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Sample records for activity pa patterns

  1. Parrot Bornavirus (PaBV)-2 isolate causes different disease patterns in cockatiels than PaBV-4.

    PubMed

    Piepenbring, Anne K; Enderlein, Dirk; Herzog, Sibylle; Al-Ibadi, Basim; Heffels-Redmann, Ursula; Heckmann, Julia; Lange-Herbst, Hildburg; Herden, Christiane; Lierz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Psittaciform 1 bornavirus (PaBV) has already been shown to be the aetiologic agent of proventricular dilatation disease, a significant disease of birds. However, the pathogenesis of PaBV infection has not yet been resolved and valid data regarding the pathogenicity of different PaBV species are lacking. Thus, the present study was aimed to characterize the influence of two different PaBV species on the course of disease. Eighteen cockatiels were inoculated intracerebrally (i.c.) or intravenously (i.v.) with a PaBV-2 isolate under the same conditions as in a previous study using PaBV-4. Birds were surveyed and sampled for 33 weeks to analyse the course of infection and disease in comparison to that of PaBV-4. Similar to PaBV-4, PaBV-2 induced a persistent infection with seroconversion (from day 6 p.i. onwards) and shedding of viral RNA (from day 27 p.i. onwards). However, in contrast to PaBV-4, more birds displayed clinical signs and disease progression was more severe. After PaBV-2 infection, 12 birds exhibited clinical signs and 10 birds revealed a dilated proventriculus in necropsy. After PaBV-4 infection only four birds revealed clinical signs and seven birds showed a dilatation of the proventriculus. Clinically, different courses of disease were observed after PaBV-2 infection, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal tract. This had not been detected after PaBV-4 infection where more neurological signs were noted. The results provide evidence for different disease patterns according to different PaBV species, allowing the comparison between the infection with two PaBV species, and thus underlining the role of viral and individual host factors for disease outcome. PMID:27100150

  2. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  3. The effect of race and gender on patterns of rt-PA use within a population.

    PubMed

    Kleindorfer, Dawn; Schneider, Alexander; Kissela, Brett M; Woo, Daniel; Khoury, Jane; Alwell, Kathleen; Miller, Rosemary; Gebel, James; Szaflarski, Jerzy; Pancioli, Arthur; Jauch, Edward; Moomaw, Charles; Shukla, Rakesh; Broderick, Joseph P

    2003-01-01

    To date, there have been no population-based data published regarding the influence of the patient's demographic factors on rt-PA use. We present preliminary data regarding the effect of race and gender on patterns of rt-PA use in the pre-FDA approval era, in a population with demographic and socioeconomic characteristics similar to the United States. All ischemic strokes within a biracial population of 1.3 million were identified by review of all primary and secondary hospital ICD-9-CM codes 430-438 from July 1993 to June 1994 at all hospitals in the region. The number of patients treated with rt-PA or placebo as part of the blinded NINDS rt-PA trial, as well as demographic characteristics, were recorded and analyzed. There were a total of 1973 hospitalized ischemic strokes that occurred at a hospital participating in the NINDS rt-PA trial. Patients that received rt-PA were significantly younger than those that did not (mean age 67 v 72, respectively, P = .01). Of the 413 strokes that occurred in African Americans, 2.2% were treated with rt-PA vs. 2.6% of the 1560 non-African Americans. Women (2.0%) and men (3.0%) were equally likely to receive rt-PA. The single academic center was as likely to give rt-PA as the community medical centers. In the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky population, patterns of rt-PA use in 1993-94 did not appear to vary according to race or gender, or type of medical center. These findings may be in part because of the regionally-based method of stroke care delivery in the area.

  4. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  5. Formation of proteasome-PA700 complexes directly correlates with activation of peptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Adams, G M; Crotchett, B; Slaughter, C A; DeMartino, G N; Gogol, E P

    1998-09-15

    The proteolytic activity of the eukaryotic 20S proteasome is stimulated by a multisubunit activator, PA700, which forms both 1:1 and 2:1 complexes with the proteasome. Formation of the complexes is enhanced by an additional protein assembly called modulator, which also stimulates the enzymatic activity of the proteasome only in the presence of PA700. Here we show that the binding of PA700 to the proteasome is cooperative, as is the activation of the proteasome's intrinsic peptidase activity. Modulator increases the extent of complex formation and peptidase activation, while preserving the cooperative kinetics. Furthermore, the increase in activity is not linear with the number of PA700 assemblies bound to the proteasome, but rather with the number of proteasome-PA700 complexes, regardless of the PA700:proteasome stoichiometry. Hence the stimulation of peptidase activity is fully (or almost fully) effected by the binding of a single PA700 to the 20S proteasome. The stimulation of peptidase by modulator is explained entirely by the increased number of proteasome-PA700 complexes formed in its presence, rather than by any substantial direct stimulation of catalysis. These observations are consistent with a model in which PA700, either alone or assisted by modulator, promotes conformational changes in the proteasome that activate the catalytic sites and/or facilitate access of peptide substrates to these sites. PMID:9737872

  6. Active element pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozar, D. M.

    1994-08-01

    This review article will discuss the use of the active element pattern for prediction of the scan performance of large phased array antennas. The introduction and application of the concept of the active element pattern goes back at least 30 years (1) -(6) , but the subject is generally not covered in modern antenna engineering textbooks or handbooks, and many contemporary workers are unfamiliar with this simple but powerful idea. In addition, early references on this subject do not provide a rigorous discussion or derivation of the active element pattern, relying instead on a more qualitative interpretation. The purpose of this communication is to make the technique of active element patterns more accessible to antenna engineers, and to provide a new derivation of the basic active element pattern relations in terms of scattering parameters.

  7. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Jie; He, Xiaojing; Lv, Zongyang; Ge, Ruowen; Li, Xuemei; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Yingfang

    2009-11-10

    The heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase, containing the PA, PB1 and PB2 proteins, catalyses viral RNA replication and transcription in the nucleus of infected cells. PB1 holds the polymerase active site and reportedly harbours endonuclease activity, whereas PB2 is responsible for cap binding. The PA amino terminus is understood to be the major functional part of the PA protein and has been implicated in several roles, including endonuclease and protease activities as well as viral RNA/complementary RNA promoter binding. Here we report the 2.2 angstrom (A) crystal structure of the N-terminal 197 residues of PA, termed PA(N), from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. The PA(N) structure has an alpha/beta architecture and reveals a bound magnesium ion coordinated by a motif similar to the (P)DX(N)(D/E)XK motif characteristic of many endonucleases. Structural comparisons and mutagenesis analysis of the motif identified in PA(N) provide further evidence that PA(N) holds an endonuclease active site. Furthermore, functional analysis with in vivo ribonucleoprotein reconstitution and direct in vitro endonuclease assays strongly suggest that PA(N) holds the endonuclease active site and has critical roles in endonuclease activity of the influenza virus polymerase, rather than PB1. The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics.

  8. Low-Temperature Curable Photo-Active Anisotropic Conductive Films (PA-ACFs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Photo-active anisotropic conductive films (PA-ACFs) with curing temperatures below 120°C were introduced using photo-active curing agents. The PA-ACFs showed no curing before UV activation, and the crosslinking systems of the PA-ACFs were not activated under fluorescent light exposure. However, after UV activation, the PA-ACFs were completely cured at 120°C within 10 s. Flex-on-board (FOB) assembly using PA-ACFs had adhesion strength and joint resistances similar to those of the FOB assemblies using conventional epoxy-based ACFs. This study demonstrates that PA-ACFs provide reliable interconnection and minimal thermal deformation among all the commercially available ACFs, especially for low T g substrate applications.

  9. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  10. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity.

  11. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  12. What are the factors associated with physical activity (PA) participation in community dwelling adults with dementia? A systematic review of PA correlates.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Brendon; Eggermont, Laura; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu; Vancampfort, Davy

    2014-01-01

    PA shows promise as a modifiable lifestyle intervention to benefit pathological symptoms of dementia. However, little is known about the factors associated with participation in PA in community dwelling adults with dementia. A systematic review was undertaken to identify PA correlates. Two independent reviewers searched major electronic databases and extracted data on studies reporting quantitative correlates of PA participation in community dwelling adults with dementia. PA correlates were analyzed using the summary code approach within the socio-ecological model. Out of a potential of 118 articles, 12 met the eligibility criteria encompassing 752 participants. We conducted secondary analysis on nine data sets. Increased energy intake, resting metabolic rate, fat free mass, gait speed, global motor function, overall health related quality of life (HRQOL), physical HRQOL, higher levels of social functioning and reduced apathy were positively associated with PA. Taking ≥ four medications, dizziness, lower activities of daily living (ADL) function, a history of falls, less waking hours in the day, more autonomic problems and delirium were negatively associated with PA. Increasing age and lower global cognition were not consistently associated with PA participation. It is surprising that increasing age and lower global cognition do not appear to influence PA participation. All significant correlates should be confirmed in prospective studies with particular focus on the relationship of PA and gait speed, ADL function, falls history and dietary intake and the progression of frailty and nursing home admission as a priority.

  13. Molecular and functional characterization of a putative PA28γ proteasome activator orthologue in Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Cláudia Sossai; Morais, Enyara Rezende; Magalhães, Lizandra G.; Machado, Carla Botelho; Moreira, Érika Bueno de Carvalho; Teixeira, Felipe Roberti; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Yoshino, Timothy P.

    2013-01-01

    PA28γ is a proteasome activator involved in the regulation of the cellular proliferation, differentiation and growth. In the present study, we identified and characterized a cDNA from Schistosoma mansoni exhibiting significant homology to PA28γ of diverse taxa ranging from mammals (including humans) to simple invertebrates. Designated SmPA28γ, this transcript has a 753 bp predicted ORF encoding a protein of 250 amino acid residues. Alignment of SmPA28γ with multiple PA28γ orthologues revealed an average similarity of ~40% among the investigated organisms, and 90% similarity with PA28γ from Schistosoma japonicum. In addition, phylogenetic analysis demonstrated a close linkage between SmPA28γ to its sister group that contains well-characterized PA28γ sequences from Drosophila spp., as well as sharing the same branch with PA28γ from S. japonicum. Gene expression profiling of SmPA28γ using real-time quantitative PCR revealed elevated steady-state transcript levels in the eggs, miracidia and paired adult worms compared to other stages. In parallel with gene expression profiles, an affinity-purified anti-SmPA28γ antibody produced against recombinant protein exhibited strongest reactivity in Western blot analyses to endogenous SmPA28γ from miracidia, sporocysts and paired adult worms. Given its known regulatory function in other organisms, we hypothesized that the high level of SmPA28γ transcript and protein in these stages may be correlated with an important role of the PA28γ in the cellular growth and/or development of this parasite. To address this hypothesis, miracidia were transformed in vitro to sporocysts in the presence of SmPA28γ double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and cultivated for 4 days, after which time steady-state transcript and protein levels, and phenotypic changes were evaluated. SmPA28γ dsRNA treatment resulted in gene and protein knockdown of ~60% and ~80%, respectively, which were correlated with a significant decrease in larval length

  14. Conformations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) orchestrate neuronal survival by a crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, T; Lesept, F; Chevilley, A; Lenoir, S; Aimable, M; Briens, A; Hommet, Y; Bardou, I; Parcq, J; Vivien, D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a pleiotropic serine protease of the central nervous system (CNS) with reported neurotrophic and neurotoxic functions. Produced and released under its single chain form (sc), the sc-tPA can be cleaved by plasmin or kallikrein in a two chain form, tc-tPA. Although both sc-tPA and tc-tPA display a similar fibrinolytic activity, we postulated here that these two conformations of tPA (sc-tPA and tc-tPA) could differentially control the effects of tPA on neuronal survival. Using primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons, our present study reveals that sc-tPA is the only one capable to promote N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced calcium influx and subsequent excitotoxicity. In contrast, both sc-tPA and tc-tPA are capable to activate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), a mechanism mediating the antiapoptotic effects of tPA. Interestingly, we revealed a tPA dependent crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR in which a tPA-dependent activation of EGFRs leads to downregulation of NMDAR signaling and to subsequent neurotrophic effects. PMID:26469972

  15. Removal of damaged proteins during ES cell fate specification requires the proteasome activator PA28

    PubMed Central

    Hernebring, Malin; Fredriksson, Åsa; Liljevald, Maria; Cvijovic, Marija; Norrman, Karin; Wiseman, John; Semb, Henrik; Nyström, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In embryonic stem cells, removal of oxidatively damaged proteins is triggered upon the first signs of cell fate specification but the underlying mechanism is not known. Here, we report that this phase of differentiation encompasses an unexpected induction of genes encoding the proteasome activator PA28αβ (11S), subunits of the immunoproteasome (20Si), and the 20Si regulator TNFα. This induction is accompanied by assembly of mature PA28-20S(i) proteasomes and elevated proteasome activity. Inhibiting accumulation of PA28α using miRNA counteracted the removal of damaged proteins demonstrating that PA28αβ has a hitherto unidentified role required for resetting the levels of protein damage at the transition from self-renewal to cell differentiation. PMID:23459332

  16. Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Chevilley, Arnaud; Lesept, Flavie; Lenoir, Sophie; Ali, Carine; Parcq, Jérôme; Vivien, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival. PMID:26528141

  17. Microglial tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) triggers neuronal apoptosis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Flavin, M P; Zhao, G; Ho, L T

    2000-02-15

    Several CNS disorders feature microglial activation. Microglia are known to have both restorative and cytotoxic capabilities. Neuronal apoptosis has been noted after an acute insult such as ischemia. Microglia may participate in this event. We previously showed that conditioned medium (CM) harvested from peritoneal macrophages or from activated microglia triggered apoptosis in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. We wished to characterize the factor responsible for triggering neuronal death. Quiescent microglia produced CM that did not disrupt hippocampal neurons. Lipopolysaccharide-activated microglia produced CM which resulted in neuronal death. This effect was blocked by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, by tPA STOP, and by co-incubation with tPA antibody. Recombinant human tPA exaggerated the neurotoxic effects of microglial CM, while tPA alone was toxic only at very high concentrations. This in vitro system, which probably excludes any significant impact of microglial free radicals, suggests that microglial tPA may contribute significantly to hippocampal neuronal death.

  18. Interaction of human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) with pregnancy zone protein: a comparative study with t-PA-alpha2-macroglobulin interaction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, M C; Chiabrando, G A; Guglielmone, H A; Bonacci, G R; Rabinovich, G A; Vides, M A

    1998-08-01

    Human pregnancy zone protein (PZP) is a major pregnancy-associated plasma protein strongly related to alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M). Interactions of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) with PZP and alpha2-M were both investigated in vitro and the complexes were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The results demonstrated that PZP-t-PA complex formation was evident within 1 h of incubation, whereas alpha2-M-t-PA complexes were formed after 18 h. Conclusions were supported by the following evidence: (i) PZP and alpha2-M complexes revealed changes of the mobility rate in non-denaturing PAGE, similar to those observed with alpha-Ms-chymotrypsin; (ii) both PZP and alpha2-M formed complexes of molecular size >360 kDa by SDS-PAGE, in accordance with the covalent binding of t-PA, which was previously reported for other proteinases; and (iii) PZP underwent a specific cleavage of the bait region with appearence of fragments of 85-90 kDa as judged by reducing SDS-PAGE. In contrast, the proteolytic attack on alpha2-M was found to occur more slowly, requiring several hours of incubation with t-PA for generation of an appreciable amount of fragments of 85-90 kDa. The appearance of free SH-groups of alpha-Ms was further investigated by titration with 5, 5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid). The maximal level of SH-groups raised was 3.9 mol/mol of PZP and 3.5 mol/mol of alpha2-M, indicating approximately one SH-group for each 180-kDa subunit. Finally, t-PA activity in PZP-t-PA complex was evaluated by measuring the hydrolysis of the chromogenic substrate Flavigen t-PA. Our results revealed that prolongation of the incubation period of this complex increased t-PA-mediated hydrolysis of Flavigen t-PA until a plateau was reached, approximately between 60 and 120 min. The present study suggests that PZP, by binding to t-PA, may contribute to the control of the activity of proteinases derived from fibrinolytic systems.

  19. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Ishaku, Cornelius M.; Oyekola, Jameela; Wakawa, Hajara D.; Lawan, Aliyu; Yakubu, Safira; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the context where adolescents’ physical activity (PA) takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents’ PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time) and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA), and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES) among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12–18 years, 50.4% girls) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk) of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels) with adolescents’ sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups. Results The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk), the least during active transportation (210 min/wk), and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001), active transportation (P<0.001), MVPA (P = 0.023) and total PA (P = 0.003) than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009), home-based PA (P<0.001) and light-intensity PA (P<0.001) than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024) and total PA (P = 0.049) were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009), less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048) and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013). High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0

  20. Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Campion, Suzanne; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol; Sidenius, Nicolai; Docagne, Fabian; Cunningham, Colm

    2009-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-linked cell surface protein that facilitates focused plasmin proteolytic activity at the cell surface. uPAR has been detected in macrophages infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) and soluble uPAR has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid during a number of CNS pathologies. However, its expression by resident microglial cells in vivo remains uncertain. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the murine CNS expression of uPAR and uPA as well as that of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during insults generating distinct and well-characterized inflammatory responses; acute intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute kainate-induced neurodegeneration, and chronic neurodegeneration induced by prion disease inoculation. All three insults induced marked expression of uPAR at both mRNA and protein level compared to controls (naïve, saline, or control inoculum-injected). uPAR expression was microglial in all cases. Conversely, uPA transcription and activity was only markedly increased during chronic neurodegeneration. Dissociation of uPA and uPAR levels in acute challenges is suggestive of additional proteolysis-independent roles for uPAR. PAI-1 was most highly expressed upon LPS challenge, whereas tissue plasminogen activator mRNA was constitutively present and less responsive to all insults studied. These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed. PMID:19459212

  1. Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Campion, Suzanne; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol; Sidenius, Nicolai; Docagne, Fabian; Cunningham, Colm

    2009-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-linked cell surface protein that facilitates focused plasmin proteolytic activity at the cell surface. uPAR has been detected in macrophages infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) and soluble uPAR has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid during a number of CNS pathologies. However, its expression by resident microglial cells in vivo remains uncertain. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the murine CNS expression of uPAR and uPA as well as that of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during insults generating distinct and well-characterized inflammatory responses; acute intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute kainate-induced neurodegeneration, and chronic neurodegeneration induced by prion disease inoculation. All three insults induced marked expression of uPAR at both mRNA and protein level compared to controls (naïve, saline, or control inoculum-injected). uPAR expression was microglial in all cases. Conversely, uPA transcription and activity was only markedly increased during chronic neurodegeneration. Dissociation of uPA and uPAR levels in acute challenges is suggestive of additional proteolysis-independent roles for uPAR. PAI-1 was most highly expressed upon LPS challenge, whereas tissue plasminogen activator mRNA was constitutively present and less responsive to all insults studied. These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed.

  2. Late Quaternary mass-wasting records in the actively uplifting Pa-chang catchment, southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Ching, Kuo-En; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen

    2014-07-01

    Although dominated by erosion over long term, the tectonically active mountains of Taiwan commonly contain thick landslide and debris-flow gravels capping hillslopes or forming alluvial terraces. These deposits and their associated landforms serve to study ancient mass-wasting histories and their controls on fluvial processes. This study focuses on the Pa-chang River draining the < 2000 m high Ali-shan area in southwestern Taiwan (current tectonic uplift: 5-8 mm yr- 1). Although small (catchment area: 83 km2), the Pa-chang exhibits one of the largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, which stretches from the outlet of the catchment for 9 km along the river and comprises fluvial and debris-flow gravels up to 150 m thick. Totally 55 radiocarbon dates have been obtained, tracing the mass-wasting records back to 14.8 ka. The largest events, which created the studied major terraces, occurred in 10.0-11.3 and 8.7-9.4 ka. These events are synchronous with the formation of some regionally largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, and may have been triggered by the frequent heavy rains associated with the early Holocene East Asian summer-monsoon maximum. More mass-wasting events have been dated at ~ 5.4, ~ 1.9, 1.2-1.7, 0.7-0.9, ~ 0.6, and < 0.3 ka. The vast supply of sediment from the recorded mass-wasting events not only caused river aggradation but also regulated the subsequent incision by forming boulder armors. As a result, the bedrock incision in the upper part of the catchment has been negligible since the early Holocene debris-flow deposition. The incision rates increase to the downstream direction as the size and concentration of boulders reduce. Still, the 14.8 ka-averaged bedrock incision rate (< 4.5 mm yr- 1) at the catchment outlet is lower than the current uplift rate (6 mm yr- 1). At the same site, however, the bedrock incision rate is 23 mm yr- 1 averaged over the past 0.6 ka. Even higher rates of incision (> 50 mm yr- 1) are detected further downstream after the

  3. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3’,5’ -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  4. EuPA achieves visibility - an activity report on the first three years.

    PubMed

    Dunn, M J; Gil, C; Kleinhammer, C; Lottspeich, F; Pennington, S; Sanchez, J-Ch; Albar, J P; Bini, L; Corrales, F; Corthals, G L; Fountoulakis, M M; Hoogland, C; James, P; Jensen, O N; Jiménez, C; Jorrín-Novo, J; Kraus, H-J; Meyer, H; Noukakis, D; Palagi, P M; Penque, D; Quinn, A; Rabilloud, T

    2008-04-30

    Plans for the European Proteomics Association (EuPA) were conceived and established during 2004 and 2005, and culminated in the formal inception of the organisation during the 4th HUPO World Congress held in Munich in 2005. The mission from the outset has been three-tiered and is to: i) strengthen the national Proteomics organizations in their efforts; ii) to co-ordinate and provide educational programs, and iii) to advance the networking of scientists through meetings, workshops and student exchange. Linked to the mission were objectives to emphasise the benefits and contributions of Proteomics to biological and industrial researchers, the general public and science policy makers in Europe. In addition, the EuPA set out to promote scientific exchange for all applications and technology development related to Proteomics, and coordinate joint activities of national Proteomics societies at the European level. To achieve these tasks an organisational structure was conceived whereby four Activity Committees (Conferences/Communications, Education, EuPA-HUPO-Interactions and Funding) were implemented and a General Council consisting of all member countries. The remarkable rise and progress the EuPA has achieved in this small time frame is reported here.

  5. Spatial and temporal patterns in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) reporting in Philadelphia, PA.

    PubMed

    Mabud, Tarub S; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Levy, Katelyn H; Edinger, Jason; Levy, Michael Z

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive telephone log of pest infestation reports to assess the spatial and temporal trends in Cimex lectularius L. (bed bug) reporting throughout Philadelphia, PA. Citywide spatial analyses of reports from September 2011 to June 2012 revealed several statistically significant bed bug hotspots. However, these were small and diffuse. Temporal analyses of reports from December 2008 to May 2011 detected prominent seasonality in bed bug reporting, peaking in August and reaching a nadir in February each year. Controlling for seasonal cycling, the number of bed bug reports in Philadelphia increased steadily at a rate of approximately 4.5% per month (or 69.45% per year) from December 2008 to May 2011. While it may be difficult to spatially target citywide bed bug control measures because of the insects' widespread migration, interventions informed by seasonal trends may enhance efforts to curb the recent increases in urban bed bug populations. PMID:24605452

  6. Spatial and Temporal Patterns in Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Reporting in Philadelphia, PA

    PubMed Central

    MABUD, TARUB S.; BARBARIN, ALEXIS M.; BARBU, CORENTIN M.; LEVY, KATELYN H.; EDINGER, JASON; LEVY, MICHAEL Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive telephone log of pest infestation reports to assess the spatial and temporal trends in Cimex lectularius L. (bed bug) reporting throughout Philadelphia, PA. Citywide spatial analyses of reports from September 2011 to June 2012 revealed several statistically significant bed bug hotspots. However, these were small and diffuse. Temporal analyses of reports from December 2008 to May 2011 detected prominent seasonality in bed bug reporting, peaking in August and reaching a nadir in February each year. Controlling for seasonal cycling, the number of bed bug reports in Philadelphia increased steadily at a rate of ≈4.5% per month (or 69.45% per year) from December 2008 to May 2011. While it may be difficult to spatially target citywide bed bug control measures because of the insects’ widespread migration, interventions informed by seasonal trends may enhance efforts to curb the recent increases in urban bed bug populations. PMID:24605452

  7. Pyruvate and cilostazol protect cultured rat cortical pericytes against tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-induced cell death.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ha Na; Kim, Tae-Youn; Yoon, Young Hee; Koh, Jae-Young

    2015-12-01

    Since even a brief ischemia can cause permanent brain damage, rapid restoration of blood flow is critical to limiting damage. Although intravenous tPA during the acute stage is the treatment of choice for achieving reperfusion, this treatment is sometimes associated with brain hemorrhage. Agents that reduce tPA-related bleeding risk may help expand its therapeutic window. This study assessed whether zinc dyshomeostasis underlies the toxic effect of tPA on brain vascular pericytes; whether pyruvate, an inhibitor of zinc toxicity, protects pericytes against tPA-induced cell death; and whether cilostazol, which protects pericytes against tPA-induced cell death, affects zinc dyshomeostasis associated with tPA toxicity. Cultured pericytes from newborn rat brains were treated with 10-200 μg/ml tPA for 24 h, inducing cell death in a concentration-dependent manner. tPA-induced cell death was preceded by increases in intracellular free zinc levels, and was substantially attenuated by plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) or TPEN. Pyruvate completely blocked direct zinc toxicity and tPA-induced pericyte cell death. Both cAMP and cilostazol, a PDE3 inhibitor that attenuates tPA-induced pericyte cell death in vitro and tPA-induced brain hemorrhage in vivo, reduced zinc- and tPA-induced pericyte cell death, suggesting that zinc dyshomeostasis may be targeted by cilostazol in tPA toxicity. These findings show that tPA-induced pericyte cell death may involve zinc dyshomeostasis, and that pyruvate and cilostazol attenuate tPA-induced cell death by reducing the toxic cascade triggered by zinc dyshomeostasis. Since pyruvate is an endogenous metabolite and cilostazol is an FDA-approved drug, in vivo testing of both as protectors against tPA-induced brain hemorrhage may be warranted. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroprotection.

  8. Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator "tPA" in ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned-place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most abused drugs in the western societies. It is well established that mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons mediate the rewarding properties of ethanol. In our previous studies we have shown that the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is involved in the rewarding properties of morphine and amphetamine. In the current study, we investigated the role of tPA in ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned-place preference (CPP). Ethanol treatment dose-dependently induced tPA enzymatic activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition, ethanol-induced increase in tPA activity was completely inhibited by pre-treatment with the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and raclopride respectively. Furthermore, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation, behavioral sensitization and conditioned-place preference were enhanced following tPA over-expression in the NAc using a lentiviral vector. In contrast, tPA knock down in the NAc with specific shRNA blocked the rewarding properties of ethanol. The defect of locomotor stimulation in shRNA-injected mice was reversed by microinjections of exogenous recombinant tPA into the nucleus accumbens. Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that activation of tPA is effective in enhancing the rewarding effects of ethanol. Targeting the tissue plasminogen activator system would provide new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism.

  9. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  10. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  11. Reciprocal actions of NCAM and tPA via a Ras-dependent MAPK activation in rat hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Son, Hyeon; Seuk Kim, Jin; Mogg Kim, Jung; Lee, Sang-Hun; Lee, Yong-Sung

    2002-10-25

    In an attempt to identify the functions of neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in hippocampal synaptic plasticity, we investigated the relationship between the two molecules by focusing on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), an essential enzyme in this process. NCAM clustering in cultured hippocampal neurons transiently induced MAPK within 10min. Moreover, soluble NCAM also induced a Ras-dependent MAPK activation. Conversely, MAPK activation led to an increase in the expressions of all three isoforms of NCAM. Treatment of neurons with tPA and plasminogen induced a Ras-dependent MAPK activation and tPA-plasmin degradation of NCAM was mediated in a MAPK-dependent manner. Soluble NCAM transiently inhibited tPA mRNA expression levels in a MAPK-dependent manner, while stimulation of MAPK alone induced tPA reduction in cells. These results collectively indicate that NCAM and tPA reciprocally act as important regulators in the modulation of synaptic plasticity via a Ras-MAPK-involved signaling pathway. In turn, MAPK activation may cause tPA degradation or a decrease in expression to promote synaptic plasticity.

  12. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor deletion increases tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Castorina, A; D'Amico, A G; Scuderi, S; Leggio, G M; Drago, F; D'Agata, V

    2013-10-10

    Considerable evidence indicates that dopamine (DA) influences tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated proteolytic processing of the precursor of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (proBDNF) into mature BDNF (mBDNF). However, specific roles in this process for the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) and the underlying molecular mechanisms are yet to be fully characterized. In the present study, we hypothesized that D3R deletion could influence tPA activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Using D3R knockout (D3(-/-)) mice, we show that receptor inactivation is associated with increased tPA expression/activity both in the prefrontal cortex and, to a greater extent, in the hippocampus. Augmented tPA expression in D3(-/-) mice correlated with increased BDNF mRNA levels, plasmin/plasminogen protein ratio and the conversion of proBDNF into mBDNF, as well as enhanced tPA and mBDNF immunoreactivity, as determined by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. In addition, when compared to wild-type controls, D3(-/-) mice exhibited increased basal activation of the canonical cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA)-driven Akt/cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling cascade, as determined by the increased Akt phosphorylation both at Thr304 and Ser473 residues, of DA and cAMP-regulated protein of 32kDa (DARPP-32) at Thr34 and a phosphorylation state-dependent inhibition of glycogen synthetase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9, a substrate of Akt whose constitutive function impairs normal CREB transcriptional activity through phosphorylation at its Ser129 residue. Accordingly, CREB phosphorylation at Ser133 was significantly increased in D3(-/-) mice, whereas the GSK-3β-dependent phosphorylation at Ser129 was diminished. Altogether, our finding reveals that mice lacking D3Rs show enhanced tPA proteolytic activity on BDNF which may involve, at least in part, a potentiated Akt/CREB signaling

  14. Mapping of a Region of the PA-X Protein of Influenza A Virus That Is Important for Its Shutoff Activity.

    PubMed

    Oishi, Kohei; Yamayoshi, Seiya; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus PA-X comprises an N-terminal PA endonuclease domain and a C-terminal PA-X-specific domain. PA-X reduces host and viral mRNA accumulation via its endonuclease function. Here, we found that the N-terminal 15 amino acids, particularly six basic amino acids, in the C-terminal PA-X-specific region are important for PA-X shutoff activity. These six basic amino acids enabled a PA deletion mutant to suppress protein expression at a level comparable to that of wild-type PA-X.

  15. Structural details of light activation of the LOV2-based photoswitch PA-Rac1.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andreas; Barends, Thomas R M; Udvarhelyi, Anikó; Lenherr-Frey, Daniel; Lomb, Lukas; Menzel, Andreas; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-02-20

    Optical control of cellular processes is an emerging approach for studying biological systems, affording control with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically designed artificial photoswitches add an interesting extension to naturally occurring light-regulated functionalities. However, despite a great deal of structural information, the generation of new tools cannot be based fully on rational design yet; in many cases design is limited by our understanding of molecular details of light activation and signal transduction. Our biochemical and biophysical studies on the established optogenetic tool PA-Rac1, the photoactivatable small GTPase Rac1, reveal how unexpected details of the sensor-effector interface, such as metal coordination, significantly affect functionally important structural elements of this photoswitch. Together with solution scattering experiments, our results favor differences in the population of pre-existing conformations as the underlying allosteric activation mechanism of PA-Rac1, rather than the assumed release of the Rac1 domain from the caging photoreceptor domain. These results have implications for the design of new optogenetic tools and highlight the importance of including molecular details of the sensor-effector interface, which is however difficult to assess during the initial design of novel artificial photoswitches.

  16. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  17. Specific interaction of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) with annexin II on the membrane of pancreatic cancer cells activates plasminogen and promotes invasion in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, V M; Hurtado, M; Thomson, T M; Reventós, J; Paciucci, R

    2004-01-01

    Background: Overexpression of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in pancreatic cancer cells promotes invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumour growth and angiogenesis in vivo. Aims: To understand the mechanisms by which t-PA favours cancer progression, we analysed the surface membrane proteins responsible for binding specifically t-PA and studied the contribution of this interaction to the t-PA promoted invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Methods: The ability of t-PA to activate plasmin and a fluorogenic plasmin substrate was used to analyse the nature of the binding of active t-PA to cell surfaces. Specific binding was determined in two pancreatic cancer cell lines (SK-PC-1 and PANC-1), and complex formation analysed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments and co-immunolocalisation in tumours. The functional role of the interaction was studied in Matrigel invasion assays. Results: t-PA bound to PANC-1 and SK-PC-1 cells in a specific and saturable manner while maintaining its activity. This binding was competitively inhibited by specific peptides interfering with the interaction of t-PA with annexin II. The t-PA/annexin II interaction on pancreatic cancer cells was also supported by co-immunoprecipitation assays using anti-t-PA antibodies and, reciprocally, with antiannexin II antibodies. In addition, confocal microscopy showed t-PA and annexin II colocalisation in tumour tissues. Finally, disruption of the t-PA/annexin II interaction by a specific hexapeptide significantly decreased the invasive capacity of SK-PC-1 cells in vitro. Conclusion: t-PA specifically binds to annexin II on the extracellular membrane of pancreatic cancer cells where it activates local plasmin production and tumour cell invasion. These findings may be clinically relevant for future therapeutic strategies based on specific drugs that counteract the activity of t-PA or its receptor annexin II, or their interaction at the surface level. PMID:15194650

  18. Spatial arrangement and functional role of α subunits of proteasome activator PA28 in hetero-oligomeric form

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Sahashi, Hiroki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Takata, Shin-ichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kanai, Keita; Sakata, Eri; Minami, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Keiji; Kato, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Homologous α and β subunits are alternatively arranged in the PA28 heptameric ring. ► The flexible loops of the three α subunits surround the site of substrate entry. ► The loops serve as gatekeepers that selectively hinder passage of longer peptides. - Abstract: A major form of proteasome activator PA28 is a heteroheptamer composed of interferon-γ-inducible α and β subunits, which share approximately 50% amino acid identity and possess distinct insert loops. This activator forms a complex with the 20S proteasome and thereby stimulates proteasomal degradation of peptides in an ATP-independent manner, giving rise to smaller antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this study, we performed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the structure and function of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. Deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated three α and four β subunits are alternately arranged in the heptameric ring. In this arrangement, PA28 loops surround the central pore of the heptameric ring (site for peptide entry). Activating the 20S proteasome with a PA28 mutant that lacked the α subunit loops cleaved model substrates longer than a nonapeptide with better efficiency when compared to wild-type PA28. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the flexible PA28 loops act as gatekeepers, which function to select the length of peptide substrates to be transported between the proteolytic chamber and the extra-proteasomal medium.

  19. TMPRSS4 upregulates uPA gene expression through JNK signaling activation to induce cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Yunhee; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Myung Kyu; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Semi

    2014-02-01

    TMPRSS4 is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that is highly expressed in pancreatic, thyroid, colon, and other cancer tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 mediates tumor cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 induced the transcription of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene through activating the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-1 in mainly a JNK-dependent manner and that the induction of uPA was required for TMPRSS4-mediated cancer cell invasion and signaling events. In addition, the uPA receptor was involved in TMPRSS4-induced signaling activation and subsequent uPA expression probably through its association with TMPRSS4 on the cell surface. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that uPA expression was significantly correlated with TMPRSS4 expression in human lung and prostate cancers. These observations suggest that TMPRSS4 is an important regulator of uPA gene expression; the upregulation of uPA by TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion and may represent a novel mechanism for the control of invasion. PMID:23978400

  20. Phosphatidic acid (PA) binds PP2AA1 to regulate PP2A activity and PIN1 polar localization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Bo; Chu, Yu-Jia; Xue, Hong-Wei

    2013-09-01

    Phospholipase D (PLD) exerts broad biological functions in eukaryotes through regulating downstream effectors by its product, phosphatidic acid (PA). Protein kinases and phosphatases, such as mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), Protein Phosphatase 1 (PP1) and Protein Phosphatase 2C (PP2C), are PA-binding proteins that execute crucial regulatory functions in both animals and plants. PA participates in many signaling pathways by modulating the enzymatic activity and/or subcellular localization of bound proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that PLD-derived PA interacts with the scaffolding A1 subunit of Protein Phosphatase 2A (PP2A) and regulates PP2A-mediated PIN1 dephosphorylation in Arabidopsis. Genetic and pharmacological studies showed that both PA and PP2A participate in the regulation of auxin distribution. In addition, both the phosphorylation status and polar localization of PIN1 protein were affected by PLD inhibitors. Exogenous PA triggered the membrane accumulation of PP2AA1 and enhanced the PP2A activity at membrane, while PLD inhibition resulted in the reduced endosomal localization and perinuclear aggregation of PP2AA1. These results demonstrate the important role of PLD-derived PA in normal PP2A-mediated PIN dephosphorylation and reveal a novel mechanism, in which PA recruits PP2AA1 to the membrane system and regulates PP2A function on membrane-targeted proteins. As PA and PP2A are conserved among eukaryotes, other organisms might use similar mechanisms to mediate multiple biological processes.

  1. Contribution of the nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the activity of novel regimens in murine models of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E; Upton, Anna M; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2015-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen.

  2. Contribution of the Nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the Activity of Novel Regimens in Murine Models of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E.; Upton, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. PMID:25331697

  3. Current perspectives on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sherita N; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Johansen, Michelle C; McMurry, Timothy L; Johnston, Karen C; Southerland, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) Stroke Study Group published the results of a large multicenter clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of intravenous tPA by revealing a 30% relative risk reduction (absolute risk reduction 11%–15%) compared with placebo at 90 days in the likelihood of having minimal or no disability. Since approval in 1996, tPA remains the only drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the years, an abundance of research and clinical data has supported the safe and efficacious use of intravenous tPA in all eligible patients. Despite such supporting data, it remains substantially underutilized. Challenges to the utilization of tPA include narrow eligibility and treatment windows, risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, perceived lack of efficacy in certain high-risk subgroups, and a limited pool of neurological and stroke expertise in the community. With recent US census data suggesting annual stroke incidence will more than double by 2050, better education and consensus among both the medical and lay public are necessary to optimize the use of tPA for all eligible stroke patients. Ongoing and future research should continue to improve upon the efficacy of tPA through more rapid stroke diagnosis and treatment, refinement of advanced neuroimaging and stroke biomarkers, and successful demonstration of alternative means of reperfusion. PMID:24591838

  4. Antimicrobial activity of pediocin PA-1 against Oenococcus oeni and other wine bacteria.

    PubMed

    Díez, Lorena; Rojo-Bezares, Beatriz; Zarazaga, Myriam; Rodríguez, Juan M; Torres, Carmen; Ruiz-Larrea, Fernanda

    2012-09-01

    Pediocin PA-1 is an antimicrobial peptide produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that has been sufficiently well characterised to be used in food industry as a biopreservative. Sulphur dioxide is the traditional antimicrobial agent used during the winemaking process to control bacterial growth and wine spoilage. In this study, we describe the effect of pediocin PA-1 alone and in combination with sulphur dioxide and ethanol on the growth of a collection of 53 oenological LAB, 18 acetic acid bacteria and 16 yeast strains; in addition, production of pediocin PA-1 by Pediococcus acidilactici J347-29 in presence of ethanol and grape must is also reported. Inhibitory concentrations (IC) and minimal bactericide concentrations of pediocin PA-1 were determined against LAB, and revealed a bacteriostatic effect. Oenococcus oeni resulted more sensitive to pediocin PA-1 (IC(50) = 19 ng/ml) than the other LAB species (IC(50) = 312 ng/ml). Cooperative inhibitory effects of pediocin PA-1 and either sulphur dioxide or ethanol were observed on LAB growth. Moreover, the pediocin PA-1 producing P. acidilactici strain J347-29 was able to grow and produce the bacteriocin in presence of ethanol (up to 4% ethanol in the fermentation broth) and grape must (up to 80%), which indicated that pediocin PA-1 can be considered as a potential biopreservative in winemaking.

  5. Effects of Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bernice C.; Norman, Joseph; Meza, Jane; Krogstrand, Kaye Stanek; Harrington, Susana; Shurmur, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Schumacher, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite proven efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in helping patients initiate physical activity and healthy eating changes, less than 50% of CR participants maintain changes 6 months later. Objective The objective of this feasibility study was to test the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention versus usual care (UC) in improving physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients and spouses. Methods An experimental, two-group (n = 17 couples/group), repeated measures design was used. CABG patients in both groups participated in Phase II outpatient CR. Spouses in the PaTH group attended CR with the patient and were asked to make the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the control group attended educational classes with patients. It was theorized that “two persons would be better than one” at making changes and sticking with them long-term. Physical activity behavior was measured using the Actiheart accelerometer; the activity biomarker was an exercise tolerance test. Eating behavior was measured using 3-day food records; the biomarker was the lipid profile. Data were collected at baseline (entrance in CR), 3-months (post-CR), and 6-months. Changes over time were examined using Mann-Whitney U statistics and effect sizes. Results The PaTH intervention was successful primarily in demonstrating improved trends in healthy eating behavior for patients and spouses. No differences were found between the PaTH and UC patients or spouses at 3 or 6 months in the number of minutes/week of physical activity. By 6 months, patients in both groups were, on average, below the national guidelines for PA recommendations (≥ 150 min/week at > 3 METs). Conclusions The couple-focused PaTH intervention demonstrated promise in offsetting the decline in dietary adherence typically seen 6 months after CR. PMID:24434826

  6. Pharmacologic partial salvage of a failing free flap with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA).

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Fuleihan, N S; Musharafieh, R S

    1999-11-01

    Despite all the technical improvements in microvascular surgery and the experience gained in clinical practice, thrombosis at the site of microanastomosis remains a significant problem and a continuous source of frustration to most microsurgeons. Early recognition of vascular complications and prompt reexploration with vascular revision remain an essential and standard conduct for salvage. However, in situations where conditions for no-reflow have been established due to severe vasospasm or prolonged ischemia time, it becomes obvious that surgical reexploration alone is not enough to salvage a failing flap or a replanted limb. In such situations, the loss of the revascularized tissues seems to be inevitable. The authors describe their experience in partially salvaging a failing free flap with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA), reversing an established state of no-reflow. Pharmacologic manipulation of the complex and variable factors influencing anastomotic patency in microvascular tissue transfer seems to offer a new hope for preventing failures, as well as for salvaging failing flaps. It appears also that free-tissue transfer failure is not an all-or-none phenomenon.

  7. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  8. Improved antimicrobial activities of synthetic-hybrid bacteriocins designed from enterocin E50-52 and pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Santosh Kumar; Sutyak Noll, Katia; Cavera, Veronica L; Chikindas, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Two hybrid bacteriocins, enterocin E50-52/pediocin PA-1 (EP) and pediocin PA-1/enterocin E50-52 (PE), were designed by combining the N terminus of enterocin E50-52 and the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and by combining the C terminus of pediocin PA-1 and the N terminus of enterocin E50-52, respectively. Both hybrid bacteriocins showed reduced MICs compared to those of their natural counterparts. The MICs of hybrid PE and EP were 64- and 32-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of pediocin PA-1 and 8- and 4-fold lower, respectively, than the MIC of enterocin E50-52. In this study, the effect of hybrid as well as wild-type (WT) bacteriocins on the transmembrane electrical potential (ΔΨ) and their ability to induce the efflux of intracellular ATP were investigated. Enterocin E50-52, pediocin PA-1, and hybrid bacteriocin PE were able to dissipate ΔΨ, but EP was unable to deplete this component. Both hybrid bacteriocins caused a loss of the intracellular concentration of ATP. EP, however, caused a faster efflux than PE and enterocin E50-52. Enterocin E50-52 and hybrids PE and EP were active against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria tested, such as Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis 20E1090, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. The hybrid bacteriocins designed and described herein are antimicrobial peptides with MICs lower those of their natural counterparts. Both hybrid peptides induce the loss of intracellular ATP and are capable of inhibiting Gram-negative bacteria, and PE dissipates the electrical potential. In this study, the MIC of hybrid bacteriocin PE decreased 64-fold compared to the MIC of its natural peptide counterpart, pediocin PA-1. Inhibition of Gram-negative pathogens confers an additional advantage for the application of these peptides in therapeutics.

  9. Activity Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children at Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Senso, Meghan M.; Trost, Stewart G.; Crain, A. Lauren; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Anderson, Julie D.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of obesity in young children highlights the importance of early interventions to promote physical activity (PA), there are limited data on activity patterns in this age group. The purpose of this study is to describe activity patterns in preschool-aged children and explore differences by weight status. Methods Analyses use baseline data from Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids- Preschool, a pilot obesity prevention trial of preschool-aged children overweight or at risk for overweight. A modified parent-reported version of the previous-day PA recall was used to summarize types of activity. Accelerometry was used to summarize daily and hourly activity patterns. Results “Playing with toys” accounted for the largest proportion of a child’s previous day, followed by “meals and snacks”, and “chores”. Accelerometry-measured daily time spent in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 412, 247, and 69 minutes, respectively. Percent of hourly time spent in MVPA ranged from 3% to 13%, peaking in the late morning and evening hours. There were no statistically significant MVPA differences by weight status. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of activity types, amounts, and patterns in preschool-age children and warrants further exploration of differences in physical activity patterns by weight status. PMID:25133750

  10. Visual Templates in Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, F. D.

    2010-01-01

    In this research article, I present evidence of the existence of visual templates in pattern generalization activity. Such templates initially emerged from a 3-week design-driven classroom teaching experiment on pattern generalization involving linear figural patterns and were assessed for existence in a clinical interview that was conducted four…

  11. Reliability of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey, physical activity (CAPANS-PA) questionnaire among chinese-australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that differences exist in physical activity (PA) participation among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) children and adolescents. It is possible that these differences could be influenced by variations in measurement technique and instrument reliability. However, culturally sensitive instruments for examining PA behaviour among CALD populations are lacking. This study tested the reliability of the Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS-PA) recall questionnaire among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods The psychometric property of the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was examined among a sample of 77 Chinese-Australian youth (aged 11 - 14 y) who completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days. Test-retest reliability of individual items and scales within the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was determined using Kappa statistics for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Results The CAPANS-PA questionnaire demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for frequency and duration of time spent in weekly Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) (ICC ≥ 0.70) for all participants. Test-retest reliability for time spent in weekly sedentary activities was acceptable for females (ICC = 0.82) and males (ICC = 0.72). Conclusions The results suggest the CAPANS-PA questionnaire provides reliable estimates for type, frequency and duration of MVPA participation among Chinese-Australian youth. Further investigation into the reliability of the sedentary items within the CAPANS-PA is required before these items can be used with confidence. This study is novel in that the reliability of instruments among CALD groups nationally and internationally remains sparse and this study contributes to the wider body of available psychometrically tested instruments. In addition, this study is the first to our knowledge to successfully engage and investigate the basic health

  12. A novel meta-analytic approach: mining frequent co-activation patterns in neuroimaging databases.

    PubMed

    Caspers, Julian; Zilles, Karl; Beierle, Christoph; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2014-04-15

    In recent years, coordinate-based meta-analyses have become a powerful and widely used tool to study co-activity across neuroimaging experiments, a development that was supported by the emergence of large-scale neuroimaging databases like BrainMap. However, the evaluation of co-activation patterns is constrained by the fact that previous coordinate-based meta-analysis techniques like Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) and Multilevel Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) reveal all brain regions that show convergent activity within a dataset without taking into account actual within-experiment co-occurrence patterns. To overcome this issue we here propose a novel meta-analytic approach named PaMiNI that utilizes a combination of two well-established data-mining techniques, Gaussian mixture modeling and the Apriori algorithm. By this, PaMiNI enables a data-driven detection of frequent co-activation patterns within neuroimaging datasets. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by means of several analyses on simulated data as well as a real application. The analyses of the simulated data show that PaMiNI identifies the brain regions underlying the simulated activation foci and perfectly separates the co-activation patterns of the experiments in the simulations. Furthermore, PaMiNI still yields good results when activation foci of distinct brain regions become closer together or if they are non-Gaussian distributed. For the further evaluation, a real dataset on working memory experiments is used, which was previously examined in an ALE meta-analysis and hence allows a cross-validation of both methods. In this latter analysis, PaMiNI revealed a fronto-parietal "core" network of working memory and furthermore indicates a left-lateralization in this network. Finally, to encourage a widespread usage of this new method, the PaMiNI approach was implemented into a publicly available software system. PMID:24365675

  13. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  14. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a “Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind” that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call “Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind.” While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  15. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  16. Biological activity and binding site characteristics of the PA1b Entomotoxin on insects from different orders.

    PubMed

    Gressent, Frédéric; Duport, Gabrielle; Rahioui, Isabelle; Pauchet, Yannick; Bolland, Patrice; Specty, Olivier; Rahbe, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate both the biological activity of an entomotoxin, the pea albumin 1b (PA1b), and the presence or absence of its binding site within an array of insect species. The data obtained showed that insect sensitivity was not related to its taxonomic position. Moreover, PA1b was not toxic to several tested microorganisms. However, the binding site was found to be conserved among very different insects, displaying similar thermodynamic constants regardless of the in vivo species sensitivity. The binding site alone was, therefore, not sufficient for toxicity. One exception was the pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum, which was the only tested species without any detectable binding activity. These findings indicate that the binding site probably has an important endogenous function in insects and that adaptation to pea seeds resulted in the elimination of the toxin binding activity in two independent insect lineages. Other mechanisms are likely to interact with the toxin effects, although they are still largely unknown, but there is no evidence of any specific degradation of PA1b in the midgut of insects insensitive to the toxin, such as Drosophila melanogaster or Mamestra brassicae.

