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  1. Reliability of the modified child and adolescent physical activity and nutrition survey, physical activity (CAPANS-PA) questionnaire among chinese-australian youth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that differences exist in physical activity (PA) participation among Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) children and adolescents. It is possible that these differences could be influenced by variations in measurement technique and instrument reliability. However, culturally sensitive instruments for examining PA behaviour among CALD populations are lacking. This study tested the reliability of the Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (CAPANS-PA) recall questionnaire among a sample of Chinese-Australian youth. Methods The psychometric property of the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was examined among a sample of 77 Chinese-Australian youth (aged 11 - 14 y) who completed the questionnaire twice within 7 days. Test-retest reliability of individual items and scales within the CAPANS-PA questionnaire was determined using Kappa statistics for categorical variables and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for continuous variables. Results The CAPANS-PA questionnaire demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability for frequency and duration of time spent in weekly Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity (MVPA) (ICC ≥ 0.70) for all participants. Test-retest reliability for time spent in weekly sedentary activities was acceptable for females (ICC = 0.82) and males (ICC = 0.72). Conclusions The results suggest the CAPANS-PA questionnaire provides reliable estimates for type, frequency and duration of MVPA participation among Chinese-Australian youth. Further investigation into the reliability of the sedentary items within the CAPANS-PA is required before these items can be used with confidence. This study is novel in that the reliability of instruments among CALD groups nationally and internationally remains sparse and this study contributes to the wider body of available psychometrically tested instruments. In addition, this study is the first to our knowledge to successfully engage and investigate the basic health

  2. Effects of Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention on Physical Activity and Healthy Eating Behaviors: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Bernice C.; Norman, Joseph; Meza, Jane; Krogstrand, Kaye Stanek; Harrington, Susana; Shurmur, Scott; Johnson, Matthew; Schumacher, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite proven efficacy of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) in helping patients initiate physical activity and healthy eating changes, less than 50% of CR participants maintain changes 6 months later. Objective The objective of this feasibility study was to test the Partners Together in Health (PaTH) Intervention versus usual care (UC) in improving physical activity and healthy eating behaviors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients and spouses. Methods An experimental, two-group (n = 17 couples/group), repeated measures design was used. CABG patients in both groups participated in Phase II outpatient CR. Spouses in the PaTH group attended CR with the patient and were asked to make the same physical activity and healthy eating changes as patients. Spouses in the control group attended educational classes with patients. It was theorized that “two persons would be better than one” at making changes and sticking with them long-term. Physical activity behavior was measured using the Actiheart accelerometer; the activity biomarker was an exercise tolerance test. Eating behavior was measured using 3-day food records; the biomarker was the lipid profile. Data were collected at baseline (entrance in CR), 3-months (post-CR), and 6-months. Changes over time were examined using Mann-Whitney U statistics and effect sizes. Results The PaTH intervention was successful primarily in demonstrating improved trends in healthy eating behavior for patients and spouses. No differences were found between the PaTH and UC patients or spouses at 3 or 6 months in the number of minutes/week of physical activity. By 6 months, patients in both groups were, on average, below the national guidelines for PA recommendations (≥ 150 min/week at > 3 METs). Conclusions The couple-focused PaTH intervention demonstrated promise in offsetting the decline in dietary adherence typically seen 6 months after CR. PMID:24434826

  3. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001941.htm Physical activity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical activity -- which includes an active lifestyle and routine exercise -- ...

  4. Proteasome activators, PA28γ and PA200, play indispensable roles in male fertility

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lin; Haratake, Kousuke; Miyahara, Hatsumi; Chiba, Tomoki

    2016-01-01

    Protein degradation mediated by the proteasome is important for the protein homeostasis. Various proteasome activators, such as PA28 and PA200, regulate the proteasome function. Here we show double knockout (dKO) mice of Psme3 and Psme4 (genes for PA28γ and PA200), but not each single knockout mice, are completely infertile in male. The dKO sperms exhibited remarkable defects in motility, although most of them showed normal appearance in morphology. The proteasome activity of the mutant sperms decreased notably, and the sperms were strongly positive with ubiquitin staining. Quantitative analyses of proteins expressed in dKO sperms revealed up-regulation of several proteins involved in oxidative stress response. Furthermore, increased 8-OHdG staining was observed in dKO sperms head, suggesting defective response to oxidative damage. This report verified PA28γ and PA200 play indispensable roles in male fertility, and provides a novel insight into the role of proteasome activators in antioxidant response. PMID:27003159

  5. Physical activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... time they spend watching TV and using a computer and other electronic devices. All of these activities ... U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans: Recommendation ... Page last updated: ...

  6. Health Care Provider Physical Activity Prescription Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…

  7. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  8. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  9. Identifying physical activity gender differences among youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) is an important part of a healthy lifestyle and reduces risk of certain chronic diseases. Many youth do not currently meet PA guidelines; evidence suggests that girls are less active than boys are at all ages. PA differences need to be understood, so that gender-specific inter...

  10. Children's Physical Activity and Environmental Influences during Elementary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Louie, Lobo

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) during physical education is important for health purposes and for developing physical fitness and movement skills. To examine PA levels and how PA was influenced by environmental and instructor-related characteristics, we assessed children's activity during 368 lessons taught by 105 physical education specialists in 42…

  11. Physical Education and Recess Contributions to Sixth Graders' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Ashley A.; Williams, Skip M.; Coleman, Margaret M.; Garrahy, Deborah A.; Laurson, Kelly R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to examine the percentage of the daily threshold (12,000 steps) that physical education (PE) class and recess contribute to 6th grade students' overall daily physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine the relationships between gender, PA outside of school, BMI, and steps during both recess and…

  12. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  13. Factors Associated with Physical Activity Literacy among Foster Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hussey, Jim R.; Watkins, Ken W.; W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To explore associations between physical activity (PA) literacy and psychosocial constructs for providing instrumental social support for youth PA. Methods: Ninety-one foster parents completed surveys assessing PA literacy (overall and specific), perceptions of child PA, coordination, PA enjoyment, psychosocial variables:…

  14. Physical Education Lesson Content and Teacher Style and Elementary Students' Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Stellino, Megan Babkes; Beets, Michael W.; Beighle, Aaron; Johnson, Christine E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity levels among American children are increasing at an alarming rate, due in part to a lack of regular physical activity (PA). Physical education (PE) is one way to facilitate student PA. The overarching PA goal for physical educators is 50% PA for students. Self-determination theory suggests that PA levels in PE and a variety of other…

  15. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  16. Physical activity parenting: A systematic review of questionnaires and their associations with child activity levels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Insufficient physical activity (PA) is considered a critical contributor to childhood overweight. Parents are a key in influencing their child's PA through various mechanisms of PA parenting, including support, restriction of PA, and facilitation of enrollment in PA classes or activities. However, s...

  17. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  18. Effects of a Classroom-Based Physical Activity Program on Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng; Hannon, James; Webster, Collin Andrew; Podlog, Leslie William; Brusseau, Timothy; Newton, Maria

    2014-01-01

    High levels of physical inactivity are evident among many American children. To address this problem, providing physical activity (PA) during the school day within the CSPAP framework, is one strategy to increase children's PA. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a classroom-based PA program on children's PA.…

  19. Identifying Diverse Means for Assessing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Dana J.; Pearson, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is of concern for the majority of age groups within the United States. Limited engagement in physical activity (PA) has been linked with an increased risk for a host of health problems, including but not limited to heart disease, diabetes and cancer. Benefits of PA are widely documented and accepted yet many people, especially…

  20. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  1. Physical Activity Change through Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs in Urban Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; McCaughtry, Nate; Gutuskey, Lila; Garn, Alex C.; Somers, Cheryl; Shen, Bo; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulik, Noel L.

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAPs) on urban children's, educators', and parents' physical activity (PA) is relatively unknown. The purpose of this study was to explore overall changes in student, educator, and parent PA after an 8-month CSPAP-based program. This longitudinal, exploratory study…

  2. Physical Activity Interventions for Adolescents: An Ecological Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Cynthia K.; Garside, Hailey; Morones, Sandra; Hayman, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Many factors contribute to the decline in physical activity (PA) observed during adolescence. We used an ecological framework to review 30 publications of PA interventions published between 1977 and 2009 targeting youth aged 12-18 years (19 PA interventions). We included studies that measured a primary outcome of PA and also examined intervening…

  3. Do Motives to Undertake Physical Activity Relate to Physical Activity in Adolescent Boys and Girls?

    PubMed Central

    Kopcakova, Jaroslava; Dankulincova Veselska, Zuzana; Madarasova Geckova, Andrea; Kalman, Michal; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity (PA) during adolescence contribute to obesity and poor health outcomes in adolescence, and these associations endure into adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the associations between motives for PA and the level of PA among adolescent boys and girls. We obtained data regarding motives for PA and frequency of PA in 2010 via the Health Behavior in School-aged Children cross-sectional study in the Czech and Slovak Republics (n = 9018, mean age = 13.6, 49% boys). Respondents answered questions about their motives for PA and the frequency of their PA. Motives for PA were assessed using 13 items, which were structured in four groups. We explored the association between the motives for PA and sufficient PA using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for age, and separately for boys and girls. “Good child” motives and Achievement motives were significantly associated with sufficient PA among both boys and girls. Health motives were associated with sufficient PA only among boys, and Social motives were associated with sufficient PA only among girls. Motives for PA were associated with the level of PA, and this association was partially gender dependent. These gender differences should be considered in interventions focusing on enhancement of PA. PMID:26184246

  4. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  5. Contribution of physical education to overall physical activity.

    PubMed

    Meyer, U; Roth, R; Zahner, L; Gerber, M; Puder, J J; Hebestreit, H; Kriemler, S

    2013-10-01

    For many children, physical activity (PA) during physical education (PE) lessons provides an important opportunity for being physically active. Although PA during PE has been shown to be low, little is known about the contribution of PA during PE to overall PA. The aim was therefore to assess children's PA during PE and to determine the contribution of PE to overall PA with special focus on overweight children. Accelerometer measurements were done in 676 children (9.3 ± 2.1 years) over 4-7 days in 59 randomly selected classes. Moderate-and-vigorous PA (MVPA; ≥ 2000 counts/min) during PE (MVPAPE), overall MVPA per day (MVPADAY), and a comparison of days with and without PE were calculated by a regression model with gender, grade, and weight status (normal vs overweight) as fixed factors and class as a random factor. Children spent 32.8 ± 15.1% of PE time in MVPA. Weight status was not associated to MVPAPE . MVPAPE accounted for 16.8 ± 8.5% of MVPADAY, and 17.5 ± 8.2% in overweight children. All children were more active on days with PE than on days without PE (differences: 16.1 ± 29.0 min of MVPADAY; P ≤ 0.001; 13.7 ± 28.0 min for overweight children). Although MVPAPE was low, PE played a considerable role in providing PA and was not compensated by reducing extracurricular MVPA. PMID:22151355

  6. Urban, Rural, and Regional Variations in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah Levin; Kirkner, Gregory J.; Mayo, Kelly; Matthews, Charles E.; Durstine, J. Larry; Hebert, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There is some speculation about geographic differences in physical activity (PA) levels. We examined the prevalence of physical inactivity (PIA) and whether US citizens met the recommended levels of PA across the United States. In addition, the association between PIA/PA and degree of urbanization in the 4 main US regions (Northeast,…

  7. Physical and Social-Motivational Contextual Correlates of Youth Physical Activity in Underresourced Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrett, Nicole; Sorensen, Carl; Cook, Brittany Skiles

    2015-01-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have become increasingly recognized as a key context to support youth daily physical activity (PA) accrual. The purpose of the present study was to assess the physical and social-motivational climate characteristics of ASPs associated with youth PA, and variations in contextual correlates of PA by youth sex. Systematic…

  8. Physical Activity during Physical Education Lessons: A Qualitative Investigation of Australian PE Teacher Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennie, Andrew; Langan, Edel

    2015-01-01

    School physical education (PE) experiences play a critical role in adolescents' physical activity (PA) levels. Teachers are crucial to students' initial experiences in PA; however, limited research has explored teachers' perspectives about PA during PE using in-depth qualitative research techniques. We conducted interviews with 25 current…

  9. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  10. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  11. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  12. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  13. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  14. Predictive Role of Physical Education Motivation: The Developmental Trajectories of Physical Activity during Grades 7-9

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Leskinen, Esko; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2012-01-01

    In this study we examined adolescents' physical activity (PA) stability as well as individual differences in PA across grades 7-9. In addition, we tested the predictive role of adolescents' self-determination and goal orientations in physical education at grade 6 in relation to their PA development. Adolescents' (N = 812) self-reported PA was…

  15. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  16. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  17. CAPSULE REPORT: FIRST PROGRESS REPORT: PHYSICAL COAL CLEANING DEMONSTRATION AT HOMER CITY, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The theory, current testing program at Homer City, PA, and other applications of the physical coal cleaning process are examined in this report. his cleaning process allows the use of raw coals with a pyritic to organic sulfur content of 2:1 to 4:1, by removing enough pyrite sulf...

  18. Pedometer-Determined Physical Activity and Its Comparison with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Sample of Belgian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2007-01-01

    Pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) levels in Belgian adults were provided and compared to PA scores reported in the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The representative sample (N = 1,239) of the Belgian population took on average 9,655 (4,526) steps/day. According to pedometer indices 58.4% were insufficiently active.…

  19. The Improved Physical Activity Index for Measuring Physical Activity in EPIC Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40–0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33–0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC. PMID:24642812

  20. Atrial fibrillation and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Bosomworth, N. John

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review the evidence on the effects of various levels of physical activity (PA) on the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) in both the general population and in endurance athletes. Data sources A PubMed search was done initially using the MeSH headings or text words (with the search-field descriptor TIAB [title and abstract]) atrial fibrillation and exercise or physical activity or athlet* or sport*, without additional filters. Conclusions regarding quality and strength of evidence were based on the GRADE (grading of recommendations, assessment, development, and evaluation) system. Study selection No interventional studies were available. Observational studies were therefore considered acceptable, and, although larger long-term prospective cohort studies were preferred, case-control or cross-sectional trials were also included in this review. Synthesis Available evidence suggests a dose-response association linking increased exercise levels with reduced incident AF in women. The same is true in men at low and moderate levels of exertional activity. In men only, high levels of PA are associated with increased risk of AF in most, but not all, studies. This risk is moderate, with a hazard ratio of 1.29 in one of the better studies. The risk of AF for most people who exercise regularly is lower than that of a matched sedentary population. Conclusion Atrial fibrillation is probably less common as PA increases, with a demonstrable dose-response relationship. Exercise at any level should be promoted for its effect on physical well-being and mortality reduction. In men exercising at high levels, beneficial effects on AF might be lost and risk might exceed that of the sedentary population; however, the evidence is neither robust nor consistent. These men should be made aware of this modest increase in risk should they choose to continue to engage in high levels of PA. PMID:26668285

  1. t-PA activity in peripheral blood obtained from pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Ishii, A; Yamada, S; Yamada, R; Hamada, H

    1994-01-01

    Concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI) were measured in blood obtained from pregnant women to elucidate the fluctuations in the fibrinolytic system which occur during the course of pregnancy. The t-PA activity was measured with a modified bioimmunoassay using anti-t-PA monoclonal antibody (SP-322) against a single chain of recombinant t-PA. The t-PA antigen was measured by ELISA using the same antibody. PAI activity was determined with a competitive inhibition assay of t-PA activity. In early pregnancy, t-PA activity was found to be close to the standard range seen in nonpregnant women, and gradually decreased during the course of pregnancy, then recovered to rise to the normal range within 48 hours after delivery. The t-PA antigen and PAI activity levels rose slowly during the course of pregnancy, and fell promptly after delivery. t-PA activity and t-PA antigen in levels in umbilical cord blood were higher after vaginal delivery than after cesarean section. These findings suggest that there may be an important physiological balance of the fibrinolytic system between mother and fetus during the course of pregnancy and the puerperium. PMID:7965540

  2. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  3. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: Challenges, explanations, and solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference worksh...

  4. Building a better mousetrap (exergame) to increase youth physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    While exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been us...

  5. Does Physical Activity Intensity Moderate Social Cognition and Behavior Relationships?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Felicity; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Downs, Danielle Symons

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Public health messaging about physical activity (PA) sometimes combines moderate and vigorous intensity, but the variance/invariance of the motives for PA by intensity has received scant attention. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the beliefs and motivations associated with regular moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA in a…

  6. VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard: Increasing Tween Girls' Vigorous Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfonso, Moya L.; Thompson, Zachary; McDermott, Robert J.; Colquitt, Gavin; Jones, Jeffery A.; Bryant, Carol A.; Courtney, Anita H.; Davis, Jenna L.; Zhu, Yiliang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We assessed changes in the frequency of self-reported physical activity (PA) among tween girls exposed and not exposed to the VERB [TM] Summer Scorecard (VSS) intervention in Lexington, Kentucky, during 2004, 2006, and 2007. Methods: Girls who reported 0-1 day per week of PA were classi?ed as having "little or no" PA. Girls who reported…

  7. Psychological Well-Being (PWB) of School Adolescents Aged 12–18 yr, its Correlation with General Levels of Physical Activity (PA) and Socio-Demographic Factors In Gilgit, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    KHAN, Yasmin; TAGHDISI, Muhammad Hussain; NOURIJELYANI, Keramat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a critical developmental stage marked by complex transitions. The purpose of study was to assess school adolescents’ PWB, examine the relationship of PA and socio-demographic factors with PWB. Methods: A cross sectional study conducted in five randomly selected schools with 345 adolescents (aged 12–18) from grade 6th–10th. A self-administered Well-Being index was adapted to measure PWB and questionnaire for adolescents PA (PAQ-A). Socio-demographic variables determined: age, gender, household income and parental education. Bivariate and multivariate regression analyses performed to examine the association between PWB, PA and covariates. Results: Findings indicated the mean age 14.64 (SD=1.275), 55.4% were female. Without gender difference the majority (43.4%) of adolescents showed moderate, while (23.2%) revealed low level of PWB. Participants with low level likely to have depression but scores were significantly not different between low, moderate and high PWB with PA. Socio-demographic trends of adolescents’ were observed significant (P <0.005) for PWB. In multivariable analysis the mean wellbeing in females adjusted for other covariates was significant (P =0.004) than males. PWB importantly (P <0.001) decreased by 3.36 units as its covariates increased and PA score in boys found 0.05 unit more than girls. Conclusion: The study results are invaluable in addressing low, moderate and high levels of PWB. Inadequate PA and PWB decreasing with some socio-demographic covariates is crucial health issue among female adolescents in Pakistan. Further studies need to find barrier, social indicators of PWB and implication of health among adolescents. PMID:26258093

  8. Crystal structure of an avian influenza polymerase PA[subscript N] reveals an endonuclease active site

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Puwei; Bartlam, Mark; Lou, Zhiyong; Chen, Shoudeng; Zhou, Jie; He, Xiaojing; Lv, Zongyang; Ge, Ruowen; Li, Xuemei; Deng, Tao; Fodor, Ervin; Rao, Zihe; Liu, Yingfang

    2009-11-10

    The heterotrimeric influenza virus polymerase, containing the PA, PB1 and PB2 proteins, catalyses viral RNA replication and transcription in the nucleus of infected cells. PB1 holds the polymerase active site and reportedly harbours endonuclease activity, whereas PB2 is responsible for cap binding. The PA amino terminus is understood to be the major functional part of the PA protein and has been implicated in several roles, including endonuclease and protease activities as well as viral RNA/complementary RNA promoter binding. Here we report the 2.2 angstrom (A) crystal structure of the N-terminal 197 residues of PA, termed PA(N), from an avian influenza H5N1 virus. The PA(N) structure has an alpha/beta architecture and reveals a bound magnesium ion coordinated by a motif similar to the (P)DX(N)(D/E)XK motif characteristic of many endonucleases. Structural comparisons and mutagenesis analysis of the motif identified in PA(N) provide further evidence that PA(N) holds an endonuclease active site. Furthermore, functional analysis with in vivo ribonucleoprotein reconstitution and direct in vitro endonuclease assays strongly suggest that PA(N) holds the endonuclease active site and has critical roles in endonuclease activity of the influenza virus polymerase, rather than PB1. The high conservation of this endonuclease active site among influenza strains indicates that PA(N) is an important target for the design of new anti-influenza therapeutics.

  9. Canadian physical activity guidelines for adults: are Canadians aware?

    PubMed

    Dale, Leila Pfaeffli; LeBlanc, Allana G; Orr, Krystn; Berry, Tanya; Deshpande, Sameer; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; O'Reilly, Norm; Rhodes, Ryan E; Tremblay, Mark S; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-09-01

    The present study evaluated awareness of the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology's 2011 Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for Adults and assessed correlates. Reported awareness of the physical activity (PA) guidelines was 12.9% (204/1586) of the total sample surveyed. More than half (55%) self-reported meeting PA guidelines of ≥ 150 min of moderate to vigorous PA per week. Awareness of PA guidelines was significantly related to participants' level of PA (χ(2) (1) = 30.63, p < 0.001, φ = -0.14), but not to any demographic variables. PMID:27560541

  10. Low-Temperature Curable Photo-Active Anisotropic Conductive Films (PA-ACFs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Il; Paik, Kyung-Wook

    2014-09-01

    Photo-active anisotropic conductive films (PA-ACFs) with curing temperatures below 120°C were introduced using photo-active curing agents. The PA-ACFs showed no curing before UV activation, and the crosslinking systems of the PA-ACFs were not activated under fluorescent light exposure. However, after UV activation, the PA-ACFs were completely cured at 120°C within 10 s. Flex-on-board (FOB) assembly using PA-ACFs had adhesion strength and joint resistances similar to those of the FOB assemblies using conventional epoxy-based ACFs. This study demonstrates that PA-ACFs provide reliable interconnection and minimal thermal deformation among all the commercially available ACFs, especially for low T g substrate applications.

  11. Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Promotion: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation levels among youth remain well below national recommendations. Thus, a variety of strategies to promote youth PA have been advocated, including multifaceted, school-based approaches. One identified as having great potential is a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP). The goal of a CSPAP is to…

  12. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  13. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A.F.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted traditional versus modified block schedule formats. METHODS We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations of 168 high school (HS) PE lessons delivered by 22 PE teachers in 4 schools. We used t-tests and multilevel models were used to explore variability in moderate PA and vigorous PA. RESULTS PA outcomes were significantly different between modified block and traditional schools. Students who attended traditional schools engaged in more vigorous PA in PE lessons. Modified block lessons lost more scheduled lesson time due to poor transition to and from the locker room. PA outcomes were positively associated with fitness and teacher promotion of PA and negatively associated with lost time, class size, management, and knowledge. CONCLUSIONS Though PE proponents widely advocate for more PE minutes, this study showed that greater time scheduled in PE does not necessarily result in more student accrual of MVPA minutes. PMID:25611935

  14. Sixth-Grade Boys' Perceived Benefits of and Barriers to Physical Activity and Suggestions for Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Talley, Henry C.; Wu, Tsu-Yin; Wilbur, JoEllen

    2010-01-01

    Interventions are needed to reduce the high overweight prevalence noted among boys in early high school. Because decreased physical activity (PA) is a factor for weight gain and a decline in boys' PA occurs across the middle school years, a need exists to intervene, as soon as boys reach middle school, to help them get adequate PA. The purpose of…

  15. Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy in Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in an Urban Elementary Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Tracey D.; O'Neill, Elizabeth; Kostelis, Kimberly T.; Jaffe, Daniel; Vitti, Steven; Quinlan, Melissa; Boland, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying lifestyle factors such as physical activity (PA) patterns and eating behaviors of children may be beneficial in implementing interventions in urban elementary schools. Purpose: To examine PA levels and self-efficacy (SE) in PA and health eating (HE) of third, fourth, and fifth graders in 3 low economic elementary schools in…

  16. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  17. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, François; Shephard, Roy J

    2008-01-01

    Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE), free school physical activity (PA) and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007), PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007), SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA), and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF). Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health. PMID:18298849

  18. Physical Performance and Physical Activity in Older Adults: Associated but Separate Domains of Physical Function in Old Age

    PubMed Central

    van Lummel, Rob C.; Walgaard, Stefan; Pijnappels, Mirjam; Elders, Petra J. M.; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; van Dieën, Jaap H.; Beek, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical function is a crucial factor in the prevention and treatment of health conditions in older adults and is usually measured objectively with physical performance tests and/or physical activity monitoring. Objective To examine whether 1) physical performance (PP) and physical activity (PA) constitute separate domains of physical function; 2) differentiation of PA classes is more informative than overall PA. Design Cross-sectional study to explore the relationships within and among PP and PA measures. Methods In 49 older participants (83±7 years; M±SD), performance-based tests were conducted and PA was measured for one week. Activity monitor data were reduced in terms of duration, periods, and mean duration of periods of lying, sitting, standing and locomotion. The relation between and within PP scores and PA outcomes were analysed using rank order correlation and factor analysis. Results Factor structure after varimax rotation revealed two orthogonal factors explaining 78% of the variance in the data: one comprising all PA variables and one comprising all PP variables. PP scores correlated moderately with PA in daily life. Differentiation of activity types and quantification of their duration, intensity and frequency of occurrence provided stronger associations with PP, as compared to a single measure of acceleration expressing overall PA. Limitations For independent validation, the conclusions about the validity of the presented conceptual framework and its clinical implications need to be confirmed in other studies. Conclusions PP and PA represent associated but separate domains of physical function, suggesting that an improvement of PP does not automatically imply an increase of PA, i.e. a change to a more active lifestyle. Differentiation of activity classes in the analysis of PA provides more insights into PA and its association with PP than using a single overall measure of acceleration. PMID:26630268

  19. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  20. Retirement Community Residents’ Physical Activity, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Lorraine J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the types of physical activity (PA) retirement community residents report and the effects of PA and depressive symptoms on functional limitations. Elders (N = 38) enrolled in a 2-year sensor technology study in senior housing completed regular assessments of functional limitations and depressive symptoms with the Short Physical Performance Battery and Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Evaluation of reported PA using the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly coincided with 12-month functional limitation testing. Subjects were 69% female with mean age of 85 years. Individuals reporting greater PA had significantly fewer functional limitations at 12 months. In multiple regression analysis, baseline functional limitations explained 66% of the variance in 12-month functional limitations, while current PA explained an additional 5%. Although PA explained a small amount of variance in 12-month functional limitations, as a modifiable behavior, PA should be championed and supported to help ameliorate functional limitations in older adults. PMID:24532671

  1. Association between Social and Environmental Factors and Physical Activity Opportunities in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Furong; Chepyator-Thomson, Jepkorir; Liu, Wenhao; Schmidlein, Robert

    2010-01-01

    School-based physical activity (PA) interventions impact children's PA involvement and thus opportunities and associated factors for the promotion of physical activity in children need to be examined. The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teachers' perceptions of PA opportunities available to students at the middle school…

  2. Thrombolytic efficacy and enzymatic activity of rt-PA-loaded echogenic liposomes.

    PubMed

    Bader, Kenneth B; Bouchoux, Guillaume; Peng, Tao; Klegerman, Melvin E; McPherson, David D; Holland, Christy K

    2015-08-01

    Echogenic liposomes (ELIP), that can encapsulate both recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and microbubbles, are under development to improve the treatment of thrombo-occlusive disease. However, the enzymatic activity, thrombolytic efficacy, and stable cavitation activity generated by this agent has yet to be evaluated and compared to another established ultrasound-enhanced thrombolytic scheme. A spectrophotometric method was used to compare the enzymatic activity of the rt-PA incorporated into ELIP (t-ELIP) to that of rt-PA. An in vitro flow model was employed to measure the thrombolytic efficacy and dose of ultraharmonic emissions from stable cavitation for 120-kHz ultrasound exposure of three treatment schemes: rt-PA, rt-PA and the perfluorocarbon-filled microbubble Definity(®), and t-ELIP. The enzymatic activity of rt-PA incorporated into t-ELIP was 28 % that of rt-PA. Thrombolytic efficacy of t-ELIP or rt-PA and Definity(®) was equivalent when the dose of t-ELIP was adjusted to produce comparable enzymatic activity. Sustained bubble activity was nucleated from Definity but not from t-ELIP exposed to 120-kHz ultrasound. These results emphasize the advantages of encapsulating a thrombolytic and the importance of incorporating an insoluble gas required to promote sustained, stable cavitation activity. PMID:25829338

  3. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  4. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  5. Physical Activity Levels of Non-Overweight, Overweight, and Obese Children during Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathare, Neeti; Piche, Kelly; Nicosia, Andrea; Haskvitz, Esther

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) levels of young children classified by body mass index (BMI) (non-overweight, overweight, and obese) during physical education classes. Method: Participants included 82 children (45 boys, 37 girls; 7.5 ± 1.2 years). PA was determined by the number of steps measured with…

  6. Physical Activity Practices in Elementary Schools and Associations with Physical Education Staffing and Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lindsey; Johnson, Tyler G.; Slater, Sandy J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Authorities recommend that schools provide a variety of opportunities for students to obtain physical activity (PA) before, during, and after school. This study assessed the prevalence of several school PA practices--including measures of quantity and quality of physical education (PE)--in elementary schools and examined the associations…

  7. Effects of Physical Education on Objectively Determined Physical Activity in Primary School Children--Which Proportioning Is Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyus, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jurgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical Education (PE) can foster regular physical activity (PA) in children. However, children engage in insufficient moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE. This study objectively investigated MVPA of children during a single, compared with double PE-period. In 294 children (7.1 ± 0.7 years) PA was objectively assessed. PE periods were…

  8. Preschooler's Physical Activity Levels and Associations with Lesson Context, Teacher's Behavior, and Environment during Preschool Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Cauwenberghe, Eveline; Labarque, Valery; Gubbels, Jessica; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Preschools offer two main opportunities, recess and physical education (PE), for preschool children to participate in physical activity (PA) and are considered a suitable institution for PA promotion given the large number of children enrolled. Although PE can have a meaningful effect on preschoolers' PA levels, preschool PE characteristics…

  9. Barriers to Physical Activity Among Gay Men.

    PubMed

    Cary, Miranda A; Brittain, Danielle R; Dinger, Mary K; Ford, Melissa L; Cain, Meagan; Sharp, Teresa A

    2016-09-01

    Gay men may not be physically active at recommended levels to achieve health benefits. Thus, a need exists to identify general (i.e., common across populations) and population-specific barriers that hinder or stop gay men from participating in physical activity (PA). Salient barriers may be identified through the extent each barrier limits PA (i.e., barrier limitation) and the level of one's confidence to overcome barriers and engage in PA (i.e., self-regulatory efficacy). The purposes of this study were to (1) provide a description of general and population-specific barriers to PA among sufficiently and insufficiently active gay men, (2) identify barrier limitation and self-regulatory efficacy for the reported barriers, and (3) examine the associations between meeting the current PA recommendation, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy. Participants were 108 self-identified gay males aged 21 to 64 years who completed a web-based survey. A total of 35 general barriers and no population-specific barriers were identified by the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups. The sufficiently active group reported higher self-regulatory efficacy and lower barrier limitation for nearly all reported barriers. A binary logistic regression used to examine the associations between PA, barrier limitation, and self-regulatory efficacy was statistically significant, χ(2)(2, N = 108) = 19.26, p < .0001, R(2) = .16. Only barrier limitation significantly contributed to the model. Future research should continue to examine barriers to PA among gay men to determine whether an intervention needs to be designed specifically for gay men or whether a one-size-fits-all intervention would be effective in helping all men overcome common barriers to engaging in PA. PMID:25643585

  10. Physical activity and gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    van Poppel, Mireille N M; Ruchat, Stephanie-May; Mottola, Michelle F

    2014-01-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as 'carbohydrate intolerance resulting in hyperglycemia of variable severity with onset or first recognition during pregnancy'. GDM is associated with several detrimental health consequences during pregnancy and delivery for both mother and baby. The largest public health impact of GDM is through its role on future diabetes in the mother and obesity and diabetes in the offspring. Physical activity (PA) is likely an effective intervention for prevention and treatment of GDM, given its known effectiveness in prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes. Based on observational studies, PA initiated before and/or during pregnancy has a positive influence on maternal glucose and insulin metabolism and reduces the risk of GDM. However, although PA interventions have been reported to be effective at improving glycemic control in women who already developed GDM, prenatal PA interventions aimed at preventing GDM have shown modest effectiveness in increasing PA levels and thus were not effective in improving glucose/insulin metabolism or reducing GDM incidence. There is therefore a strong need to develop effective strategies for increasing PA levels, especially in women at high risk for GDM who are often obese and inactive. The optimal intervention for preventing or managing GDM is still unknown, and further studies are needed to determine the type, intensity, frequency and duration for the most successful PA intervention. Furthermore, the effects of PA on neonatal outcomes are not clear, and it is highly recommended that future studies examine more specific neonatal outcomes such as body composition. PMID:25226805

  11. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zecevic, Cheryl A.; Tremblay, Line; Lovsin, Tanya; Michel, Lariviere

    2010-01-01

    Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA) behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys). Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B = .78, P < .10) and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B = .69, P < .05) were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B = −.08, P < .01), having older parents (B = −.26, P < .01), and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B = 1.55, P < .01) reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B = 1.44, P < .05). Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits. PMID:20671967

  12. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of scientists, ranging from experts in basic biological science to those with expertise in community behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. This combination of scientists and expertise will ...

  13. Feasibility and Effects of Short Activity Breaks for Increasing Preschool-Age Children's Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Mendoza, Albert; Shitole, Sanyog; Puleo, Elaine; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We examined the effects of short bouts of structured physical activity (SBS-PA) implemented within the classroom setting as part of designated gross-motor playtime on preschoolers PA. Methods: Preschools were randomized to SBS-PA (centers, N = 5; participants, N = 141) or unstructured free playtime (UPA) (centers, N = 5; participants,…

  14. Is there any relationship between physical activity level and patterns, and physical performance in children?

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background It is often assumed that physical activity (PA) and physical performance during childhood and adolescence are beneficial for health during adulthood, but a positive relationship between PA and physical performance has not been precisely clarified in children. The lack or the weakness of the relationships between PA and physical performance could be due to the measure of PA. If the use of accelerometry is considered as an objective and common measure of PA, the real patterns of children's habitual PA must be reflected. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the levels and patterns of PA assessed with high frequency accelerometry and physical performance in young children. Methods Eighty-six boys and 101 girls aged 6-12 years participated in this study. Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period, using a 5-s epoch. Physical performance was assessed by means of EUROFIT tests (anthropometrics, standing broad jump, the 10 × 5 meter shuttle run, the sit-and-reach, the handgrip, the number of sit-ups in 30 seconds, the 20-meter shuttle run). Results No relationship was found between PA and physical performance. In boys only, body fatness was negatively associated with vigorous PA (r = -0.38, p < 0.001) and very high PA (r = -0.35, p < 0.01), in contrast to light PA (r = 0.28, p < 0.01), which was positively related to body fatness. Conclusion In 6- to- 12 year- old children, the more active children were not the fittest. Our results also underline the need for uniformity in approach to measurement of PA, body composition and health-related fitness between studies. PMID:22053790

  15. Supporting public health priorities: recommendations for physical education and physical activity promotion in schools.

    PubMed

    Hills, Andrew P; Dengel, Donald R; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) provides numerous physiological and psychosocial benefits. However, lifestyle changes, including reduced PA opportunities in multiple settings, have resulted in an escalation of overweight and obesity and related health problems. Poor physical and mental health, including metabolic and cardiovascular problems is seen in progressively younger ages, and the systematic decline in school PA has contributed to this trend. Of note, the crowded school curriculum with an intense focus on academic achievement, lack of school leadership support, funding and resources, plus poor quality teaching are barriers to PA promotion in schools. The school setting and physical educators in particular, must embrace their role in public health by adopting a comprehensive school PA program. We provide an overview of key issues and challenges in the area plus best bets and recommendations for physical education and PA promotion in the school system moving forward. PMID:25269062

  16. Physical Activity Enjoyment and Self-Efficacy As Predictors of Cancer Patients' Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Ungar, Nadine; Wiskemann, Joachim; Sieverding, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) can support cancer patients during medical treatment by reducing side-effects and increasing quality of life. However, PA levels mostly decline after diagnosis. Which factors can explain if patients are able to remain or even increase their PA level? Self-efficacy is an important cognitive factor that has been linked to cancer patients' PA across many studies. In contrast, affective factors such as PA enjoyment have rarely been examined. We compare the influence of self-efficacy and PA enjoyment on cancer patients' PA levels after completion of an exercise or stress-management intervention. Methods: Outpatient cancer patients [N = 72; 54% female; M = 56 years, SD = 12.34; most with breast or colon cancer (34%, 15%)] were enrolled in the MOTIVACTION study, a 4-week intervention (1 h counseling followed by weekly phone calls), with pre-test (T1), post-test (T2), and a 10-week follow-up (T3). Participants were randomized to either an exercise intervention (emphasizing self-regulatory strategies for behavior change) or to a stress management intervention (coping and relaxation techniques). Sixty-seven patients remained in the study and completed the SQUASH assessment of PA, a measure of maintenance self-efficacy (7 items, Cronbach's α = 0.88) and PA enjoyment (2 items, Cronbach's α = 0.89). Regression analyses were calculated with PA level (at T2 and T3) as dependent variable and relative weight analyses were conducted. The study was registered at clinicalTrials.gov (unique identifier:NCT01576107; URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01576107?term=motivaction&rank=1). Results: Baseline self-efficacy and change in PA enjoyment significantly predicted cancer patients' PA level at T2 adjusting for baseline PA and type of intervention. Relative weight (RW) analysis revealed that PA enjoyment (baseline and change together) explained 34.3% of the dependent variable, self-efficacy (baseline and change) explained 38.4%. At follow

  17. A novel plasminogen activator from Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis venom (ABUSV-PA): Purification and characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Shuqing; Sun Mingzhong . E-mail: ming-zhong.sun@case.edu; Greenaway, Frederick T.

    2006-10-06

    A plasminogen activator with arginine ester hydrolysis activity (ABUSV-PA) has been identified and purified to homogeneity from Chinese Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis snake venom. ABUSV-PA, a monomeric protein with molecular mass of 27815.2 Da, was purified 180-fold with 0.02% recovery for protein and 3.6% recovery for esterase activity. ABUSV-PA reacts optimally with its substrate N {sub {alpha}}-tosyl-L-arginine-methyl ester (TAME) at {approx}pH 7.5 and at 51 {sup o}C. Measurement from inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) reveals that ABUSV-PA is a Zn{sup 2+}-containing protein with a stoichiometry of 1:1 [Zn{sup 2+}]:[ABUSV-PA]. Analyses of esterase hydrolysis and UV absorption and CD spectra indicate that Zn{sup 2+} plays an important role in maintaining the structural integrity rather than the esterase activity of ABUSV-PA. Divalent metal ions, including Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+}, Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, Mn{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+}, increase the TAME hydrolysis activity of ABUSV-PA. A red-shift of the emission wavelengths of the synchronous fluorescence of ABUSV-PA, compared to those of free Tyr and Trp, indicates a conformation where the Tyr and Trp residues are in exposed hydrophilic environments. The presence of zinc increases the hydrophobicity of the conformational environments surrounding the Trp residues of ABUSV-PA and affects the secondary structure of ABUSV-PA, as proved by UV absorption and CD spectroscopy.

  18. Exercise and Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Exercise and Physical Activity Being active and getting exercise helps people with Alzheimer’s disease feel better. Exercise helps keep their muscles, joints, and heart in ...

  19. Sedentary and Physical Activity Habits of Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starkoff, Brooke E.; Petosa, Rick L.; Balk, Elizabeth K.; Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Bonny, Andrea E.; Hoffman, Robert P.; Devor, Steven T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The independent association between sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) is such that, regardless of accumulated PA, high amounts of SB are detrimental to health, even in adolescents. Purpose: Our aim was to profile activity patterns in free-living environments and to measure levels of SB and light (LT) and moderate (MOD)…

  20. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  1. Does a Higher Incidence of Break Times in Primary Schools Result in Children Being More Physically Active?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has multiple benefits to health; however, the majority of schoolchildren do not reach PA guidelines of 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) daily. During the school day, break times are often the only opportunity for children to be physically active. This study investigated PA levels during school…

  2. Interferon gamma regulates accumulation of the proteasome activator PA28 and immunoproteasomes at nuclear PML bodies.

    PubMed

    Fabunmi, R P; Wigley, W C; Thomas, P J; DeMartino, G N

    2001-01-01

    PA28 is an interferon (gamma) (IFN(gamma)) inducible proteasome activator required for presentation of certain major histocompatibility (MHC) class I antigens. Under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, a portion of nuclear PA28 is concentrated at promyelocytic leukemia oncoprotein (PML)-containing bodies also commonly known as PODs or ND10. IFN(gamma) treatment greatly increased the number and size of the PA28- and PML-containing bodies, and the effect was further enhanced in serum-deprived cells. PML bodies are disrupted in response to certain viral infections and in diseases such as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Like PML, PA28 was delocalized from PML bodies by expression of the cytomegalovirus protein, IE1, and in NB4 cells, an APL model line. Moreover, retinoic acid treatment, which causes remission of APL in patients and reformation of PML-containing bodies in NB4 cells, relocalized PA28 to this site. In contrast, the proteasome, the functional target of PA28, was not detected at PML bodies under basal conditions in HeLa and Hep2 cells, but IFN(gamma) promoted accumulation of 'immunoproteasomes' at this site. These results establish PA28 as a novel component of nuclear PML bodies, and suggest that PA28 may assemble or activate immunoproteasomes at this site as part of its role in proteasome-dependent MHC class I antigen presentation. PMID:11112687

  3. Gender Differences Regarding Motivation for Physical Activity among College Students: A Self-Determination Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauderdale, Michael E.; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Irwin, Carol C.; Layne, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown a decline in physical activity (PA) across college years, females being less physically active compared with males. Scholars have suggested studies to understand gender differences in PA and to examine motivational processes to facilitate college students' PA. Grounded in self-determination theory, the purpose of this…

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Environments

    PubMed Central

    Sallis, James F.

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity is usually done in specific types of places, referred to as physical activity environments. These often include parks, trails, fitness centers, schools, and streets. In recent years, scientific interest has increased notably in measuring physical activity environments. The present paper provides an historical overview of the contributions of the health, planning, and leisure studies fields to the development of contemporary measures. The emphasis is on attributes of the built environment that can be affected by policies to contribute to the promotion of physical activity. Researchers from health fields assessed a wide variety of built environment variables expected to be related to recreational physical activity. Settings of interest were schools, workplaces, and recreation facilities, and most early measures used direct observation methods with demonstrated inter-observer reliability. Investigators from the city planning field evaluated aspects of community design expected to be related to people’s ability to walk from homes to destinations. GIS was used to assess walkability defined by the 3Ds of residential density, land-use diversity, and pedestrian-oriented designs. Evaluating measures for reliability or validity was rarely done in the planning-related fields. Researchers in the leisure studies and recreation fields studied mainly people’s use of leisure time rather than physical characteristics of parks and other recreation facilities. Although few measures of physical activity environments were developed, measures of aesthetic qualities are available. Each of these fields made unique contributions to the contemporary methods used to assess physical activity environments. PMID:19285214

  5. Association of After-School Physical Activity Levels and Organized Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to 1) describe the children's physical activity (PA) patterns during the after-school period and 2) to compare the type and intensity of activity during the after-school period of children with or without participation in organized PA programmes. The participants were 456 children from four primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  6. Does Physical Activity Influence Semantic Memory Activation in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Verber, Matthew D.; Durgerian, Sally; Antuono, Piero; Butts, Alissa M.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Lancaster, Melissa A.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of physical activity (PA) on functional brain activation for semantic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) was examined using event-related fMRI during fame discrimination. Greater semantic memory activation occurred in the left caudate of High- versus Low-PA patients (P = 0.03), suggesting PA may enhance memory-related caudate activation in aMCI. PMID:21601432

  7. Obesity and other correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among US high school students.

    PubMed

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9-12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA) and participation in daily PA (DPA), vigorous PA (VPA), muscle-strengthening activity (MSA), viewing television (TV), and using computers or video games (C/VG). A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors. PMID:23606950

  8. Gender Differences in Physical Activity and Related Beliefs among Hispanic College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magoc, Dejan; Tomaka, Joe; Shamaley, Angelee Gigi; Bridges, Amber

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in physical activity (PA) and social-cognitive theory (SCT) variables among Hispanics. Students (N = 298) completed measures assessing levels of PA and variables derived from SCT. Men reported greater PA than women. Men also reported having greater self-efficacy for PA, greater perceived ability to set…

  9. The Association between Socio-Ecological Factors and Having an After-School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Ragnar; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Background: After-school physical activity (PA) programs promote PA among youth. Few studies have used socio-ecological health models to identify barriers and facilitators of after-school PA programs. This study examined which socio-ecological factors are associated with having an after-school PA program. Methods: A questionnaire was administered…

  10. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  11. Physical activity and cancer.

    PubMed

    Shephard, R J

    1990-12-01

    Evidence that physical activity may protect against various forms of cancer is examined in relation to occupational demands, leisure activities and participation in sport while at university. The variety of forms of neoplasm and equally varied physical activity histories militate against finding any simple relationship between the risk of malignancy and the individual's physical activity history. Nevertheless, five of seven major occupational studies suggest that a physically active occupation offers some protection against colon cancer, and an application of Bradford Hill's criteria generally supports the causal nature of the relationship between physical inactivity and an increased risk of intestinal neoplasia. However, existing reports are by no means conclusive; there thus remains a need for well-designed epidemiological studies of this issue. Data from one laboratory also suggest that in women a history of active leisure is associated with a reduced prevalence of breast and reproductive system cancers. Physical activity potentially encourages a healthy lifestyle, and it could have more direct effects on certain forms of carcinogenesis (for instance, by a speeding of gastro-intestinal transit, or a moderation of sex hormone levels). However, there are also potential negative effects from some types of exercise, particularly an excessive exposure to ultra-violet light in certain water sports. Since moderate exercise elevates mood and helps to conserve lean tissue, it may finally be a helpful component of treatment after a neoplasm has been diagnosed. PMID:2286478

  12. Conformations of tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) orchestrate neuronal survival by a crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, T; Lesept, F; Chevilley, A; Lenoir, S; Aimable, M; Briens, A; Hommet, Y; Bardou, I; Parcq, J; Vivien, D

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a pleiotropic serine protease of the central nervous system (CNS) with reported neurotrophic and neurotoxic functions. Produced and released under its single chain form (sc), the sc-tPA can be cleaved by plasmin or kallikrein in a two chain form, tc-tPA. Although both sc-tPA and tc-tPA display a similar fibrinolytic activity, we postulated here that these two conformations of tPA (sc-tPA and tc-tPA) could differentially control the effects of tPA on neuronal survival. Using primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons, our present study reveals that sc-tPA is the only one capable to promote N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced calcium influx and subsequent excitotoxicity. In contrast, both sc-tPA and tc-tPA are capable to activate epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFRs), a mechanism mediating the antiapoptotic effects of tPA. Interestingly, we revealed a tPA dependent crosstalk between EGFR and NMDAR in which a tPA-dependent activation of EGFRs leads to downregulation of NMDAR signaling and to subsequent neurotrophic effects. PMID:26469972

  13. Physical Activity Correlates for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Hsieh, Kai-Wen

    2011-01-01

    This study examined potential correlates that might influence physical activity (PA) of adolescents with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in physical education. Students with (n = 19) and without (n = 76) ASD wore an accelerometer during physical education. Data were collected in 38 physical education lessons. The results showed that (a) students…

  14. Physical and Sedentary Activity in Adolescents with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maher, Carol A.; Williams, Marie T.; Olds, Tim; Lane, Alison E.

    2007-01-01

    Participation in regular physical activity (PA) provides health, psychological, and physiological benefits for people with and without a physical disability. This study investigated the physical and sedentary activity patterns of adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). A cross-sectional, descriptive, postal survey was used, consisting of the…

  15. PACAP Interacts with PAC1 Receptors to Induce Tissue Plasminogen Activator (tPA) Expression and Activity in Schwann Cell-Like Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Castorina, Alessandro; Waschek, James A.; Marzagalli, Rubina; Cardile, Venera; Drago, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of peripheral nerves depends on the abilities of rejuvenating axons to migrate at the injury site through cellular debris and altered extracellular matrix, and then grow along the residual distal nerve sheath conduit and reinnervate synaptic targets. Considerable evidence suggest that glial cells participate in this process, although the mechanisms remain to be clarified. In cell culture, regenerating neurites secrete PACAP, a peptide shown to induce the expression of the protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in neural cell types. In the present studies, we tested the hypothesis that PACAP can stimulate peripheral glial cells to produce tPA. More specifically, we addressed whether or not PACAP promoted the expression and activity of tPA in the Schwann cell line RT4-D6P2T, which shares biochemical and physical properties with Schwann cells. We found that PACAP dose- and time-dependently stimulated tPA expression both at the mRNA and protein level. Such effect was mimicked by maxadilan, a potent PAC1 receptor agonist, but not by the PACAP-related homolog VIP, suggesting a PAC1-mediated function. These actions appeared to be mediated at least in part by the Akt/CREB signaling cascade because wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, prevented peptide-driven CREB phosphorylation and tPA increase. Interestingly, treatment with BDNF mimicked PACAP actions on tPA, but acted through both the Akt and MAPK signaling pathways, while causing a robust increase in PACAP and PAC1 expression. PACAP6-38 totally blocked PACAP-driven tPA expression and in part hampered BDNF-mediated effects. We conclude that PACAP, acting through PAC1 receptors, stimulates tPA expression and activity in a Akt/CREB-dependent manner to promote proteolytic activity in Schwann-cell like cultures. PMID:25658447

  16. In Vitro Activities of the New Antitubercular Agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T.

    2012-01-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC50 and MIC90 values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  17. In vitro activities of the new antitubercular agents PA-824 and BTZ043 against Nocardia brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Vera-Cabrera, Lucio; Campos-Rivera, Mayra Paola; Gonzalez-Martinez, Norma Alejandra; Ocampo-Candiani, Jorge; Cole, Stewart T

    2012-07-01

    The in vitro activity of PA-824 and BTZ043 against 30 Nocardia brasiliensis isolates was tested. The MIC(50) and MIC(90) values for PA-824 were both >64 μg/ml. The same values for BTZ043 were 0.125 and 0.250 μg/ml. Given the MIC values for benzothiazinone (BTZ) compounds, we consider them good candidates to be tested in vivo against N. brasiliensis. PMID:22526312

  18. Geographic Variations in Elementary School-Based Physical Activity Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Lindsey; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Slater, Sandy J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with health and academic benefits among children, but many schools do not meet national recommendations. This study examined school-based PA practices in nationally representative samples of public elementary schools, and geographic variations in those practices. Methods: Mail-back surveys were used…

  19. Physical Activity in High School during "Free-Time" Periods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Pedro; Sousa, Michael; Sá, Carla; Ribeiro, José; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine youth physical activity (PA) in free-time periods during high school days and their contribution to total PA. Differences in terms of sex, age, body mass index and school level were assessed in a sample of Portuguese adolescents. Participants totalled 213 (135 girls), aged 14.6 ± 1.7, from two different…

  20. Physical Activity Perceptions of Task- and Ego-Oriented Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshanks, Carla M.

    2010-01-01

    Children begin to show sedentary behaviors around the age of 12 and increased mortality is associated with sedentary behaviors in children and adults. This case study examined physical activity (PA) perceptions of task oriented and ego oriented children. Research has addressed perceptions based on goal orientations and how perception of PA changes…

  1. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  2. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Kathleen R.; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Springer, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this…

  3. Factors Influencing Physical Activity among Postpartum Iranian Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roozbahani, Nasrin; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Eftekhar Ardabili, Hassan; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Postpartum women are a population at risk for sedentary living. Physical activity (PA) prior to pregnancy may be effective in predicting similar behaviour in the postpartum period. Objective: To test a composite version of the extended transtheoretical model (TTM) by adding "past behaviour" in order to predict PA behaviour…

  4. Physical Activity Promotion in Call Centres: Employers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renton, Sheila J.; Lightfoot, Nancy E.; Maar, Marion A.

    2011-01-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews…

  5. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity Levels of Rural Appalachian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Rana, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to examine whether pedometer-assessed physical activity (PA) in Appalachian Ohio students differed by body mass index (BMI), school level (middle school vs. high school), and gender during school days and nonschool days and whether students met the recommended PA guidelines. Participants (N = 149) were…

  6. Impacts of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) on neuronal survival

    PubMed Central

    Chevilley, Arnaud; Lesept, Flavie; Lenoir, Sophie; Ali, Carine; Parcq, Jérôme; Vivien, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) a serine protease is constituted of five functional domains through which it interacts with different substrates, binding proteins, and receptors. In the last years, great interest has been given to the clinical relevance of targeting tPA in different diseases of the central nervous system, in particular stroke. Among its reported functions in the central nervous system, tPA displays both neurotrophic and neurotoxic effects. How can the protease mediate such opposite functions remain unclear but several hypotheses have been proposed. These include an influence of the degree of maturity and/or the type of neurons, of the level of tPA, of its origin (endogenous or exogenous) or of its form (single chain tPA versus two chain tPA). In this review, we will provide a synthetic snapshot of our current knowledge regarding the natural history of tPA and discuss how it sustains its pleiotropic functions with focus on excitotoxic/ischemic neuronal death and neuronal survival. PMID:26528141

  7. Demethylation-linked Activation of uPA is Involved in Progression of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pulukuri, Sai MuraliKrishna; Estes, Norman; Patel, Jitendra; Rao, Jasti S.

    2006-01-01

    Increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) has been reported in various malignancies including prostate cancer. However, the mechanism by which uPA is abnormally expressed in prostate cancer remains elusive. Here, we show that uPA is aberrantly expressed in a high-percentage of human prostate cancer tissues, but rarely expressed either in tumor-matched, non-neoplastic adjacent tissues (NNAT) or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) samples. This aberrant expression is associated with cancer-linked demethylation of the uPA promoter. Furthermore, treatment with demethylation inhibitor S-Adenosylmethionine (Ado-Met) or stable expression of uPA shRNA significantly inhibits uPA expression and tumor cell invasion in vitro and tumor growth and incidence of lung metastasis in vivo. Collectively, these findings strongly suggest that DNA demethylation is a common mechanism underlying the abnormal expression of uPA and is a critical contributing factor to the malignant progression of human prostate tumors. PMID:17283123

  8. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  9. Characteristics of Missing Physical Activity Data in Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Huang, Liang; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie; Fan, Xiang

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of missing physical activity (PA) data of children and youth. Method: PA data from the Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study ("N" = 2,758; 1,438 boys and 1,320 girls; aged 9-17 years old) were used for the study. After the data were sorted by the…

  10. Effects of Requiring Physical Fitness in a Lecture-Based College Course: Students' Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…

  11. Physical Activity Promotion and School Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.; Payne, V. Gregory

    1999-01-01

    This report examines school physical education (PE) and how it can be an important part of the national physical activity promotion effort. Section 1 introduces the issue of youth activity and PE, noting that schools and universities must reintroduce daily, quality physical activity as a key component of comprehensive education. Section 2…

  12. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  13. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active. PMID:26898051

  14. Production of human tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) in Cucumis sativus.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Mishaneh; Javaran, Mokhtar Jalali; Moieni, Ahmad; Masoumiasl, Asad; Abdolinasab, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) as a serine protease with 72 kD molecular mass and 527 amino acids plays an important role in the fibrinolytic system and the dissolution of fibrin clots in human body. The collective production of this drug in plants such as cucumber, one of the most important vegetables in the world, could reduce its production costs. In this study, after scrutiny of the appropriate regeneration of cucumber plant (Isfahan variety) on MS medium with naphthalene acetic acid hormone (NAA; 0/1 mg L⁻¹) and benzyl amino purine hormone (BAP; 3 mg L⁻¹) hormones, the cloned human tPA gene under the CaMV 35S promoter and NOS terminator into pBI121 plasmid was transferred into cotyledon explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404. Subsequent to the regeneration of inoculated explants on the selective medium, the persistence of tPA gene in recombinant plants was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. To evaluate the tPA gene expression in transgenic plants, RNA was extracted and the tPA gene transcription was confirmed by reverse-transcription (RT) PCR. Followed the extraction of protein from the leaves of transgenic plants, the presence of tPA protein was confirmed by dot blot and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis in order to survey the production of recombinant tPA protein. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used for recombinant tPA protein level in transgenic cucumber plants. It was counted between 0.8 and 1%, and based on this, it was concluded that the presence of three expressions of regulatory factors (CaMV 35S, Kozak, NOS) and KDEL signal in the construct caused the increase of the tPA gene expression in cucumber plants. PMID:24152103

  15. How Are Previous Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy Related to Future Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Prabu; Pennell, Michael L.; Foraker, Randi E.; Katz, Mira L.; Buckworth, Janet; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    Self-efficacy (SE) has been found to be a robust predictor of success in achieving physical activity (PA) goals. While much of the current research has focused on SE as a trait, SE as a state has received less attention. Using day-to-day measurements obtained over 84 days, we examined the relationship between state SE and PA. Postmenopausal women…

  16. Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Henrietta; Manini, Todd; Dallery, Jesse

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (≥600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research

  17. Breakfast consumption and physical activity in British adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Corder, K.; van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Steele, R. M.; Stephen, A. M.; Dunn, V.; Bamber, D.; Goodyer, I.; Griffin, S. J.; Ekelund, U.

    2012-01-01

    Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual breakfast frequency (self-report questionnaire) was assessed in 877 adolescents (43 % male, age 14·5 (SD 0·5) years old). PA was measured over 5 d (accelerometry, average counts/ min; cpm). Associations between daily PA and breakfast frequency were assessed using linear regression adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. Effect modification by sex and associations with PA during the morning (06.00–12.00 hours) were explored. For boys, there were no significant associations between breakfast frequency and PA. For girls, less frequent breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower PA (cpm) during the morning (occasional v. frequent β – 6·1 (95 % CI – 11·1, −1·1), P=0·017) when adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. There were no associations between PA and breakfast consumption over the whole day; however, for girls, less frequent breakfast consumption may be associated with lower PA levels during the morning, suggesting that breakfast consumption should perhaps be taken into consideration when aiming to promote PA in adolescent girls. PMID:20807464

  18. Physical activity in older people: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) in older people is critically important in the prevention of disease, maintenance of independence and improvement of quality of life. Little is known about the physical activity of the older adults or their compliance with current physical activity guidelines. Methods A systematic literature search of the published literature was conducted. Included were published reports of original research that independently reported: the PA level of non-institutional older adults (aged 60 years and over); and the proportion of older adults in the different samples who met PA recommendations or guidelines. The review was restricted to studies published since 2000 to provide a current picture of older adults’ PA levels. Results Fifty three papers were included in the review. The percentage of older adults meeting recommended physical activity ranged from 2.4 – 83.0% across the studies. Definitions of “recommended” physical activity in older adults varied across the studies as did approaches to measurement which posed methodological challenges to data analysis. Older age groups were less likely than the reference group to be regularly active, and women were less likely than men to achieve regular physical activity, especially leisure time physical activity, when measured by both subjective and objective criteria. Conclusion The review highlights the need for studies which recruit representative random samples of community based older people and employ validated measurement methods consistently to enable comparison of PA levels over time and between countries. PMID:23648225

  19. Flying the "Active School Flag": Physical Activity Promotion through Self-Evaluation in Primary Schools in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chroinin, Deirdre Ni; Murtagh, Elaine; Bowles, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Primary schools are key sites where children can be active, advance their knowledge and understanding of how to participate in physical activity (PA) and develop an appreciation of its importance in their lives. This study explored the role of schools in promoting PA asking: how do primary schools approach the promotion of whole-school PA? Data…

  20. Inhibition of PAI-1 Antiproteolytic Activity Against tPA by RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Damare, Jared; Brandal, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) inhibits the plasminogen activators: tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Elevated levels of PAI-1 have been correlated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Pharmacologically suppressing PAI-1 might prevent, or successfully treat PAI-1 related vascular diseases. This can potentially be accomplished by using small RNA molecules (aptamers). This study's goal is to develop RNA aptamers to a region of PAI-1 that will prevent the ability of PAI-1 to interact with the plasminogen activators. The aptamers were generated through a systematic evolution of ligands via exponential enrichment approach that ensures the creation of RNA molecules that bind to our target protein, PAI-1. In vitro assays were used to determine the effect of these aptamers on PAI-1's inhibitory activity. Three aptamers that bind to PAI-1 with affinities in the nanomolar range were isolated. The aptamer clones R10-4 and R10-2 inhibited PAI-1's antiproteolytic activity against tPA and disrupted PAI-1's ability to form a stable covalent complex with tPA. Increasing aptamer concentrations correlated positively with an increase in cleaved PAI-1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of RNA molecules that inhibit the antiproteolytic activity of PAI-1. PMID:24922319

  1. Physical activity motivation and cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Bernardine M; Ciccolo, Joseph T

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) participation has been shown to be helpful in improving physical and mental well-being among cancer survivors. The purpose of this chapter is to review the literature on the determinants of physical activity motivation and behavior among cancer survivors. Using theories of behavior change, researchers have sought to identify the correlates of motivation that predict the participation in regular physical activity in observational studies, while intervention studies have focused on manipulating those factors to support the initiation of physical activity. The majority of this work has been conducted with breast cancer survivors, and there is an interest in expanding this work to survivors of others cancers (e.g., prostate, lung, and colorectal cancer). Results suggest that constructs from the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) are associated with greater motivation for physical activity, and some of these constructs have been used in interventions to promote physical activity adoption. There is scope for understanding the determinants of physical activity adoption in various cancer survivor populations. Much more needs to done to identify the determinants of maintenance of physical activity. PMID:21113773

  2. Effects of Curricular Activity on Students' Situational Motivation and Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Newton, Maria; Huang, Chaoqun

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine (a) the effects of three curricular activities on students' situational motivation (intrinsic motivation [IM], identified regulation [IR], external regulation, and amotivation [AM]) and physical activity (PA) levels, and (b) the predictive strength of situational motivation to PA levels. Four hundred twelve…

  3. Physical Activity Intensity, Lesson Context, and Teacher Interactions during an Unstructured Afterschool Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Miller, Daniel J.; Schuna, John M.; Liebert, Mina L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Afterschool programs are promising arenas to improve youth physical activity (PA) levels. During the school year for 2012-2013, 5 elementary schools from a low-socioeconomic status (SES) school district in southern Colorado participated in evaluation of the afterschool program entitled Keep It Moving! (KIM). Methods: In this…

  4. Physical and Social-Motivational Contextual Correlates of Youth Physical Activity in Underresourced Afterschool Programs.

    PubMed

    Zarrett, Nicole; Sorensen, Carl; Cook, Brittany Skiles

    2015-08-01

    Afterschool programs (ASPs) have become increasingly recognized as a key context to support youth daily physical activity (PA) accrual. The purpose of the present study was to assess the physical and social-motivational climate characteristics of ASPs associated with youth PA, and variations in contextual correlates of PA by youth sex. Systematic observations of 7 ASPs serving underserved youth (minority, low income) was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth and a social-motivational climate observation tool founded on self-determination theory. For five program days at each site, teams of two coders conducted continuous observations of youth PA (sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment availability), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and seven motivational climate components (e.g., inclusive). Aligned with previous research, regressions controlling for variations by site indicated that organized PA, provision of portable equipment, and staff PA participation and supervision are key correlates of youth PA. Moreover, as the first study to systematically observe motivational-context characteristics of ASPs, we identified several key modifiable motivational features that are necessary to address in order to increase youth engagement in PA during the out-of-school hours. Among motivational features assessed, "relatedness" components (positive peer relations, inclusive/cooperative activities) were primary correlates of girls' PA. In contrast, all three motivational features specified by self-determination theory (support for autonomy, mastery/competence, and inclusion/relatedness) were correlated with boys' PA. Findings are discussed in terms of policy and practice for understanding strengths and needs of ASPs to effectively engage youth in PA. PMID:25588937

  5. Interaction of physical activity and interoception in children

    PubMed Central

    Georgiou, Eleana; Matthias, Ellen; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Dreyhaupt, Jens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is associated with positive health outcomes, whereas physical inactivity is related to an increased risk for various health issues including obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Previous research indicates that interindividual differences in the perception of bodily processes (interoceptive sensitivity, IS) interact with the degree of PA in adults. Whether there is a similar relationship between PA and IS in children has not been investigated yet. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the interaction between IS and PA during physical performance tasks and in everyday situations. Methods: IS was assessed using a heartbeat perception task in a sample of 49 children within the health promotion program “Join the Healthy Boat” which is implemented in several primary schools in the southwest of Germany. PA was examined using a physical performance task, assessing the distance covered during a standardized 6-min run. In a subsample of 21 children, everyday PA was measured by a multi-sensor device (Actiheart, CamNtech, Cambridge, UK) during five consecutive days with more than 10 h of daily data collection. Results: Children with higher IS performed better in the physical performance task. Additionally, based on energy expenditure defined as metabolic equivalents, IS was positively correlated with the extent of light PA levels in the morning and afternoon. Conclusion: Our findings reveal that IS interacts positively with the degree of PA in children supporting the idea that interoception is important for the self-regulation of health-related behavior. PMID:25972827

  6. Parents’ views on child physical activity and their implications for physical activity parenting interventions: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Establishing healthy physical activity (PA) behaviours in early childhood is important for future PA behaviours. Parents play a central role in young children’s PA. However, there is currently little research on parenting interventions to increase child PA. This study was formative work to inform the content of a pilot randomised-controlled trial. Methods In-depth telephone interviews were carried out with 32 parents of 6 to 8 year old children residing in two areas that varied in their socio-economic characteristics, in Bristol, UK. Data were analysed thematically using a framework approach. Results Most parents described their child as being active or very active and indicated that they did not perceive a need for an increase in their child’s PA. Parents used a variety of visual cues to make this judgement, the most common being that they perceived their child as having lots of energy or that they did not view them as overweight. Parents reported environmental factors such as monetary cost, time constraints, lack of activity provision and poor weather as the main barriers to their child’s PA. Parental support and child’s enjoyment of PA appeared to be important facilitators to children participating in PA. Conclusion Improving parents’ knowledge of the PA recommendations for children, and increasing their awareness of the benefits of PA beyond weight status may be an important first step for a parenting PA intervention. Although parents commonly perceive environmental factors as the main barriers to their child’s PA, parental concern about low levels of child PA, their capacity to support behaviour change, child motivation, self confidence and independence may be key areas to address within an intervention to increase child PA. Effective methods of helping parents address the latter have been developed in the context of generic parenting programmes. PMID:23167910

  7. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Characteristics of Trained Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centeio, Erin E.; Erwin, Heather; Castelli, Darla M.

    2014-01-01

    As public health concerns about physical inactivity and childhood obesity continue to rise, researchers are calling for interventions that comprehensively lead to more opportunities to participate in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and attitudes of trained physical education teachers during the…

  8. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  9. Energy assessment: physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity is an important component of total energy expenditure, contributing to energy intake needs; it also provides certain health benefits. This review chapter provides state-of-the-art information to researchers and clinicians who are interested in developing research studies or interv...

  10. The Importance of Pre and Postoperative Physical Activity Counseling in Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Bond, Dale S

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that physical activity (PA) can enhance weight loss and other outcomes after bariatric surgery. However, most preoperative patients are insufficiently active, and without support, fail to make substantial increases in their PA postoperatively. This review provides the rationale for PA counseling in bariatric surgery and describes how to appropriately tailor strategies to pre- and postoperative patients. PMID:22710705

  11. [Primary prevention: physical activity].

    PubMed

    Schuler, G

    2004-01-01

    Traditional risk factors such as smoking, hypertension and being overweight have received considerable attention in recent years, whereas physical activity as a preventive strategy does not enjoy the same public attention. In recent years the level of physical activity has decreased dramatically in children and adolescents in favor of time spent on the internet and in front of the TV. If this trend is allowed to develop along the same direction, a sharp increase in cardiovascular disease can be anticipated. The protective action of physical activity on the cardiovascular system has been well documented in large numbers of patients, and the basic physiological mechanisms have been elucidated. Metabolic changes comprise loss of weight, reduction in triglyceride and LDL levels, as well as an increase in HDL. Insulin sensitivity is enhanced in all tissues postponing the manifestation of diabetes mellitus. Shear forces created by physical activity induce ecNOS within the endothelial lining of the arteries. This enzyme is responsible for controlling vasomotion through the elaboration of NO which causes vasodilation in the smooth muscle within the vessel wall. Utilization of preformed collateral vessels has been postulated repeatedly; so far, however, it only could be documented in animals, not in humans. Nearly all studies concerned with primary prevention have shown a significant negative correlation between energy expenditure during exercise and cardiovascular mortality, even light and moderate exercise will result in a lower incidence. In order to eliminate a sedentary life style in children and adolescents, adequate programs should be initiated in all schools; they should aim for 60 min of physical activity on a daily basis. PMID:15021990

  12. Physical Activity Measures in the Healthy Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Pate, Russell R; McIver, Kerry L; Colabianchi, Natalie; Troiano, Richard P; Reis, Jared P; Carroll, Dianna D; Fulton, Janet E

    2015-10-01

    The risk of obesity is reduced when youth engage in recommended levels of physical activity (PA). For that reason, public health organizations in the U.S. have encouraged communities to implement programs and policies designed to increase PA in youth, and many communities have taken on that challenge. However, the long-term effects of those programs and policies on obesity are largely unknown. The Healthy Communities Study is a large-scale observational study of U.S. communities that is examining the characteristics of programs and policies designed to promote healthy behaviors (e.g., increase PA and improve diet) and determining their association with obesity-related outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to describe the methods used to measure PA in children and the personal and community factors that may influence it. The study used both self-reported and objective measures of PA, and measured personal, family, and home influences on PA via three constructs: (1) PA self-schema; (2) parental support; and (3) parental rules regarding PA. Neighborhood and community factors related to PA were assessed using three measures: (1) child perceptions of the neighborhood environment; (2) availability of PA equipment; and (3) attributes of the child's street segment via direct observation. School influences on children's PA were assessed via three constructs: (1) school PA policies; (2) child perceptions of the school PA environment; and (3) school outdoor PA environment. These measures will enable examination of the associations between characteristics of community PA programs and policies and obesity-related outcomes in children and youth. PMID:26384937

  13. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  14. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  15. Environmental Correlates of Physical Activity in Mexican-American Children at Home

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; Baquero, Barbara; Crespo, Noe C.; Schlenker, Lars; Arredondo, Elva M.; Campbell, Nadia R.; Elder, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Understanding home environments may shed light on factors contributing to reduced physical activity (PA) in children, particularly minorities. Few studies have used micro-level observations to simultaneously assess children’s PA and associated conditions in homes. Methods Trained observers assessed PA and associated physical and social environmental variables in the homes of 139 Mexican-American children (69 boys, 70 girls; mean age=6 years) after school. Results Children spent most time indoors (77%) and being sedentary (74%). Reduced PA was associated with viewing media, being indoors, and parents being present. Increased PA was associated with prompts for PA and other children being present. PA prompts differed by child gender and location and prompter age status. Conclusions Children are frequently sedentary at home. Micro-level observations showed PA is associated with potentially modifiable social and physical factors, including spending time outdoors. Studies to determine whether interventions on these correlates can improve children’s PA are needed. PMID:18648122

  16. The effects of workplace physical activity interventions in men: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jason Y L; Gilson, Nicholas D; van Uffelen, Jannique G Z; Brown, Wendy J

    2012-07-01

    The workplace is cited as a promising setting for physical activity (PA) promotion, but workplace PA interventions tend not to specifically target men. The aim of this article was to review the literature on workplace PA interventions for men and to identify key issues for future intervention development. Articles targeting PA at the workplace were located through a structured database search. Information on intervention strategies and PA outcomes were extracted. Only 13 studies (10.5%) reviewed focused on men, of which 5 showed significant increases in PA. These studies used generic, multicomponent, health promotion strategies with a variety of timeframes, self-report PA measures, and PA outcomes. The systematic review identified that evidence on the effectiveness of workplace PA interventions for men is equivocal and highlighted methodological concerns. Future research should use reliable and valid measures of PA and interventions that focus specifically on men's needs and PA preferences. PMID:22442206

  17. Microglia and the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor/uPA system in innate brain inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Orla; Campion, Suzanne; Perry, V Hugh; Murray, Carol; Sidenius, Nicolai; Docagne, Fabian; Cunningham, Colm

    2009-12-01

    The urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) receptor (uPAR) is a GPI-linked cell surface protein that facilitates focused plasmin proteolytic activity at the cell surface. uPAR has been detected in macrophages infiltrating the central nervous system (CNS) and soluble uPAR has been detected in the cerebrospinal fluid during a number of CNS pathologies. However, its expression by resident microglial cells in vivo remains uncertain. In this work, we aimed to elucidate the murine CNS expression of uPAR and uPA as well as that of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) during insults generating distinct and well-characterized inflammatory responses; acute intracerebral lipopolysaccharide (LPS), acute kainate-induced neurodegeneration, and chronic neurodegeneration induced by prion disease inoculation. All three insults induced marked expression of uPAR at both mRNA and protein level compared to controls (naïve, saline, or control inoculum-injected). uPAR expression was microglial in all cases. Conversely, uPA transcription and activity was only markedly increased during chronic neurodegeneration. Dissociation of uPA and uPAR levels in acute challenges is suggestive of additional proteolysis-independent roles for uPAR. PAI-1 was most highly expressed upon LPS challenge, whereas tissue plasminogen activator mRNA was constitutively present and less responsive to all insults studied. These data are novel and suggest much wider involvement of the uPAR/uPA system in CNS function and pathology than previously supposed. PMID:19459212

  18. Physical Activity Awareness of British Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Corder, Kirsten; van Sluijs, Esther MF; Goodyer, Ian; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Steele, Rebekah M; Bamber, Diane; Dunn, Valerie; Griffin, Simon J; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess adolescent PA awareness and investigate associations with biological and psychosocial factors. Design Cross-sectional from November 2005 to July 2007 (ROOTS study). Setting Population-based sample recruited via Cambridgeshire and Suffolk schools (UK). Participants N=799 (44% male, 14.5±0.5 years). Main Exposures Self-rated PA perception, self-reported psychosocial factors, measured anthropometry. Outcome Measure PA measured using accelerometry over five days. ‘Inactive’ defined as accelerometry-measured <60 min/day of at least moderate PA (MVPA). Associations between awareness (agreement between self-rated and accelerometry-measured active/inactive) and potential correlates investigated using multinomial logistic regression. Results 70% of adolescents were inactive (81% of girls, 56% of boys, OR(95% CI) 3.41(2.41, 4.82)). 53% of all girls (63% of inactive girls) and 34% of all boys (60% of inactive boys) inaccurately rated themselves as active (over-estimators). Compared to girls accurately describing themselves as inactive (29%), girl over-estimators had lower fat mass (OR(95% CI) 0.84(0.70, 0.99)), higher SES (high vs. low 2.4(1.07, 5.32)), reported more parent-support (1.57(1.12, 2.22)) and better family relationships (0.25(0.09, 0.67)). Amongst boys accurately describing themselves as inactive (22%), over-estimators had lower fat mass (0.86(0.77, 0.96)) reported more peer-support (1.75(1.32, 2.30)) and less teasing (0.75(0.61, 0.92)). Conclusions A substantial number of adolescents believe themselves to be more physically active than they really are. They maybe unaware of potential health risks, and may be unlikely to participate in PA promotion programs. Increasing information of PA health benefits beyond weight control might help encourage behavior change. PMID:24187480

  19. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and matrix metalloproteinases in the pathogenesis of stroke: therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Adibhatla, Rao Muralikrishna; Hatcher, James F

    2008-06-01

    Today there exists only one FDA-approved treatment for ischemic stroke; i.e., the serine protease tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). In the aftermath of the failed stroke clinical trials with the nitrone spin trap/radical scavenger, NXY-059, a number of articles raised the question: are we doing the right thing? Is the animal research truly translational in identifying new agents for stroke treatment? This review summarizes the current state of affairs with plasminogen activators in thrombolytic therapy. In addition to therapeutic value, potential side effects of tPA also exist that aggravate stroke injury and offset the benefits provided by reperfusion of the occluded artery. Thus, combinational options (ultrasound alone or with microspheres/nanobubbles, mechanical dissociation of clot, activated protein C (APC), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), neuroserpin and CDP-choline) that could offset tPA toxic side effects and improve efficacy are also discussed here. Desmoteplase, a plasminogen activator derived from the saliva of Desmodus rotundus vampire bat, antagonizes vascular tPA-induced neurotoxicity by competitively binding to low-density lipoprotein related-receptors (LPR) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) interface, minimizing the tPA uptake into brain parenchyma. tPA can also activate matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of endopeptidases comprised of 24 mammalian enzymes that primarily catalyze the turnover and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs have been implicated in BBB breakdown and neuronal injury in the early times after stroke, but also contribute to vascular remodeling, angiogenesis, neurogenesis and axonal regeneration during the later repair phase after stroke. tPA, directly or by activation of MMP-9, could have beneficial effects on recovery after stroke by promoting neurovascular repair through vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, any treatment regimen directed at MMPs must consider their

  20. Facilitators and Barriers to Physical Activity as Perceived by Older Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schijndel-Speet, Marieke; Evenhuis, Heleen M.; van Wijck, Ruud; van Empelen, Pepijn; Echteld, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Older people with intellectual disability (ID) are characterized by low physical activity (PA) levels. PA is important for reducing health risks and maintaining adequate fitness levels for performing activities of daily living. The aim of this study was to explore preferences of older adults with ID for specific physical activities, and to gain…

  1. Physical Activity and Self-Determined Motivation of Adolescents with and without Autism Spectrum Disorders in Inclusive Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Chien-Yu; Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chu, Chia-Hua; Hsieh, Kai-Wen

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to compare the objectively measured physical activity (PA) and the motivation process between adolescents with (n = 25) and without (n = 75) autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in inclusive physical education (PE); and assess the associations of the PA levels to a sequence of motivational processes. Independent…

  2. Meeting Physical Activity Guidelines in Rural Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Erin A.; Mullen, Sean P.; Rogers, Laura Q.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Verhulst, Steven; McAuley, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine contribution of social cognitive constructs to meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations in rural breast cancer survivors (BCS). Methods Rural BCS (N = 483) completed a mail-based survey. PA, fatigue, barriers and exercise self-efficacy, environment, social support, and perceived barriers to PA were assessed. PA was dichotomized into either meeting guidelines (150+minutes/week) or not. Results Our model fit the data well with less fatigue, greater efficacy, and lower barriers being associated with PA (χ²=804.532(418), p < .001, CFI=.948, RMSEA=.044, SRMR=.046). Conclusions Fatigue, self-efficacy, and perceived barriers are key targets for future interventions designed to increase PA in rural BCS. Enhancing self-efficacy and overcoming barriers will require strategies unique and relevant to BCS living in rural settings. PMID:25341266

  3. Psychosocial Factors and Theory in Physical Activity Studies in Minorities

    PubMed Central

    Mama, Scherezade K.; McNeill, Lorna H.; McCurdy, Sheryl A.; Evans, Alexandra E.; Diamond, Pamela M.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Lee, Rebecca E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To summarize the effectiveness of interventions targeting psychosocial factors to increase physical activity (PA) among ethnic minority adults and explore theory use in PA interventions. Methods Studies (N = 11) were identified through a systematic review and targeted African American/Hispanic adults, specific psychosocial factors, and PA. Data were extracted using a standard code sheet and the Theory Coding Scheme. Results Social support was the most common psychosocial factor reported, followed by motivational readiness, and self-efficacy, as being associated with increased PA. Only 7 studies explicitly reported using a theoretical framework. Conclusions Future efforts should explore theory use in PA interventions and how integration of theoretical constructs, including psychosocial factors, increases PA. PMID:25290599

  4. Explaining the Role of Personal, Social and Physical Environment Factors on Employed Women's Physical Activity: A Structural Equation Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Aghdam, Fatemeh Bakhtari; Baghiani Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Jafarabadi, Mohammad Asghari; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Nikookheslat, Saeed Dabagh; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: PA is a multi-factorial behavior that is affected by interpersonal, intra personal, environmental and social factors. In this study we applied explanatory model to determine the total, indirect and direct impact of physical environment, personal factors and social support on PA among employed women. Methods: This study was a correlational cross-sectional study which was conducted to model total, indirect and direct impact of environmental, psychological and social factors on PA. A total of 200 women were chosen from Tabriz University by using convenience sampling method. Data about demographic characteristics, psychological variables, social and physical environment were gathered by using self-reported questionnaire and also the PA was measured by using the International PA Questionnaire and pedometer. Results: personal factors, physical and social environment, showed direct effects on PA. Social factors could be seen to have indirect effects on PA through their influence on personal factors such as pros, cons and self-efficacy; also physical environment had indirect effects on PA through social environment. The total effects of physical and social environment on PA type were respectively 0.17, 0.16 on walking, 0.05, 0.07 on moderate activity and 0.15, 0.18 on vigorous activity. Conclusions: Findings from this study indicated that social factors had indirect effects on walking, moderate and vigorous activity, especially through the effects on these factors of self-efficacy, physical environment, pros and cons, and the interactive role of individual, environmental and social impacts on PA. The current study identifies that psychological, physical and social factors could be shown to have direct and indirect influences on all forms of activity. The barriers of PA were the most predictor of this behavior, and based on results, it can be concluded that decreasing the barriers along with improving social and physical environment can lead to

  5. Increasing Children's Physical Activity During the School Day.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Daniel Philip; Chomitz, Virginia Rall

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient levels of daily physical activity (PA) among children in the USA and worldwide have profound implications for pediatric obesity and children's health and well-being more generally. Public health recommendations highlight the central role that schools play in providing equitable opportunities for PA for all children. This review identifies evidence-based approaches for increasing children's PA throughout the school day and discusses multilevel factors that support implementation of such approaches. Opportunities to increase school-day PA span not only in-school time (e.g., quality recess and physical education, classroom activity breaks) but also time before school (e.g., active commuting initiatives) and after school (e.g., intramural and interscholastic sports programs). For such approaches to impact children's PA, dimensions of implementation such as adoption, fidelity, penetration, implementation costs, and sustainability are critical. Multilevel factors that influence implementation include policies, school environment and organizational factors, teacher and classroom factors, child and family characteristics, and attributes of the PA approach itself. Research and field observations reinforce the importance of understanding challenges specific to working with schools, including multiple stakeholders, competing priorities, limited facilities and staff capacity, and heterogeneity of students. Thus, while schools hold promise as promoters and equalizers of PA engagement for all children, more research is needed on the levers that influence implementation of effective school-based PA policies and programs. PMID:26627212

  6. Pilot surveillance for childhood encephalitis in Australia using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network.

    PubMed

    Britton, P N; Dale, R C; Elliott, E; Festa, M; Macartney, K; Booy, R; Jones, C A

    2016-07-01

    We aimed to assess the performance of active surveillance for hospitalized childhood encephalitis in New South Wales (NSW) using the Paediatric Active Enhanced Disease Surveillance (PAEDS) network to inform methodology for the nationwide Australian childhood encephalitis (ACE) study. We piloted active surveillance for suspected encephalitis from May to December 2013 at the Children's Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, NSW. Cases were ascertained using four screening methods: weekday nurse screening of admission records (PAEDS), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) microscopy records, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) reports, and pharmacy dispensing records. Comprehensive clinical data were prospectively collected on consented participants and subsequently reviewed by an expert panel. Cases were categorized as confirmed encephalitis or 'not encephalitis'; encephalitis cases were sub-categorized as infectious, immune-mediated or unknown. We performed an ICD-10 diagnostic code audit of hospitalizations for the pilot period. We compared case ascertainment in the four screening methods and with the ICD code audit. Forty-eight cases of suspected encephalitis were identified by one or more methods. PAEDS was the most efficient mechanism (yield 34%), followed by MRI, CSF, and pharmacy audits (yield 14%, 12%, and 7% respectively). Twenty-five cases met the criteria for confirmed encephalitis. PAEDS was the most sensitive of the mechanisms for confirmed encephalitis (92%) with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 72%. The ICD audit was moderately sensitive (64%) but poorly specific (Sp 9%, PPV 14%). Of the 25 confirmed encephalitis cases, 19 (76%) were sub-categorized as infectious, three (12%) were immune-mediated, and three (12%) were 'unknown'. We identified encephalitis cases associated with two infectious disease outbreaks (enterovirus 71, parechovirus 3). PAEDS is an efficient, sensitive and accurate surveillance mechanism for detecting cases of childhood encephalitis including those

  7. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3',5' -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  8. Dcsbis (PA2771) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a highly active diguanylate cyclase with unique activity regulation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying; Liu, Shiheng; Liu, Cuilan; Huang, Yan; Chi, Kaikai; Su, Tiantian; Zhu, Deyu; Peng, Jin; Xia, Zhijie; He, Jing; Xu, Sujuan; Hu, Wei; Gu, Lichuan

    2016-01-01

    C-di-GMP (3’,5’ -Cyclic diguanylic acid) is an important second messenger in bacteria that influences virulence, motility, biofilm formation, and cell division. The level of c-di-GMP in cells is controlled by diguanyl cyclases (DGCs) and phosphodiesterases (PDEs). Here, we report the biochemical functions and crystal structure of the potential diguanylase Dcsbis (PA2771, a diguanylate cyclase with a self-blocked I-site) from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. The full-length Dcsbis protein contains an N-terminal GAF domain and a C-terminal GGDEF domain. We showed that Dcsbis tightly coordinates cell motility without markedly affecting biofilm formation and is a diguanylate cyclase with a catalytic activity much higher than those of many other DGCs. Unexpectedly, we found that a peptide loop (protecting loop) extending from the GAF domain occupies the conserved inhibition site, thereby largely relieving the product-inhibition effect. A large hydrophobic pocket was observed in the GAF domain, thus suggesting that an unknown upstream signaling molecule may bind to the GAF domain, moving the protecting loop from the I-site and thereby turning off the enzymatic activity. PMID:27388857

  9. Physical Activity Affects Brain Integrity in HIV + Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Mario; Baker, Laurie M.; Vaida, Florin; Paul, Robert; Basco, Brian; Ances, Beau M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has suggested benefits of aerobic physical activity (PA) on cognition and brain volumes in HIV uninfected (HIV−) individuals, however, few studies have explored the relationships between PA and brain integrity (cognition and structural brain volumes) in HIV-infected (HIV +) individuals. Seventy HIV + individuals underwent neuropsychological testing, structural neuroimaging, laboratory tests, and completed a PA questionnaire, recalling participation in walking, running, and jogging activities over the last year. A PA engagement score of weekly metabolic equivalent (MET) hr of activity was calculated using a compendium of PAs. HIV + individuals were classified as physically active (any energy expended above resting expenditure, n = 22) or sedentary (n = 48). Comparisons of neuropsychological performance, grouped by executive and motor domains, and brain volumes were completed between groups. Physically active and sedentary HIV + individuals had similar demographic and laboratory values, but the active group had higher education (14.0 vs. 12.6 years, p = .034). Physically active HIV + individuals performed better on executive (p = .040, unadjusted; p = .043, adjusted) but not motor function (p = .17). In addition, among the physically active group the amount of physical activity (METs) positively correlated with executive (Pearson’s r = 0.45, p = 0.035) but not motor (r = 0.21; p = .35) performance. In adjusted analyses the physically active HIV + individuals had larger putamen volumes (p = .019). A positive relationship exists between PA and brain integrity in HIV + individuals. Results from the present study emphasize the importance to conduct longitudinal interventional investigation to determine if PA improves brain integrity in HIV + individuals. PMID:26581799

  10. Do Neighborhood Physical Activity Resources and Land Use Influence Physical Activity among African American Public Housing Residents?

    PubMed

    Parker, Nathan H; O'Connor, Daniel P; Kao, Dennis T; Lee, Rebecca E

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have examined neighborhood influences on physical activity (PA) among low-income African Americans living in public housing. This study measured the associations of PA resources and land use with PA among 216 African Americans living in 12 low-income housing developments in Houston, Texas. Neighborhood measures included both detailed information from in-person audits and geographic information systems (GIS) data. Hierarchical linear regression models tested the associations of neighborhood PA resource availability and quality and land use density and diversity with individual-level, self-reported PA. Land use diversity was positively associated with walking among men after controlling for other neighborhood characteristics. Policies that promote land use diversity or improve the pedestrian environment in areas with diverse destinations may encourage PA among public housing residents. PMID:27524771

  11. Patterns and Associated Factors of Physical Activity among Adolescents in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyemi, Adewale L.; Ishaku, Cornelius M.; Oyekola, Jameela; Wakawa, Hajara D.; Lawan, Aliyu; Yakubu, Safira; Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the context where adolescents’ physical activity (PA) takes place could impact a more targeted approach to implement PA promotion and interventions in Africa. However, standardized data on adolescents’ PA behaviour is lacking in Nigeria. We described PA patterns in the various domains (home, school, transport, leisure-time) and intensity categories (light-intensity PA, moderate- to vigorous- intensity physical activity [MVPA] and total PA), and their associations with sociodemographic factors and socioeconomic status (SES) among secondary school adolescents in Nigeria. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a representative sample of 1006 secondary school adolescents (12–18 years, 50.4% girls) in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Self-reported PA was assessed with an adapted version of the Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents and Young Adults. Outcomes were weekly minutes (min/wk) of PA spent in the various domains and intensity categories. Multivariate ANOVA was used to examine associations of PA scores (domains and intensity levels) with adolescents’ sociodemographic characteristics and SES, and track differences in PA scores between subgroups. Results The total sample reported most PA at school (1525 min/wk), the least during active transportation (210 min/wk), and only 37% engaged in 60 min of MVPA daily. Boys reported significantly more leisure-time PA (P<0.001), active transportation (P<0.001), MVPA (P = 0.023) and total PA (P = 0.003) than girls, while girls reported more school-based PA (P = 0.009), home-based PA (P<0.001) and light-intensity PA (P<0.001) than boys. Moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.024) and total PA (P = 0.049) were significantly higher in younger age group than in older group. Household car ownership was associated with less active transportation (P = 0.009), less moderate-intensity PA (P = 0.048) and with more leisure-time PA (P = 0.013). High parental SES was associated with more leisure-time PA (P = 0

  12. Child physical activity and parent-child attitude congruence of athletic competence and activity type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate parental influence on child physical activity (PA) through parental beliefs on child competence and importance of specific types of PA. Utilizing Eccles' expectancy-value model of task choice, the study examined parent-child attitude congruence and whether task value bel...

  13. Efficacy of a Web-Based, Center-Based or Combined Physical Activity Intervention among Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Alexandre; Cloes, Marc

    2015-01-01

    With more social support and environment-centered interventions being recommended in web-based interventions, this study examined the efficacy of three intervention conditions aimed at promoting physical activity (PA) in older adults. The efficacy analyses included the self-reported PA level, stage of change for PA and awareness about PA among…

  14. Physical Activity Promotion on Campus: Using Empirical Evidence to Recommend Strategic Approaches to Target Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milroy, Jeffrey J.; Orsini, Muhsin Michael; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Sidman, Cara Lynn; Venezia, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Problem: A large number of American adults do not meet national physical activity (PA) guidelines for aerobic PA and muscle strengthening. Similarly, many American college students, specifically females do not engage in regular PA. Self Determination Theory can provide a basis for investigating motivational processes of PA. The purpose of this…

  15. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Leukocyte Telomere Length: the Cardiovascular Health Study.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Imamura, Fumiaki; Siscovick, David; Jenny, Nancy Swords; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The influence of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) at older ages on changes in telomere length (TL), repetitive DNA sequences that may mark biologic aging, is not well-established. Few prior studies have been conducted in older adults, these were mainly cross-sectional, and few evaluated PF. Methods We investigated cross-sectional and prospective associations of PA and PF with leukocyte TL among 582 older adults (age 73±5 y at baseline) in the Cardiovascular Health Study, having serial TL measures and PA and PF assessed multiple times. Cross-sectional associations were assessed using multivariable repeated-measures regression, in which cumulatively averaged PA and PF measures were related to TL. Longitudinal analyses assessed cumulatively averaged PA and PF against later changes in TL; and changes in cumulatively averaged PA and PF against changes in TL. Results Cross-sectionally, greater walking distance and chair test performance, but not other PA and PF measures, were each associated with longer TL (p-trend=0.007, 0.04 respectively). In longitudinal analyses, no significant associations of baseline PA and PF with change in TL were observed. In contrast, changes in leisure-time activity and chair test performance were each inversely associated with changes in TL. Conclusions Cross-sectional analyses suggest that greater PA and PF are associated with longer TL. Prospective analyses show that changes in PA and PF are associated with differences in changes in TL. Even later in life, changes in certain PA and PF measures are associated with changes in TL, suggesting that leisure-time activity and fitness could reduce leukocyte telomere attrition among older adults. PMID:26083773

  16. Barcoding Human Physical Activity to Assess Chronic Pain Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Perruchoud, Christophe; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern theories define chronic pain as a multidimensional experience – the result of complex interplay between physiological and psychological factors with significant impact on patients' physical, emotional and social functioning. The development of reliable assessment tools capable of capturing the multidimensional impact of chronic pain has challenged the medical community for decades. A number of validated tools are currently used in clinical practice however they all rely on self-reporting and are therefore inherently subjective. In this study we show that a comprehensive analysis of physical activity (PA) under real life conditions may capture behavioral aspects that may reflect physical and emotional functioning. Methodology PA was monitored during five consecutive days in 60 chronic pain patients and 15 pain-free healthy subjects. To analyze the various aspects of pain-related activity behaviors we defined the concept of PA ‘barcoding’. The main idea was to combine different features of PA (type, intensity, duration) to define various PA states. The temporal sequence of different states was visualized as a ‘barcode’ which indicated that significant information about daily activity can be contained in the amount and variety of PA states, and in the temporal structure of sequence. This information was quantified using complementary measures such as structural complexity metrics (information and sample entropy, Lempel-Ziv complexity), time spent in PA states, and two composite scores, which integrate all measures. The reliability of these measures to characterize chronic pain conditions was assessed by comparing groups of subjects with clinically different pain intensity. Conclusion The defined measures of PA showed good discriminative features. The results suggest that significant information about pain-related functional limitations is captured by the structural complexity of PA barcodes, which decreases when the intensity of pain

  17. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  18. Children's In-School and Out-of-School Physical Activity during Two Seasons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron; Erwin, Heather; Morgan, Charles F.; Alderman, Brandon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) promotion for youth has long been thought of as a public health issue. However, with increases in diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle and the known benefits of PA, increasing the PA levels of children and adolescents has become a major public health concern. To this end, numerous organizations are calling on…

  19. Mediated Effects of Perceived Competence on Youth Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Yang; Chen, Senlin; Vazou, Spyridoula; Welk, Gregory J.; Schaben, Jodee

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluates whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) are influenced by a common mediating relationship. Method: A total of 1,552 participants in 3rd to 12th grade completed an online survey that included assessments of PA at school (PAS), PA at home (PAH), and SB as well as a battery of psychosocial variables…

  20. Physical Activity in Preschool Children: Comparison between Montessori and Traditional Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Byun, Wonwoo; McIver, Kerry L.; Dowda, Marsha; Brown, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the influence of Montessori methods on children's physical activity (PA). This cross-sectional study compared PA of children attending Montessori and traditional preschools. Methods: We enrolled 301 children in 9 Montessori and 8 traditional preschools in Columbia, South Carolina. PA was measured by…

  1. The Role of Schools in Children's Physical Activity Participation: Staff Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, J.; Dinkel, D.; Coleman, J.; Beighle, A.; Apenteng, B.

    2012-01-01

    The school setting provides a promising environment to increase children's physical activity (PA), however, staff often impact the success of PA within schools. The purpose of this article was to describe the knowledge of elementary school staff related to PA and their perception of the importance of the school environment being conducive to PA…

  2. The Role of Peer Social Network Factors and Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voorhees, Carolyn C.; Murray, David; Welk, Greg; Birnbaum, Amanda; Ribisl, Kurt M.; Johnson, Carolyn C.; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Saksvig, Brit; Jobe, Jared B.

    2005-01-01

    This report studies the relationship between peer-related physical activity (PA) social networks and the PA of adolescent girls. Methods: Cross-sectional, convenience sample of adolescent girls. Mixed-model linear regression analyses to identify significant correlates of self-reported PA while accounting for correlation of girls in the same…

  3. Psychological Changes among Muslim Students Participating in a Faith-Based School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicaise, Virginie; Kahan, David

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Some religions espouse doctrines that (in)directly impact physical activity (PA) behavior. Yet limited PA interventions have been tailored to religious minorities. Thus, a formative study was conducted to examine the effect of a faith-based pedometer program (Virtual Umra) on psychological correlates of PA behavior and their contribution…

  4. Source and Type of Support for In-School Physical Activity: Differential Patterns for Demographic Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Noel L.; Somers, Cheryl L.; Thomas, Erica; Martin, Jeffrey J.; Centeio, Erin E.; Garn, Alex C.; Shen, Bo; McCaughtry, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Results of prior research on social support (SS) for physical activity (PA) have been inconsistent. Purpose: The study aim was to expand the SS and PA literature by focusing on children, examining associated variables such as weight, race/ethnicity, and sex, and use objectively measured PA and inclusive targets of SS. Methods:…

  5. Determinants of Physical Activity in Low-income, Overweight African American Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lown, Debbie A.; Braunschweig, Carol L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the relationship between puberty, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences with intention for physical activity (PA) and PA. Methods: Low-income, overweight African American girls (n=72) completed 5 questionnaires that assessed PA, sedentary behaviors, and psychosocial influences. Puberty was assessed using Tanner…

  6. Motivation and Physical Activity Behaviors among Older Women: A Self-Determination Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of our study was to examine the motivational determinants of older women's dropout and participation in physical activity (PA). Older women who dropped out (n = 242) or remained (n = 332) in an organized PA program completed the Sport Motivation Scale as well as health and PA measures. We found…

  7. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Indoor Recess Dance Videos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Koufoudakis, Ryann; Beighle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children's physical activity (PA) levels remain low, and schools are being asked to assume a leadership role in PA promotion. Research suggests outdoor recess contributes to children's overall PA levels. However, similar research is not available for indoor recess, which occurs frequently due to a variety of factors. The…

  8. Social Cognitive Factors Associated with Physical Activity in Elementary School Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bean, Melanie K.; Miller, Sara; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Fries, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine social cognitive factors associated with physical activity (PA) among preadolescent girls. Method: Social cognitive theory was used to examine PA in girls (N = 90; 71% African American) participating in Girls on the Run. Multiple regressions explored factors associated with PA at posttesting and 3-month follow-up. Results:…

  9. What Do We Know about "How" to Promote Physical Activity to Adolescents? A Mapping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    To date, adolescent physical activity (PA) intervention research has focused on the school setting and suggests a need to extend interventions beyond this setting to influence teenagers' overall level of PA. But, the relative effectiveness of PA promotion strategies that can be part of such multi-setting interventions remains unknown. We completed…

  10. Multilevel Analyses of School and Children's Characteristics Associated with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Zhu, Weimo; Eisenmann, Joey; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children spend most of their awake time at school, and it is important to identify individual and school-level correlates of their physical activity (PA) levels. This study aimed to identify the between-school variability in Portuguese children PA and to investigate student and school PA correlates using multilevel modeling. Methods:…

  11. Ready for Recess: A Pilot Study to Increase Physical Activity in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huberty, Jennifer L.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Beighle, Aaron; Fuhrmeister, Erin; Silva, Pedro; Welk, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Background: Creating an optimal environment at recess may be necessary to maximize physical activity (PA) participation in youth. The purpose of this study was to determine the initial effectiveness of an elementary school recess intervention on the amount of moderate PA (MPA) and vigorous PA (VPA) during recess and the school day. Methods: This…

  12. Influence of School Playground Size and Equipment on the Physical Activity of Students during Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delidou, Eleni; Matsouka, Ourania; Nikolaidis, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Children's physical activity (PA) is increasingly restricted by the fast pace of modern life. Schools are the opportune setting in which to increase PA during daily recess. The purpose of this study was to record the degree of PA of 6th grade primary school students during recess and determine whether the playground size and available equipment…

  13. An Objective Assessment of Children's Physical Activity during the Keep It Moving! After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuna, John M., Jr.; Lauersdorf, Rebekah L.; Behrens, Timothy K.; Liguori, Gary; Liebert, Mina L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: After-school programs may provide valuable opportunities for children to accumulate healthful physical activity (PA). This study assessed the PA of third-, fourth-, and ?fth-grade children in the Keep It Moving! (KIM) after-school PA program, which was implemented in an ethnically diverse and low socioeconomic status school district in…

  14. Potentials of Physical Activity Promotion in Preschools--An Overview of Results of an Ethnographic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pape, Natalie; Sterdt, Elena; Azouagh, Karima; Kramer, Silke; Walter, Ulla; Urban, Michael; Werning, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses exemplary differences between preschools with systematic physical activity (PA) programmes and preschools without PA programmes in Germany. Two preschools from each group were visited in the context of a focused ethnographic observation to examine the educational practice, PA and social behaviour of preschool children. The…

  15. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  16. Personality as a factor in parental encouragement and parent-child TV and physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to evaluate the relation of personality to parent TV watching, physical activity (PA), and encouragement for child PA as parental influences on child TV and PA. Structural equation modeling (LISREL 8.7) was used to examine cross-sectional responses from 674 parents (63.0% female, 55...

  17. Effect of a Low-Cost, Teacher-Directed Classroom Intervention on Elementary Students' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Beighle, Aaron; Morgan, Charles F.; Noland, Melody

    2011-01-01

    Background: Effective physical activity (PA) interventions are warranted for youth, and schools have been identified as logical locations for such involvement. Experts and professionals in the field promote comprehensive school PA programs, including classroom PA. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a low-cost,…

  18. Asthma and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Oseid, S

    1982-01-01

    Physical activity regularly leads to a decline in lung function in children and adolescents with asthma. This decline is a consequence of what is known as exercise-induced asthma (EIA), and can be determined and graded with the help of lung function tests before and after submaximal workloads on the ergometer cycle or the treadmill. Typical EIA appears in asthmatic individuals with entirely normal lung function before the effort, but EIA may also become clinically manifest with exercise in patients who have a subclinical degree of obstruction. The grade of EIA is essentially dependent on the duration and intensity of effort but also on the type of exercise. For example, free running causes much greater bronchoconstriction than swimming. The temperature and humidity of the inspired air may partially explain this difference. At the Voksentoppen Allergy Institute we find that about 85% of children develop a fall in lung function of 15% or more after a six minute ergometer cycle test. With typical EIA the fall may be totally or partially abolished by prophylactic medication 10 minutes before the start of the test. Disodium cromoglycate (Intal) and/or beta-adrenergic drugs are regularly used before all physical activity. Training programmes must be based on the interval principle. Swimming, ball games, relay races and dancing are examples of useful activities in the training and rehabilitation of children and adolescents with asthma. Through prophylactic medication and physical training, the aerobic work capacity, muscle strength and lung function in asthmatic children is improved. Training also leads to a significant mobilisation of mental resources and an increase in social integration. PMID:6958045

  19. Physical activity and biological maturation: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bacil, Eliane Denise Araújo; Mazzardo, Oldemar; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Legnani, Rosimeide Francisco dos Santos; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association between physical activity (PA) and biological maturation in children and adolescents. DATA SOURCE: We performed a systematic review in April 2013 in the electronic databases of PubMed/MEDLINE, SportDiscus, Web of Science and LILACS without time restrictions. A total of 628 potentially relevant articles were identified and 10 met the inclusion criteria for this review: cross-sectional or longitudinal studies, published in Portuguese, English or Spanish, with schoolchildren aged 9-15 years old of both genders. DATA SYNTHESIS: Despite the heterogeneity of the studies, there was an inverse association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increased biological and chronological age in both genders. Boys tend to be more physically active than girls; however, when controlling for biological age, the gender differences disappear. The association between PA and timing of maturation varies between the genders. Variation in the timing of biological maturation affects the tracking of PA in early adolescent girls. This review suggests that mediators (BMI, depression, low self-esteem, and concerns about body weight) can explain the association between PA and biological maturation. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between PA and biological maturation. PA decreases with increasing biological age with no differences between genders. As for the timing of biological maturation, this association varies between genders. PMID:25583624

  20. Desired features of smartphone applications promoting physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Carolyn; Bock, Beth

    2011-12-01

    Approximately one-third of adults in the United States are physically inactive. This is a significant public health concern as physical activity (PA) can influence the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and certain forms of cancer. To minimize these health risks, effective PA interventions must be developed and disseminated to the vast number of individuals who remain sedentary. Smartphone technology presents an exciting opportunity for delivering PA interventions remotely. Although a number of PA applications are currently available for smartphones, these "apps" are not based on established theories of health behavior change and most do not include evidence-based features (e.g., reinforcement and goal setting). Our aim was to collect formative data to develop a smartphone PA app that is empirically and theoretically-based and incorporates user preferences. We recruited 15 sedentary adults to test three currently available PA smartphone apps and provide qualitative and quantitative feedback. Findings indicate that users have a number of specific preferences with regard to PA app features, including that apps provide automatic tracking of PA (e.g., steps taken and calories burned), track progress toward PA goals, and integrate a music feature. Participants also preferred that PA apps be flexible enough to be used with several types of PA, and have well-documented features and user-friendly interfaces (e.g., a one-click main page). When queried by the researcher, most participants endorsed including goal-setting and problem-solving features. These findings provide a blue print for developing a smartphone PA app that incorporates evidence-based components and user preferences. PMID:22010977

  1. Behavior-Specific Influences for Physical Activity Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Hope; Yates, Bernice C; Blanchard, Shirley; Zimmerman, Lani M; Hudson, Diane; Pozehl, Bunny

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe physical activity (PA) behaviors and physical functioning of prehypertensive and Stage I hypertensive African American Women (AAW) and to examine the relationships between PA behavior, physical functioning, personal factors, and behavior-specific influences. Pender's Health Promotion Model was the conceptual framework for the study. A cross-sectional design and convenience sample were used. The PA domain where the greatest amount of time was spent was in work-related activity, followed by household, leisure time, and transportation activity. Personal factors most strongly correlated to lower PA were greater body mass index and waist circumference. AAW perceived moderate barriers to PA and minimal family and friend social support for PA. Future interventions need to focus on removing barriers to and improving social support for PA among AAW. PMID:27044446

  2. Validity of a Questionnaire to Assess the Physical Activity Level in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guiraud, Thibaut; Granger, Richard; Bousquet, Marc; Gremeaux, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare, in coronary artery disease patients, physical activity (PA) assessed with the Dijon Physical Activity Questionnaire (DPAQ) and the true PA objectively measured using an accelerometer. Seventy patients wore an accelerometer (MyWellness Key actimeter) throughout 1 week after a cardiac rehabilitation program that…

  3. Physical Activity of Children Ages 6-8: The Beginning of School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromel, Karel; Stelzer, Jiri; Groffik, Dorota; Ernest, James

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the physical activity (PA) levels of 6- to 8-year-old children over a seven-day period. The participants consisted of 35 girls and 36 boys in kindergarten and 113 girls and 131 boys in 1st grade. Physical activity (PA) is defined as "any body movement produced by skeletal muscles resulting in energy expenditure" and…

  4. Affordances for Risk-Taking and Physical Activity in Australian Early Childhood Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Helen; Sweller, Naomi

    2015-01-01

    Motor competence and physical activity (PA) patterns are established during the early childhood years. Early childhood education (ECE) settings are an important context for children's engagement in physically active play. This paper reports the findings from an online survey examining resources, spaces and affordances for PA and risk-taking in…

  5. Geochemical data package for the Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment (ILAW PA)

    SciTech Connect

    DI Kaplan; RJ Serne

    2000-02-24

    Lockheed Martin Hanford Company (LMHC) is designing and assessing the performance of disposal facilities to receive radioactive wastes that are stored in single- and double-shell tanks at the Hanford Site. The preferred method of disposing of the portion that is classified as low-activity waste is to vitrify the liquid/slurry and place the solid product in near-surface, shallow-land burial facilities. The LMHC project to assess the performance of these disposal facilities is the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) activity. The goal of this project is to provide a reasonable expectation that the disposal of the waste is protective of the general public, groundwater resources, air resources, surface-water resources, and inadvertent intruders. Achieving this goal will require prediction of contaminant migration from the facilities. This migration is expected to occur primarily via the movement of water through the facilities, and the consequent transport of dissolved contaminants in the porewater of the vadose zone. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory assists LMHC in their performance assessment activities. One of the PNNL tasks is to provide estimates of the geochemical properties of the materials comprising the disposal facility, the disturbed region around the facility, and the physically undisturbed sediments below the facility (including the vadose zone sediments and the aquifer sediments in the upper unconfined aquifer). The geochemical properties are expressed as parameters that quantify the adsorption of contaminants and the solubility constraints that might apply for those contaminants that may exceed solubility constraints. The common parameters used to quantify adsorption and solubility are the distribution coefficient (K{sub d}) and the thermodynamic solubility product (K{sub sp}), respectively. In this data package, the authors approximate the solubility of contaminants using a more simplified construct

  6. Recess Physical Activity Packs in Elementary Schools: A Qualitative Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Steven; Combs, Sue; Boyce, Robert

    2011-01-01

    To supplement the present weekly allotment of 30 minutes of physical education, a school district in southeastern North Carolina identified recess time as part of the state mandated (HSP-S-000) 150 minutes of physical activity (PA) per week and have purchased fitness equipment (recess packs) for the children to use. Twelve participants were…

  7. Is It Physical Education or Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategies: A Journal for Physical and Sport Educators, 2005

    2005-01-01

    With heightened attention on childhood obesity prevention efforts, there seems to be some confusion between the terms "physical education" and "physical activity." Often the words are used interchangeably but they differ in important ways. Understanding the difference between the two is critical to understanding why both contribute to the…

  8. Physical Activity Levels of Overweight and Nonoverweight High School Students during Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined physical activity (PA) levels of overweight and nonoverweight African American and Caucasian students (n = 198) during game play in physical education classes. Methods: Body fat percentages (%BFs) were determined using the skinfold technique and Slaughter et al prediction equations. Girls were classified as…

  9. Elementary School Students' Self-Determination in Physical Education and Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Weiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Motivations for and positive attitudes toward physical activity (PA) developed during childhood are likely to be carried over to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between three psychological needs satisfaction, motivational regulations in physical education (PE), and attitudes toward participation in leisure-time…

  10. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  11. Can Physical Education and Physical Activity Outcomes Be Developed Simultaneously Using a Game-Centered Approach?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Andrew; Christensen, Erin; Eather, Narelle; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John; Keay, Jeanne; Lubans, David

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a pilot intervention using a game-centered approach for improvement of physical activity (PA) and physical education (PE) outcomes simultaneously, and if this had an impact on enjoyment of PE. A group-randomized controlled trial with a 7-week wait-list control group was conducted…

  12. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  13. Investigation of the Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Healthy Life-Style Behaviors of Academic Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turkmen, Mutlu; Ozkan, Ali; Kul, Murat; Bozkus, Taner

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship of physical activity (PA) level and healthy life-style behaviors in academic staff in Bartin University, Turkey. The short form of International Physical Activity Questionnaire was administered for the determination of physical activity level of academic staff. Their PA levels were…

  14. Motion Sensor Use for Physical Activity Data: Methodological Considerations

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Margaret; Grey, Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity continues to be a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and only one half of adults in the United States meet physical activity (PA) goals. PA data are often collected for surveillance or for measuring change after an intervention. One of the challenges in PA research is quantifying exactly how much and what type of PA is taking place—especially because self-report instruments have inconsistent validity. Objective The purpose is to review the elements to consider when collecting PA data via motion sensors, including the difference between PA and exercise; type of data to collect; choosing the device; length of time to monitor PA; instructions to the participants; and interpretation of the data. Methods The current literature on motion sensor research was reviewed and synthesized to summarize relevant considerations when using a motion sensor to collect PA data. Results Exercise is a division of PA that is structured, planned, and repetitive. Pedometer data includes steps taken, and calculated distance and energy expenditure. Accelerometer data includes activity counts and intensity. The device chosen depends on desired data, cost, validity, and ease of use. Reactivity to the device may influence the duration of data collection. Instructions to participants may vary depending on purpose of the study. Experts suggest pedometer data be reported as steps—since that is the direct output—and distance traveled and energy expenditure are estimated values. Accelerometer count data may be analyzed to provide information on time spent in moderate or vigorous activity. Discussion Thoughtful decision making about PA data collection using motion sensor devices is needed to advance nursing science. PMID:26126065

  15. Motion Sensor Reactivity in Physically Active Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Timothy K.; Dinger, Mary K.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether young adults changed their physical activity (PA) behavior when wearing motion sensors. PA patterns of 119 young adults (M age = 20.82 years, SD = 1.50, M body mass index = 23.93 kg/m[superscript 2] , SD = 4.05) were assessed during 2 consecutive weeks. In Week 1, participants wore an accelerometer.…

  16. Relation of School Environment and Policy to Adolescent Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durant, Nefertiti; Harris, Sion K.; Doyle, Stephanie; Person, Sharina; Saelens, Brian E.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Norman, Gregory J.; Sallis, James F.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) declines as children and adolescents age. The purpose of this study was to examine how specific school factors relate to youth PA, TV viewing, and body mass index (BMI). Methods: A sample of 12- to 18-year-old adolescents in 3 cities (N = 165, 53% females, mean age 14.6 [plus or minus] 1.7 years, 44% nonwhite)…

  17. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Physical Activity? Español Physical activity is any body movement that works your muscles ... yoga, and gardening are a few examples of physical activity. According to the Department of Health and Human ...

  18. Motivating Kids in Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.

    2000-01-01

    This article adopts a motivational stance in identifying factors that strongly predict physical activity in children. One model for understanding physical activity motivation in children portrays the sources and consequences of self-esteem for physical activity behavior (perceived competency/adequacy, social support, enjoyment, and physical…

  19. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  20. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870

  1. Identifying combinations of risk and protective factors predicting physical activity change in high school students.

    PubMed

    Dunton, Genevieve Fridlund; Atienza, Audie A; Tscherne, James; Rodriguez, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Research sought to identify combinations of risk and protective factors predicting change in physical activity (PA) over one year in high school students. Adolescents (N = 344; M = 15.7 years) participated in a longitudinal study with assessment of demographics, substance use/smoking exposure, height and weight, psychological factors, and PA in 10th and 11th grade. PA participation in 11th grade was greatest for adolescents who engaged in PA and had high sports competence (78%), and least for adolescents who did not engage in or enjoy PA (13%) in 10th grade. Identifying adolescent subgroups at risk for decreasing PA can inform the development of tailored interventions. PMID:21467595

  2. A systematic review of physical activity interventions in Hispanic adults.

    PubMed

    Ickes, Melinda J; Sharma, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Healthy People 2020 aims to achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups. Regular physical activity (PA) improves overall health and fitness and has the capability to reduce risk for chronic diseases. Identifying barriers which relate to the Hispanic population is important when designing PA interventions. Therefore, the purpose was to review existing PA interventions targeting Hispanic adults published between 1988 and 2011. This paper was limited to interventions which included more than 35% Hispanic adults (n = 20). Most of the interventions were community based (n = 16), although clinical, family-based, and faith-based settings were also represented. Interventions incorporated theory (n = 16), with social cognitive theory and transtheoretical model being used most frequently. Social support was integral, building on the assumption that it is a strong motivator of PA. Each of the interventions reported success related to PA, social support, and/or BMI. Lessons learned should be incorporated into future interventions. PMID:22496702

  3. Building a Better Mousetrap (Exergame) to Increase Youth Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Baranowski, Tom; Maddison, Ralph; Maloney, Ann; Medina, Ernie; Simons, Monique

    2014-04-01

    Although exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been used in community centers to good effect, but this has not generally been validated with research. PA from exergames may be enhanced by innovative use of sensors, "fun"-enhancing procedures, tailored messaging, message framing, story or narrative, goal setting, feedback, and values-based messaging. Research is needed on PA-enhancing procedures used within exergames for youth to provide a firmer foundation for the design and use of exergames in the future. PMID:26196047

  4. Osteoporosis and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Smith, E L; Raab, D M

    1986-01-01

    Bone involution poses serious health risks for aging women. Bone mass is subject to both local (mechanical) and systemic (hormonal) homeostatic control mechanisms. The local forces acting on bone are due to gravity and muscular contraction. There are several theories concerning the mechanisms of local control. When bent, bone functions as a piezoelectric crystal with calcium accumulation on the negatively charged concave surface. Microfractures that occur in response to stress greater than normal levels stimulate osteoclastic activity to remove the damaged structure. Studies of astronauts and immobilized subjects have consistently found bone atrophy. The degree of bone loss is related to the difference in levels of stress normally applied and those at bedrest in the site studied. Correspondingly, athletes have greater bone mass than the sedentary population, with the greatest hypertrophy found in the areas most stressed. Exercise intervention also promotes bone hypertrophy. Both middle-aged and elderly women increase bone mass or reduce the rate of loss in response to physical activity intervention programs. PMID:3535406

  5. Physical Activity Patterns during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Borodulin, Katja; Evenson, Kelly R; Wen, Fang; Herring, Amy H.; Benson, Aimee

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The aim of the study was to describe the mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity among pregnant women, to explore whether these women reached the recommended levels of activity, and to explore how these patterns changed during pregnancy. Methods This study, as part of the third phase of the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, investigated physical activity among 1482 pregnant women. A recall of the different modes, frequency, duration, and intensity of physical activity during the past week was assessed in two telephone interviews at 17–22 and 27–30 weeks’ gestation. Results Most women reported some type of physical activity during both time periods. Child and adult care giving, indoor household, and recreational activities constituted the largest proportion of total reported activity. The overall physical activity level decreased during pregnancy, particularly in care giving, outdoor household, and recreational activity. Women who were active during the second and third trimesters reported higher levels of activity in all modes of activity than those who became active or inactive during pregnancy. The majority did not reach the recommended level of physical activity. Conclusion These data suggest that self-reported physical activity decreased from the second to third trimester and only a small proportion reached the recommended level of activity during pregnancy. Further research is needed to explore if physical activity rebounds during the postpartum period. PMID:18845974

  6. BioKnife, a uPA activity-dependent oncolytic Sendai virus, eliminates pleural spread of malignant mesothelioma via simultaneous stimulation of uPA expression.

    PubMed

    Morodomi, Yosuke; Yano, Tokujiro; Kinoh, Hiroaki; Harada, Yui; Saito, Satoru; Kyuragi, Ryoichi; Yoshida, Kumi; Onimaru, Mitsuho; Shoji, Fumihiro; Yoshida, Tsukihisa; Ito, Kensaku; Shikada, Yasunori; Maruyama, Riichiroh; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu

    2012-04-01

    Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is highly intractable and readily spreads throughout the surface of the pleural cavity, and these cells have been shown to express urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR). We here examined the potential of our new and powerful recombinant Sendai virus (rSeV), which shows uPAR-specific cell-to-cell fusion activity (rSeV/dMFct14 (uPA2), named "BioKnife"), for tumor cell killing in two independent orthotopic xenograft models of human. Multicycle treatment using BioKnife resulted in the efficient rescue of these models, in association with tumor-specific fusion and apoptosis. Such an effect was also seen on both MSTO-211H and H226 cells in vitro; however, we confirmed that the latter expressed uPAR but not uPA. Of interest, infection with BioKnife strongly facilitated the uPA release from H226 cells, and this effect was completely abolished by use of either pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or BioKnife expressing the C-terminus-deleted dominant negative inhibitor for retinoic acid-inducible gene-I (RIG-IC), indicating that BioKnife-dependent expression of uPA was mediated by the RIG-I/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) axis, detecting RNA viral genome replication. Therefore, these results suggest a proof of concept that the tumor cell-killing mechanism via BioKnife may have significant potential to treat patients with MPM that is characterized by frequent uPAR expression in a clinical setting. PMID:22314292

  7. Working postures and physical activity among registered nurses.

    PubMed

    Schall, Mark C; Fethke, Nathan B; Chen, Howard

    2016-05-01

    Nurses report a high prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort, particularly of the low back and neck/shoulder. This study characterized the full-shift upper arm and trunk postures and movement velocities of registered nurses using inertial measurement units (IMUs). Intensity of occupational physical activity (PA) was also ascertained using a waist-worn PA monitor and using the raw acceleration data from each IMU. Results indicated that nurses spent a relatively small proportion of their work time with the arms or trunk in extreme postures, but had few opportunities for rest and recovery in comparison to several other occupational groups. Comparisons between nurses in different PA groups suggested that using a combination of accelerometers secured to several body locations may provide more representative estimates of physical demands than a single, waist-worn PA monitor. The findings indicate a need for continued field-based research with larger sample sizes to facilitate the development of maximally effective intervention strategies. PMID:26851483

  8. Physical Activity Effects on Depressive Symptoms in Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elisa R.; Sampselle, Carolyn M.; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.; Ronis, David L.; Neighbors, Harold W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Randomized trials found physical activity (PA) effective in decreasing depressive symptoms. Few studies included Black participants. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to determine the effects of PA on depressive symptoms in Black adults. Methods Articles were abstracted by conducting a computer and hand search of eligible studies. Results Eight of 13 studies found a significant inverse relationship between PA and depressive symptoms in Black adults. Sources for the heterogeneity were explored. Conclusion Future studies should include representative samples of Black adults, incorporate a theory which considers multiple levels of influence, account for genetic factors in the etiology of depressive symptoms, include individuals diagnosed with depression and with health conditions which may increase the risk of depressive symptoms, account for intra-group ethnic heterogeneity, measure and differentiate between social support and social network, consider aspects of the physical environment and use standardized measurements of PA. PMID:22984655

  9. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  10. Physical Activity Measured by Physical Activity Monitoring System Correlates with Glucose Trends Reconstructed from Continuous Glucose Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Zecchin, Chiara; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Dalla Man, Chiara; Manohar, Chinmay; Levine, James A.; Basu, Ananda; Kudva, Yogish C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), physical activity (PA) lowers the risk of cardiovascular complications but hinders the achievement of optimal glycemic control, transiently boosting insulin action and increasing hypoglycemia risk. Quantitative investigation of relationships between PA-related signals and glucose dynamics, tracked using, for example, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors, have been barely explored. Subjects and Methods In the clinic, 20 control and 19 T1DM subjects were studied for 4 consecutive days. They underwent low-intensity PA sessions daily. PA was tracked by the PA monitoring system (PAMS), a system comprising accelerometers and inclinometers. Variations on glucose dynamics were tracked estimating first- and second-order time derivatives of glucose concentration from CGM via Bayesian smoothing. Short-time effects of PA on glucose dynamics were quantified through the partial correlation function in the interval (0, 60 min) after starting PA. Results Correlation of PA with glucose time derivatives is evident. In T1DM, the negative correlation with the first-order glucose time derivative is maximal (absolute value) after 15 min of PA, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 40–45 min. The negative correlation between the second-order time derivative and PA is maximal after 5 min, whereas the positive correlation is maximal after 35–40 min. Control subjects provided similar results but with positive and negative correlation peaks anticipated of 5 min. Conclusions Quantitative information on correlation between mild PA and short-term glucose dynamics was obtained. This represents a preliminary important step toward incorporation of PA information in more realistic physiological models of the glucose–insulin system usable in T1DM simulators, in development of closed-loop artificial pancreas control algorithms, and in CGM-based prediction algorithms for generation of hypoglycemic alerts. PMID

  11. Access to environmental resources and physical activity levels of adults in Hawaii

    PubMed Central

    Geller, KS; Nigg, CR; Ollberding, NJ; Motl, RW; Horwath, C; Dishman, RK

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Examine associations between physical activity (PA) and spatial accessibility to environmental PA resources in Hawaii. Methods Metabolic equivalents (METs) of mild, moderate, and strenuous PA were compared for accessibility to environmental PA resources within a population-based sample of Hawaiian adults (n=381). Multiple linear regression estimated differences in PA levels for residing further from a PA resource or residing in an area with a greater number of resources. Results No associations were found in the total sample. Analyses within subsamples stratified by ethnicity revealed that greater spatial accessibility to a PA resource was positively associated with strenuous PA among Caucasians (p=0.04), but negatively associated with moderate PA among Native Hawaiians (p=0.00). Conclusion The lack of association in the total sample may be a consequence of Hawaii’s unique environment. Results of stratified sample analyses are unique, providing groundwork for future examinations within parallel environments and among similar ethnic groups. PMID:22500037

  12. Influence of Friends on Children’s Physical Activity: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Maturo, Claire C.

    2013-01-01

    We examined evidence for friendship influences on children's physical activity (PA) through systematic searches of online databases in May 2012. We identified 106 studies (25 qualitative) published in English since 2000 that analyzed indicators of friendship influences (e.g., communication about PA, friends’ PA, and PA with friends) among persons younger than 19 years. Children's PA was positively associated with encouragement from friends (43 of 55 studies indicating a positive relationship), friends' own PA (30/35), and engagement with friends in PA (9/10). These findings are consistent with friends influencing PA, but most studies did not isolate influence from other factors that could explain similarity. Understanding friendship influences in childhood can facilitate the promotion of lifelong healthy habits. PA with friends should be considered in health promotion programs. PMID:23678914

  13. Effects of a Competency-Based Professional Development Training on Children's Physical Activity and Staff Physical Activity Promotion in Summer Day Camps

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-Mcgrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Background The YMCA of USA adopted Physical Activity (PA) Standards for summer day camps (SDC) in 2011. Standards call for increasing children's PA, as well as, increasing staff behaviors related to creating an activity-friendly environment, such as role modeling and verbally promoting PA. The objective of this study was to evaluate strategies designed to meet the YMCA PA Standards. Methods Four YMCA SDCs participated in this pre/multiple-post test study. Strategies to increase staff PA promotion included ongoing professional development training, workshops, and technical support. Changes in staff behaviors and child PA were measured via the System for Observing Staff Promotion of Activity and Nutrition and the System for Observing Play and Leisure Time in Youth, respectively. Results Nine of 13 staff PA promotion behaviors demonstrated statistically significant changes in the desired direction. For example, staff engagement in PA with children increased by 11.4% (25.4% vs. 36.8%), while idle-time fell by 42.4% (53.1% vs. 10.7%) from baseline to final assessment. The percentage of girls and boys observed sedentary during scheduled PA decreased by 16.9% and 17.4%, while moderate-to-vigorous physical activity increased 3.3% and 3.5%, respectively. Changes in activity levels varied by grade level. Conclusions Strategies herein show promise for impacting staff behaviors and, in-turn, child PA. Continued support is likely required if changes are to be sustained. PMID:25530241

  14. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, SELF-ESTEEM, AND QUALITY OF LIFE AMONG PEOPLE WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITY.

    PubMed

    Jalayondeja, Chutima; Jalayondeja, Wattana; Suttiwong, Jattuporn; Sullivan, Patricia E; Nilanthi, Deepika L H K

    2016-05-01

    Physical activity (PA) can improve health and quality of life (QOL) of healthy people. However, the association between PA and QOL among people with physical disability (PWPD) is inconclusive. This study was conducted to determine the relationships between factors including intensity of PA, activitiy in daily living (ADL), stress, and self-esteem that influences self-reported QOL among PWPD. The relationships were further explored using the in-depth interview method to find out whether the intensity of PA, stress, and self-esteem are related to QOL perception in PWPD. One hundred sixty PWPD aged 18-48 years who studied at a vocational school were enrolled. A mixed method case study was conducted: cross-sectional survey and in-depth interview. Five questionnaires, including the Barthel Index, Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (PASIPD) were distributed. QOL was measured using the WHOQOL_BREF. Multiple linear regression was used to determine factors for QOL prediction. For in-depth interview, ten persons from each group (poor-to-fair and good QOL) volunteered to explore further about life satisfaction related to physical disability. One hundred forty-six (91%) subjects completed all questionnaires. One hundred fourteen (77%) reported poor-to-fair QOL. QOL was explained by self-esteem and ADL (adjusted R² 34.7%, p < 0.001) after adjusted for age, stress, and PA. Although PA could not explain QOL in PWPD, good QOL reported high activities (28.40 ± 30.20 MET hour/day) compared to poor and fair QOL (17.94 ± 22.06 and 21.70 ± 17.75 MET hour/day). Those who had good QOL reported that they were proud to be independent and did not feel inferior. PA participation among people with disabilities should therefore be encouraged. PMID:27405139

  15. Exergaming Impact on Physical Activity and Interest in Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I explored the impact of exergaming on in-class physical activity (PA) and motivation in physical education. Elementary children participated in a 4-week exergaming unit and a 4-week fitness unit. A t test showed the children's in-class PA in the exergaming unit was significantly lower than in the fitness unit. Results also…

  16. Sports Game Play: A Comparison of Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activities in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patience, Marcia A.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Sun, Haichun; Flory, Sara B.; Watterson, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research suggests participation in sports is an important contributor to overall adolescent physical activity (PA). Sports play has become increasingly important in physical education (PE) classes as a means for promoting healthful and enjoyable PA. Research is needed that investigates physiological and perceptual responses to sport…

  17. The Physics of Sport Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Walter C.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a physics course, Biomechanics, designed for physical education majors, where stroboscopic photography is used to provide student data to calculate average velocities of objects in different sport activities. (GA)

  18. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness. Your fitness routine should include aerobic and strength-training activities, and may also include stretching activities. Aerobic ... Examples include walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, and tennis. Strength-training activities These activities increase the strength and endurance ...

  19. School physical activity interventions: do not forget about obesity bias.

    PubMed

    Rukavina, P B; Li, W

    2008-01-01

    Obesity bias is the tendency to negatively judge an overweight or obese individual based on assumed and/or false character traits, such as being physically unattractive, incompetent, lazy and lacking self-discipline. Obesity biases, such as teasing or weight criticism during physical activity (PA), can be psychologically or emotionally damaging for overweight children and adolescents. Ultimately, the effects students experience over time may create a psychological barrier and students can become resistant to schools' health and PA interventions that promote lifestyle changes. Fortunately, the psychological effects of obesity bias are mediated by social buffers and coping mechanisms. Several PA-related researchers have proposed strategic intervention components, but no studies have been completed in PA settings. The purpose of this review was to discuss the nature and different types of obesity bias in PA settings. Major theoretical frameworks of the aetiology and change mechanisms of obesity biases from the psychological literature were reviewed and direct applications for strategic component interventions were made for PA settings. Because of the pervasiveness and entrenchment of obesity bias, it is obvious that multiple theoretical frameworks need to be considered and even combined to create safe and caring school PA environments for students. PMID:18154603

  20. Physical activity promotion in call centres: employers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Renton, Sheila J; Lightfoot, Nancy E; Maar, Marion A

    2011-12-01

    This study followed a predominantly qualitative approach to explore the perspectives of employers in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada, call centres (CCs) regarding physical activity (PA) promotion in workplaces, by identifying current practices and employers' motivation to promote PA, as well as perceived facilitators and barriers. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 managers in 10 of 12 local CCs and questionnaires were used to collect quantitative information about participants and their workplaces. Thematic analysis revealed that participants' responses to recommendations for PA promotion were generally positive and some CCs were engaged in some PA initiatives. Employers' motivations to promote PA included direct benefits to the employer, concern for employee well-being and the greater good. Barriers to PA promotion within CCs included the nature of CC work, managers' concerns regarding participation, fairness and cost and special limitations of the workspace. Results indicate additional actions and supports are required to facilitate implementation of PA in CCs according to governmental recommendations. Efforts are required to increase awareness and use of existing resources. Smaller organizations may require more assistance to promote PA than those with a larger number of employees and may benefit from enhanced interaction with existing networks and public health programs and resources. PMID:21712500

  1. Physical Activity, Body Composition and Metabolic Syndrome in Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Salonen, Minna K.; Wasenius, Niko; Kajantie, Eero; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low physical activity (PA) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in all age groups. We measured intensity and volume of PA and examined the associations between PA and the metabolic syndrome (MS), its components and body composition among young Finnish adults. Research Design and Methods The study comprises 991 men and women born 1985-86, who participated in a clinical study during the years 2009-11 which included assessments of metabolism, body composition and PA. Objectively measured (SenseWear Armband) five-day PA data was available from 737 participants and was expressed in metabolic equivalents of task (MET). Results The prevalence of MS ranged between 8-10%. Higher total mean volume (MET-hours) or intensity (MET) were negatively associated with the risk of MS and separate components of MS, while the time spent at sedentary level of PA was positively associated with MS. Conclusions MS was prevalent in approximately every tenth of the young adults at the age of 24 years. Higher total mean intensity and volume rates as well as longer duration spent at moderate and vigorous PA level had a beneficial impact on the risk of MS. Longer time spent at the sedentary level of PA increased the risk of MS. PMID:25992848

  2. Understanding the relationships between the physical environment and physical activity in older adults: a systematic review of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While physical activity (PA) provides many physical, social, and mental health benefits for older adults, they are the least physically active age group. Ecological models highlight the importance of the physical environment in promoting PA. However, results of previous quantitative research revealed inconsistencies in environmental correlates of older adults’ PA that may be explained by methodological issues. Qualitative studies can inform and complement quantitative research on environment-PA relationships by providing insight into how and why the environment influences participants’ PA behaviors. The current study aimed to provide a systematic review of qualitative studies exploring the potential impact of the physical environment on older adults’ PA behaviors. Methods A systematic search was conducted in databases of various disciplines, including: health, architecture and urban planning, transportation, and interdisciplinary databases. From 3,047 articles identified in the physical activity, initial search, 31 articles published from 1996 to 2012 met all inclusion criteria. An inductive content analysis was performed on the extracted findings to identify emerging environmental elements related to older adults’ PA. The identified environmental elements were then grouped by study methodologies [indoor interviews (individual or focus groups) vs spatial methods (photo-voice, observations, walk-along interviews)]. Results This review provides detailed information about environmental factors that potentially influence older adults’ PA behaviors. These factors were categorized into five themes: pedestrian infrastructure, safety, access to amenities, aesthetics, and environmental conditions. Environmental factors especially relevant to older adults (i.e., access to facilities, green open spaces and rest areas) tended to emerge more frequently in studies that combined interviews with spatial qualitative methods. Conclusions Findings showed that

  3. Evolution of accelerometer methods for physical activity research

    PubMed Central

    Troiano, Richard P.; McClain, James J.; Brychta, Robert J.; Chen, Kong Y.

    2014-01-01

    The technology and application of current accelerometer-based devices in physical activity (PA) research allow the capture and storage or transmission of large volumes of raw acceleration signal data. These rich data provide opportunities to improve physical activity characterization, but also bring logistical and analytic challenges. We discuss how researchers and developers from multiple disciplines are responding to the analytic challenges and how advances in data storage, transmission, and big data computing will minimize logistical challenges. These new approaches also bring the need for several paradigm shifts for PA researchers, including a shift from count-based approaches and regression calibrations for PA energy expenditure (EE) estimation to activity characterization and EE estimation based on features extracted from raw acceleration signals. Furthermore, a collaborative approach toward analytic methods is proposed to facilitate PA research, which requires a shift away from multiple independent calibration studies. Finally, we make the case for a distinction between PA represented by accelerometer-based devices and PA assessed by self-report. PMID:24782483

  4. The Relationship between Occupational Status and Physical Activity in Korea.

    PubMed

    So, Wi-Young; Yoo, Byoung-Wook; Sung, Dong Jun

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the association between occupational status and physical activity (PA) in Korea. A total of 9,000 Koreans age 10 to 89 years participated in the Korean Survey of Citizens' Sports Participation project in 2012. However, 3,851 participants were excluded from the analysis (housewives, students, and the jobless), providing a sample size of 5,149 participants (3,165 men and 1,984 women) for this study. The association between occupational status and PA was then evaluated using multivariate logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios (ORs; 95% confidence interval [CI]) for reporting at least weekly PA according to job intensity, after adjusting for sex and age, were as follows: moderate-intensity jobs, 1.164 [1.026, 1.320], p = .018; and vigorous-intensity jobs, 1.591 [1.318, 1.921], p < .001, compared with low-intensity jobs as a reference category. For PA intensity in low- and moderate-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.355 [1.033, 1.778], p = .028, moderate PA, 1.227 [1.096, 1.487], p = .002, and vigorous PA, 1.570 [1.213, 2.032], p < .001, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA among participants with low- or vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.015 [0.649, 1.586], p = .948, moderate-intensity PA, 1.890 [1.416, 2.522], p < .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 2.403 [1.395, 4.139], p = .002, compared with sedentary as a reference category. For the intensity of PA between moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity jobs, after adjusting for sex and age, the ORs (95% CI) were as follows: low-intensity PA, 1.010 [0.759, 1.344], p = .945, moderate-intensity PA, 1.381 [1.136, 1.678], p = .001, and vigorous-intensity PA, 1.595 [1.023, 2.486], p = .039, compared to sedentary as a reference category. The presented findings show a strong association between

  5. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanks, William; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Background information and procedures for demonstrating physical phenomena to groups are described: a red plastic sheet that changes to blue, a group activity for understanding energy transfer, and hanging a spoon from one's nose to illustrate forces involved in static equilibrium. (SK)

  6. Perceptions of the Neighborhood Environment and Children’s Afterschool Moderate-to-Vigorous Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Samantha M; Dowda, Marsha; Colabianchi, Natalie; Porter, Dwayne; Dishman, Rod K.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests the neighborhood environment may be an important influence on children’s physical activity (PA) behaviors; however, findings are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to further understand the relationship between perceptions of the neighborhood environment and children’s afterschool moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Utilizing a structural equation modeling technique, we tested a conceptual model linking parent and child perceptions of the neighborhood environment, parent support for PA, and child outdoor PA with children’s afterschool MVPA. We found that child perception of the neighborhood environment and outdoor PA were positively associated with afterschool MVPA. In addition, parent support for PA positively influenced children’s outdoor PA. The neighborhood environment and outdoor activity appear to play an influential role on children’s afterschool PA behaviors. PMID:25679820

  7. Physical activity levels six months after a randomised controlled physical activity intervention for Pakistani immigrant men living in Norway

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To our knowledge, no studies have aimed at improving the PA level in south Asian immigrant men residing in Western countries, and few studies have considered the relevance of SCT constructs to the PA behaviour of this group in the long term. The observed low physical activity (PA) level among south Asian immigrants in Western countries may partly explain the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in this group. We have shown previously in a randomised controlled trial, the Physical Activity and Minority Health study (PAMH) that a social cognitive based intervention can beneficially influence PA level and subsequently reduce waist circumference and insulin resistance in the short-term. In an extended follow-up of the PAMH study: we aimed 1) to determine if the intervention produced long-term positive effects on PA level six months after intervention (follow-up 2 (FU2)), and 2) to identify the social cognitive mediators of any intervention effects. Methods Physically inactive Pakistani immigrant men (n = 150) who were free of CVD and T2D were randomly assigned to a five months PA intervention or a control group. Six months after the intervention ended, we telephoned all those who attended FU1 and invited them for a second follow-up test (FU2) (n = 133). PA was measured using ActiGraph accelerometers. Statistical differences between groups were determined by use of ANCOVA. Results Significant differences (baseline to FU2) between the groups were found for all PA variables (e.g., total PA level, sedentary time, PA intensity). Support from family and outcome expectancies increased more in the intervention group compared with the control group. Self-efficacy did not differ significantly between groups. Conclusions Our results show that a multi component PA programme can increase PA over the short and long term in a group of immigrant Pakistani men. However, we could not identify the factors that mediated these

  8. A comparison of subjective and objective measures of physical activity from the Newcastle 85+ study

    PubMed Central

    Innerd, Paul; Catt, Michael; Collerton, Joanna; Davies, Karen; Trenell, Michael; Kirkwood, Thomas B. L.; Jagger, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about physical activity (PA) in the very old, the fastest growing age group in the population. We aimed to examine the convergent validity of subjective and objective measures of PA in adults aged over 85 years. Methods: A total of 484 participants aged 87–89 years recruited to the Newcastle 85+ study completed a purpose-designed physical activity questionnaire (PAQ), which categorised participants as mildly active, moderately active and very active. Out of them, 337 participants wore a triaxial, raw accelerometer on the right wrist over a 5–7-day period to obtain objective measures of rest/activity, PA intensity and PA type. Data from subjective and objective measurement methods were compared. Results: Self-reported PA was significantly associated with objective measures of the daily sedentary time, low-intensity PA and activity type classified as sedentary, activities of daily living and walking. Objective measures of PA were significantly different when low, moderate and high self-reported PA categories were compared (all P < 0.001). Conclusion: The Newcastle 85+ PAQ demonstrated convergent validity with objective measures of PA. Our findings suggest that this PAQ can be used in the very old to rank individuals according to their level of total PA. PMID:26018999

  9. Structural details of light activation of the LOV2-based photoswitch PA-Rac1.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andreas; Barends, Thomas R M; Udvarhelyi, Anikó; Lenherr-Frey, Daniel; Lomb, Lukas; Menzel, Andreas; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-02-20

    Optical control of cellular processes is an emerging approach for studying biological systems, affording control with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically designed artificial photoswitches add an interesting extension to naturally occurring light-regulated functionalities. However, despite a great deal of structural information, the generation of new tools cannot be based fully on rational design yet; in many cases design is limited by our understanding of molecular details of light activation and signal transduction. Our biochemical and biophysical studies on the established optogenetic tool PA-Rac1, the photoactivatable small GTPase Rac1, reveal how unexpected details of the sensor-effector interface, such as metal coordination, significantly affect functionally important structural elements of this photoswitch. Together with solution scattering experiments, our results favor differences in the population of pre-existing conformations as the underlying allosteric activation mechanism of PA-Rac1, rather than the assumed release of the Rac1 domain from the caging photoreceptor domain. These results have implications for the design of new optogenetic tools and highlight the importance of including molecular details of the sensor-effector interface, which is however difficult to assess during the initial design of novel artificial photoswitches. PMID:25368973

  10. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  11. Physical Activity and Snus: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Henninger, Stéphane; Fischer, Roland; Cornuz, Jacques; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed at assessing the link between physical activity (PA), sports activity and snus use among young men in Switzerland. Data from the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF) were used to measure PA with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and sports activity with a single item. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to measure the association between snus use, PA and sports activity. Similar models were run for smoking and snuff use. Snus use increased in a dose-response association with PA (high level: OR = 1.72; 95% CI 1.16–2.55) and with individuals exercising once a week or more often (OR = 1.65; 95% CI 1.26–2.16; p < 0.001) or almost every day (OR = 2.27; 95% CI 1.72–3.01; p < 0.001) in separate models. Entered simultaneously, only sports and exercise maintained a basically unchanged significant dose-response relationship, whereas PA became non-significant. A non-significant dose-response relation was found for cigarette smoking and snuff use, indicating that the association with sport is specific to snus and not to tobacco use in general or smokeless tobacco in particular. This study showed that the association between snus use and sports is not specific to Nordic countries. PMID:26121189

  12. Gene therapy by proteasome activator, PA28γ, improves motor coordination and proteasome function in Huntington's disease YAC128 mice.

    PubMed

    Jeon, J; Kim, W; Jang, J; Isacson, O; Seo, H

    2016-06-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is neurologically characterized by involuntary movements, associated with degeneration of the medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and ubiquitin-positive neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs). It has been reported that the proteolytic activities of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are generally inhibited in HD patient's brain. We previously discovered that a proteasome activator (PA), PA28γ enhances proteasome activities and cell survival in in vitro HD model. In this study, we aimed to find whether PA28γ gene transfer improves the proteasome activities and pathological symptoms in in vivo HD model. We stereotaxically injected lenti-PA28γ virus into the striatum of mutant (MT) YAC128 HD mice and littermate (LM) controls at 14-18months of age, and validated their behavioral and biochemical changes at 12weeks after the injection. YAC128 mice showed a significant increase in their peptidyl-glutamyl preferring hydrolytic (PGPH) proteasome activity and the mRNA or protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and pro-BDNF after lenti-PA28γ injection. The number of ubiquitin-positive inclusion bodies was reduced in the striatum of YAC128 mice after lenti-PA28γ injection. YAC128 mice showed significant improvement of latency to fall on the rota-rod test after lenti-PA28γ injection. These data demonstrate that the gene therapy with PA, PA28γ can improve UPS function as well as behavioral abnormalities in HD model mice. PMID:26944602

  13. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  14. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Cancer.gov

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  15. TMPRSS4 upregulates uPA gene expression through JNK signaling activation to induce cancer cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Min, Hye-Jin; Lee, Yunhee; Zhao, Xue-Feng; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Myung Kyu; Lee, Jung Weon; Kim, Semi

    2014-02-01

    TMPRSS4 is a novel type II transmembrane serine protease that is highly expressed in pancreatic, thyroid, colon, and other cancer tissues. Previously, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 mediates tumor cell invasion, migration, and metastasis. However, the mechanisms by which TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrated that TMPRSS4 induced the transcription of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) gene through activating the transcription factors Sp1, Sp3, and AP-1 in mainly a JNK-dependent manner and that the induction of uPA was required for TMPRSS4-mediated cancer cell invasion and signaling events. In addition, the uPA receptor was involved in TMPRSS4-induced signaling activation and subsequent uPA expression probably through its association with TMPRSS4 on the cell surface. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that uPA expression was significantly correlated with TMPRSS4 expression in human lung and prostate cancers. These observations suggest that TMPRSS4 is an important regulator of uPA gene expression; the upregulation of uPA by TMPRSS4 contributes to invasion and may represent a novel mechanism for the control of invasion. PMID:23978400

  16. Spatial arrangement and functional role of α subunits of proteasome activator PA28 in hetero-oligomeric form

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Masaaki; Sahashi, Hiroki; Kurimoto, Eiji; Takata, Shin-ichi; Yagi, Hirokazu; Kanai, Keita; Sakata, Eri; Minami, Yasufumi; Tanaka, Keiji; Kato, Koichi

    2013-03-01

    Highlights: ► Homologous α and β subunits are alternatively arranged in the PA28 heptameric ring. ► The flexible loops of the three α subunits surround the site of substrate entry. ► The loops serve as gatekeepers that selectively hinder passage of longer peptides. - Abstract: A major form of proteasome activator PA28 is a heteroheptamer composed of interferon-γ-inducible α and β subunits, which share approximately 50% amino acid identity and possess distinct insert loops. This activator forms a complex with the 20S proteasome and thereby stimulates proteasomal degradation of peptides in an ATP-independent manner, giving rise to smaller antigenic peptides presented by major histocompatibility complex class I molecules. In this study, we performed biophysical and biochemical characterization of the structure and function of the PA28 hetero-oligomer. Deuteration-assisted small-angle neutron scattering demonstrated three α and four β subunits are alternately arranged in the heptameric ring. In this arrangement, PA28 loops surround the central pore of the heptameric ring (site for peptide entry). Activating the 20S proteasome with a PA28 mutant that lacked the α subunit loops cleaved model substrates longer than a nonapeptide with better efficiency when compared to wild-type PA28. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the flexible PA28 loops act as gatekeepers, which function to select the length of peptide substrates to be transported between the proteolytic chamber and the extra-proteasomal medium.

  17. Physical activity among adolescents: The role of various kinds of parental support.

    PubMed

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M; Holstein, B E

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data came from the Aarhus School Survey that included 2100 schoolchildren at 11, 13, and 15 years of age. Parental social support for PA was measured by items about encouragement to do PA, doing joint PA, parents watching PA, and talking about PA. PA was measured as at least 4 h of vigorous PA per week during leisure time. We used logistic regression analyses to estimate the associations for girls and boys separately, adjusted by age group, parents' occupational social class, family structure, and migration status. There were significant and graded associations between adolescents' PA and all four dimensions of parental support for PA. The association patterns were similar for mothers' and fathers' social support and similar for girls and boys. Social processes in the family are important for adolescents' participation in PA. It is important to continue to explore these social processes in order to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not. PMID:26346509

  18. Impact of Policy Environment Characteristics on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Children Attending Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin; Ajja, Rahma; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    State and national organizations recently developed policies focused on increasing physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs (ASPs). These policies emphasize "activity friendly" environment characteristics that, when present, should lead to higher levels of PA and reduce the amount of time children spend sedentary during an ASP. Currently,…

  19. Molecular requirements for the insecticidal activity of the plant peptide pea albumin 1 subunit b (PA1b).

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Pedro; Rahioui, Isabelle; Laugier, Christian; Jouvensal, Laurence; Meudal, Hervé; Chouabe, Christophe; Delmas, Agnès F; Gressent, Frédéric

    2010-10-22

    PA1b (pea albumin 1, subunit b) is a small and compact 37-amino acid protein, isolated from pea seeds (Pisum sativum), that adopts a cystine knot fold. It acts as a potent insecticidal agent against major pests in stored crops and vegetables, making it a promising bioinsecticide. Here, we investigate the influence of individual residues on the structure and bioactivity of PA1b. A collection of 13 PA1b mutants was successfully chemically synthesized in which the residues involved in the definition of PA1b amphiphilic and electrostatic characteristics were individually replaced with an alanine. The three-dimensional structure of PA1b was outstandingly tolerant of modifications. Remarkably, receptor binding and insecticidal activities were both dependent on common well defined clusters of residues located on one single face of the toxin, with Phe-10, Arg-21, Ile-23, and Leu-27 being key residues of the binding interaction. The inactivity of the mutants is clearly due to a change in the nature of the side chain rather than to a side effect, such as misfolding or degradation of the peptide, in the insect digestive tract. We have shown that a hydrophobic patch is the putative site of the interaction of PA1b with its binding site. Overall, the mutagenesis data provide major insights into the functional elements responsible for PA1b entomotoxic properties and give some clues toward a better understanding of the PA1b mode of action. PMID:20660598

  20. Accelerometer-based physical activity: total volume per day and standardized measures.

    PubMed

    Bassett, David R; Troiano, Richard P; McClain, James J; Wolff, Dana L

    2015-04-01

    The use of accelerometers in physical activity (PA) research has increased exponentially over the past 20 yr. The first commercially available accelerometer for assessing PA, the Caltrac, was worn on the waist and estimated PA energy expenditure in kilocalories. Around 1995, the emphasis shifted to measuring minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), especially for bouts of 10 min or longer. Recent studies, however, show that light-intensity PA and intermittent (nonbout) MVPA also have important health benefits. The total volume of PA performed is an important variable because it takes the frequency, intensity, and duration of activity bouts and condenses them down into a single metric. The total volume of PA is appropriate for many research applications and can enhance comparisons between studies. In the future, machine learning algorithms will provide improved accuracy for activity type recognition and estimation of PA energy expenditure. However, in the current landscape of objectively measured PA, total activity counts per day (TAC/d) is a proxy for the total volume of PA. TAC/d percentiles for age- and gender-specific groups have been developed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ActiGraph data (2003-2006), providing a novel way to assess PA. The use of TAC/d or standardized units of acceleration could harmonize PA across studies. TAC/d should be viewed as an additional metric, not intended to replace other metrics (e.g., sedentary time, light-intensity PA, moderate PA, and vigorous PA) that may also be related to health. As future refinements to wearable monitors occur, researchers should continue to consider metrics that reflect the total volume of PA in addition to existing PA metrics. PMID:25102292

  1. Lifestyle Physical Activity Behavior among South Asian Indian Immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Manju; Wilbur, JoEllen; Marquez, David; Farran, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known of the physical activity behavior of South Asian Indian immigrants (SAIs), though they have more than twice the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes than Whites. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive face-to-face survey design, comparing between men and women in leisure time (LTPA), household (HPA), and occupational physical activity (OPA). Participants also wore a Lifecorder EX (NL2200) accelerometer for seven days. Results Just over half (51.8%) of the participants met the recommended PA guidelines (≥150 minutes moderate-intensity or ≥75 minutes vigorous-intensity) through LTPA. The average number of daily steps was 6904.3, which is in the “low active” classification. Discussion Increasing lifestyle PA among SAIs is important; PA interventions appealing to gender and culture and with an aerobic component are needed. PMID:23686529

  2. Pedometer-Assessed Physical Activity in Young Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flohr, Judith A.; Todd, M. Kent; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) patterns of children. Forty-four 7th-grade students (19 boys, 25 girls) recorded pedometer data for 2 consecutive weeks. Separate 2 x 3 repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine differences in total steps/day between boys and girls and between after-school…

  3. A diet and physical activity intervention for rural African Americans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PURPOSE Epidemic levels of obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease are rampant in the largely rural Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) region of Mississippi. We assessed the effectiveness of a six-month, church-based, diet and physical activity (PA) intervention for improving diet quality (as ...

  4. Texting to increase physical activity in teens: Development & preliminary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to present formative research and preliminary results for a self-determination-theory (SDT)-based text messages to promote physical activity (PA) among teens. Thirty 14- to 17-year olds, stratified by gender and race/ethnicity (Black, Hispanic, White), were recruited to participate i...

  5. Prediction of energy expenditure and physical activity in preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate, nonintrusive, and feasible methods are needed to predict energy expenditure (EE) and physical activity (PA) levels in preschoolers. Herein, we validated cross-sectional time series (CSTS) and multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS) models based on accelerometry and heart rate (HR) ...

  6. Utilizing Wisconsin Afterschool Programs to Increase Physical Activity in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Bradley D.; Meinen, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately 31.7% of children in the United States are overweight or obese. Interventions in the afterschool setting may help combat childhood obesity. Research exists on interventions in school settings, but a few data exist for interventions about afterschool programs. This study investigates increasing physical activity (PA) in…

  7. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  8. Promoting physical activity in schools.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, N

    1993-10-01

    Neil Armstrong, director of the Coronary Prevention in Children Project, argues for a comprehensive programme for promoting children's physical activity. The project's survey of adult coronary risk factors in British children revealed a worryingly low level of physical activity among British schoolchildren. Schools are ideally placed to encourage children to take physical exercise, he writes, but parental role models also play an important part. PMID:8244725

  9. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  10. Physical activity: practice this idea

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary habits or insufficient activities to promote health benefits can influence the occurrence of chronic diseases. The cardiovascular risk factors arise, at least partially, from the individual-environment interaction during life, and worsen with aging and lack of physical exercise. Health promotion and prevention are among the greatest challenges of public health policies. However, physical activity turns out to be rarely recommended and, thus have a very poor adhesion. In spite of consensus about the benefits of physical activity in both primary and secondary prevention, only 32% of adults and 66% of children and adolescents, according to Healthy People 2010 guideline, practice leisure-time physical activity. Thus, the regular practice of physical activity and healthy habits require changes in basic concepts in government and social policies. The higher involvement of public and private sectors related to health and education, the more expressive would be the reduction in socioeconomic costs and the improvement in quality of life. PMID:24551484

  11. Does proximity to physical activity infrastructures predict maintenance of organized and unorganized physical activities in youth?

    PubMed Central

    MacKenzie, Jason; Brunet, Jennifer; Boudreau, Jonathan; Iancu, Horia-Daniel; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) infrastructures can provide youth chances to engage in PA. As determinants of organized and unorganized PA (OPA and UPA) may differ, we investigated if proximity to PA infrastructures (proximity) was associated with maintenance of OPA and UPA over 3 years. Youth from New Brunswick, Canada (n = 187; 10–12 years at baseline) reported participation in OPA and UPA every 4 months from 2011 to 2014 as part of the MATCH study. Proximity data were drawn from parent's questionnaires. Proximity scores were divided into tertiles. Kaplan–Meier and Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess associations between proximity and maintenance of OPA and UPA. There were no crude or adjusted differences in average maintenance of participation in OPA [mean number of survey cycle participation (95%CI) was 6.6 (5.7–7.5), 6.3 (5.5–7.1), and 5.8 (5.1–6.6)] or UPA [6.8 (6.2–7.4), 5.9 (5.3–6.5), and 6.6 (5.9–7.3)] across low, moderate, and high tertiles of proximity, respectively. Findings suggest that proximity does not affect maintenance of participation in OPA or UPA during adolescence. Other environmental aspects may have a greater effect. Further research is needed before conclusions can be made. PMID:26844149

  12. Exercise and Physical Activity Recommendations for People with Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Mark D.; Balemans, Astrid C.J.; Hurvitz, Edward A.

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and its promotion, as well as the avoidance of sedentary behaviour play important roles in health promotion and prevention of lifestyle-related diseases. Guidelines for typically developing youth and adults published by the World Health Organization and American College of Sports Medicine are available. However, detailed recommendations for PA and sedentary behaviour have not been established for children, adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy (CP). This paper presents the first CP-specific PA and exercise recommendations. The recommendations are based on (1) a comprehensive review and analysis of the literature, (2) expert opinion and (3) extensive clinical experience. The evidence supporting these recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials and observational studies involving children, adolescents and adults with CP, and buttressed by the previous guidelines for the general population. These recommendations may be used to guide healthcare providers on exercise and daily PA prescription for individuals with CP. PMID:26853808

  13. Barriers to and Facilitators of Physical Activity Program Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bethancourt, Hilary J.; Rosenberg, Dori E.; Beatty, Tara; Arterburn, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Regular physical activity (PA) is important for maintaining long-term physical, cognitive, and emotional health. However, few older adults engage in routine PA, and even fewer take advantage of programs designed to enhance PA participation. Though most managed Medicare members have free access to the Silver Sneakers and EnhanceFitness PA programs, the vast majority of eligible seniors do not utilize these programs. The goal of this qualitative study was to better understand the barriers to and facilitators of PA and participation in PA programs among older adults. Design This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews. Setting Focus groups took place at three Group Health clinics in King County, Washington. Participants Fifty-two randomly selected Group Health Medicare members between the ages of 66 to 78 participated. Methods We conducted four focus groups with 13 participants each. Focus group discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an inductive thematic approach and a social-ecological framework. Results Men and women were nearly equally represented among the participants, and the sample was largely white (77%), well-educated (69% college graduates), and relatively physically active. Prominent barriers to PA and PA program participation were physical limitations due to health conditions or aging, lack of professional guidance, and inadequate distribution of information on available and appropriate PA options and programs. Facilitators included the motivation to maintain physical and mental health and access to affordable, convenient, and stimulating PA options. Conclusion Older adult populations may benefit from greater support and information from their providers and health care systems on how to safely and successfully improve or maintain PA levels through later adulthood. Efforts among health care systems to boost PA among older adults may need to consider patient-centered adjustments to current PA programs, as

  14. Resources for physical activity in cancer centers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Kristina H; Carr, Lucas J; Stevinson, Clare

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) has many benefits for cancer survivors. However, the available PA resources for survivors at cancer centers throughout the United States are undocumented. The current study surveyed major cancer centers concerning the availability and types (e.g., facilities, programs, counseling, information resources) of PA resources available. Of supportive care services, PA resources were the least commonly reported. Significant correlations were found among availability of PA resources and other supportive care services. Although many cancer centers reported offering PA programming, formal and informal PA guidance and support seem to fall on oncology nurses and other clinicians. Oncology nurses should be reminded that they may be one of the only sources of PA guidance available to survivors at cancer centers. PMID:24305494

  15. Correlates of college students' physical activity: cross-cultural differences.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R; Jiang, Nan; Fernandez-Rojas, Xinia; Park, Bock-Hee

    2009-10-01

    This study examined cross-cultural differences in personal and behavioral determinants of vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) among college students living in distinctly different cultures, that is, the United States, Costa Rica, India, and South Korea. Participants of this study were recruited from randomly chosen public universities in the 4 countries during the 2006-2007 academic year. A total of 4685 students participated in the study (response rate 90%). Vigorous-intensity PA was measured by asking on how many of the past 7 days the participants participated in PA for at least 20 minutes that made them sweat or breathe hard. For moderate-intensity PA, participants were asked on how many of the past 7 days they participated in PA for at least 30 minutes that did not make them sweat or breathe hard. Findings indicate that whereas perceived overweight and fruit and vegetable consumption are relatively culture-free predictors of PA, gender and TV/video watching are culture-specific predictors. Binge drinking was not predictive of meeting the vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity PA guidelines in any of the 4 countries. PMID:19661101

  16. Strategies for promoting physical activity in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Sallis, Robert; Franklin, Barry; Joy, Liz; Ross, Robert; Sabgir, David; Stone, James

    2015-01-01

    The time has come for healthcare systems to take an active role in the promotion of physical activity (PA). The connection between PA and health has been clearly established and exercise should be viewed as a cost effective medication that is universally prescribed as a first line treatment for virtually every chronic disease. While there are potential risks associated with exercise, these can be minimized with a proper approach and are far outweighed by the benefits. Key to promoting PA in the clinical setting is the use of a PA Vital Sign in which every patient's exercise habits are assessed and recorded in their medical record. Those not meeting the recommended 150min per week of moderate intensity PA should be encouraged to increase their PA levels with a proper exercise prescription. We can improve compliance by assessing our patient's barriers to being more active and employing new and evolving technology like accelerometers and smart phones applications, along with various websites and programs that have proven efficacy. PMID:25459975

  17. Physics of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  18. Construct Validation of Physical Activity Surveys in Culturally Diverse Older Adults: A Comparison of Four Commonly Used Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Delilah S.; Ellis, Rebecca; Allen, Priscilla D.; Cherry, Katie E.; Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol E.; Wood, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish validity evidence of four physical activity (PA) questionnaires in culturally diverse older adults by comparing self-report PA with performance-based physical function. Participants were 54 older adults who completed the Continuous Scale Physical Functional Performance 10-item Test (CS-PFP10), Physical…

  19. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Voss, Michelle W.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Gothe, Neha P.; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60–80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  20. Physical Activity Is Linked to Greater Moment-To-Moment Variability in Spontaneous Brain Activity in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Voss, Michelle W; Cooke, Gillian E; Gothe, Neha P; Fanning, Jason; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2015-01-01

    Higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) in old age are associated with greater brain structural and functional integrity, and higher cognitive functioning. However, it is not known how different aspects of lifestyle such as sedentariness, light PA (LI-PA), or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MV-PA) relate to neural activity in aging. In addition, it is not known whether the effects of PA on brain function differ or overlap with those of CRF. Here, we objectively measured CRF as oxygen consumption during a maximal exercise test and measured PA with an accelerometer worn for 7 days in 100 healthy but low active older adults (aged 60-80 years). We modeled the relationships between CRF, PA, and brain functional integrity using multivariate partial least squares analysis. As an index of functional brain integrity we used spontaneous moment-to-moment variability in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal (SDBOLD), known to be associated with better cognitive functioning in aging. We found that older adults who engaged more in LI-PA and MV-PA had greater SDBOLD in brain regions that play a role in integrating segregated functional domains in the brain and benefit from greater CRF or PA, such as precuneus, hippocampus, medial and lateral prefrontal, and temporal cortices. Our results suggest that engaging in higher intensity PA may have protective effects on neural processing in aging. Finally, we demonstrated that older adults with greater overall WM microstructure were those showing more LI-PA and MV-PA and greater SDBOLD. We conclude that SDBOLD is a promising correlate of functional brain health in aging. Future analyses will evaluate whether SDBOLD is modifiable with interventions aimed to increase PA and CRF in older adults. PMID:26244873

  1. Screening Physical Activity in Family Practice: Validity of the Spanish Version of a Brief Physical Activity Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Puig-Ribera, Anna; Martín-Cantera, Carlos; Puigdomenech, Elisa; Real, Jordi; Romaguera, Montserrat; Magdalena-Belio, José Félix; Recio-Rodríguez, Jose Ignacio; Rodriguez-Martin, Beatriz; Arietaleanizbeaskoa, Maria Soledad; Repiso–Gento, Irene; Garcia-Ortiz, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The use of brief screening tools to identify inactive patients is essential to improve the efficiency of primary care-based physical activity (PA) programs. However, the current employment of short PA questionnaires within the Spanish primary care pathway is unclear. This study evaluated the validity of the Spanish version of a Brief Physical Activity Assessment Tool (SBPAAT). Methods A validation study was carried out within the EVIDENT project. A convenience sample of patients (n = 1,184; age 58.9±13.7 years; 60.5% female) completed the SBPAAT and the 7-day Physical Activity Recall (7DPAR) and, in addition, wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) for seven consecutive days. Validity was evaluated by measuring agreement, Kappa correlation coefficients, sensitivity and specificity in achieving current PA recommendations with the 7DPAR. Pearson correlation coefficients with the number of daily minutes engaged in moderate and vigorous intensity PA according to the accelerometer were also assessed. Comparison with accelerometer counts, daily minutes engaged in sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, total daily kilocalories, and total PA and leisure time expenditure (METs-hour-week) between the sufficiently and insufficiently active groups identified by SBPAAT were reported. Results The SBPAAT identified 41.3% sufficiently active (n = 489) and 58.7% insufficiently active (n = 695) patients; it showed moderate validity (k = 0.454, 95% CI: 0.402–0.505) and a specificity and sensitivity of 74.3% and 74.6%, respectively. Validity was fair for identifying daily minutes engaged in moderate (r = 0.215, 95% CI:0.156 to 0.272) and vigorous PA (r = 0.282, 95% CI:0.165 to 0.391). Insufficiently active patients according to the SBPAAT significantly reported fewer counts/minute (-22%), fewer minutes/day of moderate (-11.38) and vigorous PA (-2.69), spent fewer total kilocalories/day (-753), and reported a lower energy cost (METs-hour-week) of physical

  2. Associations among social capital, parenting for active lifestyles, and youth physical activity in rural families living in upstate New York.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Nishi, Akihiro; Kranz, Sibylle; Wyckoff, Lynae; May, John J; Earle-Richardson, Giulia B; Strogatz, David S; Jenkins, Paul L

    2012-10-01

    While emerging research supports a positive relationship between social capital and youth physical activity (PA), few studies have examined possible mechanisms explaining this relationship and no studies have focused on rural youth. In this study, we examined parents' support of children's PA as an intermediary factor linking social capital and youth PA in a largely rural cross sectional sample of American children aged 6- to 19-years and their parents/guardians (N=767 families) living in upstate New York. Parents completed a self-administered survey assessing demographic factors, perceived social capital, support for children's PA, and children's PA including time spent outdoors and days per week of sufficient PA. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothesis that higher social capital is linked with higher parental support for PA and, in turn, higher PA in children. Analyses were conducted separately for younger (6-12 years) and older (13-19 years) children and controlled for demographic factors (child age, household education, participation in a food assistance program) and perceived neighborhood safety. Anticipated relationships among social capital, parents' activity-related support, and children's PA were identified for older, but not younger children. Findings suggest that parent support for children's PA is one possible mechanism linking social capital and youth PA and the parents of adolescents may rely more heavily on cues from their social environment to shape their approaches to supporting their children's PA than parents of younger children. PMID:22818486

  3. Understanding Physical Activity Behavior in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris; Fisher, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Erich; Rhodes, Ryan; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Only 30% of college students meet the recommended amount of physical activity (PA) for health benefits, and this number is lower for African American students. Moreover, the correlates of PA may vary by ethnicity. Objective: In the present study, the authors tested the utility of the theory of planned behavior for explaining PA intentions and…

  4. Physical activity assessed with three different methods and the Framingham Risk Score on 10-year coronary heart disease risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) protects against coronary heart disease (CHD) by favorably altering several CHD risk factors. In order to best understand the true nature of the relationship between PA and CHD, the impact different PA assessment methods have on the relationships must first be clarified. The p...

  5. The Role of Self-Efficacy and Referent Specific Social Support in Promoting Rural Adolescent Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Forlaw, Loretta

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the role of social support (SS) and self-efficacy (SE) for physical activity (PA) in rural high school girls (N = 259, 15.5+1.2yrs). Methods: Using structural equation modeling, the relationships among PA, SS for PA from mother, father, and peers, and SE for overcoming barriers, seeking support, and resisting competing…

  6. Contribution of the Nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the Activity of Novel Regimens in Murine Models of Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E.; Upton, Anna M.

    2014-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. PMID:25331697

  7. Contribution of the nitroimidazoles PA-824 and TBA-354 to the activity of novel regimens in murine models of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Tasneen, Rokeya; Williams, Kathy; Amoabeng, Opokua; Minkowski, Austin; Mdluli, Khisimuzi E; Upton, Anna M; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2015-01-01

    New regimens based on two or more novel agents are sought in order to shorten or simplify the treatment of both drug-susceptible and drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis. PA-824 is a nitroimidazo-oxazine now in phase II trials and has shown significant early bactericidal activity alone and in combination with the newly approved agent bedaquiline or with pyrazinamide with or without moxifloxacin. While the development of PA-824 continues, a potential next-generation derivative, TBA-354, has been discovered to have in vitro potency superior to that of PA-824 and greater metabolic stability than that of the other nitroimidazole derivative in clinical development, delamanid. In the present study, we compared the activities of PA-824 and TBA-354 as monotherapies in murine models of the initial intensive and continuation phases of treatment, as well as in combination with bedaquiline plus pyrazinamide, sutezolid, and/or clofazimine. The monotherapy studies demonstrated that TBA-354 is 5 to 10 times more potent than PA-824, but selected mutants are cross-resistant to PA-824 and delamanid. The combination studies revealed that TBA-354 is 2 to 4 times more potent than PA-824 when combined with bedaquiline, and when administered at a dose equivalent to that of PA-824, TBA-354 demonstrated superior sterilizing efficacy. Perhaps most importantly, the addition of either nitroimidazole significantly improved the sterilizing activities of bedaquiline and sutezolid, with or without pyrazinamide, confirming the value of each agent in this potentially universally active short-course regimen. PMID:25331697

  8. The role of schools in children's physical activity participation: staff perceptions.

    PubMed

    Huberty, J; Dinkel, D; Coleman, J; Beighle, A; Apenteng, B

    2012-12-01

    The school setting provides a promising environment to increase children's physical activity (PA), however, staff often impact the success of PA within schools. The purpose of this article was to describe the knowledge of elementary school staff related to PA and their perception of the importance of the school environment being conducive to PA prior to the implementation of a recess intervention. Qualitative focus groups were conducted in 12 elementary schools in the Midwest. Grounded theory was used to explore participants' knowledge and perceptions. Participants felt PA was important but believed several factors impacted children's ability to be more active: (i) lack of time due to increasing academic demands, (ii) peer pressure (especially in girls) not to be active and (iii) lack of space and equipment. When discussing recess, staff felt that their encouragement of or active participation in PA with children resulted in more activity. Furthermore, even though participants were aware of PA benefits, they noticed eliminating recess was often used as a punishment for misbehavior. School-based PA promotion and PA opportunities hold great promise for increasing PA in children. However, to maximize these efforts school polices related to training staff about PA are needed. PMID:22717940

  9. Barriers to physical activity in children with autism spectrum disorders: Relationship to physical activity and screen time

    PubMed Central

    Must, A.; Phillips, S. M.; Carol, Curtin; Bandini, L. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual, social, and community barriers to physical activity (PA) experienced by children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) make PA participation more difficult and may contribute to increased screen time. Methods We compared the prevalence of parent-reported barriers to PA among 58 typically developing (TD) children and 53 children with an ASD, 3-11 years, and assessed the association between barriers and PA participation and screen time among children with ASD. Results Parents of children with ASD reported significantly more barriers than parents of TD children. Based on parent-report, 60% of children with ASD required too much supervision compared to no TD children (p<0.001). Parents of children with ASD were more likely to report that adults lack skills needed to include their child (58%), that their child has few friends (45%), and that other children exclude their child (23%). The number of parent-reported barriers to PA was inversely correlated with the hours spent in PA per year (r=−0.27, p=0.05) and positively related to total screen time (r=0.32, p<0.03). Conclusions These findings underscore the need for community-based PA programs designed to meet the special requirements of this population and policies that compel schools and other government-supported organizations for inclusion and/or targeted programming. PMID:25920014

  10. Multifunctional roles of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in cancer stemness and chemoresistance of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Stepanova, Victoria; Lebedeva, