorf, Dina

    2011-01-01

    Current treatments for HBV chronic carriers using interferon alpha or nucleoside analogues are not effective in all patients and may induce the emergence of HBV resistant strains. Bay 41-4109, a member of the heteroaryldihydropyrimidine family, inhibits HBV replication by destabilizing capsid assembly. The aim of this study was to determine the antiviral effect of Bay 41-4109 in a mouse model with humanized liver and the spread of active HBV. Antiviral assays of Bay 41-4109 on HepG2.2.15 cells constitutively expressing HBV, displayed an IC50 of about 202 nM with no cell toxicity. Alb-uPA/SCID mice were transplanted with human hepatocytes and infected with HBV. Ten days post-infection, the mice were treated with Bay 41-4109 for five days. During the 30 days of follow-up, the HBV load was evaluated by quantitative PCR. At the end of treatment, decreased HBV viremia of about 1 log(10) copies/ml was observed. By contrast, increased HBV viremia of about 0.5 log(10) copies/ml was measured in the control group. Five days after the end of treatment, a rebound of HBV viremia occurred in the treated group. Furthermore, 15 days after treatment discontinuation, a similar expression of the viral capsid was evidenced in liver biopsies. Our findings demonstrate that Bay 41-4109 displayed antiviral properties against HBV in humanized Alb-uPA/SCID mice and confirm the usefulness of Alb-uPA/SCID mice for the evaluation of pharmaceutical compounds. The administration of Bay 41-4109 may constitute a new strategy for the treatment of patients in escape from standard antiviral therapy. PMID:22162746

  15. Intervention Markers of Physical Activity Maintenance in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Floegel, Theresa A.; Giacobbi, Peter R.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Aiken-Morgan, Adrienne T.; Roberts, Beverly; McCrae, Christina S.; Marsiske, Michael; Buman, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify intervention components that may promote long-term changes of physical activity among older adults in a behavioral theory-based physical activity trial. Methods Participants (N = 24; aged 65±8.79 years) shared perceptions of intervention components at the end of the intervention and physical activity was assessed at 18 months. Mixed-methods analyses using a pragmatic content analysis of interview data were conducted. Results Active study participants (25%) cited more specific goals/actions to achieve goals and more social support from family/friends, and had significantly higher self-determined motivation mean scores at 18 months than insufficiently active study participants (75%). Conclusions Specific goal-setting behaviors and social support from family/friends may be key elements of physical activity maintenance in older adults. PMID:26018097

  16. Immune Activation and HIV Persistence: Considerations for Novel Therapeutic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Hatano, Hiroyu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review One of the potential barriers to current HIV cure strategies is the persistence of elevated levels of immune activation despite otherwise effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this review is to examine the relationship between immune activation and HIV persistence, and to review novel therapeutic interventions that are currently being pursued to target immune activation in treated HIV disease. Recent findings Multiple groups have consistently observed that elevated levels of inflammation, immune activation, and immune dysfunction persist in ART-treated individuals, despite successful suppression of plasma viremia. Increased immune activation may lead to viral persistence through multiple mechanisms. Several novel interventions aimed at decreasing persistent immune activation are being pursued and include studies aimed at decreasing low-level viral replication, approaches aimed at decreasing microbial translocation, interventions to treat co-infections, and therapies that directly target immune activation. Summary There appears to be a clear and consistent relationship between immune activation and viral persistence in treated HIV disease. Whether this relationship is causal or mediated through other mechanisms is still unknown. Small-scale, pathogenesis-oriented interventional studies are necessary to further evaluate this relationship and the effect of potential interventions. PMID:23454864

  17. Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. Objective The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner’s degree of presence in the online media. Methods Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based–high presence, group dynamics-based–low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based–low presence and group dynamics-based–high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based–high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1. Results Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based–low presence (overall

  18. Behavioral intervention to reduce AIDS risk activities.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J A; St Lawrence, J S; Hood, H V; Brasfield, T L

    1989-02-01

    Behavior change can curtail the spread of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study, 104 gay men with a history of frequent AIDS high-risk behavior completed self-report, self-monitoring, and behavioral measures related to AIDS risk. The sample was randomly divided into experimental and waiting-list control groups. The experimental intervention provided AIDS risk education, cognitive-behavioral self-management training, sexual assertion training, and attention to the development of steady and self-affirming social supports. Experimental group participants greatly reduced their frequency of high-risk sexual practices and increased behavioral skills for refusing sexual coercions, AIDS risk knowledge, and adoption of "safer sex" practices. Change was maintained at the 8-month follow-up. PMID:2925974

  19. Progression of Osteosarcoma from a Non-Metastatic to a Metastatic Phenotype Is Causally Associated with Activation of an Autocrine and Paracrine uPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    Endo-Munoz, Liliana; Cai, Na; Cumming, Andrew; Macklin, Rebecca; Merida de Long, Lilia; Topkas, Eleni; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Hill, Michelle; Saunders, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary metastasis is the major untreatable complication of osteosarcoma (OS) resulting in 10–20% long-term survival. The factors and pathways regulating these processes remain unclear, yet their identification is crucial in order to find new therapeutic targets. In this study we used a multi-omics approach to identify molecules in metastatic and non-metastatic OS cells that may contribute to OS metastasis, followed by validation in vitro and in vivo. We found elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and of the uPA receptor (uPAR) exclusively in metastatic OS cells. uPA was secreted in soluble form and as part of the protein cargo of OS-secreted extracellular vesicles, including exosomes. In addition, in the tumour microenvironment, uPA was expressed and secreted by bone marrow cells (BMC), and OS- and BMC-derived uPA significantly and specifically stimulated migration of metastatic OS cells via uPA-dependent signaling pathways. Silencing of uPAR in metastatic OS cells abrogated the migratory response to uPA in vitro and decreased metastasis in vivo. Finally, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of uPA significantly (P = 0.0004) inhibited metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of OS. Thus, we show for the first time that malignant conversion of OS cells to a metastatic phenotype is defined by activation of the uPA/uPAR axis in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, metastasis is driven by changes in OS cells as well as in the microenvironment. Finally, our data show that pharmacological inhibition of the uPA/uPAR axis with a novel small-molecule inhibitor can prevent the emergence of metastatic foci. PMID:26317203

  20. Progression of Osteosarcoma from a Non-Metastatic to a Metastatic Phenotype Is Causally Associated with Activation of an Autocrine and Paracrine uPA Axis.

    PubMed

    Endo-Munoz, Liliana; Cai, Na; Cumming, Andrew; Macklin, Rebecca; Merida de Long, Lilia; Topkas, Eleni; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Hill, Michelle; Saunders, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary metastasis is the major untreatable complication of osteosarcoma (OS) resulting in 10-20% long-term survival. The factors and pathways regulating these processes remain unclear, yet their identification is crucial in order to find new therapeutic targets. In this study we used a multi-omics approach to identify molecules in metastatic and non-metastatic OS cells that may contribute to OS metastasis, followed by validation in vitro and in vivo. We found elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and of the uPA receptor (uPAR) exclusively in metastatic OS cells. uPA was secreted in soluble form and as part of the protein cargo of OS-secreted extracellular vesicles, including exosomes. In addition, in the tumour microenvironment, uPA was expressed and secreted by bone marrow cells (BMC), and OS- and BMC-derived uPA significantly and specifically stimulated migration of metastatic OS cells via uPA-dependent signaling pathways. Silencing of uPAR in metastatic OS cells abrogated the migratory response to uPA in vitro and decreased metastasis in vivo. Finally, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of uPA significantly (P = 0.0004) inhibited metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of OS. Thus, we show for the first time that malignant conversion of OS cells to a metastatic phenotype is defined by activation of the uPA/uPAR axis in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, metastasis is driven by changes in OS cells as well as in the microenvironment. Finally, our data show that pharmacological inhibition of the uPA/uPAR axis with a novel small-molecule inhibitor can prevent the emergence of metastatic foci. PMID:26317203

  1. [u-Plasminogen activator (urinary plasminogen activator, urokinase) (uPA) and its PA-1 type 1 inhibitor are not only prognostically but also predictively significant and support clinical decisions on therapy in primary carcinoma of the breast].

    PubMed

    Harbeck, N; Thomssen, C

    2003-09-01

    uPA and PAI-1 are the first novel tumor biological prognostic factors in breast cancer for which the prognostic impact has been validated at the highest level of evidence and hence all evaluation criteria for transfer into clinical practice have been fullfilled. Breast cancer patients with high uPA and/or PAI-1 levels in their primary tumor tissue have a significantly lower chance for cure than patients with low levels of both uPA and PAI-1. Our research that was honored with the Schmidt-Matthiesen-Award 2002 shows for the first time that uPA and PAI-1 are not only prognostic factors but also have a predictive impact with regard to response to adjuvant chemotherapy. Patients with high uPA/PAI-1 derive a significantly greater benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy than patients with low uPA/PAI-1. Benefit from adjuvant endocrine therapy is independent of uPA/PAI-1 status. The resulting question about the optimal chemotherapy for patients with high uPA/PAI-1 is currently being addressed in Germany by the NNBC-3 trial in node-negative breast cancer (AGO, EORTC-RBG) as well as the ADEBAR trial in patients with 4 or more involved axillary lymph nodes. Moreover, our results suggest the use of novel therapeutic agents interfering with the uPA system together with conventional chemotherapy in patients with high uPA/PAI-1 already in early stage disease. PMID:14569518

  2. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta, and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2015-12-01

    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far-UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines, which can be identified with broad wings. We produce Hα, Hβ, and Paα wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density {N}{{H} {{I}}} being roughly proportional to {N}{{H} {{I}}}1/2. In particular, with {N}{{H} {{I}}}={10}23 {{cm}}-2 the Hα wings typically show a width ∼ 2× {10}4 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We also find that Hα and Paα wing profiles are asymmetric with the red part stronger than the blue part and an opposite behavior is seen for Hβ wings.

  3. Results of a Culturally Adapted Internet-Enhanced Physical Activity Pilot Intervention for Overweight and Obese Young Adult African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Pekmezi, Dori; Dutton, Gareth R.; Cherrington, Andrea L.; Kim, Young-II; Allison, Jeroan J.; Durant, Nefertiti H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated a culturally relevant, social cognitive theory–based, Internet-enhanced physical activity (PA) pilot intervention developed for overweight/obese African American (AA) female college students. Design Using a 3-month, single group, pretest–posttest design, participants accessed a culturally relevant PA promotion website and engaged in four moderate-intensity PA sessions each week. Results Study completers (n = 25, mean age = 21.9 years) reported a decrease in sedentary screen time (p < .0001); however, no changes in moderate-to-vigorous PA were reported (p = .150). A significant increase in self-regulation for PA (p < .0001) and marginally significant increases in social support (p = .052) and outcome expectations (p = .057) for PA were observed. No changes in body mass index (p = .162), PA enjoyment (p = .151), or exercise self-efficacy (p = .086) were reported. Conclusions Findings of this exploratory study show some preliminary support for Internet-enhanced approaches to promote PA among overweight/obese AA women. Implications for Practice Future studies with larger samples are needed to further explore culturally relevant Internet-enhanced PA programs in this underserved population. PMID:24934566

  4. Active play exercise intervention in children with asthma: a PILOT STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Westergren, Thomas; Fegran, Liv; Nilsen, Tonje; Haraldstad, Kristin; Kittang, Ole Bjørn; Berntsen, Sveinung

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increased physical activity (PA) may be beneficial for children with asthma. Knowledge about how to intervene and encourage children with asthma to be physically active is required. In the present study, we aimed to pilot a 6-week exercise intervention designed as active play and examine attendance rate, exercise intensity and children's perceptions of participating. Methods 6 children with asthma (4 boys, 2 girls) aged 10–12 years, participated in 60 min of active play exercise twice weekly. A mixed-methods design was applied. The data analysed included attendance rate, exercise intensity assessed by heart rate (HR) monitoring during exercise sessions, registration and description of the active play exercise programme, 3 semistructured focus groups, field observations of 5 exercise sessions, and preintervention and postintervention testing. Findings The average attendance rate was 90%. Intensity ≥80% of maximal HR (HRmax) was recorded for a median (IQR) time of 22 (8) out of 60 min per session. Median (IQR) HR during the sessions was 146 (9; 74% of HRmax) bpm. Children reported increased health-related quality of life (HRQoL) post-test compared with baseline. Children enjoyed participating and reported no limitations by asthma or serious asthma attacks. Instead, they perceived that their asthma and fitness had improved after the programme. The instructors created an inclusive atmosphere that was characterised by easy-to-master games, fair competition, humour and mutual participation. Conclusions The exercise intervention pilot focusing on active play had a high attendance rate, relatively high exercise intensity, and satisfaction; the children perceived that their fitness and asthma had improved, and reported increased HRQoL. A randomised controlled trial of active play exercise including children with asthma should be conducted to evaluate effect on PA level, physical fitness, asthma control and HRQoL. PMID:26733570

  5. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Outcomes of Rural Lifestyle Interventions.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yun; Richards, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this systematic review is to analyze current lifestyle intervention literature conducted in U.S. rural areas to identify the most effective and impactful interventions on physical activity outcomes. Quality of studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. Exploratory calculations of effect size and 95% confidence intervals were performed to demonstrate trends in clinical importance. Eight trials which included 1,399 adult participants met the inclusion criteria for review. Two trials reported a significant difference in the increase of physical activity between groups with medium to large effect sizes. Interventions which are very personalized or tailored and/or include many intervention contacts appear to be most effective. However, the small number of studies, mixed findings, and the risk of bias limit our ability to draw conclusion. PMID:26728043

  6. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  7. Are Physical Activity Interventions Equally Effective in Adolescents of Low and High Socio-Economic Status (SES): Results from the European Teenage Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Simon, C.; De Meester, F.; Van Lenthe, F.; Spittaels, H.; Lien, N.; Faggiano, F.; Mercken, L.; Moore, L.; Haerens, L.

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to study whether physical activity (PA) interventions in European teenagers are equally effective in adolescents of low versus high socio-economic status (SES). Based on a systematic review (Project TEENAGE), three school-based studies for secondary analyses were selected. SES stratified analyses were run in: (i) a Belgian…

  8. Making healthy eating and physical activity policy practice: process evaluation of a group randomized controlled intervention in afterschool programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, R Glenn; Beets, Michael W; Hutto, Brent; Saunders, Ruth P; Moore, Justin B; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer L; Ward, Dianne S; Pate, Russell R; Beighle, Aaron; Freedman, Darcy

    2015-12-01

    This study describes the link between level of implementation and outcomes from an intervention to increase afterschool programs' (ASPs) achievement of healthy eating and physical activity (HE-PA) Standards. Ten intervention ASPs implemented the Strategies-To-Enhance-Practice (STEPs), a multi-component, adaptive intervention framework identifying factors essential to meeting HE-PA Standards, while 10 control ASPs continued routine practice. All programs, intervention and control, were assigned a STEPs for HE-PA index score based on implementation. Mixed-effects linear regressions showed high implementation ASPs had the greatest percentage of boys and girls achieving 30 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (47.3 and 29.3%), followed by low implementation ASPs (41.3 and 25.0%), and control ASPs (34.8 and 18.5%). For healthy eating, high/low implementation programs served fruits and vegetables an equivalent number of days, but more days than control programs (74.0 and 79.1% of days versus 14.2%). A similar pattern emerged for the percent of days sugar-sweetened foods and beverages were served, with high and low implementation programs serving sugar-sweetened foods (8.0 and 8.4% of days versus 52.2%), and beverages (8.7 and 2.9% of days versus 34.7%) equivalently, but less often than control programs. Differences in characteristics and implementation of STEPs for HE-PA between high/low implementers were also identified. PMID:26590240

  9. Patient education interventions to improve physical activity in patients with intermittent claudication: a protocol for a systematic mixed-studies review

    PubMed Central

    Abaraogu, Ukachukwu Okoroafor; Dall, Philippa Margaret; Seenan, Christopher Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent claudication (IC) decrease an individual's capacity to engage in physical activity (PA) with potentially negative effects on PA behaviour. Strategies to improve PA among this population may provide a range of positive health benefits. We present a protocol to assess the components of patient education interventions that improve PA capacity and PA behaviour in patients with PAD and IC. Methods and analysis Published peer-reviewed studies will be searched in the following databases: CINAHL, the Cochrane Library, OVID, ProQuest, AMED, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science Core Collection and PEDro, to identify literature investigating the effect of patient education on PA of patients with PAD and IC, or studies that investigated patients' perceptions or experience with these interventions. Two authors will independently perform screening for study eligibility, result synthesis and then appraise study quality. For interventions without follow-up, primary outcome measures will include change in PA capacity, or change in free-living PA behaviour; where there was a follow-up postintervention, the primary outcome will be rate of adherence to PA behaviour improvement. A three-phase sequential explanatory synthesis of mixed studies will be employed to answer the research questions. Homogenous quantitative data will be analysed using a random-effects model of meta-analysis with results presented as relative risk for dichotomous outcomes and as weighted or standardised means for continuous outcomes. Qualitative data will be analysed using thematic synthesis. This review protocol is reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 guidelines. Trial registration number CRD42015027314. PMID:27207628

  10. Intervention fidelity and effectiveness of a UK worksite physical activity intervention funded by the BUPA Foundation, UK.

    PubMed

    Lawton, Rebecca; Mceachan, Rosie; Jackson, Cath; West, Robert; Conner, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The main aim of this study was to test whether the effectiveness of a worksite physical activity intervention delivered in five work organizations varied as a function of intervention fidelity. We conducted a fidelity analysis as part of a large matched-pair cluster randomized controlled trial of a worksite physical activity intervention (AME for Activity). Participants (N = 1260) were employees from five organizations in the UK. The primary trial outcome was physical activity at 9 months post intervention. Adherence, exposure, quality of delivery and participant responsiveness/engagement were measured to assess fidelity. Qualitative data about the context in which the intervention was delivered were collected via focus groups, interviews and field notes. Multi-level modelling was used to provide a comparison of the effect of the intervention on increases in physical activity for worksites where intervention fidelity was good, compared with those where intervention fidelity was poor or moderate. Intervention fidelity was poor in two organizations, moderate in two organizations and good in one organization (local council). Re-analysis of the trial data comparing employees in the local council (N = 443) with employees in all other worksites (N = 611) revealed a significant effect of the intervention on physical activity levels among council employees only. These findings suggest that the measurement of fidelity and the testing of the effects of intervention fidelity on outcomes, as part of the evaluation of complex interventions, are essential to understand the context and conditions in which interventions are most effective. PMID:25296727

  11. Effects of a multi-pronged intervention on children's activity levels at recess: the Aventuras para Niños study.

    PubMed

    Elder, John P; McKenzie, Thomas L; Arredondo, Elva M; Crespo, Noe C; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2011-03-01

    Latino children spend more time in sedentary activities than other American children, and only ~1 in 5 Latino children in public elementary and middle schools meet all 6 fitness standards in statewide fitness testing. Schools that facilitate physical activity (PA) by maintaining playgrounds and providing physical education classes have children who are more active and less overweight. The aims of the present study were to examine the extent to which several social and physical environmental changes in school settings resulted in observed changes in area characteristics and children's activity levels during recess. Thirteen elementary schools serving predominantly Mexican American children were randomized into control or activity and nutrition environmental intervention conditions. Playgrounds and activities were restructured in 6 intervention schools to promote more PA. After 1 y, there were no overall statistical differences between treatment groups in PA or sedentary behavior in these settings and results did not differ by gender. Changing the social and physical environments to promote children's moderate-to-vigorous PA is important to the design of active and healthy recess environments. The present results are not conclusive as to the link between these interventions and actual behavior, but show sufficient promise for further population and setting specific research. PMID:22332049

  12. Activity-Based Intervention Practices in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozen, Arzu; Ergenekon, Yasemin

    2011-01-01

    Teaching practices in natural settings such as activity-based intervention (ABI) are suggested as alternatives to be used in effective early childhood education. As a multidisciplinary model, ABI consists of four components, which are choosing activities according to the child's interests; teaching generalizable goals embedded in routines and…

  13. Teachers' Collaborative Activity in School-Wide Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertesvåg, Sigrun K.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the strong interest in research about collaboration among teachers, there are few longitudinal studies that have investigated improvements in collaborative activity among teachers through school-wide interventions. Drawing on data from a larger study, this article describes improvements in collaborative activity among 900 teachers at 28…

  14. The Effectiveness of Interventions on Sustained Childhood Physical Activity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Jamie; Scarborough, Peter; Foster, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased physical activity (PA) has been associated with a reduction in non-communicable disease risk factors and outcomes. However, interventions to increase childhood PA typically produce small to negligible effects. Recent reviews are limited due to lack of post-intervention follow-up measurement. This review aimed to examine measured effects at least six months post-intervention. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, ScienceDirect, SportDiscus and Google Scholar between 1st January 1991 and 1st November 2014 for controlled studies reporting six-month post-intervention measurement for children aged 5 to 18 years. 14 studies met inclusion criteria; 12 reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) (n = 5790) and 10 reported total PA (TPA) (n = 4855). We calculated overall effect estimates and 95% CI’s using random effects modelling with inverse variance weighting. Mean difference was calculated for MVPA, with standardised mean difference calculated to TPA due to measurement variation. Meta-regression assessed heterogeneity by continuous level variables. Negligible mean difference in MVPA existed in favour of the intervention group, amounting to 1.47 (95% CI -1.88, 4.82) mins/day compared to controls, while no difference was recorded on TPA. Sub-group analyses revealed males (2.65 mins/day: 95% CI 2.03, 3.27) reported higher levels of MVPA than females (-0.42 mins/day: 95% CI -7.77, 6.94), community settings (2.67 mins/day: 95% CI 2.05, 3.28) were more effective than school settings (1.70 mins/day: 95% CI -4.84, 8.25), and that treatment (4.47 mins/day: 95% CI -0.81, 9.76) demonstrated greater effects than population approaches (1.03 mins/day: 95% CI -2.54, 4.60). Meta-regression revealed no significant differences by factor on pooled effects. Significant heterogeneity existed between studies and potential for small study effects was present. Conclusions Improved PA levels subsequent to intervention were not maintained six

  15. Mediators of change following a senior school physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the low level of effectiveness of youth interventions is due to a lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms responsible for behaviour change. The identification of behaviour mediators is necessary for the progression of physical activity research, as it allows researchers to determine which components of an intervention are responsible for mediating behaviour change. The purpose of this study was to identify mediators of behaviour change in a physical activity intervention for senior school students. Participants (n=78) were randomly allocated to control or intervention conditions for a period of 10 weeks. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and potential mediators were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (10 weeks). Hypothesized mediators were derived from Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and included: peer support, exercise self-efficacy and outcome expectancy. Mediation was assessed using the product-of-coefficients test described by MacKinnon and colleagues, based on the criteria for mediation identified by Baron and Kenny. While none of the variables satisfied all four criteria for mediation among males or females, self-efficacy was able to satisfy the first three criteria among females in the study. Exercise self-efficacy may be a mediator of physical activity behaviour in adolescent girls. PMID:18069061

  16. Mobile Phone Interventions to Increase Physical Activity and Reduce Weight

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, Janna; Allen, Jerilyn

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review was conducted to determine user satisfaction and effectiveness of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions to promote weight reduction and physical activity. Methods Studies of smartphone applications and text messaging interventions related to the cardiovascular risk factors of physical inactivity and overweight/obesity published between January 2005 and August 2010 were eligible. Studies related to disease management were excluded. Study characteristics and results were gathered and synthesized. Results A total of 36 citations from CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsyclNFO, and PubMed were identified; 7 articles were eligible for inclusion. The most frequent outcome measured in the studies was change in the weight of participants (57%). More than half of the studies (71%) reported statistically significant results in at least 1 outcome of weight loss, physical activity, dietary intake, decreased body mass index, decreased waist circumference, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, screen time, and satisfaction or acceptability outcomes. Conclusions All of the technology interventions that were supported by education or an additional intervention demonstrated a beneficial impact of text messaging or smartphone application for reduction of physical inactivity and/or overweight/obesity. More rigorous trials that determine what parts of the technology or intervention are effective as well as establishment of cost-effectiveness are necessary for further evaluation of smartphone and text messaging interventions. PMID:22635061

  17. The effect of a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention on objectively measured physical activity in Belgian preschool boys and girls of high and low SES: the ToyBox-study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The ToyBox-study developed an evidence- and theory-based intervention to improve preschoolers’ energy balance-related behaviours – including physical activity (PA) – by targeting the kindergarten environment and involving their parents/caregivers. The present study aimed to examine the effect of the ToyBox-intervention on increasing Belgian preschoolers’ objectively measured PA levels. Methods A sample of 472 preschoolers (4.43 ± 0.55 years; 55.1% boys) from 27 kindergartens (15 intervention, 12 control kindergartens) in Flanders, Belgium were included in the data analyses. Preschoolers wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for six consecutive days and were included in the data analyses if they had a minimum of two weekdays and one weekend day, both at baseline and follow-up (one year later). Preschoolers’ PA outcomes were estimated for an average day, weekday, weekend day, during school hours, and during after school hours. To assess intervention effects, multilevel repeated measures analyses were conducted for the total sample, and for sub-groups (according to sex, kindergarten levels of socio-economic status (SES) and risk groups (low levels of PA at baseline)) of preschoolers. Results Small intervention effects were found in the total sample. Most intervention effects were found in boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens. Boys from the intervention group had an increase in vigorous PA (ß = 1.47, p = 0.03) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (ß = 1.27, p = 0.03) from baseline to follow-up, whereas PA levels in boys from the control group stagnated or decreased. In preschoolers from high SES kindergartens, the largest effects were found for PA outcomes during school hours and during after school hours. Conclusion The results from the Belgian sample demonstrate that effects of the PA-component of the ToyBox-intervention on objectively measured PA were found in preschool boys and in preschoolers from high SES kindergartens

  18. The Effects of an Academic--Workplace Partnership Intervention to Promote Physical Activity in Sedentary Office Workers.

    PubMed

    Chae, Duckhee; Kim, Suhee; Park, Yunhee; Hwang, Youngmee

    2015-06-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of an academic-workplace partnership intervention, "3,000 more steps," on improving physical activity (PA) and body composition of workers, and compare the characteristics of those workers who completed and did not complete the program. Participants were 70 sedentary office workers from an airline company. Pedometers determined their daily steps, and body composition was compared before and after the 8-week intervention; 39 of 70 (55.7%) participants completed the program. Daily steps increased from 5,811 to 9,240, and fat mass, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index (BMI) decreased for the completers. Non-completers had lower average PA and higher average fat mass at baseline than did completers. Overall, a workplace PA program could be successfully undertaken by occupational health nurses and a research team in partnership. However, to implement a cost-effective intervention program for inactive workers, further research is needed to ascertain why some workers do not complete the program. PMID:26012515

  19. Effects of a Three-Tiered Intervention Model on Physical Activity and Fitness Levels of Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Dauenhauer, Brian; Keating, Xiaofen; Lambdin, Dolly

    2016-08-01

    Response to intervention (RtI) models are frequently used in schools to tailor academic instruction to the needs of students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using RtI to promote physical activity (PA) and fitness in one urban elementary school. Ninety-nine students in grades 2-5 participated in up to three tiers of intervention throughout the course of one school year. Tier one included 150 min/week of physical education (increased from 90 min/week the previous year) and coordinated efforts to improve school health. Tier two consisted of 30 min/week of small group instruction based on goal setting and social support. Tier three included an after-school program for parents and children focused on healthy living. PA, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were assessed before and after the interventions using pedometers, a 20-m shuttle run, and height/weight measurements. From pre- to post-testing, PA remained relatively stable in tier one and increased by 2349 steps/day in tier two. Cardiovascular fitness increased in tiers one and two by 1.17 and 1.35 ml/kg/min, respectively. Although body mass index did not change, 17 of the 99 students improved their weight status over the course of the school year, resulting in an overall decline in the prevalence of overweight/obesity from 59.6 to 53.5 %. Preliminary results suggest that the RtI model can be an effective way to structure PA/health interventions in an elementary school setting. PMID:27059849

  20. Effectiveness of a Web-Based, Computer-Tailored, Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Adults: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Cocker, Katrien

    2015-01-01

    Background Computer-tailored physical activity (PA) interventions delivered through the Internet represent a promising and appealing method to promote PA at a population level. However, personalized advice is mostly provided based on subjectively measured PA, which is not very accurate and might result in the delivery of advice that is not credible or effective. Therefore, an innovative computer-tailored PA advice was developed, based on objectively pedometer-measured PA. Objective The study aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-tailored, pedometer-based PA intervention in working adults. Methods Participants (≥18 years) were recruited between May and December 2012 from eight Flemish workplaces. These workplaces were allocated randomly to an intervention or control group. Intervention group participants (n=137) received (1) a booklet with information on how to increase their steps, (2) a non-blinded pedometer, and (3) an Internet link to request computer-tailored step advice. Control group participants (n=137) did not receive any of the intervention components. Self-reported and pedometer-based PA were assessed at baseline (T0), and 1 month (T1) and 3 months (T2) months post baseline. Repeated measures analyses of covariance were used to examine intervention effects for both the total sample and the at-risk sample (ie, adults not reaching 10,000 steps a day at baseline). Results The recruitment process resulted in 274 respondents (response rate of 15.1%) who agreed to participate, of whom 190 (69.3%) belonged to the at-risk sample. Between T0 and T1 (1-month post baseline), significant intervention effects were found for participants’ daily step counts in both the total sample (P=.004) and the at-risk sample (P=.001). In the at-risk sample, the intervention effects showed a daily step count increase of 1056 steps in the intervention group, compared to a decrease of 258 steps in the control group. Comparison of participants’ self-reported PA

  1. Urokinase-type Plasminogen Activator (uPA) Promotes Angiogenesis by Attenuating Proline-rich Homeodomain Protein (PRH) Transcription Factor Activity and De-repressing Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Receptor Expression.

    PubMed

    Stepanova, Victoria; Jayaraman, Padma-Sheela; Zaitsev, Sergei V; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Bdeir, Khalil; Kershaw, Rachael; Holman, Kelci R; Parfyonova, Yelena V; Semina, Ekaterina V; Beloglazova, Irina B; Tkachuk, Vsevolod A; Cines, Douglas B

    2016-07-15

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) regulates angiogenesis and vascular permeability through proteolytic degradation of extracellular matrix and intracellular signaling initiated upon its binding to uPAR/CD87 and other cell surface receptors. Here, we describe an additional mechanism by which uPA regulates angiogenesis. Ex vivo VEGF-induced vascular sprouting from Matrigel-embedded aortic rings isolated from uPA knock-out (uPA(-/-)) mice was impaired compared with vessels emanating from wild-type mice. Endothelial cells isolated from uPA(-/-) mice show less proliferation and migration in response to VEGF than their wild type counterparts or uPA(-/-) endothelial cells in which expression of wild type uPA had been restored. We reported previously that uPA is transported from cell surface receptors to nuclei through a mechanism that requires its kringle domain. Intranuclear uPA modulates gene transcription by binding to a subset of transcription factors. Here we report that wild type single-chain uPA, but not uPA variants incapable of nuclear transport, increases the expression of cell surface VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) by translocating to the nuclei of ECs. Intranuclear single-chain uPA binds directly to and interferes with the function of the transcription factor hematopoietically expressed homeodomain protein or proline-rich homeodomain protein (HHEX/PRH), which thereby lose their physiologic capacity to repress the activity of vehgr1 and vegfr2 gene promoters. These studies identify uPA-dependent de-repression of vegfr1 and vegfr2 gene transcription through binding to HHEX/PRH as a novel mechanism by which uPA mediates the pro-angiogenic effects of VEGF and identifies a potential new target for control of pathologic angiogenesis. PMID:27151212

  2. Discovery and SAR of Novel and Selective Inhibitors of Urokinase Plasminogen Activator (uPA) with an Imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Gladysz, Rafaela; Adriaenssens, Yves; De Winter, Hans; Joossens, Jurgen; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Augustyns, Koen; Van der Veken, Pieter

    2015-12-10

    Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) is a biomarker and therapeutic target for several cancer types. Its inhibition is regarded as a promising, noncytotoxic approach in cancer therapy by blocking growth and/or metastasis of solid tumors. Earlier, we reported the modified substrate activity screening (MSAS) approach and applied it for the identification of fragments with affinity for uPA's S1 pocket. Here, these fragments are transformed into a novel class of uPA inhibitors with an imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine scaffold. The SAR for uPA inhibition around this scaffold is explored, and the best compounds in the series have nanomolar uPA affinity and selectivity with respect to the related trypsin-like serine proteases (thrombin, tPA, FXa, plasmin, plasma kallikrein, trypsin, FVIIa). Finally, the approach followed for translating fragments into small molecules with a decorated scaffold architecture is conceptually straightforward and can be expected to be broadly applicable in fragment-based drug design. PMID:26575094

  3. Increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muntaner, Adrià; Vidal-Conti, Josep; Palou, Pere

    2016-09-01

    Physical inactivity is a health problem that affects people worldwide and has been identified as the fourth largest risk factor for overall mortality (contributing to 6% of deaths globally). Many researchers have tried to increase physical activity levels through traditional methods without much success. Thus, many researchers are turning to mobile technology as an emerging method for changing health behaviours. This systematic review sought to summarise and update the existing scientific literature on increasing physical activity through mobile device interventions, taking into account the methodological quality of the studies. The articles were identified by searching the PubMed, SCOPUS and SPORTDiscus databases for studies published between January 2003 and December 2013. Studies investigating efforts to increase physical activity through mobile phone or even personal digital assistant interventions were included. The search results allowed the inclusion of 11 studies that gave rise to 12 publications. Six of the articles included in this review reported significant increases in physical activity levels. The number of studies using mobile devices for interventions has increased exponentially in the last few years, but future investigations with better methodological quality are needed to draw stronger conclusions regarding how to increase physical activity through mobile device interventions. PMID:25649783

  4. Differences between neonates and adults in tissue-type-plasminogen activator (t-PA)-catalyzed plasminogen activation with various effectors and in carbohydrate sequences of fibrinogen chains.

    PubMed

    Ries, M; Easton, R L; Longstaff, C; Zenker, M; Corran, P H; Morris, H R; Dell, A; Gaffney, P J

    2001-08-01

    Our study investigates the effect of fetal and adult soluble fibrin (SF), fetal and adult fibrinogen Aalpha- and gamma-chains, as well as adult CNBr-fibrinogen fragments on tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA)-catalyzed plasminogen activation of both fetal and adult Glu-plasminogen types 1 and 2. In addition, we determined carbohydrate sequences of fetal and adult Bbeta- and gamma-chains by mass spectrometric analysis. In the absence of an effector, no substantial differences in the rate of plasmin formation could be seen between the fetal and adult plasminogen types. In the presence of an effector, both fetal Glu-plasminogen types revealed lower values for k(cat app) than the respective adult types. No differences could be seen in the values for K(m app). The resulting differences in catalytic efficiencies between the fetal and adult plasminogen types were much less than previously reported. No differences could be seen between fetal and adult effectors in stimulating t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation. Detailed analyses of the activation kinetics revealed a longer initial phase of slow plasmin formation of both fetal Glu-plasminogen types compared to their respective adult types, indicating a slower plasmin-induced modification of CNBr-fibrinogen fragments or SF by fetal plasmin. Mass spectrometric analysis of the N-glycans present on adult and fetal Bbeta- and gamma-fibrinogen chains showed the presence of a major monosialylated biantennary structure with lesser amounts of the disialylated form. In contrast to previous data, we conclude that catalytic efficiency of t-PA-catalyzed plasminogen activation in neonates is only slightly lower than in adults. PMID:11672579

  5. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition. PMID:21923295

  6. Protocol for the ‘Virtual Traveller’ cluster-randomised controlled trial: a behaviour change intervention to increase physical activity in primary-school Maths and English lessons

    PubMed Central

    Norris, E; Dunsmuir, S; Duke-Williams, O; Stamatakis, E; Shelton, N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical activity (PA) has been shown to be an important factor for health and educational outcomes in children. However, a large proportion of children's school day is spent in sedentary lesson-time. There is emerging evidence about the effectiveness of physically active lessons: integrating physical movements and educational content in the classroom. ‘Virtual Traveller’ is a novel 6-week intervention of 10-min sessions performed 3 days per week, using classroom interactive whiteboards to integrate movement into primary-school Maths and English teaching. The primary aim of this project is to evaluate the effect of the Virtual Traveller intervention on children's PA, on-task behaviour and student engagement. Methods and analysis This study will be a cluster-randomised controlled trial with a waiting-list control group. Ten year 4 (aged 8–9 years) classes across 10 primary schools will be randomised by class to either the 6-week Virtual Traveller intervention or the waiting-list control group. Data will be collected 5 times: at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4 of the intervention, and 1 week and 3 months postintervention. At baseline, anthropometric measures, 4-day objective PA monitoring (including 2 weekend days; Actigraph accelerometer), PA and on-task behaviour observations and student engagement questionnaires will be performed. All but anthropometric measures will be repeated at all other data collection points. Changes in overall PA levels and levels during different time-periods (eg, lesson-time) will be examined. Changes in on-task behaviour and student engagement between intervention groups will also be examined. Multilevel regression modelling will be used to analyse the data. Process evaluation will be carried out during the intervention period. Ethics and dissemination The results of this study will be disseminated through peer-review publications and conference presentations. Ethical approval was obtained through the University

  7. Production of a urokinase plasminogen activator-IgG fusion protein (uPA-IgG) in the baculovirus expression system.

    PubMed

    Kost, T A; Ignar, D M; Clay, W C; Andrews, J; Leray, J D; Overton, L; Hoffman, C R; Kilpatrick, K E; Ellis, B; Emerson, D L

    1997-04-29

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor, uPAR, in the processes of tumor progression and metastasis. Thus, the uPA/uPAR interaction may represent an important target for inhibiting metastatic disease. The baculovirus expression system was used to produce high levels of a secreted uPA-Immunoglobulin G fusion protein (uPA-IgG) which could then be used for displacing uPA from the surface of tumor cells. The recombinant uPA-IgG fusion protein was placed under the control of either the viral polyhedrin promoter or a copy of the viral basic protein promoter. Recombinant viruses were then used to infect Sf9 and BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells. Infection of both cell types resulted in the production of secreted uPA-IgG. The molecular mass of the secreted protein as determined by SDS-PAGE was approximately 40 kDa. The highest level of secreted uPA-IgG, 444 microg/ml, was found in the culture medium of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells 72 h post-infection with the basic protein promoter-uPA-IgG virus. In the case of Sf9 cells, the highest level of secreted protein was 195 microg/ml. The amount of cell-associated uPA-IgG in infected BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells was significantly less than that of infected Sf9 cells, reflecting the superior secretory capability of the BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells. The uPA-IgG was readily purified using a combination of zinc chelate and sephacryl S-100 column chromatography. Routinely, greater than 100 mg of greater than 95% pure protein could be obtained per liter of culture medium collected at 72 h post-infection of BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells with the basic protein promoter virus. BIAcore analysis and competition binding assays using LOX human malignant melanoma cells expressing uPAR indicated that the purified recombinant protein possessed similar ligand binding characteristics to that of human uPA. PMID:9185859

  8. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend. Methods/design The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. Discussion SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The

  9. Intervention in Overweight Children Improves BMI and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Siwik, Violet; Kutob, Randa; Ritenbaugh, Cheryl; Cruz, Luis; Senf, Janet; Aickin, Mikel; Going, Scott; Shatte, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is a growing epidemic in family medicine with few clinical treatment options. We implemented and evaluated a group office-visit intervention by family physicians emphasizing nutrition and physical activity within a resiliency psychosocial model, for overweight children and their parents. Methods The intervention lasted for 3 months, with half of the children crossing over to intervention after 6 months on study. Participants included 35 children who met eligibility criteria of being in third through fifth grades and having a body mass index above the 85th percentile. The 3-month twelve-session intervention, “Choices”, included topics on nutrition, physical activity, and resiliency. The sessions were developed for delivery by a family physician, and a nutritionist, who all received training in positive psychology and resilience skills. Main outcome measures were body mass index (BMI) z-scores for age-and-gender, and weight-for-age-and-gender z-scores, as well as qualitative interviews to understand individual and family processes. Results The intervention resulted in a significant effect on one primary outcome, BMI z-score (-0.138 per 9 months (p =0.017) and a trend toward significance on the other, weight for age z-score (-0.87 per 9 months (p=0.09). The net shift of activity from the low METS to the high METS had an intervention effect of 2.84 METS (p = 0.037). Families reported lasting changes in behaviors and attitudes. Discussion The innovative approach used in this study demonstrated modest efficacy in reducing BMI z-score, changing physical activity levels, and possibly shifting family dynamics. PMID:23471926

  10. Coagulation alterations due to local fibrinolytic therapy with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease

    SciTech Connect

    Rauber, Klaus; Heidinger, Kathrin S.; Kemkes-Matthes, Bettina

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To determine the systemic effects of local fibrinolytic therapy with low-dose recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA). Methods. Ten patients received intrathrombal infusion of 20 mg rt-PA and heparin for local thrombolysis and had subsequent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA). Eight controls underwent PTA and received heparin alone. We measured t-PA, D-Dimer, and fibrinogen levels before, directly after, and 20, 40, and 60 min and 24 hr after therapy. Results. In the thrombolysis group the t-PA level peaked immediately after infusion and then declined within 1 hr. D-Dimer increased and remained elevated, whereas in the control group only t-PA levels increased, and only after 24 hr. Fibrinogen remained within the normal range in both groups. Eight of ten patients in the thrombolysis group and seven of eight with PTA had clinical improvement after the procedure. Conclusions. The increase in D-Dimer in the rt-PA group indicates a good local fibrinolytic effect. The fact that fibrinogen levels remained unchanged indicates that there is a lack of systemic fibrinogenolysis.

  11. Meta-Analysis of Workplace Physical Activity Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Brown, Lori M.; Lusk, Sally L.

    2009-01-01

    Context Most adults do not achieve adequate physical activity. Despite the potential benefits of worksite health promotion, no previous comprehensive meta-analysis has summarized health and physical activity behavior outcomes from these programs. This comprehensive meta-analysis integrated the extant wide range of worksite physical activity intervention research. Evidence acquisition Extensive searching located published and unpublished intervention studies reported from 1969 through 2007. Results were coded from primary studies. Random-effects meta-analytic procedures, including moderator analyses, were completed in 2008. Evidence synthesis Effects on most variables were substantially heterogeneous because diverse studies were included. Standardized mean difference (d) effect sizes were synthesized across approximately 38,231 subjects. Significantly positive effects were observed for physical activity behavior (0.21), fitness (0.57), lipids (0.13), anthropometric measures (0.08), work attendance (0.19), and job stress (0.33). The significant effect size for diabetes risk (0.98) is more tentative given small sample sizes. Significant heterogeneity documents intervention effects varied across studies. The mean effect size for fitness corresponds to a difference between treatment minus control subjects' means on V02max of 3.5 mL/kg/min; for lipids, −0.2 on total cholesterol:HDL; and for diabetes risk, −12.6 mg/dL on fasting glucose. Conclusions These findings document that some workplace physical activity interventions can improve both health and important worksite outcomes. Effects were variable for most outcomes, reflecting the diversity of primary studies. Future primary research should compare interventions to confirm causal relationships and further explore heterogeneity. PMID:19765506

  12. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  13. Using the PRECEDE Planning Approach to Develop a Physical Activity Intervention for African American Men Who Visit Barbershops: Results From the FITShop Study.

    PubMed

    Hood, Sula; Linnan, Laura; Jolly, David; Muqueeth, Sadiya; Hall, Marla B; Dixon, Carrissa; Robinson, Seronda

    2015-07-01

    African American (AA) men have a higher prevalence of many chronic disease risk behaviors compared to Caucasian men, including physical inactivity. Innovative ways to reach AA men with interventions to increase physical activity (PA) and decrease other key risk factors are needed to reduce health disparities in this population. The barbershop is a natural but underutilized setting for reaching AA men. In the Fitness in the Shop (FITShop) study, shop owners, barbers, and customers were recruited from four local barbershops to complete structured interviews and customer focus groups. We assessed knowledge, perceived barriers, and interests/concerns about PA, as well as explored how to best intervene in the barbershop. Barbers and customers endorsed the idea of receiving health and PA information in the barbershop. These formative research results generated information and strategies for developing a multilevel barbershop-based health intervention to promote PA in the barbershop. This article describes the formative research results and how PRECEDE was used to develop a culturally and contextually appropriate, multilevel barbershop-based intervention designed to promote PA and to reduce chronic disease disparities among AA men. PMID:24972715

  14. A novel small-molecule inhibitor of influenza A virus acts by suppressing PA endonuclease activity of the viral polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Chu, Hin; Singh, Kailash; Zhao, Hanjun; Zhang, Ke; Kao, Richard Y. T.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus comprises conserved and independently-folded subdomains with defined functionalities. The N-terminal domain of the PA subunit (PAN) harbors the endonuclease function so that it can serve as a desired target for drug discovery. To identify a class of anti-influenza inhibitors that impedes PAN endonuclease activity, a screening approach that integrated the fluorescence resonance energy transfer based endonuclease inhibitory assay with the DNA gel-based endonuclease inhibitory assay was conducted, followed by the evaluation of antiviral efficacies and potential cytotoxicity of the primary hits in vitro and in vivo. A small-molecule compound ANA-0 was identified as a potent inhibitor against the replication of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9 and H9N2, in cell cultures. Combinational treatment of zanamivir and ANA-0 exerted synergistic anti-influenza effect in vitro. Intranasal administration of ANA-0 protected mice from lethal challenge and reduced lung viral loads in H1N1 virus infected BALB/c mice. In summary, ANA-0 shows potential to be developed to novel anti-influenza agents. PMID:26956222

  15. Characteristic amino acid changes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus PA protein enhance A(H7N9) viral polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Tan, Likai; Lu, Gen; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Human coinfection with a novel H7N9 influenza virus and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus, H1N1pdm09, has recently been reported in China. Because reassortment can occur during coinfection, it is necessary to clarify the effects of gene reassortment between these two viruses. Among the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) genes, only the PA gene of H1N1pdm09 enhances the avian influenza viral polymerase activity. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show a special evolutionary feature of the H1N1pdm09 PA gene, which clustered with those of the novel H7N9 virus and related H9N2 viruses, rather than in the outgroup as the H1N1pdm09 genes do on the phylogenetic trees of other vRNP genes. Using a minigenome system of the novel H7N9 virus, we further demonstrate that replacement of its PA gene significantly enhanced its polymerase activity, whereas replacement of the other vRNP genes reduced its polymerase activity. We also show that the residues of PA evolutionarily conserved between H1N1pdm09 and the novel H7N9 virus are associated with attenuated or neutral polymerase activity. The mutations associated with the increased activity of the novel H7N9 polymerase are characteristic of the H1N1pdm09 gene, and are located almost adjacent to the surface of the PA protein. Our results suggest that the novel H7N9 virus has more effective PB1, PB2, and NP genes than H1N1pdm09, and that H1N1pdm09-like PA mutations enhance the novel H7N9 polymerase function. PMID:26980671

  16. Biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties of rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of human tissue-type plasminogen activator.

    PubMed

    Nelles, L; Li, X K; Vanlinthout, I; De Cock, F; Lijnen, H R; Collen, D

    1992-04-01

    rt-PA P47G, K49N, a substitution variant of recombinant human tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), in which proline at position 47 and lysine at position 49 were replaced by glycine and asparagine respectively, was previously described by Ahern et al. (J Biol Chem 1990; 265:5540-5) to have an extended in vivo half-life with unaltered in vitro fibrinolytic properties. Because this variant might possess an increased in vivo thrombolytic potency, we have constructed its cDNA, expressed it in Chinese hamster ovary cells and determined its biochemical, thrombolytic and pharmacokinetic properties relative to those of home-made rt-PA and of alteplase (Actilyse). The specific fibrinolytic activities on fibrin plates were 160,000 +/- 17,000, 210,000 +/- 88,000 and 460,000 +/- 72,000 IU/mg (mean +/- SEM) for rt-PA P47G, K49N, rt-PA and alteplase, respectively, while the catalytic efficiencies for plasminogen activation (k2/Km) in the absence of fibrin were comparable (1.1 to 1.7 x 10(-3) microM-1s-1). Fibrin enhanced the rate of plasminogen activation by rt-PA P47G, K49N 100-fold and by both wild-type molecules 390-fold. Binding of the variant rt-PA to fibrin was significantly reduced, but its affinity for lysine-Sepharose was unaltered. In an in vitro clot lysis system, consisting of a radiolabeled human plasma clot submersed in plasma, 50% clot lysis in 2 h required 0.67 +/- 0.14 micrograms/ml rt-PA P47G, K49N, 0.36 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml rt-PA and 0.17 +/- 0.01 micrograms/ml alteplase, respectively (mean +/- SEM; n = 3 or 4). At these doses residual fibrinogen levels at 2 h were in excess of 80%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1631793

  17. Maduramicin Rapidly Eliminates Malaria Parasites and Potentiates the Gametocytocidal Activity of the Pyrazoleamide PA21A050

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Maxim I.; Magle, Crystal T.; Czesny, Beata; Turturice, Benjamin A.; Huang, Ruili; Zheng, Wei; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2015-01-01

    New strategies targeting Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual-stage parasites that are responsible for malaria transmission, are needed to eradicate this disease. Most commonly used antimalarials are ineffective against P. falciparum gametocytes, allowing patients to continue to be infectious for over a week after asexual parasite clearance. A recent screen for gametocytocidal compounds demonstrated that the carboxylic polyether ionophore maduramicin is active at low nanomolar concentrations against P. falciparum sexual stages. In this study, we showed that maduramicin has an EC50 (effective concentration that inhibits the signal by 50%) of 14.8 nM against late-stage gametocytes and significantly blocks in vivo transmission in a mouse model of malaria transmission. In contrast to other reported gametocytocidal agents, maduramicin acts rapidly in vitro, eliminating gametocytes and asexual schizonts in less than 12 h without affecting uninfected red blood cells (RBCs). Ring stage parasites are cleared by 24 h. Within an hour of drug treatment, 40% of the normally crescent-shaped gametocytes round up and become spherical. The number of round gametocytes increases to >60% by 2 h, even before a change in membrane potential as monitored by MitoProbe DiIC1 (5) is detectable. Maduramicin is not preferentially taken up by gametocyte-infected RBCs compared to uninfected RBCs, suggesting that gametocytes are more sensitive to alterations in cation concentration than RBCs. Moreover, the addition of 15.6 nM maduramicin enhanced the gametocytocidal activity of the pyrazoleamide PA21A050, which is a promising new antimalarial candidate associated with an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration that is proposed to be due to inhibition of PfATP4, a putative Na+ pump. These results underscore the importance of cation homeostasis in sexual as well as asexual intraerythrocytic-stage P. falciparum parasites and the potential of targeting this pathway for drug development

  18. Longitudinal 2-Year Follow-up on the Effect of a Non-Randomised School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Reducing Overweight and Obesity of Czech Children Aged 10–12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Sigmund, Erik; Sigmundová, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study assessed whether the benefits of a 2-year longitudinal non-randomised school-based physical activity (PA) intervention programme to reduce overweight and obesity were still apparent two years after completion of the controlled intervention. Methods: The study involved 84 girls (G) and 92 boys (B) aged 10–12 years who had participated in the PA intervention in 2006–2008 as 6- to 9-year olds and were included in the intervention (I) (43 G and 45 B) and the control (C) groups (41 G and 47 B). Participants’ overweight/obesity was assessed using the percentile graph of Body Mass Index (BMI) from the World Health Organization for girls and boys aged 5–19. Logistic regression (Enter method) determined the overweight/obesity occurrence in a follow-up measurement (2010) two years after completion of the controlled intervention was used. Results: Two years after the controlled PA intervention had finished, the intervention children were less likely to be overweight/obese than the control children (2.3%GI vs. 17.1%GC, 6.7%BI vs. 23.4%BC, odds ratio: 0.25; 95% confidence interval: 0.12; 0.53; p < 0.001). Conclusions: The current study indicates favourable effects of an everyday school-based PA intervention programme on lower overweight/obesity incidence, which was maintained two years after the end of the direct involvement of the researchers. PMID:23959084

  19. Using Indices of Fidelity to Intervention Core Components to Identify Program Active Ingredients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abry, Tashia; Hulleman, Chris S.; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the active ingredients of an intervention--intervention-specific components serving as key levers of change--is crucial for unpacking the intervention black box. Measures of intervention fidelity can be used to identify specific active ingredients, yet such applications are rare. We illustrate how fidelity measures can be used to…

  20. The Wild Wild West: A Framework to Integrate mHealth Software Applications and Wearables to Support Physical Activity Assessment, Counseling and Interventions for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction.

    PubMed

    Lobelo, Felipe; Kelli, Heval M; Tejedor, Sheri Chernetsky; Pratt, Michael; McConnell, Michael V; Martin, Seth S; Welk, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions constitute a critical component of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction programs. Objective mobile health (mHealth) software applications (apps) and wearable activity monitors (WAMs) can advance both assessment and integration of PA counseling in clinical settings and support community-based PA interventions. The use of mHealth technology for CVD risk reduction is promising, but integration into routine clinical care and population health management has proven challenging. The increasing diversity of available technologies and the lack of a comprehensive guiding framework are key barriers for standardizing data collection and integration. This paper reviews the validity, utility and feasibility of implementing mHealth technology in clinical settings and proposes an organizational framework to support PA assessment, counseling and referrals to community resources for CVD risk reduction interventions. This integration framework can be adapted to different clinical population needs. It should also be refined as technologies and regulations advance under an evolving health care system landscape in the United States and globally. PMID:26923067

  1. Lessons learnt from the Bristol Girls Dance Project cluster RCT: implications for designing and implementing after-school physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Mark J; May, Thomas; Kesten, Joanna M; Banfield, Kate; Bird, Emma L; Powell, Jane E; Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Objective To consider implementation issues associated with the delivery of Bristol Girls Dance Project (BGDP) and to identify improvements that may aid the design of after-school physical activity (PA) interventions. Design Two-armed cluster randomised control trial. The BGDP was a 20-week school-based intervention, consisting of two 75 min after-school dance sessions per week, which aimed to support Year 7 girls to be more physically active. Setting 18 secondary schools (nine intervention, nine control) in the Greater Bristol area (as an indication of deprivation, children eligible for the pupil premium in participant schools ranged from 6.9 to 53.3%). Participants 571 Year 7 girls. This article reports on qualitative data collected from 59 girls in the intervention arm of the trial, 10 dance instructors and 9 school contacts involved in the delivering of the BGDP. Methods Data were obtained from nine focus groups with girls (one per intervention school), and interviews with dance instructors and school contacts. Focus groups sought views of girls’ motivation to participate, teaching styles and experiences of the intervention. Interviews explored views on implementation and dissemination. Framework analysis was used to analyse data. Results Qualitative data elicited three themes associated with the delivery of BGDP that affected implementation: project design, session content and project organisation. ‘Project design’ found issues associated with recruitment, timetabling and session quantity to influence the effectiveness of BGDP. ‘Session content’ found that dance instructors delivered a range of content and that girls enjoyed a variety of dance. Themes within ‘project organisation’ suggested an ‘open enrolment’ policy and greater parental involvement may facilitate better attendance. Conclusions After-school PA interventions have potential for increasing PA levels among adolescent girls. There is a need to consider the context in which

  2. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  3. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  4. Energy Expenditure of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Honas, Jeffery J.; Washburn, Richard A.; Smith, Bryan K.; Greene, Jerry L.; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity is frequently a component of interventions designed to diminish weight gain in children. It is essential to determine whether the energy expenditure (EE) elicited by these interventions is sufficient to reduce the rate of weight gain. Purpose To quantify the EE of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum (PAAC) intervention. This intervention involved two 10-min physically active academic lessons per day, taught by classroom teachers. Methods We assessed EE of PAAC in 19 males and 19 females using both an indirect calorimeter (IC) (COSMED K4b2) and an accelerometer (ActiGraph) (AC). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate gender differences. Dependent t-tests were used to examine the difference between EE assessed by IC and AC. The agreement between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. A Pearson correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was calculated. Results There were no significant gender differences for age, BMI, or EE; therefore, analyses by gender were not performed. The mean EE measured by IC was 3.1 ± 1.0 kcal/min(3.4 METs). Mean EE estimated by AC (1.8 ± 0.9 kcal/min) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than EE measured by IC (mean underestimation = 1.3 kcal/min). The Bland-Altman plot suggested increased underestimation with increased levels of EE. The 95% limits of agreement were large (-2.8 to +0.3 kcal/min). The correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was r = 0.68 (P < 0.001). Conclusion PAAC elicited a level of EE that may prevent excessive weight gain in children. AC significantly underestimated the EE of PAAC lessons and may not provide useful EE estimates in this context. PMID:18614939

  5. What Do We Know about "How" to Promote Physical Activity to Adolescents? A Mapping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    To date, adolescent physical activity (PA) intervention research has focused on the school setting and suggests a need to extend interventions beyond this setting to influence teenagers' overall level of PA. But, the relative effectiveness of PA promotion strategies that can be part of such multi-setting interventions remains unknown. We completed…

  6. Conformational Analysis of the Host-Defense Peptides Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb and -2Pa and Design of Analogues with Insulin-Releasing Activities and Reduced Toxicities.

    PubMed

    Manzo, Giorgia; Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Srinivasan, Dinesh; Attoub, Samir; Mangoni, Maria Luisa; Rinaldi, Andrea C; Casu, Mariano; Flatt, Peter R; Conlon, J Michael

    2015-12-24

    Pseudhymenochirin-1Pb (Ps-1Pb; IKIPSFFRNILKKVGKEAVSLIAGALKQS) and pseudhymenochirin-2Pa (Ps-2Pa; GIFPIFAKLLGKVIKVASSLISKGRTE) are amphibian peptides with broad spectrum antimicrobial activities and cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. In the membrane-mimetic solvent 50% (v/v) trifluoroethanol-H2O, both peptides adopt a well-defined α-helical conformation that extends over almost all the sequence and incorporates a flexible bend. Both peptides significantly (p < 0.05) stimulate the rate of release of insulin from BRIN-BD11 clonal β-cells at concentrations ≥ 0.1 nM but produce loss of integrity of the plasma membrane at concentrations ≥ 1 μM. Increasing cationicity by the substitution Glu(17) → l-Lys in Ps-1Pb and Glu(27) → l-Lys in Ps-2Pa generates analogues with increased cytotoxicity and reduced insulin-releasing potency. In contrast, the analogues [R8r]Ps-1Pb and [K8k,K19k]Ps-2Pa, incorporating d-amino acid residues to destabilize the α-helical domains, retain potent insulin-releasing activity but are nontoxic to BRIN-BD11 cells at concentrations of 3 μM. [R8r]Ps-1Pb produces a significant increase in insulin release rate at 0.3 nM and [K8k,K19k]Ps-2Pa at 0.01 nM. Both analogues show low hemolytic activity (IC50 > 100 μM) but retain broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and remain cytotoxic to a range of human tumor cell lines, albeit with lower potency than the naturally occurring peptides. These analogues show potential for development into agents for type 2 diabetes therapy. PMID:26606380

  7. Physical Activity Programs with Post-Intervention Follow-Up in Children: A Comprehensive Review According to Categories of Intervention.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sally; Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Henderson, Melanie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pagani, Linda; Bigras, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Only 9% of Canadian children meet the National Guidelines of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. The aim of this review is to assess the mid- and long-term effectiveness of physical activity interventions and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors in children. We assessed the success of interventions within three different categories: those using a behavioural and social approach, an informational approach or an environmental approach. The average number of children included in these studies was 860 (range of 30-5106); the age range was from 2 to 18 years; and the mean intervention duration was 1607 min (range of 12-8160 min). The length of follow-up post-intervention averaged 13 months (ranging from 0.25 to 96 months). A positive impact on physical activity was found in 74% and on any measured outcomes in 90% of the studies reviewed. However, the benefits of physical activity interventions decreased with longer follow-up. Regardless of the approaches, physical activity interventions improved cardiovascular risk factors. However, the challenge of any program is to maintain beneficial effects once the intervention is completed. These findings will inform the development of future intervention programs in order to optimize sustained cardiovascular benefits. PMID:27376315

  8. Physical Activity Programs with Post-Intervention Follow-Up in Children: A Comprehensive Review According to Categories of Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Sally; Häcker, Anna-Luisa; Henderson, Melanie; Barnett, Tracie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Pagani, Linda; Bigras, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Only 9% of Canadian children meet the National Guidelines of 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity. The aim of this review is to assess the mid- and long-term effectiveness of physical activity interventions and their impact on cardiovascular risk factors in children. We assessed the success of interventions within three different categories: those using a behavioural and social approach, an informational approach or an environmental approach. The average number of children included in these studies was 860 (range of 30–5106); the age range was from 2 to 18 years; and the mean intervention duration was 1607 min (range of 12–8160 min). The length of follow-up post-intervention averaged 13 months (ranging from 0.25 to 96 months). A positive impact on physical activity was found in 74% and on any measured outcomes in 90% of the studies reviewed. However, the benefits of physical activity interventions decreased with longer follow-up. Regardless of the approaches, physical activity interventions improved cardiovascular risk factors. However, the challenge of any program is to maintain beneficial effects once the intervention is completed. These findings will inform the development of future intervention programs in order to optimize sustained cardiovascular benefits. PMID:27376315

  9. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  10. Hyperactivity and Motoric Activity in ADHD: Characterization, Assessment, and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Gawrilow, Caterina; Kühnhausen, Jan; Schmid, Johanna; Stadler, Gertraud

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present literature review is threefold. (1) We will review theories, models, and studies on symptomatic hyperactivity and motoric activity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). (2) Another focus will be on assessment methods that have been proven to be effective in the detection of hyperactivity and motoric activity in children, adolescents, and adults with and without ADHD and emerging areas of research in the field of ADHD. We will compare subjective methods (i.e., rating scales) and objective methods (i.e., accelerometers). (3) Finally, physical activity intervention studies aiming at a modification of activity and overactive behavior will be summarized that seem to be promising candidates for alleviating hyperactivity symptoms in children, adolescents, and adults with ADHD. PMID:25506329

  11. Effect of Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Interventions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Marshall, Simon J.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Lee, Jin-Oh

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) improves mental health and reduces the risk of a number of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease mortality, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Many studies with different strategies have been conducted to increase the level of PA for people of all ages. One of many strategies…

  12. A socio-ecological approach promoting physical activity and limiting sedentary behavior in adolescence showed weight benefits maintained 2.5 years after intervention cessation

    PubMed Central

    Simon, C; Kellou, N; Dugas, J; Platat, C; Copin, N; Schweitzer, B; Hausser, F; Bergouignan, A; Lefai, E; Blanc, S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Obesity in youth remains a major public health issue. Yet no effective long-term preventive strategy exists. We previously showed that a school-based socio-ecological approach targeting behavior and social/environmental influences on physical activity (PA) prevented 4-year excessive weight gain in 12-year olds. In this study, we investigated if this efficacy persists 30 months after intervention cessation. Methods and Findings: The program targeted students, family, school and the living environment to promote/support PA and prevent sedentary behavior (SB). A total of 732 students from eight randomized middle schools completed the 4-year trial. At the 30-month post-trial follow-up, body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI), leisure PA (LPA), home/school/workplace active commuting, TV/video time (TVT), and attitudes toward PA were measured in 531 adolescents. The beneficial effects of the intervention on the excess BMI increase (+0.01 vs +0.34 kg m−2 in the intervention and control groups, respectively) and on the overweight incidence in initially non-overweight students (4.3% vs 8.6% odds ratio=0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.23–1.01)) were maintained at the post-trial follow-up. LPA was not maintained at the level achieved during the trial. However, we still observed a prevention of the age-related decrease of the adolescents' percentage reporting regular LPA (−14.4% vs −26.5%) and a higher intention to exercise in the intervention group. The intervention promoted lower TVT (−14.0 vs +13.6 min per day) and higher active commuting changes (+11.7% vs −4.8%). Trends in higher BMI reduction in students with high initial TVT and in the least wealthy group were noted. TVT changes throughout the follow-up predicted excess BMI and FMI changes. Conclusions: Long-term multilevel approach targeting PA and SB prevents excessive weight gain up to 30 months after intervention cessation. The efficacy may be higher in the most sedentary and least

  13. Active pixel as dosimetric device for interventional radiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Servoli, L.; Baldaccini, F.; Biasini, M.; Checcucci, B.; Chiocchini, S.; Cicioni, R.; Conti, E.; Di Lorenzo, R.; Dipilato, A. C.; Esposito, A.; Fanó, L.; Paolucci, M.; Passeri, D.; Pentiricci, A.; Placidi, P.

    2013-08-01

    Interventional Radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology comprehensive of all minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures performed using radiological devices to obtain image guidance. The interventional procedures are potentially harmful for interventional radiologists and medical staff due to the X-ray diffusion by the patient's body. The characteristic energy range of the diffused photons spans few tens of keV. In this work we will present a proposal for a new X-ray sensing element in the energy range of interest for IR procedures. The sensing element will then be assembled in a dosimeter prototype, capable of real-time measurement, packaged in a small form-factor, with wireless communication and no external power supply to be used for individual operators dosimetry for IR procedures. For the sensor, which is the heart of the system, we considered three different Active Pixel Sensors (APS). They have shown a good capability as single X-ray photon detectors, up to several tens keV photon energy. Two dosimetric quantities have been considered, the number of detected photons and the measured energy deposition. Both observables have a linear dependence with the dose, as measured by commercial dosimeters. The uncertainties in the measurement are dominated by statistic and can be pushed at ˜5% for all the sensors under test.

  14. Using Environmental Stimuli in Physical Activity Intervention for School Teachers: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY.; Chow, Bik C.; Parfitt, Gaynor

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a six-week intervention that aimed to promote teachers' physical activity level during working hours. Thirty-eight teachers from three intervention schools (schools randomly assigned as intervention group) received intervention prompts: SMS messages, leaflets and posters…

  15. Sustainable effects of a low-threshold physical activity intervention on health-related quality of life in residential aged care

    PubMed Central

    Quehenberger, Viktoria; Cichocki, Martin; Krajic, Karl

    2014-01-01

    Background Mobility is a main issue for health-related quality of life in old age. There is evidence for effects of physical activity (PA) interventions on several dimensions of health for the aged and also, some specific evidence for vulnerable populations, like residents of residential aged care. Research on low-threshold PA interventions for users of residential aged care and documentation of their sustainability are scarce. “Low threshold” implies moderate demands on the qualification of trainers and low frequency of conduct, implying low demands on the health status and discipline of users. Yet the investigation of low-threshold interventions in residential aged care seems important as they might foster participation of users and implementation in everyday routines of provider organizations. An initial study (October 2011 to June 2012) had found intervention effects on health-related quality of life. The objective of this study was to examine sustainability of the effects of a low-threshold PA intervention on health-related quality of life in residential aged care. Methods Data collection took place in three residential aged care homes in Vienna, Austria. At 1-year follow-up (June 2013), participants from the intervention group were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Using general mixed linear models and Friedman tests followed by paired t- and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests, we compared outcome measures at follow-up with measures obtained at baseline and at the end of the intervention. Results At the 1-year follow-up assessment, participants’ (mean age 84.7 years; 89.7% female) subjective health status was still significantly increased, equaling a small sustainable intervention effect (Cohen’s d=0.38, P=0.02). In comparison with baseline, a significant decline of reported pain/discomfort (P=0.047) was found. Regarding the subdimensions of health-related quality of life, favorable trends could be observed. Conclusion The study indicates that

  16. Reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention on physical activity and healthy eating of older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community.

    PubMed

    Luten, Karla A; Reijneveld, Sijmen A; Dijkstra, Arie; de Winter, Andrea F

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the reach and effectiveness of an integrated community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among older adults in a socioeconomically disadvantaged community in the Netherlands. The intervention was evaluated with a controlled pre-post quasi-experimental design, with 430 randomly selected older adults participating in the intervention group and 213 in a control group at baseline. The intervention included a local media campaign and environmental approaches (e.g., community involvement) and was implemented during a 3-month high-intensity period, followed by a 6-month low-intensity one. Levels of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed at baseline and at 3 and 9 months after baseline. At the follow-up measurements, the intervention had reached respectively 68 and 69% of the participants in the intervention group. No significant differences were found between the intervention group and the control group in changes to any outcome except for transport-related PA at 3 and 9 months follow-up. The systematically developed community-based intervention reached a relatively large proportion of the participants, but had only small effects on the levels of physical activity and healthy eating in older adults in the short and medium term. PMID:26675175

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of Interventions to Improve Moderate Physical Activity: A Study in Nine UK Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Andy; Cooke, Carlton; Gilson, Nicholas; Marsh, Kevin; McKenna, Jim

    2010-01-01

    Objective: With growing concerns to establish the value for returns on public health investment, there is a need to identify cost-effective physical activity interventions. This study measured change in moderate physical activity (MPA) in seven community-based intervention types, costs and cost-effectiveness of the interventions, and possible…

  18. Intra-arterial administration of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) causes more intracranial bleeding than does intravenous rt-PA in a transient rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Intra-arterial (IA) administration of rt-PA for ischemic stroke has the potential for greater thrombolytic efficacy, especially for a large thrombus in the M1 or M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a concern with IA or intravenous (IV) administration especially as the therapeutic window is extended. However, because IA administration delivers a higher local concentration of agent, the incidence and severity of ICH may be greater than with similar doses IV. We investigated the safety of rt-PA administration by IA compared to IV infusion following 6 hours of MCA occlusion (MCAo) with reflow in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Methods Male SHRs were subjected to 6 hours MCAo with 18 hours reflow using a snare ligature model. They were treated with IA saline, IA rt-PA (1, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg), or IV rt-PA (10 and 30 mg/kg) by a 10 to 60 minute infusion beginning approximately 1 minute before reflow. The rats were recovered for 24 hours after MCAo onset at which time Bleeding Score, infarct volume, and Modified Bederson Score were measured. Results Greater hemorrhagic transformation occurred with 10 and 30 mg/kg rt-PA administered IA than IV. The IV 10 mg/kg rt-PA dosage induced significantly less bleeding than did the 1 or 5 mg/kg IA groups. No significant increase in infarct volume was observed after IA or IV treatment. Rats treated with 30 mg/kg rt-PA by either the IA or IV route had greater neurological dysfunction compared to all other groups. Conclusions Administration of rt-PA by the IA route following 6 hours of MCAo results in greater ICH and worse functional recovery than comparable dosages IV. Significantly greater bleeding was observed when the IA dose was a tenth of the IV dose. The increased bleeding did not translate in larger infarct volumes. PMID:21933438

  19. Pharmacological Intervention in Hepatic Stellate Cell Activation and Hepatic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Schon, Hans-Theo; Bartneck, Matthias; Borkham-Kamphorst, Erawan; Nattermann, Jacob; Lammers, Twan; Tacke, Frank; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The activation and transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) into contractile, matrix-producing myofibroblasts (MFBs) are central events in hepatic fibrogenesis. These processes are driven by autocrine- and paracrine-acting soluble factors (i.e., cytokines and chemokines). Proof-of-concept studies of the last decades have shown that both the deactivation and removal of hepatic MFBs as well as antagonizing profibrogenic factors are in principle suitable to attenuate ongoing hepatic fibrosis. Although several drugs show potent antifibrotic activities in experimental models of hepatic fibrosis, there is presently no effective pharmaceutical intervention specifically approved for the treatment of liver fibrosis. Pharmaceutical interventions are generally hampered by insufficient supply of drugs to the diseased liver tissue and/or by adverse effects as a result of affecting non-target cells. Therefore, targeted delivery systems that bind specifically to receptors solely expressed on activated HSCs or transdifferentiated MFBs and delivery systems that can improve drug distribution to the liver in general are urgently needed. In this review, we summarize current strategies for targeted delivery of drugs to the liver and in particular to pro-fibrogenic liver cells. The applicability and efficacy of sequestering molecules, selective protein carriers, lipid-based drug vehicles, viral vectors, transcriptional targeting approaches, therapeutic liver- and HSC-specific nanoparticles, and miRNA-based strategies are discussed. Some of these delivery systems that had already been successfully tested in experimental animal models of ongoing hepatic fibrogenesis are expected to translate into clinically useful therapeutics specifically targeting HSCs. PMID:26941644

  20. Adventurous Physical Activity Environments: A Mainstream Intervention for Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Clough, Peter; Houge Mackenzie, Susan; Mallabon, Liz; Brymer, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Adventurous physical activity has traditionally been considered the pastime of a small minority of people with deviant personalities or characteristics that compel them to voluntarily take great risks purely for the sake of thrills and excitement. An unintended consequence of these traditional narratives is the relative absence of adventure activities in mainstream health and well-being discourses and in large-scale governmental health initiatives. However, recent research has demonstrated that even the most extreme adventurous physical activities are linked to enhanced psychological health and well-being outcomes. These benefits go beyond traditional 'character building' concepts and emphasize more positive frameworks that rely on the development of effective environmental design. Based on emerging research, this paper demonstrates why adventurous physical activity should be considered a mainstream intervention for positive mental health. Furthermore, the authors argue that understanding how to design environments that effectively encourage appropriate adventure should be considered a serious addition to mainstream health and well-being discourse. PMID:26895993

  1. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  2. Systematic review of reviews of intervention components associated with increased effectiveness in dietary and physical activity interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To develop more efficient programmes for promoting dietary and/or physical activity change (in order to prevent type 2 diabetes) it is critical to ensure that the intervention components and characteristics most strongly associated with effectiveness are included. The aim of this systematic review of reviews was to identify intervention components that are associated with increased change in diet and/or physical activity in individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and the Cochrane Library were searched for systematic reviews of interventions targeting diet and/or physical activity in adults at risk of developing type 2 diabetes from 1998 to 2008. Two reviewers independently selected reviews and rated methodological quality. Individual analyses from reviews relating effectiveness to intervention components were extracted, graded for evidence quality and summarised. Results Of 3856 identified articles, 30 met the inclusion criteria and 129 analyses related intervention components to effectiveness. These included causal analyses (based on randomisation of participants to different intervention conditions) and associative analyses (e.g. meta-regression). Overall, interventions produced clinically meaningful weight loss (3-5 kg at 12 months; 2-3 kg at 36 months) and increased physical activity (30-60 mins/week of moderate activity at 12-18 months). Based on causal analyses, intervention effectiveness was increased by engaging social support, targeting both diet and physical activity, and using well-defined/established behaviour change techniques. Increased effectiveness was also associated with increased contact frequency and using a specific cluster of "self-regulatory" behaviour change techniques (e.g. goal-setting, self-monitoring). No clear relationships were found between effectiveness and intervention setting, delivery mode, study population or delivery provider. Evidence on long-term effectiveness suggested the

  3. Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. Methods This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and

  4. Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention for College-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ornes, Lynne; Ransdell, Lynda B.

    2007-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of a web-based physical activity intervention to two control conditions in terms of increasing walking behavior in college-aged women. Women (N=112) from a public university in the southwest were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups. The 4-week intervention featured an experimental, repeated…

  5. Integrative Review of Nurse-Delivered Physical Activity Interventions in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Cai, Yun

    2016-04-01

    Promotion of physical activity has been a public health priority for decades. The purpose of this integrative review is to examine the effectiveness of nurse-delivered physical activity interventions conducted in primary care settings. Computerized database and ancestry search strategies located distinct intervention trials between 1990 and 2014. Nineteen national and international studies with 7,350 participants were reviewed. The most common intervention was physical activity counseling with supportive or motivational contacts. Few studies utilized exercise training, device-based exercise monitoring, or exercise prescriptions. The most common follow-up durations were 3 to 12 months. Half the studies integrated health behavior theoretical frameworks into the intervention. Almost 80% of the studies reported significant increases in walking, moderate or vigorous physical activity, or overall physical activity in the intervention groups. Interventions successful in increasing physical activity most often utilized tailored techniques such as providing "stage of change"-specific strategies or helping patients set individualized goals. PMID:25903812

  6. Evaluation of a Community-Based Intervention To Promote Physical Activity in Youth: Lessons from Active Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Ward, Dianne S.; Felton, Gwen; Trost, Stewart G.; Dowda, Marsha

    2003-01-01

    Tested the effectiveness of a community-based intervention designed to promote physical activity among rural fifth graders. Data on students who participated in after-school and summer programs and home, school, and community interventions indicated that the after-school and summer interventions were implemented as planned, but the home, school,…

  7. [A workplace intervention aimed at increasing awareness in nursing personnel performing manual handling activities].

    PubMed

    Scorpiniti, A; Lorusso, A; L'Abbate, N

    2007-01-01

    Here we describe a workplace intervention aimed at reducing the risk of low back pain in nursing personnel. The intervention we carried out included a specific ergonomic training and an exercise program according to the Feldenkrais Method. After the intervention, we evaluated its effect on the execution of manual handling activities in nurses. We found an increased rate of correct manual handling in the post-intervention period. PMID:18410001

  8. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens. PMID:24319695

  9. Interventions to Promote Young People's Physical Activity: Issues, Implications and Recommendations for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2006-01-01

    There has been increased interest in the development and implementation of physical activity interventions designed to increase young people's physical activity participation in recent years. This is perhaps founded on concerns over youngsters' physical activity levels and the possible health consequences. School-based interventions are the most…

  10. A systematic review of interventions for promoting active transportation to school

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Active transportation to school is an important contributor to the total physical activity of children and adolescents. However, active school travel has declined over time, and interventions are needed to reverse this trend. The purpose of this paper is to review intervention studies related to active school transportation to guide future intervention research. Methods A systematic review was conducted to identify intervention studies of active transportation to school published in the scientific literature through January 2010. Five electronic databases and a manual search were conducted. Detailed information was extracted, including a quantitative assessment comparing the effect sizes, and a qualitative assessment using an established evaluation tool. Results We identified 14 interventions that focused on active transportation to school. These interventions mainly focused on primary school children in the United States, Australia, and the United Kingdom. Almost all the interventions used quasi-experimental designs (10/14), and most of the interventions reported a small effect size on active transportation (6/14). Conclusion More research with higher quality study designs and measures should be conducted to further evaluate interventions and to determine the most successful strategies for increasing active transportation to school. PMID:21320322

  11. Physical activity interventions: effects of duration and intensity.

    PubMed

    Buchan, D S; Ollis, S; Thomas, N E; Buchanan, N; Cooper, S-M; Malina, R M; Baker, J S

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of exercising at different intensities over 7 weeks on components of physical fitness and CVD risk factors. Forty-seven boys and 10 girls, (16.4±0.7 years of age) were divided into a moderate, high intensity, or a control group. All participants had indices of obesity and blood pressure recorded in addition to four physical performance measures pre- and post-intervention. In addition, the intervention groups repeated the physical performance measures at the 4th week phase of the intervention. Following the intervention, significant improvements (P<0.05) in the high-intensity group were found in the 20 MSFT, agility, CMJ and 10 m sprint post-intervention. Participants in the moderate intensity group displayed significant improvements (P<0.05) in both the CMJ and 20 MSFT post-intervention. Body fat % significantly improved (P<0.01) in the moderate group only post-intervention. Interestingly, Systolic blood pressure significantly improved post-intervention (112±10 vs 106±11 mmHg) (P=0.017) in the high intensity group. In conclusion, high-intensity exercise over 7 weeks is a very time efficient means of improving important components of physical fitness in adolescents. PMID:21518010

  12. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  13. Increasing Physical Activity Efficiently: An Experimental Pilot Study of a Website and Mobile Phone Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35–73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool. PMID:24963290

  14. Increasing physical activity efficiently: an experimental pilot study of a website and mobile phone intervention.

    PubMed

    Thorsteinsen, Kjærsti; Vittersø, Joar; Svendsen, Gunnvald Bendix

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of an online, interactive physical activity intervention that also incorporated gaming components. The intervention design included an activity planner, progress monitoring, and gamification components and used SMS text as a secondary delivery channel and feedback to improve engagement in the intervention content. Healthy adults (n = 21) recruited through ads in local newspapers (age 35-73) were randomized to the intervention or the control condition. Both groups reported physical activity using daily report forms in four registration weeks during the three-month study: only the experiment condition received access to the intervention. Analyses showed that the intervention group had significantly more minutes of physical activity in weeks five and nine. We also found a difference in the intensity of exercise in week five. Although the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity at higher intensity levels, we were not able to find a significant effect at the end of the study period. In conclusion, this study adds to the research on the effectiveness of using the Internet and SMS text messages for delivering physical activity interventions and supports gamification as a viable intervention tool. PMID:24963290

  15. Anti-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as an effective therapy of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia with and without inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neurodevelopmental deficits in neonates. Intrauterine infection and the ensuing fetal inflammatory responses augment hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and attenuate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Here, we review evidences from preclinical studies suggesting that the induction of brain parenchymal tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important pathogenic role in these conditions. Moreover, administration of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 called CPAI confers potent protection against hypoxic-ischemic injury with and without inflammation via different mechanisms. Besides intracerebroventricular injection, CPAI can also be administered into the brain using a noninvasive intranasal delivery strategy, adding to its applicability in clinical use. In sum, the therapeutic potential of CPAI in neonatal care merits further investigation with large-animal models of hypoxia-ischemia and cerebral palsy. PMID:25475942

  16. Psychosocial Issues in Engaging Older People with Physical Activity Interventions for the Prevention of Falls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyman, Samuel R.

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the psychosocial factors that influence older people's participation in physical activity interventions to prevent falls. The importance of psychosocial factors is stressed inasmuch as interventions will be rendered useless if they do not successfully gain the active participation of older people. The theory of…

  17. Effectiveness of Physical Activity Interventions for Preschoolers: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Elliott S.; Tucker, Patricia; Burke, Shauna M.; Carron, Albert V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of physical activity interventions on physical activity participation among preschoolers. A secondary purpose was to investigate the influence of several possible moderator variables (e.g., intervention length, location, leadership, type) on moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  18. A Tale of 2 Teachers: A Preschool Physical Activity Intervention Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, Erin K.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Dowda, Marsha; McIver, Kerry L.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preschool settings vary greatly, and research has shown that interventions are more successful when they can be adapted to individual settings. This is a descriptive case study of how 2 teachers successfully adapted and implemented a preschool physical activity intervention. Methods: The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool…

  19. Divisions of Labour: Activity Theory, Multi-Professional Working and Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warmington, Paul

    2011-01-01

    This article draws upon, but also critiques, activity theory by combining analysis of how an activity theory derived research intervention attempted to address both everyday work practices and organisational power relationships among children's services professionals. It offers two case studies of developmental work research (DWR) interventions in…

  20. Insights for Exercise Adherence from a Minimal Planning Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janine; Campbell, Marianne; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the impact of a minimal, online planning intervention on physical activity in Australian office workers. Method: Employees were randomized to an implementation intention intervention (n = 124) or health information control group (n = 130). Measures of physical activity, past behavior, and motivation were taken at baseline and 6…

  1. SPACE for physical activity - a multicomponent intervention study: study design and baseline findings from a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of the School site, Play Spot, Active transport, Club fitness and Environment (SPACE) Study was to develop, document, and assess a comprehensive intervention in local school districts that promote everyday physical activity (PA) among 11-15-year-old adolescents. The study is based on a social ecological framework, and is designed to implement organizational and structural changes in the physical environment. Methods/design The SPACE Study used a cluster randomized controlled study design. Twenty-one eligible schools in the Region of Southern Denmark were matched and randomized in seven pairs according to eight matching variables summarized in an audit tool (crow-fly distance from residence to school for 5-6th graders; area household income; area education level; area ethnicity distribution; school district urbanity; condition and characteristics of school outdoor areas; school health policy; and active transport in the local area). Baseline measurements with accelerometers, questionnaires, diaries, and physical fitness tests were obtained in Spring 2010 in 5-6th grade in 7 intervention and 7 control schools, with follow-up measurements to be taken in Spring 2012 in 7-8th grade. The primary outcome measure is objective average daily physical activity and will be supported by analyses of time spent in moderate to vigorous activity and time spent sedentary. Other secondary outcome measures will be obtained, such as, overweight, physical fitness, active commuting to/from school and physical activity in recess periods. Discussion A total of 1348 adolescents in 5-6th grade in the Region of Southern Denmark participated at baseline (n = 14 schools). The response rate was high in all type of measurements (72.6-97.4%). There were no significant differences between intervention and control groups at baseline according to selected background variables and outcome measures: gender (p = .54), age (p = .17), BMI (p = .59), waist circumference (p = .17

  2. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  3. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  4. Oxidation of gas-phase protactinium ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: formation and properties of PaO2(2+)(g), protactinyl.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Tyagi, Rajni; Pitzer, Russell M

    2006-05-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N(2)O to the relatively weak CH(2)O-all oxidized Pa(+) to PaO(+) and PaO(+) to PaO(2)(+). On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa(+)-O] and D[OPa(+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). Estimates for D[Pa(+)-O], D[OPa(+)-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO(2)] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa(2+) to produce PaO(2+), indicating that D[Pa(2+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO(2+) by N(2)O to PaO(2)(2+), a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO(2)(2+) suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {O-Pa-O}(2+). The experimentally determined IE[PaO(2)(+)] approximately 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO(2)(+) and PaO(2)(2+). These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial "6p hole" in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO(2)(2+) catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N(2)O-such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO(2)(2+) is capable of activating H(2) to form the stable PaO(2)H(2+) ion. PMID:16640369

  5. Social support for physical activity-role of Facebook with and without structured intervention.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, David N; Tate, Deborah F; Ward, Dianne S; DeVellis, Robert F; Thayer, Linden M; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-12-01

    Despite their widespread use and extensive technical features, little is known about how to use online social networking sites to increase physical activity. This study aims to examine Facebook engagement among participants in the online social networking arm of a randomized controlled physical activity promotion trial (n = 67). Facebook communications were double coded and analyzed using ATLAS.ti. Regression procedures were used to determine predictors of Facebook use and associations between types of use and changes in perceived social support and physical activity. Changes in perceived social support and physical activity were more strongly associated with participants' individual Facebook use than use of the Facebook intervention group. The way social media sites are used in intervention design could have an impact on their effects. Including existing friends in interventions and using applications that incorporate intervention activities into a more naturalistic use of Facebook may improve the efficacy of future interventions. PMID:25584083

  6. Effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents: systematic review of controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    McMinn, Alison M; Griffin, Simon J

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review the published literature on the effectiveness of interventions to promote physical activity in children and adolescents. Design Systematic review. Data sources Literature search using PubMed, SCOPUS, Psychlit, Ovid Medline, Sportdiscus, and Embase up to December 2006. Review methods Two independent reviewers assessed studies against the following inclusion criteria: controlled trial, comparison of intervention to promote physical activity with no intervention control condition, participants younger than 18 years, and reported statistical analyses of a physical activity outcome measure. Levels of evidence, accounting for methodological quality, were assessed for three types of intervention, five settings, and three target populations. Results The literature search identified 57 studies: 33 aimed at children and 24 at adolescents. Twenty four studies were of high methodological quality, including 13 studies in children. Interventions that were found to be effective achieved increases ranging from an additional 2.6 minutes of physical education related physical activity to 283 minutes per week of overall physical activity. Among children, limited evidence for an effect was found for interventions targeting children from low socioeconomic populations, and environmental interventions. Strong evidence was found that school based interventions with involvement of the family or community and multicomponent interventions can increase physical activity in adolescents. Conclusion Some evidence was found for potentially effective strategies to increase children's levels of physical activity. For adolescents, multicomponent interventions and interventions that included both school and family or community involvement have the potential to make important differences to levels of physical activity and should be promoted. A lack of high quality evaluations hampers conclusions concerning effectiveness, especially among children. PMID:17884863

  7. Community-based physical activity interventions among women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Amiri Farahani, Leila; Asadi-Lari, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Eesa; Parvizy, Soroor; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Taghizadeh, Ziba

    2015-01-01

    Objective Review and assess the effectiveness of community-based physical activity interventions among women aged 18–65 years. Design Systematic review Methods To find relevant articles, the researcher selected reports published in English between 1 January 2000 and 31 March 2013. Systematic search was to find controlled-trial studies that were conducted to uncover the effect of community-based interventions to promote physical activity among women 18–65 years of age, in which physical activity was reported as one of the measured outcomes. The methodological quality assessment was performed using a critical appraisal sheet. Also, the levels of evidence were assessed for the types of interventions. Results The literature search identified nine articles. Four of the studies were randomised and the others studies had high methodological quality. There was no evidence, on the basis of effectiveness, for social cognitive theory-based interventions and inconclusive evidence of effectiveness for the rest of interventions. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions for enhancing physical activity among women. There is a need for high-quality randomised clinical trials with adequate statistical power to determine whether multicomponent and community-based intervention programmes increase physical activity among women, as well as to determine what type of interventions have a more effective and sustainable impact on women's physical activity. PMID:25833668

  8. Effects of an Obesity Prevention Intervention on Physical Activity Among Preschool Children: The CHILE Study.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Theresa H; Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; O'Donald, Elena R; Sanders, Sarah G; Sheche, Judith N

    2016-09-01

    Background Limited research addresses interventions to increase physical activity among American Indian and Hispanic preschool-aged children living in rural areas. We examined the impact of a Head Start-based intervention (Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise [CHILE]) on physical activity at home. Method Sixteen Head Start centers in predominantly Hispanic or American Indian communities were group randomized to the six-component intervention or a comparison group for 2 years. Structured surveys were administered at four assessment times to a convenience sample of caregivers of 655 children in the study. Multilevel modeling was used to assess the effects of the intervention on physical activity. Results The relative change in physical activity in the intervention group compared with the comparison group over the 2-year period was 1.56 (95% confidence interval [1.02, 2.38]; p = .04). Among specific promoted activities (ball playing, dancing, active games, jumping, and walking), dancing increased significantly in the intervention compared with the comparison group (2.9; 95% confidence interval [1.2, 7.1]; p = .02). Conclusions The CHILE intervention was effective at increasing physical activity at home in preschool children in priority populations. Future research should focus on increasing family involvement and strengthening messaging about physical activity in these populations. PMID:27091603

  9. Physician Assistant profession (PA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... provide health care services under the direction and supervision of a doctor of medicine (MD) or a ... location as the PA. Most states allow physician supervision by telephone communication with periodic site visits. Supervising ...

  10. Acute Ischemic Stroke Intervention.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Priyank; Yavagal, Dileep R; Sacco, Ralph L

    2016-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is the leading cause of disability worldwide and among the leading causes of mortality. Although intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) was approved nearly 2 decades ago for treatment of AIS, only a minority of patients receive it due to a narrow time window for administration and several contraindications to its use. Endovascular approaches to recanalization in AIS developed in the 1980s, and recently, 5 major randomized trials showed an overwhelming superior benefit of combining endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with IV-rtPA over IV-rtPA alone. In this paper, we discuss the evolution of catheter-based treatment from first-generation thrombectomy devices to the game-changing stent retrievers, results from recent trials, and the evolving stroke systems of care to provide timely access to acute stroke intervention to patients in the United States. PMID:27256835

  11. An Activity-Based Approach to Early Intervention. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Bricker, Diane

    2004-01-01

    How can early childhood professionals seamlessly link assessment, goal development, intervention, and evaluation for children from birth to age 5--while developing individualized IEP/IFSP goals, creating multiple and varied learning opportunities, and working as a team? The third edition of this highly respected resource has the answers. A classic…

  12. A Review of eHealth Interventions for Physical Activity and Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Norman, Gregory J.; Zabinski, Marion F.; Adams, Marc A.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Yaroch, Amy L.; Atienza, Audie A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To review eHealth intervention studies for adults and children that targeted behavior change for physical activity, healthy eating, or both behaviors. Data Sources Systematic literature searches were performed using five databases: Medline, PsychInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, and the Cochrane Library to retrieve articles. Study Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria Articles published in scientific journals were included if they evaluated an intervention for physical activity and/or dietary behaviors, or focused on weight loss; used randomized or quasi-experimental designs; measured outcomes at baseline and a follow-up period; and included an intervention where participants interacted with some type of electronic technology either as the main intervention or an adjunct component. All studies were published between 2000 and 2005. Results Eighty-six publications were initially identified, of which 49 met the inclusion criteria (13 physical activity publications, 16 dietary behaviors publications, and 20 weight loss or both physical activity and diet publications), and represented 47 different studies. Studies were described on multiple dimensions, including sample characteristics, design, intervention, measures, and results. eHealth interventions were superior to comparison groups for 21/41 (51%) studies (3 physical activity, 7 diet, 11 weight loss/physical activity and diet). Twenty-four studies had indeterminate results, and in four studies the comparison conditions outperformed eHealth interventions. Conclusions Published studies of eHealth interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change are in their infancy. Results indicated mixed findings related to the effectiveness of eHealth interventions. Interventions that feature interactive technologies need to be refined and more rigorously evaluated to fully determine their potential as tools to facilitate health behavior change. PMID:17888860

  13. Testing a workplace physical activity intervention: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased physical activity levels benefit both an individuals' health and productivity at work. The purpose of the current study was to explore the impact and cost-effectiveness of a workplace physical activity intervention designed to increase physical activity levels. Methods A total of 1260 participants from 44 UK worksites (based within 5 organizations) were recruited to a cluster randomized controlled trial with worksites randomly allocated to an intervention or control condition. Measurement of physical activity and other variables occurred at baseline, and at 0 months, 3 months and 9 months post-intervention. Health outcomes were measured during a 30 minute health check conducted in worksites at baseline and 9 months post intervention. The intervention consisted of a 3 month tool-kit of activities targeting components of the Theory of Planned Behavior, delivered in-house by nominated facilitators. Self-reported physical activity (measured using the IPAQ short-form) and health outcomes were assessed. Results and discussion Multilevel modelling found no significant effect of the intervention on MET minutes of activity (from the IPAQ) at any of the follow-up time points controlling for baseline activity. However, the intervention did significantly reduce systolic blood pressure (B = -1.79 mm/Hg) and resting heart rate (B = -2.08 beats) and significantly increased body mass index (B = .18 units) compared to control. The intervention was found not to be cost-effective, however the substantial variability round this estimate suggested that further research is warranted. Conclusions The current study found mixed support for this worksite physical activity intervention. The paper discusses some of the tensions involved in conducting rigorous evaluations of large-scale randomized controlled trials in real-world settings. Trial registration Current controlled trials ISRCTN08807396 PMID:21481265

  14. Community participatory physical activity intervention targets children at high risk for obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This community participatory research evaluated the feasibility of a summer soccer and nutrition education program to increase physical activity (PA) in rural Mississippi Delta children at high risk of obesity and previously not exposed to soccer. Children aged 4-12 were recruited through school and...

  15. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H.; Sugar, Linda M.; Kiss, Alexander; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-08-28

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. Results: The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by the combination when compared to that of either treatment alone in PC3 cells (p < 0.01). The anti-tumor effect of this combination treatment was associated with down-regulation of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in PC3 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to elucidate the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. - Highlights: • Desmopressin inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. • The expression of cyclin A and CDK2

  16. Physical Activity, Exercise, and Nutrition Interventions for Weight Control in African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asare, Matthew; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to review the physical activity, exercise, and nutrition related weight control interventions done with African American women that were published between 2006 and 2010 and suggest ways of enhancing these interventions. A total of 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The review found significant results with regard…

  17. A Comparison of Activity-Based Intervention and Embedded Direct Instruction When Teaching Emergent Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botts, Dawn C.; Losardo, Angela S.; Tillery, Christina Y.; Werts, Margaret G.

    2014-01-01

    This replication study focused on the effectiveness of two different intervention approaches, activity-based intervention and embedded direct instruction, on the acquisition, generalization, and maintenance of phonological awareness, a key area of emergent literacy, by preschool children with language delays. Five male preschool participants with…

  18. The impact of sarcopenia on the response to a physical activity intervention in older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if the changes observed in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) after a physical activity or health education intervention are influenced by sarcopenia status at baseline. Data were obtained from the Lifestyles for Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study, a RCT th...

  19. Preschool Children's Use of Thematic Vocabulary during Dialogic Reading and Activity-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahn, Naomi L.; Coogle, Christan Grygas; Storie, Sloan

    2016-01-01

    An adapted alternating treatments design was used to compare the expressive use of thematic vocabulary by three preschool children with developmental delays during Dialogic Reading, a shared book reading intervention, and Activity-Based Intervention, a naturalistic play-based teaching method. The design was replicated across two early childhood…

  20. The Development of Spatial Skills through Interventions Involving Block Building Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Beth M.; Andrews, Nicole; Schindler, Holly; Kersh, Joanne E.; Samper, Alexandra; Copley, Juanita

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of block-building interventions to develop spatial-reasoning skills in kindergartners. Two intervention conditions and a control condition were included to determine, first, whether the block building activities themselves benefited children's spatial skills, and secondly, whether a story context further improved…

  1. Community capacity for sustainability of nutrition and physical activity interventions in small, rural communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rural communities would seem to present a challenge for sustainability of interventions because of resource limitations. This session will examine ways in which capacity for sustainability has been emphasized as part of nutrition and physical activity interventions in three rural Mississippi River D...

  2. Conceptualizing a Theoretical Model for School-Centered Adolescent Physical Activity Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ang; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2006-01-01

    Adolescent physical inactivity has risen to an alarming rate. Several theoretical frameworks (models) have been proposed and tested in school-based interventions. The results are mixed, indicating a similar weakness as that observed in community-based physical activity interventions (Baranowski, Lin, Wetter, Resnicow, & Hearn, 1997). The…

  3. The effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes in adolescents: A meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Spruit, Anouk; Assink, Mark; van Vugt, Eveline; van der Put, Claudia; Stams, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    Physical activity interventions are often implemented in the adolescent mental health care practice to prevent or treat psychosocial problems. To date, no systematic review of the effect of these physical activity interventions in adolescents has been conducted. In the current study, four multilevel meta-analyses were performed to assess the overall effect of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems, internalizing problems, self-concept, and academic achievement in adolescents. In addition, possible moderating factors were examined. In total, 57 studies reporting on 216 effect sizes were included, and the results showed significant small-to-moderate effects of physical activity interventions on externalizing problems (d=0.320), internalizing problems (d=0.316), self-concept (d=0.297), and academic achievement (d=0.367). Further, moderator analyses showed that outcome, study, sample, and intervention characteristics influenced the effects of physical activity interventions on psychosocial outcomes. Implications for theory and practice concerning the use of physical activity interventions in adolescent mental health care practice are discussed. PMID:27064552

  4. The Influence of a High Intensity Physical Activity Intervention on a Selection of Health Related Outcomes: An Ecological Approach

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2009-12-04

    To Assess the Impact of the HIT Intervention on Physiological Responses; To Assess the Role of a Secondary High School as a Setting for Promoting Healthy Eating and PA Behaviours; To Determine the Associations Between CVD Risk Factors at Baseline in 15 - 18 Year Old Youth

  5. Neuroimaging of reading intervention: a systematic review and activation likelihood estimate meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Barquero, Laura A; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  6. Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barquero, Laura A.; Davis, Nicole; Cutting, Laurie E.

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies examine instructional training and brain activity. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature regarding neuroimaging of reading intervention, with a particular focus on reading difficulties (RD). To locate relevant studies, searches of peer-reviewed literature were conducted using electronic databases to search for studies from the imaging modalities of fMRI and MEG (including MSI) that explored reading intervention. Of the 96 identified studies, 22 met the inclusion criteria for descriptive analysis. A subset of these (8 fMRI experiments with post-intervention data) was subjected to activation likelihood estimate (ALE) meta-analysis to investigate differences in functional activation following reading intervention. Findings from the literature review suggest differences in functional activation of numerous brain regions associated with reading intervention, including bilateral inferior frontal, superior temporal, middle temporal, middle frontal, superior frontal, and postcentral gyri, as well as bilateral occipital cortex, inferior parietal lobules, thalami, and insulae. Findings from the meta-analysis indicate change in functional activation following reading intervention in the left thalamus, right insula/inferior frontal, left inferior frontal, right posterior cingulate, and left middle occipital gyri. Though these findings should be interpreted with caution due to the small number of studies and the disparate methodologies used, this paper is an effort to synthesize across studies and to guide future exploration of neuroimaging and reading intervention. PMID:24427278

  7. Active Patient Participation in the Development of an Online Intervention

    PubMed Central

    van Weel-Baumgarten, Evelyn M; Snippe, Harm Wouter; Gouw, Hans; Zijlstra, Josée M; van Dulmen, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Background An important and challenging part of living with cancer relates to the repeated visits to the hospital. Since how patients cope between these post-diagnostic visits depends partly on the information and support received from their physician during the visits, it is important to make the most of them. Recent findings reinforce the importance of training not only the health care professionals in communication skills, but providing patients with support in communication as well. Delivering such supportive interventions online can have potential benefits in terms of accessibility, cost-effectiveness, and ability to tailor information to personal needs. However, problems with attrition (dropout, non-usage) during the test phase and poor uptake after implementation are frequently reported. The marginal level of engagement of the patient as end user seems to play a role in this. Therefore, recent research suggests integrating theory-based development methods with methods that promote involvement of the patient at an early stage. This paper describes a participatory protocol, used to let patients guide a theory-informed development process. Objective The objective of this project was to apply a bottom-up inspired procedure to develop a patient-centered intervention with corresponding evaluation and implementation plan. Methods The applied development protocol was based on the intervention mapping framework, combined with patient participatory methods that were inspired by the participation ladder and user-centred design methods. Results The applied protocol led to a self-directed online communication intervention aimed at helping patients gain control during their communications with health care professionals. It also led to an evaluation plan and an implementation plan. The protocol enabled the continuous involvement of patient research partners and the partial involvement of patient service users, which led to valuable insights and improvements. Conclusions

  8. Depressive symptoms among older adults: long-term reduction after a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Konopack, James F; McAuley, Edward; Elavsky, Steriani; Jerome, Gerald J; Marquez, David X

    2005-08-01

    We examined the effects of two physical activity modes on depressive symptoms over a 5-year period among older adults and change in physical self-esteem as a mediator of changes in depressive symptoms. Formerly sedentary, older adults (N = 174) were randomly assigned into 6-month conditions of either walking or low-intensity resistance/flexibility training. Depressive symptoms and physical self-esteem were measured before and after the 6-month intervention, and 12 and 60 months after intervention initiation. Depressive symptoms scores were decreased immediately after the intervention, followed by a sustained reduction for 12 and 60 months after intervention initiation; there was no differential pattern of change between the physical activity modes. Change in physical self-esteem predicted change in depressive symptoms. This study supports the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for the sustained reduction of depressive symptoms among sedentary older adults and physical self-esteem as a potential mediator of this effect. PMID:16049630

  9. Children's physical activity levels during school recess: a quasi-experimental intervention study

    PubMed Central

    Ridgers, Nicola D; Stratton, Gareth; Fairclough, Stuart J; Twisk, Jos WR

    2007-01-01

    Background Recess provides a daily opportunity for children to engage in moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Limited research has investigated the effects of recess-based interventions on physical activity using large sample sizes whilst investigating variables that may influence the intervention effect. The aim of the study was to investigate the short-term effects of a playground markings and physical structures intervention on recess physical activity. A secondary aim was to investigate the effects of covariates on the intervention. Methods 150 boys and 147 girls were randomly selected from 26 elementary schools to wear uni-axial accelerometers that quantified physical activity every 5 seconds during recess. Fifteen schools located in deprived areas in one large urban city in England received funding through a national initiative to redesign the playground environment. Eleven schools served as matched socioeconomic controls. Data were collected at baseline and 6-weeks following playground intervention. Recess MVPA and VPA levels adjusted for pupil- and school-level covariates (baseline physical activity, age, gender, recess length, body mass index) were analysed using multilevel analyses. Results Positive but non-significant intervention effects were found for MVPA and VPA when confounding variables were added to the model. Gender was a significant predictor of recess physical activity, with boys engaging in more MVPA and VPA than girls. Significant interactions for MVPA revealed that the intervention effect was stronger for younger elementary aged school children compared to older children, and the intervention effect increased as daily recess duration increased. Conclusion The playground redesign intervention resulted in small but non-significant increases in children's recess physical activity when school and pupil level variables were added to the analyses. Changing the playground environment produced a stronger intervention

  10. Effect of a behavioral intervention on dimensions of self-regulation and physical activity among overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Silfee, Valerie; Petosa, Rick; Laurent, Devin; Schaub, Timothy; Focht, Brian

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine the preliminary effect of a behavioral intervention on the use of self-regulation strategies and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. 23 individuals recruited from ResearchMatc.org and campus advertisements were randomized into an intervention (n = 12) and control (n = 11) group. The intervention group received a behavioral intervention that used goal setting, time management, and self-monitoring to target dimensions of self-regulation and MVPA. The control received information regarding their PA habits. MVPA was measured via BodyMedia Armbands at pre- and post-test. The use of self-regulatory strategies for MVPA was assessed at pretest and posttest using the Self-Regulation for Exercise Scale. Cohen's d effect sizes were calculated to determine the practical impact of the intervention. The intervention had a large effect on all dimensions of self-regulation across time: including total self-regulation (3.15), self-monitoring (4.63), goal setting (3.17), social support (1.29), self-reward (1.98), time management (4.41), and overcoming barriers (2.25). The intervention had no impact on dimensions of MVPA across time. This pilot study demonstrated the ability of a behavioral intervention to improve the use of self-regulation strategies for MVPA in a sample of adults with type 2 diabetes. These findings can further inform the development of health promotion programs to promote self-regulation. Future research should focus on determining ability of improvements in self-regulation to stimulate behavior change. PMID:26785605

  11. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  12. Regulated proteolytic processing of Reelin through interplay of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), ADAMTS-4, ADAMTS-5, and their modulators.

    PubMed

    Krstic, Dimitrije; Rodriguez, Myriam; Knuesel, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular signaling protein Reelin, indispensable for proper neuronal migration and cortical layering during development, is also expressed in the adult brain where it modulates synaptic functions. It has been shown that proteolytic processing of Reelin decreases its signaling activity and promotes Reelin aggregation in vitro, and that proteolytic processing is affected in various neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, neither the pathophysiological significance of dysregulated Reelin cleavage, nor the involved proteases and their modulators are known. Here we identified the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and two matrix metalloproteinases, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, as Reelin cleaving enzymes. Moreover, we assessed the influence of several endogenous protease inhibitors, including tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs), α-2-Macroglobulin, and multiple serpins, as well as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) on Reelin cleavage, and described their complex interplay in the regulation of this process. Finally, we could demonstrate that in the murine hippocampus, the expression levels and localization of Reelin proteases largely overlap with that of Reelin. While this pattern remained stable during normal aging, changes in their protein levels coincided with accelerated Reelin aggregation in a mouse model of AD. PMID:23082219

  13. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories "physical activity", "media" and "older adults". The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n=11), compared to internet (n=3) and other media (n=2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n=10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n=6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed the results varied considerably. One

  14. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  15. Non-face-to-face physical activity interventions in older adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity is effective in preventing chronic diseases, increasing quality of life and promoting general health in older adults, but most older adults are not sufficiently active to gain those benefits. A novel and economically viable way to promote physical activity in older adults is through non-face-to-face interventions. These are conducted with reduced or no in-person interaction between intervention provider and program participants. The aim of this review was to summarize the scientific literature on non-face-to-face physical activity interventions targeting healthy, community dwelling older adults (≥ 50 years). A systematic search in six databases was conducted by combining multiple key words of the three main search categories “physical activity”, “media” and “older adults”. The search was restricted to English language articles published between 1st January 2000 and 31st May 2013. Reference lists of relevant articles were screened for additional publications. Seventeen articles describing sixteen non-face-to-face physical activity interventions were included in the review. All studies were conducted in developed countries, and eleven were randomized controlled trials. Sample size ranged from 31 to 2503 participants, and 13 studies included 60% or more women. Interventions were most frequently delivered via print materials and phone (n = 11), compared to internet (n = 3) and other media (n = 2). Every intervention was theoretically framed with the Social Cognitive Theory (n = 10) and the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (n = 6) applied mostly. Individual tailoring was reported in 15 studies. Physical activity levels were self-assessed in all studies. Fourteen studies reported significant increase in physical activity. Eight out of nine studies conducted post-intervention follow-up analysis found that physical activity was maintained over a longer time. In the six studies where intervention dose was assessed

  16. Meta-analysis of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity levels

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Many internet-delivered physical activity behaviour change programs have been developed and evaluated. However, further evidence is required to ascertain the overall effectiveness of such interventions. The objective of the present review was to evaluate the effectiveness of internet-delivered interventions to increase physical activity, whilst also examining the effect of intervention moderators. A systematic search strategy identified relevant studies published in the English-language from Pubmed, Proquest, Scopus, PsychINFO, CINHAL, and Sport Discuss (January 1990 – June 2011). Eligible studies were required to include an internet-delivered intervention, target an adult population, measure and target physical activity as an outcome variable, and include a comparison group that did not receive internet-delivered materials. Studies were coded independently by two investigators. Overall effect sizes were combined based on the fixed effect model. Homogeneity and subsequent exploratory moderator analysis was undertaken. A total of 34 articles were identified for inclusion. The overall mean effect of internet-delivered interventions on physical activity was d = 0.14 (p = 0.00). Fixed-effect analysis revealed significant heterogeneity across studies (Q = 73.75; p = 0.00). Moderating variables such as larger sample size, screening for baseline physical activity levels and the inclusion of educational components significantly increased intervention effectiveness. Results of the meta-analysis support the delivery of internet-delivered interventions in producing positive changes in physical activity, however effect sizes were small. The ability of internet-delivered interventions to produce meaningful change in long-term physical activity remains unclear. PMID:22546283

  17. Physician Assistant profession (PA)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and about 4 years of health-related experience. Educational programs for PAs are typically associated with colleges of medicine. They vary from 25 to 27 months in length. Most programs award a master's degree upon completion. The first PA students were ...

  18. Physical Activity Interventions with Healthy Minority Adults: Meta-Analysis of Behavior and Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Phillips, Lorraine J.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Chase, Jo-Ana D.

    2014-01-01

    This meta-analysis is a systematic compilation of research focusing on various exercise interventions and their impact on the health and behavior outcomes of healthy African American, Hispanic, Native American, and Native Hawaiian adults. Comprehensive searching located published and unpublished studies. Random-effects analyses synthesized data to calculate effect sizes (ES) as a standardized mean difference (d) and variability measures. Data were synthesized across 21,151 subjects in 100 eligible samples. Supervised exercise significantly improved fitness (ES=.571–.584). Interventions designed to motivate minority adults to increase physical activity changed subsequent physical activity behavior (ES=.172–.312) and anthropometric outcomes (ES=.070–.124). Some ES should be interpreted in the context of limited statistical power and heterogeneity. Attempts to match intervention content and delivery with minority populations were inconsistently reported. Healthy minority adults experienced health improvements following supervised exercise. Interventions designed to motivate subjects to increase physical activity have limited magnitude heterogeneous effects. PMID:22643462

  19. Factors Predicting Behavioral Response to a Physical Activity Intervention among Adolescent Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Schneider, Margaret; Cooper, Dan M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether individual factors influenced rates of physical activity change in response to a school-based intervention. Methods: Sedentary adolescent females (N = 63) participated in a 9-month physical activity program. Weekly levels of leisure-time physical activity were reported using an interactive website. Results: Change…

  20. BE-ACTIV: A Staff-Assisted Behavioral Intervention for Depression in Nursing Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeks, Suzanne; Looney, Stephen W.; Van Haitsma, Kimberly; Teri, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article (a) describes a 10-week, behavioral, activities-based intervention for depression that can be implemented in nursing homes collaboratively with nursing home activities staff and (b) presents data related to its development, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes. Design and Methods: We developed BE-ACTIV, which stands for…

  1. Changes in physical activity levels following 12-week family intervention in Hispanic girls: Bounce study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity is a major health problem among Hispanic girls. Physical activity guidelines recommend that children engage in at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous activity daily. To examine the changes in physical activity level pre- and post-intervention. Hispanic girls in control (CG; N=26, ...

  2. Low Discretionary Time as a Barrier to Physical Activity and Intervention Uptake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Kathleen Y.; Bennett, Gary G.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Sorensen, Glorian; Emmons, Karen M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether self-reported discretionary time was associated with physical activity and uptake of a physical activity promotion intervention in a multi-ethnic urban sample. Methods: We examined the association of self-reported discretionary time with hours/week of leisure-time physical activity at baseline and physical activity…

  3. Promising School-Based Strategies and Intervention Guidelines to Increase Physical Activity of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardo, Berta Murillo; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Lanaspa, Eduardo Generelo; Bush, Paula L.; Casterad, Javier Zaragoza; Clemente, Jose A. Julian; Gonzalez, Luis Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This narrative review describes the available scientific evidence regarding promising school-based strategies to increase physical activity of adolescents. We conducted a literature search for studies published up to 2011, regarding adolescent physical activity intervention studies that resulted in increased physical activity (regardless of…

  4. Activity Systems and Moral Reasoning: An Intervention Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardi, Eva; Helkama, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen social educator students were taught to analyze their work activity by means of a Vygotsky-inspired method, drawing on Engeström's notion of an activity system. The method aimed at increasing the consciousness of the students of the structure of work activity system. The participants wrote two accounts of their field-work practice…

  5. Internet-based physical activity intervention for women with a family history of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Sheri J.; Dunsiger, Shira I.; Marinac, Catherine R.; Marcus, Bess H.; Rosen, Rochelle K.; Gans, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Physical inactivity is a modifiable risk factor for breast cancer. Physical activity interventions that can be delivered through the Internet have the potential to increase participant reach. The efficacy of an Internet-based physical activity intervention was tested in a sample of women at an elevated risk for breast cancer. Methods A total of 55 women with at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer (but no personal history of breast cancer) were randomized to a 3-month theoretically grounded Internet-based physical activity intervention or an active control arm. Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity, psychosocial mediators of physical activity adoption and maintenance, as well as worry and perceived risk of developing breast cancer were assessed at baseline, 3-month, and 5-month follow up. Results Participants were on average 46.2 (SD=11.4) years old with a BMI of 27.3 (SD=4.8) kg/m2. The intervention arm significantly increased minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity compared to the active control arm at 3 months (213 vs. 129 min/week) and 5 months (208 vs. 119 min/week; both p<.001). Regression models indicated that participants in the intervention had significantly higher self-efficacy for physical activity at 3 months (p<.01) and borderline significantly higher self-efficacy at 5 months (p=0.05). Baseline breast cancer worry and perceived risk were not associated with physical activity. Conclusions Findings from this study suggest that an Internet-based physical activity intervention may substantially increase physical activity in women with a family history of breast cancer. PMID:26651471

  6. The Effect of Structured Exercise Intervention on Intensity and Volume of Total Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wasenius, Niko; Venojärvi, Mika; Manderoos, Sirpa; Surakka, Jukka; Lindholm, Harri; Heinonen, Olli J.; Aunola, Sirkka; Eriksson, Johan G.; Mälkiä, Esko

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of a 12-week structured exercise intervention on total physical activity and its subcategories. Twenty-three overweight or obese middle aged men with impaired glucose regulation were randomized into a 12-week Nordic walking group, a power-type resistance training group, and a non-exercise control group. Physical activity was measured with questionnaires before the intervention (1–4 weeks) and during the intervention (1–12 weeks) and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task. No significant change in the volume of total physical activity between or within the groups was observed (p > 0.050). The volume of total leisure-time physical activity (structured exercises + non-structured leisure-time physical activity) increased significantly in the Nordic walking group (p < 0.050) but not in the resistance training group (p > 0.050) compared to the control group. In both exercise groups increase in the weekly volume of total leisure-time physical activity was inversely associated with the volume of non-leisure-time physical activities. In conclusion, structured exercise intervention did not increase the volume of total physical activity. Albeit, endurance training can increase the volume of high intensity physical activities, however it is associated with compensatory decrease in lower intensity physical activities. To achieve effective personalized exercise program, individuality in compensatory behavior should be recognised. Key Points Structured NW or RT training does not increase the volume of total physical activity. NW intervention can increase the volume of higher intensity activities. The increased in volume of LTPA induced by the structured NW and RT interventions was associated with the decreased volume of NLTPA. PMID:25435776

  7. Examining an Australian physical activity and nutrition intervention using RE-AIM.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch; Kolt, Gregory S; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Maeder, Anthony; Noakes, Manny; Karunanithi, Mohan; Mummery, W Kerry

    2016-06-01

    Translating evidence-based interventions into community practice is vital to health promotion. This study used the RE-AIM framework to evaluate the larger dissemination of the ManUp intervention, an intervention which utilized interactive web-based technologies to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of residents in Central Queensland, Australia. Data were collected for each RE-AIM measure (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) using (i) computer-assisted telephone interview survey (N = 312) with adults (18 years and over) from Central Queensland, (ii) interviews with key stakeholders from local organizations (n = 12) and (iii) examination of project-related statistics and findings. In terms of Reach, 47% of participants were aware of the intervention; Effectiveness, there were no significant differences between physical activity and healthy nutrition levels in those aware and unaware; Adoption, 73 participants registered for the intervention and 25% of organizations adopted some part of the intervention; Implementation, 26% of participants initially logged onto the website, 29 and 17% started the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges, 33% of organizations implemented the intervention, 42% considered implementation and 25% reported difficulties; Maintenance, an average of 0.57 logins and 1.35 entries per week during the 12 week dissemination and 0.27 logins and 0.63 entries per week during the 9-month follow-up were achieved, 22 and 0% of participants completed the web-based physical activity and nutrition challenges and 33.3% of organizations intended to continue utilizing components of the intervention. While this intervention demonstrated good reach, effectiveness, adoption and implementation warrant further investigation. PMID:25715801

  8. [Educational activity and psychosocial prevention : a model of intervention.].

    PubMed

    Plamondon, G; Plamondon, L

    1981-01-01

    The authors describe the socio-economic conditions of the retired in 1980 (poverty, poor health, lack of adequate services, etc.) and explain how these conditions are related to capitalist social organization. Their analysis leads them to set down the principal goal of the community workers in regard to the elderly population as follows : contribute to the organization and to the development of conditions favorable to the mobilization of the retired and elderly workers who, as a group, have the greatest potential for changing their conditions. To attain this long-term objective, the pre-retirement clientele possess the most favorable potential, and this is why the retirement preparation intervention is defined in an educationel orientation of psycho-social prevention. Seconding to the authors, the apprenticeships showed permit the elderly to assume both personal and collective control - thereby making it possible to transform the existing conditions. PMID:17093720

  9. Active Kids Active Minds: A Physical Activity Intervention to Promote Learning?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    lisahunter; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Ziviani, Jennifer; Cuskelly, Monica

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the feasibility and impact of introducing a programme of an additional 30 minutes per day of moderate physical activity within curriculum time on learning and readiness to learn in a large elementary school in south-east Queensland, Australia. The programme, Active Kids Active Minds (AKAM), involved Year 5 students (n = 107),…

  10. Gamification of active travel to school: A pilot evaluation of the Beat the Street physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Coombes, Emma; Jones, Andy

    2016-05-01

    Beat the Street aims to get children more active by encouraging them to walk and cycle in their neighbourhood using tracking technology with a reward scheme. This pilot study evaluates the impact of Beat the Street on active travel to school in Norwich, UK. Eighty children 8-10 yrs were recruited via an intervention and control school. They wore an accelerometer for 7 days at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention (+20 weeks), and completed a travel diary. Physical activity overall was not higher at follow-up amongst intervention children compared to controls. However, there was a positive association between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during school commute times and the number of days on which children touched a Beat the Street sensor. This equated to 3.46min extra daily MVPA during commute times for children who touched a sensor on 14.5 days (the mean number of days), compared to those who did not engage. We also found weekly active travel increased at the intervention school (+10.0% per child) while it decreased at the control (-7.0%), p=0.056. Further work is needed to understand how improved engagement with the intervention might impact outcomes. PMID:26974232

  11. Modeling a 15-min extravehicular activity prebreathe protocol using NASA's exploration atmosphere (56.5 kPa/34% O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's plans for future human exploration missions utilize a new atmosphere of 56.5 kPa (8.2 psia), 34% O2, 66% N2 to enable rapid extravehicular activity (EVA) capability with minimal gas losses; however, existing EVA prebreathe protocols to mitigate risk of decompression sickness (DCS) are not applicable to the new exploration atmosphere. We provide preliminary analysis of a 15-min prebreathe protocol and examine the potential benefits of intermittent recompression (IR) and an abbreviated N2 purge on crew time and gas consumables usage. A probabilistic model of decompression stress based on an established biophysical model of DCS risk was developed, providing significant (p<0.0001) prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures including a variety of pressure profiles. DCS risk for a 15-min prebreathe protocol was then estimated under different exploration EVA scenarios. Estimated DCS risk for all EVA scenarios modeled using the 15-min prebreathe protocol ranged between 6.1% and 12.1%. Supersaturation in neurological tissues (5- and 10-min half-time compartments) is prevented and tissue tensions in faster half-time compartments (≤40 min), where the majority of whole-body N2 is located, are reduced to about the levels (30.0 vs. 27.6 kPa) achieved during a standard Shuttle prebreathe protocol. IR reduced estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 7.9% (1.8% reduction) and from 8.4% to 6.1% (2.3% reduction) for the scenarios modeled; the penalty of N2 reuptake during IR may be outweighed by the benefit of decreased bubble size. Savings of 75% of purge gas and time (0.22 kg gas and 6 min of crew time per person per EVA) are achievable by abbreviating the EVA suit purge to 20% N2 vs. 5% N2 at the expense of an increase in estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 12.1% (2.4% increase). A 15-min prebreathe protocol appears feasible using the new exploration atmosphere. IR between EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements

  12. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  13. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity: lessons from around the world

    PubMed Central

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L; Andersen, Lars Bo; Owen, Neville; Goenka, Shifalika; Montes, Felipe; Brownson, Ross C

    2016-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport policy and practices, and community-wide policies and planning. Thus, many approaches lead to acceptable increases in physical activity among people of various ages, and from different social groups, countries, and communities. PMID:22818939

  14. Effects of School-Based Physical Activity Interventions on Cognition and Academic Achievement: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mura, Gioia; Vellante, Marcello; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Machado, Sergio; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Schools are an ideal setting to implement physical activity programs targeted at youths' learning and intellectual abilities, as exercise has been associated with improvement in cognitive skills and academic proficiency. A systematic review of the literature was performed to examine the effects of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and cognitive outcomes. A search for relevant papers was carried out on PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar. Only quasi-experimental and experimental studies were included, if focused on school-based physical activity interventions targeting 3 to 18 year-old healthy pupils, and designed to establish a relationship between exercise performed in a school setting and cognitive/academic performance. Thirty-one papers were retrieved by the search, reporting the findings of twenty-eight school-based physical activity interventions. Most of the included studies were published in the past five years. A large majority of the studies showed positive results in terms of academic achievement and, above all, cognitive skills. In the recent years, the number of studies on school-based physical interventions aimed to establish a relationship between physical activity performed in school setting and cognitive/academic outcomes significantly increased, as well as high quality assessments and designs. This review highlights the effectiveness of school-based physical activity interventions on academic achievement and, above all, on youths' cognitive performance. Some interesting findings come from studies assessing brain functional changes, from interventions targeting culturally diverse or low-income samples, and from interventions where physical activity is in the form of active videogames. PMID:26556088

  15. Association between Social and Environmental Factors and Physical Activity Opportunities in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Furong; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir; Liu, Wenhao; Schmidlein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    School-based physical activity (PA) interventions impact children's PA involvement and thus opportunities and associated factors for the promotion of physical activity in children need to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teachers' perceptions of PA opportunities available to students at the middle school…

  16. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  17. VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard: Increasing Tween Girls' Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Thompson, Zachary; McDermott, Robert J.; Colquitt, Gavin; Jones, Jeffery A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Davis, Jenna L.; Zhu, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed changes in the frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) among tween girls exposed and not exposed to the VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention in Lexington, Kentucky, during 2004, 2006, and 2007. Methods: Girls who reported 0-1 day per week of PA were classi?ed as having "little or no" PA. Girls who reported…

  18. Playing Active Video Games may not develop movement skills: An intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Lisa M.; Ridgers, Nicola D.; Reynolds, John; Hanna, Lisa; Salmon, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Background: To investigate the impact of playing sports Active Video Games on children's actual and perceived object control skills. Methods: Intervention children played Active Video Games for 6 weeks (1 h/week) in 2012. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 assessed object control skill. The Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence assessed perceived object control skill. Repeated measurements of object control and perceived object control were analysed for the whole sample, using linear mixed models, which included fixed effects for group (intervention or control) and time (pre and post) and their interaction. The first model adjusted for sex only and the second model also adjusted for age, and prior ball sports experience (yes/no). Seven mixed-gender focus discussions were conducted with intervention children after programme completion. Results: Ninety-five Australian children (55% girls; 43% intervention group) aged 4 to 8 years (M 6.2, SD 0.95) participated. Object control skill improved over time (p = 0.006) but there was no significant difference (p = 0.913) between groups in improvement (predicted means: control 31.80 to 33.53, SED = 0.748; intervention 30.33 to 31.83, SED = 0.835). A similar result held for the second model. Similarly the intervention did not change perceived object control in Model 1 (predicted means: control: 19.08 to 18.68, SED = 0.362; intervention 18.67 to 18.88, SED = 0.406) or Model 2. Children found the intervention enjoyable, but most did not perceive direct equivalence between Active Video Games and ‘real life’ activities. Conclusions: Whilst Active Video Game play may help introduce children to sport, this amount of time playing is unlikely to build skill. PMID:26844136

  19. Physical activity intervention effects on perceived stress in working mothers: the role of self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Working mothers often report elevated stress, and efforts to improve their coping resources are needed to buffer the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study examined the impact of changes in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation across the course of a brief intervention on subsequent levels of stress in working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition (2:1 ratio). The intervention was conducted in Illinois between March 2011 and January 2012 and consisted of two group-mediated workshop sessions with content based on social cognitive theory. Participants completed measures of physical activity, self-efficacy, self-regulation, and perceived stress at baseline, immediately postintervention, and 6-month follow-up. Stress levels declined across the 6-month period in both groups. Changes in stress were negatively associated with changes in self-efficacy and self-regulation among intervention participants only. Regression analyses revealed the intervention elicited short-term increases in physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-regulation, but only changes in self-efficacy predicted perceived stress at 6-month follow-up. These results suggest that enhancing self-efficacy is likely to improve working mothers' perceived capabilities to cope with stressors in their lives. Future interventions should continue to focus on increasing self-efficacy to promote improvements in physical activity and psychological well-being in this population. PMID:24964227

  20. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attractiveness for bicycling significantly predicted post-intervention accelerometer-measured PA. Greater traffic control devices and crossing aids were associated with greater PA among women assigned to the PA intervention group, and greater street amenities were associated with greater PA among those in the comparison group. Neighborhood factors may interact favorably with behavioral interventions to promote PA adoption and maintenance, and should be considered in health promotion efforts. PMID:22243907

  1. Sixth-Grade Boys' Perceived Benefits of and Barriers to Physical Activity and Suggestions for Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Talley, Henry C.; Wu, Tsu-Yin; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2010-01-01

    Interventions are needed to reduce the high overweight prevalence noted among boys in early high school. Because decreased physical activity (PA) is a factor for weight gain and a decline in boys' PA occurs across the middle school years, a need exists to intervene, as soon as boys reach middle school, to help them get adequate PA. The purpose of…

  2. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  3. Systematic dissemination of a preschool physical activity intervention to the control preschools.

    PubMed

    Howie, Erin K; Brewer, Alisa E; Brown, William H; Saunders, Ruth P; Pate, Russell R

    2016-08-01

    For public health interventions to have a meaningful impact on public health, they must be disseminated to the wider population. Systematic planning and evaluation of dissemination efforts can aid translation from experimental trials to larger dissemination programs. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a group-randomized intervention trial conducted in 16 preschools that successfully increased the physical activity of preschool age children. Following the completion of the research study protocol, the intervention was abbreviated, modified and implemented in four preschools that participated as control preschools in the original research study. The purposes of the current study were to describe the process of refining the intervention for dissemination to the control preschools, and to assess the acceptability of the resulting abbreviated intervention delivery. Five overarching behavioral objectives, informed by process evaluation, data from the original trial and collaboration with intervention teachers, were used to guide the implementation. Teachers in the dissemination classrooms reported high levels of acceptability, potential for sustainability of the program, and positive results in knowledge, skills, and child outcomes. Researchers can include a systematic approach to dissemination of effective intervention elements to the control participants in experimental studies to inform future dissemination efforts and begin to bridge the dissemination gap. PMID:27107302

  4. Effectiveness of Point-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Largo-Wight, Erin; Todorovich, John R.; O'Hara, Brian K.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding and promoting physical activity is critical to combat the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study was designed to compare two 10-week physical activity programs among college students. One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate college students participated in this randomized posttest only control group study. Seventy-seven…

  5. Evaluation of an Internet, Stage-Based Physical Activity Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hager, Ronald L.; Hardy, Aaron; Aldana, Steven G.; George, James D.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the impact of online, stage-based materials on exercise behavior and stage of readiness to change. College faculty participated in stage-based, action-message, or control groups. Occupational and leisure activity, 7-day physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, and stage of readiness to change were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks.…

  6. Reduction in ATP levels triggers immunoproteasome activation by the 11S (PA28) regulator during early antiviral response mediated by IFNβ in mouse pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Freudenburg, Wieke; Gautam, Madhav; Chakraborty, Pradipta; James, Jared; Richards, Jennifer; Salvatori, Alison S; Baldwin, Aaron; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark L; Corbett, John A; Skowyra, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells is the hallmark of type I diabetes. One of the key molecules implicated in the disease onset is the immunoproteasome, a protease with multiple proteolytic sites that collaborates with the constitutive 19S and the inducible 11S (PA28) activators to produce immunogenic peptides for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Despite its importance, little is known about the function and regulation of the immunoproteasome in pancreatic β-cells. Of special interest to immunoproteasome activation in β-cells are the effects of IFNβ, a type I IFN secreted by virus-infected cells and implicated in type I diabetes onset, compared to IFNγ, the classic immunoproteasome inducer secreted by cells of the immune system. By qPCR analysis, we show that mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells and mouse islets accumulate the immune proteolytic β1(i), β2(i) and β5(i), and 11S mRNAs upon exposure to IFNβ or IFNγ. Higher concentrations of IFNβ than IFNγ are needed for similar expression, but in each case the expression is transient, with maximal mRNA accumulation in 12 hours, and depends primarily on Interferon Regulatory Factor 1. IFNs do not alter expression of regular proteasome genes, and in the time frame of IFNβ-mediated response, the immune and regular proteolytic subunits co-exist in the 20S particles. In cell extracts with ATP, these particles have normal peptidase activities and degrade polyubiquitinated proteins with rates typical of the regular proteasome, implicating normal regulation by the 19S activator. However, ATP depletion rapidly stimulates the catalytic rates in a manner consistent with levels of the 11S activator. These findings suggest that stochastic combination of regular and immune proteolytic subunits may increase the probability with which unique immunogenic peptides are produced in pancreatic β-cells exposed to IFNβ, but primarily in cells with reduced ATP levels that stimulate the 11S

  7. Improving Physical Activity and Metabolic Syndrome Indicators in Women: A Transtheoretical Model-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Ghofranipour, Fazllolah; Feizi, Awat; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed at investigating the impact of an educational intervention based on transtheoretical model to increase physical activity and improve metabolic syndrome indicators in women. Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 142 women with metabolic syndrome were randomly assigned to the case and control group (each group 71 participants). SECQ (Marcus), processes of change (Marcus), decisional balance (Bandura) and self-efficacy (Nigg) questionnaires and International Physical Activities Standard Questionnaire in preintervention, 3 and 6 months after intervention were completed. Furthermore, abdominal obesity, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were measured. Physical activity intervention based on transtheoretical model (TTM) was performed in the case group. Finally, data were analyzed by SPSS (16) (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-test and Freidman was used. A two-tailed P value, lower than 0.05, was considered to be statistically significant. Results: After the intervention, physical activity level increased in the intervention group, and they also progressed in stages of change, but the people in the control group had regressed. All changes in TTM constructs were significant in the intervention group during the time and differences in pros and cons were not significant in the control group. Abdominal obesity and TG has significantly reduced, and HDL has increased in the intervention group. In the control group, there was a significant increase in TGs and a decrease in HDL. Conclusions: Physical activity training based on TTM can improve physical activity and metabolic syndrome indicators in women. PMID:25949778

  8. Factors Associated with Sustained Attention During an Activity Intervention in Persons with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Kolanowski, Ann; Bossen, Ann; Hill, Nikki; Guzman-Velez, Edmarie; Litaker, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Are the non-cognitive factors of self-reported mood and personality related to sustained attention in nursing home residents with dementia during an activity intervention? Methods Intervention data from a randomized clinical trial were used to address the aim of this project. Subjects were 128 nursing home residents who were assessed for mood, personality, behavioral indicators of attention, time on task and number of disengagements during an activity intervention. Results More positive self-reported mood was associated with greater behavioral displays of attention during activities, greater time spent engaged in the activities and less disengagement. Conclusion To our knowledge this is the first study to report on the association of mood, personality and sustained attention in nursing home residents with dementia. While the findings are preliminary, they can be used to inform the design of future research. PMID:22652933

  9. A home-based nutrition and physical activity intervention for grandparents raising grandchildren: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kicklighter, Jana R; Whitley, Deborah M; Kelley, Susan J; Lynch, Judith E; Melton, Tamara S

    2009-04-01

    Five African American grandparents raising their grandchildren participated in a home-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. The primary goals were to increase grandparents' knowledge and skills in selecting and preparing healthy foods and to increase the grandparents' and grandchildren's physical activity levels. Results revealed that grandparents' concerns regarding their chronic diseases and desire to prevent health problems in their grandchildren served as motivators. Following the intervention, grandparents scored higher on nutrition and physical activity knowledge and their self-efficacy improved, although most health status indicators remained unchanged. Self-reported changes included walking more, reading food labels, and switching to a healthier type of fat. PMID:21184365

  10. Correlates of the Intention to Implement a Tailored Physical Activity Intervention: Perceptions of Intermediaries

    PubMed Central

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries—intervention providers—determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries’ intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy. PMID:24518647

  11. Correlates of the intention to implement a tailored physical activity intervention: perceptions of intermediaries.

    PubMed

    Peels, Denise; Mudde, Aart; Bolman, Catherine; Golsteijn, Rianne; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-02-01

    The public health impact of health behaviour interventions is highly dependent on large-scale implementation. Intermediaries-intervention providers-determine to a large extent whether an intervention reaches the target population, and hence its impact on public health. A cross-sectional study was performed to identify the correlates of intermediaries' intention to implement a computer-tailored physical activity intervention. According to theory, potential correlates are intervention characteristics, organisational characteristics, socio-political characteristics and intermediary characteristics. This study investigated whether intermediary characteristics mediated the association between the intervention, organisational and socio-political characteristics and intention to implement the intervention. Results showed that intervention characteristics (i.e., observability (B = 0.53; p = 0.006); relative advantage (B = 0.79; p = 0.020); complexity (B = 0.80; p < 0.001); compatibility (B = 0.70; p < 0.001)), organisational characteristics (i.e., type of organization (B = 0.38; p = 0.002); perceived task responsibility (B = 0.66; p ≤ 0.001); capacity (B = 0.83; p < 0.001)), and the social support received by intermediary organisations (B = 0.81; p < 0.001) were associated with intention to implement the intervention. These factors should thus be targeted by an implementation strategy. Since self-efficacy and social norms perceived by the intermediary organisations partially mediated the effects of other variables on intention to implement the intervention (varying between 29% and 84%), these factors should be targeted to optimise the effectiveness of the implementation strategy. PMID:24518647

  12. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  13. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Vivian Freitas Rezende; Albino, Flávia Barbizan; de Moura, Karen Fernandes; Maftum, Gustavo Jorge; dos Santos, Mauro de Castro; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Faria Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2015-01-01

    Background High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg) before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg) in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg) in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence. PMID:26016783

  14. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  15. Positive Behavior Interventions and Support in a Physical Activity Summer Camp

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Vanessa; Buchanan, Alice M.

    2015-01-01

    This purpose of this study was to investigate the implementation of positive behavior interventions and support (PBIS) in a summer camp. The camp provided physical activity opportunities to underserved children attending a summer program at a local, rural public school. Certified physical education teachers led activity stations. Participants in…

  16. The Evaluation of a Web-Based Physical Activity Intervention in a Predominantly Hispanic College Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan

    2009-01-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggest at least 30 min of moderate physical activity at least 5 days a week or 20 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 days a week. The overall aim of this experiment was to evaluate the efficacy of a web-based intervention--one that relied on…

  17. Effects of a Curricular Physical Activity Intervention on Children's School Performance, Wellness, and Brain Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käll, Lina Bunketorp; Malmgren, Helge; Olsson, Erik; Lindén, Thomas; Nilsson, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity and structural differences in the hippocampus have been linked to educational outcome. We investigated whether a curriculum-based physical activity intervention correlates positively with children's academic achievement, psychological well-being, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), fitness, and structural…

  18. What's in It for Me? An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among Adolescents in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Melissa; Vealey, Robin; Galli, Nick; Evers, Juli; Klug, Justin; Reichert, Kendra

    2007-01-01

    Adolescents typically become less physically active as they progress through high school. This inactivity has led to some adolescents become unhealthy, overweight, and unmotivated to participate in physical activity. The purpose of this article is to present two interventions aimed at motivating physical education students to be more physically…

  19. Promoting physical activity in low back pain patients: six months follow-up of a randomised controlled trial comparing a multicomponent intervention with a low intensity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Schaller, Andrea; Dintsios, Charalabos-Markos; Icks, Andrea; Reibling, Nadine; Froboese, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess a comprehensive multicomponent intervention against a low intensity intervention for promoting physical activity in chronic low back pain patients. Design: Randomised controlled trial. Setting: Inpatient rehabilitation and aftercare. Subjects: A total of 412 patients with chronic low back pain. Interventions: A multicomponent intervention (Movement Coaching) comprising of small group intervention (twice during inpatient rehabilitation), tailored telephone aftercare (twice after rehabilitation) and internet-based aftercare (web 2.0 platform) versus a low level intensity intervention (two general presentations on physical activity, download of the presentations). Main measures: Physical activity was measured using a questionnaire. Primary outcome was total physical activity; secondary outcomes were setting specific physical activity (transport, workplace, leisure time) and pain. Comparative group differences were evaluated six months after inpatient rehabilitation. Results: At six months follow-up, 92 participants in Movement Coaching (46 %) and 100 participants in the control group (47 %) completed the postal follow-up questionnaire. No significant differences between the two groups could be shown in total physical activity (P = 0.30). In addition to this, workplace (P = 0.53), transport (P = 0.68) and leisure time physical activity (P = 0.21) and pain (P = 0.43) did not differ significantly between the two groups. In both groups, physical activity decreased during the six months follow-up. Conclusions: The multicomponent intervention was no more effective than the low intensity intervention in promoting physical activity at six months follow-up. The decrease in physical activity in both groups is an unexpected outcome of the study and indicates the need for further research. PMID:27496696

  20. Synthesising evidence for equity impacts of population-based physical activity interventions: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study applied an equity lens to existing research to investigate what is known about the impact of population-level physical activity interventions on social inequalities. Methods We performed a pilot systematic review to assess the availability of information on the social distribution of intervention effects, the targeting or allocation of interventions, and the baseline characteristics of participants. This comprised (i) a rapid review of systematic reviews and (ii) a review and synthesis of a sample of primary studies included in the eligible systematic reviews. Results We found 19 systematic reviews of environmental and policy interventions. Relatively few of these (26%, n=5) were prospectively designed to examine effects on inequalities, and none were able to fully synthesise evidence of distributional effects. Over 40% of primary studies reported subgroup intervention effects; 18% reported socio-demographic interaction effects. Studies most often compared effectiveness by gender, followed by age, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. For gender, effects appeared to be evenly distributed overall, although heterogeneity in gradients between studies suggested that some interventions affect males and females differently. Conclusions Our findings suggest that it is feasible to generate better evidence about how public health interventions may affect health inequalities using existing data and innovative methods of research synthesis. PMID:23768212

  1. Active Interventions in Clinical Practice: Contributions of Gestalt Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammert, Marilyn; Dolan, Mary M.

    1983-01-01

    Describes two dimensions of Gestalt therapy that can enhance clinical practice--orientation to the present and active-experimental style--and examines them in relation to some traditional principles of practice. Gestalt theory offers a method of discovery that is a combination of phenomenology and behaviorism. (JAC)

  2. Website Physical Activity Interventions: Preferences of Potential Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferney, Shannon L.; Marshall, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Information and communication technologies (particularly websites and e-mail) have the potential to deliver health behavior change programs to large numbers of adults at low cost. Controlled trials using these new media to promote physical activity have produced mixed results. User-centered development methods can assist in understanding the…

  3. Pathways curriculum and family interventions to promote healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sally M.; Clay, Theresa; Smyth, Mary; Gittelsohn, Joel; Arviso, Vivian; Flint-Wagner, Hilary; Rock, Bonnie Holy; Brice, Richard A.; Metcalfe, Lauve; Stewart, Dawn; Vu, Maihan; Stone, Elaine J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathways, a multisite school-based study aimed at promoting healthful eating and increasing physical activity, was a randomized field trial including 1704 American Indian third to fifth grade students from 41 schools (21 intervention, 20 controls) in seven American Indian communities. Methods The intervention schools received four integrated components: a classroom curriculum, food service, physical activity, and family modules. The curriculum and family components were based on Social Learning Theory, American Indian concepts, and results from formative research. Process evaluation data were collected from teachers (n = 235), students (n = 585), and families. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Questionnaire data were collected from 1150 students including both intervention and controls. Results There were significant increases in knowledge and cultural identity in children in intervention compared to control schools with a significant retention of knowledge over the 3 years, based on the results of repeating the third and fourth grade test items in the fifth grade. Family members participated in Family Events and take-home activities, with fewer participating each year. Conclusion A culturally appropriate school intervention can promote positive changes in knowledge, cultural identity, and self-reported healthful eating and physical activity in American Indian children and environmental change in school food service. PMID:14636806

  4. Brain single photon emission computed tomography: Newer activation and intervention studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tikofsky, R.S.; Hellman, R.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) findings using non-xenon 133 tracers in combination with activation and intervention techniques are reviewed. Examination of the currently available data indicates that it is possible to detect the effects of a variety of activations and interventional procedures using SPECT rCBF with non-xenon 133 tracers. There are still many issues to be resolved before SPECT can reach the level of sophistication attained by xenon 133 and positron emission tomography in studying rCBF during activation or intervention. However, research to date indicates that SPECT rCBF studied with tracers other than xenon 133 has an excellent potential for increasing the ability to differentiate normal and pathological states. 97 refs.

  5. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers

    PubMed Central

    Howie, E. K.; Brewer, A.; Brown, W. H.; Pfeiffer, K. A.; Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools’ daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study’s physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers’ perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  6. The 3-year evolution of a preschool physical activity intervention through a collaborative partnership between research interventionists and preschool teachers.

    PubMed

    Howie, E K; Brewer, A; Brown, W H; Pfeiffer, K A; Saunders, R P; Pate, R R

    2014-06-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments employed a flexible approach to increasing physical activity opportunities in preschools' daily schedules through recess, indoor physical activity and physical activity integrated into academic lessons. Eight preschools were randomly assigned to receive the study's physical activity intervention. Teachers in these schools partnered with university-based interventionists across 3 years to design and implement a flexible and adaptive intervention. The intervention approach included trainings and workshops, site visits and feedback from intervention personnel, newsletters, and physical activity equipment and materials. Teachers reported a high acceptability of the intervention. The purpose of this article is to describe the evolution of a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschools, including (i) a description of the intervention components, (ii) an explanation of the intervention process and approach, and (iii) a report of teachers' perceptions of barriers to implementation. PMID:24659421

  7. The Impact of Arts Activity on Nursing Staff Well-Being: An Intervention in the Workplace.

    PubMed

    Karpavičiūtė, Simona; Macijauskienė, Jūratė

    2016-04-01

    Over 59 million workers are employed in the healthcare sector globally, with a daily risk of being exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of arts activity on the well-being of nursing staff. During October-December 2014, 115 nursing staff working in a hospital, took part in this study, which lasted for 10 weeks. The intervention group (n = 56) took part in silk painting activities once a week. Data was collected using socio-demographic questions, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Short Form-36 Health Survey questionnaire, Reeder stress scale, and Multidimensional fatigue inventory (before and after art activities in both groups). Statistical data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation), non-parametric statistics analysis (Man Whitney U Test; Wilcoxon signed-ranks test), Fisher's exact test and reliability analysis (Cronbach's Alpha). The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the intervention group, there was a tendency for participation in arts activity having a positive impact on their general health and mental well-being, reducing stress and fatigue, awaking creativity and increasing a sense of community at work. The control group did not show any improvements. Of the intervention group 93% reported enjoyment, with 75% aspiring to continue arts activity in the future. This research suggests that arts activity, as a workplace intervention, can be used to promote nursing staff well-being at work. PMID:27104550

  8. Promoting physical activity: development and testing of self-determination theory-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of studies have pulled from Deci and Ryan's Self-Determination Theory to design interventions targeting health behavior change. More recently, researchers have begun using SDT to promote the adoption and maintenance of an active lifestyle. In this review, we aim to highlight how researchers and practitioners can draw from the SDT framework to develop, implement, and evaluate intervention efforts centered on increasing physical activity levels in different contexts and different populations. In the present paper, the rationale for using SDT to foster physical activity engagement is briefly reviewed before particular attention is given to three recent randomized controlled trials, the Canadian Physical Activity Counseling (PAC) Trial, the Empower trial from the UK, and the Portuguese PESO (Promotion of Health and Exercise in Obesity) trial, each of which focused on promoting physical activity behavior. The SDT-based intervention components, procedures, and participants are highlighted, and the key findings that have emanated from these three trials are presented. Lastly, we outline some of the limitations of the work conducted to date in this area and we acknowledge the challenges that arise when attempting to design, deliver, and test SDT-grounded interventions in the context of physical activity promotion. PMID:22385751

  9. Defining the Active Ingredients of Interactive Computer Play Interventions for Children with Neuromotor Impairments: A Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Danielle; Rivard, Lisa; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Rehabilitation researchers who investigate complex interventions are challenged to describe the "active ingredients" of their interventions: the reason(s) why a treatment is expected to be effective. Interactive Computer Play (ICP) is an emerging complex intervention in rehabilitation practice and research. The purpose of this scoping review is to…

  10. Generalized internal model robust control for active front steering intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Zhao, Youqun; Ji, Xuewu; Liu, Yahui; Zhang, Lipeng

    2015-03-01

    Because of the tire nonlinearity and vehicle's parameters' uncertainties, robust control methods based on the worst cases, such as H ∞, µ synthesis, have been widely used in active front steering control, however, in order to guarantee the stability of active front steering system (AFS) controller, the robust control is at the cost of performance so that the robust controller is a little conservative and has low performance for AFS control. In this paper, a generalized internal model robust control (GIMC) that can overcome the contradiction between performance and stability is used in the AFS control. In GIMC, the Youla parameterization is used in an improved way. And GIMC controller includes two sections: a high performance controller designed for the nominal vehicle model and a robust controller compensating the vehicle parameters' uncertainties and some external disturbances. Simulations of double lane change (DLC) maneuver and that of braking on split- µ road are conducted to compare the performance and stability of the GIMC control, the nominal performance PID controller and the H ∞ controller. Simulation results show that the high nominal performance PID controller will be unstable under some extreme situations because of large vehicle's parameters variations, H ∞ controller is conservative so that the performance is a little low, and only the GIMC controller overcomes the contradiction between performance and robustness, which can both ensure the stability of the AFS controller and guarantee the high performance of the AFS controller. Therefore, the GIMC method proposed for AFS can overcome some disadvantages of control methods used by current AFS system, that is, can solve the instability of PID or LQP control methods and the low performance of the standard H ∞ controller.

  11. Evaluation of a real world intervention using professional football players to promote a healthy diet and physical activity in children and adolescents from a lower socio-economic background: a controlled pretest-posttest design

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The increasing rates of obesity among children and adolescents, especially in those from lower socio-economic backgrounds, emphasise the need for interventions promoting a healthy diet and physical activity. The present study aimed to examine the effectiveness of the ‘Health Scores!’ program, which combined professional football player role models with a school-based program to promote a healthy diet and physical activity to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. Methods The intervention was implemented in two settings: professional football clubs and schools. Socially vulnerable children and adolescents (n = 165 intervention group, n = 440 control group, aged 10-14 year) provided self-reported data on dietary habits and physical activity before and after the four-month intervention. Intervention effects were evaluated using repeated measures analysis of variance. In addition, a process evaluation was conducted. Results No intervention effects were found for several dietary behaviours, including consumption of breakfast, fruit, soft drinks or sweet and savoury snacks. Positive intervention effects were found for self-efficacy for having a daily breakfast (p < 0.01), positive attitude towards vegetables consumption (p < 0.01) and towards lower soft drink consumption (p < 0.001). A trend towards significance (p < 0.10) was found for self-efficacy for reaching the physical activity guidelines. For sports participation no significant intervention effect was found. In total, 92 pupils completed the process evaluation, the feedback was largely positive. Conclusions The ‘Health Scores!’ intervention was successful in increasing psychosocial correlates of a healthy diet and PA. The use of professional football players as a credible source for health promotion was appealing to socially vulnerable children and adolescents. PMID:24886227

  12. Dietary and behavioral interventions protect against age related activation of caspase cascades in the canine brain.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, Shikha; Berchtold, Nicole; Astarita, Giuseppe; Saing, Tommy; Piomelli, Daniele; Cotman, Carl W

    2011-01-01

    Lifestyle interventions such as diet, exercise, and cognitive training represent a quietly emerging revolution in the modern approach to counteracting age-related declines in brain health. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that long-term dietary supplementation with antioxidants and mitochondrial cofactors (AOX) or behavioral enrichment with social, cognitive, and exercise components (ENR), can effectively improve cognitive performance and reduce brain pathology of aged canines, including oxidative damage and Aβ accumulation. In this study, we build on and extend our previous findings by investigating if the interventions reduce caspase activation and ceramide accumulation in the aged frontal cortex, since caspase activation and ceramide accumulation are common convergence points for oxidative damage and Aβ, among other factors associated with the aged and AD brain. Aged beagles were placed into one of four treatment groups: CON--control environment/control diet, AOX--control environment/antioxidant diet, ENR--enriched environment/control diet, AOX/ENR--enriched environment/antioxidant diet for 2.8 years. Following behavioral testing, brains were removed and frontal cortices were analyzed to monitor levels of active caspase 3, active caspase 9 and their respective cleavage products such as tau and semaphorin7a, and ceramides. Our results show that levels of activated caspase-3 were reduced by ENR and AOX interventions with the largest reduction occurring with combined AOX/ENR group. Further, reductions in caspase-3 correlated with reduced errors in a reversal learning task, which depends on frontal cortex function. In addition, animals treated with an AOX arm showed reduced numbers of cells expressing active caspase 9 or its cleavage product semaphorin 7A, while ENR (but not AOX) reduced ceramide levels. Overall, these data demonstrate that lifestyle interventions curtail activation of pro-degenerative pathways to improve cellular health and are the

  13. The 3-Year Evolution of a Preschool Physical Activity Intervention through a Collaborative Partnership between Research Interventionists and Preschool Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, E. K.; Brewer, A.; Brown, W. H.; Pfeiffer, K. A.; Saunders, R. P.; Pate, R. R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite evidence that preschoolers spend the majority of their time in sedentary activities, few physical activity interventions have focused on preschool-age children. Health promotion interventions that can be integrated into the daily routines of a school or other setting are more likely to be implemented. The Study of Health and Activity in…

  14. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. Objective To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. Methods A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers (“Active Team” Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. Results At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, P<.001). However, statistical differences between groups for total weekly MVPA and walking time were lost at the 20-week follow-up. There were no significant changes in vigorous physical activity, nor overall quality of life or mental health quality of life at either time point. High levels of engagement with the intervention, and particularly the self-monitoring features, were observed. Conclusions An online, social networking physical activity intervention with

  15. Psychological Changes among Muslim Students Participating in a Faith-Based School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution…

  16. Ready for Recess: A Pilot Study to Increase Physical Activity in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Jennifer L.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Beighle, Aaron; Fuhrmeister, Erin; Silva, Pedro; Welk, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Background: Creating an optimal environment at recess may be necessary to maximize physical activity (PA) participation in youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the initial effectiveness of an elementary school recess intervention on the amount of moderate PA (MPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) during recess and the school day. Methods: This…

  17. Physical Activity and Nutrition Health Promotion Interventions: What Is Working for People with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Tamar; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.; Drum, Charles; Peterson, Jana

    2011-01-01

    A scoping review of studies on physical activity and nutrition health promotion interventions for individuals with intellectual disabilities was conducted. Searches included MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and CINAHL databases from 1986 through July 2006. The final number included 11 articles comprising 12 studies. Generally, this review indicated some…

  18. Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: Report on a Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podgorski, Carol Ann; Kessler, Karen; Cacia, Barbara; Peterson, Derick R.; Henderson, C. Michael

    2004-01-01

    A 12-week pilot project on physical activity was introduced in a day habilitation setting to a group of 12 older adults with intellectual disability and a variety of physical and behavioral conditions. Our purpose was to determine whether (a) this intervention would positively impact physical function in this population, (b) consumers would choose…

  19. An Activity-Based Language Intervention Program for Kindergarten Children: A Retrospective Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen-Mimran, Ravit; Reznik-Nevet, Liron; Korona-Gaon, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of a small-group intervention based on the naturalistic approach on 220 children from 3-5 years of age. All kindergarten children received weekly sessions delivered by a SLP in collaboration with the kindergarten teacher. These sessions included various book related activities. Two…

  20. Wiki-Based Collaborative Writing Activities in EFL Classrooms: Exploring Teachers' Intervention in the Collaborative Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghasab, Maha

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study was designed to explore EFL teachers' and students' online interaction during wiki based collaborative writing activities. It aims to explore the collaborative behaviours that students engaged in and to what extent the teachers' intervention can promote students' collaboration. The study has a multiple qualitative case study…

  1. The Role of a Caring-Based Intervention in a Physical Activity Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newton, Maria; Watson, Doris L.; Gano-Overway, Lori; Fry, Mary; Kim, Mi-Sook; Magyar, Michelle

    2007-01-01

    This preliminary study examined the effect of a caring-based versus a traditionally-focused physical activity intervention on underserved adolescents' perceptions of the caring climate, the motivational climate, empathetic concern, enjoyment, and future anticipated participation. Multiethnic youth (N = 353) aged 9 to 17 involved in two National…

  2. Evaluation of a 2-Year Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Intervention in Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haerens, Leen; Deforche, Benedicte; Maes, Lea; Cardon, Greet; Stevens, Veerle; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a middle school physical activity and healthy eating intervention, including an environmental and computer-tailored component, and to investigate the effects of parental involvement. A random sample of 15 schools with seventh and eight graders was randomly assigned to one of three…

  3. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated with Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J. H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method:…

  4. Developing the intervention material to increase physical activity levels of European preschool children: the ToyBox-study.

    PubMed

    Duvinage, K; Ibrügger, S; Kreichauf, S; Wildgruber, A; De Craemer, M; De Decker, E; Androutsos, O; Lateva, M; Iotova, V; Socha, P; Zych, K; Mouratidou, T; Mesana Graffe, M I; Manios, Y; Koletzko, B

    2014-08-01

    Early childhood is an important period for adopting positive health-related behaviours. More than 95% of European preschool children attend kindergartens, making these settings ideal for the implementation of health promotion interventions. The ToyBox-intervention addressed preschool children, their parents/caregivers and teachers. The aim of the intervention was to improve four energy balance-related behaviours (i.e. healthy snacking, water consumption, physical activity and sedentary behaviour) by implementing a kindergarten-based, family-involved intervention in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). The intervention material was developed following the intervention mapping protocol, taking into account local and cultural differences among the intervention countries. The present paper focuses on the development of the physical activity component of the intervention. Parental involvement was addressed by providing parents/caregivers with two newsletters, two tip cards and a poster. Teachers received a handbook with guidance on environmental changes in the classroom, 26 physical education sessions and suggestions for fun, interactive classroom activities aiming at total class participation to increase preschoolers' physical activity levels. The ToyBox-intervention material was distributed according to a standard time frame. Teachers received their material prior to the start of the intervention and parents/caregivers received their material during the intervention when each energy balance-related behaviour was implemented. PMID:25047376

  5. The Physically Active Lifestyle of Flemish Secondary School Teachers: A Mixed-Methods Approach towards Developing a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogaert, Inge; De Martelaer, Kristine; Deforche, Benedicte; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The primary aim of this study was to describe and analyse the physical activity and sedentary levels of secondary school teachers in Flanders. A secondary aim was to collect information regarding a possible worksite intervention of special relevance to secondary school teachers. Design: Mixed-methods quantitative and qualitative…

  6. A community-based multilevel intervention for smoking, physical activity and diet: short-term findings from the Community Interventions for Health programme in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jun; Liu, Qing-Min; Ren, Yan-Jun; He, Ping-Ping; Wang, Sheng-Feng; Gao, Fang; Li, Li-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the short-term impact of a comprehensive, community-based multilevel intervention on knowledge, beliefs and practices with respect to smoking, physical activity and diet in Hangzhou, China. Methods A non-randomised, controlled, before-after quasi-experimental trial was conducted in two intervention areas and one comparison area. The intervention built on a socioecological framework and took place across four settings: neighbourhoods, schools, workplaces and community health centres. Two independent cross-sectional surveys of adults aged 18–64 years at baseline and a subsequent follow-up were conducted in 2008/2009 and 2011 in the intervention and comparison areas. A 2-year intervention programme was begun in mid-2009 and continued until mid-2011. Results A total of 2016 adults at baseline and 2016 adults at follow-up completed the survey. Over the 2-year intervention period, the intervention areas showed a statistically significant decline (25.2% vs 18.7%, p<0.001) in the prevalence of smoking compared with the comparison area (18.0% vs 16.4%, p=0.343). The proportion of individuals who had noticed anyone smoking in any of nine locations in the previous 30 days demonstrated a statistically significant decline in the intervention (78.9% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) and comparison (76.3% vs 66.5%, p<0.001) areas. The fruit and vegetable consumption score increased in a statistically significant manner in the intervention (24.84 vs 25.97, p=0.036) and comparison (24.25 vs 26.67, p<0.001) areas. The metabolic equivalent of physical activity increased from 1204 to 1386 (p=0.023) in the intervention areas compared with 918 to 924 in the comparison area (p=0.201). Conclusions After a 2-year intervention, beneficial changes were noted in the intervention areas with respect to smoking and physical activity but not diet. A community-based multilevel intervention programme is feasible in urban China. PMID:24297972

  7. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  8. Interventional Transcatheter Closure Ameliorates the Leukocyte Rho Kinase Activities among Patients with Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Min-Ling; Liu, Ping-Yen; Wu, Jing-Ming; Liao, James K.; Wang, Jieh-Neng

    2015-01-01

    Background Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) causes increased pulmonary blood flow, which can lead to pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) may play an important pathophysiological role in PAH. We hypothesized that the increased pulmonary artery (PA) flow from PDA could activate ROCK. Methods Patients who received a PDA transcatheter closure in our hospital were consecutively enrolled in this study. Basic demographics and clinical hemodynamic data of the study participants were recorded. Then, ROCK activity was measured before and after the PDA occlusion procedure. ROCK activity was defined as the phosphorylation ratio of myosin-binding subunit by Western blot measurement. We also sub-divided patients into the coil group and occluder group based on the occlusion device used in each patient’s procedure. Results From January 2009 to December 2011, 25 patients with a median age of 2.3 years, ranging from 10 months to 72 years were enrolled. The mean PDA size was 0.31 ± 0.14 cm, the mean Qp/Qs shunt was 1.54 ± 0.41, and the mean systolic pulmonary artery pressure was 26.9 ± 10.3 mmHg. There were 10 patients (one boy and nine girls) in the coil group and 15 patients (four boys and eleven girls) in the occluder group. Following the closure of the PDA, ROCK activity significantly decreased (1.78 ± 2.25 vs. 0.77 ± 0.69, p < 0.01). There was a strong correlation between the leukocyte ROCK activity with the systolic PA pressure (y = 5.4608x + 22.54, R2 = 0.5539, p < 0.05), but not the Qp/Qs value. Both subgroups showed significant changes of ROCK activity after the procedure. Interestingly, when comparing the coil group with the occluder group, the decrease in ROCK activity was more apparent in the occluder group. Conclusions The findings of this study indicated that ROCK activity is higher in patients with PDA and correlates with PA pressure. The decrease in ROCK activity following the device closure suggests

  9. Intervention activities to improve the reasoning ability of students at risk in introductory physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, J.

    2006-12-01

    We describe a number of activities we have begun using in interventions targeting students who are at risk in introductory college physics courses. Some are adaptations of the work of others with pre-high school children, including Philip Adey in Great Britain (Cognitive Acceleration though Science Education), Reuven Feuerstein in Israel (Instrumental Enrichment), and Kurtz and Karplus in the U. S. in the 70’s (Numerical Relationships). We have also added some other activities, including Sudoku strategy development.

  10. Using formative research to develop CHANGE!: a curriculum-based physical activity promoting intervention

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low childhood physical activity levels are currently one of the most pressing public health concerns. Numerous school-based physical activity interventions have been conducted with varied success. Identifying effective child-based physical activity interventions are warranted. The purpose of this formative study was to elicit subjective views of children, their parents, and teachers about physical activity to inform the design of the CHANGE! (Children's Health, Activity, and Nutrition: Get Educated!) intervention programme. Methods Semi-structured mixed-gender interviews (group and individual) were conducted in 11 primary schools, stratified by socioeconomic status, with 60 children aged 9-10 years (24 boys, 36 girls), 33 parents (4 male, 29 female) and 10 teachers (4 male, 6 female). Questions for interviews were structured around the PRECEDE stage of the PRECEDE-PROCEDE model and addressed knowledge, attitudes and beliefs towards physical activity, as well as views on barriers to participation. All data were transcribed verbatim. Pen profiles were constructed from the transcripts in a deductive manner using the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model framework. The profiles represented analysis outcomes via a diagram of key emergent themes. Results Analyses revealed an understanding of the relationship between physical activity and health, although some children had limited understanding of what constitutes physical activity. Views elicited by children and parents were generally consistent. Fun, enjoyment and social support were important predictors of physical activity participation, though several barriers such as lack of parental support were identified across all group interviews. The perception of family invested time was positively linked to physical activity engagement. Conclusions Families have a powerful and important role in promoting health-enhancing behaviours. Involvement of parents and the whole family is a strategy that could be

  11. Cognitive and physiological effects of an acute physical activity intervention in elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    Jäger, Katja; Schmidt, Mirko; Conzelmann, Achim; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an acute physical activity intervention that included cognitive engagement on executive functions and on cortisol level in young elementary school children. Half of the 104 participating children (6–8 years old) attended a 20-min sport sequence, which included cognitively engaging and playful forms of physical activity. The other half was assigned to a resting control condition. Individual differences in children's updating, inhibition, and shifting performance as well as salivary cortisol were assessed before (pre-test), immediately after (post-test), and 40 min after (follow-up) the intervention or control condition, respectively. Results revealed a significantly stronger improvement in inhibition in the experimental group compared to the control group, while it appeared that acute physical activity had no specific effect on updating and shifting. The intervention effect on inhibition leveled out 40 min after physical activity. Salivary cortisol increased significantly more in the experimental compared to the control group between post-test and follow-up and results support partly the assumed inverted U-shaped relationship between cortisol level and cognitive performance. In conclusion, results indicate that acute physical activity that includes cognitive engagement may have immediate positive effects on inhibition, but not necessarily on updating and shifting in elementary school children. This positive effect may partly be explained through cortisol elevation after acute physical activity. PMID:25566148

  12. Physical activity interventions and children's mental function: An introduction and overview

    PubMed Central

    Tomporowski, Phillip D.; Lambourne, Kate; Okumura, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Background This review provides a historical overview of physical activity interventions designed by American educators and an evaluation of research that has assessed the effects of exercise on children's mental function. Method Historical descriptions of the emergence of American physical education doctrine throughout the 20th century were evaluated. Prior reviews of studies that assessed the effects of single acute bouts of exercise and the effects of chronic exercise training on children's mental function were examined and the results of recent studies were summarized. Results Physical activity interventions designed for American children have reflected two competing views: activities should promote physical fitness and activities should promote social, emotional, and intellectual development. Research results indicate that exercise fosters the emergence of children's mental function; particularly executive functioning. The route by which physical activity impacts mental functioning is complex and is likely moderated by several variables, including physical fitness level, health status, and numerous psycho-social factors. Conclusion Physical activity interventions for children should be designed to meet multiple objectives; e.g., optimize physical fitness, promote health-related behaviors that offset obesity, and facilitate mental development. PMID:21420981

  13. Effects of goal setting on dietary and physical activity changes in the Boy Scout badge projects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was...

  14. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  15. A 5A's communication intervention to promote physical activity in underserved populations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a clinician training intervention to improve physical activity counseling in underserved primary care settings using the 5As. The 5As (Ask, Advise, Agree, Assist, Arrange) are a clinical tool recommended for health behavior counseling in primary care. Methods/Design The study is a two-arm randomized pilot pragmatic trial to examine a primary care clinician communication intervention on use of the 5As in discussion of physical activity in audio-recorded office visits in an ethnically diverse, low-income patient population. The study setting consists of two federally qualified community health centers in Rochester, NY. Eligible clinicians (n=15) are recruited and randomized into two groups. Group 1 clinicians participate in the training intervention first; Group 2 clinicians receive the intervention six months later. The intervention and its outcomes are informed by self-determination theory and principles of patient-centered communication. Assessment of outcomes is blinded. The primary outcome will be the frequency and quality of 5As discussions as judged by evaluating 375 audio-recorded patient visits distributed over baseline and in the post-intervention period (immediately post and at six months). Secondary outcomes will be changes in patients’ perceived competence to increase physical activity (Aim 2) and patients and clinicians beliefs regarding whether pertinent barriers to promoting exercise have been reduced. (Aim 3). Exploratory outcomes (Aim 4) are potential mediators of the intervention’s effect and whether the intervention affects actual enrollment in the community program recommended for exercise. The analysis will use repeated measures (in the form of recorded office visits) from each clinician at each time point and aggregate measures of Groups 1 and 2 over time. Discussion Results will help elucidate the role of 5As communication training for clinicians on counseling for physical

  16. Are brief interventions to increase physical activity cost-effective? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    GC, Vijay; Suhrcke, Marc; Hardeman, Wendy; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether brief interventions promoting physical activity are cost-effective in primary care or community settings. Design Systematic review of economic evaluations. Methods and data sources We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EconLit, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, the Cochrane library, National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database and the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Registry up to 20 August 2014. Web of Knowledge was used for cross-reference search. We included studies investigating the cost-effectiveness of brief interventions, as defined by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, promoting physical activity in primary care or the community. Methodological quality was assessed using Drummond's checklist for economic evaluations. Data were extracted from individual studies fulfilling selection criteria using a standardised pro forma. Comparisons of cost-effectiveness and cost-utility ratios were made between studies. Results Of 1840 identified publications, 13 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria describing 14 brief interventions. Studies varied widely in the methods used, such as the perspective of economic analysis, intervention effects and outcome measures. The incremental cost of moving an inactive person to an active state, estimated for eight studies, ranged from £96 to £986. The cost-utility was estimated in nine studies compared with usual care and varied from £57 to £14 002 per quality-adjusted life year; dominant to £6500 per disability-adjusted life year; and £15 873 per life years gained. Conclusions Brief interventions promoting physical activity in primary care and the community are likely to be inexpensive compared with usual care. Given the commonly accepted thresholds, they appear to be cost-effective on the whole, although there is notable variation between studies. PMID:26438429

  17. Utility of Consumer Physical Activity Trackers as an Intervention Tool in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Amanda M; Freedson, Patty S

    2016-01-01

    Consumer activity trackers have grown in popularity over the last few years. These devices are typically worn on the hip or wrist and provide the user with information about physical activity measures such as steps taken, energy expenditure, and time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The consumer may also use the computer interface (e.g. device websites, smartphone applications) to monitor and track achievement of PA goals and compete with other users. This review will describe some of the most popular consumer devices and discuss the user feedback tools. We will also present the limited evidence available about the accuracy of these devices and highlight how they have been used in cardiovascular disease management. We conclude with some recommendations for future research, focusing on how consumer devices might be used to assess effectiveness of various cardiovascular treatments. PMID:26943981

  18. VERB summer scorecard: findings from a multi-level community-based physical activity intervention for tweens.

    PubMed

    Debate, Rita D; Baldwin, Julie A; Thompson, Zachary; Nickelson, Jen; Alfonso, Moya L; Bryant, Carol A; Phillips, Leah M; McDermott, Robert J

    2009-12-01

    The benefits of physical activity for adolescents are well established. Multi-level interventions may be especially effective in establishing and sustaining health-enhancing behaviors. This study explored the influences of a multi-level community intervention aimed at increasing physical activity among tweens (youth 9-13). Two Florida school districts far apart served as intervention and comparison sites in a quasi-experimental post-test design. Youth in grades 5 through 8 in the intervention community (n = 1,253) and comparison community (n = 866) completed an anonymous post-intervention survey. An intent-to-treat analysis did not show any statistically significant group differences for the physical activity outcomes examined. However, a subset analysis revealed that students who reported participating in the intervention were more likely to be physically active than youth in the comparison group, as well as youth in the intervention community who reported not participating. Participating in the intervention was significantly related to meeting recommendations for vigorous physical activity (OR = 2.08, P = 0.0259), being physically active on weekends (OR = 1.84, P = 0.0017), and reporting more days of trying a new game or sport (OR = 1.49, P = 0.046) after controlling for grade, gender, race/ethnicity, and SES. These findings support the efficacy of multi-level interventions to create effective health behavior change, especially when linkages among community, media, schools, and the home are present. PMID:19777339

  19. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  20. Outcomes of a pilot obesity prevention plus intervention targeting children and parenting practices

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prevention-Plus interventions for primary care offer a venue to intervene with both children and parents for child obesity treatment. Such interventions can promote effective parenting practices that encourage healthy eating, physical activity (PA), and lower TV use among children. Test for feasibil...

  1. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identification of desired outcomes and change objectives following identification of barriers to behaviour change mapped alongside psychological determinants (e.g. knowledge, self-efficacy, intention); 3) Selection of theory-based methods and practical applications to address barriers to behaviour change (e.g., strategies for responsive feeding); 4) Design of the intervention by developing evidence-based interactive activities and resources (e.g., visual aids to show babies stomach size). The activities were integrated into an existing parenting programme; 5) Adoption and implementation: parenting practitioners were trained by healthcare professionals to deliver the programme within Children Centres. Results HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) is aimed at overweight and obese pregnant women (BMI > 25); consists of 12 × 2.5 hr. sessions (6 ante-natal from 24 weeks; 6 postnatal up to 9 months); it addresses mother’s diet and physical activity, breast or bottle feeding, infant diet and parental feeding practices, and infant physical activity. Conclusion We have demonstrated that IM is a feasible and helpful method for providing an evidence based and theoretical structure to a complex health behaviour change intervention. The next stage will be to assess the impact of the intervention on behaviour change and clinical factors associated with childhood obesity. The HAPPY programme is currently being tested as part of a randomised controlled feasibility

  2. Effects of a Community-Based, Professionally Supervised Intervention on Physical Activity Levels Among Residents of Recife, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Hallal, Pedro; Pratt, Michael; Ramos, Luiz; Munk, Marcia; Damascena, Wilson; Parra Perez, Diana; Hoehner, Christine M.; Gilbertz, David; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Brownson, Ross C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the effects of a community-based intervention, the Academia da Cidade program (ACP), on increasing leisure-time physical activity among residents of Recife, Brazil. Methods. We used the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to assess leisure-time physical activity and transport physical activity (i.e., activities involved in traveling from place to place) levels in a random sample of 2047 Recife residents surveyed in 2007. We also examined factors related to exposure to ACP (participation in the intervention, residing near an intervention site, hearing about or seeing intervention activities). We estimated prevalence odds ratios (ORs) of moderate to high leisure-time and transport physical activity levels via intervention exposures adjusted for sociodemographic, health, and environmental variables. Results. Prevalence ORs for moderate to high levels of leisure-time physical activity were higher among former (prevalence OR = 2.0; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 3.9) and current (prevalence OR = 11.3; 95% CI = 3.5, 35.9) intervention participants and those who had heard about or seen an intervention activity (prevalence OR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.3, 2.5). Transport physical activity levels were inversely associated with residing near an ACP site. Conclusions. The ACP program appears to be an effective public health strategy to increase population-level physical activity in urban developing settings. PMID:19008499

  3. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  4. The Impact of Arts Activity on Nursing Staff Well-Being: An Intervention in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Karpavičiūtė, Simona; Macijauskienė, Jūratė

    2016-01-01

    Over 59 million workers are employed in the healthcare sector globally, with a daily risk of being exposed to a complex variety of health and safety hazards. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of arts activity on the well-being of nursing staff. During October–December 2014, 115 nursing staff working in a hospital, took part in this study, which lasted for 10 weeks. The intervention group (n = 56) took part in silk painting activities once a week. Data was collected using socio-demographic questions, the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale, Short Form—36 Health Survey questionnaire, Reeder stress scale, and Multidimensional fatigue inventory (before and after art activities in both groups). Statistical data analysis included descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation), non-parametric statistics analysis (Man Whitney U Test; Wilcoxon signed—ranks test), Fisher’s exact test and reliability analysis (Cronbach’s Alpha). The level of significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. In the intervention group, there was a tendency for participation in arts activity having a positive impact on their general health and mental well-being, reducing stress and fatigue, awaking creativity and increasing a sense of community at work. The control group did not show any improvements. Of the intervention group 93% reported enjoyment, with 75% aspiring to continue arts activity in the future. This research suggests that arts activity, as a workplace intervention, can be used to promote nursing staff well-being at work. PMID:27104550

  5. A Retrospective Study of thrombolysis with 0.6 mg/kg Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) in Mild Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Fei; Liu, Hong; An, Hedi; Xiong, Ran; Huang, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    We sought to assess the safety, effectiveness and cost of 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA treatment for patients with acute mild stroke and to compare that with 0.9 mg/kg. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who had a NIHSS score ≤5 at admission and who were treated with rt-PA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. The demographic data, clinical outcomes and hospitalization cost were analyzed. A total of 108 patients were included. Forty six patients (42.6%) received a 0.6 mg/kg dosage of rt-PA. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well matched (p > 0.05). Regarding the safety and effectiveness, the 0.6 mg/kg dosage group had a comparable proportion of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (0.6 mg/kg, 4.3% vs 0.9 mg/kg, 4.8%; p > 0.05), early neurological deterioration (END) (19.6% vs 17.7%; p > 0.05), in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.6%; p > 0.05), and a similar rate of favorable functional outcome (mRS score 0–1) at 3 months (73.9% vs 71.0%; p > 0.05) to those who received the standard dosage. However, the hospital cost was markedly lower in the 0.6 mg/kg group (0.6  mg/kg, 3,401.7 USD vs 0.9  mg/kg, 4,157.4 USD; p < 0.01). Our study suggest that 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA shared similar effectiveness and safety profile compared with that of 0.9 mg/kg in treating mild stroke, but cost less. PMID:27510959

  6. A Retrospective Study of thrombolysis with 0.6 mg/kg Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) in Mild Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Fei; Liu, Hong; An, Hedi; Xiong, Ran; Huang, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    We sought to assess the safety, effectiveness and cost of 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA treatment for patients with acute mild stroke and to compare that with 0.9 mg/kg. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who had a NIHSS score ≤5 at admission and who were treated with rt-PA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. The demographic data, clinical outcomes and hospitalization cost were analyzed. A total of 108 patients were included. Forty six patients (42.6%) received a 0.6 mg/kg dosage of rt-PA. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well matched (p > 0.05). Regarding the safety and effectiveness, the 0.6 mg/kg dosage group had a comparable proportion of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (0.6 mg/kg, 4.3% vs 0.9 mg/kg, 4.8%; p > 0.05), early neurological deterioration (END) (19.6% vs 17.7%; p > 0.05), in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.6%; p > 0.05), and a similar rate of favorable functional outcome (mRS score 0-1) at 3 months (73.9% vs 71.0%; p > 0.05) to those who received the standard dosage. However, the hospital cost was markedly lower in the 0.6 mg/kg group (0.6  mg/kg, 3,401.7 USD vs 0.9  mg/kg, 4,157.4 USD; p < 0.01). Our study suggest that 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA shared similar effectiveness and safety profile compared with that of 0.9 mg/kg in treating mild stroke, but cost less. PMID:27510959

  7. Does goal setting in activity-focused interventions for children with cerebral palsy influence treatment outcome?

    PubMed

    Brogren Carlberg, Eva; Löwing, Kristina

    2013-11-01

    Today, treatment for children with cerebral palsy predominantly aims at improving the children's possibilities to perform everyday activities in their natural environment. The activities in focus for intervention are often expressed as specific goals, frequently defined in a collaborative goal-setting process between professionals and parents. The role of goal setting to improve the outcome of the intervention has not been shown in the literature so far. Thus, the aim of this systematic review was to explore if goal setting has an impact on treatment outcome assessed by standardized measures. CINAHL and MEDLINE were searched from January 2000 to October 2012, resulting in a final selection of 13 articles, six of which were randomized controlled trials. Methodological quality was assessed and study characteristics were analysed descriptively. Subject characteristics, type of intervention/s, frequency, and intensity of therapy varied largely. Outcome was assessed by standardized outcome measures as well as evaluated through aspects of goal attainment. Most studies showed robust within-group changes according to study-appropriate standardized measures, whereas the between-group comparisons exhibited less consistent differences in outcome. The review does not provide support for a positive effect of goal setting per se on treatment outcome. Studies that specifically measure the effect of goal setting on treatment outcome are needed. PMID:24237280

  8. Randomized Trial of a Fitbit-Based Physical Activity Intervention for Women

    PubMed Central

    Cadmus-Bertram, Lisa A.; Marcus, Bess H.; Patterson, Ruth E.; Parker, Barbara A.; Morey, Brittany L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Direct-to-consumer mHealth devices are a potential asset to behavioral research but are rarely tested as intervention tools. This trial examined the accelerometer-based Fitbit tracker and website as a basis for a low-touch physical activity intervention. Purpose To evaluate, within a randomized controlled trial, the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of integrating the Fitbit tracker and website into a physical activity intervention for postmenopausal women. Methods Fifty-one inactive, postmenopausal women with BMI≥25.0 kg/m2 were randomized to a 16-week web-based self-monitoring intervention (N=25) or a comparison group (N=26). Those in the Web-Based Tracking Group received a Fitbit, an instructional session, and a follow-up call at 4 weeks. The comparison group received a standard pedometer. All were asked to perform 150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Physical activity outcomes were measured by the ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometer. Results Data were collected and analyzed in 2013–2014. Participants were 60±7 years old with BMI=29.2±3.5 kg/m2. Relative to baseline, the Web-Based Tracking Group increased MVPA by 62±108 min/week (p<.01), MVPA in 10-min bouts by 38±83 min/week (p=.008), and steps by 789±1,979 (p=.01), compared to non-significant increases in the Pedometer Group (between-group p-values: .11, .28 and .30, respectively). The Web-Based Tracking Group wore the tracker on 95% of intervention days; 96% reported liking the website and 100% liked the tracker. Conclusions The Fitbit was well-accepted in this sample of women and was associated with increased physical activity at 16 weeks. By leveraging direct-to-consumer mHealth technologies that align with behavior change theories, researchers can strengthen physical activity interventions. PMID:26071863

  9. The Active plus protocol: systematic development of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions for the over-fifties

    PubMed Central

    van Stralen, Maartje M; Kok, Gerjo; de Vries, Hein; Mudde, Aart N; Bolman, Catherine; Lechner, Lilian

    2008-01-01

    Background Limited data are available on the development, implementation and evaluation processes of physical activity promotion programmes among older adults. More integrative insights into interventions describing the planned systematic development, implementation and evaluation are needed. Methods and design The purpose of this study is to give an integrative insight into the development of the Active plus programme applying the six-step Intervention Mapping protocol. The Active plus programme consisted of two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity promotion interventions, both comprising three tailored letters delivered over four months and aimed at raising awareness of insufficient physical activity, and stimulating physical activity initiation and maintenance among the over-fifties. The first intervention, the basic tailored intervention, provided tailored letters that intervened on the psychosocial determinants of physical activity. The second intervention, the intervention plus, provided the same tailored information but additionally provided tailored information about physical activity opportunities in the specific environment in which the older adults lived. This environment-based component also provided access to a forum and e-buddy system on a website. A plan for implementation and evaluation is also described. Discussion The planned development of the Active plus programme resulted in two theory- and evidence-based tailored physical activity interventions targeted at the over-fifties. Trial Registration Dutch Trial Register NTR 920 PMID:19055806

  10. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of 7-(R)- and 7-(S)-methyl-2-nitro-6-(S)-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyloxy)-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazines, analogues of PA-824

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojin; Manjunatha, Ujjini H.; Goodwin, Michael B.; Knox, John E.; Lipinski, Christopher A.; Keller, Thomas H.; Barry, Clifton E.; Dowd, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles such as PA-824 and OPC-67683 are currently in clinical development as members of a promising new class of therapeutics for tuberculosis. While the antitubercular activity of these compounds is high, they both suffer from poor water solubility thus complicating development. We determined the single-crystal X-ray structure of PA-824 and found a close packing of the nitroimidazoles facilitated by a pseudoaxial conformation of the p-trifluoromethoxybenzyl ether. To attempt to disrupt this tight packing by destabilizing the axial preference of this side chain, we prepared the two diastereomers of the 7-methyl-nitroimidazo-oxazine. Determination of the crystal structure of the 7-(S)-methyl derivative (5, cis) revealed that the benzylic side chain remained pseudoaxial while the 7-(R)-methyl derivative (6, trans) adopted the desired pseudoequatorial conformation. Both derivatives displayed similar activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but neither showed improved aqueous solubility, suggesting that inherent lattice stability is not likely to be a major factor in limiting solubility. Conformational analysis revealed that all three compounds have similar energetically accessible conformations in solution. Additionally, these results suggest that the nitroreductase that initially recognizes PA-824 is somewhat insensitive to substitutions at the 7-position. PMID:18358721

  11. Results of a pilot intervention to improve health and safety for healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Kenwood, Christopher; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hopcia, Karen; Hashimoto, Dean; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the feasibility of a multicomponent pilot intervention to improve worker safety and wellness in two Boston hospitals. Methods The 3-month intervention was conducted on seven hospital units. Pre (374 workers) and post (303 workers) surveys assessed changes in safety/ergonomic behaviors and practices, and social support. Wellness outcomes included self-reported pain/aching in specific body areas (musculoskeletal disorders, or MSDs) and physical activity (PA). Results Pain was reported frequently (81%), and PA averaged 4h per week. There was a post-intervention increase in safe patient handling (p <0.0001), safety practices (p = 0.0004), ergonomics (p = 0.009), and supervisor support (p = 0.01), but no changes in MSDs or PA. Conclusions Safe patient handling, ergonomics, and safety practices are good targets for worker safety and wellness interventions; longer intervention periods may reduce risk of MSDs. PMID:24270297

  12. The Devon Active Villages Evaluation (DAVE) trial of a community-level physical activity intervention in rural south-west England: a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of adults are not meeting the guidelines for physical activity despite activity being linked with numerous improvements to long-term health. In light of this, researchers have called for more community-level interventions. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate whether a community-level physical activity intervention increased the activity levels of rural communities. Methods 128 rural villages (clusters) were randomised to receive the intervention in one of four time periods between April 2011 and December 2012. The Devon Active Villages intervention provided villages with 12 weeks of physical activity opportunities for all age groups, including at least three different types of activities per village. Each village received an individually tailored intervention, incorporating a local needs-led approach. Support was provided for a further 12 months following the intervention. The evaluation study used a stepped wedge cluster randomised controlled trial design. All 128 villages were measured at each of five data collection periods using a postal survey. The primary outcome of interest was the proportion of adults reporting sufficient physical activity to meet internationally recognised guidelines. Minutes spent in moderate-and-vigorous activity per week was analysed as a secondary outcome. To compare between intervention and control modes, random effects linear regression and marginal logistic regression models were implemented for continuous and binary outcomes respectively. Results 10,412 adults (4693 intervention, 5719 control) completed the postal survey (response rate 32.2%). The intervention did not increase the odds of adults meeting the physical activity guideline (adjusted OR 1.02, 95% CI: 0.88 to 1.17; P = 0.80), although there was weak evidence of an increase in minutes of moderate-and-vigorous-intensity activity per week (adjusted mean difference = 171, 95% CI: -16 to 358; P = 0.07). The

  13. Study protocol: a multi-professional team intervention of physical activity referrals in primary care patients with cardiovascular risk factors—the Dalby lifestyle intervention cohort (DALICO) study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present study protocol describes the trial design of a primary care intervention cohort study, which examines whether an extended, multi-professional physical activity referral (PAR) intervention is more effective in enhancing and maintaining self-reported physical activity than physical activity prescription in usual care. The study targets patients with newly diagnosed hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes. Secondary outcomes include: need of pharmacological therapy; blood pressure/plasma glucose; physical fitness and anthropometric variables; mental health; health related quality of life; and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design The study is designed as a long-term intervention. Three primary care centres are involved in the study, each constituting one of three treatment groups: 1) Intervention group (IG): multi-professional team intervention with PAR, 2) Control group A (CA): physical activity prescription in usual care and 3) Control group B: treatment as usual (retrospective data collection). The intervention is based on self-determination theory and follows the principles of motivational interviewing. The primary outcome, physical activity, is measured with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and expressed as metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-minutes per week. Physical fitness is estimated with the 6-minute walk test in IG only. Variables such as health behaviours; health-related quality of life; motivation to change; mental health; demographics and socioeconomic characteristics are assessed with an electronic study questionnaire that submits all data to a patient database, which automatically provides feed-back to the health-care providers on the patients’ health status. Cost-effectiveness of the intervention is evaluated continuously and the intermediate outcomes of the intervention are extrapolated by economic modelling. Discussions By helping patients to overcome practical, social and cultural obstacles and increase

  14. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa. PMID:27052734

  15. A Formative Evaluation of Customized Pamphlets to Promote Physical Activity and Symptom Self-Management in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plow, Matthew; Bethoux, Francois; Mai, Kimloan; Marcus, Bess

    2014-01-01

    Inactivity is a prevalent problem in the population affected with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, there is a need to develop and test physical activity (PA) interventions that can be widely disseminated. We conducted a formative evaluation as part of a randomized controlled trial of a pamphlet-based PA intervention among 30 women with MS. Pamphlets…

  16. Examining the Impact of an Email Campaign to Promote Physical Activity and Walking in Adult Women Six-Weeks and One-Year Post-Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Julian A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose was to examine the impact of an email intervention campaign to increase physical activity among women. Participants' activity levels were assessed at baseline, immediately following the intervention and one year post intervention. (N = 475) received weekly Walking Tips Intervention Emails (WTIE) for 6 weeks. Participants were primarily…

  17. Women Bound to be Active: one year follow-up to an innovative pilot intervention to increase physical activity and self-worth in women.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Schulte, Laura; Roberts, Sara M; Stevens, Beth; Ransdell, Lynda

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention (a women's book club; Women Bound to be Active) in promoting long-term physical activity. Thirty-five women (26-70 years; mean age 50.6 years) completed the 8-month intervention and participated in the one-year follow-up. At follow-up, physical activity returned to baseline levels; however, self-worth and body mass index significantly improved. Women were more knowledgeable about physical activity at follow-up; however, they failed to maintain physical activity after the intervention. Components of the intervention were effective in improving self-worth and lowering BMI at one-year follow-up. To enhance long-term physical activity adherence, continued research and intervention modifications are needed. PMID:20013519

  18. Baseline results from Hawaii's Nā Mikimiki Project: a physical activity intervention tailored to multiethnic postpartum women.

    PubMed

    Albright, Cheryl L; Steffen, Alana D; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R; Wilkens, Lynne R; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E; Dunn, Andrea L; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki ("the active ones") Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2-12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008-2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian-American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  19. Baseline Results from Hawaii's Nā Mikiniiki Project: A Physical Activity Intervention Tailored to Multiethnic Postpartum Women

    PubMed Central

    Albright, Cheryl L.; Steffen, Alana D.; Novotny, Rachel; Nigg, Claudio R.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Saiki, Kara; Yamada, Paulette; Hedemark, Brooke; Maddock, Jason E.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Brown, Wendy J.

    2012-01-01

    During the postpartum period, ethnic minority women have higher rates of inactivity/under-activity than white women. The Nā Mikimiki (“the active ones”) Project is designed to increase moderate-to-vigorous physical activity over 18 months among multiethnic women with infants 2–12 months old. The study was designed to test, via a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of a tailored telephone counseling of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity intervention compared to a print/website materials-only condition. Healthy, underactive women (mean age = 32 ± 5.6 years) with a baby (mean age = 5.7 ± 2.8 months) were enrolled from 2008–2009 (N = 278). Of the total sample, 84% were ethnic minority women, predominantly Asian–American and Native Hawaiian. Mean self-reported baseline level of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 40 minutes/week with no significant differences by study condition, ethnicity, infant's age, maternal body mass index, or maternal employment. Women had high scores on perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and environmental support for exercise but low scores on social support for exercise. This multiethnic sample's demographic and psychosocial characteristics and their perceived barriers to exercise were comparable to previous physical activity studies conducted largely with white postpartum women. The Nā Mikimiki Project's innovative tailored technology-based intervention and unique population are significant contributions to the literature on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in postpartum women. PMID:22533900

  20. Behavioral activation interventions for well-being: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Kane, Robert T.; Rees, Clare S.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most promising ways to increase well-being is to engage in valued and enjoyable activities. Behavioral activation (BA), an intervention approach most commonly associated with the treatment of depression, is consistent with this recommendation and can easily be adapted for non-clinical populations. This study reports on a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies to examine the effect of BA on well-being. Twenty studies with a total of 1353 participants were included. The pooled effect size (Hedges's g) indicated that the difference in well-being between BA and control conditions at posttest was 0.52. This significant effect, which is comparable to the pooled effect achieved by positive psychology interventions, was found for non-clinical participants and participants with elevated symptoms of depression. Behavioral activation would seem to provide a ready and attractive intervention for promoting the well-being of a range of populations in both clinical and non-clinical settings. PMID:20539837

  1. Theory-Driven Intervention for Changing Personality: Expectancy Value Theory, Behavioral Activation, and Conscientiousness

    PubMed Central

    Magidson, Jessica F.; Roberts, Brent; Collado-Rodriguez, Anahi; Lejuez, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence suggests that personality traits may be changeable, raising the possibility that personality traits most linked to health problems can be modified with intervention. A growing body of research suggests that problematic personality traits may be altered with behavioral intervention using a bottom-approach. That is, by targeting core behaviors that underlie personality traits with the goal of engendering new, healthier patterns of behavior that over time become automatized and manifest in changes in personality traits. Nevertheless, a bottom-up model for changing personality traits is somewhat diffuse and requires clearer integration of theory and relevant interventions to enable real clinical application. As such, this manuscript proposes a set of guiding principles for theory-driven modification of targeted personality traits using a bottom-up approach, focusing specifically on targeting the trait of conscientiousness using a relevant behavioral intervention, Behavioral Activation (BA), considered within the motivational framework of Expectancy Value Theory (EVT). We conclude with a real case example of the application of BA to alter behaviors counter to conscientiousness in a substance dependent patient, highlighting the EVT principles most relevant to the approach and the importance and viability of a theoretically-driven, bottom-up approach to changing personality traits. PMID:23106844

  2. Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a Web-Based Intervention to Promote Healthy Eating, Physical Activity and Meaningful Social Connections Compared with Usual Care Control in People of Retirement Age Recruited from Workplaces

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Jose; O’Brien, Nicola; Godfrey, Alan; Heaven, Ben; Evans, Elizabeth H.; Lloyd, Scott; Moffatt, Suzanne; Moynihan, Paula J.; Meyer, Thomas D.; Rochester, Lynn; Sniehotta, Falko F.; White, Martin; Mathers, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Lifestyle interventions delivered during the retirement transition might promote healthier ageing. We report a pilot randomised controlled trial (RCT) of a web-based platform (Living, Eating, Activity and Planning through retirement; LEAP) promoting healthy eating (based on a Mediterranean diet (MD)), physical activity (PA) and meaningful social roles. Methods A single blinded, two-arm RCT with individual allocation. Seventy-five adult regular internet users living in Northeast England, within two years of retirement, were recruited via employers and randomised in a 2:1 ratio to receive LEAP or a ‘usual care’ control. Intervention arm participants were provided with a pedometer to encourage self-monitoring of PA goals. Feasibility of the trial design and procedures was established by estimating recruitment and retention rates, and of LEAP from usage data. At baseline and 8-week follow-up, adherence to a MD derived from three 24-hour dietary recalls and seven-day PA by accelerometry were assessed. Healthy ageing outcomes (including measures of physiological function, physical capability, cognition, psychological and social wellbeing) were assessed and acceptability established by compliance with measurement protocols and completion rates. Thematically analysed, semi-structured, qualitative interviews assessed acceptability of the intervention, trial design, procedures and outcome measures. Results Seventy participants completed the trial; 48 (96%) participants in the intervention and 22 (88%) in the control arm. Participants had considerable scope for improvement in diet as assessed by MD score. LEAP was visited a median of 11 times (range 1–80) for a mean total time of 2.5 hours (range 5.5 min– 8.3 hours). ‘Moving more‘, ‘eating well’ and ‘being social’ were the most visited modules. At interview, participants reported that diet and PA modules were important and acceptable within the context of healthy ageing. Participants found both

  3. Impact of a brief intervention on physical activity and social cognitive determinants among working mothers: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Mailey, Emily L; McAuley, Edward

    2014-04-01

    Working mothers exhibit high levels of inactivity, and theory-based interventions to bolster physical activity within this population are needed. This study examined the effectiveness of a brief social cognitive theory-based intervention designed to increase physical activity among working mothers. Participants (N = 141) were randomly assigned to an intervention only, intervention plus follow-up support, or waitlist control condition. The intervention consisted of two group-based workshop sessions designed to teach behavior modification strategies using social cognitive theory. Data were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 6-month follow-up. Results showed intervention participants exhibited short-term increases in physical activity, which were partially maintained 6 months later. Improvements in physical activity were mediated by increases in self-regulation and self-efficacy. This study provides some support for the effectiveness of a brief intervention to increase physical activity among working mothers. Future programs should explore alternative support mechanisms which may lead to more effective maintenance of initial behavior changes. PMID:23338616

  4. Development of an Accelerometer-Linked Online Intervention System to Promote Physical Activity in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Nicole; Bradlyn, Andrew; Thompson, Sharon K.; Yen, Sophia; Haritatos, Jana; Dillon, Fred; Cole, Steve W.

    2015-01-01

    Most adolescents do not achieve the recommended levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), placing them at increased risk for a diverse array of chronic diseases in adulthood. There is a great need for scalable and effective interventions that can increase MVPA in adolescents. Here we report the results of a measurement validation study and a preliminary proof-of-concept experiment testing the impact of Zamzee, an accelerometer-linked online intervention system that combines proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features to promote MVPA. In a calibration study that parametrically varied levels of physical activity in 31 12-14 year-old children, the Zamzee activity meter was shown to provide a valid measure of MVPA (sensitivity in detecting MVPA = 85.9%, specificity = 97.5%, and r = .94 correspondence with the benchmark RT3 accelerometer system; all p < .0001). In a subsequent randomized controlled multi-site experiment involving 182 middle school-aged children assessed for MVPA over 6 wks, intent-to-treat analyses found that those who received access to the Zamzee intervention had average MVPA levels 54% greater than those of a passive control group (p < 0.0001) and 68% greater than those of an active control group that received access to a commercially available active videogame (p < .0001). Zamzee’s effects on MVPA did not diminish significantly over the course of the 6-wk study period, and were statistically significant in both females and males, and in normal- vs. high-BMI subgroups. These results provide promising initial indications that combining the Zamzee activity meter with online proximal performance feedback and incentive motivation features can positively impact MVPA levels in adolescents. PMID:26010359

  5. Diabetes NetPLAY: A physical activity website and linked email counselling randomized intervention for individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liebreich, Tanis; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Courneya, Kerry S; Boulé, Normand

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND -: This pilot study evaluated the feasibility (recruitment, retention, adherence and satisfaction) and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week website and email-linked counselling intervention on physical activity behaviour change in individuals with type 2 diabetes. METHODS -: A total of 49 individuals with type 2 diabetes (59% female, average age 54.1 years) were randomized to the Diabetes NetPLAY intervention or control condition. The intervention condition received information grounded in the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT), personalized weekly emails, an on-line logbook and message board. Key outcomes included physical activity behaviour and related cognition changes. The control condition was provided links to the Canadian Diabetes Association's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Physical Activity and Canada's Guide to Physical Activity. RESULTS -: Intervention participants indicated high levels of satisfaction for this mode of delivery and study results demonstrated the feasibility of web-based mediums for the delivery of physical activity information in this population. The intervention group demonstrated a significant improvement in total vigorous and moderate minutes of physical activity (p = 0.05) compared to the control group over the 12-week study. Among the SCT variables, behavioural capacity, showed a significant increase (p < 0.001) among intervention participants. CONCLUSION -: Web-based interventions for individuals with type 2 diabetes are feasible and show promise for improving positive physical activity outcomes. PMID:19327141

  6. Mediation of Effects of a Theory-Based Behavioral Intervention on Self-Reported Physical Activity in South African Men

    PubMed Central

    Jemmott, John B.; Stephens, Alisa; O’Leary, Ann; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Teitelman, Anne; Ngwane, Zolani; Mtose, Xoliswa

    2015-01-01

    Objective Increasing physical activity is an important public-health goal worldwide, but there are few published mediation analyses of physical-activity interventions in low-to-middle-income countries like South Africa undergoing a health transition involving markedly increased mortality from non-communicable diseases. This article reports secondary analyses on the mediation of a theory-of-planned-behavior-based behavioral intervention that increased self-reported physical activity in a trial with 1,181 men in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Method Twenty-two matched-pairs of neighborhoods were randomly selected. Within pairs, neighborhoods were randomized to a health-promotion intervention or an attention-matched control intervention with baseline, immediate-post, and 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments. Theory-of-planned-behavior constructs measured immediately post-intervention were tested as potential mediators of the primary outcome, self-reported physical activity averaged over the 6- and 12-month post-intervention assessments, using a product-of-coefficients approach in a generalized-estimating-equations framework. Data were collected in 2007–2010. Results Attitude, subjective norm, self-efficacy, and intention were significant mediators of intervention-induced increases in self-reported physical activity. The descriptive norm, not affected by the intervention, was not a mediator, but predicted increased self-reported physical activity. Conclusion The results suggest that interventions targeting theory-of-planned-behavior constructs may contribute to efforts to increase physical activity to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases among South African men. PMID:25565482

  7. Land- and water-based exercise intervention in women with fibromyalgia: the al-andalus physical activity randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The al-Andalus physical activity intervention study is a randomised control trial to investigate the effectiveness of a land- and water-based exercise intervention for reducing the overall impact of fibromyalgia (primary outcome), and for improving tenderness and pain-related measures, body composition, functional capacity, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, fatigue, sleep quality, health-related quality of life, and cognitive function (secondary outcomes) in women with fibromyalgia. Methods/Design One hundred eighty women with fibromyalgia (age range: 35-65 years) will be recruited from local associations of fibromyalgia patients in Andalucía (Southern Spain). Patients will be randomly assigned to a usual care (control) group (n = 60), a water-based exercise intervention group (n = 60) or a land-based exercise intervention group (n = 60). Participants in the usual care group will receive general physical activity guidelines and participants allocated in the intervention groups will attend three non-consecutive training sessions (60 min each) per week during 24 weeks. Both exercise interventions will consist of aerobic, muscular strength and flexibility exercises. We will also study the effect of a detraining period (i.e., 12 weeks with no exercise intervention) on the studied variables. Discussion Our study attempts to reduce the impact of fibromyalgia and improve patients' health status by implementing two types of exercise interventions. Results from this study will help to assess the efficacy of exercise interventions for the treatment of fibromyalgia. If the interventions would be effective, this study will provide low-cost and feasible alternatives for health professionals in the management of fibromyalgia. Results from the al-Andalus physical activity intervention will help to better understand the potential of regular physical activity for improving the well-being of women with fibromyalgia. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT

  8. Impact of a community-based prevention marketing intervention to promote physical activity among middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Patricia A; Burroughs, Ericka L; Granner, Michelle L; Wilcox, Sara; Hutto, Brent E; Bryant, Carol A; Peck, Lara; Pekuri, Linda

    2010-06-01

    A physical activity intervention applied principles of community-based participatory research, the community-based prevention marketing framework, and social cognitive theory. A nonrandomized design included women ages 35 to 54 in the southeastern United States. Women (n = 430 preprogram, n = 217 postprogram) enrolled in a 24-week behavioral intervention and were exposed to a media campaign. They were compared to cross-sectional survey samples at pre- (n = 245) and postprogram (n = 820) from the media exposed county and a no-intervention county (n = 234 pre, n = 822 post). Women in the behavioral intervention had statistically significant positive changes on physical activity minutes, walking, park and trail use, knowledge of mapped routes and exercise partner, and negative change on exercise self-efficacy. Media exposed women had statistically significant pre- to postprogram differences on knowledge of mapped routes. No-intervention women had significant pre- to postprogram differences on physical activity minutes, walking, and knowledge of mapped routes. PMID:19875639

  9. The impact of sarcopenia on a physical activity intervention: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study (LIFE-P)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine if sarcopenia modulates the response to a physical activity intervention in functionally limited older adults. Design: secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Setting: three academic centers. Participants: elders aged 70 to 89 years at risk for mobility disability who under...

  10. Utilizing Wisconsin Afterschool Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Bradley D.; Meinen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 31.7% of children in the United States are overweight or obese. Interventions in the afterschool setting may help combat childhood obesity. Research exists on interventions in school settings, but a few data exist for interventions about afterschool programs. This study investigates increasing physical activity (PA) in…

  11. Active Tuberculosis Case Finding Interventions Among Immigrants, Refugees and Asylum Seekers in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Schepisi, Monica Sañé; Gualano, Gina; Piselli, Pierluca; Mazza, Marta; D’Angelo, Donatella; Fasciani, Francesca; Barbieri, Alberto; Rocca, Giorgia; Gnolfo, Filippo; Olivani, Piefranco; Ferrarese, Maurizio; Codecasa, Luigi Ruffo; Palmieri, Fabrizio; Girardi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    In Italy tuberculosis (TB) is largely concentrated in vulnerable groups such as migrants and in urban settings. We analyzed three TB case finding interventions conducted at primary centers and mobile clinics for regular/irregular immigrants and refugees/asylum seekers performed over a four-year period (November 2009-March 2014) at five different sites in Rome and one site in Milan, Italy. TB history and presence of symptoms suggestive of active TB were investigated by verbal screening through a structured questionnaire in migrants presenting for any medical condition to out-patient and mobile clinics. Individuals reporting TB history or symptoms were referred to a TB clinic for diagnostic workup. Among 6347 migrants enrolled, 891 (14.0%) reported TB history or symptoms suggestive of active TB and 546 (61.3%) were referred to the TB clinic. Of them, 254 (46.5%) did not present for diagnostic evaluation. TB was diagnosed in 11 individuals representing 0.17% of those screened and 3.76% of those evaluated. The overall yield of this intervention was in the range reported for other TB screening programs for migrants, although we recorded an unsatisfactory adherence to diagnostic workup. Possible advantages of this intervention include low cost and reduced burden of medical procedures for the screened population. PMID:27403270

  12. Intervention to induce short-term increases in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if a short-term pedometer-based educational intervention results in short-term increases in time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to an education-only intervention, and whether increases in the number of steps taken per day correlate with...

  13. Can a Website-Delivered Computer-Tailored Physical Activity Intervention Be Acceptable, Usable, and Effective for Older People?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammann, Rahel; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Vries, Hein; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2013-01-01

    Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity levels are low and declining with age. A continued increase of Internet access allows for website-delivered interventions to be implemented across age-groups, though older people have typically not been considered for this type of intervention. Therefore, the purpose of this study…

  14. The Validation of an Active Control Intervention for Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR)

    PubMed Central

    MacCoon, Donal G.; Imel, Zac E.; Rosenkranz, Melissa A.; Sheftel, Jenna G.; Weng, Helen Y.; Sullivan, Jude C.; Bonus, Katherine A.; Stoney, Catherine M.; Salomons, Tim V.; Davidson, Richard J.; Lutz, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Most of the extant literature investigating the health effects of mindfulness interventions relies on wait-list control comparisons. The current article specifies and validates an active control condition, the Health Enhancement Program (HEP), thus providing the foundation necessary for rigorous investigations of the relative efficacy of Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and for testing mindfulness as an active ingredient. 63 participants were randomized to either MBSR (n=31) or HEP (n=32). Compared to HEP, MBSR led to reductions in thermal pain ratings in the mindfulness- but not the HEP-related instruction condition (η2=.18). There were significant improvements over time for general distress (η2=.09), anxiety (η2=.08), hostility (η2=.07), and medical symptoms (η2=.14), but no effects of intervention. Practice was not related to change. HEP is an active control condition for MBSR while remaining inert to mindfulness. These claims are supported by results from a pain task. Participant-reported outcomes (PROs) replicate previous improvements to well-being in MBSR, but indicate that MBSR is no more effective than a rigorous active control in improving these indices. These results emphasize the importance of using an active control condition like HEP in studies evaluating the effectiveness of MBSR. PMID:22137364

  15. Physical Activity Interventions in Schools for Improving Lifestyle in European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mura, Gioia; Rocha, Nuno B.F; Helmich, Ingo; Budde, Henning; Machado, Sergio; Wegner, Mirko; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Vellante, Marcello; Baum, Antonia; Guicciardi, Marco; Patten, Scott B; Carta, Mauro Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Background : In the last decades, children’s and adolescents’ obesity and overweight have increased in European Countries. Unhealthy eating habits and sedentary lifestyle have been recognized to determine such an epidemic. Schools represent an ideal setting to modify harmful behaviors, and physical activity could be regarded as a potential way to avoid the metabolic risks related to obesity. Methods : A systematic review of the literature was carried out to summarize the evidence of school-based interventions aimed to promote, enhance and implement physical activity in European schools. Only randomized controlled trials were included, carried out in Europe from January 2000 to April 2014, universally delivered and targeting pupils aged between 3 and 18 years old. Results : Forty-seven studies were retrieved based either on multicomponent interventions or solely physical activity programs. Most aimed to prevent obesity and cardiovascular risks among youths. While few studies showed a decrease in BMI, positive results were achieved on other outcomes, such as metabolic parameters and physical fitness. Conclusion : Physical activity in schools should be regarded as a simple, non-expensive and enjoyable way to reach all the children and adolescents with adequate doses of moderate to vigorous physical activity. PMID:25834629

  16. Intervention to increase physical activity in irritable bowel syndrome shows long-term positive effects

    PubMed Central

    Johannesson, Elisabet; Ringström, Gisela; Abrahamsson, Hasse; Sadik, Riadh

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the long-term effects of physical activity on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and on quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. METHODS: Seventy-six patients from a previous randomized controlled interventional study on increased physical activity in IBS were asked to participate in this long-term follow-up study. The included patients attended one visit in which they filled out questionnaires and they underwent a submaximal cycle ergometer test. The primary end point was the change in the IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS) at baseline, i.e., before the intervention and at follow-up. The secondary endpoints were changes in quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. RESULTS: A total of 39 [32 women, median age 45 (28-61) years] patients were included in this follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 (range: 3.8-6.2) years. The IBS symptoms were improved compared with baseline [IBS-SSS: 276 (169-360) vs 218 (82-328), P = 0.001]. This was also true for the majority of the dimensions of psychological symptoms such as disease specific quality of life, fatigue, depression and anxiety. The reported time of physical activity during the week before the visit had increased from 3.2 (0.0-10.0) h at baseline to 5.2 (0.0-15.0) h at follow-up, P = 0.019. The most common activities reported were walking, aerobics and cycling. There was no significant difference in the oxygen uptake 31.8 (19.7-45.8) mL per min per kg at baseline vs 34.6 (19.0-54.6) mL/min per kg at follow-up. CONCLUSION: An intervention to increase physical activity has positive long-term effects on IBS symptoms and psychological symptoms. PMID:25593485

  17. Are physical activity interventions in primary care and the community cost-effective? A systematic review of the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Garrett, Sue; Elley, C Raina; Rose, Sally B; O'Dea, Des; Lawton, Beverley A; Dowell, Anthony C

    2011-01-01

    Background The health and economic burden of physical inactivity is well documented. A wide range of primary care and community-based interventions are available to increase physical activity. It is important to identify which components of these interventions provide the best value for money. Aim To assess the cost-effectiveness of physical activity interventions in primary care and the community. Design of study Systematic review of cost-effectiveness studies based on randomised controlled trials of interventions to increase adult physical activity that were based in primary health care or the community, completed between 2002 and 2009. Method Electronic databases were searched to identify relevant literature. Results and study quality were assessed by two researchers, using Drummond's checklist for economic evaluations. Cost-effectiveness ratios for moving one person from inactive to active, and costutility ratios (cost per quality-adjusted life-year [QALY]) were compared between interventions. Results Thirteen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Eight studies were of good or excellent quality. Interventions, study populations, and study designs were heterogeneous, making comparisons difficult. The cost to move one person to the ‘active’ category at 12 months was estimated for four interventions ranging from €331 to €3673. The cost-utility was estimated in nine studies, and varied from €348 to €86 877 per QALY. Conclusion Most interventions to increase physical activity were cost-effective, especially where direct supervision or instruction was not required. Walking, exercise groups, or brief exercise advice on prescription delivered in person, or by phone or mail appeared to be more cost-effective than supervised gym-based exercise classes or instructor-led walking programmes. Many physical activity interventions had similar cost-utility estimates to funded pharmaceutical interventions and should be considered for funding at a similar level

  18. Assessing media access and use among Latina adolescents to inform development of a physical activity promotion intervention incorporating text messaging.

    PubMed

    Mojica, Cynthia M; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Yin, Zenong; Akopian, David; Esparza, Laura A

    2014-07-01

    Increasing physical activity (PA) during preadolescence and adolescence is critical to reversing the obesity epidemic. A recent report described the promising role of eHealth--the use of new media for purposes of health promotion--in reducing and preventing childhood obesity. This study assessed access/use of various media (cell phones, computers, gaming systems, Internet) among adolescent Latino girls and examined the relationship between PA and media access/use. A convenience sample of 110 Latino girls ages 11 to 14 was recruited from Girl Scouts of Southwest Texas and other groups. The media survey was self-administered (April-July 2010) on personal digital assistants. Of the girls, 55% reported owning a cell phone and spending 40 (SD = 4.2) hours per week talking, texting, listening to music, and browsing the Internet. Cell phone access increased significantly with age (p = .029). Compared to those with no cell phone, girls with a cell phone have greater odds of reporting more than 5 days of PA in the past week (odds ratio = 5.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1, 14) and engaging in daily physical education classes (odds ratio = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.1, 5.9). Since girls with cell phones report greater PA, cell phones may be an effective strategy for communicating with girls about engaging in PA. PMID:24357863

  19. Does the Effect of a Physical Activity Behavioral Intervention Vary by Characteristics of People with Multiple Sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Dlugonski, Deirdre; Pilutti, Lara A.; Klaren, Rachel E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Behavioral interventions have significantly increased physical activity in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Nevertheless, there has been interindividual variability in the pattern and magnitude of change. This study documented the efficacy and variability of a behavioral intervention for changing physical activity and examined the possibility that efficacy varied by the characteristics of individuals with MS. Methods: Eighty-two people with MS were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: behavioral intervention (n = 41) or waitlist control (n = 41). We collected information before the study on MS type, disability status, weight status based on body-mass index, and current medications. Furthermore, all participants completed the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the abbreviated International Physical Activity Questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for 1 week to measure minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity before and after the 6-month intervention period. Results: Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that participants in the behavioral intervention had significantly higher levels of physical activity than control participants after the 6-month period (P < .001). There was substantial interindividual variability in the magnitude of change, and ANCOVA indicated that MS type (relapsing vs. progressive) (P < .01), disability status (mild vs. moderate) (P < .01), and weight status (normal weight vs. overweight/obese) (P < .05) moderated the efficacy of the behavioral intervention. Conclusions: The behavioral intervention was associated with improvements in physical activity, particularly for those with mild disability, relapsing-remitting MS, or normal weight status. PMID:25892976

  20. Evaluation of the calibration procedure of active personal dosemeters for interventional radiology.

    PubMed

    Bordy, J-M; Daures, J; Clairand, I; Denozière, M; Donadille, L; d'Errico, F; Gouriou, J; Itié, C; Struelens, L

    2008-01-01

    An overview of the use of active personal dosemeters (APD) in interventional radiology is presented. It is based on the work done by the working package 7 of the CONRAD coordinated action supported by the EC within the frame of the 6th FP. This study was done in collaboration with the working package 4 of CONRAD to deal with the calculations required for studying the new calibration facility. The main requirements of the standard for the APD and the difficulties caused by the use of pulsed radiations are presented through the results of an intercomparison organised in a realistic calibration facility similar to the workplace situation in interventional radiology. The main characteristics of this facility are presented. PMID:18757898

  1. Evaluation of a school-based intervention programme to promote physical activity: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Tsorbatzoudis, Haralambos

    2005-12-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior provides a useful framework to study attitudes toward participation in physical activity. The objective of the study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention in manipulating the variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and exercise habits with 366 high school students (M = 14.2 yr., SD = .7; 201 boys and 165 girls). The students were divided into intervention and control groups. A questionnaire to measure components of the theory, and the Baecke Questionnaire of Habitual Activity measuring exercise habits, were administered. The intervention lasted 12 wk. and included posters and lectures promoting participation in physical activity. Analyses showed the intervention was effective in improving attitudes towards physical activity, perceived behavioral control, intention, and self-reported actual behavior, but it was ineffective for improving attitude strength, subjective norms, and role identity. The results provide useful information for physical education teachers interested in promoting students' positive attitudes towards physical activity. PMID:16491680

  2. PaR-PaR Laboratory Automation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Linshiz, G; Stawski, N; Poust, S; Bi, CH; Keasling, JD; Hilson, NJ

    2013-05-01

    Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.

  3. Parent-Targeted Mobile Phone Intervention to Increase Physical Activity in Sedentary Children: Randomized Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marker, Arwen M; Allen, H Raymond; Machtmes, Ryan; Han, Hongmei; Johnson, William D; Schuna Jr, John M; Broyles, Stephanie T; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    Background Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity are associated with adverse health consequences. Objective The intent of the study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of a 12-week physical activity promotion program targeting children, which was delivered to parents through mobile phones. Methods Potential participants were recruited through advertisements placed in the newspaper, local hospitals and schools, and an email listserv. Sedentary children aged 6-10 years were randomly assigned to a minimal (MIG) or intensive (IIG) intervention group. Parents in the MIG were given a goal to increase (within 1 month) and maintain their child’s activity at 6000 pedometer steps/day above their baseline levels and to monitor their child’s steps daily. Parents in the IIG were given the same steps/day and monitoring goals, in addition to text messages and articles containing additional behavioral strategies (based on the Social Cognitive Theory) designed to promote their child’s physical activity. The intervention components were delivered via mobile phone. Anthropometrics, body composition, and questionnaires were administered in a clinic. Children wore a New Lifestyles pedometer (NL-1000) each day throughout the intervention and parents were to monitor their child’s step counts daily. Results Out of 59 children who screened for the study, a total of 27 children (mean age 8.7, SD 1.4 years; 56%, 15/27 female; 59%, 16/27 African American) were enrolled and completed the study. Overall, 97.90% (2220/2268; 98.20%, 1072/1092 for MIG; 97.60%, 1148/1176 for IIG) of expected step data were successfully entered by the parent or study coordinator. Parents in the MIG and IIG were sent approximately 7 and 13 text messages per week, respectively, averaged over the course of the study. IIG parents accessed an average of 6.1 (SD 4.4) articles over the course of the intervention and accessed a fewer number of articles in the last month compared to the first

  4. Identifying combinations of risk and protective factors predicting physical activity change in high school students.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Atienza, Audie A; Tscherne, James; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Research sought to identify combinations of risk and protective factors predicting change in physical activity (PA) over one year in high school students. Adolescents (N = 344; M = 15.7 years) participated in a longitudinal study with assessment of demographics, substance use/smoking exposure, height and weight, psychological factors, and PA in 10th and 11th grade. PA participation in 11th grade was greatest for adolescents who engaged in PA and had high sports competence (78%), and least for adolescents who did not engage in or enjoy PA (13%) in 10th grade. Identifying adolescent subgroups at risk for decreasing PA can inform the development of tailored interventions. PMID:21467595

  5. Assessing the Internal and External Validity of Mobile Health Physical Activity Promotion Interventions: A Systematic Literature Review Using the RE-AIM Framework

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Jamie; Berrey, Leanna M; Alexander, Ramine; Fanning, Jason; Hill, Jennie L; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile health (mHealth) interventions are effective in promoting physical activity (PA); however, the degree to which external validity indicators are reported is unclear. Objective The purpose of this systematic review was to use the RE-AIM (reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance) framework to determine the extent to which mHealth intervention research for promoting PA reports on factors that inform generalizability across settings and populations and to provide recommendations for investigators planning to conduct this type of research. Methods Twenty articles reflecting 15 trials published between 2000 and 2012 were identified through a systematic review process (ie, queries of three online databases and reference lists of eligible articles) and met inclusion criteria (ie, implementation of mobile technologies, target physical activity, and provide original data). Two researchers coded each article using a validated RE-AIM data extraction tool (reach, efficacy/effectiveness, adoption, implementation, maintenance). Two members of the study team independently abstracted information from each article (inter-rater reliability >90%) and group meetings were used to gain consensus on discrepancies. Results The majority of studies were randomized controlled trials (n=14). The average reporting across RE-AIM indicators varied by dimension (reach=53.3%, 2.67/5; effectiveness/efficacy=60.0%, 2.4/4; adoption=11.1%, 0.7/6; implementation=24.4%, 0.7/3; maintenance=0%, 0/3). While most studies described changes in the primary outcome (effectiveness), few addressed the representativeness of participants (reach) or settings (adoption) and few reported on issues related to maintenance and degree of implementation fidelity. Conclusions This review suggests that more focus is needed on research designs that highlight and report on both internal and external validity indicators. Specific recommendations are provided to encourage future m

  6. Influence of a health education intervention on physical activity and screen time in primary school children: 'Switch Off--Get Active'.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Michael; Burns, Con F; McGuinness, Meabh; Heslin, Julie; Murphy, Niamh M

    2006-10-01

    Low levels of physical activity coupled with high levels of television viewing have been linked with obesity in children. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of 'Switch Off-Get Active', a 16-week controlled health education intervention, in increasing physical activity and reducing screen time and BMI in primary school children. A secondary objective was to compare children with high and low screen time. Participants were 312 children aged 10.2+/-0.7 years, attending nine schools in areas of social disadvantage. The 10-lesson, teacher-led intervention, conducted in spring 2003, emphasised self-monitoring, budgeting of time and selective viewing. Differences, adjusted for baseline values by ANCOVA, existed between intervention and control children at follow-up for self-reported physical activity (intervention +0.84 30 min blocks/day, 95%CI 0.11-1.57, p<0.05) and self-efficacy for physical activity (p<0.05) but not self-reported screen time (intervention--0.41 blocks/day, 95%CI--0.93-0.12, p=0.13) or BMI (p=0.63). Cross-sectional comparisons at baseline indicated lower physical activity, self-efficacy for physical activity and aerobic fitness and a higher BMI in children with high screen time. In conclusion, health education interventions can increase physical activity in primary school children but follow-ups of longer duration may be needed to demonstrate intervention effects on BMI. PMID:16872900

  7. Evaluation of a complex intervention to improve activities of daily living of disabled cancer patients: protocol for a randomised controlled study and feasibility of recruitment and intervention

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many cancer patients have problems performing activities of daily living (ADL). A randomised controlled trial was designed to examine the effects of an ADL intervention in addition to standard treatment and care in a hospital setting. The objective of this article was to present the study and to analyse the feasibility of the recruitment process and the intervention. Methods Adult disabled cancer patients at Næstved Hospital in Denmark were enrolled between 1 March 2010 and 30 June 2011 and randomised into an ADL intervention or to a control group. The intervention was performed by occupational therapists. The feasibility of the recruitment was analysed with regard to success in achieving the estimated number of participants and identification of barriers, and feasibility of the intervention was based on calculations of patient attendance and patient acceptability. The primary outcome of the randomised controlled trial was patients’ health-related quality of life 2 and 8 weeks after baseline. Results A total of 118 disabled cancer patients were enrolled in the study over a time span of 16 months. Very few meetings between occupational therapist and patient were cancelled. Time spent on the intervention varied considerably, but for the majority of patients, time consumption was between 1–3 hours. Conclusions Despite difficulties with recruitment, participation was considered feasible and the intervention was accepted among patients. Missing data in the follow-up period were mostly due to death among participants. Very few participants declined to complete questionnaires during follow-up. PMID:24779438

  8. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  9. Recruitment to a physical activity intervention study in women at increased risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity is being studied as a breast cancer prevention strategy. Women at risk of breast cancer report interest in lifestyle modification, but recruitment to randomized physical activity intervention studies is challenging. Methods We conducted an analysis of recruitment techniques used for a prospective, randomized pilot study of physical activity in women at risk of breast cancer. We evaluated differences in proportion of eligible patients, enrolled patients, and successful patients identified by each individual recruitment method. The Fisher-Freeman-Halton test (an extension of Fisher's exact test from 2 × 2 tables to general row by column tables) was used to compare the success of different recruitment strategies. Results We received 352 inquiries from women interested in participating, of whom 171 (54%) were eligible. Ninety-nine women completed a baseline activity evaluation, and 58 (34% of eligible; 16% of total inquiries) were randomized. Recruitment methods fell into three broad categories: media techniques, direct contact with potential participants, and contacts with health care providers. Recruitment strategies differed significantly in their ability to identify eligible women (p = 0.01), and women who subsequently enrolled in the study (p = 0.02). Conclusion Recruitment techniques had varying success. Our data illustrate the challenges in recruiting to behavior modification studies, and provide useful information for tailoring future recruitment efforts for lifestyle intervention trials. Trial Registration No(s) CDR0000393790, NCI-04-C-0276, NCI-NAVY-B05-001 PMID:19397816

  10. The longitudinal effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention and a structured exercise intervention on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults.

    PubMed

    Opdenacker, Joke; Delecluse, Christophe; Boen, Filip

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the long-term effects of a lifestyle physical activity intervention (n = 60) and a structured exercise intervention (n = 60) on physical self-perceptions and self-esteem in older adults compared with a control group (n = 66), and (2) to test the longitudinal fit of the exercise and self-esteem model (EXSEM). Immediately after the 11-month interventions, the lifestyle group showed significant improvements in self-perceived physical condition, sport competence, body attractiveness, and physical self-worth. In the structured group, significant effects were found on physical condition and sport competence. One year later, the lifestyle program had significant effects on body attractiveness and global self-esteem, while the structured group showed significant improvements in physical condition, sport competence, and body attractiveness. Path analyses revealed a good fit for the EXSEM across the 2-year period. PMID:20384010

  11. Development and Delivery of a Physical Activity Intervention for People With Huntington Disease: Facilitating Translation to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Lori; Trubey, Rob; Gobat, Nina; Dawes, Helen; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Jones, Carys; Townson, Julia; Drew, Cheney; Kelson, Mark; Poile, Vincent; Rosser, Anne; Hood, Kerenza

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: We studied the development and delivery of a 14-week complex physical activity intervention for people with Huntington disease, where detailed information about the intervention was fully embedded in the trial design process. Methods: Intervention Development: The intervention was developed through a series of focus groups. The findings from the focus groups informed the development of a logic model for the physical activity intervention that was broadly consistent with the framework of self-determination theory. Intervention Delivery: Key components underpinning the delivery of the intervention were implemented including a defined coach training program and intervention fidelity assessment methods. Training of coaches (physical therapists, occupational therapists, research nurses, and exercise trainers) was delivered via group and 1:1 training sessions using a detailed coach's manual, and with ongoing support via video calls, and e-mail communication as needed. Detailed documentation was provided to determine costs of intervention development and coach training. Results: Intervention delivery coaches at 8 sites across the United Kingdom participated in the face-to-face training. Self-report checklists completed by each of the coaches indicated that all components of the intervention were delivered in accordance with the protocol. Mean (standard deviation) intervention fidelity scores (n = 15), as measured using a purpose-developed rating scale, was 11 (2.4) (out of 16 possible points). Coaches' perceptions of intervention fidelity were similarly high. The total cost of developing the intervention and providing training was £30,773 ($47,042 USD). Discussion and Conclusions: An important consideration in promoting translation of clinical research into practice is the ability to convey the detailed components of how the intervention was delivered to facilitate replication if the results are favorable. This report presents an illustrative

  12. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  13. Using online computer tailoring to promote physical activity: a randomized trial of text, video, and combined intervention delivery modes.

    PubMed

    Soetens, Katja C M; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Vries, Hein; Mummery, Kerry W

    2014-12-01

    Website-delivered interventions are increasingly used to deliver physical activity interventions, yet problems with engagement and retention result in reduced effectiveness. Hence, alternative modes of online intervention delivery need to be explored. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the acceptability and effectiveness of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention delivered on the Internet in 3 delivery modes: video, text, or both. Australian adults (N = 803), recruited through e-mail, were randomized into the three delivery modes and received personal physical activity advice. Intervention content was identical across groups. Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to compare the three groups regarding acceptability, website usability, and physical activity. Participants in the video group accepted the content of the physical activity advice significantly better (F = 5.59; p < .01), and spent significantly more time on the website (F = 21.19; p < .001) compared with the text and combination groups. Total physical activity improved significantly over time in all groups (F = 3.95; p < .01). Although the combination group increased physical activity the most, few significant differences between groups were observed. Providing video-tailored feedback has advantages over the conventional text-tailored interventions; however, this study revealed few behavioral differences. More studies, examining alternative delivery modes, that can overcome the limitations of the present study, are needed. PMID:24749983

  14. Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Manini, Todd M.; Carr, Lucas J.; King, Abby C.; Marshall, Simon; Robinson, Thomas N.; Rejeski, W. Jack

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This paper reports on presentations and discussion from the working group on “Influences on Sedentary Behavior & Interventions” as part of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities Workshop. Methods Interventions were discussed in the context of targeting sedentary behavior (SB) as a concept distinct from physical activity (PA). It was recommended that interventions targeting SB should consider a life course perspective, a position predicated on the assumption that SB is age and life stage dependent. Additionally, targeting environments where individuals have high exposure to SB— such as workplace sitting— could benefit from new technology (e.g., computer-based prompting to stand or move), environmental changes (e.g., active workstations), policies targeting reduced sedentary time (e.g., allowing employees regular desk breaks), or by changing norms surrounding prolonged sitting (e.g., standing meetings). Results & Conclusions There are limited data about the minimal amount of SB change required to produce meaningful health benefits. In addition to developing relevant scientific and public health definitions of SB, it is important to further delineate the scope of health and quality of life outcomes associated with reduced SB across the life course, and clarify what behavioral alternatives to SB can be used to optimize health gains. SB interventions will benefit from having more clarity about the potential physiological and behavioral synergies with current PA recommendations, developing multi-level interventions aimed at reducing SB across all life phases and contexts, harnessing relevant and effective strategies to extend the reach of interventions to all sectors of society, as well as applying state-of-the-science adaptive designs and methods to accelerate advances in the science of sedentary behavior interventions. PMID:25222818

  15. The Effect of a Pedometer-based Program Improvement of Physical Activity in Tabriz University Employees

    PubMed Central

    Baghianimoghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhtari-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh-Nikookheslat, Saeed; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce risk of morbidity and overall mortality. A study has displayed that achieving 10,000 steps/day is associated with important health outcomes and have been used to promote PA. Pedometers are a popular tool for PA interventions in different setting. This study investigated the effects on pedometer-based and self-reported PA among Tabriz University employees. Methods: This experimental study assessed the effects of 16 weeks pedometer-based workplace intervention. Participants (n = 154) were employees of two worksites. Pedometer-based and self-reported PA from one intervention worksite was compared with the data of a comparison workplace. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for self-reported measure of PA, and demographic (age, marital status, educational level, employment status, and stage of change) variables were obtained. To measure PA objectively pedometer was used. Results: Participants reported to increase the step counts from baseline (end of summer) to posttest (winter). The intervention effect revealed significant increase in the intervention group (8279 ± 2759 steps/day than in the comparison work place (4118 ± 1136). Self-reported based on IPAQ concluded women in intervention worksite had a significant increase in the leisure time domain, but similar finding was not found in the comparison worksite. Conclusions: Pedometer used might rather benefit those individuals who want feedback on their current PA, also walking should be considered to increase PA in employee women. PMID:27076888

  16. Sympathetic Activation in Chronic Heart Failure: Potential Benefits of Interventional Therapies.

    PubMed

    Lachowska, Kamila; Gruchała, Marcin; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Hering, Dagmara

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major and growing public health problem. This condition is associated with poor prognosis, a high rate of mortality, frequent hospitalization and increasing costs to health care systems. Pharmacological approaches aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality in HF have primarily focused on inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), both of which have been associated with disease development, progression and adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. The increasing number of hospitalizations for HF decompensation suggests the failure of available treatment options, indicating the necessity for alternative therapeutic approaches. Alongside pharmacological and cardiac resynchronization therapies in selected patients with arrhythmia, recent advancements in the management of HF have been directed at inhibiting relevant neurogenic pathways underlying disease development and progression. Initial evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of interventional procedures suggests that HF patients may benefit from novel adjunctive therapies. Here we review the critical role of sympathetic activation in HF and the rationale for therapeutic interventions including device-based and interventional approaches aimed at restoring autonomic neural balance in this condition. PMID:27193773

  17. Impact of a physical activity intervention program on cognitive predictors of behaviour among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes (ProActive randomised controlled trial)

    PubMed Central

    Hardeman, Wendy; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Michie, Susan; Sutton, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background In the ProActive Trial an intensive theory-based intervention program was no more effective than theory-based brief advice in increasing objectively measured physical activity among adults at risk of Type 2 diabetes. We aimed to illuminate these findings by assessing whether the intervention program changed cognitions about increasing activity, defined by the Theory of Planned Behaviour, in ways consistent with the theory. Methods N = 365 sedentary participants aged 30–50 years with a parental history of Type 2 diabetes were randomised to brief advice alone or to brief advice plus the intervention program delivered face-to-face or by telephone. Questionnaires at baseline, 6 and 12 months assessed cognitions about becoming more physically active. Analysis of covariance was used to test intervention impact. Bootstrapping was used to test multiple mediation of intervention impact. Results At 6 months, combined intervention groups (face-to-face and telephone) reported that they found increasing activity more enjoyable (affective attitude, d = .25), and they perceived more instrumental benefits (e.g., improving health) (d = .23) and more control (d = .32) over increasing activity than participants receiving brief advice alone. Stronger intentions (d = .50) in the intervention groups than the brief advice group at 6 months were partially explained by affective attitude and perceived control. At 12 months, intervention groups perceived more positive instrumental (d = .21) and affective benefits (d = .29) than brief advice participants. The intervention did not change perceived social pressure to increase activity. Conclusion Lack of effect of the intervention program on physical activity over and above brief advice was consistent with limited and mostly small short-term effects on cognitions. Targeting affective benefits (e.g., enjoyment, social interaction) and addressing barriers to physical activity may strengthen intentions, but stronger intentions did

  18. Physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, Mireille N M; Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Mottola, Michelle F

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as 'carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy'. GDM is associated with several detrimental health consequences during pregnancy and delivery for both mother and baby. The largest public health impact of GDM is through its role on future diabetes in the mother and obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Physical activity (PA) is likely an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of GDM, given its known effectiveness in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Based on observational studies, PA initiated before and/or during pregnancy has a positive influence on maternal glucose and insulin metabolism and reduces the risk of GDM. However, although PA interventions have been reported to be effective at improving glycemic control in women who already developed GDM, prenatal PA interventions aimed at preventing GDM have shown modest effectiveness in increasing PA levels and thus were not effective in improving glucose/insulin metabolism or reducing GDM incidence. There is therefore a strong need to develop effective strategies for increasing PA levels, especially in women at high risk for GDM who are often obese and inactive. The optimal intervention for preventing or managing GDM is still unknown, and further studies are needed to determine the type, intensity, frequency and duration for the most successful PA intervention. Furthermore, the effects of PA on neonatal outcomes are not clear, and it is highly recommended that future studies examine more specific neonatal outcomes such as body composition. PMID:25226805

  19. Time-Based Physical Activity Interventions for Weight Loss: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jakicic, John M.; Rickman, Amy D.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelliann K.; Gibbs, Bethany Barone; Neiberg, Rebecca; Marcus, Marsha D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether enhancing standard behavior weight loss interventions (SBWP) with additional strategies at the initiation of the intervention (ADOPT) or providing the additional strategies at predetermined times over the intervention period (MAINTAIN) enhances 18 month weight loss. Methods This was a clinical trial with participants (n=195; age= 43.2±8.6 yrs; BMI= 33.0±3.4 kg/m2) randomized to SBWP, ADOPT, or MAINTAIN. All were prescribed an energy restricted diet and physical activity, with group intervention sessions delivered over 18 months. ADOPT received additional phone contact (months 1–3), supervised exercise (months 1–6), and behavior campaigns (months 4–9). MAINTAIN received additional phone contact (months 4–6), supervised exercise (months 7–12), and behavior campaigns (months 13–18). Results There was a significant Group X Time interaction for weight loss (p=0.0032). SBWP lost 9.3±0.9, 7.8±1.1, and 5.9±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. ADOPT lost 8.9±0.9, 7.6±1.2, and 5.8±1.2 kg, and MAINTAIN lost 9.7±0.9, 11.0±1.2, and 9.0±1.2 kg at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. The Group X Time interaction for SBWP vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0033) and ADOPT vs. MAINTAIN (p=0.0075) was significant. There was a significant Group X Time interaction for change in fitness (p=0.0060). The Group X Time interaction for MAINTAIN vs. ADOPT (p=0.0018) was significant with a trend for MAINTAIN vs. SBWP (p=0.0525). Conclusions MAINTAIN improved 18-month weight loss compared to SBWP and ADOPT, with statistical trends that MAINTAIN resulted in greater improvements in fitness. These results suggest that time-based strategies emphasizing physical activity conferred greater benefits when delivered later and over the full course of intervention. This provides valuable information for the implementation of time-based strategies to improve long-term weight loss and fitness in overweight and obese adults. PMID:25160843

  20. Effectiveness of Occupation- and Activity-Based Interventions to Improve Everyday Activities and Social Participation for People With Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Powell, Janet M; Rich, Timothy J; Wise, Elizabeth K

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review presents research on the effectiveness of occupation- and activity-based interventions to improve everyday activities and areas of occupation and social participation for people with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Nineteen studies identified through a comprehensive database search were reviewed and synthesized into five themes: (1) multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary treatment approaches, (2) community-based rehabilitation programs, (3) treatment approaches using client-centered goals and relevant contexts, (4) social skills training and peer mentoring interventions, and (5) community mobility interventions. Evidence supports the use of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches across a variety of settings, with no single treatment approach or setting clearly superior to another. The specific contributions of occupational therapy practitioners and the nature of occupational therapy interventions have not been well studied, making it difficult to determine the extent to which occupation- and activity-based interventions provided by occupational therapy practitioners improve occupational performance and social participation after TBI. PMID:27089288

  1. Content and Perceived Utility of Mental Imagery by Older Adults in a Peer-Delivered Physical Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Giacobbi, P. R.; Buman, M. P.; Dzierzewski, J.; Aiken-Morgan, A. T.; Roberts, B.; Marsiske, M.; Knutson, N.; Smith-McCrae, C

    2013-01-01

    Imagery interventions intended to increase exercise behavior are rare. The Active Adult Mentoring Program (AAMP) was a randomized controlled trial with imagery content. The purposes of this study were to examine the content and perceived utility of mental imagery with 24 AAMP participants (Mage = 65.00, SD = 8.79 years). Digital recordings of AAMP sessions and post-intervention interviews were content-analyzed. Emergent themes included images of the physical activity context and negative impressions about imagery. Post-intervention interviews revealed that 13 participants reported positive experiences using mental imagery while 9 would not engage in further use. Important implications are discussed. PMID:25067894

  2. Content and Perceived Utility of Mental Imagery by Older Adults in a Peer-Delivered Physical Activity Intervention.

    PubMed

    Giacobbi, P R; Buman, M P; Dzierzewski, J; Aiken-Morgan, A T; Roberts, B; Marsiske, M; Knutson, N; Smith-McCrae, C

    2014-04-01

    Imagery interventions intended to increase exercise behavior are rare. The Active Adult Mentoring Program (AAMP) was a randomized controlled trial with imagery content. The purposes of this study were to examine the content and perceived utility of mental imagery with 24 AAMP participants (Mage = 65.00, SD = 8.79 years). Digital recordings of AAMP sessions and post-intervention interviews were content-analyzed. Emergent themes included images of the physical activity context and negative impressions about imagery. Post-intervention interviews revealed that 13 participants reported positive experiences using mental imagery while 9 would not engage in further use. Important implications are discussed. PMID:25067894

  3. Theory-Based Interventions in Physical Activity: A Systematic Review of Literature in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied. Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  4. Theory-based interventions in physical activity: a systematic review of literature in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Jalal; Eftekhar, Hassan; Estebsari, Fatemeh; Sadeghi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Lack of physical activity is ranked fourth among the causes of human death and chronic diseases. Using models and theories to design, implement, and evaluate the health education and health promotion interventions has many advantages. Using models and theories of physical activity, we decided to systematically study the educational and promotional interventions carried out in Iran from 2003 to 2013.Three information databases were used to systematically select papers using key words including Iranian Magazine Database (MAGIRAN), Iran Medical Library (MEDLIB), and Scientific Information Database (SID). Twenty papers were selected and studied .Having been applied in 9 studies, The Trans Theoretical Model (TTM) was the most widespread model in Iran (PENDER in 3 studies, BASNEF in 2, and the Theory of Planned Behavior in 2 studies). With regards to the educational methods, almost all studies used a combination of methods. The most widely used Integrative educational method was group discussion. Only one integrated study was done. Behavior maintenance was not addressed in 75% of the studies. Almost all studies used self-reporting instruments. The effectiveness of educational methods was assessed in none of the studies. Most of the included studies had several methodological weaknesses, which hinder the validity and applicability of their results. According to the findings, the necessity of need assessment in using models, epidemiology and methodology consultation, addressing maintenance of physical activity, using other theories and models such as social marketing and social-cognitive theory, and other educational methods like empirical and complementary are suggested. PMID:25948454

  5. Evaluation of Green Dot: an active bystander intervention to reduce sexual violence on college campuses.

    PubMed

    Coker, Ann L; Cook-Craig, Patricia G; Williams, Corrine M; Fisher, Bonnie S; Clear, Emily R; Garcia, Lisandra S; Hegge, Lea M

    2011-06-01

    Using a cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 7,945 college undergraduates, we report on the association between having received Green Dot active bystander behavior training and the frequency of actual and observed self-reported active bystander behaviors as well as violence acceptance norms. Of 2,504 students aged 18 to 26 who completed the survey, 46% had heard a Green Dot speech on campus, and 14% had received active bystander training during the past 2 years. Trained students had significantly lower rape myth acceptance scores than did students with no training. Trained students also reported engaging in significantly more bystander behaviors and observing more self-reported active bystander behaviors when compared with nontrained students. When comparing self-reported active bystander behavior scores of students trained with students hearing a Green Dot speech alone, the training was associated with significantly higher active bystander behavior scores. Those receiving bystander training appeared to report more active bystander behaviors than those simply hearing a Green Dot speech, and both intervention groups reported more observed and active bystander behaviors than nonexposed students. PMID:21642269

  6. Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss intervention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12-18; BMI range: 22-36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass. PMID:27058280

  7. Can a website-delivered computer-tailored physical activity intervention be acceptable, usable, and effective for older people?

    PubMed

    Ammann, Rahel; Vandelanotte, Corneel; de Vries, Hein; Mummery, W Kerry

    2013-04-01

    Despite the numerous health benefits, population physical activity levels are low and declining with age. A continued increase of Internet access allows for website-delivered interventions to be implemented across age-groups, though older people have typically not been considered for this type of intervention. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate a website-delivered computer-tailored physical activity intervention, with a specific focus on differences in tailored advice acceptability, website usability, and physical activity change between three age-groups. To mimic "real-life" conditions, the intervention, which provided personalized physical activity feedback delivered via the Internet, was implemented and evaluated without any personal contact for the entire duration of the study. Data were collected online at baseline, 1-week, and 1-month follow-up and analyzed for three age-groups (≤44, 45-59, and ≥60 years) using linear mixed models. Overall, 803 adults received the intervention and 288 completed all measures. The oldest age-group increased physical activity more than the other two groups, spent the most time on the website, though had significantly lower perceived Internet self-confidence scores when compared with the youngest age-group. No differences were found in terms of website usability and tailored advice acceptability. These results suggest that website-delivered physical activity interventions can be suitable and effective for older aged adults. PMID:23077157

  8. 4,6-Diphenylpyridines as Promising Novel Anti-Influenza Agents Targeting the PA-PB1 Protein-Protein Interaction: Structure-Activity Relationships Exploration with the Aid of Molecular Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trist, Iuni M L; Nannetti, Giulio; Tintori, Cristina; Fallacara, Anna Lucia; Deodato, Davide; Mercorelli, Beatrice; Palù, Giorgio; Wijtmans, Maikel; Gospodova, Tzveta; Edink, Ewald; Verheij, Mark; de Esch, Iwan; Viteva, Lilia; Loregian, Arianna; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-03-24

    Influenza is an infectious disease that represents an important public health burden, with high impact on the global morbidity, mortality, and economy. The poor protection and the need of annual updating of the anti-influenza vaccine, added to the rapid emergence of viral strains resistant to current therapy make the need for antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action compelling. In this regard, the viral RNA polymerase is an attractive target that allows the design of selective compounds with reduced risk of resistance. In previous studies we showed that the inhibition of the polymerase acidic protein-basic protein 1 (PA-PB1) interaction is a promising strategy for the development of anti-influenza agents. Starting from the previously identified 3-cyano-4,6-diphenyl-pyridines, we chemically modified this scaffold and explored its structure-activity relationships. Noncytotoxic compounds with both the ability of disrupting the PA-PB1 interaction and antiviral activity were identified, and their mechanism of target binding was clarified with molecular modeling simulations. PMID:26924568

  9. METHODS FOR RECONSTRUCTION OF RADIONUCLIDE COMPOSITION AND ACTIVITY OF FISSION PRODUCTS ACCUMULATED IN THE IRRADIATED URANIUM AT THE MOMENT OF ITS RADIOCHEMICAL REPROCESSING AT PLANT “B”, “MAYAK” PA IN THE EARLY 1950s

    SciTech Connect

    Glagolenko, Y. V.; Drozhko, Evgeniy G.; Mokrov, Y.; Rovny, Sergey I.; Lyzhkov, A. V.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    The article describes calculation procedure for reconstruction of radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments accumulated in the irridated uranium from “Mayak” PA graphite-uranium reactors at the moment, when irradiation is completed, and at the moment, when the uranium is transferred to radiochemical processing (plant B) in the early 1950s. The procedure includes a reactor model and a cooling pool model. It is based on archive data on monthly uranium unloading and loading in the reactor and in the cooling pool of each reactor. The objects of reconstruction include: order of reloading of uranium versus its location radius in the reactor core; duration of irradiation and radionuclide composition of fission fragments for each radius; order of uranium removal from the cooling pool; effective time of uranium storage in the pool; radionuclide composition and activity of fission fragments in the irradiated uranium delivered to radiochemical reprocessing daily and on average for each month. The model is intended for use in reconstruction of parameters of radionuclide release source into the atmosphere and the source of liquid radioactive waste generation at the “Mayak” PA radiochemical plant.

  10. Connecting active living research and public policy: transdisciplinary research and policy interventions to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F

    2009-01-01

    National and international organizations recommend creation of environments that support physical activity where people live, work, play, study, and travel. Policy changes can lead to activity-supportive environments and incentives. Research on environmental and policy influences on physical activity is well underway in many countries. An important use of the research is to inform policy debates, but the "translation" of research to policy is an emerging science. The papers in this supplement were presented at the 2008 Active Living Research Conference whose theme was "Connecting Active Living Research to Policy Solutions." The papers include evaluations of policy initiatives and research that suggests promising new policies. Commentaries propose principles for improving the translation of research to policy. Improving the rigor of research, asking policy-relevant questions, presenting country-specific data, and effectively communicating findings to policy makers are likely to contribute to greater impact of research on policy processes. PMID:19190567

  11. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870

  12. Changes in diet and physical activity resulting from the Shape Up Somerville community intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to describe the behavioral changes in children resulting from Shape Up Somerville (SUS), a community-based, participatory obesity prevention intervention that used a multi-level, systems-based approach. It was set in Somerville, an urban, culturally diverse community in Massachusetts, USA. Methods This was a non-randomized, controlled 2-year community-based intervention trial with children enrolled in grades 1 to 3 (ages 6-8 years). Overall, the SUS intervention was designed to create environmental and policy change to impact all aspects of a child’s day. Pre-post outcomes were compared between Somerville and two control communities that were chosen based on socio-demographic similarities. Behavioral outcomes were fruit and vegetable and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption; number of organized sports and physical activities per year; walking to and from school; screen and television time; television in bedroom; and dinner in room with television on. These measures were assessed by parent/caregiver report using a 68-item Family Survey Form. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression, accounting for covariates and clustering by community. Results Intervention group children, compared to the control group, significantly reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (-2.0 ounces per day; 95% CI -3.8 to -0.2), increased participation in organized sports and physical activities (0.20 sports or activities per year; 95% CI 0.06 to 0.33), and reduced their screen time (-0.24 hours per day; 95% CI -0.42 to -0.06). Conclusions Results of this study, particularly intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and screen time, are similar to others that used a multi-level approach to realize change in behavior. These results support the efficacy of a multi-level and systems-based approach for promoting the behavioral changes necessary for childhood obesity prevention. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00153322. PMID

  13. The Impact of a Physical Activity Intervention Program on Academic Achievement in a Swedish Elementary School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Käll, Lina B.; Nilsson, Michael; Lindén, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the emerging body of research on the potential of physical activity to improve learning and academic achievement, conclusive evidence regarding the effects of physical activity on academic achievement is lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a physical activity intervention program on academic…

  14. Factors Associated with Tweens' Intentions to Sustain Participation in an Innovative Community-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita D.; McDermott, Robert J.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Hogeboom, David L.; Nickelson, Jen; Phiilips, Leah M.; Alfonso, Moya L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Participation in free-time play, including individual and group activities, is important during youth as patterns of physical activity established then persist into adulthood. The VERB Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention is an innovative physical activity promotion initiative that offers tweens (8-13 year-olds) opportunities to be…

  15. Social Cognitive Changes Following Weight Loss and Physical Activity Interventions in Obese, Older Adults in Poor Cardiovascular Health

    PubMed Central

    Brawley, Lawrence; Gaukstern, Jill E.; Ambrosius, Walter T.

    2013-01-01

    Background The study objectives were to determine (a) the effects of group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions on change in performance self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and with appearance among older, overweight/obese adults in poor cardiovascular health and (b) whether self-efficacy mediated change in 400-m walk time. Methods This translational, randomized controlled trial of physical activity and weight loss was conducted within community Cooperative Extension Centers. Participants were randomized to three intervention arms: Physical Activity, Weight Loss+ Physical Activity, or a Successful Aging education control. Results Across 18 months, the Weight Loss+Physical Activity intervention demonstrated greater improvements in self-efficacy, satisfaction with function, and appearance versus other trial arms. Physical Activity intervention participants also experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy and satisfaction with function versus those in Successful Aging. Self-efficacy mediated 400-m walk time at 18 months. Conclusions Both group-mediated cognitive–behavioral interventions yielded desirable improvements in social cognitions and preserved mobility improvements post-intervention. PMID:22773225

  16. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Ishaku, Cornelius M.; Oyekola, Jameela; Wakawa, Hajara D.; Lawan, Aliyu; Yakubu, Safira; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the context where adolescents’ physical activity (PA) takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents’ PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time) and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA), and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES) among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12–18 years, 50.4% girls) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk) of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels) with adolescents’ sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups. Results The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk), the least during active transportation (210 min/wk), and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001), active transportation (P<0.001), MVPA (P = 0.023) and total PA (P = 0.003) than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009), home-based PA (P<0.001) and light-intensity PA (P<0.001) than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024) and total PA (P = 0.049) were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009), less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048) and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013). High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0

  17. Financial Motivation Undermines Maintenance in an Intensive Diet and Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    Financial incentives are widely used in health behavior interventions. However, self-determination theory posits that emphasizing financial incentives can have negative consequences if experienced as controlling. Feeling controlled into performing a behavior tends to reduce enjoyment and undermine maintenance after financial contingencies are removed (the undermining effect). We assessed participants' context-specific financial motivation to participate in the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing four different strategies for improving four health risk behaviors: low fruit and vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary screen time. The primary outcome was overall healthy lifestyle change; weight loss was a secondary outcome. Financial incentives were contingent upon meeting behavior goals for 3 weeks and became contingent upon merely providing data during the 4.5-month maintenance period. Financial motivation for participation was assessed at baseline using a 7-item scale (α = .97). Across conditions, a main effect of financial motivation predicted a steeper rate of weight regained during the maintenance period, t(165) = 2.15, P = .04. Furthermore, financial motivation and gender interacted significantly in predicting maintenance of healthy diet and activity changes, t(160) = 2.42, P = .016, such that financial motivation had a more deleterious influence among men. Implications for practice and future research on incentivized lifestyle and weight interventions are discussed. PMID:22548152

  18. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention

    PubMed Central

    Moller, Arlen C.; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H. Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial—a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit–vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  19. ACTIVE: A Cognitive Intervention Trial to Promote Independence in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jobe, Jared B.; Smith, David M.; Ball, Karlene; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Marsiske, Michael; Willis, Sherry L.; Rebok, George W.; Morris, John N.; Helmers, Karin F.; Leveck, Mary D.; Kleinman, Ken

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) trial is a randomized, controlled, single-masked trial designed to determine whether cognitive training interventions (memory, reasoning, and speed of information processing), which have previously been found to be successful at improving mental abilities under laboratory or small-scale field conditions, can affect cognitively based measures of daily functioning. Enrollment began during 1998; 2-year follow-up will be completed by January 2002. Primary outcomes focus on measures of cognitively demanding everyday functioning, including financial management, food preparation, medication use, and driving. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality of life, mobility, and health-service utilization. Trial participants (n = 2832) are aged 65 and over, and at entry into the trial, did not have significant cognitive, physical, or functional decline. Because of its size and the carefully developed rigor, ACTIVE may serve as a guide for future behavioral medicine trials of this nature. PMID:11514044

  20. Financial motivation undermines potential enjoyment in an intensive diet and activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Moller, Arlen C; Buscemi, Joanna; McFadden, H Gene; Hedeker, Donald; Spring, Bonnie

    2014-10-01

    The use of material incentives in healthy lifestyle interventions is becoming widespread. However, self-determination theory (SDT) posits that when material incentives are perceived as controlling, they undermine intrinsic motivation. We analyzed data from the Make Better Choices trial-a trial testing strategies for improving four risk behaviors: low fruit-vegetable intake, high saturated fat intake, low physical activity, and high sedentary activity. At baseline, participants reported the degree to which financial incentives were an important motivator (financial motivation); self-reported enjoyment of each behavior was assessed before and after the 3-week incentivization phase. Consistent with SDT, after controlling for general motivation and group assignment, lower financial motivation predicted more adaptive changes in enjoyment. Whereas participants low in financial motivation experienced adaptive changes, adaptive changes were suppressed among those high in financial motivation. PMID:24142187

  1. Translating evidence to policy: urban interventions and physical activity promotion in Bogotá, Colombia and Curitiba, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Díaz Del Castillo, Adriana; Sarmiento, Olga L; Reis, Rodrigo S; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-06-01

    The growing evidence of the influence of urban environment on physical activity (PA) underscore the need for novel policy solutions to address the inequality, lack of space, and limited PA resources in rapidly growing Latin American cities. This study aims to better understand the PA policy process by conducting two case studies of Bogotá's Ciclovía and Curitiba's CuritibAtiva. Literature review of peer- and non-peer-reviewed documents and semi-structured interviews with stakeholders was conducted. In the cases of Ciclovía and CuritibAtiva, most policies conducive to program development and sustainability were developed outside the health sector in sports and recreation, urban planning, environment, and transportation. Both programs were developed by governments as initiatives to overcome inequalities and provide quality of life. In both programs, multisectoral policies mainly from recreation and urban planning created a window of opportunity for the development and sustainability of the programs and environments supportive of PA. PMID:24073055

  2. Participant adherence indicators predict changes in dietary, physical activity, and clinical outcomes in church-based, diet and supervised physical activity intervention: Delta Body and Soul III

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting health outcome changes in a 6-month, church-based, controlled, lifestyle intervention previously proven effective for improving diet quality, physical activity, and blood lipids. Descriptive ind...

  3. Sustained impact of community-based physical activity interventions: key elements for success

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compelling evidence supports the cost effectiveness and potential impact of physical activity on chronic disease prevention and health promotion. Quality of evidence is one piece, but certainly not the sole determinant of whether public health interventions, physical activity focused or otherwise, achieve their full potential for impact. Health promotion at both population and community levels must progress beyond health intervention models that isolate individuals from social, environmental, and political systems of influence. We offer a critical evaluation of lessons learned from two successful research initiatives to provide insights as to how health promotion research contributes to sustained impact. We highlight factors key to success including the theoretical and methodological integration of: i) a social ecological approach; ii) participatory action research (PAR) methods; and iii) an interdisciplinary team. Methods To identify and illustrate the key elements of our success we layered an evaluation of steps taken atop a review of relevant literature. Results In the school-based case study (Action Schools! BC), the success of our approach included early and sustained engagement with a broad cross-section of stakeholders, establishing partnerships across sectors and at different levels of government, and team members across multiple disciplines. In the neighbourhood built environment case study, the three domains guided our approach through study design and team development, and the integration of older adults’ perspectives into greenway design plans. In each case study we describe how elements of the domains serve as a guide for our work. Conclusion To sustain and maximize the impact of community-based public health interventions we propose the integration of elements from three domains of research that acknowledge the interplay between social, environmental and poilitical systems of influence. We emphasize that a number of key factors determine

  4. Assessment of a school-based intervention in eating habits and physical activity in school children: the AVall study

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Ana; Vila, Maria; Pérez, Maria José; Manresa, Josep Maria; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Roure, Eulàlia; Castells, Conxa

    2011-01-01

    Background Obesity has become a global public health problem, which also affects children. It has been proposed that the educational interventions during childhood could be a key strategy in the prevention of obesity. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of an intervention on food habits and physical activity in school children. Methods A 2-year cluster-randomised prospective study with two parallel arms was used to evaluate an intervention programme in children in their first year of primary schooling (5–6 years of age) in schools in the city of Granollers. The intervention consisted of the promotion of healthy eating habits and physical activity by means of the educational methodology Investigation, Vision, Action and Change (IVAC). At the beginning and at the end of the study (2006 and 2008) the weight and height of each child was measured in situ, while the families were given a self-report physical activity questionnaire and the Krece Plus quick test. Results Two years after the beginning of the study, the body mass index of the children in the control group was 0.89 kg/m2 higher than that of the intervention schools. The intervention reduced by 62% the prevalence of overweight children. Similarly, the proportion of children that ate a second piece of fruit and took part in an after-school physical activity increased in the intervention group. In the control group, the weekly consumption of fish was reduced. Conclusions The educational intervention in healthy eating habits and physical activity in the school could contribute to lessen the current increase in child obesity. PMID:21398682

  5. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Isabela C; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R; Simoes, Eduardo J; Brownson, Ross C

    2010-06-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required. PMID:20587626

  6. School-based physical education programs: evidence-based physical activity interventions for youth in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Isabela C.; Parra, Diana C.; Hoehner, Christine M.; Soares, Jesus; Torres, Andrea; Pratt, Michael; Legetic, Branka; Malta, Deborah C.; Matsudo, Victor; Ramos, Luiz R.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on results of the systematic review from the Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Latin America project related to school-based physical education (PE) programs in Latin America. The aims of the article are to describe five school-based PE programs from Latin America, discuss implications for effective school-based PE recommendations, propose approaches for implementing these interventions, and identify gaps in the research literature related to physical activity promotion in Latin American youth. Following the US Community Guide systematic review process, five school-based PE intervention studies with sufficient quality of design, execution and detail of intervention and outcomes were selected for full abstraction. One study was conducted in Brazil, two studies were conducted in Chile and two studies were conducted on the US/Mexico border. While studies presented assorted outcomes, methods and duration of interventions, there were consistent positive increases in physical activity levels for all outcomes measured during PE classes, endurance and active transportation to school in all three randomized studies. Except for one cohort from one study, the non-randomized studies showed positive intervention effects for moderate and vigorous physical activity levels during PE classes. The core elements of these five interventions included capacity building and staff training (PE specialists and/or classroom teachers); changes in the PE curricula; provision of equipment and materials; and adjustment of the interventions to specific target populations. In order to translate the strong evidence for school-based PE into practice, systematic attention to policy and implementation issues is required. (Global Health Promotion, 2010; 17(2): pp. 05–15) PMID:20587626

  7. “Girls on the Move” intervention protocol for increasing physical activity among low-active underserved urban girls: a group randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing moderate to vigorous physical activity among urban girls of low socioeconomic status is both a challenge and a public health priority. Physical activity interventions targeting exclusively girls remain limited, and maintenance of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the post-intervention period has been difficult to maintain. The main aim of the 5-year “Girls on the Move” group randomized trial is to evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive school-based intervention in increasing girls’ minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity and improving cardiovascular fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat immediately post-intervention (after 17 weeks) and at 9-month post-intervention follow-up (9 months after end of intervention). Methods/Design A total of 24 urban middle schools in the Midwestern U.S. will be randomized to either receive the intervention or serve as a control (N = 1200 girls). The intervention, based on the Health Promotion Model and Self-Determination Theory, will include: (1) two face-to-face motivational, individually tailored counseling sessions with a registered nurse, one at the beginning and the other at the end of the intervention period; (2) an interactive Internet-based session during which each girl receives individually tailored motivational and feedback messages via iPad at 11 weeks (shortly after midpoint of intervention); and (3) a 90-minute after-school physical activity club. Racially diverse, low-active, 10- to 14-year-old 5th to 8th-grade girls will complete questionnaires and physical measures at baseline and post-intervention (n = 50 per school). Minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity will be assessed with accelerometers. Cardiovascular fitness will be assessed by estimating VO2 max with PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) scores. Height and weight will be assessed to calculate body mass index. Percent body fat will be estimated with a foot

  8. Differences in Children's Recess Physical Activity: Recess Activity of the Week Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina D.; Partridge, Julie A.; King, Kristi McClary

    2010-01-01

    Background: The increased prevalence in recent childhood obesity rates raises concern about youth health and the role that lack of physical activity plays in this trend. A focus on how children today choose to spend their discretionary time is one approach that may yield ideas for how to reduce childhood obesity. The purpose of the present study…

  9. My Activity Coach – Using video-coaching to assist a web-based computer-tailored physical activity intervention: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for effective population-based physical activity interventions. The internet provides a good platform to deliver physical activity interventions and reach large numbers of people at low cost. Personalised advice in web-based physical activity interventions has shown to improve engagement and behavioural outcomes, though it is unclear if the effectiveness of such interventions may further be improved when providing brief video-based coaching sessions with participants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effectiveness, in terms of engagement, retention, satisfaction and physical activity changes, of a web-based and computer-tailored physical activity intervention with and without the addition of a brief video-based coaching session in comparison to a control group. Methods/Design Participants will be randomly assigned to one of three groups (tailoring + online video-coaching, tailoring-only and wait-list control). The tailoring + video-coaching participants will receive a computer-tailored web-based physical activity intervention (‘My Activity Coach’) with brief coaching sessions with a physical activity expert over an online video calling program (e.g. Skype). The tailoring-only participants will receive the intervention but not the counselling sessions. The primary time point’s for outcome assessment will be immediately post intervention (week 9). The secondary time points will be at 6 and 12 months post-baseline. The primary outcome, physical activity change, will be assessed via the Active Australia Questionnaire (AAQ). Secondary outcome measures include correlates of physical activity (mediators and moderators), quality of life (measured via the SF-12v2), participant satisfaction, engagement (using web-site user statistics) and study retention. Discussion Study findings will inform researchers and practitioners about the feasibility and effectiveness of brief online video-coaching sessions in combination with

  10. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  11. Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity in Mexican-American Children at Home

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Baquero, Barbara; Crespo, Noe C.; Schlenker, Lars; Arredondo, Elva M.; Campbell, Nadia R.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding home environments may shed light on factors contributing to reduced physical activity (PA) in children, particularly minorities. Few studies have used micro-level observations to simultaneously assess children’s PA and associated conditions in homes. Methods Trained observers assessed PA and associated physical and social environmental variables in the homes of 139 Mexican-American children (69 boys, 70 girls; mean age=6 years) after school. Results Children spent most time indoors (77%) and being sedentary (74%). Reduced PA was associated with viewing media, being indoors, and parents being present. Increased PA was associated with prompts for PA and other children being present. PA prompts differed by child gender and location and prompter age status. Conclusions Children are frequently sedentary at home. Micro-level observations showed PA is associated with potentially modifiable social and physical factors, including spending time outdoors. Studies to determine whether interventions on these correlates can improve children’s PA are needed. PMID:18648122

  12. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  13. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  14. Peer Outreach Work as Economic Activity: Implications for HIV Prevention Interventions among Female Sex Workers

    PubMed Central

    George, Annie; Blankenship, Kim M.

    2015-01-01

    Female sex workers (FSWs) who work as peer outreach workers in HIV prevention programs are drawn from poor socio-economic groups and consider outreach work, among other things, as an economic activity. Yet, while successful HIV prevention outcomes by such programs are attributed in part to the work of peers who have dense relations with FSW communities, there is scant discussion of the economic implications for FSWs of their work as peers. Using observational data obtained from an HIV prevention intervention for FSWs in south India, we examined the economic benefits and costs to peers of doing outreach work and their implications for sex workers’ economic security. We found that peers considered their payment incommensurate with their workload, experienced long delays receiving compensation, and at times had to advance money from their pockets to do their assigned peer outreach work. For the intervention these conditions resulted in peer attrition and difficulties in recruitment of new peer workers. We discuss the implications of these findings for uptake of services, and the possibility of reaching desired HIV outcomes. Inadequate and irregular compensation to peers and inadequate budgetary outlays to perform their community-based outreach work could weaken peers’ relationships with FSW community members, undermine the effectiveness of peer-mediated HIV prevention programs and invalidate arguments for the use of peers. PMID:25775122

  15. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Zimmer, Philipp; Baumann, Freerk T.; Oberste, Max; Wright, Peter; Garthe, Alexander; Schenk, Alexander; Elter, Thomas; Galvao, Daniel A.; Bloch, Wilhelm; Hübner, Sven T.; Wolf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI). Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga) with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings. PMID:27144158

  16. What works in community-based interventions promoting physical activity and healthy eating? A review of reviews.

    PubMed

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-06-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  17. What Works in Community-Based Interventions Promoting Physical Activity and Healthy Eating? A Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Tilman; Pischke, Claudia R.; Steenbock, Berit; Schoenbach, Johanna; Poettgen, Saskia; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Zeeb, Hajo

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases, such as type II diabetes, are on the rise worldwide. There is consistent evidence that physical activity and healthy eating are important lifestyle factors which affect the risk for chronic diseases. Community-based interventions are of particular public health interest as they reach target groups in their natural living environment and may thus achieve high population-level impacts. We conducted a systematic literature search to assess the effectiveness of community-based interventions to promote physical activity and healthy eating. Specifically, we searched for promising intervention strategies in this setting. We narratively summarized the results of 18 systematic reviews. Among children and adolescents, we found moderate evidence for effects on weight change in primary school-aged children for interventions containing a school component. The evidence for interventions aimed at general adult populations was inconclusive. Self-monitoring, group-based components, and motivational signs to encourage stair use were identified as promising strategies to increase physical activity. Among adults at risk for type II diabetes, evidence was found for beneficial effects on weight change and diabetes incidence. However, interventions for this group were not integrated in more comprehensive community-based approaches. PMID:24886756

  18. Healthy Active Living: A Residence Community-Based Intervention to Increase Physical Activity and Healthy Eating during the Transition to First-Year University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Denver M. Y.; Bray, Steve R.; Beatty, Kevin R.; Kwan, Matthew Y. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of a Healthy Active Living (HAL) community intervention on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC), and psychosocial mediators of physical activity among students transitioning into university. Methods: Sixty undergraduate students were assigned to reside in either the…

  19. tPA-S481A prevents neurotoxicity of endogenous tPA in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Armstead, William M; Riley, John; Yarovoi, Serge; Cines, Douglas B; Smith, Douglas H; Higazi, Abd Al-Roof

    2012-06-10

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with loss of autoregulation due to impaired responsiveness to cerebrovascular dilator stimuli, which leads to cerebral hypoperfusion and neuronal impairment or death. Upregulation of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) post-TBI exacerbates loss of cerebral autoregulation and NMDA-receptor-mediated impairment of cerebral hemodynamics, and enhances excitotoxic neuronal death. However, the relationship between NMDA-receptor activation, loss of autoregulation, and neurological dysfunction is unclear. Here, we evaluated the potential therapeutic efficacy of a catalytically inactive tPA variant, tPA S481A, that acts by competing with wild-type tPA for binding, cleavage, and activation of NMDA receptors. Lateral fluid percussion brain injury was produced in anesthetized piglets. Pial artery reactivity was measured via a closed cranial window, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). tPA-S481A prevented impairment of cerebral autoregulation and reduced histopathologic changes after TBI by inhibiting upregulation of the ERK isoform of MAPK. Treatment with this tPA variant provides a novel approach for limiting neuronal toxicity caused by untoward NMDA-receptor activation mediated by increased tPA and glutamate following TBI. PMID:22435890

  20. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  1. Results of a 3-Year, Nutrition and Physical Activity Intervention for Children in Rural, Low-Socioeconomic Status Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kristi McClary; Ling, Jiying

    2015-01-01

    Improving children's nutrition and physical activity have become priorities in the United States. This quasi-experimental study evaluated the longitudinal effects of a 3-year, school-based, health promotion intervention (i.e. nutrition and physical education, classroom physical activity, professional development and health promotion for teachers…

  2. An Evaluation of Computer Based Activities in an Early Intervention Program. A Report to the Early Special Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Alison; Hall, Neil

    This study investigated ways of using computer-based learning activities to complement curriculum practices in preschool programs with an early intervention component through the use of computer-based learning activities. Particular attention was given to supporting the development of young children's early mathematical skills. The study took…

  3. Active Ingredients for an Embedded Intervention within the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Angela Labrie; Dunn, Winnie

    2016-01-01

    As public education moves toward a tiered model of intervention (Response to Intervention), occupational therapists need to understand how to effectively implement interventions at each tier. The purpose of this article is to report about a process of examining teacher-therapist meeting transcripts from a feasibility study to find the active…

  4. Attitudes towards exercise and physical activity behaviours in Greek schoolchildren after a year long health education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Christodoulos, A D; Douda, H T; Polykratis, M; Tokmakidis, S P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the short term effects of a health education programme on Greek primary schoolchildren Methods The school based intervention programme was applied to 29 children in the 6th grade of the 2nd Primary School of Agios Stefanos (∼12 000 inhabitants); 49 pupils from the 1st Primary School constituted the control group. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, attitude and behavioural variables were measured before and after the intervention. Results After adjustment for initial differences in the assessed variables, pupils who took part in the intervention had more positive attitudes towards physical activity than the control group and scored significantly more highly on their intention to participate in physical activity. Moreover, pupils in the intervention group reported more hours/week spent in organised physical activities than pupils in the control group (mean (SD) 3.54 (0.32) v 2.54 (0.26), p<0.020). Finally, a higher proportion of pupils in the intervention classes matched the recommendations of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity daily (77.4% v 55.1%, p<0.043). Conclusions Within the limitations of the study, the data show that school health education programmes have the potential to slow the age related decline in physical activity and help pupils establish lifelong, healthy physical activity patterns. Promoting healthy habits and physical activity behaviours during childhood may prevent some of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Greek population, and also decrease direct healthcare costs and improve quality of life. PMID:16556796

  5. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    compatibility with existing CBP expertise and already-planned activities. Based on these criteria, the five original topics were down-selected to two: external sulfate attack and mechanistic geochemical prediction. For each of the selected topics, the CBP communicated with the PA analysts and subject matter experts at Savannah River to acquire input data specific to the Saltstone facility and related laboratory experiments. Simulations and analyses were performed for both topics using STADIUM (SIMCO 2008), LeachXS/ORCHESTRA (ECN 2007, Meeussen 2003), and other software tools. These supplemental CBP analyses produced valuable technical insights that can be used to strengthen the Saltstone PA using the ongoing PA maintenance process. This report in part summarizes key information gleaned from more comprehensive documents prepared by Sarkar et al. (2010), Samson (2010), and Sarkar (2010).

  6. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  7. Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT): A cluster randomised controlled trial to assess the effects of an activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Physical activity and motor skills acquisition are of high importance for health-related prevention and a normal development in childhood. However, few intervention studies exist in preschool children focussing on an increase in physical activity and motor skills. Proof of positive effects is available but not consistent. Methods/Design The design, curriculum, and evaluation strategy of a cluster randomised intervention study in preschool children are described in this manuscript. In the Prevention through Activity in Kindergarten Trial (PAKT), 41 of 131 kindergartens of Wuerzburg and Kitzingen, Germany, were randomised into an intervention and a control group by a random number table stratified for the location of the kindergarten in an urban (more than 20.000 inhabitants) or rural area. The aims of the intervention were to increase physical activity and motor skills in the participating children, and to reduce health risk factors as well as media use. The intervention was designed to involve children, parents and teachers, and lasted one academic year. It contained daily 30-min sessions of physical education in kindergarten based on a holistic pedagogic approach termed the "early psychomotor education". The sessions were instructed by kindergarten teachers under regular supervision by the research team. Parents were actively involved by physical activity homework cards. The kindergarten teachers were trained in workshops and during the supervision. Assessments were performed at baseline, 3-5 months into the intervention, at the end of the intervention and 2-4 months after the intervention. The primary outcomes of the study are increases in physical activity (accelerometry) and in motor skills performance (composite score of obstacle course, standing long jump, balancing on one foot, jumping sidewise to and fro) between baseline and the two assessments during the intervention. Secondary outcomes include decreases in body adiposity (BMI, skin folds

  8. ‘Physical Activity 4 Everyone’ school-based intervention to prevent decline in adolescent physical activity levels: 12 month (mid-intervention) report on a cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Rachel; Campbell, Elizabeth; Lubans, David R; Morgan, Philip J; Okely, Anthony D; Nathan, Nicole; Wolfenden, Luke; Wiese, Jarrod; Gillham, Karen; Hollis, Jenna; Wiggers, John

    2016-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a recognised period of physical activity decline, particularly among low-income communities. We report the 12-month (midpoint) effects of a 2-year multicomponent physical activity intervention implemented in disadvantaged secondary schools. Methods A cluster randomised trial was undertaken in 10 secondary schools located in disadvantaged areas in New South Wales, Australia. Students in Grade 7 were recruited, with follow-up in Grade 8. The intervention was guided by socioecological theory and included seven physical activity strategies, and six implementation adoption strategies. The primary outcome was mean minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day assessed using Actigraph GT3X accelerometers. Outcome data were analysed using repeated measures linear mixed models. Results At baseline, 1150 (93%) students participated in the data collection (mean age 12 years, 48% boys) and 1050 (79%) students participated at 12-month follow-up. By the 12-month follow-up, the six implementation adoption strategies had been used to support schools to deliver four of the seven physical activity elements. There was a significant group-by-time interaction for mean minutes of MVPA per day in favour of the intervention group (adjusted difference between groups at follow-up=3.85 min, 95% CI (0.79 to 6.91), p≤0.01), including significantly more vigorous physical activity (2.45 min, p≤0.01), equating to 27 min more MVPA per week. Summary At 12-month follow-up, the intervention had reduced the decline in physical activity among adolescents from disadvantaged schools. The intervention may assist students to meet physical activity guidelines. PMID:26359346

  9. Developing a Manualized Occupational Therapy Diabetes Management Intervention: Resilient, Empowered, Active Living With Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Pyatak, Elizabeth A; Carandang, Kristine; Davis, Shain

    2015-07-01

    This article reports on the development of a manualized occupational therapy intervention for diabetes management. An initial theoretical framework and core content areas for a Stage I intervention manual were developed based on an in-depth needs assessment and review of existing literature. After evaluation by a panel of experts and completion of a feasibility study, the intervention was revised into a Stage 2 manual in preparation for a randomized study evaluating the intervention's efficacy. In developing the initial manual, we delineated core theoretical principles to allow for flexible application and tailoring of the intervention's content areas. Expert panel feedback and feasibility study results led to changes to the intervention structure and content as we developed the Stage 2 manual. Through describing this process, we illustrate the dynamic evolution of intervention manuals, which undergo revisions due to both theoretical and practical considerations at each stage of the research-to-clinical practice pipeline. PMID:26594741

  10. Targeted recruitment of adults with type 2 diabetes for a physical activity intervention.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Elizabeth J; Niles, Barbara L; Mori, DeAnna L

    2015-05-01

    Recruiting sufficient numbers of participants for physical activity trials for individuals with diabetes can be difficult because there are often many behavioral demands for participants, and inclusion and exclusion criteria can be extensive. This study examined the recruitment strategies used for a randomized, controlled trial designed to investigate the efficacy of an automated telephone intervention to promote physical activity in adults with type 2 diabetes in an urban Veterans Administration health care system. Traditional recruitment approaches of posting flyers and obtaining referrals from clinicians did not yield sufficient numbers of interested patients. Using the electronic medical record system to identify patients with uncontrolled diabetes allowed staff to send targeted mailings to participants, and 77% of participants were recruited using this method. The targeted mailing approach elicited a positive response rate of 12% (328 of 2,764 potential participants identified) and appeared to produce a more representative and appropriate sample than other recruitment methods used. Lessons learned in this study may be helpful to researchers in future trials who attempt to recruit participants with diabetes for physical activity protocols. PMID:25987808

  11. Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES): Study protocol for a randomized trial evaluating a multi-component physical activity intervention in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is a recognized public health concern. Inadequate proportions of children in the U.S, including those of preschool age, are meeting physical activity recommendations. In response to low numbers of preschool children attaining appropriate physical activity levels, combined with the large number of young children who attend preschool, researchers have identified the need to devise interventions to increase physical activity at preschools. However, few multi-component interventions to increase physical activity in preschool children exist. The aims of this study were to observe the effects of a multi-component intervention on physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure in 3-5 year-old children; identify factors that associate with change in those variables; and evaluate the process of implementing the multi-component intervention. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe the study design and intervention protocol. Methods/design The overall design of the Study of Health and Activity in Preschool Environments (SHAPES) was a two-year randomized trial (nested cohort design), with two conditions, two measurement occasions, and preschool serving as the unit of analysis. Sixteen schools (eight intervention and eight control) were enrolled. The intervention protocol was based on the social ecological model and included four main components: (a) indoor physical activity (“move inside”), (b) recess (“move outside”), (c) daily lessons (“move to learn”), and (d) social environment. Components were implemented using teacher and administrator trainings and workshops, site support visits, newsletters, and self-monitoring methods. Outcomes included accelerometer assessment of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and physical activity energy expenditure; weight status; and demographic factors; family/home social and physical environment; and parental characteristics. An extensive process evaluation

  12. A systematic review of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain—protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic musculoskeletal pain is highly prevalent, affecting around one in five people across Europe. Osteoarthritis, low back pain, neck pain and other musculoskeletal disorders are leading causes of disability worldwide and the most common source of chronic pain. Exercise and/or physical activity interventions have the potential to address not only the pain and disability associated with chronic pain but also the increased risk of morbidity and mortality seen in this population. Although exercise and/or physical activity is widely recommended, there is currently a paucity of research that offers an evidence base upon which the development or optimisation of interventions can be based. This systematic review will investigate the components of interventions associated with changes in physical activity levels in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Methods/Design This systematic review will be reported in line with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidance. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of interventions aimed at increasing physical activity in adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain will be included. Articles will be identified through a comprehensive search of the following databases: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR), MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO and AMED. Two review authors will independently screen articles retrieved from the search for eligibility, extract relevant data on methodological issues and code interventions according to the behaviour change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques. As complex healthcare interventions can be modified by a wide variety of factors, data will be summarised statistically when the data are available, are sufficiently similar and are of sufficient quality. A narrative synthesis will be completed if there is insufficient data to permit a formal meta

  13. Systematic review of occupational therapy-related interventions for people with multiple sclerosis: part 1. Activity and participation.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chih-Huang; Mathiowetz, Virgil

    2014-01-01

    This article is the first part of a systematic review of studies on occupational therapy-related intervention for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). The objective of this systematic review was to critically appraise and synthesize the applicable findings to address the following focused question: What is the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice for people with multiple sclerosis? This article focuses on occupational therapy interventions aimed at activity and participation, including programs (e.g., inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation) in which an occupational therapy practitioner was one member of the team. Part 2 (Yu & Mathiowetz, 2014) focuses on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy to remediate impairment (e.g., exercise, cognition, emotional regulation). PMID:24367952

  14. Atomic structure of anthrax PA pore elucidates toxin translocation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Collier, R. John; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in human and animals. PA forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes LF and EF into the cytosol of target cells1. PA is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. Based on biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a Φ-clamp composed of Phe427 residues of PA catalyzes protein translocation via a charge-state dependent Brownian ratchet2–9. Although atomic structures of PA prepores are available10–14, how PA senses low pH, converts to active pore and translocates LF and EF are not well defined without an atomic model of the PA pore. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) with direct electron counting, we have determined the PA pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low-pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed. PMID:25778700

  15. Systematic literature review of Internet interventions across health behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Su-I; Charlery, Su-Anne Robyn; Roberson, Kiersten

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This review examines Internet interventions aiming to change health behaviors in the general population. Methods: Internet health interventions in the USA published between January 2005 and December 2013 were identified through Medline and CINAHL. Keywords used were (Internet or e-health or social media or web) paired with (intervention or program*). A total of 38 articles met all criteria and were reviewed. Results: Studies were analyzed by targeted health behavior interventions: tobacco (5), alcohol (4), weight loss (7), physical activity (PA) (7), nutrition (2), PA and nutrition combined (5), HIV or sexual health (4), and chronic diseases (4). Interventions ranged from one session to 24  weeks (average 6–12 weeks). Common strategies used, including web-based information, tailored feedback, weekly e-mails, goal setting, and self-assessment. Social cognitive theory and the transtheoretical models were the most commonly used frameworks. Recruitment strategies were typically media based varied by settings and populations. Except for the tobacco interventions, the majority studies yielded significant outcomes. Conclusion: This review provides updates and synthesized knowledge on the design and consistent effectiveness of Internet interventions across health behaviors. Results have implications for public health and healthcare professionals, as they play a key role in developing and delivering health promotion interventions as well as in assisting the communities and clients serviced obtaining evidence-based health information. PMID:25750795

  16. Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kevin C.; Kuramoto, Lisa K.; Schulzer, Michael; Retallack, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. Many local governments have enacted policies to increase physical activity in schools as a way to combat childhood obesity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index (BMI) in children. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to September 2008. We also hand-searched relevant journals and article reference lists. We included randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that had objective data for BMI from before and after the intervention, that involved school-based physical activity interventions and that lasted for a minimum of 6 months. Results Of 398 potentially relevant articles that we identified, 18 studies involving 18 141 children met the inclusion criteria. The participants were primarily elementary school children. The study duration ranged from 6 months to 3 years. In 15 of these 18 studies, there was some type of co-intervention. Meta-analysis showed that BMI did not improve with physical activity interventions (weighted mean difference –0.05 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval –0.19 to 0.10). We found no consistent changes in other measures of body composition. Interpretation School-based physical activity interventions did not improve BMI, although they had other beneficial health effects. Current population-based policies that mandate increased physical activity in schools are unlikely to have a significant effect on the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. PMID:19332753

  17. Elucidating Protactinium Hydrolysis: The Relative Stabilities of PaO2(H2O)(+) and PaO(OH)2(+).

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Wilson, Richard E; Gibson, John K

    2015-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series. PMID:26203499

  18. Oxidation of Gas-Phase Protactinium Ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: Formation and Properties of PaO22+(g), Protactinyl

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M.; de Matos, A. Pires; Marcalo, J.; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard {Dick} G; Tyagi, R.; Pitzer, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N{sub 2}O to the relatively weak CH{sub 2}O - all oxidized Pa{sup +} to PaO{sup +} and PaO{sup +} to PaO{sub 2}{sup +}. On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa{sup +}-O] and D[OPa{sup +}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. Estimates for D[Pa{sup +}-O], D[OPa{sup +}-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO{sub 2}] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa{sup 2+} to produce PaO{sup 2+}, indicating that D[Pa{sup 2+}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO{sup 2+} by N{sub 2}O to PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {l_brace}O-Pa-O{r_brace}{sup 2+}. The experimentally determined IE[PaO{sub 2}{sup +}] {approx} 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO{sub 2}{sup +} and PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial '6p hole' in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N{sub 2}O - such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} is capable of activating H{sub 2} to form the stable PaO{sub 2}H{sup 2+} ion.

  19. Impact of a Yoga Intervention on Physical Activity, Self-Efficacy, and Motivation in Women with PTSD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Emily C.; Dick, Alexandra M.; Scioli-Salter, Erica R.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Studies using yoga have demonstrated initial efficacy for treating symptoms across anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Objective: Understanding how interventions influence participants' physical activity and what determinants affect continued physical activity behavior change is important because maintenance of the behavior may be critical to continued mental health gains and symptom reduction. Methods: This study investigated change in physical activity and possible psychological mechanisms of physical activity behavior change, including self-efficacy and regulatory motivation, in a randomized controlled trial of yoga for women with post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms (n=38). Results: Growth curve modeling results showed no significant changes in physical activity or self-efficacy for either group, whereas external motivation decreased significantly in the yoga group but not in the control group. Conclusions: Investigators of future yoga interventions may want to focus on increasing self-efficacy and internal regulatory motivation, so that physical activity and resultant symptom relief can be maintained. PMID:25973554

  20. An Internet-Based Physical Activity Intervention to Improve Quality of Life of Inactive Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Broekhuizen, Karen; de Gelder, Jelle; Wijsman, Carolien A; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Westendorp, Rudi GJ; Verhagen, Evert; Slagboom, Pieternella E; van Mechelen, Willem; van Heemst, Diana; van der Ouderaa, Frans

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing physical activity is a viable strategy for improving both the health and quality of life of older adults. Objective The aim of this study was to assess if an Internet-based intervention aimed to increase physical activity was effective in improving quality of life of inactive older adults. In addition, we analyzed the effect of the intervention on quality of life among those participants who successfully reached their individually targeted increase in daily physical activity as indicated by the intervention program, as well as the dose-response effect of increasing physical activity on quality of life. Methods The intervention was tested in a randomized controlled trial and was comprised of an Internet program—DirectLife (Philips)—aimed at increasing physical activity using monitoring and feedback by accelerometry and feedback by digital coaching (n=119). The control group received no intervention (n=116). Participants were inactive 60-70-year-olds and were recruited from the general population. Quality of life and physical activity were measured at baseline and after 3 months using the Research ANd Development 36-item health survey (RAND-36) and wrist-worn triaxial accelerometer, respectively. Results After 3 months, a significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the intervention group compared to the control group for RAND-36 subscales on emotional and mental health (2.52 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.03) and health change (8.99 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.01). A total of 50 of the 119 participants (42.0%) in the intervention group successfully reached their physical activity target and showed a significant improvement in quality of life compared to the control group for subscales on emotional and mental health (4.31 vs -0.72, respectively; P=.009) and health change (11.06 vs 2.03, respectively; P=.004). The dose-response analysis showed that there was a significant association between increase in minutes spent in moderate