  17. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  18. High-level expression of a novel recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in the milk of transgenic rabbits and its thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Ge, Xin; Cheng, Yaobin; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Baoli; Ji, Xueqiao; Qi, Zhengqiang; Rong, Yao; Yuan, Yuguo; Cheng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key kinase of fibrinolysis that plays an important role in dissolving fibrin clots to promote thrombolysis. The recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) has more thrombolytic advantages than the wild type tPA. To increase the half-life and thrombolytic activity of tPA, a mutant containing only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P activating plasminogen domains of the wild type tPA was cloned. This fragment was then inserted into goat β-casein regulatory sequences. Then, a mammary gland-specific expression vector, PCL25/rhPA, was constructed, and the transgenic rabbits were generated. In this study, 18 live transgenic founders (12♀, 6♂) were generated using pronuclear microinjection. Six transgenic rabbits were obtained, and the expression levels of rhPA in the milk had a range of 15.2-630 µg/ml. A fibrin agarose plate assay of rhPA showed that it had strong thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro, and the highest specific activity was >360 (360 times more than that of alteplase). The results indicated that the rhPA containing only the K2 and P domains is efficiently expressed with higher thrombolytic bioactivity in the milk of transgenic rabbits. Our study also demonstrated a new method for the large-scale production of clinically relevant recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits. PMID:27230577

  19. t-PA-specific modulation of a human blood-brain barrier model involves plasmin-mediated activation of the Rho kinase pathway in astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Niego, Be'eri; Freeman, Roxann; Puschmann, Till B; Turnley, Ann M; Medcalf, Robert L

    2012-05-17

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) can modulate permeability of the neurovascular unit and exacerbate injury in ischemic stroke. We examined the effects of t-PA using in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier. t-PA caused a concentration-dependent increase in permeability. This effect was dependent on plasmin formation and potentiated in the presence of plasminogen. An inactive t-PA variant inhibited the t-PA-mediated increase in permeability, whereas blockade of low-density lipoprotein receptors or exposed lysine residues resulted in similar inhibition, implying a role for both a t-PA receptor, most likely a low-density lipoprotein receptor, and a plasminogen receptor. This effect was selective to t-PA and its close derivative tenecteplase. The truncated t-PA variant reteplase had a minor effect on permeability, whereas urokinase and desmoteplase were ineffective. t-PA also induced marked shape changes in both brain endothelial cells and astrocytes. Changes in astrocyte morphology coincided with increased F-actin staining intensity, larger focal adhesion size, and elevated levels of phosphorylated myosin. Inhibition of Rho kinase blocked these changes and reduced t-PA/plasminogen-mediated increase in permeability. Hence plasmin, generated on the cell surface selectively by t-PA, modulates the astrocytic cytoskeleton, leading to an increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. Blockade of the Rho/Rho kinase pathway may have beneficial consequences during thrombolytic therapy.

  20. 32 CFR 701.123 - PA fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PA fees. 701.123 Section 701.123 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.123 PA fees. The PA fee schedule is only applicable... PA system of record. DON activities receiving requests under PA, FOIA, or PA/FOIA shall only...

  1. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system. PMID:27273339

  2. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  3. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns.

    PubMed

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system. PMID:27273339

  4. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD.

    PubMed

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  5. Functional Characterization of Phalaenopsis aphrodite Flowering Genes PaFT1 and PaFD

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Seonghoe; Choi, Sang-Chul; Li, Hsing-Yi; An, Gynheung; Schmelzer, Elmon

    2015-01-01

    We show that the key flowering regulators encoded by Phalaenopsis aphrodite FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (PaFT1) and PaFD share high sequence homologies to these from long-day flowering Arabidopsis and short-day flowering rice. Interestingly, PaFT1 is specifically up-regulated during flowering inductive cooling treatment but is not subjected to control by photoperiod in P. aphrodite. Phloem or shoot apex-specific expression of PaFT1 restores the late flowering of Arabidopsis ft mutants. Moreover, PaFT1 can suppress the delayed flowering caused by SHORT VEGATATIVE PHASE (SVP) overexpression as well as an active FRIGIDA (FRI) allele, indicating the functional conservation of flowering regulatory circuit in different plant species. PaFT1 promoter:GUS in Arabidopsis showed similar staining pattern to that of Arabidopsis FT in the leaves and guard cells but different in the shoot apex. A genomic clone or heat shock-inducible expression of PaFT1 is sufficient to the partial complementation of the ft mutants. Remarkably, ectopic PaFT1 expression also triggers precocious heading in rice. To further demonstrate the functional conservation of the flowering regulators, we show that PaFD, a bZIP transcription factor involved in flowering promotion, interacts with PaFT1, and PaFD partially complemented Arabidopsis fd mutants. Transgenic rice expressing PaFD also flowered early with increased expression of rice homologues of APETALA1 (AP1). Consistently, PaFT1 knock-down Phalaenopsis plants generated by virus-induced gene silencing exhibit delayed spiking. These studies suggest functional conservation of FT and FD genes, which may have evolved and integrated into distinct regulatory circuits in monopodial orchids, Arabidopsis and rice that promote flowering under their own inductive conditions. PMID:26317412

  6. Patterns of plasminogen activator production in cultured normal embryonic cells

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Cultured normal low-passage embryo fibroblasts, from a number of species, and two untransformed clones of a Balb/3T3 line elaborate increasing amounts of plasminogen activator (PA) as they approach confluence; the low-passage cells then lose this PA activity after reaching confluence, while the 3T3 cells retain it indefinitely. Even at their peaks, however, the PA activities of the low-passage cells remain well below those of the corresponding virally or spontaneously transformed cells. The PA increases in normal cells are probably a result of PA production rather than of adsorption of secreted PA to the cell surface, or of changes in cell-associated protease inhibitors. The elaboration of PA by normal cells is dependent upon their metabolic activity, such that the level of serum supplementation and the growth phase of the culture directly influence the level of cell-associated PA observed. In addition, there may be a component of serum which exerts a negative control on PA production and which is not an acid-labile protease inhibitor. PMID:21193

  7. Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants’ response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA. Methods A Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted on pooled IPS adults (N=11,541) aged 18 to 64 years old (mean=37.5 ±12.8 yrs; 55.6% women) from 11 countries including Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Hong Kong, Japan, Lithuania, New Zealand, Norway, Sweden, and the U.S. This subset used the Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Survey (PANES) that briefly assessed 7 attributes within 10–15 minutes walk of participants’ residences, including residential density, access to shops/services, recreational facilities, public transit facilities, presence of sidewalks and bike paths, and personal safety. LCA derived meaningful subgroups from participants’ response patterns to PANES items, and participants were assigned to neighborhood types. The validated short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) measured likelihood of meeting the 150 minutes/week PA guideline. To validate derived classes, meeting the guideline either by walking or total PA was regressed on neighborhood types using a weighted generalized linear regression model, adjusting for gender, age and country. Results A 5-subgroup solution fitted the dataset and was interpretable. Neighborhood types were labeled, “Overall Activity Supportive (52% of sample)”, “High Walkable and Unsafe with Few Recreation Facilities (16%)”, “Safe with Active Transport Facilities (12%)”, “Transit and Shops Dense with Few Amenities (15%)”, and “Safe but Activity Unsupportive (5%)”. Country representation differed by

  8. Pyrrolnitrin and Hydrogen Cyanide Production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain PA23 Exhibits Nematicidal and Repellent Activity against Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, Munmun; Selin, Carrie; Brassinga, Ann Karen C.; Belmonte, Mark F.; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Loewen, Peter C.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain PA23 is a biocontrol agent able to suppress growth of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. This bacterium produces an arsenal of exometabolites including pyrrolnitrin (PRN), phenazine (PHZ), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and degradative enzymes. Production of these compounds is controlled at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels by the Gac-Rsm system, RpoS, PsrA, and the Phz quorum-sensing system. Beyond pathogen-suppression, the success of a biocontrol agent is dependent upon its ability to establish itself in the environment where predation by bacterivorous organisms, including nematodes, may threaten persistence. The focus of this study was to investigate whether PA23 is able to resist grazing by Caenorhabditis elegans and to define the role played by exoproducts in the bacterial-nematode interaction. We discovered that both PRN and HCN contribute to fast- and slow-killing of C. elegans. HCN is well-established as having lethal effects on C. elegans; however, PRN has not been reported to be nematicidal. Exposure of L4 stage nematodes to purified PRN reduced nematode viability in a dose-dependent fashion and led to reduced hatching of eggs laid by gravid adults. Because bacterial metabolites can act as chemoattractants or repellents, we analyzed whether PA23 exhibited attractant or repulsive properties towards C. elegans. Both PRN and HCN were found to be potent repellents. Next we investigated whether the presence of C. elegans would elicit changes in PA23 gene activity. Co-culturing the two organisms increased expression of a number of genes associated with biocontrol, including phzA, hcnA, phzR, phzI, rpoS and gacS. Exoproduct analysis showed that PHZ and autoinducer signals were upregulated, consistent with the gene expression profiles. Collectively, these findings indicate that PA23 is able to sense the presence of C. elegans and it is able to both repel and kill the nematodes, which should facilitate

  9. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  10. Signalling networks associated with urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor PAI-1 in breast cancer tissues: new insights from protein microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Claudia; Malinowsky, Katharina; Berg, Daniela; Schragner, Kerstin; Schuster, Tibor; Walch, Axel; Bronger, Holger; Höfler, Heinz; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and the main uPA inhibitor PAI-1 play important roles in cell migration and invasion in both physiological and pathological contexts. Both factors are clinically applicable predictive markers in node-negative breast cancer patients that are used to stratify patients for adjuvant chemotherapy. In addition to their classical functions in plasmin regulation, both factors are key components in cancer-related cell signalling. Such signalling cascades are well described in cell culture systems, but a better understanding of uPA- and PAI-1-associated signalling networks in clinical tissues is needed. We examined the expression of uPA, PAI-1, and 21 signalling molecules in 201 primary breast cancer tissues using protein microarrays. Expression of uPA was significantly correlated with the expression of ERK and Stat3, while expression of PAI-1 was correlated with the uPA receptor and Akt activation, presumably via integrin and HER-receptor signalling. Analysis of uPA expression did not reveal any significant correlation with staging, grading or age of the patients. The PAI-1 expression was correlated with nodal stage. Network monitoring for uPA and PAI-1 in breast cancer reveals interactions with main signalling cascades and extends the findings from cell culture experiments. Our results reveal possible mechanisms underlying cancer development.

  11. Physical Activity Patterns During Pregnancy in a Sample of Portuguese Women: A Longitudinal Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Paula Clara; Abreu, Sandra; Moreira, Carla; Santos, Rute; Ferreira, Margarida; Alves, Odete; Moreira, Pedro; Mota, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) patterns during pregnancy have not been explored in depth and most previous studies lack assessment of variables such as type, frequency, duration and intensity of activity. Objectives This study had two goals: 1) to analyze PA patterns during pregnancy according to weekly time spent on different types of activity; and 2) to determine women’s perception about health care providers regarding PA advisement during pregnancy. Patients and Methods A longitudinal prospective study was carried out with a 118-pregnant women cohort. Participants were evaluated during all trimesters. Self-reported questionnaires were used to collect personal and obstetric data. Type, duration and frequency of PA were evaluated using the pregnancy physical activity questionnaire (PPAQ) and intensity levels were calculated. Repeated measure analysis of variance was performed to determine differences between trimesters, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed when appropriate. Results A decrease in values of self-reported PA (MET.h.wk-1) was found from the first to the second and the first to the third trimester of pregnancy, respectively; total (270.91 vs 220.54 vs 210.35; P < 0.01), light (109.45 vs 95.11vs 92.40; P < 0.01) and moderate intensity (81.99 vs 50.69 vs 62.94; P = 0.002). Time spent on most activities remained fairly stable throughout pregnancy. Women spent most of their weekly time during the entire pregnancy on household and caregiving activities, occupational activities and leisure, except sport activities. Swimming was the most reported organized PA, reaching its highest proportion (12.7%) in the second trimester. Prenatal exercise classes were reported by 39.8% of women during the 3rd trimester. Pregnant women reported that PA was recommended by health professionals: 53.9% in the 1st trimester, 70.4% in the 2nd trimester and 56.8% in the 3rd trimester. Conclusions Self-reported PA decreased, especially from the first to the second

  12. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I.; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  13. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R H; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  14. Specific identification of Lachesis muta muta snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme, LV-PA.

    PubMed

    Felicori, Liza F; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Sánchez, Eladio F

    2005-05-01

    Sandwich-type enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed to detect Lachesis muta muta (bushmaster) snake venom using antibodies against the plasminogen activator enzyme (LV-PA). Antibodies to LV-PA were obtained by immunization of one rabbit with the purified enzyme. The IgG fraction was purified from rabbit blood in a single step on a column of Sepharose-L. m. muta venom and used to coat the microtiter plates. The specificity of the assay was demonstrated by its capacity to correctly discriminate between the circulating antigens in mice that were experimentally inoculated with L. m. muta venom from those in mice inoculated with venoms from Bothrops atrox, B. brazili, B. castelnaudi, Bothriopsis taeniata, B. bilineata, Crotalus durissus ruruima and the antigenic Bothrops (AgB) and Crotalus (AgC) pools venoms used to produce Bothropic and Crotalic antivenoms at Fundacao Ezequiel Dias (FUNED). Measurable absorbance signals were obtained with 1.5 ng of venom per assay. The ELISA was used to follow the kinetic distribution of antigens in experimentally envenomed mice. PMID:15804530

  15. Progression of Osteosarcoma from a Non-Metastatic to a Metastatic Phenotype Is Causally Associated with Activation of an Autocrine and Paracrine uPA Axis

    PubMed Central

    Endo-Munoz, Liliana; Cai, Na; Cumming, Andrew; Macklin, Rebecca; Merida de Long, Lilia; Topkas, Eleni; Mukhopadhyay, Pamela; Hill, Michelle; Saunders, Nicholas A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary metastasis is the major untreatable complication of osteosarcoma (OS) resulting in 10–20% long-term survival. The factors and pathways regulating these processes remain unclear, yet their identification is crucial in order to find new therapeutic targets. In this study we used a multi-omics approach to identify molecules in metastatic and non-metastatic OS cells that may contribute to OS metastasis, followed by validation in vitro and in vivo. We found elevated levels of the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) and of the uPA receptor (uPAR) exclusively in metastatic OS cells. uPA was secreted in soluble form and as part of the protein cargo of OS-secreted extracellular vesicles, including exosomes. In addition, in the tumour microenvironment, uPA was expressed and secreted by bone marrow cells (BMC), and OS- and BMC-derived uPA significantly and specifically stimulated migration of metastatic OS cells via uPA-dependent signaling pathways. Silencing of uPAR in metastatic OS cells abrogated the migratory response to uPA in vitro and decreased metastasis in vivo. Finally, a novel small-molecule inhibitor of uPA significantly (P = 0.0004) inhibited metastasis in an orthotopic mouse model of OS. Thus, we show for the first time that malignant conversion of OS cells to a metastatic phenotype is defined by activation of the uPA/uPAR axis in both an autocrine and paracrine fashion. Furthermore, metastasis is driven by changes in OS cells as well as in the microenvironment. Finally, our data show that pharmacological inhibition of the uPA/uPAR axis with a novel small-molecule inhibitor can prevent the emergence of metastatic foci. PMID:26317203

  16. Understanding intra-neighborhood patterns in PM2.5 and PM10 using mobile monitoring in Braddock, PA

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Braddock, Pennsylvania is home to the Edgar Thomson Steel Works (ETSW), one of the few remaining active steel mills in the Pittsburgh region. An economically distressed area, Braddock exceeds average annual (>15 μg/m3) and daily (>35 μg/m3) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM2.5). Methods A mobile air monitoring study was designed and implemented in morning and afternoon hours in the summer and winter (2010–2011) to explore the within-neighborhood spatial and temporal (within-day and between-day) variability in PM2.5 and PM10. Results Both pollutants displayed spatial variation between stops, and substantial temporal variation within and across study days. For summer morning sampling runs, site-specific mean PM2.5 ranged from 30.0 (SD = 3.3) to 55.1 (SD = 13.0) μg/m3. Mean PM10 ranged from 30.4 (SD = 2.5) to 69.7 (SD = 51.2) μg/m3, respectively. During summer months, afternoon concentrations were significantly lower than morning for both PM2.5 and PM10, potentially owing to morning subsidence inversions. Winter concentrations were lower than summer, on average, and showed lesser diurnal variation. Temperature, wind speed, and wind direction predicted significant variability in PM2.5 and PM10 in multiple linear regression models. Conclusions Data reveals significant morning versus afternoon variability and spatial variability in both PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations within Braddock. Information obtained on peak concentration periods, and the combined effects of industry, traffic, and elevation in this region informed the design of a larger stationary monitoring network. PMID:23051204

  17. Prognostic value of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and its complex with the type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Witte, J H de; Sweep, C G J; Klijn, J G M; Grebenschikov, N; Peters, H A; Look, M P; Tienoven, ThH van; Heuvel, J J T M; Vries, J Bolt-De; Benraad, ThJ; Foekens, J A

    1999-01-01

    The prognostic value of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) measured in samples derived from 865 patients with primary breast cancer using a recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was evaluated. Since the assay could easily be adapted to the assessment of the complex of tPA with its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1), it was investigated whether the tPA:PAI-1 complex also provides prognostic information. To this end, cytosolic extracts and corresponding detergent extracts of 100 000 g pellets obtained after ultracentrifugation when preparing the cytosolic fractions for routine steroid hormone receptor determination were assayed. Statistically significant correlations were found between the cytosolic levels and those determined in the pellet extracts (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = 0.75, P < 0.001 for tPA and r = 0.50, P < 0.001 for tPA:PAI-1 complex). In both Cox univariate and multivariate analysis elevated levels of (total) tPA determined in the pellet extracts, but not in cytosols, were associated with prolonged relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS). In contrast, high levels of the tPA:PAI-1 complex measured in cytosols, but not in the pellet extracts, were associated with a poor RFS and OS. The prognostic information provided by the cytosolic tPA:PAI-1 complex was comparable to that provided by cytosolic (total) PAI-1. Furthermore, the estimated levels of free, uncomplexed tPA and PAI-1, in cytosols and in pellet extracts, were related to patient prognosis in a similar way as the (total) levels of tPA and PAI-1 respectively. Determination of specific forms of components of the plasminogen activation system, i.e. tPA:PAI-1 complex and free, uncomplexed tPA and/or PAI-1, may be considered a useful adjunct to the analyses of the separate components (tPA and/or PAI-1) and provide valuable additional prognostic information with respect to survival of breast cancer patients. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10390010

  18. Patterns of seismic activity preceding large earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Bruce E.; Carlson, J. M.; Langer, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanical model of seismic faults is employed to investigate the seismic activities that occur prior to major events. The block-and-spring model dynamically generates a statistical distribution of smaller slipping events that precede large events, and the results satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter law. The scaling behavior during a loading cycle suggests small but systematic variations in space and time with maximum activity acceleration near the future epicenter. Activity patterns inferred from data on seismicity in California demonstrate a regional aspect; increased activity in certain areas are found to precede major earthquake events. One example is given regarding the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 which is located near a fault section associated with increased activity levels.

  19. Enhancement of t-PA-mediated plasminogen activation by partially defucosylated glycosaminoglycans from the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kariya, Yutaka; Sakai, Tokiko; Kaneko, Takuji; Suzuki, Kiyoshi; Kyogashima, Mamoru

    2002-08-01

    Sea cucumber glycosaminoglycan (SC-GAG) was isolated from the body wall of the sea cucumber Stichopus japonicus. The SC-GAG consists of a chondroitin sulfate E-type core polymer with sulfated fucose branches attaching glycosidically to almost every disaccharide unit of the core polymer at the C-3 position of the GlcA or at C-4 and/or C-6 position(s) of GalNAc. SC-GAG was subjected to mild acid-hydrolysis, which cleaved selectively the glycosidic linkages between the core polymer and the fucose branches, resulting in two types of partially defucosylated SC-GAG derivatives. One type (type A), obtained by 3 h-hydrolysis, contained 33% of the fucose branches and the other type (type B), obtained by 6-h hydrolysis, contained 10% of the fucose branches. The molecular masses of types A and B were determined to be 8 and 4 kDa, respectively, by gel permeation HPLC. A chondroitinase ABC (Chase ABC)-digestion demonstrated that types A and B contained 46 and 66% of digestable disaccharide units, respectively, and both types contained 29% of E-type unsaturated disaccharide units bearing no fucose branches. Intact SC-GAG and types A and B were compared for t-PA-mediated plasminogen activation by an in vitro assay system. Although intact SC-GAG and type B exhibited rather weak activity at 6.25 microg/ml, type A exhibited 5 to 10-fold higher activity than intact SC-GAG and type B at the same concentration. The activity of type A was almost one-third that of purified chondroitin sulfate E (127 kDa containing 64.5% E-type disaccharide units) from squid cartilage at 6.25 microg/ml concentration. These results suggest that t-PA-mediated plasminogen activation requires the presence of E-type disaccharide units bearing no fucose branches and a molecular mass larger than 7.5 kDa in terms of the chondroitin sulfate E structure with or without fucose branching.

  20. Levels and Patterns of Objectively Assessed Physical Activity and Compliance with Different Public Health Guidelines in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Solera-Martínez, Monserrat; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Silva, Pedro; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Cañete-García-Prieto, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health enhancement. The aim of this study was to assess: 1) levels and patterns of PA in university students by using accelerometers; and 2) the percentage of fulfilment of PA recommendations for adults, according to different public health guidelines. Methods Observational cross-sectional study (Cuenca’s Adults Study) involving 296 (206 women) healthy Spanish university students aged 18–25 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Total PA, steps and time spent in sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed, and the prevalence of sufficient PA was calculated according to various public health guidelines. Results No sex differences in total PA were found. University students were more sedentary during weekend days than weekdays (p<0.05). Only 30.3% of participants accumulated 30 min/day at least five days a week of MVPA. A total of 5.4% of students met the recommendation of 150 min/week of MVPA or 75 min/week of vigorous PA, in PA bouts of at least 10 min. using the same definition, but on five or more days a week, only 0.5% students were found to meet the recommendation. In addition, only 0.5% of students met the recommendation of 30 min/day of MVPA, at least five days a week and in bouts of at least 10 min. Finally, 28.1% of the students met the recommendation of 10,000 steps/day. Conclusions Our study shows a high incidence of sedentary time in university students. The number of students meeting PA recommendations significantly differed depending on the recommendation proposed. Specific strategies to promote PA in this population are necessary as well as an agreement as to which PA guidelines should be used. PMID:26536605

  1. Decoding patterns of human brain activity.

    PubMed

    Tong, Frank; Pratte, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    Considerable information about mental states can be decoded from noninvasive measures of human brain activity. Analyses of brain activity patterns can reveal what a person is seeing, perceiving, attending to, or remembering. Moreover, multidimensional models can be used to investigate how the brain encodes complex visual scenes or abstract semantic information. Such feats of "brain reading" or "mind reading," though impressive, raise important conceptual, methodological, and ethical issues. What does successful decoding reveal about the cognitive functions performed by a brain region? How should brain signals be spatially selected and mathematically combined to ensure that decoding reflects inherent computations of the brain rather than those performed by the decoder? We highlight recent advances and describe how multivoxel pattern analysis can provide a window into mind-brain relationships with unprecedented specificity, when carefully applied. However, as brain-reading technology advances, issues of neuroethics and mental privacy will be important to consider.

  2. Walking or Dancing: Patterns of Physical Activity by Cross-Sectional Age Among U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jessie X.; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To identify age differences in physical activity (PA) participation for women. Methods Data from 3,952 women 25+ from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) were used to analyze participation patterns for 17 PA types. Results The top five leisure PAs by participation rate for all ages were walking (42%), dancing (20%), treadmill (15%), biking (11%), and yoga (10%). Participation in running, dancing, treadmill, and team sports declined around ages 35 to 44, and participation in household PA, walking, weightlifting, and hiking declined around ages 55 to 64. At age 75+ further substantial decline in most activities occurred. Nativity status was the most important moderator for age-related PA decline. Conclusions Total PA declines with age but significant decline does not occur until ages 55 to 64. Major decline in leisure PA participation starts earlier at ages 35 to 44. While age-related declining patterns differ for different activities, the top five most popular leisure activities are similar for all age groups. PMID:23867628

  3. Pattern Activity Clustering and Evaluation (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Banas, Christopher; Paul, Michael; Bussjager, Becky; Seetharaman, Guna

    2012-06-01

    With the vast amount of network information available on activities of people (i.e. motions, transportation routes, and site visits) there is a need to explore the salient properties of data that detect and discriminate the behavior of individuals. Recent machine learning approaches include methods of data mining, statistical analysis, clustering, and estimation that support activity-based intelligence. We seek to explore contemporary methods in activity analysis using machine learning techniques that discover and characterize behaviors that enable grouping, anomaly detection, and adversarial intent prediction. To evaluate these methods, we describe the mathematics and potential information theory metrics to characterize behavior. A scenario is presented to demonstrate the concept and metrics that could be useful for layered sensing behavior pattern learning and analysis. We leverage work on group tracking, learning and clustering approaches; as well as utilize information theoretical metrics for classification, behavioral and event pattern recognition, and activity and entity analysis. The performance evaluation of activity analysis supports high-level information fusion of user alerts, data queries and sensor management for data extraction, relations discovery, and situation analysis of existing data.

  4. Influence of activity patterns in fitness during youth.

    PubMed

    Aires, L; Silva, G; Martins, C; Santos, M P; Ribeiro, J C; Mota, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze longitudinal associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and body mass index in a 4-year longitudinal study. 170 students (97 girls and 73 boys) aged at baseline from 11 to 17 years were followed. Students performed 20-m-SR; physical activity patterns and parents' education were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Body mass index was categorized according to established cut points. In a multilevel analysis using MLwIN, 2 level structures were defined: first for individuals and second for time observations. In a longitudinal 2 level analysis, cardiorespiratory fitness was -negatively associated with body mass index for girls and boys, respectively (p<0.05; R2=0.63; 0.62), especially with obesity category (p<0.01; R2=0.58; 0.60). In girls, independent associations were observed between CRF and PA categories regarding participation "almost every day" in organized (p<0.05; R2=0.50) and non-organized sports outside school (p<0.05; R2=0.52) and participation in sports competitions (p<0.05; R2=0.51). In boys, associations were found only with participation in sports competitions (p<0.05; R2=0.50). The results highlight the importance of youth participation in organized activities and competitive sports over time to achieve health-related fitness benefits.

  5. Physical activity patterns among Minnesota Somali adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Thul, Chelsey M.; Eisenberg, Marla E.; Larson, Nicole I.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the physical activity patterns of Somali adolescents. This study compared time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and participation in specific physical activities among Somali, other Non-Hispanic black and white adolescents. Methods A subsample of 1,268 adolescents (mean age= 14.6) who completed surveys as part of the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study was included in analyses. Gender-stratified linear and logistic regressions, controlling for body mass index and demographic characteristics, were conducted to estimate mean weekly hours of self-reported MVPA and mean weekly hours and prevalence of engagement in each of 26 physical activities assessed by ethnic/racial group. Results Somali girls had lower mean MVPA hours than their peers; however, no differences were found for Somali boys. Involvement in most activities was similar for Somali and other groups, but some differences were observed. For example, Somali youth were more likely to play soccer than their same-sex other black peers (boys: 52.4% vs. 20.4%; girls: 34.6% vs. 14.6%; p<.05). Somali girls also engaged in more hours per week of soccer than their black or white peers. Conclusions Activities for which Somali youth indicated higher involvement may be particularly relevant for culturally-tailored physical activity programming. PMID:25493419

  6. Pattern formation in Active Polar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Arvind; Hagan, Michael; Baskaran, Aparna

    2011-03-01

    Systems such as bacterial suspensions or cytoskeletal filaments and motility assays can be described within the paradigm of active polar fluids. These systems have been shown to exhibit pattern formation raging from asters and vortices to traveling stripes. A coarse-grained description of such a fluid is given by a scalar density field and a vector polarization field. We study such a macroscopic description of the system using weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical simulations to map out the emergent pattern formation as a function of the hydrodynamic parameters in the context of two specific microscopic models - a quasi-2D suspension of cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins and a system of self propelled hard rods that interact through excluded volume interactions. The authors thank the Brandeis MRSEC center for financial support.

  7. Circulation patterns in active lava lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, T. C.; Lev, E.

    2014-12-01

    Active lava lakes provide a unique window into magmatic conduit processes. We investigated circulation patterns of 4 active lava lakes: Kilauea's Halemaumau crater, Mount Erebus, Erta Ale and Nyiragongo, and in an artificial "lava lake" constructed at the Syracuse University Lava Lab. We employed visual and thermal video recordings collected at these volcanoes and use computer vision techniques to extract time-dependent, two-dimensional surface velocity maps. The large amount of data available from Halemaumau enabled us to identify several characteristic circulation patterns. One such pattern is a rapid acceleration followed by rapid deceleration, often to a level lower than the pre-acceleration level, and then a slow recovery. Another pattern is periodic asymmetric peaks of gradual acceleration and rapid deceleration, or vice versa, previously explained by gas pistoning. Using spectral analysis, we find that the dominant period of circulation cycles at approximately 30 minutes, 3 times longer than the dominant period identified previously for Mount Erebus. Measuring a complete surface velocity field allowed us to map and follow locations of divergence and convergence, therefore upwelling and downwelling, thus connecting the surface flow with that at depth. At Nyiragongo, the location of main upwelling shifts gradually, yet is usually at the interior of the lake, for Erebus it is usually along the perimeter yet often there is catastrophic downwelling at the interior; For Halemaumau upwelling/downwelling position is almost always on the perimeter. In addition to velocity fields, we developed an automated tool for counting crustal plates at the surface of the lava lakes, and found a correlation, and a lag time, between changes if circulation vigor and the average size of crustal plates. Circulation in the artificial basaltic lava "lake" was limited by its size and degree of foaming, yet we measured surface velocities and identify patterns. Maximum surface velocity

  8. Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

    2012-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

  9. Allelic imbalance of tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) gene expression in human brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Tjarnlund-Wolf, A; Hultman, K; Curtis, M A; Faull, R L M; Medcalf, R L; Jern, C

    2011-06-01

    We have identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the t-PA enhancer (-7351C>T), which is associated with endothelial t-PA release in vivo. In vitro studies demonstrated that this SNP is functional at the level of transcription. In the brain, t-PA has been implicated in both physiologic and pathophysiologic processes. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the t-PA -7351C>T SNP on t-PA gene expression in human brain tissue. Allelic mRNA expression was measured in heterozygous post-mortem brain tissues using quantitative TaqMan genotyping assay. Protein-DNA interactions were assessed using electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Significantly higher levels of t-PA mRNA were generated from chromosomes that harboured the wild-type -7351C allele, as compared to those generated from the mutant T allele (for the hippocampus, C to T allelic ratio of ~1.3, p=0.010, n=12; and for the cortex, C to T allelic ratio of ~1.2, p=0.017, n=12). EMSA showed reduced neuronal and astrocytic nuclear protein binding affinity to the T allele, and identified Sp1 and Sp3 as the major transcription factors that bound to the -7351 site. ChIP analyses confirmed that Sp1 recognises this site in intact cells. In conclusion, the t-PA -7351C>T SNP affects t-PA gene expression in human brain tissue. This finding might have clinical implications for neurological conditions associated with enhanced t-PA levels, such as in the acute phase of cerebral ischaemia, and also for stroke recovery.

  10. Dynamic patterns of academic forum activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show rich dynamic patterns. In this article, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic patterns of 50 thousands of researchers' activities in Sciencenet, the largest multi-disciplinary academic community in China. Through statistical analyses, we found that (i) there exists a power-law scaling between the frequency of visits to an academic forum and the number of corresponding visitors, with the exponent being about 1.33; (ii) the expansion process of academic forums obeys the Heaps' law, namely the number of distinct visited forums to the number of visits grows in a power-law form with exponent being about 0.54; (iii) the probability distributions of time intervals and the number of visits taken to revisit the same academic forum both follow power-laws, indicating the existence of memory effect in academic forum activities. On the basis of these empirical results, we propose a dynamic model that incorporates the exploration, preferential return with memory effect, which can well reproduce the observed scaling laws.

  11. New activity pattern in human interactive dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formentin, Marco; Lovison, Alberto; Maritan, Amos; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the response function of human agents as demonstrated by written correspondence, uncovering a new pattern for how the reactive dynamics of individuals is distributed across the set of each agent’s contacts. In long-term empirical data on email, we find that the set of response times considered separately for the messages to each different correspondent of a given writer, generate a family of heavy-tailed distributions, which have largely the same features for all agents, and whose characteristic times grow exponentially with the rank of each correspondent. We furthermore show that this new behavioral pattern emerges robustly by considering weighted moving averages of the priority-conditioned response-time probabilities generated by a basic prioritization model. Our findings clarify how the range of priorities in the inputs from one’s environment underpin and shape the dynamics of agents embedded in a net of reactive relations. These newly revealed activity patterns might be universal, being present in other general interactive environments, and constrain future models of communication and interaction networks, affecting their architecture and evolution.

  12. A novel small-molecule inhibitor of influenza A virus acts by suppressing PA endonuclease activity of the viral polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shuofeng; Chu, Hin; Singh, Kailash; Zhao, Hanjun; Zhang, Ke; Kao, Richard Y. T.; Chow, Billy K. C.; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Bo-Jian

    2016-01-01

    The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza A virus comprises conserved and independently-folded subdomains with defined functionalities. The N-terminal domain of the PA subunit (PAN) harbors the endonuclease function so that it can serve as a desired target for drug discovery. To identify a class of anti-influenza inhibitors that impedes PAN endonuclease activity, a screening approach that integrated the fluorescence resonance energy transfer based endonuclease inhibitory assay with the DNA gel-based endonuclease inhibitory assay was conducted, followed by the evaluation of antiviral efficacies and potential cytotoxicity of the primary hits in vitro and in vivo. A small-molecule compound ANA-0 was identified as a potent inhibitor against the replication of multiple subtypes of influenza A virus, including H1N1, H3N2, H5N1, H7N7, H7N9 and H9N2, in cell cultures. Combinational treatment of zanamivir and ANA-0 exerted synergistic anti-influenza effect in vitro. Intranasal administration of ANA-0 protected mice from lethal challenge and reduced lung viral loads in H1N1 virus infected BALB/c mice. In summary, ANA-0 shows potential to be developed to novel anti-influenza agents. PMID:26956222

  13. Characteristic amino acid changes of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus PA protein enhance A(H7N9) viral polymerase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Feng; Zhang, Junsong; Tan, Likai; Lu, Gen; Zhang, Xu; Zhang, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Human coinfection with a novel H7N9 influenza virus and the 2009 pandemic A(H1N1) influenza virus, H1N1pdm09, has recently been reported in China. Because reassortment can occur during coinfection, it is necessary to clarify the effects of gene reassortment between these two viruses. Among the viral ribonucleoprotein complex (vRNP) genes, only the PA gene of H1N1pdm09 enhances the avian influenza viral polymerase activity. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, we show a special evolutionary feature of the H1N1pdm09 PA gene, which clustered with those of the novel H7N9 virus and related H9N2 viruses, rather than in the outgroup as the H1N1pdm09 genes do on the phylogenetic trees of other vRNP genes. Using a minigenome system of the novel H7N9 virus, we further demonstrate that replacement of its PA gene significantly enhanced its polymerase activity, whereas replacement of the other vRNP genes reduced its polymerase activity. We also show that the residues of PA evolutionarily conserved between H1N1pdm09 and the novel H7N9 virus are associated with attenuated or neutral polymerase activity. The mutations associated with the increased activity of the novel H7N9 polymerase are characteristic of the H1N1pdm09 gene, and are located almost adjacent to the surface of the PA protein. Our results suggest that the novel H7N9 virus has more effective PB1, PB2, and NP genes than H1N1pdm09, and that H1N1pdm09-like PA mutations enhance the novel H7N9 polymerase function.

  14. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  15. Maduramicin Rapidly Eliminates Malaria Parasites and Potentiates the Gametocytocidal Activity of the Pyrazoleamide PA21A050

    PubMed Central

    Maron, Maxim I.; Magle, Crystal T.; Czesny, Beata; Turturice, Benjamin A.; Huang, Ruili; Zheng, Wei; Vaidya, Akhil B.

    2015-01-01

    New strategies targeting Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes, the sexual-stage parasites that are responsible for malaria transmission, are needed to eradicate this disease. Most commonly used antimalarials are ineffective against P. falciparum gametocytes, allowing patients to continue to be infectious for over a week after asexual parasite clearance. A recent screen for gametocytocidal compounds demonstrated that the carboxylic polyether ionophore maduramicin is active at low nanomolar concentrations against P. falciparum sexual stages. In this study, we showed that maduramicin has an EC50 (effective concentration that inhibits the signal by 50%) of 14.8 nM against late-stage gametocytes and significantly blocks in vivo transmission in a mouse model of malaria transmission. In contrast to other reported gametocytocidal agents, maduramicin acts rapidly in vitro, eliminating gametocytes and asexual schizonts in less than 12 h without affecting uninfected red blood cells (RBCs). Ring stage parasites are cleared by 24 h. Within an hour of drug treatment, 40% of the normally crescent-shaped gametocytes round up and become spherical. The number of round gametocytes increases to >60% by 2 h, even before a change in membrane potential as monitored by MitoProbe DiIC1 (5) is detectable. Maduramicin is not preferentially taken up by gametocyte-infected RBCs compared to uninfected RBCs, suggesting that gametocytes are more sensitive to alterations in cation concentration than RBCs. Moreover, the addition of 15.6 nM maduramicin enhanced the gametocytocidal activity of the pyrazoleamide PA21A050, which is a promising new antimalarial candidate associated with an increase in intracellular Na+ concentration that is proposed to be due to inhibition of PfATP4, a putative Na+ pump. These results underscore the importance of cation homeostasis in sexual as well as asexual intraerythrocytic-stage P. falciparum parasites and the potential of targeting this pathway for drug development

  16. Visual pattern recognition based on spatio-temporal patterns of retinal ganglion cells’ activities

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Wei; Liu, Wen-Zhong; Gong, Xin-Wei; Gong, Hai-Qing

    2010-01-01

    Neural information is processed based on integrated activities of relevant neurons. Concerted population activity is one of the important ways for retinal ganglion cells to efficiently organize and process visual information. In the present study, the spike activities of bullfrog retinal ganglion cells in response to three different visual patterns (checker-board, vertical gratings and horizontal gratings) were recorded using multi-electrode arrays. A measurement of subsequence distribution discrepancy (MSDD) was applied to identify the spatio-temporal patterns of retinal ganglion cells’ activities in response to different stimulation patterns. The results show that the population activity patterns were different in response to different stimulation patterns, such difference in activity pattern was consistently detectable even when visual adaptation occurred during repeated experimental trials. Therefore, the stimulus pattern can be reliably discriminated according to the spatio-temporal pattern of the neuronal activities calculated using the MSDD algorithm. PMID:21886670

  17. Patterns of weekday and weekend physical activity in youth in 2 Canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Comte, Melisa; Hobin, Erin; Majumdar, Sumit R; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Ball, Geoff D C; McGavock, Jonathan

    2013-02-01

    Few Canadian children are meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines for optimal growth and health. There is little information describing the patterns of PA among Canadian youth, so it is difficult to determine where the deficits occur. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of youth and windows of time characterized by low PA and high sedentary behaviour. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 626 youth (aged 10-15 years) in 2 Canadian provinces. The primary exposure variables included geographic setting (rural vs. urban), sex, and days of the week (weekend days vs. weekdays). The primary outcome measures were minutes of light PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and sedentary behavior, assessed with accelerometry. Compared with weekdays, MVPA was ∼30% lower on weekend days (55.8 ± 23.0 min vs. 38.7 ± 26.7 min; p < 0.001), whereas light PA was ∼15% higher. Significantly more youth achieved an average of >60 min of MVPA on weekdays than on weekend days (46% vs. 22%; p < 0.001). Sex-specific differences in MVPA were more pronounced on weekdays than on weekend days (∼13 vs ∼8 min per day; p < 0.01). Youth in rural settings achieved ∼9 fewer minutes of MVPA daily than youth in urban settings (p < 0.001). In youth 10 to 15 years of age, daily MVPA is lower and light PA is higher on weekend days than on weekdays. Girls and students living in rural areas were particularly vulnerable to low levels of MVPA.

  18. The impact of the built environment on young people's physical activity patterns: a suburban-rural comparison using GPS.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya; Nevill, Alan; Lyons, Mark

    2012-08-24

    The built environment in which young people live has a significant influence on their physical activity (PA). However, little is known regarding how youth from suburban and rural settings utilise their surrounding environments to participate in free-living PA. 50 adolescents aged 13-14 years old (22 rural; 28 suburban) wore an integrated GPS and heart rate device during non-school hours and completed a daily PA diary over 7 days. Descriptive statistics and analyses of variance were used to explore differences in the amount and location of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) between genders and youth from different geographical settings. Suburban youth participated in significantly (p = 0.004) more daily PA (52.14 minutes MVPA) and were more extensive in their utilisation of their surroundings, compared to rural youth (26.61 minutes MVPA). Suburban youth visited more public recreational facilities and spent significantly more time outdoors and on local streets (109.71 minutes and 44.62 minutes, respectively) compared to rural youth (55.98 minutes and 17.15 minutes, respectively) during weekdays. Rural youth on average spent significantly more time within the home (350.69 minutes) during weekends compared to suburban youth (214.82 minutes). Rural females were the least active group of adolescents, participating in the least amount of daily PA (20.14 minutes MVPA) and spending the least amount of time outdoors (31.37 minutes) during weekdays. Time spent outdoors was positively associated with PA. The findings highlight the disparity in PA levels and the utilisation of the surrounding built environment between youth from two different geographical settings and possible environmental causes are discussed. The study supports the use of GPS (combined with other methods) in investigating geographical differences in young people's PA and movement patterns. This method provides a wealth of information that may assist future policies and interventions in identifying

  19. Regulation of the sacPA operon of Bacillus subtilis: identification of phosphotransferase system components involved in SacT activity.

    PubMed

    Arnaud, M; Vary, P; Zagorec, M; Klier, A; Debarbouille, M; Postma, P; Rapoport, G

    1992-05-01

    The sacT gene which controls the sacPA operon of Bacillus subtilis encodes a polypeptide homologous to the B. subtilis SacY and the Escherichia coli BglG antiterminators. Expression of the sacT gene is shown to be constitutive. The DNA sequence upstream from sacP contains a palindromic sequence which functions as a transcriptional terminator. We have previously proposed that SacT acts as a transcriptional antiterminator, allowing transcription of the sacPA operon. In strains containing mutations inactivating ptsH or ptsI, the expression of sacPA and sacB is constitutive. In this work, we show that this constitutivity is due to a fully active SacY antiterminator. In the wild-type sacT+ strain or in the sacT30 mutant, SacT requires both enzyme I and HPr of the phosphotransferase system (PTS) for antitermination. It appears that the PTS exerts different effects on the sacB gene and the sacPA operon. The general proteins of the PTS are not required for the activity of SacY while they are necessary for SacT activity. PMID:1577686

  20. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  1. Prognostic impact of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in cytosols and pellet extracts derived from 892 breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    de Witte, J H; Sweep, C G J; Klijn, J G M; Grebenschikov, N; Peters, H A; Look, M P; van Tienoven, Th H; Heuvel, J J T M; van Putten, W L J; Benraad, Th J; Foekens, J A

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical relevance of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its type-1 inhibitor (PAI-1) measured by a recently developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we analysed both components in samples derived from 892 patients with primary breast cancer (median follow-up 99 months). The assays were performed in cytosolic extracts as well as in corresponding detergent extracts of pellets obtained after ultracentrifugation, which was carried out when preparing the cytosolic fractions for routine steroid hormone receptor determination. Statistically significant correlations were found between the cytosolic levels and those determined in the pellet extracts (Spearman correlation coefficient rs = 0.60, P < 0.0001 for uPA and rs = 0.65, P < 0.0001 for PAI-1). Furthermore, strong correlations were found between the levels of both uPA (rs = 0.85, P < 0.0001) and PAI-1 (rs = 0.90, P < 0.0001) in the cytosols and their levels previously measured with ELISAs based on commercial reagents. In both Cox univariate and multivariate analysis, high cytosolic levels of uPA or PAI-1 were significantly associated with increased rates of relapse and death. The levels of uPA and PAI-1 in the pellet extracts also provided prognostic information, although to a lesser extent compared with the cytosolic extracts. The prediction of prognosis on the basis of uPA and PAI-1 assessed by an alternative ELISA once again emphasizes the established prognostic role and usefulness of these parameters in selection of breast cancer patients at high or low risk of recurrence. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098758

  2. Differential roles of the COOH termini of AAA subunits of PA700 (19 S regulator) in asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Thomas G; Kumar, Brajesh; Thompson, David; Slaughter, Clive A; DeMartino, George N

    2008-11-14

    The 26 S proteasome is an energy-dependent protease that degrades proteins modified with polyubiquitin chains. It is assembled from two multi-protein subcomplexes: a protease (20 S proteasome) and an ATPase regulatory complex (PA700 or 19 S regulatory particle) that contains six different AAA family subunits (Rpt1 to -6). Here we show that binding of PA700 to the 20 S proteasome is mediated by the COOH termini of two (Rpt2 and Rpt5) of the six Rpt subunits that constitute the interaction surface between the subcomplexes. COOH-terminal peptides of either Rpt2 or Rpt5 bind to the 20 S proteasome and activate hydrolysis of short peptide substrates. Simultaneous binding of both COOH-terminal peptides had additive effects on peptide substrate hydrolysis, suggesting that they bind to distinct sites on the proteasome. In contrast, only the Rpt5 peptide activated hydrolysis of protein substrates. Nevertheless, the COOH-terminal peptide of Rpt2 greatly enhanced this effect, suggesting that proteasome activation is a multistate process. Rpt2 and Rpt5 COOH-terminal peptides cross-linked to different but specific subunits of the 20 S proteasome. These results reveal critical roles of COOH termini of Rpt subunits of PA700 in the assembly and activation of eukaryotic 26 S proteasome. Moreover, they support a model in which Rpt subunits bind to dedicated sites on the proteasome and play specific, nonequivalent roles in the asymmetric assembly and activation of the 26 S proteasome.

  3. Tyrosine Nitration of PA700 Activates the 26S Proteasome to Induce Endothelial Dysfunction in Mice With Angiotensin II–Induced Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Wang, Shuangxi; Wu, Yong; Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2010-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome system has been implicated in oxidative stress–induced endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases. However, the mechanism by which oxidative stress alters the ubiquitin-proteasome system is poorly defined. The present study was conducted to determine whether oxidative modifications of PA700, a 26S proteasome regulatory subunit, contributes to angiotensin II (Ang II)–induced endothelial dysfunction. Exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to low concentrations of Ang II, but not vehicle, for 6 hours significantly decreased the levels of tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4), an essential cofactor of endothelial NO synthase, which was accompanied by a decrease in GTP cyclohydrolase I, the rate-limiting enzyme for de novo BH4 synthesis. In addition, Ang II increased both tyrosine nitration of PA700 and the 26S proteasome activity, which were paralleled by increased coimmunoprecipitation of PA700 and the 20S proteasome. Genetic inhibition of NAD(P)H oxidase or administration of uric acid (a peroxynitrite scavenger) or NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (nonselective NO synthase inhibitor) significantly attenuated Ang II–induced PA700 nitration, 26S proteasome activation, and reduction of GTP cyclohydrolase I and BH4. Finally, Ang II infusion in mice decreased the levels of both BH4 and GTP cyclohydrolase I and impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation in isolated aortas, and all of these effects were prevented by the administration of MG132, a potent inhibitor for 26S proteasome. We conclude that Ang II increases tyrosine nitration of PA700 resulting in accelerated GTP cyclohydrolase I degradation, BH4 deficiency, and consequent endothelial dysfunction in hypertension. PMID:19597039

  4. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  5. Iron oxide nanoparticles protected by NIR-active multidentate-polymers as multifunctional nanoprobes for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yayun; Gao, Duyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Chuansheng; Wan, Qian; Chen, Chi; Gong, Ping; Gao, Guanhui; Sheng, Zonghai; Cai, Lintao

    2015-12-01

    We designed and synthesized new kinds of near-infrared catechol-based multidentate polymers which were intended to yield compact NIR-active iron oxide nanoparticles with excellent stability and biocompatibility. The resulted multifunctional nanoprobes showed great potential as multimodal contrast agents for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging in vivo.We designed and synthesized new kinds of near-infrared catechol-based multidentate polymers which were intended to yield compact NIR-active iron oxide nanoparticles with excellent stability and biocompatibility. The resulted multifunctional nanoprobes showed great potential as multimodal contrast agents for NIRF/PA/MR trimodal imaging in vivo. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experiment and Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06660c

  6. Source and Type of Support for In-School Physical Activity: Differential Patterns for Demographic Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Noel L.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Thomas, Erica; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Centeio, Erin E.; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results of prior research on social support (SS) for physical activity (PA) have been inconsistent. Purpose: The study aim was to expand the SS and PA literature by focusing on children, examining associated variables such as weight, race/ethnicity, and sex, and use objectively measured PA and inclusive targets of SS. Methods:…

  7. PtrA Is Functionally Intertwined with GacS in Regulating the Biocontrol Activity of Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nidhi; Klaponski, Natasha; Selin, Carrie; Rudney, Rachel; Fernando, W. G. Dilantha; Belmonte, Mark F.; de Kievit, Teresa R.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro inhibition of the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23 is reliant upon a LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) called PtrA. In the current study, we show that Sclerotinia stem rot and leaf infection are significantly increased in canola plants inoculated with the ptrA-mutant compared to the wild type, establishing PtrA as an essential regulator of PA23 biocontrol. LTTRs typically regulate targets that are upstream of and divergently transcribed from the LTTR locus. We identified a short chain dehydrogenase (scd) gene immediately upstream of ptrA. Characterization of a scd mutant revealed that it is phenotypically identical to the wild type. Moreover, scd transcript abundance was unchanged in the ptrA mutant. These findings indicate that PtrA regulation does not involve scd, rather this LTTR controls genes located elsewhere on the chromosome. Employing a combination of complementation and transcriptional analysis we investigated whether connections exist between PtrA and other regulators of biocontrol. Besides ptrA, gacS was the only gene able to partially rescue the wild-type phenotype, establishing a connection between PtrA and the sensor kinase GacS. Transcriptomic analysis revealed decreased expression of biosynthetic (phzA, prnA) and regulatory genes (phzI, phzR, rpoS, gacA, rsmX, rsmZ, retS) in the ptrA mutant; conversely, rsmE, and rsmY were markedly upregulated. The transcript abundance of ptrA was nine-fold higher in the mutant background indicating that this LTTR negatively autoregulates itself. In summary, PtrA is an essential regulator of genes required for PA23 biocontrol that is functionally intertwined with GacS. PMID:27713742

  8. The tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/plasmin extracellular proteolytic system regulates seizure-induced hippocampal mossy fiber outgrowth through a proteoglycan substrate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Y P; Siao, C J; Lu, W; Sung, T C; Frohman, M A; Milev, P; Bugge, T H; Degen, J L; Levine, J M; Margolis, R U; Tsirka, S E

    2000-03-20

    Short seizure episodes are associated with remodeling of neuronal connections. One region where such reorganization occurs is the hippocampus, and in particular, the mossy fiber pathway. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we show here a critical role in vivo for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), an extracellular protease that converts plasminogen to plasmin, to induce mossy fiber sprouting. We identify DSD-1-PG/phosphacan, an extracellular matrix component associated with neurite reorganization, as a physiological target of plasmin. Mice lacking tPA displayed decreased mossy fiber outgrowth and an aberrant band at the border of the supragranular region of the dentate gyrus that coincides with the deposition of unprocessed DSD-1-PG/phosphacan and excessive Timm-positive, mossy fiber termini. Plasminogen-deficient mice also exhibit the laminar band and DSD- 1-PG/phosphacan deposition, but mossy fiber outgrowth through the supragranular region is normal. These results demonstrate that tPA functions acutely, both through and independently of plasmin, to mediate mossy fiber reorganization.

  9. Similarity of Cortical Activity Patterns Predicts generalization Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Engineer, Crystal T.; Perez, Claudia A.; Carraway, Ryan S.; Chang, Kevin Q.; Roland, Jarod L.; Sloan, Andrew M.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Humans and animals readily generalize previously learned knowledge to new situations. Determining similarity is critical for assigning category membership to a novel stimulus. We tested the hypothesis that category membership is initially encoded by the similarity of the activity pattern evoked by a novel stimulus to the patterns from known categories. We provide behavioral and neurophysiological evidence that activity patterns in primary auditory cortex contain sufficient information to explain behavioral categorization of novel speech sounds by rats. Our results suggest that category membership might be encoded by the similarity of the activity pattern evoked by a novel speech sound to the patterns evoked by known sounds. Categorization based on featureless pattern matching may represent a general neural mechanism for ensuring accurate generalization across sensory and cognitive systems. PMID:24147140

  10. Patterns of activity expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Dubofsky, E A; Simpson, S D; Chabot, Christopher C; Watson, Winsor H

    2013-09-01

    Adult American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, possess endogenous circadian and circatidal clocks controlling visual sensitivity and locomotion, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the types of activity rhythms expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs (n = 24) when exposed to a 14:10 light/dark cycle (LD) for 10 days, followed by 10 days of constant darkness (DD). Horseshoe crab activity was recorded with a digital time-lapse video system that used an infrared-sensitive camera so animals could be monitored at night. In LD, 15 animals expressed daily patterns of activity, 6 displayed a circatidal pattern, and the remaining 3 were arrhythmic. Of the 15 animals with daily patterns of locomotion, 7 had a significant preference (P < 0.05) for diurnal activity and 3 for nocturnal activity; the remainder did not express a significant preference for day or night activity. In DD, 13 horseshoe crabs expressed circatidal rhythms and 8 maintained a pattern of about 24 h. Although these results suggest the presence of a circadian clock influencing circatidal patterns of locomotion, these apparent circadian rhythms may actually represent the expression of just one of the two bouts of activity driven by the putative circalunidian clocks that control their tidal rhythms. Overall, these results indicate that, like adults, juvenile horseshoe crabs express both daily and tidal patterns of activity and that at least one, and maybe both, of these patterns is driven by endogenous clocks. PMID:24088795

  11. Patterns of activity expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Dubofsky, E A; Simpson, S D; Chabot, Christopher C; Watson, Winsor H

    2013-09-01

    Adult American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, possess endogenous circadian and circatidal clocks controlling visual sensitivity and locomotion, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the types of activity rhythms expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs (n = 24) when exposed to a 14:10 light/dark cycle (LD) for 10 days, followed by 10 days of constant darkness (DD). Horseshoe crab activity was recorded with a digital time-lapse video system that used an infrared-sensitive camera so animals could be monitored at night. In LD, 15 animals expressed daily patterns of activity, 6 displayed a circatidal pattern, and the remaining 3 were arrhythmic. Of the 15 animals with daily patterns of locomotion, 7 had a significant preference (P < 0.05) for diurnal activity and 3 for nocturnal activity; the remainder did not express a significant preference for day or night activity. In DD, 13 horseshoe crabs expressed circatidal rhythms and 8 maintained a pattern of about 24 h. Although these results suggest the presence of a circadian clock influencing circatidal patterns of locomotion, these apparent circadian rhythms may actually represent the expression of just one of the two bouts of activity driven by the putative circalunidian clocks that control their tidal rhythms. Overall, these results indicate that, like adults, juvenile horseshoe crabs express both daily and tidal patterns of activity and that at least one, and maybe both, of these patterns is driven by endogenous clocks.

  12. Generating Coherent Patterns of Activity from Chaotic Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sussillo, David; Abbott, L. F.

    2009-01-01

    Neural circuits display complex activity patterns both spontaneously and when responding to a stimulus or generating a motor output. How are these two forms of activity related? We develop a procedure called FORCE learning for modifying synaptic strengths either external to or within a model neural network to change chaotic spontaneous activity into a wide variety of desired activity patterns. FORCE learning works even though the networks we train are spontaneously chaotic and we leave feedback loops intact and unclamped during learning. Using this approach, we construct networks that produce a wide variety of complex output patterns, input-output transformations that require memory, multiple outputs that can be switched by control inputs, and motor patterns matching human motion capture data. Our results reproduce data on pre-movement activity in motor and premotor cortex, and suggest that synaptic plasticity may be a more rapid and powerful modulator of network activity than generally appreciated. PMID:19709635

  13. Lytic efficacy of apoli protein E2 (ApoE2) and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) treatment with 120 kHz ultrasound in an in-vitro human clot model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meunier, Jason M.; Cheng, Jason Y.; Clark, Joseph F.; Shaw, George J.

    2005-04-01

    Currently, the only FDA approved therapy for acute ischemic stroke is recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA). However rt-PA has substantial side effects such as hemorrhage. This has led to interest in other potential therapies. For example, ultrasound (US) increases the lytic efficacy of rt-PA. Also, apolipoprotein E2 (ApoE2) increases rt-PA activity. This suggests combining US, ApoE2 and rt-PA to improve thrombolysis, but the efficacy is not known. Here, the lytic efficacy of apoE2, rt-PA and 120 kHz US is measured in a human clot model. Whole blood was obtained from volunteers, after local institutional approval. Clots were formed in 1.7 mm micropipettes, and placed in a water tank that allowed microscopic video imaging during US and thrombolytic exposure. Clots were treated with rt-PA ([rt-PA]=3.15 μg/ml), rt-PA and apoE2 ([apoE2]=9.8 μg/ml), or rt-PA, apoE2 and 120 kHz US (0.35 MPa, PRF=1667 Hz, 80% duty cycle) for 15 min at 37°C in human plasma. Clot lysis was visually recorded and the lysis depth (LD) determined from these data using an image analysis algorithm. LD was linear with time for all treatments (R2>=0.81), allowing the determination of a lytic rate (LR). LR was found to be 0.35+/-0.03, 1.55+/-0.11, and 0.75+/-0.04 μm/min for the rt-PA, rt-PA and apoE2, and US treated groups respectively. The thrombolytic efficacy of rt-PA is enhanced by ApoE2. The interaction of 120 kHz with apoE2 and rt-PA showed a reduced lytic efficacy compared with rt-PA and apoE2 treatment alone. It is possible that US interferes with the ApoE2-mediated activation of rt-PA.

  14. Secretion of multi-protein migratory complex induced by Toxoplasma gondii infection in macrophages involves the uPA/uPAR activation system.

    PubMed

    Schuindt, Sara Hellen Santos; Oliveira, Bruno Cabral de Lima; Pimentel, Pollyana Maria de Oliveira; Resende, Thatiane Lacerda; Retamal, Cláudio A; DaMatta, Renato A; Seipel, Daniele; Arnholdt, Andrea Cristina Vetö

    2012-05-25

    Toxoplasmosis is a world wide spread zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular parasite that is able to disseminate into deep tissues and cross biological barriers, reaching immunoprivileged sites such as the brain and retina. The parasite is able to infect macrophages and dendritic cells for dispersal throughout the body. However, the molecular mechanisms or outcomes of the subversion of the host cell are largely unknown. Recently our group established that metalloproteinases are involved in migration of infected macrophages. Herein, we evaluated the recruitment of host invasive machinery components in T. gondii infected murine macrophages. We showed by immunoprecipitation assays that MMP-9, CD44 TIMP-1 and uPAR were secreted as a multi-protein complex by infected macrophages. Zymographic analysis revealed that MMP-9 was present in its pro- and active form. Moreover, inhibition of uPA/uPAR pathway by PAI-1 decreased secretion of MMP-9 active forms, as well those associated to uPAR and TIMP-1, but not to CD44. Data presented here suggest that MMP-9 is secreted as a multiprotein complex by T. gondii infected macrophages, similar to that observed in metastatic cells. We further speculate that uPA/uPAR system is involved in the expression/secretion of complexes containing active MMP-9 forms.

  15. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens. PMID:24319695

  16. Antibacterial Activity of Defensin PaDef from Avocado Fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) Expressed in Endothelial Cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M.; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C.; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E.

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27–38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52–65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens. PMID:24319695

  17. Antibacterial activity of defensin PaDef from avocado fruit (Persea americana var. drymifolia) expressed in endothelial cells against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rodríguez, Jaquelina Julia; López-Gómez, Rodolfo; Suárez-Rodríguez, Luis M; Salgado-Garciglia, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zapata, Luis C; Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; López-Meza, Joel E

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial therapy is a useful tool to control infectious diseases in general and rising antibiotic resistant microorganisms in particular. Alternative strategies are desirable, and antimicrobial peptides (AMP) represent attractive control agents. Mexican avocado (Persea americana var. drymifolia) is used in traditional medicine; however, the AMP production has not been reported in this plant. We obtained a cDNA library from avocado fruit and clone PaDef was identified, which has a cDNA (249 bp) encoding a protein (78 aa) homologous with plant defensins (>80%). We expressed the defensin PaDef cDNA (pBME3) in the bovine endothelial cell line BVE-E6E7. Polyclonal and clonal populations were obtained and their activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. E. coli viability was inhibited with 100 μg/mL of total protein from clones (>55%). Also, S. aureus viability was inhibited from 50 μg/mL total protein (27-38%) but was more evident at 100 μg/mL (52-65%). This inhibition was higher than the effect showed by polyclonal population (~23%). Finally, we did not detect activity against C. albicans. These results are the first report that shows antimicrobial activity of a defensin produced by avocado and suggest that this AMP could be used in the control of pathogens.

  18. Classification of binaural-activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Wolfgang; Blauert, Jens

    2004-10-01

    The three-dimensional, time-variant output of a computational model of the human auditory system was investigated with the aim of extracting perceptually patterns as relevant to spatial impression. To this end, the same stimuli with which the model was excited were also presented to human listeners which evaluated (i) the auditory source width (ASW), i.e., the horizontal extent of the auditory event, and (ii) the listener envelopment (LEV), i.e., the amount of envelopment by the auditory event. The listeners had to be trained beforehand as the discrimination of source- and room-related parameters of auditory events is not a common task to them. To allow for natural localization and to enable interactive listening, the stimuli were presented through head-tracked headphones. Trained listeners appeared to produce consistent results when depicting auditory objects on a compass-rose-shaped plane, where they had to mark the position and broadening of the auditory event(s) by the position(s) and length(s) of straight lines, and the envelopment by the position and size of an ellipse.

  19. Role of tyrosine 131 in the active site of paAzoR1, an azoreductase with specificity for the inflammatory bowel disease prodrug balsalazide

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chan-Ju; Laurieri, Nicola; Abuhammad, Areej; Lowe, Edward; Westwood, Isaac; Ryan, Ali; Sim, Edith

    2010-01-01

    Azoreductase 1 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1 (paAzoR1) catalyses the activation of the prodrug balsalazide and reduces the azo dye methyl red using reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide cofactor as an electron donor. To investigate the mechanism of the enzyme, a Y131F mutation was introduced and the enzymic properties of the mutant were compared with those of the wild-type enzyme. The crystallographic structure of the mutant with methyl red bound was solved at 2.1 Å resolution and compared with the wild-type structure. Tyr131 is important in the architecture of the active site but is not essential for enzymic activity. PMID:20057057

  20. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  1. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M.; Wearne, S. L.

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  2. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems.

    PubMed

    Henry, B I; Langlands, T A M; Wearne, S L

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  3. Electrical activity patterns and the functional maturation of the neocortex.

    PubMed

    Kilb, Werner; Kirischuk, Sergei; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-11-01

    At the earliest developmental stages, sensory neocortical areas in various species reveal distinct patterns of spontaneous neuronal network activity. These activity patterns either propagate over large neocortical areas or synchronize local neuronal ensembles. In vitro and in vivo experiments indicate that these spontaneous activity patterns are generated from neuronal networks in the cerebral cortex, in subcortical structures or in the sensory periphery (retina, cochlea, whiskers). At early stages spontaneous periphery-driven and also sensory evoked activity is relayed to the developing cerebral cortex via the thalamus and the neocortical subplate, which amplifies the afferent sensory input. These early local and large-scale neuronal activity patterns influence a variety of developmental processes during corticogenesis, such as neurogenesis, apoptosis, neuronal migration, differentiation and network formation. The experimental data also indicate that disturbances in early neuronal patterns may have an impact on the development of cortical layers, columns and networks. In this article we review our current knowledge on the origin of early electrical activity patterns in neocortical sensory areas and their functional implications on shaping developing cortical networks.

  4. Daily physical activity patterns of children with delayed eating behaviors.

    PubMed

    Gallant, Annette R; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Lundgren, Jennifer D; Allison, Kelly; Tremblay, Angelo; O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Drapeau, Vicky

    2013-10-01

    Night eating syndrome (NES) is a delayed pattern of energy intake. It is unknown if symptoms associated with this syndrome are accompanied by a delayed pattern of physical activity. This study examines the relationship between physical activity patterns and delayed eating behaviors in children. Children from the QUALITY cohort (n = 269, 45% female, aged 8-11 y) completed the Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ), which measures NES symptoms on a continuous scale and identifies single NES symptoms. Daily accelerometer data were transformed into mean counts per wear-time minute for each hour of the day. Children with high NEQ scores had higher levels of daily (p < 0.001) and evening physical activity (p = 0.05) and reached 75% of their total daily physical activity 20 minutes later than children with low NEQ scores (p < 0.05). Excessive evening snacking and a strong urge to eat in the evening or at night were the symptoms most related to these physical activity patterns. Children with delayed eating behaviors had higher levels of physical activity in the late morning and evening and a delayed physical activity pattern compared to children with no or fewer symptoms. Future research is needed to determine if physical activity plays a role in the onset or maintenance of night eating.

  5. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  6. Anti-tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as an effective therapy of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia with and without inflammation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dianer; Kuan, Chia-Yi

    2015-04-01

    Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neurodevelopmental deficits in neonates. Intrauterine infection and the ensuing fetal inflammatory responses augment hypoxic-ischemic brain injury and attenuate the efficacy of therapeutic hypothermia. Here, we review evidences from preclinical studies suggesting that the induction of brain parenchymal tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) plays an important pathogenic role in these conditions. Moreover, administration of a stable-mutant form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 called CPAI confers potent protection against hypoxic-ischemic injury with and without inflammation via different mechanisms. Besides intracerebroventricular injection, CPAI can also be administered into the brain using a noninvasive intranasal delivery strategy, adding to its applicability in clinical use. In sum, the therapeutic potential of CPAI in neonatal care merits further investigation with large-animal models of hypoxia-ischemia and cerebral palsy. PMID:25475942

  7. Associative-memory representations emerge as shared spatial patterns of theta activity spanning the primate temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Ken; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Takeda, Masaki; Sugiyama, Sayaka; Nakata, Ryota; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Highly localized neuronal spikes in primate temporal cortex can encode associative memory; however, whether memory formation involves area-wide reorganization of ensemble activity, which often accompanies rhythmicity, or just local microcircuit-level plasticity, remains elusive. Using high-density electrocorticography, we capture local-field potentials spanning the monkey temporal lobes, and show that the visual pair-association (PA) memory is encoded in spatial patterns of theta activity in areas TE, 36, and, partially, in the parahippocampal cortex, but not in the entorhinal cortex. The theta patterns elicited by learned paired associates are distinct between pairs, but similar within pairs. This pattern similarity, emerging through novel PA learning, allows a machine-learning decoder trained on theta patterns elicited by a particular visual item to correctly predict the identity of those elicited by its paired associate. Our results suggest that the formation and sharing of widespread cortical theta patterns via learning-induced reorganization are involved in the mechanisms of associative memory representation. PMID:27282247

  8. Associative-memory representations emerge as shared spatial patterns of theta activity spanning the primate temporal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Kiyoshi; Adachi, Ken; Kawasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sawahata, Hirohito; Majima, Kei; Takeda, Masaki; Sugiyama, Sayaka; Nakata, Ryota; Iijima, Atsuhiko; Tanigawa, Hisashi; Suzuki, Takafumi; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Hasegawa, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Highly localized neuronal spikes in primate temporal cortex can encode associative memory; however, whether memory formation involves area-wide reorganization of ensemble activity, which often accompanies rhythmicity, or just local microcircuit-level plasticity, remains elusive. Using high-density electrocorticography, we capture local-field potentials spanning the monkey temporal lobes, and show that the visual pair-association (PA) memory is encoded in spatial patterns of theta activity in areas TE, 36, and, partially, in the parahippocampal cortex, but not in the entorhinal cortex. The theta patterns elicited by learned paired associates are distinct between pairs, but similar within pairs. This pattern similarity, emerging through novel PA learning, allows a machine-learning decoder trained on theta patterns elicited by a particular visual item to correctly predict the identity of those elicited by its paired associate. Our results suggest that the formation and sharing of widespread cortical theta patterns via learning-induced reorganization are involved in the mechanisms of associative memory representation. PMID:27282247

  9. Daily and seasonal activity patterns in blackheaded munia.

    PubMed

    GuptA, Neelu Jain

    2014-05-01

    To test the circadian clock characteristics, activity behaviour of male blackheaded munia was recorded. Two experiments were performed. In experiment 1A, activity of munia was recorded under long days, LD (14L: 10D); and short days, SD (10L: 14D). Locomotor activity of two groups of munia exposed to equinox (12L: 12D) daylength followed by transfer of one group each to continuous dimlight (DD) and continuous bright light (LL) was recorded in experiment 1B. Experiment 2 aimed to describe seasonal trend in daily pattern of activity/rest cycle under natural illumination conditions (NDL). Hourly activity during daytime was more under SD than under LD. Munia did not exhibit bimodality in daily activity pattern; activity during morning, M (2h) was more than evening, E. A free-running activity rhythm was recorded in munia under DD; the same was arrhythmic under LL. The seasonal pattern in daily activity profiles under NDL corresponds to the seasonal changes in daylength. Daylength regulates daily and seasonal activity patterns in blackheaded munia. PMID:24851413

  10. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications. PMID:27023682

  11. Oxidation of gas-phase protactinium ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: formation and properties of PaO2(2+)(g), protactinyl.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Tyagi, Rajni; Pitzer, Russell M

    2006-05-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N(2)O to the relatively weak CH(2)O-all oxidized Pa(+) to PaO(+) and PaO(+) to PaO(2)(+). On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa(+)-O] and D[OPa(+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). Estimates for D[Pa(+)-O], D[OPa(+)-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO(2)] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa(2+) to produce PaO(2+), indicating that D[Pa(2+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO(2+) by N(2)O to PaO(2)(2+), a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO(2)(2+) suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {O-Pa-O}(2+). The experimentally determined IE[PaO(2)(+)] approximately 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO(2)(+) and PaO(2)(2+). These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial "6p hole" in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO(2)(2+) catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N(2)O-such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO(2)(2+) is capable of activating H(2) to form the stable PaO(2)H(2+) ion.

  12. Oxidation of gas-phase protactinium ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: formation and properties of PaO2(2+)(g), protactinyl.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; de Matos, António Pires; Marçalo, Joaquim; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard G; Tyagi, Rajni; Pitzer, Russell M

    2006-05-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N(2)O to the relatively weak CH(2)O-all oxidized Pa(+) to PaO(+) and PaO(+) to PaO(2)(+). On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa(+)-O] and D[OPa(+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). Estimates for D[Pa(+)-O], D[OPa(+)-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO(2)] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa(2+) to produce PaO(2+), indicating that D[Pa(2+)-O] > or = 751 kJ mol(-1). A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO(2+) by N(2)O to PaO(2)(2+), a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO(2)(2+) suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {O-Pa-O}(2+). The experimentally determined IE[PaO(2)(+)] approximately 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO(2)(+) and PaO(2)(2+). These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial "6p hole" in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO(2)(2+) catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N(2)O-such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO(2)(2+) is capable of activating H(2) to form the stable PaO(2)H(2+) ion. PMID:16640369

  13. The Differential Gene Expression Pattern of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Response to Capreomycin and PA-824 versus First-Line TB Drugs Reveals Stress- and PE/PPE-Related Drug Targets

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Li M.; Tai, Shu C.

    2009-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a leading infectious disease causing millions of deaths each year. How to eradicate mycobacterial persistence has become a central research focus for developing next-generation TB drugs. Yet, the knowledge in this area is fundamentally limited and only a few drugs, notably capreomycin and PA-824, have been shown to be active against non-replicating persistent TB bacilli. In this study, we performed a new bioinformatics analysis on microarray-based gene expression data obtained from the public domain to explore genes that were differentially induced by drugs between the group of capreomycin and PA-824 and the group of mainly the first-line TB drugs. Our study has identified 42 genes specifically induced by capreomycin and PA-824. Many of these genes are related to stress responses. In terms of the distribution of identified genes in a specific category relative to the whole genome, only the categories of PE/PPE and conserved hypotheticals have statistical significance. Six among the 42 genes identified in this study are on the list of the top 100 persistence targets selected by the TB Structural Genomics Consortium. Further biological elucidation of their roles in mycobacterial persistence is warranted. PMID:20016672

  14. Exploring the Role of the Food Environment on Food Shopping Patterns in Philadelphia, PA, USA: A Semiquantitative Comparison of Two Matched Neighborhood Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; Hillier, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Increasing research has focused on the built food environment and nutrition-related outcomes, yet what constitutes a food environment and how this environment influences individual behavior still remain unclear. This study assesses whether travel mode and distance to food shopping venues differ among individuals in varying food environments and whether individual- and household-level factors are associated with food shopping patterns. Fifty neighbors who share a traditionally defined food environment (25 in an unfavorable environment and 25 in a favorable environment) were surveyed using a mix of close- and open-ended survey questions. Food shopping patterns were mapped using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Stores visited were beyond the 0.5-mile (805 meters) radius traditionally used to represent the extent of an individual’s food environment in an urban area. We found no significant difference in shopping frequency or motivating factor behind store choice between the groups. No differences existed between the two groups for big food shopping trips. For small trips, individuals in the favorable food environment traveled shorter distances and were more likely to walk than drive. Socioeconomic status, including car ownership, education, and income influenced distance traveled. These findings highlight the complexities involved in the study and measurement of food environments. PMID:23343984

  15. The shadow sensor: an electronic activity pattern sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Moschandreas, D.J.; Relwani, S. )

    1991-07-01

    In their endeavor to measure time that individuals spend indoors, outdoors, and in transit, human activity pattern experts would be greatly assisted by a personal electronic sensor. This article reports on the design and pilot testing of an electronic device that measures activity patterns. The electronic sensor is small, unobstrusive, weighs about one pound, and records for 24 hr. The sensor identifies the microenvironment and the time spent in that microenvironment. Four types of experiments were performed during the pilot testing of the prototype: (1) quality control experiments; (2) other-directed experiments; (3) sensor vs. diary experiments; and (4) sensor vs. recall experiments. The prototype testing involved a total of 40 subjects. Quality control experiments were designed to test the accuracy of the sensor. Other-directed experiments were designed to test the veracity of test subjects. The subjects were told that the sensor was a pollutant-measuring device and were asked to record their activity patterns on a diary attached to the sensor. In the sensor vs. diary experiments the subjects were told the purpose of the sensor and were given a diary to record their activity patterns. In the sensor vs. recall experiments the subjects knew the objective of the electronic sensor, but they were not forewarned that they would be required to recall their activity patterns. The daily activity pattern difference across all microenvironments was the parameter used to quantify the discrepancy of information obtained from sensor and diary data. This activity pattern difference was more than three hours for the other-directed experiments, approximately two hr for both the sensor vs. diary and the sensor vs. recall experiments, and 18 min for the quality control experiments.

  16. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  17. Objective measurements of daily physical activity patterns and sedentary behaviour in older adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Van Domelen, Dane R.; Brychta, Robert J.; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sverrisdottir, Johanna Eyrun; Launer, Lenore J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Johannsson, Erlingur; Harris, Tamara B.; Chen, Kong Y.; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2013-01-01

    Background: objectively measured population physical activity (PA) data from older persons is lacking. The aim of this study was to describe free-living PA patterns and sedentary behaviours in Icelandic older men and women using accelerometer. Methods: from April 2009 to June 2010, 579 AGESII-study participants aged 73–98 years wore an accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X) at the right hip for one complete week in the free-living settings. Results: in all subjects, sedentary time was the largest component of the total wear time, 75%, followed by low-light PA, 21%. Moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was <1%. Men had slightly higher average total PA (counts × day−1) than women. The women spent more time in low-light PA but less time in sedentary PA and MVPA compared with men (P < 0.001). In persons <75 years of age, 60% of men and 34% of women had at least one bout ≥10 min of MVPA, which decreased with age, with only 25% of men and 9% of women 85 years and older reaching this. Conclusion: sedentary time is high in this Icelandic cohort, which has high life-expectancy and is living north of 60° northern latitude. PMID:23117467

  18. Patterns of Children's Participation in Unorganized Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Garner, Rochelle E.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's leisure-time or unorganized physical activity is associated with positive physical and mental health, yet there is little information available on tracking and predicting participation throughout the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of unorganized physical activity participation of…

  19. Physical Activity Patterns of Youth with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Phil E.; MacDonald, Megan; Hornyak, Joseph E.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of children with Down syndrome. A cross-sectional approach and accelerometry were used to measure the time children with Down syndrome (N = 104) spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results indicated that adolescents from ages 14 to 15 years…

  20. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  1. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas. PMID:27413660

  2. Alamethicin-like behaviour of new 18-residue peptaibols, trichorzins PA. Role of the C-terminal amino-alcohol in the ion channel forming activity.

    PubMed

    Duval, D; Cosette, P; Rebuffat, S; Duclohier, H; Bodo, B; Molle, G

    1998-03-01

    The influences of peptide length, absence of a Glx (Gln/Glu) residue and the C-terminal amino alcohol on liposome permeabilization and ion-channel characteristics in planar lipid bilayers were examined with two 18-residue peptaibols, PA V and PA IX. As compared to the 20-residue alamethicin, both peptides belonging to the newly isolated trichorzin family, lack a proline in the N-terminal part and one of the two Gln/Glu residues in the C-terminal part of the sequence. The two analogues studied here differ among themselves in their C-terminal amino alcohol (tryptophanol for PA V and phenylalaninol for PA IX). These alpha-helical peptaibols modify to a similar extent the permeability of liposomes, as measured by leakage of a previously entrapped fluorescent probe. Monitoring tryptophanol fluorescence, a greater embedment of the peptide PA V is observed in cholesterol-free bilayers. Macroscopic conductance studies for PA V and PA IX display alamethicin-like current-voltage curves, with a similar voltage dependence, but a smaller mean number of monomers per conducting aggregate is estimated for the tryptophanol analogue, PA V. Single-channel recordings indicate faster current fluctuations for PA IX, while amplitude histograms show lower conductance levels for PA V. Apart from underlining the role of the mismatch between helix length and bilayer hydrophobic thickness, these results stress that the C-terminal tryptophanol favours a stabilization of the conducting aggregates. PMID:9518665

  3. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  4. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  5. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country. PMID:27368795

  6. Do Physical Activity Patterns Across the Lifecourse Impact Birth Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Flory, Sara; Sun, Haichun; DeBate, Rita; Bleck, Jennifer; Thompson, Erika; Merrell, Laura

    2015-08-01

    The significant impact of physical activity during, or immediately prior to pregnancy on a range of pregnancy and birth outcomes has been established. However, lifecourse theory posits that the antecedents of poor outcomes occur across a larger trajectory of time. The objective of this study was to examine whether physical activity patterns over the lifecourse impact birth outcomes. The sample (n = 1,713) was derived from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and limited to women who had their first, singleton live birth between Waves III and IV; respondents who had missing data were excluded. Outcome variables included preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<5.5 pounds). Physical activity was categorized as follows: long-term physically active (active at Waves I and III); short-term physically active (active at only Wave I or III); and not physically active (not active at Waves I and III). Survey-weighted logistic regression controlled for socio-demographic and established predictors of poor birth outcomes. Women categorized as long-term physically active had lower rates of preterm births (12.2 vs. 18.7 %) and low birth weight (9.1 vs. 11.1 %) compared to women categorized as not physically active. However, when controlling for covariates, adjusted analysis revealed that physical activity consistency only predicted preterm birth (aOR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.33-0.91). Findings suggest that physical activity patterns across the lifecourse may decrease risk of preterm birth. Implications include efforts supporting patterns of physical activity over longer periods of time prior to pregnancy. PMID:25874877

  7. Do Physical Activity Patterns Across the Lifecourse Impact Birth Outcomes?

    PubMed

    Vamos, Cheryl A; Flory, Sara; Sun, Haichun; DeBate, Rita; Bleck, Jennifer; Thompson, Erika; Merrell, Laura

    2015-08-01

    The significant impact of physical activity during, or immediately prior to pregnancy on a range of pregnancy and birth outcomes has been established. However, lifecourse theory posits that the antecedents of poor outcomes occur across a larger trajectory of time. The objective of this study was to examine whether physical activity patterns over the lifecourse impact birth outcomes. The sample (n = 1,713) was derived from Waves I, III, and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and limited to women who had their first, singleton live birth between Waves III and IV; respondents who had missing data were excluded. Outcome variables included preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<5.5 pounds). Physical activity was categorized as follows: long-term physically active (active at Waves I and III); short-term physically active (active at only Wave I or III); and not physically active (not active at Waves I and III). Survey-weighted logistic regression controlled for socio-demographic and established predictors of poor birth outcomes. Women categorized as long-term physically active had lower rates of preterm births (12.2 vs. 18.7 %) and low birth weight (9.1 vs. 11.1 %) compared to women categorized as not physically active. However, when controlling for covariates, adjusted analysis revealed that physical activity consistency only predicted preterm birth (aOR = 0.55, 95 % CI = 0.33-0.91). Findings suggest that physical activity patterns across the lifecourse may decrease risk of preterm birth. Implications include efforts supporting patterns of physical activity over longer periods of time prior to pregnancy.

  8. A combination of desmopressin and docetaxel inhibit cell proliferation and invasion mediated by urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) in human prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sasaki, Hiroshi; Klotz, Laurence H.; Sugar, Linda M.; Kiss, Alexander; Venkateswaran, Vasundara

    2015-08-28

    Background: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of a combination treatment using both desmopressin and docetaxel in prostate cancer treatment. Desmopressin is a well-known synthetic analogue of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin. It has recently been demonstrated to inhibit tumor progression and metastasis in in vivo models. Docetaxel is widely used for the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients. However, durable responses have been uncommon to date. In this study, we investigated the anti-tumor effect of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in vitro and in vivo. Methods: Two prostate cancer cells (PC3, LNCaP) were treated with different concentrations of desmopressin alone, docetaxel alone, and a combination of desmopressin and docetaxel. Cell proliferation was determined by MTS assay. The anti-invasive and anti-migration potential of desmopressin and in combination with docetaxel were examined by wound healing assay, migration chamber assay, and matrigel invasion assay. Results: The combination of desmopressin and docetaxel resulted in a significant inhibition of PC3 and LNCaP cell proliferation (p < 0.01). Additionally, cell migration and invasion were also inhibited by the combination when compared to that of either treatment alone in PC3 cells (p < 0.01). The anti-tumor effect of this combination treatment was associated with down-regulation of both urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) in PC3 cells. Conclusions: We are the first to elucidate the anti-tumor and anti-metastatic potential of desmopressin in combination with docetaxel in a prostate cancer model via the uPA-MMP pathway. Our finding could potentially contribute to the therapeutic profile of desmopressin and enhance the efficacy of docetaxel based treatment for CRPC. - Highlights: • Desmopressin inhibits cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. • The expression of cyclin A and CDK2

  9. A survey of daily asthmatic activity patterns in Cincinnati

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A survey was undertaken in Cincinnati to obtain information on the activity patterns of asthmatics. Because studies have demonstrated symptomatic responses to elevated levels of SO[sub 2] only during outdoor exercise, information on the behavioral patterns of asthmatics is vital for the accurate estimation of risk due to air pollution exposures. In particular, data detailing the actual likelihood of asthmatics being engaged in strenuous outdoor activity at any given time of day is essential for an accurate appraisal of response probability. This, in turn, is necessary for an accurate estimate of risk. In the absence of such activity data, those concerned with the setting of short-term SO[sub 2] regulations are required to use purely subjective judgment to estimate how many asthmatics are engaged in strenuous outdoor exercise when SO[sub 2] levels are high enough to affect them. The activity pattern data give an indication of how much such an assumption would overestimate the true response and thus the true risk associated with SO[sub 2]. Lack of information on the activity patterns of asthmatics has thus been a critical gap in the SO[sub 2] risk assessment process. The primary purpose of this survey was to fill that gap.

  10. Spiral and never-settling patterns in active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Marenduzzo, D.; Marchetti, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a combined numerical and analytical study of pattern formation in an active system where particles align, possess a density-dependent motility, and are subject to a logistic reaction. The model can describe suspensions of reproducing bacteria, as well as polymerizing actomyosin gels in vitro or in vivo. In the disordered phase, we find that motility suppression and growth compete to yield stable or blinking patterns, which, when dense enough, acquire internal orientational ordering to give asters or spirals. We predict these may be observed within chemotactic aggregates in bacterial fluids. In the ordered phase, the reaction term leads to previously unobserved never-settling patterns which can provide a simple framework to understand the formation of motile and spiral patterns in intracellular actin systems.

  11. Active Commuting Patterns at a Large, Midwestern College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew; Wittman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand patterns and influences on active commuting (AC) behavior. Participants: Students and faculty/staff at a university campus. Methods: In April-May 2008, respondents answered an online survey about mode of travel to campus and influences on commuting decisions. Hierarchical regression analyses predicted variance in walking…

  12. Physical Activity Patterns among U.S. Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…

  13. Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

  14. Microscopic Modelling Circadian and Bursty Pattern of Human Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Deokjae; Kahng, Byungnam

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies for a wide range of human activities such as email communication, Web browsing, and library visiting, have revealed the bursty nature of human activities. The distribution of inter-event times (IETs) between two consecutive human activities exhibits a heavy-tailed decay behavior and the oscillating pattern with a one-day period, reflective of the circadian pattern of human life. Even though a priority-based queueing model was successful as a basic model for understanding the heavy-tailed behavior, it ignored important ingredients, such as the diversity of individual activities and the circadian pattern of human life. Here, we collect a large scale of dataset which contains individuals’ time stamps when articles are posted on blog posts, and based on which we construct a theoretical model which can take into account of both ignored ingredients. Once we identify active and inactive time intervals of individuals and remove the inactive time interval, thereby constructing an ad hoc continuous time domain. Therein, the priority-based queueing model is applied by adjusting the arrival and the execution rates of tasks by comparing them with the activity data of individuals. Then, the obtained results are transferred back to the real-time domain, which produces the oscillating and heavy-tailed IET distribution. This microscopic model enables us to develop theoretical understanding towards more empirical results. PMID:23505479

  15. Reduction in ATP levels triggers immunoproteasome activation by the 11S (PA28) regulator during early antiviral response mediated by IFNβ in mouse pancreatic β-cells.

    PubMed

    Freudenburg, Wieke; Gautam, Madhav; Chakraborty, Pradipta; James, Jared; Richards, Jennifer; Salvatori, Alison S; Baldwin, Aaron; Schriewer, Jill; Buller, R Mark L; Corbett, John A; Skowyra, Dorota

    2013-01-01

    Autoimmune destruction of insulin producing pancreatic β-cells is the hallmark of type I diabetes. One of the key molecules implicated in the disease onset is the immunoproteasome, a protease with multiple proteolytic sites that collaborates with the constitutive 19S and the inducible 11S (PA28) activators to produce immunogenic peptides for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Despite its importance, little is known about the function and regulation of the immunoproteasome in pancreatic β-cells. Of special interest to immunoproteasome activation in β-cells are the effects of IFNβ, a type I IFN secreted by virus-infected cells and implicated in type I diabetes onset, compared to IFNγ, the classic immunoproteasome inducer secreted by cells of the immune system. By qPCR analysis, we show that mouse insulinoma MIN6 cells and mouse islets accumulate the immune proteolytic β1(i), β2(i) and β5(i), and 11S mRNAs upon exposure to IFNβ or IFNγ. Higher concentrations of IFNβ than IFNγ are needed for similar expression, but in each case the expression is transient, with maximal mRNA accumulation in 12 hours, and depends primarily on Interferon Regulatory Factor 1. IFNs do not alter expression of regular proteasome genes, and in the time frame of IFNβ-mediated response, the immune and regular proteolytic subunits co-exist in the 20S particles. In cell extracts with ATP, these particles have normal peptidase activities and degrade polyubiquitinated proteins with rates typical of the regular proteasome, implicating normal regulation by the 19S activator. However, ATP depletion rapidly stimulates the catalytic rates in a manner consistent with levels of the 11S activator. These findings suggest that stochastic combination of regular and immune proteolytic subunits may increase the probability with which unique immunogenic peptides are produced in pancreatic β-cells exposed to IFNβ, but primarily in cells with reduced ATP levels that stimulate the 11S

  16. Magnetically and biologically active bead-patterned hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pregibon, Daniel C; Toner, Mehmet; Doyle, Patrick S

    2006-05-23

    We present a new approach to the direct patterning of biologically and magnetically active microbeads in nonbiofouling polymer scaffolds for use in microfluidic devices. Briefly, the process involves treatment of a glass substrate, conformal contact bonding of a PDMS microchannel on the substrate, filling of the channel with beads and prepolymer solution, and UV-initiated photopolymerization of a mask-defined pattern using a standard inverted microscope. This versatile and simple method allows for the rapid fabrication of dispersed or packed bead patterns in poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) hydrogels that are covalently linked to glass surfaces. By exploiting the relative opacity of the microbeads used, we are able to create both partially exposed and fully encapsulated bead patterns. To demonstrate the utility of this new technology, we separated magnetic bead-bound B lymphocytes from T lymphocytes on a PEG-encapsulated magnetic filtration platform and also captured B cells directly on patterned, protein-decorated beads in a flow-through microfluidic device. Beyond cell sorting, the accurate patterning of industrially standardized, chemically diverse microbeads may have significant implications for microchip-based analyte detection.

  17. Muscle activation patterns in patients with recurrent shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    Jaggi, Anju; Noorani, Ali; Malone, Alex; Cowan, Joseph; Lambert, Simon; Bayley, Ian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to present muscle patterns observed with the direction of instability in a series of patients presenting with recurrent shoulder instability. Materials and Methods: A retrospective review was carried out on shoulder instability cases referred for fine wire dynamic electromyography (DEMG) studies at a specialist upper limb centre between 1981 and 2003. An experienced consultant clinical neurophysiologist performed dual needle insertion into four muscles (pectoralis major (PM), latissimus dorsi (LD), anterior deltoid (AD) and infraspinatus (IS)) in shoulders that were suspected to have increased or suppressed activation of muscles that could be contributing to the instability. Raw EMG signals were obtained while subjects performed simple uniplanar movements of the shoulder. The presence or absence of muscle activation was noted and compared to clinical diagnosis and direction of instability. Results: A total of 140 (26.6%) shoulders were referred for fine wire EMG, and 131 studies were completed. Of the shoulders tested, 122 shoulders (93%) were identified as having abnormal patterns and nine had normal patterns. PM was found to be more active in 60% of shoulders presenting with anterior instability. LD was found to be more active in 81% of shoulders with anterior instability and 80% with posterior instability. AD was found to be more active in 22% of shoulders with anterior instability and 18% with posterior instability. IS was found to be inappropriately inactive in only 3% of shoulders with anterior instability but in 25% with posterior instability. Clinical assessment identified 93% of cases suspected to have muscle patterning, but the specificity of the clinical assessment was only correct in 11% of cases. Conclusion: The DEMG results suggest that increased activation of LD may play a role in both anterior and posterior shoulder instability; increased activation of PM may play a role in anterior instability. PMID:23493512

  18. How networks communicate: propagation patterns in spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Anish; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-10-01

    Initially regarded as 'noise', spontaneous (intrinsic) activity accounts for a large portion of the brain's metabolic cost. Moreover, it is now widely known that infra-slow (less than 0.1 Hz) spontaneous activity, measured using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, is correlated within functionally defined resting state networks (RSNs). However, despite these advances, the temporal organization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has remained elusive. By studying temporal lags in the resting state BOLD signal, we have recently shown that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations consist of remarkably reproducible patterns of whole brain propagation. Embedded in these propagation patterns are unidirectional 'motifs' which, in turn, give rise to RSNs. Additionally, propagation patterns are markedly altered as a function of state, whether physiological or pathological. Understanding such propagation patterns will likely yield deeper insights into the role of spontaneous activity in brain function in health and disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting blood oxygen level-dependent: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'. PMID:27574315

  19. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  20. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-29

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation. PMID:27176542

  1. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes.

    PubMed

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-29

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  2. Active gels: dynamics of patterning and self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backouche, F.; Haviv, L.; Groswasser, D.; Bernheim-Groswasser, A.

    2006-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an active gel which constantly remodels during cellular processes such as motility and division. Myosin II molecular motors are involved in this active remodeling process and therefore control the dynamic self-organization of cytoskeletal structures. Due to the complexity of in vivo systems, it is hard to investigate the role of myosin II in the reorganization process which determines the resulting cytoskeletal structures. Here we use an in vitro model system to show that myosin II actively reorganizes actin into a variety of mesoscopic patterns, but only in the presence of bundling proteins. We find that the nature of the reorganization process is complex, exhibiting patterns and dynamical phenomena not predicted by current theoretical models and not observed in corresponding passive systems (excluding motors). This system generates active networks, asters and even rings depending on motor and bundling protein concentrations. Furthermore, the motors generate the formation of the patterns, but above a critical concentration they can also disassemble them and even totally prevent the polymerization and bundling of actin filaments. These results may suggest that tuning the assembly and disassembly of cytoskeletal structures can be obtained by tuning the local myosin II concentration/activity.

  3. The translating brain: cerebral activation patterns during simultaneous interpreting.

    PubMed

    Rinne, J O; Tommola, J; Laine, M; Krause, B J; Schmidt, D; Kaasinen, V; Teräs, M; Sipilä, H; Sunnari, M

    2000-11-17

    Brain activation was measured in professional interpreters during simultaneous interpreting (SI) vs. repetition (shadowing) of auditorily presented text by positron emission tomography (PET). SI into the native language (Finnish) elicited left frontal activation increases. SI into the non-native language (English) elicited much more extensive left-sided fronto-temporal activation increases. Our results indicate that SI activates predominantly left-hemispheric structures (particularly the left dorsolateral frontal cortex) previously related to lexical search, semantic processing and verbal working memory. Brain activation patterns were clearly modulated by direction of translation, with more extensive activation during translation into the non-native language which is often considered to a be more demanding task.

  4. Autogenic training alters cerebral activation patterns in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Schlamann, Marc; Naglatzki, Ryan; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral activation patterns during the first three auto-suggestive phases of autogenic training (AT) were investigated in relation to perceived experiences. Nineteen volunteers trained in AT and 19 controls were studied with fMRI during the first steps of autogenic training. FMRI revealed activation of the left postcentral areas during AT in those with experience in AT, which also correlated with the level of AT experience. Activation of prefrontal and insular cortex was significantly higher in the group with experience in AT while insular activation was correlated with number years of simple relaxation exercises. Specific activation in subjects experienced in AT may represent a training effect. Furthermore, the correlation of insular activation suggests that these subjects are different from untrained subjects in emotional processing or self-awareness.

  5. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. We use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations. PMID:25580080

  6. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  7. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  8. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    PubMed

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units. PMID:26353344

  9. Patterns of Adolescent Physical Activity, Screen-Based Media Use and Positive and Negative Health Indicators in the U.S. and Canada

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Kogan, Michael D.; Janssen, Ian; Boyce, William F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To examine: 1) how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media use (SBM) relate to physical and social health indicators, and 2) cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Essentially identical questions and methodologies were used in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children cross-sectional surveys of nationally-representative samples of American (N = 14,818) and Canadian (N = 7,266) students in grades 6 to 10. Items included questions about frequency of PA, SBM, positive health indicators (health status, self-image, quality of life, and quality of family and peer relationships), and negative health indicators (health complaints, physical aggression, smoking, drinking, and marijuana use). Results In regression analyses controlling for age and gender, positive health indicators were uniformly positively related to PA while two negative health indicators were negatively related to PA. However, PA was positively related to physical aggression. The pattern for SBM was generally the opposite; SBM was negatively related to most positive health indices and positively related to several of the negative health indicators. The notable exception was that SBM was positively related to the quality of peer relationships. Although there were cross-national differences in the strength of some relationships, these patterns were essentially replicated in both countries. Conclusions Surveys of nationally representative samples of youth in two countries provide evidence of positive physical and social concomitants of PA and negative concomitants of SBM. These findings suggest potential positive consequences of increasing PA and decreasing SBM in adolescents and provide further justification for such efforts. PMID:19380098

  10. Modeling a 15-min extravehicular activity prebreathe protocol using NASA's exploration atmosphere (56.5 kPa/34% O2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Conkin, Johnny; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2015-04-01

    NASA's plans for future human exploration missions utilize a new atmosphere of 56.5 kPa (8.2 psia), 34% O2, 66% N2 to enable rapid extravehicular activity (EVA) capability with minimal gas losses; however, existing EVA prebreathe protocols to mitigate risk of decompression sickness (DCS) are not applicable to the new exploration atmosphere. We provide preliminary analysis of a 15-min prebreathe protocol and examine the potential benefits of intermittent recompression (IR) and an abbreviated N2 purge on crew time and gas consumables usage. A probabilistic model of decompression stress based on an established biophysical model of DCS risk was developed, providing significant (p<0.0001) prediction and goodness-of-fit with 84 cases of DCS in 668 human altitude exposures including a variety of pressure profiles. DCS risk for a 15-min prebreathe protocol was then estimated under different exploration EVA scenarios. Estimated DCS risk for all EVA scenarios modeled using the 15-min prebreathe protocol ranged between 6.1% and 12.1%. Supersaturation in neurological tissues (5- and 10-min half-time compartments) is prevented and tissue tensions in faster half-time compartments (≤40 min), where the majority of whole-body N2 is located, are reduced to about the levels (30.0 vs. 27.6 kPa) achieved during a standard Shuttle prebreathe protocol. IR reduced estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 7.9% (1.8% reduction) and from 8.4% to 6.1% (2.3% reduction) for the scenarios modeled; the penalty of N2 reuptake during IR may be outweighed by the benefit of decreased bubble size. Savings of 75% of purge gas and time (0.22 kg gas and 6 min of crew time per person per EVA) are achievable by abbreviating the EVA suit purge to 20% N2 vs. 5% N2 at the expense of an increase in estimated DCS risk from 9.7% to 12.1% (2.4% increase). A 15-min prebreathe protocol appears feasible using the new exploration atmosphere. IR between EVAs may enable reductions in suit purge and prebreathe requirements

  11. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used.

  12. Mesoscopic Patterns of Neural Activity Support Songbird Cortical Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Guitchounts, Grigori; Velho, Tarciso; Lois, Carlos; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Time-locked sequences of neural activity can be found throughout the vertebrate forebrain in various species and behavioral contexts. From “time cells” in the hippocampus of rodents to cortical activity controlling movement, temporal sequence generation is integral to many forms of learned behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence generation are not well known. Here, we describe a spatial and temporal organization of the songbird premotor cortical microcircuit that supports sparse sequences of neural activity. Multi-channel electrophysiology and calcium imaging reveal that neural activity in premotor cortex is correlated with a length scale of 100 µm. Within this length scale, basal-ganglia–projecting excitatory neurons, on average, fire at a specific phase of a local 30 Hz network rhythm. These results show that premotor cortical activity is inhomogeneous in time and space, and that a mesoscopic dynamical pattern underlies the generation of the neural sequences controlling song. PMID:26039895

  13. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  14. Reliable and Affordable Control Systems Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Bob; Tomondi, Chris; McGinley, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Active, closed-loop control of combustor pattern factor is a cooperative effort between Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal) Engines and Systems and the NASA Glenn Research Center to reduce emissions and turbine-stator vane temperature variations, thereby enhancing engine performance and life, and reducing direct operating costs. Total fuel flow supplied to the engine is established by the speed/power control, but the distribution to individual atomizers will be controlled by the Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control (ACPFC). This system consist of three major components: multiple, thin-film sensors located on the turbine-stator vanes; fuel-flow modulators for individual atomizers; and control logic and algorithms within the electronic control.

  15. Muscle activity pattern dependent pain development and alleviation.

    PubMed

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-12-01

    Muscle activity is for decades considered to provide health benefits irrespectively of the muscle activity pattern performed and whether it is during e.g. sports, transportation, or occupational work tasks. Accordingly, the international recommendations for public health-promoting physical activity do not distinguish between occupational and leisure time physical activity. However, in this body of literature, attention has not been paid to the extensive documentation on occupational physical activity imposing a risk of impairment of health - in particular musculoskeletal health in terms of muscle pain. Focusing on muscle activity patterns and musculoskeletal health it is pertinent to elucidate the more specific aspects regarding exposure profiles and body regional pain. Static sustained muscle contraction for prolonged periods often occurs in the neck/shoulder area during occupational tasks and may underlie muscle pain development in spite of rather low relative muscle load. Causal mechanisms include a stereotype recruitment of low threshold motor units (activating type 1 muscle fibers) characterized by a lack of temporal as well as spatial variation in recruitment. In contrast during physical activities at leisure and sport the motor recruitment patterns are more dynamic including regularly relatively high muscle forces - also activating type 2 muscles fibers - as well as periods of full relaxation even of the type 1 muscle fibers. Such activity is unrelated to muscle pain development if adequate recovery is granted. However, delayed muscle soreness may develop following intensive eccentric muscle activity (e.g. down-hill skiing) with peak pain levels in thigh muscles 1-2 days after the exercise bout and a total recovery within 1 week. This acute pain profile is in contrast to the chronic muscle pain profile related to repetitive monotonous work tasks. The painful muscles show adverse functional, morphological, hormonal, as well as metabolic characteristics. Of

  16. Interplay activity-connectivity: Dynamics in patterned neuronal cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tibau, E.; Bendiksen, Ch.; Teller, S.; Amigó, N.; Soriano, J.

    2013-01-01

    The ability of a neuronal tissue to efficiently process and transmit information depends on both the intrinsic dynamical properties of the neurons and the connectivity between them. One of the few experimental systems where one can vary the connectivity of a neuronal network in a control manner are neuronal cultures. Here we show that, by combining neuronal cultures with different pattering techniques, we can control and dictate the connectivity of neuronal networks. The emerging cultures are characterized by a rich spontaneous activity, but with some dynamical traits that can be ascribed to the underlying, engineered wiring architecture. Simple patterned cultures can be obtained by plating neurons onto predefined topographical molds, which guide neurons and connections through complex paths. In contrast to homogeneous cultures, characterized by an on/off behavior where all neurons fire in a short time window, patterned cultures show more complex spatio-temporal dynamics, and with varying propagation paths and velocities. Patterned cultures provide a valuable tool to understand not only the interplay activity-connectivity, but also aspects such as the emergence and maintenance of spontaneous activity, synchronization, or the presence of specific dynamic motifs.

  17. Urinary-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor (uPA/R)/α3β1 Integrin Signaling, Altered Gene Expression, and Oral Tumor Progression

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Supurna; Koblinski, Jennifer; Johnson, Jeffrey; Liu, Yueying; Ericsson, Aaron; Davis, J. Wade; Shi, Zonggao; Ravosa, Matthew J.; Crawford, Susan; Frazier, Shellaine; Stack, M. Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has 50% 5-year survival rate, highlighting our limited understanding of the molecular events that contribute to disease progression. Microarray analyses of primary oral tumors have identified urinary type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its receptor (uPAR) as key genes associated with human OSCC progression. The uPAR functions both as a proteinase receptor and an integrin ligand, modifying proteolysis, migration, integrin signaling and cellular transcription. In the current study, uPAR expression levels were modified in OSCC cells, followed by analysis of tumor growth in an in vivo orthotopic xenograft model and by transcriptional profiling. Overexpression of uPAR resulted in more infiltrative and less differentiated tumors, with ill-defined borders, cytologic atypia, and enhanced vascularity. Analysis of serial sections of both murine experimental tumors and microarrayed human OSCC demonstrated a statistically significant association between uPAR and α3 integrin co-localization in areas exhibiting ERK phosphorylation, suggesting that uPAR/α3 integrin interaction potentiates ERK signaling in vivo. This is supported by cDNA microarray analysis which showed differential expression of 148 genes (113 up, 35 down). Validation of gene expression changes in human OSCC using immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time PCR showed increased growth factors, proteinases/inhibitor and matrix components in uPAR-overexpressing tumors. Together these results support a model wherein increased uPAR expression promotes α3β1 integrin association, resulting in increased MAPK signaling and transcriptional activation, leading to the formation of more aggressive tongue tumors. This combined approach has efficacy to identify additional biomarkers and/or prognostic indicators associated with aggressive human OSCC. PMID:20145038

  18. Discharge pattern of tonically activated motor units during unloading.

    PubMed

    Gerilovsky, L; Struppler, A; Velho, F; Niehage, O

    1990-12-01

    In order to analyse the EMG pattern during unloading of brachial biceps muscle, the interference EMG and single motor unit activity were investigated. The measurements were done on seven healthy subjects with two types of unloading techniques: a) active unloading, when the subjects resisted against an external load (10, 20, 30 and 40 N) which is suddenly released, and b) passive unloading, performed by low inertia torque motors with independently adjustable background extension and suddenly applied flexion torques. Following active unloading the silent period duration, the amplitude of the rebound and its segmentation into consecutive bursts is changing with initial load, whereas the silent period latency remains constant. Following passive unloading the acceleration influences predominantly the amplitude of the rebound, without changing its latency and silent period duration. The initial voluntary activity influences both silent period duration and rebound parameters (latency, amplitude and duration). PMID:2286170

  19. Retrieving Binary Answers Using Whole-Brain Activity Pattern Classification

    PubMed Central

    Nawa, Norberto E.; Ando, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) has been successfully employed to advance our understanding of where and how information regarding different mental states is represented in the human brain, bringing new insights into how these states come to fruition, and providing a promising complement to the mass-univariate approach. Here, we employed MVPA to classify whole-brain activity patterns occurring in single fMRI scans, in order to retrieve binary answers from experiment participants. Five healthy volunteers performed two types of mental task while in the MRI scanner: counting down numbers and recalling positive autobiographical events. Data from these runs were used to train individual machine learning based classifiers that predicted which mental task was being performed based on the voxel-based brain activity patterns. On a different day, the same volunteers reentered the scanner and listened to six statements (e.g., “the month you were born is an odd number”), and were told to countdown numbers if the statement was true (yes) or recall positive events otherwise (no). The previously trained classifiers were then used to assign labels (yes/no) to the scans collected during the 24-second response periods following each one of the statements. Mean classification accuracies at the single scan level were in the range of 73.6 to 80.8%, significantly above chance for all participants. When applying a majority vote on the scans within each response period, i.e., the most frequent label (yes/no) in the response period becomes the answer to the previous statement, 5.0 to 5.8 sentences, out of 6, were correctly classified in each one of the runs, on average. These results indicate that binary answers can be retrieved from whole-brain activity patterns, suggesting that MVPA provides an alternative way to establish basic communication with unresponsive patients when other techniques are not successful. PMID:26778992

  20. Patterns of adolescent physical activity and dietary behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Natalie; Atkin, Andrew J; Biddle, Stuart JH; Gorely, Trish; Edwardson, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Background The potential synergistic effects of multiple dietary and physical activity behaviours on the risk of chronic conditions and health outcomes is a key issue for public health. This study examined the prevalence and clustering patterns of multiple health behaviours among a sample of adolescents in the UK. Methods Cross-sectional survey of 176 adolescents aged 12–16 years (49% boys). Adolescents wore accelerometers for seven days and completed a questionnaire assessing fruit, vegetable, and breakfast consumption. The prevalence of adolescents meeting the physical activity (≥ 60 minutes moderate-to-vigorous physical activity/day), fruit and vegetable (≥ 5 portions of FV per day) and breakfast recommendations (eating breakfast on ≥ 5 days per week), and clustering patterns of these health behaviours are described. Results Boys were more active than girls (p < 0.001) and younger adolescents were more active than older adolescents (p < 0.01). Boys ate breakfast on more days per week than girls (p < 0.01) and older adolescents ate more fruit and vegetables than younger adolescents (p < 0.01). Almost 54% of adolescents had multiple risk behaviours and only 6% achieved all three of the recommendations. Girls had significantly more risk factors than boys (p < 0.01). For adolescents with two risk behaviours, the most prevalent cluster was formed by not meeting the physical activity and fruit and vegetable recommendations. Conclusion Many adolescents fail to meet multiple diet and physical activity recommendations, highlighting that physical activity and dietary behaviours do not occur in isolation. Future research should investigate how best to achieve multiple health behaviour change in adolescent boys and girls. PMID:19624822

  1. Patterns of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Jenkins, Sue; Cecins, Nola; Phillips, Martin; Sanders, Lucas H; Hill, Kylie

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to compare patterns of sedentary behaviour (SB) and physical activity (PA) in people following curative intent treatment for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with healthy controls. Participants 6-10 weeks following lobectomy for NSCLC and healthy controls wore two activity monitors for 7 days. Waking hours were divided into time spent in SB (<1.5 metabolic equivalent of tasks (METs)), light intensity PA (LIPA ≥ 1.5 to <3.0METs) and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (≥3.0METs). Daily steps were also recorded. Data were available in 20 participants with NSCLC (13 females; 68 ± 10 years) and 20 healthy controls (13 females; 69 ± 5 years). The NSCLC group accumulated a greater percentage of time in SB in uninterrupted bouts ≥30 minutes (49% vs. 42%; p = 0.048). Further, the NSCLC group spent a lower percentage of waking hours in LIPA (21 ± 9% vs. 26 ± 8%; p = 0.04) and accumulated a lower percentage of time in this domain in uninterrupted bouts ≥10 minutes (13% vs. 19%; p = 0.025). The NSCLC group also had a lower daily step count (8863 ± 3737 vs. 11,856 ± 3024 steps/day; p = 0.009). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA was similar in both groups (p = 0.92). People following curative intent treatment for NSCLC spend more time in prolonged bouts of SB at the expense of LIPA. PMID:26721792

  2. Control of programmed cell death by distinct electrical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Golbs, Antje; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Sun, Jyh-Jang; Sava, Irina E; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2011-05-01

    Electrical activity and sufficient supply with survival factors play a major role in the control of apoptosis in the developing cortex. Coherent high-frequency neuronal activity, which efficiently releases neurotrophins, is essential for the survival of immature neurons. We studied the influence of neuronal activity on apoptosis in the developing cortex. Dissociated cultures of the newborn mouse cerebral cortex were grown on multielectrode arrays to determine the activity patterns that promote neuronal survival. Cultures were transfected with a plasmid coding for a caspase-3-sensitive fluorescent protein allowing real-time analysis of caspase-3-dependent apoptosis in individual neurons. Elevated extracellular potassium concentrations (5 and 8 mM), application of 4-aminopyridine or the γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor antagonist Gabazine induced a shift in the frequency distribution of activity toward high-frequency bursts. Under these conditions, a reduction or delay in caspase-3 activation and an overall increase in neuronal survival could be observed. This effect was dependent on the activity of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase, as blockade of this enzyme abolished the survival-promoting effect of high extracellular potassium concentrations. Our data indicate that increased network activity can prevent apoptosis in developing cortical neurons.

  3. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  4. Diet and physical activity patterns of school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Vadiveloo, Maya; Zhu, Lei; Quatromoni, Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Childhood provides an opportunity for establishing healthful lifestyle habits, yet little is known about diet and physical activity patterns of elementary school-aged children. A cohort of 35 boys and girls in grades 3 through 5 (mean age=9.5 years) was studied during the course of the 2004-2005 school year, providing seasonal assessments of diet and physical activity. Objectively measured data included height, weight, and pedometer step counts. Subjective data included seasonal 3-day diet diaries, a food frequency questionnaire, and a physical activity questionnaire. Participants were white, well-nourished, and within the healthy range for body mass index for age. Only three students (9%) were overweight and another three were "at risk" for overweight. Food intake patterns fell far below MyPyramid guidelines for average daily servings of fruits and vegetables. High intakes of saturated fat (average of 12% of calories) and sodium were noted, along with inadequate fiber intakes. Snacks, desserts, and entrees that contributed most to calorie and saturated fat intake were identified. Self-reported physical activity appears in line with recommendations, but step counts fall short, particularly for girls and during winter months. These findings identify targets for behavioral and environmental interventions to reduce childhood obesity risks. Additional research involving more diverse populations is warranted.

  5. Prediction of Spatiotemporal Patterns of Neural Activity from Pairwise Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marre, O.; El Boustani, S.; Frégnac, Y.; Destexhe, A.

    2009-04-01

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatiotemporal patterns significantly better than Ising models only based on spatial correlations. This increase of predictability was also observed on experimental data recorded in parietal cortex during slow-wave sleep. This approach can also be used to generate surrogates that reproduce the spatial and temporal correlations of a given data set.

  6. Prediction of Spatiotemporal Patterns of Neural Activity from Pairwise Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Marre, O.; El Boustani, S.; Fregnac, Y.; Destexhe, A.

    2009-04-03

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatiotemporal patterns significantly better than Ising models only based on spatial correlations. This increase of predictability was also observed on experimental data recorded in parietal cortex during slow-wave sleep. This approach can also be used to generate surrogates that reproduce the spatial and temporal correlations of a given data set.

  7. Linking Plagioclase Zoning Patterns to Active Magma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Neill, O. K.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Plagioclase, one of the most common and abundant mineral phases in volcanic products, will vary in composition in response to changes in temperature, pressure, composition of the ambient silicate melt, and melt H2O concentration. Changes in these parameters may cause dissolution or growth of plagioclase crystals, forming characteristic textural and compositional variations (zoning patterns), the complete core-to-rim sequence of which describes events experienced by an individual crystal from its nucleation to the last moments of its growth. Plagioclase crystals in a typical volcanic rock may look drastically dissimilar despite their spatial proximity and the fact that they have erupted together. Although they shared last moments of their growth during magma ascent and eruption, their prior experiences could be very different, as plagioclase crystals often come from different domains of the same magma system. Distinguishing similar zoning patterns, correlating them across the entire population of plagioclase crystals, and linking these patterns to specific perturbations in the magmatic system may provide additional perspective on the variety, extent, and timing of magma processes at active volcanic systems. Examples of magma processes, which may be distinguished based on plagioclase zoning patterns, include (1) cooling due to heat loss, (2) heating and/or pressure build up due to an input of new magmatic material, (3) pressure drop in response to magma system depressurization, and (4) crystal transfer between different magma domains/bodies. This review will include contrasting examples of zoning patters from recent eruptions of Karymsky, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik Volcanoes in Kamchatka, Augustine and Cleveland Volcanoes in Alaska, as well as from the drilling into an active magma body at Krafla, Iceland.

  8. Charting the physical activity patterns of contemporary children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fox, K R; Riddoch, C

    2000-11-01

    The impact of physical inactivity on health is well accepted throughout the medical and health service community. However, the case has largely been established through epidemiological studies with adults. Substantial attention has been paid to the activity levels of children and adolescents, largely because of changing lifestyles that have threatened the opportunity to be active and also introduced attractive sedentary alternatives such as playing computer games. The research evidence that children have become less active to the point where it is seriously damaging their current and future health has been difficult to establish. This situation is due to difficulties in establishing sensitive health risk markers, and also with the assessment of the different elements of physical activity which in children and adolescents is a complex profile of social behaviours. Self report of activity is unreliable with young children, and objective measures are required that are cheap and effective with large samples and that are capable of measuring levels, volume and patterns of physical activity. Accelerometry in combination with diaries offers the best current solution for most activity-health relationships, and for informing intervention need and design.

  9. Renal electrolyte circadian rhythms - Independence from feeding and activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on six unanesthetized chair-acclimatized adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) weighing 600-900 g to determine whether internal synchronization is the result of simple passive dependence of renal excretory rhythms on endogenous rhythms of those variable that influence electrolyte excretion such as dietary intake and muscular activity. Independence of the urinary rhythms from diurnal variations in feeding, drinking, and activity was secured by depriving the animals of food, water, and training them to perform a two-hourly schedule of feeding, drinking, and activity throughout day and night. Results indicate that the internal synchronization which is normally observed between the behavioral and urinary rhythms cannot be explained by any direct dependence of renal function on behavioral patterns. The most probable mechanism for circadian internal synchronization is that the various behavioral and renal rhythms are controlled by potentially independent separate oscillators which are normally kept in synchrony with one another.

  10. Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakao, Hiroya; Mikhailov, Alexander S.

    2010-07-01

    Turing instability in activator-inhibitor systems provides a paradigm of non-equilibrium self-organization; it has been extensively investigated for biological and chemical processes. Turing instability should also be possible in networks, and general mathematical methods for its treatment have been formulated previously. However, only examples of regular lattices and small networks were explicitly considered. Here we study Turing patterns in large random networks, which reveal striking differences from the classical behaviour. The initial linear instability leads to spontaneous differentiation of the network nodes into activator-rich and activator-poor groups. The emerging Turing patterns become furthermore strongly reshaped at the subsequent nonlinear stage. Multiple coexisting stationary states and hysteresis effects are observed. This peculiar behaviour can be understood in the framework of a mean-field theory. Our results offer a new perspective on self-organization phenomena in systems organized as complex networks. Potential applications include ecological metapopulations, synthetic ecosystems, cellular networks of early biological morphogenesis, and networks of coupled chemical nanoreactors.

  11. Active ultrasound pattern injection system (AUSPIS) for interventional tool guidance.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking.

  12. Neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, C. S.; McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts adopt a variety of neuromuscular control strategies during space flight that are appropriate for locomoting in that unique environment, but are less than optimal upon return to Earth. We report here the first systematic investigation of potential adaptations in neuromuscular activity patterns associated with postflight locomotion. Astronaut-subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill at 6.4 km/h while fixating a visual target 30 cm away from their eyes after space flights of 8-15 days. Surface electromyography was collected from selected lower limb muscles and normalized with regard to mean amplitude and temporal relation to heel strike. In general, high correlations (more than 0.80) were found between preflight and postflight activation waveforms for each muscle and each subject: however relative activation amplitude around heel strike and toe off was changed as a result of flight. The level of muscle cocontraction and activation variability, and the relationship between the phasic characteristics of the ankle musculature in preparation for toe off also were altered by space flight. Subjects also reported oscillopsia during treadmill walking after flight. These findings indicate that, after space flight, the sensory-motor system can generate neuromuscular-activation strategies that permit treadmill walking, but subtle changes in lower-limb neuromuscular activation are present that may contribute to increased lower limb kinematic variability and oscillopsia also present during postflight walking.

  13. Objectively measured physical activity in four-year-old British children: a cross-sectional analysis of activity patterns segmented across the day

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about preschool-aged children’s levels of physical activity (PA) over the course of the day. Using time-stamped data, we describe the levels and patterns of PA in a population-based sample of four-year-old British children. Methods Within the Southampton Women’s Survey the PA levels of 593 4-year-old children (51% female) were measured using (Actiheart) accelerometry for up to 7 days. Three outcome measures: minutes spent sedentary (<20 cpm); in light (LPA: ≥20 – 399 cpm) and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA: ≥400 cpm) were derived. Average daily activity levels were calculated and then segmented across the day (morning, afternoon and evening). MVPA was log-transformed. Two-level random intercept models were used to analyse associations between activity level and temporal and demographic factors. Results Children were active for 67% (mean 568.5 SD 79.5 minutes) of their daily registered time on average, with 88% of active time spent in LPA. All children met current UK guidelines of 180 minutes of daily activity. There were no differences in children’s average daily levels of sedentary activity and LPA by temporal and demographic factors: differences did emerge when activity was segmented across the day. Sex differences were largest in the morning, with girls being more sedentary, spending fewer minutes in LPA and 18% less time in MVPA than boys. Children were more sedentary and less active (LPA and MVPA) in the morning if they attended childcare full-time compared to part-time, and on weekend mornings compared to weekdays. The reverse was true for weekend afternoons and evenings. Children with more educated mothers were less active in the evenings. Children were less sedentary and did more MVPA on summer evenings compared to winter evenings. Conclusions Preschool-aged children meet current physical activity guidelines, but with the majority of their active time spent in LPA, investigation of the importance of activity

  14. Using ILP to Identify Pathway Activation Patterns in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Neaves, Samuel R; Millard, Louise A C; Tsoka, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    We show a logical aggregation method that, combined with propositionalization methods, can construct novel structured biological features from gene expression data. We do this to gain understanding of pathway mechanisms, for instance, those associated with a particular disease. We illustrate this method on the task of distinguishing between two types of lung cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) and Adenocarcinoma (AC). We identify pathway activation patterns in pathways previously implicated in the development of cancers. Our method identified a model with comparable predictive performance to the winning algorithm of a recent challenge, while providing biologically relevant explanations that may be useful to a biologist. PMID:27478883

  15. Circadian Patterns of Wikipedia Editorial Activity: A Demographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasseri, Taha; Sumi, Robert; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia (WP) as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e., editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors. PMID:22272279

  16. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  17. Mammalian Rest/Activity Patterns Explained by Physiologically Based Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, A. J. K.; Fulcher, B. D.; Robinson, P. A.; Klerman, E. B.

    2013-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are fundamental to life. In mammals, these rhythms are generated by pacemaker neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The SCN is remarkably consistent in structure and function between species, yet mammalian rest/activity patterns are extremely diverse, including diurnal, nocturnal, and crepuscular behaviors. Two mechanisms have been proposed to account for this diversity: (i) modulation of SCN output by downstream nuclei, and (ii) direct effects of light on activity. These two mechanisms are difficult to disentangle experimentally and their respective roles remain unknown. To address this, we developed a computational model to simulate the two mechanisms and their influence on temporal niche. In our model, SCN output is relayed via the subparaventricular zone (SPZ) to the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH), and thence to ventrolateral preoptic nuclei (VLPO) and lateral hypothalamus (LHA). Using this model, we generated rich phenotypes that closely resemble experimental data. Modulation of SCN output at the SPZ was found to generate a full spectrum of diurnal-to-nocturnal phenotypes. Intriguingly, we also uncovered a novel mechanism for crepuscular behavior: if DMH/VLPO and DMH/LHA projections act cooperatively, daily activity is unimodal, but if they act competitively, activity can become bimodal. In addition, we successfully reproduced diurnal/nocturnal switching in the rodent Octodon degu using coordinated inversions in both masking and circadian modulation. Finally, the model correctly predicted the SCN lesion phenotype in squirrel monkeys: loss of circadian rhythmicity and emergence of ∼4-h sleep/wake cycles. In capturing these diverse phenotypes, the model provides a powerful new framework for understanding rest/activity patterns and relating them to underlying physiology. Given the ubiquitous effects of temporal organization on all aspects of animal behavior and physiology, this study sheds light on the physiological

  18. Cannabinoid receptor activation shifts temporally engendered patterns of dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Erik B; Cachope, Roger; Fitoussi, Aurelie; Tsutsui, Kimberly; Wu, Sharon; Gallegos, Jacqueline A; Cheer, Joseph F

    2014-05-01

    The ability to discern temporally pertinent environmental events is essential for the generation of adaptive behavior in conventional tasks, and our overall survival. Cannabinoids are thought to disrupt temporally controlled behaviors by interfering with dedicated brain timing networks. Cannabinoids also increase dopamine release within the mesolimbic system, a neural pathway generally implicated in timing behavior. Timing can be assessed using fixed-interval (FI) schedules, which reinforce behavior on the basis of time. To date, it remains unknown how cannabinoids modulate dopamine release when responding under FI conditions, and for that matter, how subsecond dopamine release is related to time in these tasks. In the present study, we hypothesized that cannabinoids would accelerate timing behavior in an FI task while concurrently augmenting a temporally relevant pattern of dopamine release. To assess this possibility, we measured subsecond dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens while mice responded for food under the influence of the cannabinoid agonist WIN 55,212-2 in an FI task. Our data reveal that accumbal dopamine concentrations decrease proportionally to interval duration--suggesting that dopamine encodes time in FI tasks. We further demonstrate that WIN 55,212-2 dose-dependently increases dopamine release and accelerates a temporal behavioral response pattern in a CB1 receptor-dependent manner--suggesting that cannabinoid receptor activation modifies timing behavior, in part, by augmenting time-engendered patterns of dopamine release. Additional investigation uncovered a specific role for endogenous cannabinoid tone in timing behavior, as elevations in 2-arachidonoylglycerol, but not anandamide, significantly accelerated the temporal response pattern in a manner akin to WIN 55,212-2. PMID:24345819

  19. Evidence for impairment of behavioural inhibition in performance of operant tasks in tPA-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ripley, T L; Horwood, J M; Stephens, D N

    2001-11-01

    We have previously shown that mice that lack the serine protease, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), show over-responding on the active lever during time-out periods in an I.V. cocaine self-administration task. To investigate this effect further, tPA knockout mice (tPA-/-) were tested in a number of operant paradigms for a liquid food reinforcer. tPA-/- and wild-type (WT) control mice acquired a fixed ratio (FR) and a fixed interval (FI) task equally. However, extinction from the FR schedule resulted in a significant decrease in responses on the active and inactive levers in the WT mice whilst responding on the inactive lever remained high in the tPA-/- animals. In a differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL) task, tPA-/- mice acquired the task at a slower rate than WT animals. This was characterised by high levels of responding on the active lever during the first 15 sessions in the tPA-/- mice. Burst responding on the active lever (lever press rate with an inter-response time of less than 3 s) was especially high in these animals. This behaviour pattern resulted in the animals obtaining less reinforcers than the WT controls. Acute cocaine dose-dependently shifted the pattern of behaviour on the active lever towards shorter inter-response times. However, there was no difference between the tPA-/- and WT mice in their sensitivity to cocaine on this task. Repeated administration of a low dose of cocaine did not alter performance on this task in either set of animals. When the DRL task was modified to allow the tPA-/- and WT mice an equal number of reinforced trials per session there was no difference in the ability of the animals to perform the task. This would suggest that the tPA-/- mice have a tendency to over-respond but that this can be overcome when the task is modified to allow equal opportunity to learn.

  20. Turing Patterns in Estuarine Sediments by Microbiological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The use of Turing mechanisms and lattice Lotka-Volterra model (LLV), also by means of the non-extensive statistical mechanics, can mathematically describe well the phenomena of clustering and their associated boundaries with fractal dimensionality, which occurs in various natural situations, among them, biogeochemical processes via microorganisms in estuarine and marine sediments on the planet Earth. The author did an experimental analysis in field work which took into account the spatial and temporal behavior of Turing patterns, in the form of microbial activity within estuarine subsurface sediments. We show we can find the characteristics of clustering and fractallity which are present in the dynamical LLV model and Turing patterns mechanisms, and the non-extensive statistical mechanics could be used to find the q-entropy (Sq), and other non-equilibrium statistical parameters of the studied estuarine (Caraís lagoon) subsurface biogeochemical system. In this paper, the author suggests that such kinds of subsurface ecological systems are of interest to Astrobiology because if we find Turing-type clustered geomorphological patterns, below meter scale, on the near subsurface and inside rocks at the surface of planet Mars, and also find non-equilibrium statistical parameters (temperature, [F], [C], [S], etc.), displaying Turing-type mechanism, in the aquatic environments of the internal seas of planets Jupiter's moon Europa and the internal global ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus, that could mean that possible hypothetical biogeochemical activities are present in such places. This could be a bio-indicator tool. And with further studies we could find the q-entropy Sq to establish better defined statistical mechanical parameters for such environments and to refine models for their evolution, as we do on planet Earth.

  1. Epidermal patterning genes are active during embryogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Silvia; Dolan, Liam

    2003-07-01

    Epidermal cells in the root of Arabidopsis seedling differentiate either as hair or non-hair cells, while in the hypocotyl they become either stomatal or elongated cells. WEREWOLF (WER) and GLABRA2 (GL2) are positive regulators of non-hair and elongated cell development. CAPRICE (CPC) is a positive regulator of hair cell development in the root. We show that WER, GL2 and CPC are expressed and active during the stages of embryogenesis when the pattern of cells in the epidermis of the root-hypocotyl axis forms. GL2 is first expressed in the future epidermis in the heart stage embryo and its expression is progressively restricted to those cells that will acquire a non-hair identity in the transition between torpedo and mature stage. The expression of GL2 at the heart stage requires WER function. WER and CPC are transiently expressed throughout the root epidermal layer in the torpedo stage embryo when the cell-specific pattern of GL2 expression is being established in the epidermis. We also show that WER positively regulates CPC transcription and GL2 negatively regulates WER transcription in the mature embryo. We propose that the restriction of GL2 to the future non-hair cells in the root epidermis can be correlated with the activities of WER and CPC during torpedo stage. In the embryonic hypocotyl we show that WER controls GL2 expression. We also provide evidence indicating that CPC may also regulate GL2 expression in the hypocotyl.

  2. Activation patterns of coagulation and fibrinolysis in baboons following infusion with lethal or sublethal dose of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    de Boer, J P; Creasy, A A; Chang, A; Roem, D; Brouwer, M C; Eerenberg, A J; Hack, C E; Taylor, F B

    1993-01-01

    Administration of low doses endotoxin or tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in human experimental models for sepsis results in transient activation of both coagulation and fibrinolysis and subsequent inhibition of the fibrinolytic system by plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1). We have investigated in a baboon model for sepsis, whether administration of a lethal or sublethal dose of living E. coli could induce similar activation patterns. Levels of thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complexes increased significantly to zeniths of 425 and 33 times the baseline values at t+360 in the lethal and sublethal group, respectively. Activation of fibrinolysis, as reflected by plasmin-alpha 2 antiplasmin (PAP) complexes, in the sublethal group was maximal at t+60 and was increasingly inhibited thereafter in spite of a sustained increase of tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) levels. In the lethal group PAP complexes increased to a zenith of 38 times the baseline values at t+240. PAI-1 levels increased to 15 times the baseline values at t+360 in the sublethal group, whereas in the lethal group they increased almost linearly to 20 times the baseline values at t+360. Despite high levels of PAI-1, effective inhibition of the fibrinolysis was not established until at T+240 in the lethal group. The difference in activation patterns of both mediator systems in the sublethal and lethal group of baboons indicate that extensive activation of coagulation contributes to the lethal complications in sepsis.

  3. Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population

    PubMed Central

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Khalili, Zahra; Esalatmanesh, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly.

  4. Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population

    PubMed Central

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Khalili, Zahra; Esalatmanesh, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly. PMID:27621923

  5. Patterns of Activity Revealed by a Time Lag Analysis of a Model Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Stephen; Viall, Nicholeen

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of average frequencies. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine an extrapolated magnetic skeleton with hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes to create a model active region, and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is to recover some typical properties and patterns of activity observed in active regions. Our key findings are: 1. Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a time scale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies operates across active regions. 5. Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  6. Learning patterns of human activity for anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutchess, Daniel; Checka, Neal; Snorrason, Magnús S.

    2007-04-01

    Commercial security and surveillance systems offer advanced sensors, optics, and display capabilities but lack intelligent processing. This necessitates human operators who must closely monitor video for situational awareness and threat assessment. For instance, urban environments are typically in a state of constant activity, which generates numerous visual cues, each of which must be examined so that potential security breaches do not go unnoticed. We are building a prototype system called BALDUR (Behavior Adaptive Learning during Urban Reconnaissance) that learns probabilistic models of activity for a given site using online and unsupervised training techniques. Once a camera system is set up, no operator intervention is required for the system to begin learning patterns of activity. Anomalies corresponding to unusual or suspicious behavior are automatically detected in real time. All moving object tracks (pedestrians, vehicles, etc.) are efficiently stored in a relational database for use in training. The database is also well suited for answering human- initiated queries. An example of such a query is, "Display all pedestrians who approached the door of the building between the hours of 9:00pm and 11:00pm." This forensic analysis tool complements the system's real-time situational awareness capabilities. Several large datasets have been collected for the evaluation of the system, including one database containing an entire month of activity from a commercial parking lot.

  7. How family support affects physical activity (PA) among middle-aged and elderly people before and after they suffer from chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Su-Chuan; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Chia-Hui; Kuo, Hsien-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The more support elderly people have from their family, the less likely they are to suffer from chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate how family support affects the PA middle-aged and elderly people engage in before and after they suffer from chronic diseases. We interviewed 428 middle-aged and elderly people using a structured questionnaire to measure their aerobic PA. Eighteen percent of middle-aged and elderly people did participate in PA after suffering from chronic diseases. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found that middle-aged and elderly people who rely on family members when they are sick (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.08-3.25) and who are accompanied by family members (OR=2.09, 95%CI=1.20-3.62) when they are healthy are more likely to exercise. The more middle-aged and elderly people are supported by their family, the more likely they are to exercise. Strengthening family relationships should help reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among middle-aged and elderly people.

  8. Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Chillón, Palma; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodriguez, Germán; Widhalm, Kurt; Molnar, Dénes; Gottrand, Frédéric; González-Gross, Marcela; Ward, Dianne S; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-05-01

    We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.

  9. Active sensing in the categorization of visual patterns

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Scott Cheng-Hsin; Lengyel, Máté; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting visual scenes typically requires us to accumulate information from multiple locations in a scene. Using a novel gaze-contingent paradigm in a visual categorization task, we show that participants' scan paths follow an active sensing strategy that incorporates information already acquired about the scene and knowledge of the statistical structure of patterns. Intriguingly, categorization performance was markedly improved when locations were revealed to participants by an optimal Bayesian active sensor algorithm. By using a combination of a Bayesian ideal observer and the active sensor algorithm, we estimate that a major portion of this apparent suboptimality of fixation locations arises from prior biases, perceptual noise and inaccuracies in eye movements, and the central process of selecting fixation locations is around 70% efficient in our task. Our results suggest that participants select eye movements with the goal of maximizing information about abstract categories that require the integration of information from multiple locations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12215.001 PMID:26880546

  10. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  11. Hidden Stages of Cognition Revealed in Patterns of Brain Activation.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Pyke, Aryn A; Fincham, Jon M

    2016-09-01

    To advance cognitive theory, researchers must be able to parse the performance of a task into its significant mental stages. In this article, we describe a new method that uses functional MRI brain activation to identify when participants are engaged in different cognitive stages on individual trials. The method combines multivoxel pattern analysis to identify cognitive stages and hidden semi-Markov models to identify their durations. This method, applied to a problem-solving task, identified four distinct stages: encoding, planning, solving, and responding. We examined whether these stages corresponded to their ascribed functions by testing whether they are affected by appropriate factors. Planning-stage duration increased as the method for solving the problem became less obvious, whereas solving-stage duration increased as the number of calculations to produce the answer increased. Responding-stage duration increased with the difficulty of the motor actions required to produce the answer. PMID:27440808

  12. Guiding Catalytically Active Particles with Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, W. E.; Popescu, M. N.; Dietrich, S.; Tasinkevych, M.

    2016-07-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemiosmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemiosmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemiosmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials or follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  13. Renal electrolyte circadian rhythms: independence from feeding and activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Moore-Ede, M C; Herd, J A

    1977-02-01

    The interrelationships between urinary electrolyte circadian rhythms and rhythms of feeding, drinking and activity were studied in six conscious chair-acclimatized squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) kept in temperature-controlled isolation chambers on a light-dark (LD) 12:12 h cycle. With lights on (600 lx) from 0800 to 2000 h and off (less than 1 lx) from 2000 to 0800 h, renal potassium excretion in monkeys fed ad libitum fell to a daily minimum of 64 +/- 6 mueq/h at 0500 h and rose to a maximum of 274 +/- 13 mueq/h at 1700 h. Sodium excretion fell to a minimum of 13 +/- 2 mueq/h at 1000 h and rose to a maximum of 43 +/- 6 mueq/h at 2100 h, while water excretion fell to a minimum of 869 +/- 63 mul/h at 0500 h and rose to a maximum of 2,307 +/- 222 mul/h at 1700 h. Feeding, drinking, and activity occurred only during the lights-on period. Independence of the urinary rhythms from diurnal variations in feeding, drinking, and activity was established a) by depriving monkeys of food, b) by depriving monkeys of water, and c) by training monkeys to perform a 2-hourly schedule of feeding, drinking, and activity throughout day and night. None of these three regimens resulted in major reductions of the amplitude, or changes in the phase of the circadian rhythms of urinary electrolyte or water excretion. These findings indicate that the circadian rhythms of urinary potassium, sodium, and water excretion are controlled by mechanisms that are not passively dependent on the behavioral patterns of feeding, drinking, and activity.

  14. Characterizing temporal patterns in the swimming activity of Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Yeontaek; Jeon, Wonju; Kang, Seung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Hee; Chon, Tae-Soo

    2012-06-01

    The locomotion behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans has been studied extensively to understand the respective roles of neural control and biomechanics as well as the interaction between them. In the present study, we suggest a new approach to characterize the temporal patterns in the swimming behavior of the organism. The approach is based on the branching length similarity (BLS) entropy defined on a simple branching network consisting of a single node and branches. The organism's swimming activity is recorded using a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera for 3 h at a rate of 4 frames per second. In each frame, we place 13 points as nodes, those points being distributed at equal intervals along the organism's length. Thus, the organism is represented by 13 nodes and 12 edges between nodes. By using the nodes and edges, we construct two simple networks. One is formed by connecting the center point to all other points, and the other is generated from the angles between edges. The BLS entropy values are calculated as S L for the former network and S θ for the latter. We investigate the distributions of the S L and the S θ values in the phase space of S L — S θ and compare those with the values obtained from a simulated C. elegans generated by using randomly-moving chained particles along a certain angle. The comparison revealed distinctive features of the movement patterns of C. elegans during swimming activity. In addition, we briefly discuss the application of our method to bio-monitoring systems to capture behavioral changes of test organisms before and after chemical treatment at low concentrations.

  15. Patterns of adolescents' participation in organized activities: are sports best when combined with other activities?

    PubMed

    Linver, Miriam R; Roth, Jodie L; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally representative sample, to compare activity patterns of adolescents ages 10-18 years (n = 1,711). A cluster analytic technique revealed 5 activity clusters: sports-focused, sports plus other activities, primarily school-based activities, primarily religious youth groups, and low activity involvement. Activity patterns were examined in conjunction with 5 categories of youth development outcomes, including competence (e.g., academic ability), confidence (e.g., self-concept of ability), connections (e.g., talking with friends), character (e.g., externalizing behavior problems), and caring (e.g., prosocial behavior). Results showed that those who participated only in sports had more positive outcomes compared with those who had little or no involvement in organized activities, but less positive outcomes compared with those who participated in sports plus other activities.

  16. Assessing risk based on uncertain avalanche activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Fromm, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Avalanches may affect critical infrastructure and may cause great economic losses. The planning horizon of infrastructures, e.g. hydropower generation facilities, reaches well into the future. Based on the results of previous studies on the effect of changing meteorological parameters (precipitation, temperature) and the effect on avalanche activity we assume that there will be a change of the risk pattern in future. The decision makers need to understand what the future might bring to best formulate their mitigation strategies. Therefore, we explore a commercial risk software to calculate risk for the coming years that might help in decision processes. The software @risk, is known to many larger companies, and therefore we explore its capabilities to include avalanche risk simulations in order to guarantee a comparability of different risks. In a first step, we develop a model for a hydropower generation facility that reflects the problem of changing avalanche activity patterns in future by selecting relevant input parameters and assigning likely probability distributions. The uncertain input variables include the probability of avalanches affecting an object, the vulnerability of an object, the expected costs for repairing the object and the expected cost due to interruption. The crux is to find the distribution that best represents the input variables under changing meteorological conditions. Our focus is on including the uncertain probability of avalanches based on the analysis of past avalanche data and expert knowledge. In order to explore different likely outcomes we base the analysis on three different climate scenarios (likely, worst case, baseline). For some variables, it is possible to fit a distribution to historical data, whereas in cases where the past dataset is insufficient or not available the software allows to select from over 30 different distribution types. The Monte Carlo simulation uses the probability distribution of uncertain variables

  17. A Retrospective Study of thrombolysis with 0.6 mg/kg Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) in Mild Stroke.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Fei; Liu, Hong; An, Hedi; Xiong, Ran; Huang, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    We sought to assess the safety, effectiveness and cost of 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA treatment for patients with acute mild stroke and to compare that with 0.9 mg/kg. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who had a NIHSS score ≤5 at admission and who were treated with rt-PA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. The demographic data, clinical outcomes and hospitalization cost were analyzed. A total of 108 patients were included. Forty six patients (42.6%) received a 0.6 mg/kg dosage of rt-PA. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well matched (p > 0.05). Regarding the safety and effectiveness, the 0.6 mg/kg dosage group had a comparable proportion of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (0.6 mg/kg, 4.3% vs 0.9 mg/kg, 4.8%; p > 0.05), early neurological deterioration (END) (19.6% vs 17.7%; p > 0.05), in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.6%; p > 0.05), and a similar rate of favorable functional outcome (mRS score 0-1) at 3 months (73.9% vs 71.0%; p > 0.05) to those who received the standard dosage. However, the hospital cost was markedly lower in the 0.6 mg/kg group (0.6  mg/kg, 3,401.7 USD vs 0.9  mg/kg, 4,157.4 USD; p < 0.01). Our study suggest that 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA shared similar effectiveness and safety profile compared with that of 0.9 mg/kg in treating mild stroke, but cost less. PMID:27510959

  18. A Retrospective Study of thrombolysis with 0.6 mg/kg Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) in Mild Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jie; Yu, Fei; Liu, Hong; An, Hedi; Xiong, Ran; Huang, Dongya

    2016-01-01

    We sought to assess the safety, effectiveness and cost of 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA treatment for patients with acute mild stroke and to compare that with 0.9 mg/kg. We retrospectively analyzed consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients who had a NIHSS score ≤5 at admission and who were treated with rt-PA within 4.5 hours of symptom onset. The demographic data, clinical outcomes and hospitalization cost were analyzed. A total of 108 patients were included. Forty six patients (42.6%) received a 0.6 mg/kg dosage of rt-PA. The baseline characteristics of the two groups were well matched (p > 0.05). Regarding the safety and effectiveness, the 0.6 mg/kg dosage group had a comparable proportion of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) (0.6 mg/kg, 4.3% vs 0.9 mg/kg, 4.8%; p > 0.05), early neurological deterioration (END) (19.6% vs 17.7%; p > 0.05), in-hospital mortality (4.3% vs 1.6%; p > 0.05), and a similar rate of favorable functional outcome (mRS score 0–1) at 3 months (73.9% vs 71.0%; p > 0.05) to those who received the standard dosage. However, the hospital cost was markedly lower in the 0.6 mg/kg group (0.6  mg/kg, 3,401.7 USD vs 0.9  mg/kg, 4,157.4 USD; p < 0.01). Our study suggest that 0.6 mg/kg rt-PA shared similar effectiveness and safety profile compared with that of 0.9 mg/kg in treating mild stroke, but cost less. PMID:27510959

  19. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Background Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Aim Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. Material and Methods PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9–75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9–12, 13–17, 18–64, and 65–75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Results Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Conclusion Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the

  20. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I.; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-06-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFPi,j) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFPi,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFPi,i), to obtain the single pulse response (SPRi,j)—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression.

  1. Quasicrystals and the Penrose Patterns: A Geometric Activity with a Scientific Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clason, Robert; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Penrose tile patterns are created using regular pentagon-based rhombi. Provides instructions for assembling Penrose patterns, plus activities for secondary school students and preservice elementary teachers. Compares the two-dimensional process of placing pattern blocks to form Penrose patterns to the symmetries of crystals formed in nature.…

  2. Synthesis and antitubercular activity of 7-(R)- and 7-(S)-methyl-2-nitro-6-(S)-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)benzyloxy)-6,7-dihydro-5H-imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]oxazines, analogues of PA-824

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojin; Manjunatha, Ujjini H.; Goodwin, Michael B.; Knox, John E.; Lipinski, Christopher A.; Keller, Thomas H.; Barry, Clifton E.; Dowd, Cynthia S.

    2008-01-01

    Nitroimidazoles such as PA-824 and OPC-67683 are currently in clinical development as members of a promising new class of therapeutics for tuberculosis. While the antitubercular activity of these compounds is high, they both suffer from poor water solubility thus complicating development. We determined the single-crystal X-ray structure of PA-824 and found a close packing of the nitroimidazoles facilitated by a pseudoaxial conformation of the p-trifluoromethoxybenzyl ether. To attempt to disrupt this tight packing by destabilizing the axial preference of this side chain, we prepared the two diastereomers of the 7-methyl-nitroimidazo-oxazine. Determination of the crystal structure of the 7-(S)-methyl derivative (5, cis) revealed that the benzylic side chain remained pseudoaxial while the 7-(R)-methyl derivative (6, trans) adopted the desired pseudoequatorial conformation. Both derivatives displayed similar activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but neither showed improved aqueous solubility, suggesting that inherent lattice stability is not likely to be a major factor in limiting solubility. Conformational analysis revealed that all three compounds have similar energetically accessible conformations in solution. Additionally, these results suggest that the nitroreductase that initially recognizes PA-824 is somewhat insensitive to substitutions at the 7-position. PMID:18358721

  3. Pseudomonas aeruginosa phage PaP1 DNA polymerase is an A-family DNA polymerase demonstrating ssDNA and dsDNA 3'-5' exonuclease activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Binyan; Gu, Shiling; Liang, Nengsong; Xiong, Mei; Xue, Qizhen; Lu, Shuguang; Hu, Fuquan; Zhang, Huidong

    2016-08-01

    Most phages contain DNA polymerases, which are essential for DNA replication and propagation in infected host bacteria. However, our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases remains limited. This study investigated the function of a novel DNA polymerase of PaP1, which is the lytic phage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PaP1 encodes its sole DNA polymerase called Gp90 that was predicted as an A-family DNA polymerase with polymerase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. The sequence of Gp90 is homologous but not identical to that of other A-family DNA polymerases, such as T7 DNA polymerases (Pol) and DNA Pol I. The purified Gp90 demonstrated a polymerase activity. The processivity of Gp90 in DNA replication and its efficiency in single-dNTP incorporation are similar to those of T7 Pol with processive thioredoxin (T7 Pol/trx). Gp90 can degrade ssDNA and dsDNA in 3'-5' direction at a similar rate, which is considerably lower than that of T7 Pol/trx. The optimized conditions for polymerization were a temperature of 37 °C and a buffer consisting of 40 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.0), 30 mM MgCl2, and 200 mM NaCl. These studies on DNA polymerase encoded by PaP1 help advance our knowledge on phage-encoded DNA polymerases and elucidate PaP1 propagation in infected P. aeruginosa. PMID:27052734

  4. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  5. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SPEECH SOUNDS USING CORTICAL ACTIVITY PATTERNS

    PubMed Central

    Centanni, T.M.; Sloan, A.M.; Reed, A.C.; Engineer, C.T.; Rennaker, R.; Kilgard, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a classifier capable of locating and identifying speech sounds using activity from rat auditory cortex with an accuracy equivalent to behavioral performance without the need to specify the onset time of the speech sounds. This classifier can identify speech sounds from a large speech set within 40 ms of stimulus presentation. To compare the temporal limits of the classifier to behavior, we developed a novel task that requires rats to identify individual consonant sounds from a stream of distracter consonants. The classifier successfully predicted the ability of rats to accurately identify speech sounds for syllable presentation rates up to 10 syllables per second (up to 17.9 ± 1.5 bits/sec), which is comparable to human performance. Our results demonstrate that the spatiotemporal patterns generated in primary auditory cortex can be used to quickly and accurately identify consonant sounds from a continuous speech stream without prior knowledge of the stimulus onset times. Improved understanding of the neural mechanisms that support robust speech processing in difficult listening conditions could improve the identification and treatment of a variety of speech processing disorders. PMID:24286757

  6. An integrative framework of the skin receptors activation: mechanoreceptors activity patterns versus "labeled lines".

    PubMed

    Zeveke, Alexander V; Efes, Ekaterina D; Polevaya, Sofia A

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents a review of electrophysiological data which indicate the integrative mechanisms of information coded in the human and animal peripheral skin receptors. The activity of the skin sensory receptors was examined by applying various natural stimuli. It was revealed that numerous identical receptors respond to various stimuli (mechanical, temperature, and pain ones), but the spike patterns of these receptors were found to be specific for each stimulus. The description of characteristic structures of spike patterns in the cutaneous nerve fibers in response to five major modalities, namely: "touch", "pain", "vibration/breath", "cold", and "heat", is being presented. The recordings of the cutaneous physical state revealed a correlation between the patterns of spatiotemporal skin deformation and the receptors activity. A rheological state of the skin can be changed either in response to external temperature variation or by the sympathetic pilomotor activation. These results indicate that the skin sensory receptors activity may be considered as an integrative process. It depends not only on the receptors themselves, but also on the changes in the surrounding tissue and on the adaptive influence of the central nervous system. A new framework for the sensory channel system related to the skin is proposed on the basis of experimental results.

  7. Documenting Western Burrowing Owl Reproduction and Activity Patterns Using Motion-Activated Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.

    2014-08-01

    We used motion-activated cameras to monitor the reproduction and patterns of activity of the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) above ground at 45 burrows in south-central Nevada during the breeding seasons of 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2005. The 37 broods, encompassing 180 young, raised over the four years represented an average of 4.9 young per successful breeding pair. Young and adult owls were detected at the burrow entrance at all times of the day and night, but adults were detected more frequently during afternoon/early evening than were young. Motion-activated cameras require less effort to implement than other techniques. Limitations include photographing only a small percentage of owl activity at the burrow; not detecting the actual number of eggs, young, or number fledged; and not being able to track individual owls over time. Further work is also necessary to compare the accuracy of productivity estimates generated from motion-activated cameras with other techniques.

  8. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  9. Ideal free distribution of metabolic activity: Implications of seasonal metabolic-activity patterns on competitive coexistence.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Péter

    2016-10-01

    The seasonal distribution of metabolic activity determines how much individuals experience different aspects of a periodically changing environment. Seasonal metabolic-activity patterns of coexisting species may differ significantly despite their shared environmental conditions, suggesting that interspecific diversification of this trait has a major role in the coexistence of competing species. In the present study the effect of the seasonal distribution of metabolic activity on intra- and interspecific competition is investigated in a consumer-resource model. It is shown that, in a periodically changing environment, for each environmental preference pattern there is an ideal seasonal distribution of metabolic activity, which results in maximum resource utilisation efficiency and competitive superiority. Contrary to the common interpretation of temporal niche segregation, opposing species-specific seasonal preferences are not a sufficient condition for the coexistence of two species on a population dynamical time scale. A necessary and sufficient condition for coexistence is the temporal segregation of the species via different seasonal activity distributions. However, coexistence is evolutionarily stable only if seasonal metabolic activities and preferences are positively correlated. PMID:27189108

  10. PaR-PaR Laboratory Automation Platform

    SciTech Connect

    Linshiz, G; Stawski, N; Poust, S; Bi, CH; Keasling, JD; Hilson, NJ

    2013-05-01

    Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.

  11. PaR-PaR laboratory automation platform.

    PubMed

    Linshiz, Gregory; Stawski, Nina; Poust, Sean; Bi, Changhao; Keasling, Jay D; Hillson, Nathan J

    2013-05-17

    Labor-intensive multistep biological tasks, such as the construction and cloning of DNA molecules, are prime candidates for laboratory automation. Flexible and biology-friendly operation of robotic equipment is key to its successful integration in biological laboratories, and the efforts required to operate a robot must be much smaller than the alternative manual lab work. To achieve these goals, a simple high-level biology-friendly robot programming language is needed. We have developed and experimentally validated such a language: Programming a Robot (PaR-PaR). The syntax and compiler for the language are based on computer science principles and a deep understanding of biological workflows. PaR-PaR allows researchers to use liquid-handling robots effectively, enabling experiments that would not have been considered previously. After minimal training, a biologist can independently write complicated protocols for a robot within an hour. Adoption of PaR-PaR as a standard cross-platform language would enable hand-written or software-generated robotic protocols to be shared across laboratories.

  12. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  13. Time Use Patterns between Maintenance, Subsistence and Leisure Activities: A Case Study in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui-fen, Zhou; Zhen-shan, Li; Dong-qian, Xue; Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government conducted its first time use survey of the activities of Chinese individuals in 2008. Activities were classified into three broad types, maintenance activities, subsistence activities and leisure activities. Time use patterns were defined by an individuals' time spent on maintenance, subsistence and leisure activities each…

  14. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  15. Seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells by competing with intracellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and inhibiting uPA-mediated activation of plasminogen.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Tae; Kim, Se-kwon; Jeon, You-Jin; Park, Sun Joo

    2014-12-01

    α-Enolase is a glycolytic enzyme and a surface receptor for plasminogen. α-Enolase-bound plasminogen promotes tumor cell invasion and cancer metastasis by activating plasmin and consequently degrading the extracellular matrix degradation. Therefore, α-enolase and plasminogen are novel targets for cancer therapy. We found that the amino acid sequence of a peptide purified from enzymatic hydrolysates of seahorse has striking similarities to that of α-enolase. In this study, we report that this peptide competes with cellular α-enolase for plasminogen binding and suppresses urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA)-mediated activation of plasminogen, which results in decreased invasive migration of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells. In addition, the peptide treatment decreased the expression levels of uPA compared to that of untreated controls. These results provide new insight into the mechanism by which the seahorse-derived peptide suppresses invasive properties of human cancer cells. Our findings suggest that this peptide could emerge as a potential therapeutic agent for cancer.

  16. Pathological VWF fibers resist tPA and ADAMTS13 while promoting the contact pathway and shear-induced platelet activation

    PubMed Central

    Herbig, Bradley A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Under severe stenotic conditions, von Willebrand Factor (VWF) multimerizes into large insoluble fibers at pathological shear rates. Objective Evaluate the mechanics and biology of VWF fibers without the confounding effects of endothelium or collagen. Methods Within a micropost-impingement microfluidic device, >100 µm long VWF fibers multimerized on the post within 10 min using EDTA-treated PFP perfused at wall shear rates >5000 s−1. Results VWF fiber thickness increased to >10 µm by increasing shear rate to 10,000 s−1. In a stress-strain test, fibrous VWF had an elastic modulus of ~50 MPa. The insoluble VWF fibers were non-amyloid since they rapidly dissolved in trypsin, plasmin, or 2% SDS, but were resistant to 50 nM ADAMTS13 or 100 nM tPA in plasma. Following fiber formation, perfusion of low corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated (4 µg/ml), recalcified citrated plasma at 1500 s−1 caused fibrin formation on the VWF fibers, a result not observed with purified type 1 collagen or a naked micropost. During VWF fiber formation, contact pathway factors accumulated on VWF since the use of EDTA/PPACK/apixaban/high CTI-treated PFP during VWF fiber formation prevented subsequent fibrin production from low CTI, recalcified citrated PFP. VWF fibers displayed FXIIa-immunostaining. When PPACK-inhibited whole blood was perfused over VWF fibers, platelets rolled and arrested on the surface of VWF, but only displayed P-selectin if prevailing shear rates were pathological. Platelet arrest on VWF fibers was blocked with αIIbβ3 antagonist GR144053. Conclusions We report VWF fiber-contact pathway crosstalk and mechanisms of thrombolytic resistance in hemodynamic settings of myocardial infarction. PMID:26178390

  17. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns.

  18. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids.

    PubMed

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E

    2015-12-18

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns.

  19. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids.

    PubMed

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E

    2015-12-18

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns. PMID:26722949

  20. Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) during the maternity season in West Virginia (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at diurnal roost trees remain largely uninvestigated. For example, the influence of reproductive status, weather, and roost tree and surrounding habitat characteristics on timing of emergence, intra-night activity, and entrance at their roost trees is poorly known. We examined nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis maternity colonies during pregnancy and lactation at diurnal roost trees situated in areas that were and were not subjected to recent prescribed fires at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia from 2007 to 2009. According to exit counts and acoustic data, northern myotis colony sizes were similar between reproductive periods and roost tree settings. However, intra-night activity patterns differed slightly between reproductive periods and roost trees in burned and non-burned areas. Weather variables poorly explained variation in activity patterns during pregnancy, but precipitation and temperature were negatively associated with activity patterns during lactation. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  1. Transient Decline in Hippocampal Theta Activity during the Acquisition Process of the Negative Patterning Task

    PubMed Central

    Sakimoto, Yuya; Okada, Kana; Takeda, Kozue; Sakata, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal function is important in the acquisition of negative patterning but not of simple discrimination. This study examined rat hippocampal theta activity during the acquisition stages (early, middle, and late) of the negative patterning task (A+, B+, AB-). The results showed that hippocampal theta activity began to decline transiently (for 500 ms after non-reinforced stimulus presentation) during the late stage of learning in the negative patterning task. In addition, this transient decline in hippocampal theta activity in the late stage was lower in the negative patterning task than in the simple discrimination task. This transient decline during the late stage of task acquisition may be related to a learning process distinctive of the negative patterning task but not the simple discrimination task. We propose that the transient decline of hippocampal theta activity reflects inhibitory learning and/or response inhibition after the presentation of a compound stimulus specific to the negative patterning task. PMID:23936249

  2. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Karina; Rüttgers, Daniela; Müller, Hans-Peter; Jacobs, Gunnar; Kassubek, Jan; Lieb, Wolfgang; Nöthlings, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA) in the accumulation of visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous (SAAT) abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2). Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT) were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET), or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA) was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA), or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02) than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07), but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05) than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3). Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3) and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3) in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA) or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA) tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA) tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005). They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  3. 4,6-Diphenylpyridines as Promising Novel Anti-Influenza Agents Targeting the PA-PB1 Protein-Protein Interaction: Structure-Activity Relationships Exploration with the Aid of Molecular Modeling.

    PubMed

    Trist, Iuni M L; Nannetti, Giulio; Tintori, Cristina; Fallacara, Anna Lucia; Deodato, Davide; Mercorelli, Beatrice; Palù, Giorgio; Wijtmans, Maikel; Gospodova, Tzveta; Edink, Ewald; Verheij, Mark; de Esch, Iwan; Viteva, Lilia; Loregian, Arianna; Botta, Maurizio

    2016-03-24

    Influenza is an infectious disease that represents an important public health burden, with high impact on the global morbidity, mortality, and economy. The poor protection and the need of annual updating of the anti-influenza vaccine, added to the rapid emergence of viral strains resistant to current therapy make the need for antiviral drugs with novel mechanisms of action compelling. In this regard, the viral RNA polymerase is an attractive target that allows the design of selective compounds with reduced risk of resistance. In previous studies we showed that the inhibition of the polymerase acidic protein-basic protein 1 (PA-PB1) interaction is a promising strategy for the development of anti-influenza agents. Starting from the previously identified 3-cyano-4,6-diphenyl-pyridines, we chemically modified this scaffold and explored its structure-activity relationships. Noncytotoxic compounds with both the ability of disrupting the PA-PB1 interaction and antiviral activity were identified, and their mechanism of target binding was clarified with molecular modeling simulations. PMID:26924568

  4. Temporal patterns of deer-vehicle collisions consistent with deer activity pattern and density increase but not general accident risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Müller, Jörg; Held, Leonhard; Möst, Lisa; Mysterud, Atle

    2015-08-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) across Europe during recent decades poses a serious threat to human health and animal welfare and increasing costs for society. DVCs are triggered by both a human-related and a deer-related component. Mitigation requires an understanding of the processes driving temporal and spatial collision patterns. Separating human-related from deer-related processes is important for identifying potentially effective countermeasures, but this has rarely been done. We analysed two time series of 341,655 DVCs involving roe deer and 854,659 non-deer-related accidents (non-DVCs) documented between 2002 and 2011. Nonparametric smoothing and temporal parametric modelling were used to estimate annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal patterns in DVCs, non-DVCs and adjusted DVCs. As we had access to data on both DVCs and non-DVCs, we were able to disentangle the relative role of human-related and deer-related processes contributing to the overall temporal DVC pattern. We found clear evidence that variation in DVCs was mostly driven by deer-related and not human-related activity on annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal scales. A very clear crepuscular activity pattern with high activity after sunset and around sunrise throughout the year was identified. Early spring and the mating season between mid-July and mid-August are typically periods of high roe deer activity, and as expected we found a high number of DVC during these periods, although these patterns differed tremendously during different phases of a day. The role of human activity was mainly reflected in fewer DVCs on weekends than on weekdays. Over the ten-year study period, we estimated that DVCs increased by 25%, whereas the number of non-DVCs decreased by 10%. Increasing deer densities are the most likely driver behind this rise in DVCs. Precise estimates of DVC patterns and their relationship to deer and human activity patterns allow implementation of specific mitigation

  5. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  6. Patterns of metabolic activity in the treatment of schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Corona, J.F.; Fowler, J.S.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Jaeger, J.; Micheels, P.A.; Rotrosen, J.; Russell, J.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Wikler, A.

    1984-04-01

    Six patients with chronic schizophrenia were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) before and after neuroleptic treatment, using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. After treatment, the mean whole-slice glucose metabolic rate at the level of the basal ganglia showed a 25% increase. However, patterns of frontal hypometabolism observed with the schizophrenic patients were not altered by medication. Pattern analysis using the fast Fourier transform was applied to a set of 422 images from a mixed group of normal, depressed, and schizophrenic subjects. Reconstruction of the images with low-frequency coefficients was excellent, reducing considerably the number of variables needed to characterize each image. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the transformed images according to anatomical level and subject group (patient versus control). The results suggest the utility of this procedure for the classification and characterization of metabolic PET images from psychiatric patients. 8 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Active patterning and asymmetric transport in a model actomyosin network

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shenshen; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2013-12-21

    Cytoskeletal networks, which are essentially motor-filament assemblies, play a major role in many developmental processes involving structural remodeling and shape changes. These are achieved by nonequilibrium self-organization processes that generate functional patterns and drive intracellular transport. We construct a minimal physical model that incorporates the coupling between nonlinear elastic responses of individual filaments and force-dependent motor action. By performing stochastic simulations we show that the interplay of motor processes, described as driving anti-correlated motion of the network vertices, and the network connectivity, which determines the percolation character of the structure, can indeed capture the dynamical and structural cooperativity which gives rise to diverse patterns observed experimentally. The buckling instability of individual filaments is found to play a key role in localizing collapse events due to local force imbalance. Motor-driven buckling-induced node aggregation provides a dynamic mechanism that stabilizes the two-dimensional patterns below the apparent static percolation limit. Coordinated motor action is also shown to suppress random thermal noise on large time scales, the two-dimensional configuration that the system starts with thus remaining planar during the structural development. By carrying out similar simulations on a three-dimensional anchored network, we find that the myosin-driven isotropic contraction of a well-connected actin network, when combined with mechanical anchoring that confers directionality to the collective motion, may represent a novel mechanism of intracellular transport, as revealed by chromosome translocation in the starfish oocyte.

  8. The tropospheric response pattern to solar activity forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuurmans, C. J. E.

    1989-01-01

    It is tempting to speculate on the possibility that solar flares sometimes are the initial cause of and atmospheric disturbance, which cumulative effect may give rise to a correlation at the 11 year timescale. Reasons to reconsider the possible relevance of solar flare response studies are stated. The discovery of the apparently decisive role of the Quasi-Biennial Oscillations (QBO) in establishing the atmospheric response pattern to solar forcing may throw new light on some of the earlier published relations. Reanalysis of old data in some cases may be advisable. Data on solar flares and their effects on the earth's atmosphere might be a promising candidate for reexamination.

  9. Learning a Taxonomy of Predefined and Discovered Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Narayanan; Cook, Diane J.; Wemlinger, Zachary

    2013-01-01

    Many intelligent systems that focus on the needs of a human require information about the activities that are being performed by the human. At the core of this capability is activity recognition. Activity recognition techniques have become robust but rarely scale to handle more than a few activities. They also rarely learn from more than one smart home data set because of inherent differences between labeling techniques. In this paper we investigate a data-driven approach to creating an activity taxonomy from sensor data found in disparate smart home datasets. We investigate how the resulting taxonomy can help analyze the relationship between classes of activities. We also analyze how the taxonomy can be used to scale activity recognition to a large number of activity classes and training datasets. We describe our approach and evaluate it on 34 smart home datasets. The results of the evaluation indicate that the hierarchical modeling can reduce training time while maintaining accuracy of the learned model. PMID:25302084

  10. Altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with cerebral palsy during cycling on an ergometer

    PubMed Central

    Alves-Pinto, Ana; Blumenstein, Tobias; Turova, Varvara; Lampe, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Cycling on a recumbent ergometer constitutes one of the most popular rehabilitation exercises in cerebral palsy (CP). However, no control is performed on how muscles are being used during training. Given that patients with CP present altered muscular activity patterns during cycling or walking, it is possible that an incorrect pattern of muscle activation is being promoted during rehabilitation cycling. This study investigated patterns of muscular activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer in patients with CP and whether those patterns are determined by the degree of spasticity and of mobility. Methods Electromyographic (EMG) recordings of lower leg muscle activation during cycling on a recumbent ergometer were performed in 14 adult patients diagnosed with CP and five adult healthy participants. EMG recordings were done with an eight-channel EMG system built in the laboratory. The activity of the following muscles was recorded: Musculus rectus femoris, Musculus biceps femoris, Musculus tibialis anterior, and Musculus gastrocnemius. The degree of muscle spasticity and mobility was assessed using the Modified Ashworth Scale and the Gross Motor Function Classification System, respectively. Muscle activation patterns were described in terms of onset and duration of activation as well as duration of cocontractions. Results Muscle activation in CP was characterized by earlier onsets, longer periods of activation, a higher occurrence of agonist–antagonist cocontractions, and a more variable cycling tempo in comparison to healthy participants. The degree of altered muscle activation pattern correlated significantly with the degree of spasticity. Conclusion This study confirmed the occurrence of altered lower leg muscle activation patterns in patients with CP during cycling on a recumbent ergometer. There is a need to develop feedback systems that can inform patients and therapists of an incorrect muscle activation during cycling and support the training

  11. Epidemic variability in hierarchical geographical networks with human activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Liu, Ying; Tang, Ming

    2012-06-01

    Recently, some studies have revealed that non-Poissonian statistics of human behaviors stem from the hierarchical geographical network structure. On this view, we focus on epidemic spreading in the hierarchical geographical networks and study how two distinct contact patterns (i.e., homogeneous time delay (HOTD) and heterogeneous time delay (HETD) associated with geographical distance) influence the spreading speed and the variability of outbreaks. We find that, compared with HOTD and null model, correlations between time delay and network hierarchy in HETD remarkably slow down epidemic spreading and result in an upward cascading multi-modal phenomenon. Proportionately, the variability of outbreaks in HETD has the lower value, but several comparable peaks for a long time, which makes the long-term prediction of epidemic spreading hard. When a seed (i.e., the initial infected node) is from the high layers of networks, epidemic spreading is remarkably promoted. Interestingly, distinct trends of variabilities in two contact patterns emerge: high-layer seeds in HOTD result in the lower variabilities, the case of HETD is opposite. More importantly, the variabilities of high-layer seeds in HETD are much greater than that in HOTD, which implies the unpredictability of epidemic spreading in hierarchical geographical networks.

  12. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  13. Activity Patterns in Latissimus Dorsi and Sternocleidomastoid in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Alan H.D.; Williams, Caitlin; James, Buddug V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the roles of the accessory respiratory muscles, latissimus dorsi (LD), and sternocleidomastoid, in classical singing. Methods Electromyography was used to record the activity of these muscles in six classically trained female singers carrying out a number of singing and nonsinging tasks. Movements of the chest and abdominal walls were monitored simultaneously using inductive plethysmography, and the sound of the phonations was recorded. Results In normal breathing, LD is active transiently during very deep inhalations and in inhalation against resistance. During exhalation it becomes active again as residual capacity is approached or when air is expelled with great force. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) supports inhalation when lung volume nears 100% vital capacity or when this is very rapid. All singers engaged LD in supported singing where it was associated with maintaining an expanded thorax. In coloratura singing, pulses of activity of increasing amplitude were often seen in LD toward the end of the breath. These were synchronized with each note. During a short phrase typical of the end of an aria, which was sung at full volume with the projected voice, both LD and SCM were active simultaneously. Spectral analysis of muscle activity demonstrated that in some singers, activity in LD and more rarely SCM, fluctuated in phase with vibrato. Conclusions LD appears to play a significant role in maintaining chest expansion and the dynamic processes underlying vibrato and coloratura singing in classically trained singers. PMID:21724365

  14. Activation patterns of embryonic chick lumbosacral motoneurones following large spinal cord reversals.

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, M W

    1987-01-01

    1. Embryonic chick motoneurones were caused to innervate inappropriate hindlimb muscles by rotating the presumptive lumbosacral region of the neural tube in stage 15-16 embryos which is prior to the outgrowth of motoneurone axons. 2. The activation patterns of motoneurones in control and spinal cord reversal embryos were analysed from electromyographic (e.m.g.) recordings of stage 36 limb muscles during evoked movement sequences in an isolated spinal cord-limb preparation. Histograms representing the frequency of activation were constructed for each muscle. The muscle's pattern of activation was classified as flexor-like or extensor-like and compared to the activation patterns of control muscles. 3. A series of control operations was performed in which the prospective lumbosacral region of the neural tube was removed and replaced in its original orientation. Muscles in these embryos were innervated by their normal motoneurone pools and they were activated normally, indicating that the neural tube operation per se does not alter the activation pattern of motoneurones. Furthermore, some muscles (twelve out of sixty-one) in spinal cord reversal embryos had normal activation patterns and appeared to be innervated by their original motoneurones. Based on these results and the result of a previous study (Landmesser & O'Donovan, 1984 b), it is concluded that motoneurones in reversed spinal cords are activated in a manner appropriate for their original identity. 4. The majority of muscles (thirty-three out of sixty-one) in large spinal cord reversal embryos were activated during an appropriate phase of the kicking cycle. Of the remaining muscles, 16% were activated inappropriately (i.e. extensor muscles were activated as flexors, and vice versa), and 30% had a novel 'mixed' flexor- and extensor-like activation pattern. However, the activation pattern of most muscles differed markedly from that of any other control muscles regardless of whether the muscle was activated

  15. Activity Pattern of Urban Adult Students in an Eastern Mediterranean Society

    PubMed Central

    Odeh, Issam; Hussein, Tareq

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of human activity patterns is needed in air pollution exposure and health risk assessment. However, human activity patterns have never been evaluated in the Eastern Mediterranean societies. Therefore, we investigated the activity pattern of 285 subjects (17–63 years) in Amman, Jordan during October to November, 2015. The subjects spent >80% of their time indoors during weekend days and >85% on workdays. They spent ~4.8% and ~5.7% in transportation during weekend days and workdays, respectively. Males had a different activity pattern than females on weekend days, but both genders had similar activity patterns on workdays. On workdays, males spent less time indoors than females. The activity pattern found in this study is a bit different than that for North Americans and Europeans, who spend more time indoors and in transit. The activity pattern found in this study was very different than that observed for Koreans, who spent about 59% and 67% indoors on workdays and weekend, respectively. The main outcomes of this survey can be utilized in human exposure studies. This study and the upcoming future studies have been encouraged and supported by the regional WHO office in Amman. PMID:27690071

  16. Role of synaptic inhibition in spatiotemporal patterning of cortical activity.

    PubMed

    Bosman, Laurens; Lodder, Johannes C; van Ooyen, Arjen; Brussaard, Arjen B

    2005-01-01

    Developmental upregulation of the GABAA receptor alpha1 subunit causes a faster decay of GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in the visual cortex around the time of eye opening. In alpha1 deficient mice, a juvenile type of GABAA receptors is retained during maturation. As a result the decay time of the IPSCs is longer in alpha1-/- mice than in WT mice during the whole life span of the mice. Hence they form a valuable mouse model for studies on cellular aspects of neuronal network functioning. Using voltage sensitive dye imaging methods, we monitored the spatiotemporal excitation patterning in visual cortex slices upon local stimulation of the network. We found that in the alpha1-/- mice, the ability of the network to fire synchronously at gamma-frequencies (20-50 Hz) is diminished. This finding indicates that early onset of GABA synapse maturation is required for the normal neuronal network function in the maturating visual cortex. PMID:15581707

  17. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  18. Diurnal patterns in lightning activity over South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ávila, Eldo E.; Bürgesser, Rodrigo E.; Castellano, Nesvit E.; Nicora, M. Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    Satellite observations of lightning flash distribution data are used to examine the diurnal cycle of lightning activity over the tropical and subtropical regions of South America. A harmonic analysis is used to study the spatial variations in the peak and strength of diurnal lightning activity across this area. Results show that in the northern and central regions of South America, the times of maxima in lightning activity was concentrated from late afternoon to evening hours (between 14:00 and 18:00 local time), which may be associated with the peaking of the local convective activity connected with heating of the surface caused by daytime insolation. In subtropical South America, particularly in the area limited by 25°S, 35°S of latitude and 70°W, 50°W of longitude, the time of maximum lightning activity was shifted to nocturnal hours, extending from close to midnight to early morning hours. This behavior can be associated to the peak in mesoscale convective systems in the region which occurs in the morning hours. The annual flash densities in the tropical and subtropical parts of the continent were found to have comparable magnitudes. However, the contribution of the continental tropics to the global electric circuit dominates over the continental subtropics contribution throughout all seasons, since the surface covered by the tropical region is more than twice the area covered by the subtropical region.

  19. Patterns of presynaptic activity and synaptic strength interact to produce motor output.

    PubMed

    Wright, Terrence Michael; Calabrese, Ronald L

    2011-11-30

    Motor neuron activity is coordinated by premotor networks into a functional motor pattern by complex patterns of synaptic drive. These patterns combine both the temporal pattern of spikes of the premotor network and the profiles of synaptic strengths (i.e., conductances). Given the complexity of premotor networks in vertebrates, it has been difficult to ascertain the relative contributions of temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles to the motor patterns observed in these animals. Here, we use the leech (Hirudo sp.) heartbeat central pattern generator (CPG), in which we can measure both the temporal pattern and the synaptic strength profiles of the entire premotor network and the motor outflow in individual animals. In this system, a series of motor neurons all receive input from the same premotor interneurons of the CPG but must be coordinated differentially to produce a functional pattern. These properties allow a theoretical and experimental dissection of the rules that govern how temporal patterns and synaptic strength profiles are combined in motor neurons so that functional motor patterns emerge, including an analysis of the impact of animal-to-animal variation in input to such variation in output. In the leech, segmental heart motor neurons are coordinated alternately in a synchronous and peristaltic pattern. We show that synchronous motor patterns result from a nearly synchronous premotor temporal pattern produced by the leech heartbeat CPG. For peristaltic motor patterns, the staggered premotor temporal pattern determines the phase range over which segmental motor neurons can fire while synaptic strength profiles define the intersegmental motor phase progression realized.

  20. Activity patterns of bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) in Queen Elizabeth National Park.

    PubMed

    Wronski, T; Apio, A; Plath, M

    2006-11-01

    Activity patterns and time budgets of bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) were studied in a free-ranging population in Queen Elizabeth National Park, Uganda from August 2000 to January 2002. We investigated differences in activity patterns in relation to daytime, season, sun radiation, moonlight, age and sex. Bushbuck were found to show peak activities around sunrise and at dawn. No difference in the mean activity rates was found between the dry and wet season. Daytime activity was not predicted by differences in sun radiation, nor was nighttime activity predicted by the presence or absence of moonlight. We found the activity of adult territorial males to be strongly positively correlated with that of females, whereas the activity of young-adult non-territorial males was not significantly correlated with the activity of females. This suggests that young-adult males shift their peak activity to phases when adult territorial males are less active. PMID:16962727

  1. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  2. Technical Insights for Saltstone PA Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Flach, G.; Sarkar, S.; Mahadevan, S.; Kosson, D.

    2011-07-20

    compatibility with existing CBP expertise and already-planned activities. Based on these criteria, the five original topics were down-selected to two: external sulfate attack and mechanistic geochemical prediction. For each of the selected topics, the CBP communicated with the PA analysts and subject matter experts at Savannah River to acquire input data specific to the Saltstone facility and related laboratory experiments. Simulations and analyses were performed for both topics using STADIUM (SIMCO 2008), LeachXS/ORCHESTRA (ECN 2007, Meeussen 2003), and other software tools. These supplemental CBP analyses produced valuable technical insights that can be used to strengthen the Saltstone PA using the ongoing PA maintenance process. This report in part summarizes key information gleaned from more comprehensive documents prepared by Sarkar et al. (2010), Samson (2010), and Sarkar (2010).

  3. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  4. Interfacial activity and leaching patterns of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans on pyrite.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Chapana, José A; Tributsch, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The leaching ability of Leptospirillum ferrooxidans goes beyond the mere oxidation of Fe(2+) to Fe(3+). Addition of these bacteria to pyrite triggers interfacial phenomena that lead to bacterial attachment and local forms of corrosion (surface pitting). As the leaching process proceeds, bacterial cells undergo changes, characterized by the release of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and the uptake and storage of electro-dense nanoparticles. The latter are embedded in an exopolymeric capsule, which coats the bacterial surface leading to distinctive biomineralized assemblages. High-resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses, quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray measurements and electron diffraction established that the embedded electron-dense nanoparticles comprise pyrite with a well-defined stoichiometry. Addition of Fe(3+) alone did not induce any form of local corrosion on pyrite, which indicates that the reactions taking place between the attached bacteria and the underlying pyrite surface are responsible for the leaching patterns observed in this study. The observed corrosion process resembles that of 'electrochemical machining', because it uses a corrosion promoter, namely the locally concentrated Fe(3+) in the biofilm environment, formed by the attached cells. PMID:19712343

  5. Time-Budgeting Practices of College Students: A Developmental Analysis of Activity Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmond, David W.; Glenwick, David S.

    1987-01-01

    Examined activity patterns of college students living in residence halls (N=117) using time budget methodology. Found differences among four college classes (freshmen, sophomores, juniors, and seniors) which seemed to form a developmental pattern. Found considerable differences among individual students. Found women spent more time in employment…

  6. Emergent patterns from probabilistic generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kabla, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The combination of laterally activating and inhibiting feedbacks is well known to spontaneously generate spatial organization. It was introduced by Gierer and Meinhardt as an extension of Turing's great insight that two reacting and diffusing chemicals can spontaneously drive spatial morphogenesis per se. In this study, we develop an accessible nonlinear and discrete probabilistic model to study simple generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition. By doing so, we identify a range of modes of morphogenesis beyond the familiar Turing-type modes; notably, beyond stripes, hexagonal nets, pores and labyrinths, we identify labyrinthine highways, Kagome lattices, gyrating labyrinths and multi-colour travelling waves and spirals. The results are discussed within the context of Turing's original motivating interest: the mechanisms which underpin the morphogenesis of living organisms. PMID:27170648

  7. Patterned electrical activity modulates sodium channel expression in sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Klein, Joshua P; Tendi, Elisabetta A; Dib-Hajj, Sulayman D; Fields, R Douglas; Waxman, Stephen G

    2003-10-15

    Peripheral nerve injury induces changes in the level of gene expression for sodium channels Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 within dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, which may contribute to the development of hyperexcitability, ectopic neuronal discharge, and neuropathic pain. The mechanism of this change in sodium channel expression is unclear. Decreased availability of neurotrophic factors following axotomy contributes to these changes in gene transcription, but the question of whether changes in intrinsic neuronal activity levels alone can trigger changes in the expression of these sodium channels has not been addressed. We examined the effect of electrical stimulation on the expression of Nav1.3, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9 by using cultured embryonic mouse sensory neurons under conditions in which nerve growth factor (NGF) was not limiting. Expression of Nav1.3 was not significantly changed following stimulation. In contrast, we observed activity-dependent down-regulation of Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 mRNA and protein levels after stimulation, as demonstrated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. These results show that a change in neuronal activity can alter the expression of sodium channel genes in a subtype-specific manner, via a mechanism independent of NGF withdrawal. PMID:14515348

  8. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo; Allen, Micah; Frith, Chris; Roepstorff, Andreas; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian (Chinese) and Western (Danish) cultural contexts during judgments of social, mental and physical attributes of themselves and public figures to assess cultural influences on self-referential processing of personal attributes in different dimensions. We found that judgments of self vs a public figure elicited greater activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in Danish than in Chinese participants regardless of attribute dimensions for judgments. However, self-judgments of social attributes induced greater activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e. interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection by changing the weight of the mPFC and TPJ in the social brain network.

  9. Atomic structure of anthrax PA pore elucidates toxin translocation

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jiansen; Pentelute, Bradley L.; Collier, R. John; Zhou, Z. Hong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Anthrax toxin, comprising protective antigen (PA), lethal factor (LF) and edema factor (EF), is the major virulence factor of Bacillus anthracis, an agent that causes high mortality in human and animals. PA forms oligomeric prepores that undergo conversion to membrane-spanning pores by endosomal acidification, and these pores translocate the enzymes LF and EF into the cytosol of target cells1. PA is not only a vaccine component and therapeutic target for anthrax infections but also an excellent model system for understanding the mechanism of protein translocation. Based on biochemical and electrophysiological results, researchers have proposed that a Φ-clamp composed of Phe427 residues of PA catalyzes protein translocation via a charge-state dependent Brownian ratchet2–9. Although atomic structures of PA prepores are available10–14, how PA senses low pH, converts to active pore and translocates LF and EF are not well defined without an atomic model of the PA pore. Here, by cryo electron microscopy (cryoEM) with direct electron counting, we have determined the PA pore structure at 2.9-Å resolution. The structure reveals the long-sought-after catalytic Φ-clamp and the membrane-spanning translocation channel, and supports the Brownian ratchet model for protein translocation. Comparisons of four structures reveal conformational changes in prepore to pore conversion that support a multi-step mechanism by which low-pH is sensed and the membrane-spanning channel is formed. PMID:25778700

  10. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  11. Location, Timing, and Social Structure Patterns Related to Physical Activity Participation in Weight Loss Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Jennifer L.; Trevarthen, Grace

    2013-01-01

    Less than half of the adults in the United States meet national guidelines for physical activity. Physical activity programs can induce short-term improvements in physical activity. To develop effective interventions, researchers and practitioners should consider the timing, location, and social structure patterns of participants. Using a pretest,…

  12. Anti-listeria activity of poly(lactic acid)/sawdust particle biocomposite film impregnated with pediocin PA-1/AcH and its use in raw sliced pork.

    PubMed

    Woraprayote, Weerapong; Kingcha, Yutthana; Amonphanpokin, Pannawit; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Zendo, Takeshi; Sonomoto, Kenji; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop

    2013-10-15

    A novel poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/sawdust particle (SP) biocomposite film with anti-listeria activity was developed by incorporation of pediocin PA-1/AcH (Ped) using diffusion coating method. Sawdust particle played an important role in embedding pediocin into the hydrophobic PLA film. The anti-listeria activity of the PLA/SP biocomposite film incorporated with Ped (PLA/SP+Ped) was detected, while no activity against the tested pathogen was observed for the control PLA films (without SP and/or Ped). Dry-heat treatment of film before coating with Ped resulted in the highest Ped adsorption (11.63 ± 3.07 μg protein/cm(2)) and the highest anti-listeria activity. A model study of PLA/SP+Ped as a food-contact antimicrobial packaging on raw sliced pork suggests a potential inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes (99% of total listerial population) on raw sliced pork during the chilled storage. This study supports the feasibility of using PLA/SP+Ped film to reduce the initial load of L. monocytogenes on the surface of raw pork.

  13. Elucidating Protactinium Hydrolysis: The Relative Stabilities of PaO2(H2O)(+) and PaO(OH)2(+).

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Wilson, Richard E; Gibson, John K

    2015-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series.

  14. Elucidating Protactinium Hydrolysis: The Relative Stabilities of PaO2(H2O)(+) and PaO(OH)2(+).

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Wilson, Richard E; Gibson, John K

    2015-08-01

    It is demonstrated that the gas-phase oxo-exchange of PaO2(+) with water is substantially faster than that of UO2(+), indicating that the Pa-O bonds are more susceptible to activation and formation of the bis-hydroxide intermediate, PaO(OH)2(+). To elucidate the nature of the water adduct of PaO2(+), hydration of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), as well as collision induced dissociation (CID) and ligand-exchange of the water adducts of PaO2(+) and UO2(+), was studied. The results indicate that, in contrast to UO2(H2O)(+), the protactinium oxo bis-hydroxide isomer, PaO(OH)2(+), is produced as a gas-phase species close in energy to the hydrate isomer, PaO2(H2O)(+). CID behavior similar to that of Th(OH)3(+) supports the assignment as PaO(OH)2(+). The gas-phase results are consistent with the spontaneous hydrolysis of PaO2(+) in aqueous solution, this in contrast to later AnO2(+) (An = U, Np, Pu), which forms stable hydrates in both solution and gas phase. In view of the known propensity for Th(IV) to hydrolyze, and previous gas-phase studies of other AnO2(+), it is concluded that the stabilities of oxo-hydroxides relative to oxide hydrates decreases in the order: Th(IV) > Pa(V) > U(V) > Np(V) > Pu(V). This trend suggests increasing covalency and decreasing ionicity of An-O bonds upon proceeding across the actinide series. PMID:26203499

  15. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Cordeiro, Tânia; Bessa, Mariana; Valente, Hugo; Barros, Renata; Teixeira, Vitor; Mitchell, Vanessa; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, André

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. PMID:20617022

  16. Balanced amplification: a new mechanism of selective amplification of neural activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Brendan K; Miller, Kenneth D

    2009-02-26

    In cerebral cortex, ongoing activity absent a stimulus can resemble stimulus-driven activity in size and structure. In particular, spontaneous activity in cat primary visual cortex (V1) has structure significantly correlated with evoked responses to oriented stimuli. This suggests that, from unstructured input, cortical circuits selectively amplify specific activity patterns. Current understanding of selective amplification involves elongation of a neural assembly's lifetime by mutual excitation among its neurons. We introduce a new mechanism for selective amplification without elongation of lifetime: "balanced amplification." Strong balanced amplification arises when feedback inhibition stabilizes strong recurrent excitation, a pattern likely to be typical of cortex. Thus, balanced amplification should ubiquitously contribute to cortical activity. Balanced amplification depends on the fact that individual neurons project only excitatory or only inhibitory synapses. This leads to a hidden feedforward connectivity between activity patterns. We show in a detailed biophysical model that this can explain the cat V1 observations.

  17. Oxidation of Gas-Phase Protactinium Ions, Pa+ and Pa2+: Formation and Properties of PaO22+(g), Protactinyl

    SciTech Connect

    Santos, M.; de Matos, A. Pires; Marcalo, J.; Gibson, John K; Haire, Richard {Dick} G; Tyagi, R.; Pitzer, R. M.

    2006-01-01

    Oxidation reactions of bare and ligated, monopositive, and dipositive Pa ions in the gas phase were studied by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Seven oxidants were employed, ranging from the thermodynamically robust N{sub 2}O to the relatively weak CH{sub 2}O - all oxidized Pa{sup +} to PaO{sup +} and PaO{sup +} to PaO{sub 2}{sup +}. On the basis of experimental observations, it was established that D[Pa{sup +}-O] and D[OPa{sup +}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. Estimates for D[Pa{sup +}-O], D[OPa{sup +}-O], IE[PaO], and IE[PaO{sub 2}] were also obtained. The seven oxidants reacted with Pa{sup 2+} to produce PaO{sup 2+}, indicating that D[Pa{sup 2+}-O] {ge} 751 kJ mol{sup -1}. A particularly notable finding was the oxidation of PaO{sup 2+} by N{sub 2}O to PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, a species, which formally comprises Pa(VI). Collision-induced dissociation of PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} suggested the protactinyl connectivity, {l_brace}O-Pa-O{r_brace}{sup 2+}. The experimentally determined IE[PaO{sub 2}{sup +}] {approx} 16.6 eV is in agreement with self-consistent-field and configuration interaction calculations for PaO{sub 2}{sup +} and PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. These calculations provide insights into the electronic structures of these ions and indicate the participation of 5f orbitals in bonding and a partial '6p hole' in the case of protactinyl. It was found that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} catalyzes the oxidation of CO by N{sub 2}O - such O atom transport via a dipositive metal oxide ion is distinctive. It was also observed that PaO{sub 2}{sup 2+} is capable of activating H{sub 2} to form the stable PaO{sub 2}H{sup 2+} ion.

  18. A Computational Model of Dynein Activation Patterns that Can Explain Nodal Cilia Rotation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Duanduan; Zhong, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Normal left-right patterning in vertebrates depends on the rotational movement of nodal cilia. In order to produce this ciliary motion, the activity of axonemal dyneins must be tightly regulated in a temporal and spatial manner; the specific activation pattern of the dynein motors in the nodal cilia has not been reported. Contemporary imaging techniques cannot directly assess dynein activity in a living cilium. In this study, we establish a three-dimensional model to mimic the ciliary ultrastructure and assume that the activation of dynein proteins is related to the interdoublet distance. By employing finite-element analysis and grid deformation techniques, we simulate the mechanical function of dyneins by pairs of point loads, investigate the time-variant interdoublet distance, and simulate the dynein-triggered ciliary motion. The computational results indicate that, to produce the rotational movement of nodal cilia, the dynein activity is transferred clockwise (looking from the tip) between the nine doublet microtubules, and along each microtubule, the dynein activation should occur faster at the basal region and slower when it is close to the ciliary tip. Moreover, the time cost by all the dyneins along one microtubule to be activated can be used to deduce the dynein activation pattern; it implies that, as an alternative method, measuring this time can indirectly reveal the dynein activity. The proposed protein-structure model can simulate the ciliary motion triggered by various dynein activation patterns explicitly and may contribute to furthering the studies on axonemal dynein activity. PMID:26153700

  19. A computational model of dynein activation patterns that can explain nodal cilia rotation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Duanduan; Zhong, Yi

    2015-07-01

    Normal left-right patterning in vertebrates depends on the rotational movement of nodal cilia. In order to produce this ciliary motion, the activity of axonemal dyneins must be tightly regulated in a temporal and spatial manner; the specific activation pattern of the dynein motors in the nodal cilia has not been reported. Contemporary imaging techniques cannot directly assess dynein activity in a living cilium. In this study, we establish a three-dimensional model to mimic the ciliary ultrastructure and assume that the activation of dynein proteins is related to the interdoublet distance. By employing finite-element analysis and grid deformation techniques, we simulate the mechanical function of dyneins by pairs of point loads, investigate the time-variant interdoublet distance, and simulate the dynein-triggered ciliary motion. The computational results indicate that, to produce the rotational movement of nodal cilia, the dynein activity is transferred clockwise (looking from the tip) between the nine doublet microtubules, and along each microtubule, the dynein activation should occur faster at the basal region and slower when it is close to the ciliary tip. Moreover, the time cost by all the dyneins along one microtubule to be activated can be used to deduce the dynein activation pattern; it implies that, as an alternative method, measuring this time can indirectly reveal the dynein activity. The proposed protein-structure model can simulate the ciliary motion triggered by various dynein activation patterns explicitly and may contribute to furthering the studies on axonemal dynein activity.

  20. Chronic neck pain alters muscle activation patterns to sudden movements.

    PubMed

    Boudreau, Shellie A; Falla, Deborah

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the activation of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and splenius capitis (SC) muscles in response to unanticipated, full body perturbations in individuals with chronic neck pain (NP) and age-matched healthy controls (HC). Individuals with NP had a history of NP for 8.9 ± 7.8 years, rated the intensity of NP as 4.2 ± 2.0 (score out of 10), and scored 15.3 ± 6.5 on the Neck Disability Index. Participants stood on a moveable platform during which 32 randomized postural perturbations (eight repetitions of four perturbation types: 8 cm forward slide (FS), 8 cm backward slides, 10° forward tilt, and 10° backward tilt) with varying inter-perturbation time intervals were performed over a period of 5 min. Bilateral surface electromyography (EMG) from the SCM and SC was recorded, and the onset time and the average rectified value of the EMG signal was determined for epochs of 100 ms; starting 100 ms prior to and 500 ms after the perturbation onset. Individuals with NP, as compared to HC, demonstrated delayed onset times and reduced EMG amplitude of the SCM and SC muscles in response to all postural perturbations. Such findings were most pronounced following the FS postural perturbation (healthy vs. NP for SCM 83.3 ± 8.0 vs. 86.3 ± 4.4 and SC 75.6 ± 3.5 vs. 89.3 ± 4.2), which was also associated with the greatest change (expressed in % relative to baseline) in EMG amplitude (healthy vs. NP for SCM 206.6 ± 50.4 vs. 115.9 ± 15.7 and SC 83.4 ± 19.2 vs. 69.2 ± 10.9) across all postural perturbations types. Individuals with NP display altered neural control of the neck musculature in response to rapid, unanticipated full body postural perturbations. Although the relative timing of neck musculature activity in individuals with NP appears to be intact, simultaneous co-activation of the neck musculature emerges for unanticipated anterior-posterior postural perturbations.

  1. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states. PMID:27401999

  2. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  3. Fibrinogen patterns and activity on substrates with tailored hydroxy density.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Hernández, José Carlos; Rico, Patricia; Moratal, David; Monleón Pradas, Manuel; Salmerón-Sánchez, Manuel

    2009-08-11

    The influence of the surface fraction of OH groups on fibrinogen (FG) adsorption is investigated in copolymers of ethyl acrylate and hydroxy ethylacrylate. The amount of adsorbed FG, quantified by western-blotting combined with image analysis of the corresponding bands, decreases as the hydrophilicity of the substrate increases. The influence of substrate wettability on FG conformation and distribution is observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The most hydrophobic substrate promotes FG fibrillogenesis, which leads to a fibrin-like appearance in the absence of any thrombin. The degree of FG interconnection was quantified by calculating the fractal dimension of the adsorbed protein from image analysis of the AFM results. The biological activity of the adsorbed FG is correlated to cell adhesion on FG-coated substrates.

  4. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into how to use

  5. Periodic patterning of the Drosophila eye is stabilized by the diffusible activator Scabrous

    PubMed Central

    Gavish, Avishai; Shwartz, Arkadi; Weizman, Abraham; Schejter, Eyal; Shilo, Ben-Zion; Barkai, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Generation of periodic patterns is fundamental to the differentiation of multiple tissues during development. How such patterns form robustly is still unclear. The Drosophila eye comprises ∼750 units, whose crystalline order is set during differentiation of the eye imaginal disc: an activation wave sweeping across the disc is coupled to lateral inhibition, sequentially selecting pro-neural cells. Using mathematical modelling, here we show that this template-based lateral inhibition is highly sensitive to spatial variations in biochemical parameters and cell sizes. We reveal the basis of this sensitivity, and suggest that it can be overcome by assuming a short-range diffusible activator. Clonal experiments identify Scabrous, a previously implicated inhibitor, as the predicted activator. Our results reveal the mechanism by which periodic patterning in the fly eye is stabilized against spatial variations, highlighting how the need to maintain robustness shapes the design of patterning circuits. PMID:26876750

  6. Pleiotropic patterning response to activation of Shh signaling in the limb Apical Ectodermal Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Kuang Leo; Tsugane, Mizuyo H.; Scranton, Victoria; Kosher, Robert A.; Pierro, Louis J.; Upholt, William B.; Dealy, Caroline N.

    2012-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the limb plays a central role in coordination of limb patterning and outgrowth. Shh expression in the limb is limited to the cells of the Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA), located in posterior limb bud mesoderm. Shh is not expressed by limb ectoderm or AER, but recent studies suggest a role for AER-Shh signaling in limb patterning. Here, we have examined the effects of activation of Shh signaling in the AER. We find that targeted expression of Shh in the AER activates constitutive Shh signaling throughout the AER and subjacent limb mesoderm, and causes a range of limb patterning defects with progressive severity from mild polydactyly, to polysyndactyly with proximal defects, to severe oligodactyly with phocomelia and partial limb ventralization. Our studies emphasize the importance of control of the timing, level and location of Shh pathway signaling for limb AP, PD and DV patterning. PMID:21465622

  7. Spatiotemporal brain activation pattern during word/picture perception by native Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Yoon, Hyo Woon; Park, Hyun Wook

    2004-05-19

    The purpose of this study is to explore spatiotemporal brain activation patterns during perception of words from three different languages (Korean, English, Chinese) and pictures. Using 64 channel event-related potential (ERP) recording and source localization using distributed source model, we investigated, with high temporal resolution, whether similar or different spatiotemporal patterns of brain activation are involved in the perception of words of different languages and/or pictures. Experimental results seem to corroborate left hemispheric dominance in language processing, and temporal/spatial characteristics in word perception revealed by previous ERP and neuroimaging studies. Observed differences in spatial pattern of activation at specific time periods between English and Korean, and Korean and Chinese, could be explained in terms of required visual pattern analysis due to the orthographic characteristics of each language.

  8. Leisure activity patterns and their associations with overweight: a prospective study among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-10-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between individual leisure activities (television viewing, video viewing, computer games, listening to music, board games, musical instrument playing, reading, arts, crafts, socializing, clubs or scouts, sports, outdoor activities) and being overweight using logistic regression and latent class analysis in a cohort of Finnish twins responding to self-report questionnaires at 11-12 (N=5184), 14, and 17 years. We also studied activity patterns ("Active and sociable", "Active but less sociable", "Passive but sociable", "Passive and solitary") thought to represent different lifestyles. Among boys, activity patterns did not predict becoming overweight, but sports and playing an instrument reduced the risk and arts and listening to music increased it. Among girls, few individual leisure activities predicted becoming overweight. However, girls in the "Passive and solitary" cluster carried the greatest risk of becoming overweight in late adolescence. Studying leisure activities related to overweight may help focus specific interventions on high risk groups.

  9. Leisure activity patterns and their associations with overweight: a prospective study among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-10-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between individual leisure activities (television viewing, video viewing, computer games, listening to music, board games, musical instrument playing, reading, arts, crafts, socializing, clubs or scouts, sports, outdoor activities) and being overweight using logistic regression and latent class analysis in a cohort of Finnish twins responding to self-report questionnaires at 11-12 (N=5184), 14, and 17 years. We also studied activity patterns ("Active and sociable", "Active but less sociable", "Passive but sociable", "Passive and solitary") thought to represent different lifestyles. Among boys, activity patterns did not predict becoming overweight, but sports and playing an instrument reduced the risk and arts and listening to music increased it. Among girls, few individual leisure activities predicted becoming overweight. However, girls in the "Passive and solitary" cluster carried the greatest risk of becoming overweight in late adolescence. Studying leisure activities related to overweight may help focus specific interventions on high risk groups. PMID:19345989

  10. Peak-valley-peak pattern of histone modifications delineates active regulatory elements and their directionality.

    PubMed

    Pundhir, Sachin; Bagger, Frederik O; Lauridsen, Felicia B; Rapin, Nicolas; Porse, Bo T

    2016-05-19

    Formation of nucleosome free region (NFR) accompanied by specific histone modifications at flanking nucleosomes is an important prerequisite for enhancer and promoter activity. Due to this process, active regulatory elements often exhibit a distinct shape of histone signal in the form of a peak-valley-peak (PVP) pattern. However, different features of PVP patterns and their robustness in predicting active regulatory elements have never been systematically analyzed. Here, we present PARE, a novel computational method that systematically analyzes the H3K4me1 or H3K4me3 PVP patterns to predict NFRs. We show that NFRs predicted by H3K4me1 and me3 patterns are associated with active enhancers and promoters, respectively. Furthermore, asymmetry in the height of peaks flanking the central valley can predict the directionality of stable transcription at promoters. Using PARE on ChIP-seq histone modifications from four ENCODE cell lines and four hematopoietic differentiation stages, we identified several enhancers whose regulatory activity is stage specific and correlates positively with the expression of proximal genes in a particular stage. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that PVP patterns delineate both the histone modification landscape and the transcriptional activities governed by active enhancers and promoters, and therefore can be used for their prediction. PARE is freely available at http://servers.binf.ku.dk/pare. PMID:27095194

  11. Brain activation pattern depends on the strategy chosen by zebra finches to solve an orientation task.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Uwe; Bischof, Hans-Joachim

    2012-02-01

    Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were trained to find food in one of four feeders on the floor of an aviary. This feeder was always in the same place during training and was additionally marked by a distinct pattern. In the test trial the distinctly patterned feeder was interchanged with one of the other feeders, so that the birds had to decide to use either the pattern or the original location for finding food. Half of the birds used one strategy and half used the other. According to the strategy applied, different brain areas were activated, as demonstrated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. The hippocampus was activated when spatial cues were used, while in birds orienting using the pattern of the feeder, part of the collothalamic (tectofugal) visual system showed stronger activation. The visual wulst of the lemnothalamic (thalamofugal) visual system was activated with both strategies, indicating an involvement in both spatial and pattern-directed orientation. Because the experimental situation was the same for all zebra finches, the activation pattern was only dependent on the strategy that was voluntarily chosen by each of the birds.

  12. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  13. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position

  14. Patterns and origin of igneous activity around the Tanzanian craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, S. F.; Link, K.; Tiberindwa, J. V.; Barifaijo, E.

    2012-01-01

    Tertiary and later igneous activity is common on and around the Tanzanian craton, with primitive magma compositions ranging from kimberlites and varieties of picrites through nephelinites, basanites and alkali basalts. This review focuses on elucidating the conditions of origin of the melts, addressing the question of the state and involvement of the Tanzanian cratonic lithosphere in magma genesis. The Tanzanian craton is anomalous with a surface elevation of >1100 m reflecting buoyancy supported by a subcratonic plume whose effects are seen in the volcanics of both western and eastern rift branches. Magmatism on the craton and at its edge has high K/Na and primitive melts show fractionation dominated by olivine. Slightly further from the craton pyroxene fractionation dominates and K/Na ratios in the magmas are lower. Off-craton melts are nephelinites, basanites and alkali basalts with low K/Na. Potassium enrichment in the melts correlates with the occurrence of phlogopite in mantle-derived xenoliths, and also with carbonate in the magmas. This is attributed to melting at >140 km depths of mixed source regions containing phlogopite pyroxenite and peridotite, whereby the carbonate is derived from oxidation of diamonds concentrated near the base of the cratonic lithosphere. Mixed source regions are required by arrays of radiogenic isotopes such as Os and Sr in the volcanic rocks. The temporal progression of lamproites to phlogopite + carbonate-rich rocks to melilitites, nephelinites and alkali basalts seen during the erosion of the North Atlantic craton are seen around the Tanzanian craton as the coeval occurrence kimberlites, kamafugites and related rocks, nephelinites and alkali basalts showing spatial instead of temporal variation. This is due to the different stages of development of rifting around the craton: in northwestern Uganda and northern Tanzania, K-rich volcanism occurs at the craton edge, whereas nephelinites, basanites and alkali basalts occur where

  15. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  16. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  17. Assessing Activity Pattern Similarity with Multidimensional Sequence Alignment based on a Multiobjective Optimization Evolutionary Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kwan, Mei-Po; Xiao, Ningchuan; Ding, Guoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the complexity and multidimensional characteristics of human activities, assessing the similarity of human activity patterns and classifying individuals with similar patterns remains highly challenging. This paper presents a new and unique methodology for evaluating the similarity among individual activity patterns. It conceptualizes multidimensional sequence alignment (MDSA) as a multiobjective optimization problem, and solves this problem with an evolutionary algorithm. The study utilizes sequence alignment to code multiple facets of human activities into multidimensional sequences, and to treat similarity assessment as a multiobjective optimization problem that aims to minimize the alignment cost for all dimensions simultaneously. A multiobjective optimization evolutionary algorithm (MOEA) is used to generate a diverse set of optimal or near-optimal alignment solutions. Evolutionary operators are specifically designed for this problem, and a local search method also is incorporated to improve the search ability of the algorithm. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method by comparing it with a popular existing method called ClustalG using a set of 50 sequences. The results indicate that our method outperforms the existing method for most of our selected cases. The multiobjective evolutionary algorithm presented in this paper provides an effective approach for assessing activity pattern similarity, and a foundation for identifying distinctive groups of individuals with similar activity patterns. PMID:26190858

  18. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  19. The novel influenza A virus protein PA-X and its naturally deleted variant show different enzymatic properties in comparison to the viral endonuclease PA

    PubMed Central

    Bavagnoli, Laura; Cucuzza, Stefano; Campanini, Giulia; Rovida, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Baldanti, Fausto; Maga, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The PA protein of Influenza A virus (IAV) encoded by segment 3 acts as a specialized RNA endonuclease in the transcription of the viral genome. The same genomic segment encodes for a second shorter protein, termed PA-X, with the first 191 N-terminal aminoacids (aa) identical to PA, but with a completely different C-ter domain of 61 aa, due to a ribosomal frameshifting. In addition, it has been shown that several IAV isolates encode for a naturally truncated PA-X variant, PAXΔC20, missing the last 20 aa. The biochemical properties of PA-X and PAXΔC20 have been poorly investigated so far. Here, we have carried out an enzymatic characterization of PA-X and its naturally deleted form, in comparison with PA from the human IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Our results showed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that PA-X possesses an endonucleolytic activity. Both PA and PA-X preferentially cut single stranded RNA regions, but with some differences. In addition, we showed that PAXΔC20 has severely reduced nuclease activity. These results point to a previously undetected role of the last C-ter 20 aa for the catalytic activity of PA-X and support distinct roles for these proteins in the viral life cycle. PMID:26384413

  20. The novel influenza A virus protein PA-X and its naturally deleted variant show different enzymatic properties in comparison to the viral endonuclease PA.

    PubMed

    Bavagnoli, Laura; Cucuzza, Stefano; Campanini, Giulia; Rovida, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Baldanti, Fausto; Maga, Giovanni

    2015-10-30

    The PA protein of Influenza A virus (IAV) encoded by segment 3 acts as a specialized RNA endonuclease in the transcription of the viral genome. The same genomic segment encodes for a second shorter protein, termed PA-X, with the first 191 N-terminal aminoacids (aa) identical to PA, but with a completely different C-ter domain of 61 aa, due to a ribosomal frameshifting. In addition, it has been shown that several IAV isolates encode for a naturally truncated PA-X variant, PAXΔC20, missing the last 20 aa. The biochemical properties of PA-X and PAXΔC20 have been poorly investigated so far. Here, we have carried out an enzymatic characterization of PA-X and its naturally deleted form, in comparison with PA from the human IAV strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). Our results showed, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, that PA-X possesses an endonucleolytic activity. Both PA and PA-X preferentially cut single stranded RNA regions, but with some differences. In addition, we showed that PAXΔC20 has severely reduced nuclease activity. These results point to a previously undetected role of the last C-ter 20 aa for the catalytic activity of PA-X and support distinct roles for these proteins in the viral life cycle.

  1. Longitudinal assessment of leg motor activity and sleep patterns in infants with and without Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    McKay, Sandra M; Angulo-Barroso, Rosa M

    2006-04-01

    Whether infants with Down syndrome (DS) perform leg movements with the same frequency and quality as their typical development (TD) counterparts is equivocal. Furthermore, the relationship between these early leg movements and later onset of locomotor milestones has only been partially explored. The aims of this study were two-fold: (1) to describe the longitudinal leg activity in infants with and without DS (3-6 months), and (2) to examine sleeping patterns and leg activity during the night. In addition, the relationships between leg activities and sleep patterns with locomotor development were explored. An activity monitor was placed monthly on the infant's ankle for 48 h. Data were analyzed to separate day-night, high-low activity, and sleep fragmentation. The results indicate that infants with DS produced more low intensity activity and more fragmented sleep. These findings are discussed in relation to the influence of early motor activity on achievement of functional motor behavior.

  2. Visual pattern discrimination by population retinal ganglion cells' activities during natural movie stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ru-Bin; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-02-01

    In the visual system, neurons often fire in synchrony, and it is believed that synchronous activities of group neurons are more efficient than single cell response in transmitting neural signals to down-stream neurons. However, whether dynamic natural stimuli are encoded by dynamic spatiotemporal firing patterns of synchronous group neurons still needs to be investigated. In this paper we recorded the activities of population ganglion cells in bullfrog retina in response to time-varying natural images (natural scene movie) using multi-electrode arrays. In response to some different brief section pairs of the movie, synchronous groups of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) fired with similar but different spike events. We attempted to discriminate the movie sections based on temporal firing patterns of single cells and spatiotemporal firing patterns of the synchronous groups of RGCs characterized by a measurement of subsequence distribution discrepancy. The discrimination performance was assessed by a classification method based on Support Vector Machines. Our results show that different movie sections of the natural movie elicited reliable dynamic spatiotemporal activity patterns of the synchronous RGCs, which are more efficient in discriminating different movie sections than the temporal patterns of the single cells' spike events. These results suggest that, during natural vision, the down-stream neurons may decode the visual information from the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of the synchronous group of RGCs' activities. PMID:24465283

  3. Visual pattern discrimination by population retinal ganglion cells' activities during natural movie stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Ru-Bin; Pan, Xiao-Chuan; Gong, Hai-Qing; Liang, Pei-Ji

    2014-02-01

    In the visual system, neurons often fire in synchrony, and it is believed that synchronous activities of group neurons are more efficient than single cell response in transmitting neural signals to down-stream neurons. However, whether dynamic natural stimuli are encoded by dynamic spatiotemporal firing patterns of synchronous group neurons still needs to be investigated. In this paper we recorded the activities of population ganglion cells in bullfrog retina in response to time-varying natural images (natural scene movie) using multi-electrode arrays. In response to some different brief section pairs of the movie, synchronous groups of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) fired with similar but different spike events. We attempted to discriminate the movie sections based on temporal firing patterns of single cells and spatiotemporal firing patterns of the synchronous groups of RGCs characterized by a measurement of subsequence distribution discrepancy. The discrimination performance was assessed by a classification method based on Support Vector Machines. Our results show that different movie sections of the natural movie elicited reliable dynamic spatiotemporal activity patterns of the synchronous RGCs, which are more efficient in discriminating different movie sections than the temporal patterns of the single cells' spike events. These results suggest that, during natural vision, the down-stream neurons may decode the visual information from the dynamic spatiotemporal patterns of the synchronous group of RGCs' activities.

  4. Friendship Characteristics and Activity Patterns of Adolescents with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Melissa H.; Orsmond, Gael I.; Cohn, Ellen S.; Coster, Wendy J.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared perceptions of adolescents' friendships between adolescents with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and their parents, examined factors associated with friendship qualities, and investigated the adolescents' reports on the activities they did with friends and how activity patterns differed by gender. Ninety-one…

  5. Relationships between Childhood and Adult Physical Activity Patterns in a Community Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.; Polkinghorne, Ori

    This study examined the relationship between adult physical activity levels and patterns of activity that were established during childhood. A random digit telephone survey was conducted of noninstitutionalized residents in a medium sized California city. Subjects ages 18 and over who volunteered to participate were questioned about their…

  6. Twenty-four hour activity budgets and patterns of behavior in captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis).

    PubMed

    Weller, S H.; Bennett, C L.

    2001-02-16

    Activity budgets of captive ocelots (Leopardus pardalis) were assessed from over 547h of observational data obtained from six ocelots; two females at the Dallas Zoo (Dallas, TX), two females at the Caldwell Zoo (Tyler, TX) and a male and female at the Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (Glen Rose, TX). Data were examined for the percentage of active behaviors exhibited during the day and nighttime hours; temporal patterns of active, pace, exploratory and marking behavior, and for significance in pacing behavior between pre- and post-feeding times. The captive cats had a bimodal pattern of active behavior similar to field studies of wild ocelots, except that the timing of the active peaks were closer to the diurnal hours for the captive cats. The captive ocelots were less active than wild ocelots, and more diurnal. Also, the captive cats exhibited stereotypic pacing. When the percentage of time of active behavior was assessed for each cat, a strong variation between individuals and institution was not seen. Pacing behavior was highest prior to the feeding times for the cats. In assessing patterns of behavior, peaks in marking and exploratory behavior in the cats did not occur at the same time as the peaks in active behavior. However, we did see institutional differences in the pattern of exploratory and marking behavior, which may have been influenced by differing management practices. PMID:11179560

  7. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  8. Motives for Using Facebook, Patterns of Facebook Activities, and Late Adolescents' Social Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among college students, but the specific activities and motives that foster social adjustment remain unclear. This study examined associations between patterns of Facebook activity, motives for using Facebook, and…

  9. Temporal Links in Daily Activity Patterns between Coral Reef Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have documented the activity patterns of both predators and their common prey over 24 h diel cycles. This study documents the temporal periodicity of two common resident predators of juvenile reef fishes, Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) and Pseudochromis fuscus (dottyback) and compares these to the activity and foraging pattern of a common prey species, juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish). Detailed observations of activity in the field and using 24 h infrared video in the laboratory revealed that the two predators had very different activity patterns. C. cyanostigma was active over the whole 24 h period, with a peak in feeding strikes at dusk and increased activity at both dawn and dusk, while P. fuscus was not active at night and had its highest strike rates at midday. The activity and foraging pattern of P. moluccensis directly opposes that of C. cyanostigma with individuals reducing strike rate and intraspecific aggression at both dawn and dusk, and reducing distance from shelter and boldness at dusk only. Juveniles examined were just outside the size-selection window of P. fuscus. We suggest that the relatively predictable diel behaviour of coral reef predators results from physiological factors such as visual sensory abilities, circadian rhythmicity, variation in hunting profitability, and predation risk at different times of the day. Our study suggests that the diel periodicity of P. moluccensis behaviour may represent a response to increased predation risk at times when both the ability to efficiently capture food and visually detect predators is reduced. PMID:25354096

  10. Role of Individual and School Factors in Physical Activity Patterns of Secondary-Level Spanish Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Francisco Ruiz; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia; Montes, Maria Elena Garcia; Bush, Paula Louise

    2010-01-01

    Background: While the importance of individual and school factors as correlates of overall youth physical activity has been demonstrated by previous research, less is known about the relationship of these factors with specific patterns of physical activity during adolescence. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the association of…

  11. Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and sleep/wake patterns of Japanese elementary school children.

    PubMed

    Oka, Yasunori; Suzuki, Shuhei; Inoue, Yuich

    2008-01-01

    Bedtime activities, sleep environment, and their impact on sleep/wake patterns were assessed in 509 elementary school children (6-12 years of age; 252 males and 257 females). Television viewing, playing video games, and surfing the Internet had negative impact on sleep/wake parameters. Moreover, presence of a television set or video game in the child's bedroom increased their activity before bedtime. Time to return home later than 8 p.m. from after-school activity also had a negative impact on sleep/wake patterns. Health care practitioners should be aware of the potential negative impact of television, video games, and the Internet before bedtime, and also the possibility that late after-school activity can disturb sleep/wake patterns. PMID:18853306

  12. Microfluidic manufacture of rt-PA -loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Shekhar, Himanshu; Shaw, George J; Papautsky, Ian; Holland, Christy K

    2016-06-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), loaded with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles that act as cavitation nuclei, are under development for ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis. Conventional manufacturing techniques produce a polydisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP population with only a small percentage of particles containing microbubbles. Further, a polydisperse population of rt-PA-loaded ELIP has a broadband frequency response with complex bubble dynamics when exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In this work, a microfluidic flow-focusing device was used to generate monodisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP (μtELIP) loaded with a perfluorocarbon gas. The rt-PA associated with the μtELIP was encapsulated within the lipid shell as well as intercalated within the lipid shell. The μtELIP had a mean diameter of 5 μm, a resonance frequency of 2.2 MHz, and were found to be stable for at least 30 min in 0.5 % bovine serum albumin. Additionally, 35 % of μtELIP particles were estimated to contain microbubbles, an order of magnitude higher than that reported previously for batch-produced rt-PA-loaded ELIP. These findings emphasize the advantages offered by microfluidic techniques for improving the encapsulation efficiency of both rt-PA and perflurocarbon microbubbles within echogenic liposomes. PMID:27206512

  13. Microfluidic manufacture of rt-PA -loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Shekhar, Himanshu; Shaw, George J; Papautsky, Ian; Holland, Christy K

    2016-06-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), loaded with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles that act as cavitation nuclei, are under development for ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis. Conventional manufacturing techniques produce a polydisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP population with only a small percentage of particles containing microbubbles. Further, a polydisperse population of rt-PA-loaded ELIP has a broadband frequency response with complex bubble dynamics when exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In this work, a microfluidic flow-focusing device was used to generate monodisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP (μtELIP) loaded with a perfluorocarbon gas. The rt-PA associated with the μtELIP was encapsulated within the lipid shell as well as intercalated within the lipid shell. The μtELIP had a mean diameter of 5 μm, a resonance frequency of 2.2 MHz, and were found to be stable for at least 30 min in 0.5 % bovine serum albumin. Additionally, 35 % of μtELIP particles were estimated to contain microbubbles, an order of magnitude higher than that reported previously for batch-produced rt-PA-loaded ELIP. These findings emphasize the advantages offered by microfluidic techniques for improving the encapsulation efficiency of both rt-PA and perflurocarbon microbubbles within echogenic liposomes.

  14. Microfluidic manufacture of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Kandadai, Madhuvanthi A.; Mukherjee, Prithviraj; Shekhar, Himanshu; Shaw, George J.; Papautsky, Ian; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-01-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), loaded with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles that act as cavitation nuclei, are under development for ultrasound-mediated thrombolysis. Conventional manufacturing techniques produce a polydisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP population with only a small percentage of particles containing microbubbles. Further, a polydisperse population of rt-PA-loaded ELIP has a broadband frequency response with complex bubble dynamics when exposed to pulsed ultrasound. In this work, a microfluidic flow-focusing device was used to generate monodisperse rt-PA-loaded ELIP (µtELIP) loaded with a perfluorocarbon gas. The rt-PA associated with the µtELIP was encapsulated within the lipid shell as well as intercalated within the lipid shell. The µtELIP had a mean diameter of 5 µm, a resonance frequency of 2.2 MHz, and were found to be stable for at least 30 min in 0.5%bovine serum albumin. Additionally, 35 % of µtELIP particles were estimated to contain microbubbles, an order of magnitude higher than that reported previously for batch-produced rt-PA-loaded ELIP. These findings emphasize the advantages offered by microfluidic techniques for improving the encapsulation efficiency of both rt-PA and perflurocarbon microbubbles within echogenic liposomes. PMID:27206512

  15. Physical Education and General Health Courses and Minority Community College Student Risk Levels for Poor Health and Leisure-Time Exercise Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Sally L.; Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Chen, Li; Guan, Jianmin; Delzeit-McIntyre, Linda; Bridges, Dwan

    2008-01-01

    College education is the last opportunity to educate a large segment of young adults to be physically active and develop a healthy lifestyle. This study examined minority community college student risks for cardiovascular disease, physical activity (PA) patterns, and effects of physical education and general health courses on promoting PA.…

  16. Hippocampal CA2 activity patterns change over time to a larger extent than between spatial contexts.

    PubMed

    Mankin, Emily A; Diehl, Geoffrey W; Sparks, Fraser T; Leutgeb, Stefan; Leutgeb, Jill K

    2015-01-01

    The hippocampal CA2 subregion has a different anatomical connectivity pattern within the entorhino-hippocampal circuit than either the CA1 or CA3 subregion. Yet major differences in the neuronal activity patterns of CA2 compared with the other CA subregions have not been reported. We show that standard spatial and temporal firing patterns of individual hippocampal principal neurons in behaving rats, such as place fields, theta modulation, and phase precession, are also present in CA2, but that the CA2 subregion differs substantially from the other CA subregions in its population coding. CA2 ensembles do not show a persistent code for space or for differences in context. Rather, CA2 activity patterns become progressively dissimilar over time periods of hours to days. The weak coding for a particular context is consistent with recent behavioral evidence that CA2 circuits preferentially support social, emotional, and temporal rather than spatial aspects of memory. PMID:25569350

  17. 23 CFR Appendix F to Part 1200 - PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS F APPENDIX F TO... HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANT PROGRAMS Pt. 1200, App. F APPENDIX F TO PART 1200—PLANNING AND ADMINISTRATION (P&A) COSTS (a) Policy. Federal participation in P&A activities shall not exceed 50 percent of the total...

  18. 23 CFR Appendix F to Part 1200 - Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs F Appendix F to... HIGHWAY SAFETY GRANT PROGRAMS Pt. 1200, App. F Appendix F to Part 1200—Planning and Administration (P&A) Costs (a) Policy. Federal participation in P&A activities shall not exceed 50 percent of the total...

  19. Seasonal variation in daily activity patterns of free-ranging European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus).

    PubMed

    Everts, Lammina G; Strijkstra, Arjen M; Hut, Roelof A; Hoffmann, Ilse E; Millesi, Eva

    2004-01-01

    Daily aboveground activity of European ground squirrels (Spermophilus citellus) in their natural habitat was recorded with a visual scanning procedure during the active seasons of 1992 and 1993. Activity patterns were analyzed with respect to time of year and to the animal's reproductive state. Aboveground activity started on average 3.9 h (SD 0.6 h, n = 37 days) after civil twilight at dawn and ended on average 3.2 h (SD 0.9 h, n = 37 days) before civil twilight at dusk. Between onset and offset of activity, 54% was spent aboveground, of which 73% was spent foraging. Activity patterns were influenced by photoperiod, rainfall, and by reproductive state. During mating, reproductively active males started activity earlier than females and reproductively inactive males. For females, time spent foraging was high during lactation. The midpoint of daily activity was at 12:16 h (SD 0.37 h, n = 37 days). Activity patterns of European ground squirrels thus appear robustly positioned in the middle of the photoperiod. PMID:15129824

  20. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  1. Global feedback control of Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, S.; Nakao, H.; Mikhailov, A. S.

    2012-06-01

    Results of the first systematic study on feedback control of nonequilibrium pattern formation in networks are reported. Effects of global feedback control on Turing patterns in network-organized activator-inhibitor system have been investigated. The feedback signal was introduced into one of the parameters of the system and was proportional to the amplitude of the developing Turing pattern. Without the control, the Turing instability corresponded to a subcritical bifurcation and hysteresis effects were observed. Sufficiently strong feedback control rendered, however, the bifurcation supercritical and eliminated the hysteresis effects.

  2. Changes in cerebellar activation pattern during two successive sequences of saccades.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Thomas; Mascolo, Andrea; Yousry, Tarek A; Bense, Sandra; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2002-06-01

    The changes in the cerebellar activation pattern of two successive fMRI scanning runs were determined for visually guided to-and-fro saccades in 12 healthy volunteers familiar with the study paradigm. Group and single subject-analyses revealed a constant activation of the paramedian cerebellar vermis (uvula, tonsils, tuber, folium/declive), which reflects constant ocular motor activity in both runs. A significant decrease in activation of the cerebellar hemispheres found in the second run is best explained by either a decrease in attention or the effects of motor optimization and learning. The significant, systematic changes of the cerebellar activation pattern in two successive runs were not expected, because the ocular motor task was simple, familiar, and highly automated. These findings indicate that similar effects may bias other cerebellar activation studies, in which sensorimotor tasks are repeated in a single session.

  3. Sensory Patterns, Obesity, and Physical Activity Participation of Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Lisa Mische; Foster, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a public health concern for the population in general and for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) specifically. The purpose of this study was to understand relationships between sensory patterns, obesity, and physical activity engagement of children with ASD (N = 77) sampled from a specialized community-based swimming program. This retrospective correlational study analyzed program data. Results show that almost half (42.2%) of the children were overweight or obese, and sensory avoiding behaviors were related to higher body mass index (BMI). Children participated in few formal and informal physically active recreation activities. Sensory seeking behaviors were associated with increased participation in informal activities, and higher BMI was associated with less participation in both formal and informal activities. Practitioners should consider sensory processing patterns and BMI when developing community-based programs to promote physical activity of children with ASD. PMID:27548863

  4. Association of After-School Physical Activity Levels and Organized Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) describe the children's physical activity (PA) patterns during the after-school period and 2) to compare the type and intensity of activity during the after-school period of children with or without participation in organized PA programmes. The participants were 456 children from four primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  5. Unsupervised classification of neocortical activity patterns in neonatal and pre-juvenile rodents

    PubMed Central

    Cichon, Nicole B.; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible communication within the brain, which relies on oscillatory activity, is not confined to adult neuronal networks. Experimental evidence has documented the presence of discontinuous patterns of oscillatory activity already during early development. Their highly variable spatial and time-frequency organization has been related to region specificity. However, it might be equally due to the absence of unitary criteria for classifying the early activity patterns, since they have been mainly characterized by visual inspection. Therefore, robust and unbiased methods for categorizing these discontinuous oscillations are needed for increasingly complex data sets from different labs. Here, we introduce an unsupervised detection and classification algorithm for the discontinuous activity patterns of rodents during early development. For this, in a first step time windows with discontinuous oscillations vs. epochs of network “silence” were identified. In a second step, the major features of detected events were identified and processed by principal component analysis for deciding on their contribution to the classification of different oscillatory patterns. Finally, these patterns were categorized using an unsupervised cluster algorithm. The results were validated on manually characterized neonatal spindle bursts (SB), which ubiquitously entrain neocortical areas of rats and mice, and prelimbic nested gamma spindle bursts (NG). Moreover, the algorithm led to satisfactory results for oscillatory events that, due to increased similarity of their features, were more difficult to classify, e.g., during the pre-juvenile developmental period. Based on a linear classification, the optimal number of features to consider increased with the difficulty of detection. This algorithm allows the comparison of neonatal and pre-juvenile oscillatory patterns in their spatial and temporal organization. It might represent a first step for the unbiased elucidation of activity patterns

  6. 49 CFR 372.211 - Pittsburgh, PA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pittsburgh, PA. 372.211 Section 372.211... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.211 Pittsburgh, PA. The zone adjacent to, and... and is comprised of all points as follows: (a) The municipality of Pittsburgh, Pa., itself; (b)...

  7. 32 CFR 701.113 - PA exemptions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PA exemptions. 701.113 Section 701.113 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.113 PA exemptions. (a) Exempt systems of records. 5....navy.mil. (b) Exemption rule. No PA exemption may be established for a system of records until...

  8. Successful Remembering Elicits Event-Specific Activity Patterns in Lateral Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Marvin M.

    2014-01-01

    Remembering a past event involves reactivation of content-specific patterns of neural activity in high-level perceptual regions (e.g., ventral temporal cortex, VTC). In contrast, the subjective experience of vivid remembering is typically associated with increased activity in lateral parietal cortex (LPC)—“retrieval success effects” that are thought to generalize across content types. However, the functional significance of LPC activation during memory retrieval remains a subject of active debate. In particular, theories are divided with respect to whether LPC actively represents retrieved content or if LPC activity only scales with content reactivation elsewhere (e.g., VTC). Here, we report a human fMRI study of visual memory recall (faces vs scenes) in which complementary forms of multivoxel pattern analysis were used to test for and compare content reactivation within LPC and VTC. During recall of visual images, we observed robust reactivation of broad category information (face vs scene) in both VTC and LPC. Moreover, recall-related activity patterns in LPC, but not VTC, differentiated between individual events. Importantly, these content effects were particularly evident in areas of LPC (namely, angular gyrus) in which activity scaled with subjective reports of recall vividness. These findings provide striking evidence that LPC not only signals that memories have been successfully recalled, but actively represents what is being remembered. PMID:24899726

  9. Decoding pressure stimulation locations on the fingers from human neural activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junsuk; Chung, Yoon Gi; Chung, Soon-Cheol; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Kim, Sung-Phil

    2016-11-01

    In this functional MRI study, we investigated how the human brain activity represents tactile location information evoked by pressure stimulation on fingers. Using the searchlight multivoxel pattern analysis, we looked for local activity patterns that could be decoded into one of four stimulated finger locations. The supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and the thalamus were found to contain distinct multivoxel patterns corresponding to individual stimulated locations. In contrast, the univariate general linear model analysis contrasting stimulation against resting phases for each finger identified activations mainly in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), but not in SMG or in thalamus. Our results indicate that S1 might be involved in the detection of the presence of pressure stimuli, whereas the SMG and the thalamus might play a role in identifying which finger is stimulated. This finding may provide additional evidence for hierarchical information processing in the human somatosensory areas. PMID:27631540

  10. Crystal Structures of An F420-Dependent Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Fgd1 Involved in the Activation of the Anti-Tb Drug Candidate Pa-824 Reveal the Basis of Coenzyme And Substrate Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Bashiri, G.; Squire, C.J.; Moreland, N.J.; Baker, E.N.

    2009-05-11

    The modified flavin coenzyme F{sub 420} is found in a restricted number of microorganisms. It is widely distributed in mycobacteria, however, where it is important in energy metabolism, and in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is implicated in redox processes related to non-replicating persistence. In Mtb, the F{sub 420}-dependent glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase FGD1 provides reduced F{sub 420} for the in vivo activation of the nitroimidazopyran prodrug PA-824, currently being developed for anti-tuberculosis therapy against both replicating and persistent bacteria. The structure of M. tuberculosis FGD1 has been determined by x-ray crystallography both in its apo state and in complex with F{sub 420} and citrate at resolutions of 1.90 and 1.95{angstrom}, respectively. The structure reveals a highly specific F{sub 420} binding mode, which is shared with several other F{sub 420}-dependent enzymes. Citrate occupies the substrate binding pocket adjacent to F{sub 420} and is shown to be a competitive inhibitor (IC{sub 50} 43 {micro}m). Modeling of the binding of the glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) substrate identifies a positively charged phosphate binding pocket and shows that G6P, like citrate, packs against the isoalloxazine moiety of F{sub 420} and helps promote a butterfly bend conformation that facilitates F{sub 420} reduction and catalysis.

  11. A Biomechanical Model to Estimate Corrective Changes in Muscle Activation Patterns for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qi; Buchanan, Thomas S.

    2008-01-01

    We have created a model to estimate the corrective changes in muscle activation patterns needed for a person who has had a stroke to walk with an improved gait—nearing that of an unimpaired person. Using this model, we examined how different functional electrical stimulation (FES) protocols would alter gait patterns. The approach is based on an electromyographically (EMG) driven model to estimate joint moments. Different stimulation protocols were examined which generated different corrective muscle activation patterns. These approaches grouped the muscles together into flexor and extensor groups (to simulate FES using surface electrodes) or left each muscle to vary independently (to simulate FES using intramuscular electrodes). In addition, we limited the maximal change in muscle activation (to reduce fatigue). We observed that with the two protocols (grouped and ungrouped muscles), the calculated corrective changes in muscle activation yielded improved joint moments nearly matching those of unimpaired subjects. The protocols yielded different muscle activation patterns, which could be selected based on practical condition. These calculated corrective muscle activation changes can be used in studying FES protocols, to determine the feasibility of gait retraining with FES for a given subject and to determine which protocols are most reasonable. PMID:18762296

  12. Activity Patterns of Free-Ranging Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) Revealed by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Michelle A.; Whisson, Desley A.; Holland, Greg J.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2013-01-01

    An understanding of koala activity patterns is important for measuring the behavioral response of this species to environmental change, but to date has been limited by the logistical challenges of traditional field methodologies. We addressed this knowledge gap by using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers attached to VHF radio collars to examine activity patterns of adult male and female koalas in a high-density population at Cape Otway, Victoria, Australia. Data were obtained from 27 adult koalas over two 7-d periods during the breeding season: 12 in the early-breeding season in November 2010, and 15 in the late-breeding season in January 2011. Multiple 15 minute observation blocks on each animal were used for validation of activity patterns determined from the accelerometer data loggers. Accelerometry was effective in distinguishing between inactive (sleeping, resting) and active (grooming, feeding and moving) behaviors. Koalas were more active during the early-breeding season with a higher index of movement (overall dynamic body acceleration [ODBA]) for both males and females. Koalas showed a distinct temporal pattern of behavior, with most activity occurring from mid-afternoon to early morning. Accelerometry has potential for examining fine-scale behavior of a wide range of arboreal and terrestrial species. PMID:24224050

  13. Operant conditioning of synaptic and spiking activity patterns in single hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Nobuyoshi; Sakaguchi, Tetsuya; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2014-04-01

    Learning is a process of plastic adaptation through which a neural circuit generates a more preferable outcome; however, at a microscopic level, little is known about how synaptic activity is patterned into a desired configuration. Here, we report that animals can generate a specific form of synaptic activity in a given neuron in the hippocampus. In awake, head-restricted mice, we applied electrical stimulation to the lateral hypothalamus, a reward-associated brain region, when whole-cell patch-clamped CA1 neurons exhibited spontaneous synaptic activity that met preset criteria. Within 15 min, the mice learned to generate frequently the excitatory synaptic input pattern that satisfied the criteria. This reinforcement learning of synaptic activity was not observed for inhibitory input patterns. When a burst unit activity pattern was conditioned in paired and nonpaired paradigms, the frequency of burst-spiking events increased and decreased, respectively. The burst reinforcement occurred in the conditioned neuron but not in other adjacent neurons; however, ripple field oscillations were concomitantly reinforced. Neural conditioning depended on activation of NMDA receptors and dopamine D1 receptors. Acutely stressed mice and depression model mice that were subjected to forced swimming failed to exhibit the neural conditioning. This learning deficit was rescued by repetitive treatment with fluoxetine, an antidepressant. Therefore, internally motivated animals are capable of routing an ongoing action potential series into a specific neural pathway of the hippocampal network.

  14. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-09-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions.

  15. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-09-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  16. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  17. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns. PMID:21516657

  18. [Typical Patterns of Neuronal Activity in Relay and Nonspecific Thalamic Nuclei in Patients with Spasmodic Torticollis].

    PubMed

    Devetiarov, D A; Semenova, U N; Butiaeva, L I; Sedov, A S

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal activity of 50 neurons in nonspecific (Rt, MD) and relay (Voi, Voa) thalamic nuclei was analyzed. Data were obtained by microelectrode technique during 14 stereotactic operations in patients with spasmodic torticollis. Application of Poincare maps and Gap-statistics allowed to reveal 3 main patterns of neuronal activity: irregular single spikes, low-threshold Ca(2+)-dependent rhythmic (3-5 Hz) bursts and combination of bursts and single spikes. In some cases, grouping (in Voi and Rt nuclei) and long burst (in Voa nucleus) patterns were observed. Grouping pattern consist of low-density groups of spikes with tendency to periodicity in range 1-1.5 Hz. Long burst pattern consist of long dense groups of spikes with random length and invariant interburst intervals. Main numerical estimations of 3 most spread patterns of neuronal activity were obtained by parametric analysis. In results, investigated thalamic nuclei significantly distinguished from each other by characteristics of burst activity but average firing rate of these nuclei hadn't significant differences. These data may be useful for functional identification of thalamic nuclei during stereotactic neurosurgery operation in patients with movement disorders.

  19. Contrasting activity patterns of two related octopus species, Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Daniela V; Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael; Mather, Jennifer; Ploberger, Werner; Reschenhofer, Erhard

    2006-08-01

    Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris have overlapping habitats and are exposed to similar temporal changes. Whereas the former species is described as nocturnal in the field, there are conflicting reports about the activity time of the latter one. To compare activity patterns, the authors tested both species in the laboratory. Octopuses were exposed to a light-dark cycle and held under constant dim light for 7 days each. O. macropus showed nocturnal and light-cued activity. According to casual observations, O. vulgaris started out nocturnal but had switched to mostly diurnal when the experiment began. Individual variation of its activity was found. The different activity patterns of O. macropus and O. vulgaris might reflect their lifestyles, the latter species being more generalist.

  20. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  1. Visual Circuit Development Requires Patterned Activity Mediated by Retinal Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Burbridge, Timothy J.; Xu, Hong-Ping; Ackman, James B.; Ge, Xinxin; Zhang, Yueyi; Ye, Mei-Jun; Zhou, Z. Jimmy; Xu, Jian; Contractor, Anis; Crair, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The elaboration of nascent synaptic connections into highly ordered neural circuits is an integral feature of the developing vertebrate nervous system. In sensory systems, patterned spontaneous activity before the onset of sensation is thought to influence this process, but this conclusion remains controversial largely due to the inherent difficulty recording neural activity in early development. Here, we describe novel genetic and pharmacological manipulations of spontaneous retinal activity, assayed in vivo, that demonstrate a causal link between retinal waves and visual circuit refinement. We also report a de-coupling of downstream activity in retinorecipient regions of the developing brain after retinal wave disruption. Significantly, we show that the spatiotemporal characteristics of retinal waves affect the development of specific visual circuits. These results conclusively establish retinal waves as necessary and instructive for circuit refinement in the developing nervous system and reveal how neural circuits adjust to altered patterns of activity prior to experience. PMID:25466916

  2. The surface geometry of inherited joint and fracture trace patterns resulting from active and passive deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podwysocki, M. H.; Gold, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Hypothetical models are considered for detecting subsurface structure from the fracture or joint pattern, which may be influenced by the structure and propagated to the surface. Various patterns of an initially orthogonal fracture grid are modeled according to active and passive deformation mechanisms. In the active periclinal structure with a vertical axis, fracture frequency increased both over the dome and basin, and remained constant with decreasing depth to the structure. For passive periclinal features such as a reef or sand body, fracture frequency is determined by the arc of curvature and showed a reduction over the reefmound and increased over the basin.

  3. Differences in activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Miquet, E. E.; Otero, I.; Rodríguez, D.; Darias, J. G.; Combarro, A. M.; Contreras, O. R.

    2013-02-01

    We outline the main differences in the activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle) patterns. The activity is detected in two sorts of culture mediums. The optical setup and the experimental procedure are presented. The experimentally obtained images are processed by the temporal difference method and a qualitative assessment is made with the time history of speckle patterns of the sample. The main differences are studied after changing the culture medium composition. We conclude that the EC medium is suitable to detect the E. coli bacterial presence in early hours and that Mueller Hinton agar delays some additional hours to make possible the assessment of bacteria in time.

  4. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home. PMID:26007738

  5. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  6. Patterns of Physical Activity Among Older Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; Joshi, Spruha; Cerdá, Magdalena; Quinn, James W.; Beard, John R.; Kennedy, Gary J.; Benjamin, Ebele O.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little research to date has explored typologies of physical activity among older adults. An understanding of physical activity patterns may help to both determine the health benefits of different types of activity and target interventions to increase activity levels in older adults. This analysis, conducted in 2014, used a latent class analysis approach to characterize patterns of physical activity in a cohort of older adults. Methods A total of 3,497 men and women aged 65–75 years living in New York City completed the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) in 2011. PASE scale items were used to classify subjects into latent classes. Multinomial regression was then used to relate individual and neighborhood characteristics to class membership. Results Five latent classes were identified: “least active,” “walkers,” “domestic/gardening,” “athletic,” and “domestic/gardening athletic.” Individual-level predictors, including more education, higher income, and better self-reported health, were associated with membership in the more-active classes, particularly the athletic classes. Residential characteristics, including living in single-family housing and living in the lower-density boroughs of New York City, were predictive of membership in one of the domestic/gardening classes. Class membership was associated with BMI even after controlling for total PASE score. Conclusions This study suggests that individual and neighborhood characteristics are associated with distinct physical activity patterns in a group of older urban adults. These patterns are associated with body habitus independent of overall activity. PMID:26091927

  7. SPM95 sensitivity to size, intensity and asymmetry of brain activation/deactivation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.V.; Volkow, N.D.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-05-01

    Statistical Parametric Mapping (Friston, SPM95), is used widely to ascertain the statistical significance between different brain patterns induced by functional activation, drug, effects or mental illness. Our purpose is to understand the limitations of applying the SPM95 methodology. We used a group of 8 FDG PET (CTI 931) studies from normal resting human subjects and via software we activated or deactivated the same specific pixel patterns (ROIs), across the group and observed if SPM95 performed correctly. A set of 6 experiments was designed with varying ROI intensities, (from +/-2% to +/-100% of original ROI value), varying ROI sizes, (from 76 to 656 mm{sup 2}) and different locations in the brain, (cortical and/or subcortical). In experiments where the selected activation pattern was spatially symmetric SPM95 identified correctly areas of activation for cortical ROIs as small as 76 mm{sup 2} having as low as a 10% activation with p<0.01; larger areas, 656 mm{sup 2} can be correctly identified even down to only 2%. In activation experiments with left/right cortical or anterior/posterior cortical asymmetry, SPM95 reported Type II errors for levels larger than +/-20% activation/deactivation. In experiments with left/right striatum asymmetry larger than +/-20% SPM95 reported Type I Errors. In experiments where the level of asymmetry was changes while keeping one ROI as a control at the same level of activation, SPM95 erroneously reported different p values for its statistical significance. One of the typical Type I Errors is shown in the figure as an ROI along the brain`s edge; this type of error has been previously observed to be caused by residual spatial registration errors that induce false activation signals. We conclude that while the statistical part of SPM95 performs correctly, the spatial registration method used in SPM95 has residual registration errors sensitive to the type of activation pattern.

  8. Cardiovascular activity in blood-injection-injury phobia during exposure: evidence for diphasic response patterns?

    PubMed

    Ritz, Thomas; Meuret, Alicia E; Simon, Erica

    2013-08-01

    Exposure to feared stimuli in blood-injection-injury (BII)-phobia is thought to elicit a diphasic response pattern, with an initial fight-flight-like cardiovascular activation followed by a marked deactivation and possible fainting (vasovagal syncope). However, studies have remained equivocal on the importance of such patterns. We therefore sought to determine the prevalence and clinical relevance of diphasic responses using criteria that require a true diphasic response to exceed cardiovascular activation of an emotional episode of a negative valence and to exceed deactivation of an emotionally neutral episode. Sixty BII-phobia participants and 20 healthy controls were exposed to surgery, anger and neutral films while measuring heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory pattern, and end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (as indicator of hyperventilation). Diphasic response patterns were observed in up to 20% of BII-phobia participants and 26.6% of healthy controls for individual cardiovascular parameters. BII-phobia participants with diphasic patterns across multiple parameters showed more fear of injections and blood draws, reported the strongest physical symptoms during the surgery film, and showed the strongest tendency to hyperventilate. Thus, although only a minority of individuals with BII phobia shows diphasic responses, their occurrence indicates significant distress. Respiratory training may add to the treatment of BII phobia patients that show diphasic response patterns.

  9. Canalization of genetic and pharmacological perturbations in developing primary neuronal activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Paul; Morton, Andrew; Eglen, Stephen J.; Komiyama, Noboru H.; Grant, Seth G.N.

    2016-01-01

    The function of the nervous system depends on the integrity of synapses and the patterning of electrical activity in brain circuits. The rapid advances in genome sequencing reveal a large number of mutations disrupting synaptic proteins, which potentially result in diseases known as synaptopathies. However, it is also evident that every normal individual carries hundreds of potentially damaging mutations. Although genetic studies in several organisms show that mutations can be masked during development by a process known as canalization, it is unknown if this occurs in the development of the electrical activity in the brain. Using longitudinal recordings of primary cultured neurons on multi-electrode arrays from mice carrying knockout mutations we report evidence of canalization in development of spontaneous activity patterns. Phenotypes in the activity patterns in young cultures from mice lacking the Gria1 subunit of the AMPA receptor were ameliorated as cultures matured. Similarly, the effects of chronic pharmacological NMDA receptor blockade diminished as cultures matured. Moreover, disturbances in activity patterns by simultaneous disruption of Gria1 and NMDA receptors were also canalized by three weeks in culture. Additional mutations and genetic variations also appeared to be canalized to varying degrees. These findings indicate that neuronal network canalization is a form of nervous system plasticity that provides resilience to developmental disruption. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled ‘Synaptopathy – from Biology to Therapy’. PMID:26211975

  10. A survey of daily asthmatic activity patterns in Cincinnati. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A survey was undertaken in Cincinnati to obtain information on the activity patterns of asthmatics. Because studies have demonstrated symptomatic responses to elevated levels of SO{sub 2} only during outdoor exercise, information on the behavioral patterns of asthmatics is vital for the accurate estimation of risk due to air pollution exposures. In particular, data detailing the actual likelihood of asthmatics being engaged in strenuous outdoor activity at any given time of day is essential for an accurate appraisal of response probability. This, in turn, is necessary for an accurate estimate of risk. In the absence of such activity data, those concerned with the setting of short-term SO{sub 2} regulations are required to use purely subjective judgment to estimate how many asthmatics are engaged in strenuous outdoor exercise when SO{sub 2} levels are high enough to affect them. The activity pattern data give an indication of how much such an assumption would overestimate the true response and thus the true risk associated with SO{sub 2}. Lack of information on the activity patterns of asthmatics has thus been a critical gap in the SO{sub 2} risk assessment process. The primary purpose of this survey was to fill that gap.

  11. a Three-Step Spatial-Temporal Clustering Method for Human Activity Pattern Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.; Li, S.; Xu, S.

    2016-06-01

    How people move in cities and what they do in various locations at different times form human activity patterns. Human activity pattern plays a key role in in urban planning, traffic forecasting, public health and safety, emergency response, friend recommendation, and so on. Therefore, scholars from different fields, such as social science, geography, transportation, physics and computer science, have made great efforts in modelling and analysing human activity patterns or human mobility patterns. One of the essential tasks in such studies is to find the locations or places where individuals stay to perform some kind of activities before further activity pattern analysis. In the era of Big Data, the emerging of social media along with wearable devices enables human activity data to be collected more easily and efficiently. Furthermore, the dimension of the accessible human activity data has been extended from two to three (space or space-time) to four dimensions (space, time and semantics). More specifically, not only a location and time that people stay and spend are collected, but also what people "say" for in a location at a time can be obtained. The characteristics of these datasets shed new light on the analysis of human mobility, where some of new methodologies should be accordingly developed to handle them. Traditional methods such as neural networks, statistics and clustering have been applied to study human activity patterns using geosocial media data. Among them, clustering methods have been widely used to analyse spatiotemporal patterns. However, to our best knowledge, few of clustering algorithms are specifically developed for handling the datasets that contain spatial, temporal and semantic aspects all together. In this work, we propose a three-step human activity clustering method based on space, time and semantics to fill this gap. One-year Twitter data, posted in Toronto, Canada, is used to test the clustering-based method. The results show that the

  12. Photoreduction of SERS-active metallic nanostructures on chemically patterned ferroelectric crystals.

    PubMed

    Carville, N Craig; Manzo, Michele; Damm, Signe; Castiella, Marion; Collins, Liam; Denning, Denise; Weber, Stefan A L; Gallo, Katia; Rice, James H; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2012-08-28

    Photodeposition of metallic nanostructures onto ferroelectric surfaces is typically based on patterning local surface reactivity via electric field poling. Here, we demonstrate metal deposition onto substrates which have been chemically patterned via proton exchange (i.e., without polarization reversal). The chemical patterning provides the ability to tailor the electrostatic fields near the surface of lithium niobate crystals, and these engineered fields are used to fabricate metallic nanostructures. The effect of the proton exchange process on the piezoelectric and electrostatic properties of the surface is characterized using voltage-modulated atomic force microscopy techniques, which, combined with modeling of the electric fields at the surface of the crystal, reveal that the deposition occurs preferentially along the boundary between ferroelectric and proton-exchanged regions. The metallic nanostructures have been further functionalized with a target probe molecule, 4-aminothiophenol, from which surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal is detected, demonstrating the suitability of chemically patterned ferroelectrics as SERS-active templates.

  13. In vivo monitoring of chemically evoked activity patterns in the rat trigeminal ganglion

    PubMed Central

    Lübbert, Matthias; Kyereme, Jessica; Rothermel, Markus; Wetzel, Christian H.; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; Hatt, Hanns

    2013-01-01

    Albeit lacking a sense of smell, anosmic patients maintain a reduced ability to distinguish different volatile chemicals by relying exclusively on their trigeminal system (TS). To elucidate differences in the neuronal representation of these volatile substances in the TS, we performed voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) in vivo. We demonstrated that stimulus-specific patterns of bioelectrical activity occur within the TG upon nasal administration of ten different volatile chemicals. With regard to spatial differences between the evoked trigeminal response patterns, these substances could be sorted into three groups. Signal intensity and onset latencies were also dependent on the administered stimulus and its concentration. We conclude that particular compounds detected by the TS are represented by (1) a specific spatial response pattern, (2) the signal intensity, and (3) onset latencies within the pattern. Jointly, these trigeminal representations may contribute to the surprisingly high discriminative skills of anosmic patients. PMID:24115922

  14. Nonlinear analysis of human physical activity patterns in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, A.; Buchser, E.; Rutschmann, B.; Aminian, K.

    2008-02-01

    The reliable and objective assessment of chronic disease state has been and still is a very significant challenge in clinical medicine. An essential feature of human behavior related to the health status, the functional capacity, and the quality of life is the physical activity during daily life. A common way to assess physical activity is to measure the quantity of body movement. Since human activity is controlled by various factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body, quantitative parameters only provide a partial assessment and do not allow for a clear distinction between normal and abnormal activity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the analysis of human activity pattern based on the definition of different physical activity time series with the appropriate analysis methods. The temporal pattern of postures, movements, and transitions between postures was quantified using fractal analysis and symbolic dynamics statistics. The derived nonlinear metrics were able to discriminate patterns of daily activity generated from healthy and chronic pain states.

  15. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    PubMed

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet.

  16. Isolating weather effects from seasonal activity patterns of a temperate North American Colubrid.

    PubMed

    George, Andrew D; Thompson, Frank R; Faaborg, John

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the effects of climate change on threatened ecosystems and species will require an understanding of how weather influences processes that drive population dynamics. We have evaluated weather effects on activity patterns of western ratsnakes, a widespread predator of birds and small mammals in eastern North America. From 2010-2013 we radio-tracked 53 ratsnakes in the fragmented region of central Missouri. We relocated each snake 4× per week and used movement frequency as an index of activity. We used generalized linear mixed models within an information-theoretic approach to evaluate temporal and weather variables as potential predictors of snake activity. While snakes were generally sedentary, activity showed a linear response to relative humidity and a quadratic response to air temperature, peaking near 30 °C. Seasonal activity patterns differed between sexes and among years, but snakes were generally least active in mid-summer, regardless of weather. Our findings provide strong evidence that air temperature and relative humidity differentially affect activity patterns of an important predator and are the mechanism explaining increased nest predation rates with warmer temperatures.

  17. Neurotensin Changes Propulsive Activity into a Segmental Motor Pattern in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongfei; Chen, Ji-Hong; Yang, Zixian; Huang, Min; Yu, Yuanjie; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. Methods The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. Results Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. Conclusions Neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions. PMID:26882114

  18. OMP gene deletion results in an alteration in odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Youngentob, S L; Kent, P F; Margolis, F L

    2003-12-01

    Previous behavioral work, using a complex five-odorant identification task, demonstrated that olfactory marker protein (OMP) is critically involved in odor processing to the extent that its loss results in an alteration in odorant quality perception. Exactly how the lack of OMP exerts its influence on the perception of odorant quality is unknown. However, there is considerable neurophysiological evidence that different odorants produce different spatiotemporal patterns of neural activity at the level of the mucosa and that these patterns predict the psychophysically determined perceptual relationship among odorants. In this respect, OMP gene deletion is known to result in a constellation of physiologic defects (i.e., marked reduction in the electroolfactogram (EOG) and altered response and recovery kinetics) that would be expected to alter the odorant-induced spatiotemporal activity patterns that are characteristic of different odorants. This, in turn, would be expected to alter the spatiotemporal patterning of information that results from the mucosal projection onto the bulb, thereby changing odorant quality perception. To test the hypothesis that odorant-induced mucosal activity patterns are altered in mice lacking the gene for OMP, we optically recorded the fluorescent changes in response to odorant stimulation from both the septum and turbinates of both OMP-null and control mice using a voltage-sensitive dye (di-4-ANEPPS Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR) and a Dalsa 120 x 120, 12-bit CCD camera. To maintain continuity with the previous behavioral work, the odorants 2-propanol, citral, carvone, ethylacetoacetate, and propyl acetate were again used. Each odorant was randomly presented to each mucosal surface in a Latin-Square design. The results of this study demonstrated that, for both mouse strains, there do indeed exist different spatiotemporal activity patterns for different odorants. More importantly, however, these patterns significantly differed between OMP

  19. Adult Female Rats Altered Diurnal Locomotor Activity Pattern Following Chronic Methylphenidate Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, T.; Kohllepin, S; Yang, P.B.; Burau, K.D.; Dafny, N.

    2014-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPD) is one of the most prescribed pharmacological agents and also used as cognitive enhancement and for recreational purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the repetitive dose-response effects of MPD on rhythm locomotor activity pattern of female WKY rats and compare to prior study done on male. The hypothesis is that change in the circadian activity pattern indicates a long-lasting effect of the drug. Four animal groups (saline control, 0.6, 2.5, and 10.0 mg/kg MPD dose groups) were housed in a sound-controlled room at 12:12 light/dark cycle. All received saline injections on experimental day 1 (ED 1). On EDs 2-7, the control group received saline injection; the other groups received 0.6, 2.5, or 10.0 mg/kg MPD, respectively. On ED 8-10, injections were withheld. On ED 11, each group received the same dose as EDs 2-7. Hourly histograms and cosine statistical analyses calculating the acrophase (ϕ), amplitude (A), and MESOR (M) were applied to assess the 24-hour circadian activity pattern. The 0.6 and 2.5 mg/kg MPD groups exhibited significant (p<0.05) change in their circadian activity pattern on ED 11. The 10.0 mg/kg MPD group exhibited tolerance on ED 11 and also a significant change in activity pattern on ED 8 compared to ED 1, consistent with withdrawal behavior (p<0.007). In conclusion, chronic MPD administration alters circadian locomotor activity of adult female WKY rats and confirms that chronic MPD use elicits long lasting effects PMID:23893293

  20. Evolution of activity patterns and chromatic vision in primates: morphometrics, genetics and cladistics.

    PubMed

    Heesy, C P; Ross, C F

    2001-02-01

    Hypotheses for the adaptive origin of primates have reconstructed nocturnality as the primitive activity pattern for the entire order based on functional/adaptive interpretations of the relative size and orientation of the orbits, body size and dietary reconstruction. Based on comparative data from extant taxa this reconstruction implies that basal primates were also solitary, faunivorous, and arboreal. Recently, primates have been hypothesized to be primitively diurnal, based in part on the distribution of color-sensitive photoreceptor opsin genes and active trichromatic color vision in several extant strepsirrhines, as well as anthropoid primates (Tan & Li, 1999 Nature402, 36; Li, 2000 Am. J. phys. Anthrop. Supple.30, 318). If diurnality is primitive for all primates then the functional and adaptive significance of aspects of strepsirrhine retinal morphology and other adaptations of the primate visual system such as high acuity stereopsis, have been misinterpreted for decades. This hypothesis also implies that nocturnality evolved numerous times in primates. However, the hypothesis that primates are primitively diurnal has not been analyzed in a phylogenetic context, nor have the activity patterns of several fossil primates been considered. This study investigated the evolution of activity patterns and trichromacy in primates using a new method for reconstructing activity patterns in fragmentary fossils and by reconstructing visual system character evolution at key ancestral nodes of primate higher taxa. Results support previous studies that reconstruct omomyiform primates as nocturnal. The larger body sizes of adapiform primates confound inferences regarding activity pattern evolution in this group. The hypothesis of diurnality and trichromacy as primitive for primates is not supported by the phylogenetic data. On the contrary, nocturnality and dichromatic vision are not only primitive for all primates, but also for extant strepsirrhines. Diurnality, and

  1. [The behaviour and respiration features in rabbits with different pattern of their open field locomotor activity].

    PubMed

    Pavlova, I V; Levshina, I P; Venetsian, G L; Shuĭkin, N N; Ziablitseva, E A

    2005-09-01

    Behavior of 19 Chinchilla rabbits was tested in the open field. By the results of the first trial, animals were divided into three groups by the type of the exploratory locomotor activity (passive--37%; active--21; and medium--42%). During the repeated open field trials, the passive rabbits increased their activity and the active ones decreased it. Correlations were found between the open field behavior and patterns of the external respiration in the absence of movements. The longest respiratory cycles, expirations and respiratory breath holdings were observed in passive rabbits. Animals with prevailing right turnings in the open field displayed longer respiratory cycles and expirations than those with prevailing left turnings. It seems that the pattern of external respiration can predict the passive defensive strategy of rabbits in negative emotional situations.

  2. An active region model for capturing fractal flow patterns in unsaturated soils: model development.

    PubMed

    Liu, H H; Zhang, R; Bodvarsson, G S

    2005-11-01

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  3. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  4. Prevalence and patterns of physical activity among medical students in Bangalore, India

    PubMed Central

    Padmapriya, Krishnakumar; Krishna, Pushpa; Rasu, Thenna

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is one of the leading health indicators. The objective was to study the prevalence and patterns of physical activity among young adults. Methods: 259 Medical students (Men: Women = 116:143) in the age group of 18–22 yrs were interviewed using the official English long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The total level of physical activity and activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and gardening and leisure-time were estimated and was expressed as metabolic equivalent-hours per week (MET-hour/week). Results: 41.3 % showed high levels of physical activity, 43.2% and 15.4 % of students showed moderate level and low level of physical activity respectively. 84.6 % (n=219) were engaged in work related activity and 80.7% (n= 209) showed transport related activity. Domestic and gardening physical activity represented 63.7 % (n=165) of individuals total activity and 67.2% of students showed leisure time activity. The average time spent in sitting was 7.06 hrs/day. The median of the total physical activity for the whole sample was 39.13 MET/hour/week and 18.10 for work, 4.40 for transportation, 2.60 for domestic and gardening and 4 for leisure-time activity. There was significant gender difference observed with women having low physical activity. Conclusion: This study provides baseline information about the physical activity levels and patterns including sitting hours among Indian young adults using IPAQ that can used for comparison of data across different parts of world. PMID:26120390

  5. Activity patterns and time budgeting of Aplysia fasciata under field and laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Susswein, A J; Gev, S; Feldman, E; Markovich, S

    1983-11-01

    Activity patterns of Aplysia fasciata were observed in a protected port environment and in an aquarium. In both, major activities were feeding and mating, which collectively took up about 45% of the total time of the animals. Active behaviors occurred primarily at night; much of the day was spent in the inactive state. Activities were highly synchronized, with large numbers of animals performing the same behaviors simultaneously at a specific time. Mating and eating occurred primarily at different times; relatively few animals were observed performing these behaviors simultaneously. Many animals laying eggs were simultaneously mating as females.

  6. Physical Activity Pattern of Malaysian Preschoolers: Environment, Barriers, and Motivators for Active Play.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shoo Thien; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Ong, Wei Wen; Ismail, Mohd Noor; Deurenberg, Paul; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Children's physical activity has been correlated with child characteristics and social or physical environment. This study aimed to compare preschoolers' physical activity among various sociodemographic characteristics and to determine barriers, motivators, and environmental factors for active play. A total of 835 preschoolers were included in this analysis. Time spent on active play, quiet play, and screen time was reported by parents. Boys spent significantly more time on active play and screen time than girls. Time spent on quiet play was highest in East Coast Peninsular Malaysia and lowest in Sarawak. Some 40% of children achieved active play recommendation while 27% exceeded daily screen time recommendation. Most parents reported that their child played actively in the house area; and that the main barrier and motivator to active play were safety and child's enjoyment, respectively. These findings demonstrate that sociodemographic characteristics and environment should be considered in designing physical activity intervention programs.

  7. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18-23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour.

  8. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18–23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  9. Physical Activity Patterns in University Students: Do They Follow the Public Health Guidelines?

    PubMed

    Clemente, Filipe Manuel; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Martins, Fernando Manuel Lourenço; Mendes, Rui Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with health. The aim of this study was (a) to access if Portuguese university students meet the public health recommendations for physical activity and (b) the effect of gender and day of the week on daily PA levels of university students. This observational cross-sectional study involved 126 (73 women) healthy Portuguese university students aged 18-23 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Number of steps, time spent sedentary and in light, moderate and vigorous physical activity were recorded. The two-way MANOVA revealed that gender (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.038; minimum effect) and day of the week (p-value = 0.001; η2 = 0.174; minimum effect) had significant main effects on the physical activity variables. It was shown that during weekdays, male students walked more steps (65.14%), spent less time sedentary (6.77%) and in light activities (3.11%) and spent more time in moderate (136.67%) and vigorous activity (171.29%) in comparison with weekend days (p < 0.05). The descriptive analysis revealed that female students walked more steps (51.18%) and spent more time in moderate (125.70%) and vigorous (124.16%) activities during weekdays than in weekend days (p < 0.05). Women students did not achieve the recommended 10,000 steps/day on average during weekdays and weekend days. Only male students achieved this recommendation during weekdays. In summary, this study showed a high incidence of sedentary time in university students, mainly on weekend days. New strategies must be adopted to promote physical activity in this population, focusing on the change of sedentary behaviour. PMID:27022993

  10. The Pediocin PA-1 Accessory Protein Ensures Correct Disulfide Bond Formation in the Antimicrobial Peptide Pediocin PA-1.

    PubMed

    Oppegård, Camilla; Fimland, Gunnar; Anonsen, Jan Haug; Nissen-Meyer, Jon

    2015-05-19

    Peptides, in contrast to proteins, are generally not large enough to form stable and well-defined three-dimensional structures. However, peptides are still able to form correct disulfide bonds. Using pediocin-like bacteriocins, we have examined how this may be achieved. Some pediocin-like bacteriocins, such as pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C], have four cysteines. There are three possible ways by which the four cysteines may combine to form two disulfide bonds, and the three variants are expected to be produced in approximately equal amounts if their formation is random. Pediocin PA-1 and sakacin P[N24C+44C] with correct disulfide bonds were the main products when they were secreted by the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and accessory protein, but when they were secreted by the corresponding secretion machinery for sakacin A, a pediocin-like bacteriocin with one disulfide bond (two cysteines), peptides with all three possible disulfide bonds were produced in approximately equal amounts. All five cysteines in the pediocin PA-1 ABC transporter and the two cysteines (that form a CxxC motif) in the accessory protein were individually replaced with serines to examine their involvement in disulfide bond formation in pediocin PA-1. The Cys86Ser mutation in the accessory protein caused a 2-fold decrease in the amount of pediocin PA-1 with correct disulfide bonds, while the Cys83Ser mutation nearly abolished the production of pediocin PA-1 and resulted in the production of all three disufide bond variants in equal amounts. The Cys19Ser mutation in the ABC transporter completely abolished secretion of pediocin PA-1, suggesting that Cys19 is in the proteolytic active site and involved in cleaving the prebacteriocin. Replacing the other four cysteines in the ABC transporter with serines caused a slight reduction in the overall amount of secreted pediocin PA-1, but the relative amount with the correct disulfide bonds remained large. These results indicate that the pediocin

  11. Extracting extensor digitorum communis activation patterns using high-density surface electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Nina L.; Xue, Cindy; Rymer, William Z.

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7 × 9) surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG) was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic). Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal–distal direction than in the radial–ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders. PMID:26500558

  12. Abnormal fMRI Activation Pattern during Story Listening in Individuals with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds Losin, Elizabeth A.; Rivera, Susan M.; O'Hare, Elizabeth D.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Pinter, Joseph D.

    2009-01-01

    Down syndrome is characterized by disproportionately severe impairments of speech and language, yet little is known about the neural underpinnings of these deficits. We compared fMRI activation patterns during passive story listening in 9 young adults with Down syndrome and 9 approximately age-matched, typically developing controls. The typically…

  13. An Ecological Momentary Assessment of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Patterns of University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Peter C.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We used ecological momentary assessment to understand the physical activity and sedentary behaviour patterns of university students. Study design: Cross sectional, opportunistic sample from a university in the English midlands. Methods: Ecological momentary assessment diaries were completed every 15 minutes across two days. The sample…

  14. The Relationship between Class Size and Online Activity Patterns in Asynchronous Computer Conferencing Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Jim; Brett, Clare

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzes the relationship between class size and student online activity patterns in a series of 28 graduate level computer conferencing courses. Quantitative analyses of note production, average note size, note opening and note reading percentages found a significant positive correlation between class size and mean number of notes…

  15. Sex Differences in Mental Rotation and Cortical Activation Patterns: Can Training Change Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2012-01-01

    In two experiments the neuronal mechanisms of sex differences in mental rotation were investigated. In Experiment 1 cortical activation was studied in women and men with similar levels of mental rotation ability (high, and average to low), who were equalized with respect to general intelligence. Sex difference in neuroelectric patterns of brain…

  16. Light and Heavy Heterosexual Activities of Young Canadian Adolescents: Normative Patterns and Differential Predictors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Trish; Connolly, Jennifer; Cribbie, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to explore patterns of heterosexual activity in early adolescence and to examine the differential pathways to light and heavy heterosexuality. We utilized the National Longitudinal Survey of Canadian Children and Youth (NLSCY) in which heterosexual behaviors, as well as puberty, parenting processes, peer…

  17. Centrally patterned rhythmic activity integrated by a peripheral circuit linking multiple oscillators.

    PubMed

    Jellies, John; Kueh, Daniel

    2012-08-01

    The central pattern generator for heartbeat in the medicinal leech, Hirudo generates rhythmic activity conveyed by heart excitor motor neurons in segments 3-18 to coordinate the bilateral tubular hearts and side vessels. We focus on behavior and the influence of previously un-described peripheral nerve circuitry. Extracellular recordings from the valve junction (VJ) where afferent vessels join the heart tube were combined with optical recording of contractions. Action potential bursts at VJs occurred in advance of heart tube and afferent vessel contractions. Transections of nerves were performed to reduce the output of the central pattern generator reaching the heart tube. Muscle contractions persisted but with a less regular rhythm despite normal central pattern generator rhythmicity. With no connections between the central pattern generator and heart tube, a much slower rhythm became manifest. Heart excitor neuron recordings showed that peripheral activity might contribute to the disruption of centrally entrained contractions. In the model presented, peripheral activity would normally modify the activity actually reaching the muscle. We also propose that the fundamental efferent unit is not a single heart excitor neuron, but rather is a functionally defined unit of about three adjacent motor neurons and the peripheral assembly of coupled peripheral oscillators.

  18. Opposite patterns of diurnal activity in the box jellyfish Tripedalia cystophora and Copula sivickisi.

    PubMed

    Garm, A; Bielecki, J; Petie, R; Nilsson, D-E

    2012-02-01

    Cubozoan medusae have a stereotypic set of 24 eyes, some of which are structurally similar to vertebrate and cephalopod eyes. Across the approximately 25 described species, this set of eyes varies surprisingly little, suggesting that they are involved in an equally stereotypic set of visual tasks. During the day Tripedalia cystophora is found at the edge of mangrove lagoons where it accumulates close to the surface in sun-lit patches between the prop roots. Copula sivickisi (formerly named Carybdea sivickisi) is associated with coral reefs and has been observed to be active at night. At least superficially, the eyes of the two species are close to identical. We studied the diurnal activity pattern of these two species both in the wild and under controlled conditions in laboratory experiments. Despite the very similar visual systems, we found that they display opposite patterns of diurnal activity. T. cystophora is active exclusively during the day, whereas C. sivickisi is actively swimming at night, when it forages and mates. At night T. cystophora is found on the muddy bottom of the mangrove lagoon. C. sivickisi spends the day attached to structures such as the underside of stones and coral skeletons. This species difference seems to have evolved to optimize foraging, since the patterns of activity follow those of the available prey items in their respective habitats. PMID:22426630

  19. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament.

    PubMed

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration.

  20. Effect of Frustration on Brain Activation Pattern in Subjects with Different Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Bierzynska, Maria; Bielecki, Maksymilian; Marchewka, Artur; Debowska, Weronika; Duszyk, Anna; Zajkowski, Wojciech; Falkiewicz, Marcel; Nowicka, Anna; Strelau, Jan; Kossut, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    In spite of the prevalence of frustration in everyday life, very few neuroimaging studies were focused on this emotional state. In the current study we aimed to examine effects of frustration on brain activity while performing a well-learned task in participants with low and high tolerance for arousal. Prior to the functional magnetic resonance imaging session, the subjects underwent 2 weeks of Braille reading training. Frustration induction was obtained by using a novel highly difficult tactile task based on discrimination of Braille-like raised dots patterns and negative feedback. Effectiveness of this procedure has been confirmed in a pilot study using galvanic skin response and questionnaires. Brain activation pattern during tactile discrimination task before and after frustration were compared directly. Results revealed changes in brain activity in structures mostly reported in acute stress studies: striatum, cingulate cortex, insula, middle frontal gyrus and precuneus and in structures engaged in tactile Braille discrimination: SI and SII. Temperament type affected activation pattern. Subjects with low tolerance for arousal showed higher activation in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, and inferior parietal lobule than high reactivity group. Even though performance in the discrimination trials following frustration was unaltered, we observed increased activity of primary and secondary somatosensory cortex processing the tactile information. We interpret this effect as an indicator of additional involvement required to counteract the effects of frustration. PMID:26793136

  1. Developmental regulation of spatio-temporal patterns of cortical circuit activation

    PubMed Central

    Griffen, Trevor C.; Wang, Lang; Fontanini, Alfredo; Maffei, Arianna

    2013-01-01

    Neural circuits are refined in an experience-dependent manner during early postnatal development. How development modulates the spatio-temporal propagation of activity through cortical circuits is poorly understood. Here we use voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) to show that there are significant changes in the spatio-temporal patterns of intracortical signals in primary visual cortex (V1) from postnatal day 13 (P13), eye opening, to P28, the peak of the critical period for rodent visual cortical plasticity. Upon direct stimulation of layer 4 (L4), activity spreads to L2/3 and to L5 at all ages. However, while from eye opening to the peak of the critical period, the amplitude and persistence of the voltage signal decrease, peak activation is reached more quickly and the interlaminar gain increases with age. The lateral spread of activation within layers remains unchanged throughout the time window under analysis. These developmental changes in spatio-temporal patterns of intracortical circuit activation are mediated by differences in the contributions of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic components. Our results demonstrate that after eye opening the circuit in V1 is refined through a progression of changes that shape the spatio-temporal patterns of circuit activation. Signals become more efficiently propagated across layers through developmentally regulated changes in interlaminar gain. PMID:23316135

  2. Dusk to dawn activity patterns of anopheline mosquitoes in West Timor and Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ndoen, Ermi; Wild, Clyde; Dale, Pat; Sipe, Neil; Dale, Mike

    2011-05-01

    Malaria is a serious health issue in Indonesia. We investigated the dusk to dawn anopheline mosquito activity patterns, host-seeking and resting locations in coastal plain, hilly and highland areas in West Timor and Java. Adult mosquitoes were captured landing on humans or resting in houses or animal barns. Data analyzed were: mosquito night-time activities; period of peak activity; night-time activity in specific periods of time and for mosquito resting locations. Eleven species were recorded; data were sparse for some species therefore detailed analyses were performed for four species only. In Java Anopheles vagus was common, with a bimodal pattern of high activity. In West Timor, its activity peaked around midnight. Other species with peak activity around the middle of the night were An. barbirostris and An. subpictus. Most species showed no biting and resting preference for indoors or outdoors, although An. barbirostris preferred indoors in West Timor, but outdoors in Java. An. aconitus and An. annularis preferred resting in human dwellings; An. subpictus and An. vagus preferred resting in animal barns. An. barbirostris preferred resting in human dwellings in West Timor and in animal barns in Java. The information is useful for planning the mosquito control aspect of malaria management. For example, where mosquito species have peak activity at night indoors, bednets and indoor residual spraying should reduce malaria risk, but where mosquitoes are most active outdoors, other options may be more effective.

  3. First postoperative week activity patterns and recovery in women after coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Redeker, N S; Mason, D J; Wykpisz, E; Glica, B; Miner, C

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between activity-rest patterns and recovery in women during the first week after coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS). Twenty-five women wore wrist actigraphs to measure activity objectively throughout the first postoperative week. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and length of postoperative hospital stay (LOS) were used as measures of recovery. Analysis of the activity data indicated that 21 (84%) of the participants had statistically significant positive linear trends in activity. Spectrum analysis indicated that 18 participants had periods that could be defined as circadian, 1 had a shorter period, and 6 had longer periods. After controlling for the effect of preoperative functional status, the period and linear trend of activity explained 28% of the variance in the SIP score at 1 week and 33% of the variance in length of stay. Positive linear trends in activity and circadian activity periods were related to better functioning and shorter length of stay.

  4. Deconvolving BOLD activation in event-related designs for multivoxel pattern classification analyses.

    PubMed

    Mumford, Jeanette A; Turner, Benjamin O; Ashby, F Gregory; Poldrack, Russell A

    2012-02-01

    Use of multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to predict the cognitive state of a subject during task performance has become a popular focus of fMRI studies. The input to these analyses consists of activation patterns corresponding to different tasks or stimulus types. These activation patterns are fairly straightforward to calculate for blocked trials or slow event-related designs, but for rapid event-related designs the evoked BOLD signal for adjacent trials will overlap in time, complicating the identification of signal unique to specific trials. Rapid event-related designs are often preferred because they allow for more stimuli to be presented and subjects tend to be more focused on the task, and thus it would be beneficial to be able to use these types of designs in MVPA analyses. The present work compares 8 different models for estimating trial-by-trial activation patterns for a range of rapid event-related designs varying by interstimulus interval and signal-to-noise ratio. The most effective approach obtains each trial's estimate through a general linear model including a regressor for that trial as well as another regressor for all other trials. Through the analysis of both simulated and real data we have found that this model shows some improvement over the standard approaches for obtaining activation patterns. The resulting trial-by-trial estimates are more representative of the true activation magnitudes, leading to a boost in classification accuracy in fast event-related designs with higher signal-to-noise. This provides the potential for fMRI studies that allow simultaneous optimization of both univariate and MVPA approaches.

  5. Spatiotemporal activity patterns detected from single cell measurements from behaving animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villa, Alessandro E. P.; Tetko, Igor V.

    1999-03-01

    Precise temporal patterning of activity within and between neurons has been predicted on theoretical grounds, and found in the spike trains of neurons recorded from anesthetized and conscious animals, in association with sensor stimuli and particular phases of task performance. However, the functional significance of such patterning in the generation of behavior has not been confirmed. We recorded from multiple single neurons in regions of rat auditory cortex during the waiting period of a Go/NoGo task. During this time the animal waited for an auditory signal with high cognitive load. Of note is the fact that neural activity during the period analyzed was essentially stationary, with no event related variability in firing. Detected patterns therefore provide a measure of brain state that could not be addressed by standard methods relying on analysis of changes in mean discharge rate. The possibility is discussed that some patterns might reflect a preset bias to a particular response, formed in the waiting period. Others patterns might reflect a state of prior preparation of appropriate neural assemblies for analyzing a signal that is expected but of unknown behavioral valence.

  6. Evidence for Active Maintenance of Phylotranscriptomic Hourglass Patterns in Animal and Plant Embryogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Drost, Hajk-Georg; Gabel, Alexander; Grosse, Ivo; Quint, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    The developmental hourglass model has been used to describe the morphological transitions of related species throughout embryogenesis. Recently, quantifiable approaches combining transcriptomic and evolutionary information provided novel evidence for the presence of a phylotranscriptomic hourglass pattern across kingdoms. As its biological function is unknown it remains speculative whether this pattern is functional or merely represents a nonfunctional evolutionary relic. The latter would seriously hamper future experimental approaches designed to test hypotheses regarding its function. Here, we address this question by generating transcriptome divergence index (TDI) profiles across embryogenesis of Danio rerio, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana. To enable meaningful evaluation of the resulting patterns, we develop a statistical test that specifically assesses potential hourglass patterns. Based on this objective measure we find that two of these profiles follow a statistically significant hourglass pattern with the most conserved transcriptomes in the phylotypic periods. As the TDI considers only recent evolutionary signals, this indicates that the phylotranscriptomic hourglass pattern is not a rudiment but possibly actively maintained, implicating the existence of some linked biological function associated with embryogenesis in extant species. PMID:25631928

  7. Patterns of Alcohol Policy Enforcement Activities among Local Law Enforcement Agencies: A Latent Class Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Darin J.; Rutledge, Patricia C.; Lenk, Kathleen M.; Nelson, Toben F.; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Toomey, Traci L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims We assessed levels and patterns of alcohol policy enforcement activities among U.S. local law enforcement agencies. Design/Setting/Participants We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a representative sample of 1,631 local law enforcement agencies across the 50 states. Measures/Methods We assessed 29 alcohol policy enforcement activities within each of five enforcement domains—underage alcohol possession/consumption, underage alcohol provision, underage alcohol sales, impaired driving, and overservice of alcohol—and conducted a series of latent class analyses to identify unique classes or patterns of enforcement activity for each domain. Findings We identified three to four unique enforcement activity classes for each of the enforcement domains. In four of the domains, we identified a Uniformly Low class (i.e., little or no enforcement) and a Uniformly High enforcement activity class (i.e., relatively high levels of enforcement), with one or two middle classes where some but not all activities were conducted. The underage provision domain had a Uniformly Low class but not a Uniformly High class. The Uniformly Low class was the most prevalent class in three domains: underage provision (58%), underage sales (61%), and overservice (79%). In contrast, less than a quarter of agencies were in Uniformly High classes. Conclusions We identified qualitatively distinct patterns of enforcement activity, with a large proportion of agencies in classes characterized by little or no enforcement and fewer agencies in high enforcement classes. An important next step is to determine if these patterns are associated with rates of alcohol use and alcohol-related injury and mortality. PMID:26877822

  8. An Active Poroelastic Model for Mechanochemical Patterns in Protoplasmic Droplets of Physarum polycephalum

    PubMed Central

    Radszuweit, Markus; Engel, Harald; Bär, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental studies, we derive and analyze a two-dimensional model for the contraction patterns observed in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum. The model couples a description of an active poroelastic two-phase medium with equations describing the spatiotemporal dynamics of the intracellular free calcium concentration. The poroelastic medium is assumed to consist of an active viscoelastic solid representing the cytoskeleton and a viscous fluid describing the cytosol. The equations for the poroelastic medium are obtained from continuum force balance and include the relevant mechanical fields and an incompressibility condition for the two-phase medium. The reaction-diffusion equations for the calcium dynamics in the protoplasm of Physarum are extended by advective transport due to the flow of the cytosol generated by mechanical stress. Moreover, we assume that the active tension in the solid cytoskeleton is regulated by the calcium concentration in the fluid phase at the same location, which introduces a mechanochemical coupling. A linear stability analysis of the homogeneous state without deformation and cytosolic flows exhibits an oscillatory Turing instability for a large enough mechanochemical coupling strength. Numerical simulations of the model equations reproduce a large variety of wave patterns, including traveling and standing waves, turbulent patterns, rotating spirals and antiphase oscillations in line with experimental observations of contraction patterns in the protoplasmic droplets. PMID:24927427

  9. Ciliary activity of cultured rabbit tracheal epithelium: beat pattern and metachrony.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, M J; Sleigh, M A

    1981-02-01

    The beat pattern of rabbit tracheal cilia has been investigated using high-speed cine photography and scanning electron microscopy, on cultured epithelia of known orientation. The cilia normally rest in the position reached at the end of the effective stroke, the ciliary tips pointing towards the oropharynx. Each beat begins with a recovery (or preparative) stroke in which a bend is propagated up the cilium causing the cilium to rotate backwards in a clockwise sweep, as viewed from above. At the end of its recovery stroke the cilium progresses immediately into the effective (or power) stroke, which is almost planar and in a cephalad direction. The active cilium describes an arc of almost 110 degrees before reaching the rest stage. This beat pattern is not significantly altered over an increase in frequency from 13-29 Hz; the relative duration of the 2 active phases of the beat remain similar over this range. Metachronal waves exist in the form of short erratic areas of coordinated beating which travel only short distances. Within each area, the non-planar recovery strokes initiate an antilaeoplectic wave of activity which recruits inactive cilia to extent the wave. As cilia perform their effective strokes, adjacent cilia in the plane of beating move in an antiplectic sequence. This pattern of coordination is related to the pattern of beat of the cilia and their distribution on the epithelium.

  10. An active poroelastic model for mechanochemical patterns in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Radszuweit, Markus; Engel, Harald; Bär, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by recent experimental studies, we derive and analyze a two-dimensional model for the contraction patterns observed in protoplasmic droplets of Physarum polycephalum. The model couples a description of an active poroelastic two-phase medium with equations describing the spatiotemporal dynamics of the intracellular free calcium concentration. The poroelastic medium is assumed to consist of an active viscoelastic solid representing the cytoskeleton and a viscous fluid describing the cytosol. The equations for the poroelastic medium are obtained from continuum force balance and include the relevant mechanical fields and an incompressibility condition for the two-phase medium. The reaction-diffusion equations for the calcium dynamics in the protoplasm of Physarum are extended by advective transport due to the flow of the cytosol generated by mechanical stress. Moreover, we assume that the active tension in the solid cytoskeleton is regulated by the calcium concentration in the fluid phase at the same location, which introduces a mechanochemical coupling. A linear stability analysis of the homogeneous state without deformation and cytosolic flows exhibits an oscillatory Turing instability for a large enough mechanochemical coupling strength. Numerical simulations of the model equations reproduce a large variety of wave patterns, including traveling and standing waves, turbulent patterns, rotating spirals and antiphase oscillations in line with experimental observations of contraction patterns in the protoplasmic droplets.

  11. Quantitative imaging of transcription in living Drosophila embryos links polymerase activity to patterning.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Hernan G; Tikhonov, Mikhail; Lin, Albert; Gregor, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression are fundamental to every developmental program. The resulting macroscopic domains have been mainly characterized by their levels of gene products. However, the establishment of such patterns results from differences in the dynamics of microscopic events in individual cells such as transcription. It is unclear how these microscopic decisions lead to macroscopic patterns, as measurements in fixed tissue cannot access the underlying transcriptional dynamics. In vivo transcriptional dynamics have long been approached in single-celled organisms, but never in a multicellular developmental context. Here, we directly address how boundaries of gene expression emerge in the Drosophila embryo by measuring the absolute number of actively transcribing polymerases in real time in individual nuclei. Specifically, we show that the formation of a boundary cannot be quantitatively explained by the rate of mRNA production in each cell, but instead requires amplification of the dynamic range of the expression boundary. This amplification is accomplished by nuclei randomly adopting active or inactive states of transcription, leading to a collective effect where the fraction of active nuclei is modulated in space. Thus, developmental patterns are not just the consequence of reproducible transcriptional dynamics in individual nuclei, but are the result of averaging expression over space and time.

  12. The impact of human activity patterns on asymptomatic infectious processes in complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingjie; Orgun, Mehmet A.; Xiao, Jinghua; Zhong, Weicai; Xue, Liyin

    2012-07-01

    The study of the impact of human activity patterns on network dynamics has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. However, individuals' knowledge of their own physical states has rarely been incorporated into modeling processes. In real life, for certain infectious processes, infected agents may not have any visible or physical signs and symptoms; therefore, they may believe that they are uninfected even when they have been infected asymptomatically. This infection awareness factor is covered neither in the classical epidemic models such as SIS nor in network propagation studies. In this article, we propose a novel infectious process model that differentiates between the infection awareness states and the physical states of individuals and extend the SIS model to deal with both asymptomatic infection characteristics and human activity patterns. With regards to the latter, we focus particularly on individuals' testing action, which is to determine whether an individual is infected by an epidemic. The simulation results show that less effort is required in controlling the disease when the transmission probability is either very small or large enough and that Poisson activity patterns are more effective than heavy-tailed patterns in controlling and eliminating asymptomatic infectious diseases due to the long-tail characteristic.

  13. Daily Activity and Nest Occupation Patterns of Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) throughout the Year

    PubMed Central

    Wassmer, Thomas; Refinetti, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated the general activity and nest occupation patterns of fox squirrels in a natural setting using temperature-sensitive data loggers that measure activity as changes in the microenvironment of the animal. Data were obtained from 25 distinct preparations, upon 14 unique squirrels, totaling 1385 recording days. The animals were clearly diurnal, with a predominantly unimodal activity pattern, although individual squirrels occasionally exhibited bimodal patterns, particularly in the spring and summer. Even during the short days of winter (9 hours of light), the squirrels typically left the nest after dawn and returned before dusk, spending only about 7 hours out of the nest each day. Although the duration of the daily active phase did not change with the seasons, the squirrels exited the nest earlier in the day when the days became longer in the summer and exited the nest later in the day when the days became shorter in the winter, thus tracking dawn along the seasons. During the few hours spent outside the nest each day, fox squirrels seemed to spend most of the time sitting or lying. These findings suggest that fox squirrels may have adopted a slow life history strategy that involves long periods of rest on trees and short periods of ground activity each day. PMID:26963918

  14. The pattern of catecholamine response to burst activity in leopard frogs, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P A; Nadeau, A; Guderley, H

    1994-07-01

    It is well known that burst activity causes a rapid breakdown of muscle glycogen and extensive accumulation of lactate in frogs. During recovery, it has been shown that lactate is nearly totally recycled into muscle glycogen. Since catecholamines are likely to play some role in the regulation of postexercise repletion of muscle glycogen, the pattern of catecholamine response was assessed in frogs during intense physical activity and the ensuing recovery period. Chronically cannulated frogs were forced to swim until exhaustion, and serial blood samples were taken at regular time intervals for the measurements of catecholamines. The pattern of changes in plasma and muscle lactate and glucose and muscle glycogen during and after burst activity is similar to that reported in previous studies using noncannulated frogs, a result which indicates that the animals recover well from the surgical trauma associated with cannulation. The concentrations of plasma catecholamines in frogs at rest are comparable to those measured in other amphibians, and the levels of plasma epinephrine in resting frogs are much higher than those of norepinephrine. Burst activity causes a marked increase in plasma catecholamines, with higher levels reached by epinephrine. During recovery, the concentration of plasma catecholamines returns to normal within 30 min. Although this pattern of catecholamine response to intense physical activity may be favorable to the repletion of muscle glycogen postexercise, it remains to be clarified how critical the low levels and fast reduction in plasma catecholamines are for optimum glycogen resynthesis. PMID:7926648

  15. Holographic fiber bundle system for patterned optogenetic activation of large-scale neuronal networks.

    PubMed

    Farah, Nairouz; Levinsky, Alexandra; Brosh, Inbar; Kahn, Itamar; Shoham, Shy

    2015-10-01

    Optogenetic perturbation has become a fundamental tool in controlling activity in neurons. Used to control activity in cell cultures, slice preparations, anesthetized and awake behaving animals, optical control of cell-type specific activity enables the interrogation of complex systems. A remaining challenge in developing optical control tools is the ability to produce defined light patterns such that power-efficient, precise control of neuronal populations is obtained. Here, we describe a system for patterned stimulation that enables the generation of structured activity in neurons by transmitting optical patterns from computer-generated holograms through an optical fiber bundle. The system couples the optical system to versatile fiber bundle configurations, including coherent or incoherent bundles composed of hundreds of up to several meters long fibers. We describe the components of the system, a method for calibration, and a detailed power efficiency and spatial specificity quantification. Next, we use the system to precisely control single-cell activity as measured by extracellular electrophysiological recordings in ChR2-expressing cortical cell cultures. The described system complements recent descriptions of optical control systems, presenting a system suitable for high-resolution spatiotemporal optical control of wide-area neural networks in vitro and in vivo, yielding a tool for precise neural system interrogation. PMID:26793741

  16. Spatial patterns of neuronal activity in rat cerebral cortex during non-rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Wanger, Tim; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W; Goldschmidt, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    It is commonly assumed that cortical activity in non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) is spatially homogeneous on the mesoscopic scale. This is partly due to the limited observational scope of common metabolic or imaging methods in sleep. We used the recently developed technique of thallium-autometallography (TlAMG) to visualize mesoscopic patterns of activity in the sleeping cortex with single-cell resolution. We intravenously injected rats with the lipophilic chelate complex thallium diethyldithiocarbamate (TlDDC) during spontaneously occurring periods of NREMS and mapped the patterns of neuronal uptake of the potassium (K+) probe thallium (Tl+). Using this method, we show that cortical activity patterns are not spatially homogeneous during discrete 5-min episodes of NREMS in unrestrained rats-rather, they are complex and spatially diverse. Along with a relative predominance of infragranular layer activation, we find pronounced differences in metabolic activity of neighboring neuronal assemblies, an observation which lends support to the emerging paradigm that sleep is a distributed process with regulation on the local scale.

  17. Time budget and activity patterns of oncilla cats (Leopardus tigrinus) in captivity.

    PubMed

    Resende, Letícia de Souza; Neto, Glauce Lima e; Carvalho, Patrícia Gonçalves Duarte; Landau-Remy, Gabriella; Ramos-Júnior, Valdir de Almeida; Andriolo, Artur; Genaro, Gelson

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have reported on the diet of Leopardus tigrinus and ecological aspects, but studies of behavior are scarce. The aims of this study were to describe the time budget and activity patterns of 10 captive Leopardus tigrinus individuals. The group had an activity budget of 66% resting, 20.66% moving, 6.08% vigilant, 3.12% feeding, and 4.14% other activities during 720 hr of observations. The activity budgets of the males and females did not differ significantly; however, males ate more than did females. The nonhuman animals spent more time resting during the day than during the night. Moving, socializing, maintenance, and vigilance showed statistically higher mean values at night. Group analysis of the temporal pattern of behavior showed bimodal peaks. Activity levels were high from 5 a.m. to 6 a.m. and decreased through the day only to peak again at 7 p.m. Stereotypic pacing peaked at dawn and at dusk. Patterns of vigilance, feeding, and maintenance were also determined for the group during a 24-hr period. These results may be useful for the development of management plans and effective conservation strategies for captive cats.

  18. Effect of cadence regulation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted gait: a dynamic simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Shahid; Xie, Sheng Q; Jamwal, Prashant K

    2013-03-01

    Cadence or stride frequency is an important parameter being controlled in gait training of neurologically impaired subjects. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of cadence variation on muscle activation patterns during robot assisted unimpaired gait using dynamic simulations. A twodimensional (2-D) musculoskeletal model of human gait was developed considering eight major muscle groups along with existing ground contact force (GCF) model. A 2-D model of a robotic orthosis was also developed which provides actuation to the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane to guide subjects limbs on reference trajectories. A custom inverse dynamics algorithm was used along with a quadratic minimization algorithm to obtain a feasible set of muscle activation patterns. Predicted patterns of muscle activations during slow, natural and fast cadence were compared and the mean muscle activations were found to be increasing with an increase in cadence. The proposed dynamic simulation provide important insight into the muscle activation variations with change in cadence during robot assisted gait and provide the basis for investigating the influence of cadence regulation on neuromuscular parameters of interest during robot assisted gait.

  19. Field potential signature of distinct multicellular activity patterns in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Reichinnek, Susanne; Künsting, Thomas; Draguhn, Andreas; Both, Martin

    2010-11-17

    Cognitive functions go along with complex patterns of distributed activity in neuronal networks, thereby forming assemblies of selected neurons. To support memory processes, such assemblies have to be stabilized and reactivated in a highly reproducible way. The rodent hippocampus provides a well studied model system for network mechanisms underlying spatial memory formation. Assemblies of place-encoding cells are repeatedly activated during sleep-associated network states called sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs). Behavioral studies suggest that at any time the hippocampus harbors a limited number of different assemblies that are transiently stabilized for memory consolidation. We hypothesized that the corresponding field potentials (sharp wave-ripple complexes) contain a specific signature of the underlying neuronal activity patterns. Hence, they should fall into a limited number of different waveforms. Application of unbiased sorting algorithms to sharp wave-ripple complexes in mouse hippocampal slices did indeed reveal the reliable recurrence of defined waveforms that were robust over prolonged recording periods. Single-unit discharges tended to fire selectively with certain SPW-R classes and were coupled above chance level. Thus, field SPW-Rs of different waveforms are directly related to the underlying multicellular activity patterns that recur with high fidelity. This direct relationship between the coordinated activity of distinct groups of neurons and macroscopic electrographic signals may be important for cognition-related physiological studies in humans and behaving animals.

  20. Spatial Patterns of Persistent Neural Activity Vary with the Behavioral Context of Short-Term Memory

    PubMed Central

    Daie, Kayvon

    2015-01-01

    Summary A short-term memory can be evoked by different inputs and control separate targets in different behavioral contexts. To address the circuit mechanisms underlying context-dependent memory function, we determined through optical imaging how memory is encoded at the whole-network level in two behavioral settings. Persistent neural activity maintaining a memory of desired eye position was imaged throughout the oculomotor integrator after saccadic or optokinetic stimulation. While eye position was encoded by the amplitude of network activity, the spatial patterns of firing were context-dependent: cells located caudally generally were most persistent following saccadic input, whereas cells located rostrally were most persistent following optokinetic input. To explain these data, we computationally identified four independent modes of network activity and found these were differentially accessed by saccadic and optokinetic inputs. These results show how a circuit can simultaneously encode memory value and behavioral context, respectively, in its amplitude and spatial pattern of persistent firing. PMID:25661184

  1. Composite catalyst surfaces: Effect of inert and active heterogeneities on pattern formation

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.; Bangia, A.K.; Kevrekidis, I.G.; Haas, G.; Rotermund, H.H.; Ertl, G.

    1996-12-05

    Spatiotemporal dynamics in reaction-diffusion systems can be altered through the properties (reactivity, diffusivity) of the medium in which they occur. We construct active heterogeneous media (composite catalytic surfaces with inert as well as active illusions) using microelectronics fabrication techniques and study the spatiotemporal dynamics of heterogeneous catalytic reactions on these catalysts. In parallel, we perform simulations as well as numerical stability and bifurcation analysis of these patterns using mechanistic models. At the limit of large heterogeneity `grain size` (compared to the wavelength of spontaneously arising structures) the interaction patterns with inert or active boundaries dominates (e.g., pinning, transmission, and boundary breakup of spirals, interaction of pulses with corners, `pacemaker` effects). At the opposite limit of very small or very finely distributed heterogeneity, effective behavior is observed (slight modulation of pulses, nearly uniform oscillations, effective spirals). Some representative studies of transitions between the two limits are presented. 48 refs., 11 figs.

  2. Endogenous patterns of activity are required for the maturation of a motor network

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Sarah J.; Evers, Jan Felix; Bate, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Many parts of the nervous system become active before development is complete, including the embryonic spinal cord. Remarkably, although the subject has been debated for over a century (Harrison, 1904), it is still unclear whether such activity is required for normal development of motor circuitry. In Drosophila, embryonic motor output is initially poorly organised, and coordinated crawling-like behaviour gradually emerges over the subsequent phase of development. We show that reversibly blocking synaptic transmission during this phase severely delays the first appearance of coordinated movements. When we interfere with the pattern of neuronal firing during this period, coordination is also delayed or blocked. We conclude that there is a period during which endogenous patterns of neuronal activity are required for the normal development of motor circuits in Drosophila. PMID:21775590

  3. LEISURE ACTIVITY PATTERNS AND THEIR ASSOCIATIONS WITH OVERWEIGHT: A PROSPECTIVE STUDY AMONG ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Lajunen, Hanna-Reetta; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2009-01-01

    We examined longitudinal associations between individual leisure activities (television viewing, video viewing, computer games, listening to music, board games, musical instrument playing, reading, arts, crafts, socializing, clubs or scouts, sports, outdoor activities) and being overweight using logistic regression and latent class analysis in a cohort of Finnish twins responding to self-report questionnaires at 11–12 (N=5184), 14, and 17 years. We also studied activity patterns (“Active and sociable”, “Active but less sociable”, “Passive but sociable”, “Passive and solitary”) thought to represent different lifestyles. Among boys, activity patterns did not predict becoming overweight, but sports and playing an instrument reduced the risk and arts and listening to music increased it. Among girls, few individual leisure activities predicted becoming overweight. However, girls in the “Passive and solitary” cluster carried the greatest risk of becoming overweight in late adolescence. Studying leisure activities related to overweight may help focus specific interventions on high risk groups. PMID:19345989

  4. PA-824 Kills Nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Intracellular NO Release

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ramandeep; Manjunatha, Ujjini; Boshoff, Helena I. M.; Ha, Young Hwan; Niyomrattanakit, Pornwaratt; Ledwidge, Richard; Dowd, Cynthia S.; Lee, Ill Young; Kim, Pilho; Zhang, Liang; Kang, Sunhee; Keller, Thomas H.; Jiricek, Jan; Barry, Clifton E.

    2009-01-01

    Bicyclic nitroimidazoles, including PA-824, are exciting candidates for the treatment of tuberculosis. These prodrugs require intracellular activation for their biological function. We found that Rv3547 is a deazaflavin-dependent nitroreductase (Ddn) that converts PA-824 into three primary metabolites; the major one is the corresponding des-nitroimidazole (des-nitro). When derivatives of PA-824 were used, the amount of des-nitro metabolite formed was highly correlated with anaerobic killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Des-nitro metabolite formation generated reactive nitrogen species, including nitric oxide (NO), which are the major effectors of the anaerobic activity of these compounds. Furthermore, NO scavengers protected the bacilli from the lethal effects of the drug. Thus, these compounds may act as intracellular NO donors and could augment a killing mechanism intrinsic to the innate immune system. PMID:19039139

  5. Fusion analysis of functional MRI data for classification of individuals based on patterns of activation.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Mahdi; Abolmaesumi, Purang; Marble, Kris; Trang, Heather; Johnsrude, Ingrid

    2015-06-01

    Classification of individuals based on patterns of brain activity observed in functional MRI contrasts may be helpful for diagnosis of neurological disorders. Prior work for classification based on these patterns have primarily focused on using a single contrast, which does not take advantage of complementary information that may be available in multiple contrasts. Where multiple contrasts are used, the objective has been only to identify the joint, distinct brain activity patterns that differ between groups of subjects; not to use the information to classify individuals. Here, we use joint Independent Component Analysis (jICA) within a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification method, and take advantage of the relative contribution of activation patterns generated from multiple fMRI contrasts to improve classification accuracy. Young (age: 19-26) and older (age: 57-73) adults (16 each) were scanned while listening to noise alone and to speech degraded with noise, half of which contained meaningful context that could be used to enhance intelligibility. Functional contrasts based on these conditions (and a silent baseline condition) were used within jICA to generate spatially independent joint activation sources and their corresponding modulation profiles. Modulation profiles were used within a non-linear SVM framework to classify individuals as young or older. Results demonstrate that a combination of activation maps across the multiple contrasts yielded an area under ROC curve of 0.86, superior to classification resulting from individual contrasts. Moreover, class separability, measured by a divergence criterion, was substantially higher when using the combination of activation maps.

  6. [Activity patterns and foraging behavior of Apis cerana cerana in the urban gardens in winter].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fa-jun; Yang, Qing-qing; Long, Li; Hu, Hong-mei; Duan, Bin; Chen, Wen-nian

    2016-01-01

    Bees and other pollinating insects are the important parts of biodiversity due to their great role in plant reproduction and crop production. To explore the role of city garden in native bees conservation, activity patterns, visiting behaviors and flowering plants with nectar or pollen were recorded in south Sichuan in winter. The results showed that, worker bees (Apis cerana cerana) were active to collect food out hive under suitable weather conditions, the duration of working was long. Peaks of the number of outgoing, entrance and foragers without pollen appeared at 14:00-15:00, and bimodal patterns were observed. While, peak of bees with pollen appeared at 11:00, and a unimodal pattern was observed. Time significantly affected the activity of workers. The workload of honey bees on nectar and pollen collection were different, just less than twenty percent foragers carrying pollen. Temperature and humidity also affected flights of bees to some degree, and bee activities showed similar patterns on different days. However, the activities had diverse characteristics in some time. Though a less number of plants were in flowering, most of them could be utilized by A. cerana cerana, and colonies could effectively get the food resource by behavior adjustment. In addition, visiting activities of bees on the flowers of main garden plants, such as Camellia japonica, showed obvious rhythm. Increasing the flowering plants with nectar and pollen in winter by scientific management of urban gardens would facilitate the creation of suitable habitats for A. cerana cerana and maintaining the wild population. PMID:27228619

  7. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2016-07-21

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7-20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT. PMID:27353199

  8. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Kenneth B.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D.; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-07-01

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7–20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT.

  9. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Haworth, Kevin J; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2016-07-21

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7-20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT.

  10. Efficacy of histotripsy combined with rt-PA in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bader, Kenneth B.; Haworth, Kevin J.; Shekhar, Himanshu; Maxwell, Adam D.; Peng, Tao; McPherson, David D.; Holland, Christy K.

    2016-07-01

    Histotripsy, a form of therapeutic ultrasound that uses the mechanical action of microbubble clouds for tissue ablation, is under development to treat chronic deep vein thrombosis (DVT). We hypothesize that combining thrombolytic agents with histotripsy will enhance clot lysis. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes that entrain octafluoropropane microbubbles (OFP t-ELIP) were used in combination with highly shocked histotripsy pulses. Fully retracted porcine venous clots, with similar features of DVT occlusions, were exposed either to histotripsy pulses alone (peak negative pressures of 7-20 MPa), histotripsy and OFP t-ELIP, or histotripsy and rt-PA. Microbubble cloud activity was monitored with passive cavitation imaging during histotripsy exposure. The power levels of cavitation emissions from within the clot were not statistically different between treatment types, likely due to the near instantaneous rupture and destruction of OFP t-ELIP. The thrombolytic efficacy was significantly improved in the presence of rt-PA. These results suggest the combination of histotripsy and rt-PA could serve as a potent therapeutic strategy for the treatment of DVT.

  11. EDITORIAL: Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010) Adaptive and active materials: Selected papers from the ASME 2010 Conference on Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems (SMASIS 10) (Philadelphia, PA, USA, 28 September-1 October 2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brei, Diann

    2011-09-01

    The third annual meeting of the AMSE/AIAA Smart Materials, Adaptive Structures and Intelligent Systems Conference (SMASIS) took place in the heart of historic Philadelphia's cultural district, and included a pioneer banquet in the National Constitutional Center. The applications emphasis of the 2010 conference was reflected in keynote talks by Dr Alan Taub, vice president of General Motors global research and development, 'Smart materials in the automotive industry'; Dr Charles R Farrar, engineering institute leader at Los Alamos National Laboratory, 'Future directions for structural health monitoring of civil engineering infrastructure'; and Professor Christopher S Lynch of the University of California Los Angeles, 'Ferroelectric materials and their applications'. The SMASIS conference was divided into six technical symposia each of which included basic research, applied technological design and development, and industrial and governmental integrated system and application demonstrations. The six symposia were: SYMP 1 Multifunctional Materials; SYMP 2 Active Materials, Mechanics and Behavior; SYMP 3 Modeling, Simulation and Control; SYMP 4 Enabling Technologies and Integrated System Design; SYMP 5 Structural Health Monitoring/NDE; and SYMP 6 Bio-inspired Smart Materials and Structures. In addition, the conference introduced a new student and young professional development symposium. Authors of papers in the materials areas (symposia 1, 2 and 6) were invited to write a full journal article on their presentation topic for publication in this special issue of Smart Materials and Structures. This set of papers demonstrates the exceptional quality and originality of the conference presentations. We are appreciative of their efforts in producing this collection of highly relevant articles on smart materials.

  12. Patterns of Adolescents' Participation in Organized Activities: Are Sports Best when Combined with Other Activities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linver, Miriam R.; Roth, Jodie L.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Although many adolescents participate in sports and other types of organized activities, little extant research explores how youth development outcomes may vary for youth involved in different combinations of activities. The present study uses the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a large, nationally…

  13. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns.

    PubMed

    Billis, Antonis S; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S; Karagianni, Maria; Bamidis, Panagiotis D

    2016-03-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes.

  14. Enabling active and healthy ageing decision support systems with the smart collection of TV usage patterns

    PubMed Central

    Billis, Antonis S.; Batziakas, Asterios; Bratsas, Charalampos; Tsatali, Marianna S.; Karagianni, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Smart monitoring of seniors behavioural patterns and more specifically activities of daily living have attracted immense research interest in recent years. Development of smart decision support systems to support the promotion of health smart homes has also emerged taking advantage of the plethora of smart, inexpensive and unobtrusive monitoring sensors, devices and software tools. To this end, a smart monitoring system has been used in order to extract meaningful information about television (TV) usage patterns and subsequently associate them with clinical findings of experts. The smart TV operating state remote monitoring system was installed in four elderly women homes and gathered data for more than 11 months. Results suggest that TV daily usage (time the TV is turned on) can predict mental health change. Conclusively, the authors suggest that collection of smart device usage patterns could strengthen the inference capabilities of existing health DSSs applied in uncontrolled settings such as real senior homes. PMID:27284457

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA1006 Is a Persulfide-Modified Protein That Is Critical for Molybdenum Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Tombline, Gregory; Schwingel, Johanna M.; Lapek, John D.; Friedman, Alan E.; Darrah, Thomas; Maguire, Michael; Van Alst, Nadine E.; Filiatrault, Melanie J.; Iglewski, Barbara H.

    2013-01-01

    A companion manuscript revealed that deletion of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pae) PA1006 gene caused pleiotropic defects in metabolism including a loss of all nitrate reductase activities, biofilm maturation, and virulence. Herein, several complementary approaches indicate that PA1006 protein serves as a persulfide-modified protein that is critical for molybdenum homeostasis in Pae. Mutation of a highly conserved Cys22 to Ala or Ser resulted in a loss of PA1006 activity. Yeast-two-hybrid and a green-fluorescent protein fragment complementation assay (GFP-PFCA) in Pae itself revealed that PA1006 interacts with Pae PA3667/CsdA and PA3814/IscS Cys desulfurase enzymes. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) “top-down” analysis of PA1006 purified from Pae revealed that conserved Cys22 is post-translationally modified in vivo in the form a persulfide. Inductively-coupled-plasma (ICP)-MS analysis of ΔPA1006 mutant extracts revealed that the mutant cells contain significantly reduced levels of molybdenum compared to wild-type. GFP-PFCA also revealed that PA1006 interacts with several molybdenum cofactor (MoCo) biosynthesis proteins as well as nitrate reductase maturation factor NarJ and component NarH. These data indicate that a loss of PA1006 protein’s persulfide sulfur and a reduced availability of molybdenum contribute to the phenotype of a ΔPA1006 mutant. PMID:23409003

  16. Activity pattern detection in electroneurographic and electromyogram signals through a heteroscedastic change-point method.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Frausto, M E; Guerrero, J A; Macías-Díaz, J E

    2010-04-01

    In this work, we propose a heteroscedastic method in the detection of activity patterns of electroneurographic and electromyogram signals involved in rhythmic activities of nerves and muscles, respectively. The electric behavior observed in such signals is characterized by phases of activity and silence. The beginning and the length of electrically active and electrically silent phases in a signal allow us to quantitatively analyze the changes and the effects on a rhythmic activity produced by experimental changes. In order to distinguish between these two phases, signals are assumed to be a sample of a time-dependent, normally distributed random variable with non-constant variance, and that the determination of the variance at each point allows us to determine in which phase is the signal. The parameters of the model are determined by means of an iterative process which maximizes the log-likelihood under the proposed model. Moreover, we apply our method to the determination of the activity phases and silence phases in sequences of experimental and synthetic electroneurographic and electromyogram signals. The results obtained with synthetic data show that the method performs well in the determination of these activity patterns. Finally, the study of particular signals simulated under a generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity model suggests the robustness of the method with respect to the assumption of independence.

  17. Pattern formation for active particles on optically created ordered and disordered substrates (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Charles M.; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia J.

    2015-08-01

    There has been tremendous growth in the field of active matter, where the individual particles that comprise the system are self-driven. Examples of this class of system include biological systems such as swimming bacteria and crawling cells. More recently, non-biological swimmers have been created using colloidal Janus particles that undergo chemical reactions on one side to produce self-propulsion. These active matter systems exhibit a wide variety of behaviors that are absent in systems undergoing purely thermal fluctuations, such as transitions from uniform liquids to clusters or living crystals, pushing objects around, ratchet effects, and phase separation in mixtures of active and passive particles. Here we examine the collective effects of active matter disks in the presence of static or dynamic substrates. For colloids, such substrates could be created optically in the form of periodic, random, or quasiperiodic patterns. For thermal particles, increasing the temperature generally increases the diffusion or mobility of the particles when they move over a random or periodic substrates. We find that when the particles are active, increasing the activity can increase the mobility for smaller run lengths but decrease the mobility at large run lengths. Additionally we find that at large run lengths on a structured substrate, a variety of novel active crystalline states can form such as stripes, squares and triangular patterns.

  18. The Implications of Null Patterns and Output Unit Activation Functions on Simulation Studies of Learning: A Case Study of Patterning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yaremchuk, V.; Willson, L.R.; Spetch, M.L.; Dawson, M.R.W.

    2005-01-01

    Animal learning researchers have argued that one example of a linearly nonseparable problem is negative patterning, and therefore they have used more complicated multilayer networks to study this kind of discriminant learning. However, it is shown in this paper that previous attempts to define negative patterning problems to artificial neural…

  19. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the

  20. An identified glutamatergic interneuron patterns feeding motor activity via both excitation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, E M; Gregory, K; Murphy, A D

    1995-03-01

    1. Previously we demonstrated that glutamate is an important neurotransmitter in the CNS of Helisoma. Exogenous glutamate applied to the buccal ganglia mimicked both the excitatory and inhibitory effects of subunit 2 (S2) of the tripartite central pattern generator (CPG) on S2 postsynaptic motor neurons. Here we identify buccal interneuron B2 as an S2 interneuron by utilizing a combination of electrophysiology, pharmacology, and intracellular staining. In addition, neurons that were electrophysiologically and morphologically characterized as neuron B2 demonstrated antiglutamate immunoreactivity, suggesting that neuron B2 is a source of endogenous glutamate in the buccal ganglia. 2. Depolarization of neuron B2 evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials in motor neurons excited by S2. The excitatory effects of B2 depolarization and S2 activation were reversibly antagonized by the ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione, similar to the antagonism shown previously for application of exogenous glutamate. Depolarization of neuron B2 also evoked inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in motor neurons inhibited by S2. When such motor neurons were maintained in isolated cell culture, application of exogenous glutamate produced a direct hyperpolarization of the membrane potential. 3. The activity of neuron B2 is necessary for the production of the standard pattern of buccal motor neuron activity, which underlies functional feeding movements. The subunits of the tripartite buccal CPG must be active in the temporal sequence S1-S2-S3 to produce the standard feeding pattern. Rhythmic inhibition from neuron B2 terminated activity in S1 postsynaptic motor neurons and entrained the frequency of activity in S3 postsynaptic motor neurons. Hyperpolarization of neuron B2 disrupted the production of the standard motor pattern by eliminating S2 postsynaptic potentials in identified buccal motor neurons, thereby prolonging S1 activity and disrupting S3

  1. Prediction of active nodes in the transcriptional network of neural tube patterning

    PubMed Central

    Kioussi, Chrissa; Shih, Hung-Ping; Loflin, John; Gross, Michael K.

    2006-01-01

    A transcriptional network governs patterning in the developing spinal cord. As the developmental program runs, the levels of sequence-specific DNA-binding transcription factors (SSTFs) in each progenitor cell type change to ultimately define a set of postmitotic populations with combinatorial codes of expressed SSTFs. A network description of the neural tube (NT) transcriptional patterning process will require definition of nodes (SSTFs and target enhancers) and edges (interactions between nodes). There are 1,600 SSTF nodes in a given mammalian genome. To limit the complexity of a network description, it will be useful to discriminate between active and passive SSTF nodes. We define active SSTF nodes as those that are differentially expressed within the system. Our system, the developing NT, was partitioned into two pools of genetically defined populations by using flow sorting. Microarray comparisons across the partition led to an estimate of 500–700 active SSTF nodes in the transcriptional network of the developing NT. These included most of the 66 known SSTFs assembled from review articles and recent reports on NT patterning. Empirical cutoffs based on the performance of knowns were used to identify 188 further active SSTFs nodes that performed similarly. The general utility and limitations of the population-partitioning paradigm are discussed. PMID:17132738

  2. Predicting brain activation patterns associated with individual lexical concepts based on five sensory-motor attributes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Gross, William L.; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    While major advances have been made in uncovering the neural processes underlying perceptual representations, our grasp of how the brain gives rise to conceptual knowledge remains relatively poor. Recent work has provided strong evidence that concepts rely, at least in part, on the same sensory and motor neural systems through which they were acquired, but it is still unclear whether the neural code for concept representation uses information about sensory-motor features to discriminate between concepts. In the present study, we investigate this question by asking whether an encoding model based on five semantic attributes directly related to sensory-motor experience – sound, color, visual motion, shape, and manipulation – can successfully predict patterns of brain activation elicited by individual lexical concepts. We collected ratings on the relevance of these five attributes to the meaning of 820 words, and used these ratings as predictors in a multiple regression model of the fMRI signal associated with the words in a separate group of participants. The five resulting activation maps were then combined by linear summation to predict the distributed activation pattern elicited by a novel set of 80 test words. The encoding model predicted the activation patterns elicited by the test words significantly better than chance. As expected, prediction was successful for concrete but not for abstract concepts. Comparisons between encoding models based on different combinations of attributes indicate that all five attributes contribute to the representation of concrete concepts. Consistent with embodied theories of semantics, these results show, for the first time, that the distributed activation pattern associated with a concept combines information about different sensory-motor attributes according to their respective relevance. Future research should investigate how additional features of phenomenal experience contribute to the neural representation of conceptual

  3. Predicting brain activation patterns associated with individual lexical concepts based on five sensory-motor attributes.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Seidenberg, Mark S; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2015-09-01

    While major advances have been made in uncovering the neural processes underlying perceptual representations, our grasp of how the brain gives rise to conceptual knowledge remains relatively poor. Recent work has provided strong evidence that concepts rely, at least in part, on the same sensory and motor neural systems through which they were acquired, but it is still unclear whether the neural code for concept representation uses information about sensory-motor features to discriminate between concepts. In the present study, we investigate this question by asking whether an encoding model based on five semantic attributes directly related to sensory-motor experience - sound, color, visual motion, shape, and manipulation - can successfully predict patterns of brain activation elicited by individual lexical concepts. We collected ratings on the relevance of these five attributes to the meaning of 820 words, and used these ratings as predictors in a multiple regression model of the fMRI signal associated with the words in a separate group of participants. The five resulting activation maps were then combined by linear summation to predict the distributed activation pattern elicited by a novel set of 80 test words. The encoding model predicted the activation patterns elicited by the test words significantly better than chance. As expected, prediction was successful for concrete but not for abstract concepts. Comparisons between encoding models based on different combinations of attributes indicate that all five attributes contribute to the representation of concrete concepts. Consistent with embodied theories of semantics, these results show, for the first time, that the distributed activation pattern associated with a concept combines information about different sensory-motor attributes according to their respective relevance. Future research should investigate how additional features of phenomenal experience contribute to the neural representation of conceptual

  4. Predicting brain activation patterns associated with individual lexical concepts based on five sensory-motor attributes.

    PubMed

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J; Seidenberg, Mark S; Gross, William L; Conant, Lisa L; Binder, Jeffrey R

    2015-09-01

    While major advances have been made in uncovering the neural processes underlying perceptual representations, our grasp of how the brain gives rise to conceptual knowledge remains relatively poor. Recent work has provided strong evidence that concepts rely, at least in part, on the same sensory and motor neural systems through which they were acquired, but it is still unclear whether the neural code for concept representation uses information about sensory-motor features to discriminate between concepts. In the present study, we investigate this question by asking whether an encoding model based on five semantic attributes directly related to sensory-motor experience - sound, color, visual motion, shape, and manipulation - can successfully predict patterns of brain activation elicited by individual lexical concepts. We collected ratings on the relevance of these five attributes to the meaning of 820 words, and used these ratings as predictors in a multiple regression model of the fMRI signal associated with the words in a separate group of participants. The five resulting activation maps were then combined by linear summation to predict the distributed activation pattern elicited by a novel set of 80 test words. The encoding model predicted the activation patterns elicited by the test words significantly better than chance. As expected, prediction was successful for concrete but not for abstract concepts. Comparisons between encoding models based on different combinations of attributes indicate that all five attributes contribute to the representation of concrete concepts. Consistent with embodied theories of semantics, these results show, for the first time, that the distributed activation pattern associated with a concept combines information about different sensory-motor attributes according to their respective relevance. Future research should investigate how additional features of phenomenal experience contribute to the neural representation of conceptual

  5. Activity patterns of the diaphragm during voluntary movements in awake cats.

    PubMed

    Uga, Minako; Niwa, Masatoshi; Ochiai, Naoyuki; Sasaki, Sei-Ichi

    2010-05-01

    The diaphragm is an important inspiratory muscle, and is also known to participate in the postural function. However, the activity of the diaphragm during voluntary movements has not been fully investigated in awake animals. In order to investigate the diaphragmatic activity during voluntary movements such as extending or rotating their body, we analyzed the electromyogram (EMG) of the diaphragm and trunk muscles in the cat using a technique for simultaneous recordings of EMG signals and video images. Periodic respiratory discharges occurred in the left and right costal diaphragm when the cat kept still. However, once the cat moved, their periodicity and/or synchrony were sometimes buried by non-respiratory activity. Such non-periodic diaphragmatic activities during voluntary movements are considered as the combination of respiratory activity and non-respiratory activity. Most of the diaphragmatic activities started shortly after the initiation of standing-up movements and occurred after the onset of trunk muscle activities. Those activities were more active compared to the normal respiratory activity. During rotation movements, left and right diaphragmatic activities showed asymmetrical discharge patterns and higher discharges than those during the resting situation. This asymmetrical activity may be caused by taking different lengths of each side of the diaphragm and trunk muscles. During reaching movements, the diaphragmatic activity occurred prior to or with the onset of trunk muscle activities. It is likely that diaphragmatic activities during reaching movements and standing-up movements may have been controlled by some different control mechanisms of the central nervous system. This study will suggest that the diaphragmatic activity is regulated not only by the respiratory center but also by inputs from the center for voluntary movements and/or sensory reflex pathways under the awake condition.

  6. Restrictive pattern on spirometry: association with cardiovascular risk and level of physical activity in asymptomatic adults

    PubMed Central

    Sperandio, Evandro Fornias; Arantes, Rodolfo Leite; Matheus, Agatha Caveda; da Silva, Rodrigo Pereira; Lauria, Vinícius Tonon; Romiti, Marcello; Gagliardi, Antônio Ricardo de Toledo; Dourado, Victor Zuniga

    2016-01-01

    Objective : To determine whether a restrictive pattern on spirometry is associated with the level of physical activity in daily life (PADL), as well as with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, in asymptomatic adults. Methods : A total of 374 participants (mean age, 41 ± 14 years) underwent spirometry, which included the determination of FVC and FEV1. A restrictive pattern on spirometry was defined as an FEV1/FVC ratio > 0.7 and an FVC < 80% of the predicted value. After conducting demographic, anthropometric, and CVD risk assessments, we evaluated body composition, muscle function, and postural balance, as well as performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and administering the six-minute walk test. The PADL was quantified with a triaxial accelerometer. Results : A restrictive pattern on spirometry was found in 10% of the subjects. After multivariate logistic regression, adjusted for confounders (PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness), the following variables retained significance (OR; 95% CI) as predictors of a restrictive pattern: systemic arterial hypertension (17.5; 1.65-184.8), smoking (11.6; 1.56-87.5), physical inactivity (8.1; 1.43-46.4), larger center-of-pressure area while standing on a force platform (1.34; 1.05-1.71); and dyslipidemia (1.89; 1.12-1.98). Conclusions : A restrictive pattern on spirometry appears to be common in asymptomatic adults. We found that CVD risk factors, especially systemic arterial hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity, were directly associated with a restrictive pattern, even when the analysis was adjusted for PADL and cardiorespiratory fitness. Longitudinal studies are needed in order to improve understanding of the etiology of a restrictive pattern as well as to aid in the design of preventive strategies. PMID:26982037

  7. Modality-independent representations of small quantities based on brain activation patterns.

    PubMed

    Damarla, Saudamini Roy; Cherkassky, Vladimir L; Just, Marcel Adam

    2016-04-01

    Machine learning or MVPA (Multi Voxel Pattern Analysis) studies have shown that the neural representation of quantities of objects can be decoded from fMRI patterns, in cases where the quantities were visually displayed. Here we apply these techniques to investigate whether neural representations of quantities depicted in one modality (say, visual) can be decoded from brain activation patterns evoked by quantities depicted in the other modality (say, auditory). The main finding demonstrated, for the first time, that quantities of dots were decodable by a classifier that was trained on the neural patterns evoked by quantities of auditory tones, and vice-versa. The representations that were common across modalities were mainly right-lateralized in frontal and parietal regions. A second finding was that the neural patterns in parietal cortex that represent quantities were common across participants. These findings demonstrate a common neuronal foundation for the representation of quantities across sensory modalities and participants and provide insight into the role of parietal cortex in the representation of quantity information.

  8. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  9. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5 s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation.

  10. Learning new gait patterns: Exploratory muscle activity during motor learning is not predicted by motor modules.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Rajiv; Krishnan, Chandramouli; Dhaher, Yasin Y; Rymer, William Z

    2016-03-21

    The motor module hypothesis in motor control proposes that the nervous system can simplify the problem of controlling a large number of muscles in human movement by grouping muscles into a smaller number of modules. Here, we tested one prediction of the modular organization hypothesis by examining whether there is preferential exploration along these motor modules during the learning of a new gait pattern. Healthy college-aged participants learned a new gait pattern which required increased hip and knee flexion during the swing phase while walking in a lower-extremity robot (Lokomat). The new gait pattern was displayed as a foot trajectory in the sagittal plane and participants attempted to match their foot trajectory to this template. We recorded EMG from 8 lower-extremity muscles and we extracted motor modules during both baseline walking and target-tracking using non-negative matrix factorization (NMF). Results showed increased trajectory variability in the first block of learning, indicating that participants were engaged in exploratory behavior. Critically, when we examined the muscle activity during this exploratory phase, we found that the composition of motor modules changed significantly within the first few strides of attempting the new gait pattern. The lack of persistence of the motor modules under even short time scales suggests that motor modules extracted during locomotion may be more indicative of correlated muscle activity induced by the task constraints of walking, rather than reflecting a modular control strategy.

  11. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5 s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation. PMID:26519093

  12. Timescales of multineuronal activity patterns reflect temporal structure of visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Jurjuţ, Ovidiu F; Nikolić, Danko; Singer, Wolf; Yu, Shan; Havenith, Martha N; Mureşan, Raul C

    2011-02-08

    The investigation of distributed coding across multiple neurons in the cortex remains to this date a challenge. Our current understanding of collective encoding of information and the relevant timescales is still limited. Most results are restricted to disparate timescales, focused on either very fast, e.g., spike-synchrony, or slow timescales, e.g., firing rate. Here, we investigated systematically multineuronal activity patterns evolving on different timescales, spanning the whole range from spike-synchrony to mean firing rate. Using multi-electrode recordings from cat visual cortex, we show that cortical responses can be described as trajectories in a high-dimensional pattern space. Patterns evolve on a continuum of coexisting timescales that strongly relate to the temporal properties of stimuli. Timescales consistent with the time constants of neuronal membranes and fast synaptic transmission (5-20 ms) play a particularly salient role in encoding a large amount of stimulus-related information. Thus, to faithfully encode the properties of visual stimuli the brain engages multiple neurons into activity patterns evolving on multiple timescales.

  13. Axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on spherical and composite surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Pragya; Rao, Madan

    2014-03-01

    Experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of cylindrical and spherical shapes, rod-shaped bacteria and reconstituted cylindrical liposomes suggest the influence of cell geometry on patterning of cortical actin. A theoretical model based on active hydrodynamic description of cortical actin that includes curvature-orientation coupling predicts spontaneous formation of acto-myosin rings, cables and nodes on cylindrical and spherical geometries [P. Srivastava et al, PRL 110, 168104(2013)]. Stability and dynamics of these patterns is also affected by the cellular shape and has been observed in experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells of spherical shape. Motivated by this, we study the stability and dynamics of axi-symmetric patterns of active polar filaments on the surfaces of spherical, saddle shaped and conical geometry and classify the stable steady state patterns on these surfaces. Based on the analysis of the fluorescence images of Myosin-II during ring slippage we propose a simple mechanical model for ring-sliding based on force balance and make quantitative comparison with the experiments performed on Fission Yeast cells. NSF Grant DMR-1004789 and Syracuse Soft Matter Program.

  14. Multiple types of control by identified interneurons in a sensory-activated rhythmic motor pattern.

    PubMed

    Kemenes, G; Staras, K; Benjamin, P R

    2001-04-15

    Modulatory interneurons that can drive central pattern generators (CPGs) are considered as good candidates for decision-making roles in rhythmic behaviors. Although the mechanisms by which such neurons activate their target CPGs are known in detail in many systems, their role in the sensory activation of CPG-driven behaviors is poorly understood. In the feeding system of the mollusc Lymnaea, one of the best-studied rhythmical networks, intracellular stimulation of either of two types of neuron, the cerebral ventral 1a (CV1a) and the slow oscillator (SO) cells, leads to robust CPG-driven fictive feeding patterns, suggesting that they might make an important contribution to natural food-activated behavior. In this paper we investigated this contribution using a lip-CNS preparation in which feeding was elicited with a natural chemostimulant rather than intracellular stimulation. We found that despite their CPG-driving capabilities, neither CV1a nor SO were involved in the initial activation of sucrose-evoked fictive feeding, whereas a CPG interneuron, N1M, was active first in almost all preparations. Instead, the two interneurons play important and distinct roles in determining the characteristics of the rhythmic motor output; CV1a by modulating motoneuron burst duration and SO by setting the frequency of the ongoing rhythm. This is an example of a distributed system in which (1) interneurons that drive similar motor patterns when activated artificially contribute differently to the shaping of the motor output when it is evoked by the relevant sensory input, and (2) a CPG rather than a modulatory interneuron type plays the most critical role in initiation of sensory-evoked rhythmic activity.

  15. Fetal Functional Brain Age Assessed from Universal Developmental Indices Obtained from Neuro-Vegetative Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4–40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females) and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R2 of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent f

  16. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  17. Altered cortical activation patterns associated with baroreflex unloading following 24 h of physical deconditioning.

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, J K; Usselman, C W; Rothwell, A; Wong, S W

    2012-12-01

    Cardiovascular arousal is associated with patterned cortical activity changes. Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) dimishes the baroreflex-mediated cardiac control. The present study tested the hypothesis that HDBR deconditioning would modify the forebrain organization for heart rate (HR) control during baroreflex unloading. Heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure and plasma hormones were analysed at rest, whereas HR and cortical autonomic activation patterns (functional magnetic resonance imaging) were measured during graded and randomly assigned lower body negative pressure treatments (LBNP, -15 and -35 mmHg) both before (Pre) and after (Post) a 24 h HDBR protocol (study 1; n = 8). An additional group was tested before and following diuretic-induced hypovolaemia (study 2; n = 9; spironolactone, 100 mg day(-1) for 3 days) that mimicked the plasma volume lost during HDBR (-15% in both studies; P < 0.05). Head-down bed rest with hypovolaemia did not affect baseline HR, mean arterial pressure, HRV or plasma catecholamines. Head-down bed rest augmented the LBNP-induced HR response (P < 0.05), and this was associated with bed-rest-induced development of the following changes: (i) enhanced activation within the genual anterior cingulate cortex and the right anterior insular cortex; and (ii) deactivation patterns within the subgenual regions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Diuretic treatment (without HDBR) did not affect baseline HR and mean arterial pressure, but did reduce resting HRV and elevated circulating noradrenaline and plasma renin activity (P < 0.05). The greater HR response to LBNP following diuretic (P < 0.05) was associated with diminished activation of the right anterior insula. Our findings indicate that 24 h of HDBR minimized the impact of diuretic treatment on baseline autonomic and cardiovascular variables. The findings also indicate that despite the similar augmentation of HR responses to LBNP and despite similar pre-intervention cortical activation

  18. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  19. Altered rest-activity patterns evolve via circadian independent mechanisms in cave adapted balitorid loaches.

    PubMed

    Duboué, Erik R; Borowsky, Richard L

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms and rest homeostasis are independent processes, each regulating important components of rest-activity patterns. Evolutionarily, the two are distinct from one another; total rest time is maintained unaffected even when circadian pacemaker cells are ablated. Throughout the animal kingdom, there exists a huge variation in rest-activity patterns, yet it is unclear how these behaviors have evolved. Here we show that four species of balitorid cavefish have greatly reduced rest times in comparison to rest times of their surface relatives. All four cave species retained biological rhythmicity, and in three of the four there is a pronounced 24-hour rhythm; in the fourth there is an altered rhythmicity of 38-40 hours. Thus, consistent changes in total rest have evolved in these species independent of circadian rhythmicity. Taken together, our data suggest that consistent reduction in total rest times were accomplished evolutionarily through alterations in rest homeostasis. PMID:22348026

  20. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

  1. Activity patterns of Eurasian lynx are modulated by light regime and individual traits over a wide latitudinal range.

    PubMed

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D C

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7'N in central Europe to 70°00'N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day-night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey.

  2. Activity Patterns of Eurasian Lynx Are Modulated by Light Regime and Individual Traits over a Wide Latitudinal Range

    PubMed Central

    Heurich, Marco; Hilger, Anton; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Andrén, Henrik; Bufka, Luděk; Krofel, Miha; Mattisson, Jenny; Odden, John; Persson, Jens; Rauset, Geir R.; Schmidt, Krzysztof; Linnell, John D. C.

    2014-01-01

    The activity patterns of most terrestrial animals are regarded as being primarily influenced by light, although other factors, such as sexual cycle and climatic conditions, can modify the underlying patterns. However, most activity studies have been limited to a single study area, which in turn limit the variability of light conditions and other factors. Here we considered a range of variables that might potentially influence the activity of a large carnivore, the Eurasian lynx, in a network of studies conducted with identical methodology in different areas spanning latitudes from 49°7′N in central Europe to 70°00′N in northern Scandinavia. The variables considered both light conditions, ranging from a day with a complete day–night cycle to polar night and polar day, as well as individual traits of the animals. We analysed activity data of 38 individual free-ranging lynx equipped with GPS-collars with acceleration sensors, covering more than 11,000 lynx days. Mixed linear additive models revealed that the lynx activity level was not influenced by the daily daylight duration and the activity pattern was bimodal, even during polar night and polar day. The duration of the active phase of the activity cycle varied with the widening and narrowing of the photoperiod. Activity varied significantly with moonlight. Among adults, males were more active than females, and subadult lynx were more active than adults. In polar regions, the amplitude of the lynx daily activity pattern was low, likely as a result of the polycyclic activity pattern of their main prey, reindeer. At lower latitudes, the basic lynx activity pattern peaked during twilight, corresponding to the crepuscular activity pattern of the main prey, roe deer. Our results indicated that the basic activity of lynx is independent of light conditions, but is modified by both individual traits and the activity pattern of the locally most important prey. PMID:25517902

  3. Impacts of non-canonical El Niño patterns on Atlantic hurricane activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, S.; Lee, S.; Wang, C.; Chung, E.; Enfield, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of non-canonical El Niño patterns, typically characterized by warmer than normal sea surface tempera- tures (SSTs) in the central tropical Pacific, on Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) is explored by using composites of key Atlantic TC indices and tropospheric vertical wind shear over the Atlantic main development region (MDR). The highlight of our major findings is that, while the canonical El Niño pattern has a strong suppressing influence on Atlantic TC activity, non-canonical El Niño patterns con- sidered in this study, namely central Pacific warming, El Niño Modoki, positive phase Trans-Niño, and positive phase Pacific meridional mode, all have insubstantial impact on Atlantic TC activity. This result becomes more conclu- sive when the impact of MDR SST is removed from the Atlantic TC indices and MDR wind shear by using the method of linear regression. Further analysis suggests that the tropical Pacific SST anomalies associated with the non- canonical El Niño patterns are not strong enough to cause a substantial warming of the tropical troposphere in the Atlantic region, which is the key factor that increases the wind shear and atmospheric static stability over the MDR. During the recent decades, the non-canonical El Niños have been more frequent while the canonical El Niño has been less frequent. If such a trend continues in the future, it is expected that the suppressing effect of El Niño on Atlantic TC activity will diminish and thus the MDR SST will play a more important role in controlling Atlantic TC activity in the coming decades.

  4. Impacts of non-canonical El Niño patterns on Atlantic hurricane activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Sarah; Lee, Sang-Ki; Wang, Chunzai; Chung, Eui-Seok; Enfield, David

    2012-07-01

    The impact of non-canonical El Niño patterns, typically characterized by warmer than normal sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the central tropical Pacific, on Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) is explored by using composites of key Atlantic TC indices and tropospheric vertical wind shear over the Atlantic main development region (MDR). The highlight of our major findings is that, while the canonical El Niño pattern has a strong suppressing influence on Atlantic TC activity, non-canonical El Niño patterns considered in this study, namely central Pacific warming, El Niño Modoki, positive phase Trans-Niño, and positive phase Pacific meridional mode, all have insubstantial impact on Atlantic TC activity. This result becomes more conclusive when the impact of MDR SST is removed from the Atlantic TC indices and MDR wind shear by using the method of linear regression. Further analysis suggests that the tropical Pacific SST anomalies associated with the non-canonical El Niño patterns are not strong enough to cause a substantial warming of the tropical troposphere in the Atlantic region, which is the key factor that increases the wind shear and atmospheric static stability over the MDR. During the recent decades, the non-canonical El Niños have been more frequent while the canonical El Niño has been less frequent. If such a trend continues in the future, it is expected that the suppressing effect of El Niño on Atlantic TC activity will diminish and thus the MDR SST will play a more important role in controlling Atlantic TC activity in the coming decades.

  5. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  6. Patterns of physical activity among American Indian children: an assessment of barriers and support.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J L; Davis, S M; Gittelsohn, J; Going, S; Becenti, A; Metcalfe, L; Stone, E; Harnack, L; Ring, K

    2001-12-01

    Estimates indicate that 10% to 50% of American Indian and non-Indian children in the U.S. are obese, defined as a body mass index > or = 95th percentile of the NHANES II reference data. Pathways is a two-phase, multi-site study to develop and test a school-based obesity prevention program in American Indian schoolchildren in grades three through five. During Phase I feasibility prior to initiation of the Pathways trial, data were collected related to physical activity patterns, and the supports of, and barriers to, physical activity. Nine schools from communities representing six different tribal groups participated in this study. Multiple measures were used for data collection including direct observation, paired child interviews, and in-depth interviews and focus groups with adults. Students completed the self-administered Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors (KAB) survey, and a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ). Barriers to physical activity at schools included a lack of facilities, equipment, and trained staff persons for PE. Adults were not consistently active with their children, but they were highly supportive of their children's activity level. Children reported a strong enjoyment of physical activity and strong peer support to be physically active. Weather conditions, safety concerns, and homework/chores were common barriers to physical activity reported by children and adult caregivers. The information was used to design culturally and age-appropriate, practical interventions including the five physical activity programs for schoolchildren in the Pathways study.

  7. A high-affinity receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator on human keratinocytes: characterization and potential modulation during migration.

    PubMed Central

    McNeill, H; Jensen, P J

    1990-01-01

    Low passage cultures of normal human keratinocytes produce several components of the plasminogen activator/plasmin proteolytic cascade, including urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and two specific inhibitors. Studies here presented demonstrate that these cells also contain a high-affinity (Kd = 3 x 10(-10) M) plasma membrane-binding site for uPA. High molecular weight uPA, either as the single-chain precursor or two-chain activated form, bound to the receptor; however, low molecular weight (33 kD) uPA, tPA, or epidermal growth factor did not compete for binding, demonstrating specificity. Acid treatment, which removed endogenous uPA from the receptor, was required to detect maximal binding (45,000 sites per cell). To investigate the possibility that the uPA receptor on keratinocytes may be involved in epithelial migration during wound repair, cultures were wounded and allowed to migrate into the wounded site. Binding sites for uPA were localized by autoradiographic analysis of 125I-uPA binding as well as by immunocytochemical studies using anti-uPA IgG. With both techniques uPA binding sites were detected selectively on the plasma membrane of cells at the leading edge of the migrating epithelial sheet. This localization pattern suggests that uPA receptor expression on keratinocytes may be coupled to cell migration during cutaneous wounding. Images PMID:1965151

  8. Activation Pattern of Lower Leg Muscles in Running on Asphalt, Gravel and Grass.

    PubMed

    Dolenec, Aleš; Štirn, Igor; Strojnik, Vojko

    2015-07-01

    Running is performed on different natural surfaces (outdoor) and artificial surfaces (indoor). Different surface characteristics cause modification of the lower leg muscle activation pattern to adopt ankle stiffness to these characteristics. So the purpose of our investigation was to study changes of lower leg muscles activation pattern in running on different natural running surfaces. Six male and two female runners participated. The participants ran at a freely chosen velocity in trials on asphalt while in trials on gravel, and grass surfaces they were attempting to reach similar velocities as in the trials on asphalt. Muscle activation of the peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius medialis of the right leg was recorded. Running on asphalt increased average EMG amplitude of the m. tibialis anterior in the pre-activation phase and the m. gastrocnemius medialis in the entire contact phase compared to running on grass from 0.222 ± 0.113 V to 0.276 ± 0.136 V and from 0.214 ± 0.084 V to 0.238 ± 0.088 V, respectively. The average EMG of m. peroneus brevis in pre-activation phase increased from 0.156 ± 0.026 V to 0.184 ± 0.455 V in running on grass in comparison to running on gravel. Running on different surfaces is connected with different activation patterns of lower leg muscles. Running on asphalt requires stiff ankle joints, running on gravel requires greater stability in ankle joints, while running on grass is the least demanding on lower leg muscles. PMID:26434026

  9. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  11. Activation Pattern of Lower Leg Muscles in Running on Asphalt, Gravel and Grass.

    PubMed

    Dolenec, Aleš; Štirn, Igor; Strojnik, Vojko

    2015-07-01

    Running is performed on different natural surfaces (outdoor) and artificial surfaces (indoor). Different surface characteristics cause modification of the lower leg muscle activation pattern to adopt ankle stiffness to these characteristics. So the purpose of our investigation was to study changes of lower leg muscles activation pattern in running on different natural running surfaces. Six male and two female runners participated. The participants ran at a freely chosen velocity in trials on asphalt while in trials on gravel, and grass surfaces they were attempting to reach similar velocities as in the trials on asphalt. Muscle activation of the peroneus brevis, tibialis anterior, soleus, and gastrocnemius medialis of the right leg was recorded. Running on asphalt increased average EMG amplitude of the m. tibialis anterior in the pre-activation phase and the m. gastrocnemius medialis in the entire contact phase compared to running on grass from 0.222 ± 0.113 V to 0.276 ± 0.136 V and from 0.214 ± 0.084 V to 0.238 ± 0.088 V, respectively. The average EMG of m. peroneus brevis in pre-activation phase increased from 0.156 ± 0.026 V to 0.184 ± 0.455 V in running on grass in comparison to running on gravel. Running on different surfaces is connected with different activation patterns of lower leg muscles. Running on asphalt requires stiff ankle joints, running on gravel requires greater stability in ankle joints, while running on grass is the least demanding on lower leg muscles.

  12. Acute caffeine administration effect on brain activation patterns in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Sinanaj, Indrit; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that acute caffeine administration enhances task-related brain activation in elderly individuals with preserved cognition. To explore the effects of this widely used agent on cognition and brain activation in early phases of cognitive decline, we performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an n-back working memory task in 17 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). All individuals were regular caffeine consumers with an overnight abstinence and given 200 mg caffeine versus placebo tablets 30 minutes before testing. Analyses included assessment of task-related activation (general linear model), functional connectivity (tensorial-independent component analysis, TICA), baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling, ASL), grey matter density (voxel-based morphometry, VBM), and white matter microstructure (tract-based spatial statistics, TBSS). Acute caffeine administration induced a focal activation of the prefrontal areas in HC with a more diffuse and posteromedial activation pattern in MCI individuals. In MCI, TICA documented a significant caffeine-related enhancement in the prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, ventral premotor and parietal cortex as well as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The absence of significant group differences in baseline ASL perfusion patterns supports a neuronal rather than a purely vascular origin of these differences. The VBM and TBSS analyses excluded potentially confounding differences in grey matter density and white matter microstructure between MCI and HC. The present findings suggest a posterior displacement of working memory-related brain activation patterns after caffeine administration in MCI that may represent a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance a frontal lobe dysfunction.

  13. Diel patterns in sea urchin activity and predation on sea urchins on the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. A. L.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding diel patterns in sea urchin activity is important when assessing sea urchin populations and when interpreting their interactions with predators. Here we employ a combination of surveys and a non-invasive tethering technique to examine these patterns in an intact coral reef system on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We also assess local scale variation in relative diurnal predation pressure. Surveys revealed that sea urchins were active and exposed at night. Echinometra mathaei and Echinothrix calamaris were the most abundant species with significantly higher night densities (0.21 and 0.03 ind. m-2, respectively), than daytime densities (0.05 and 0.001, respectively). Bioassays revealed that exposed adult E. mathaei (the most abundant sea urchin species) were 30.8 times more likely to be eaten during the day than at night when controlling for sites. This observation concurs with widely held assumptions that nocturnal activity is a risk-related adaptive response to diurnal predation pressure. Despite relatively intact predator communities on the GBR, potential predation pressure on diurnally exposed E. mathaei assays was variable at a local scale and the biomass of potential fish predators at each site was a poor predictive measure of this variation. Patterns in predation appear to be more complex and variable than we may have assumed.

  14. Idiosyncratic Brain Activation Patterns Are Associated with Poor Social Comprehension in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Tyszka, J. Michael; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features profound social deficits but neuroimaging studies have failed to find any consistent neural signature. Here we connect these two facts by showing that idiosyncratic patterns of brain activation are associated with social comprehension deficits. Human participants with ASD (N = 17) and controls (N = 20) freely watched a television situation comedy (sitcom) depicting seminaturalistic social interactions (“The Office”, NBC Universal) in the scanner. Intersubject correlations in the pattern of evoked brain activation were reduced in the ASD group—but this effect was driven entirely by five ASD subjects whose idiosyncratic responses were also internally unreliable. The idiosyncrasy of these five ASD subjects was not explained by detailed neuropsychological profile, eye movements, or data quality; however, they were specifically impaired in understanding the social motivations of characters in the sitcom. Brain activation patterns in the remaining ASD subjects were indistinguishable from those of control subjects using multiple multivariate approaches. Our findings link neurofunctional abnormalities evoked by seminaturalistic stimuli with a specific impairment in social comprehension, and highlight the need to conceive of ASD as a heterogeneous classification. PMID:25855192

  15. Disability in activities of daily living: patterns of change and a hierarchy of disability.

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, D D; Hughes, S L; Manheim, L M

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper examines longitudinal data over 6 years to evaluate incidence rates of disability and the pattern of dependency in activities of daily living. METHODS: The Longitudinal Study of Aging (n = 5151) was used to evaluate incidence of disability in activities of daily living; biennial interview data from 1984 through 1990 were used. The median age to disability onset for individual activities was estimated from survival analysis. A prevalent ordering of incident disability was identified from patterns of disability onset within individuals. RESULTS: The progression of incident disability among the elderly supported by longitudinal data, based on both the ordering of median ages to disability onset and patterns of incident disability, was as follows: walking, bathing, transferring, dressing, toileting, feeding. Gender differences were found in disability incidence rates. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a mathematical picture of physical functioning as people age. These findings, based on longitudinal data, indicate a different hierarchical structure of disability than found in previous reports using cross-sectional data. Furthermore, the study documents gender differences in incident impairment, which indicate that although women outlive men, they spend more time in a disabled state. PMID:9096537

  16. Idiosyncratic brain activation patterns are associated with poor social comprehension in autism.

    PubMed

    Byrge, Lisa; Dubois, Julien; Tyszka, J Michael; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features profound social deficits but neuroimaging studies have failed to find any consistent neural signature. Here we connect these two facts by showing that idiosyncratic patterns of brain activation are associated with social comprehension deficits. Human participants with ASD (N = 17) and controls (N = 20) freely watched a television situation comedy (sitcom) depicting seminaturalistic social interactions ("The Office", NBC Universal) in the scanner. Intersubject correlations in the pattern of evoked brain activation were reduced in the ASD group-but this effect was driven entirely by five ASD subjects whose idiosyncratic responses were also internally unreliable. The idiosyncrasy of these five ASD subjects was not explained by detailed neuropsychological profile, eye movements, or data quality; however, they were specifically impaired in understanding the social motivations of characters in the sitcom. Brain activation patterns in the remaining ASD subjects were indistinguishable from those of control subjects using multiple multivariate approaches. Our findings link neurofunctional abnormalities evoked by seminaturalistic stimuli with a specific impairment in social comprehension, and highlight the need to conceive of ASD as a heterogeneous classification. PMID:25855192

  17. General and rare bacterial taxa demonstrating different temporal dynamic patterns in an activated sludge bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Taek-Seung; Jeong, Ju-Yong; Wells, George F; Park, Hee-Deung

    2013-02-01

    Temporal variation of general and rare bacterial taxa was investigated using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene from activated sludge samples collected bimonthly for a two-year period. Most of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were allocated to rare taxa (89.6%), but the rare taxa comprised a small portion of the community in terms of abundance of sequences analyzed (28.6%). Temporal variations in OTUs richness significantly differed between the two taxa groups in which the rare taxa showed a higher diversity and a more fluctuating pattern than the general taxa. Furthermore, the two taxa groups were constrained by different explanatory variables: influent BOD, effluent BOD, and DO were the significant (P < 0.05) parameters affecting the pattern of the general taxa, while temperature was the factor for the rare taxa. Over the test period, the general taxa persisted for a longer time (i.e., lower turnover rate) in the bioreactor than the rare taxa. In conclusion, this study demonstrated clear differences in temporal dynamic patterns for the general and rare bacterial taxa in an activated sludge bioreactor, which would be a foundation for better understanding the bacterial ecology of activated sludge. PMID:22526777

  18. Idiosyncratic brain activation patterns are associated with poor social comprehension in autism.

    PubMed

    Byrge, Lisa; Dubois, Julien; Tyszka, J Michael; Adolphs, Ralph; Kennedy, Daniel P

    2015-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) features profound social deficits but neuroimaging studies have failed to find any consistent neural signature. Here we connect these two facts by showing that idiosyncratic patterns of brain activation are associated with social comprehension deficits. Human participants with ASD (N = 17) and controls (N = 20) freely watched a television situation comedy (sitcom) depicting seminaturalistic social interactions ("The Office", NBC Universal) in the scanner. Intersubject correlations in the pattern of evoked brain activation were reduced in the ASD group-but this effect was driven entirely by five ASD subjects whose idiosyncratic responses were also internally unreliable. The idiosyncrasy of these five ASD subjects was not explained by detailed neuropsychological profile, eye movements, or data quality; however, they were specifically impaired in understanding the social motivations of characters in the sitcom. Brain activation patterns in the remaining ASD subjects were indistinguishable from those of control subjects using multiple multivariate approaches. Our findings link neurofunctional abnormalities evoked by seminaturalistic stimuli with a specific impairment in social comprehension, and highlight the need to conceive of ASD as a heterogeneous classification.

  19. Diurnal-activity Patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Abdul Hameed Mohamed Samsoor; Asokan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The diurnal time-activity patterns of the Small Bee-eater (Merops orientalis) were studied between 2005 and 2006 in the Nagapattinam District of Southern India. Bee-eaters were observed to spend an average of 52.5% of their day time scanning, 21.3% feeding, 13.3% flying, 8.8% resting and 4.1% engaging in preening activities. The time spent on scanning varied among seasons in 2005 (p<0.05) and among time blocks (p<0.05), but it did not vary among years or habitats (p>0.05). The feeding patterns differed among years, seasons within years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05). The flying habits varied among years, time blocks and habitats (p<0.05) but did not change between seasons within years (p>0.05). The resting habits differed among years and habitats (p<0.05) but did not differ among seasons within years or time blocks (p>0.05). Preening differed among years and time blocks (p<0.05) but did not vary among seasons within years or habitats (p>0.05). We conclude that several factors, such as food availability, environmental factors and predation threats, may affect the diurnal activity patterns of Bee-eaters between habitats and seasons; a further study could clarify this conclusion. PMID:26868589

  20. Relations among physical activity patterns, lifestyle activities, and fundamental movement skills for Finnish students in grade 7.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Timo; Kalaja, Sami; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Jutila, Ari; Virtanen, Petri; Watt, Anthony

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the relations among leisure time physical activity and in sport clubs, lifestyle activities, and the locomotor, balance manipulative skills of Grade 7 students participating in Finnish physical education at a secondary school in central Finland completed self-report questionnaires on their physical activity patterns at leisure time and during sport club participation, and time spent watching television and using the computer and other electronic media. Locomotor skills were analyzed by the leaping test, balance skills by the flamingo standing test, and manipulative skills by the accuracy throwing test. Analysis indicated physical activity in sport clubs positively explained scores on balance and locomotor tests but not on accuracy of throwing. Leisure time physical activity and lifestyle activities were not statistically significant predictors of performance on any movement skill tests. Girls scored higher on the static balance skill and boys higher on the throwing task. Overall, physical activity in sport clubs was more strongly associated with performance on the fundamental movement tasks than was physical activity during leisure. PMID:19425451

  1. Impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns in northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanchettin, D.; Rubino, A.; Traverso, P.; Tomasino, M.

    2008-06-01

    Using spectral and statistical analyses of discharges and basin average precipitation rates acquired over the Po River since the early 1800s, we investigate the impact of variations in solar activity on hydrological decadal patterns over northern Italy. Wet and dry periods appear to alternate in accordance with polarized sunspot cycles. Intriguingly, a solar signature on Po River discharges is detected to be highly significant since the late 1800s, before the onset of sunspots hyperactivity established by the middle 1900s. In particular, observed hydrological patterns over northern Italy are significantly correlated, under periods of quiet sunspot activity, with parameters characterizing the Sun's orbital motion, specifically with the time derivative of the solar angular momentum (τ) which is thought to modulate the strength of the solar wind and sunspot dynamics under weak sunspot activity. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is detected as potential link between the Sun and Po River discharges, since it is significantly correlated with both solar activity and the decadal variability in the north Italian climate. In particular, positive (negative) NAO anomalies, which are associated with comparatively lower (higher) Po River discharges, are assessed to alternatively correlate at decadal timescales either with τ or with the Earth's geomagnetic activity (GA), which closely follows sunspot activity. This changing correlation seems to be regulated by the strength of sunspot activity: under periods of quiet sunspot activity, a weakening of the GA-NAO connection and a reinforcement of the τ-NAO connection is observed. In this sense, the strength of solar activity apparently modulates the connection between the NAO and Po River discharges.

  2. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior. PMID:24206670

  3. Lateralization of brain activity pattern during unilateral movement in Parkinson's disease.

    Pub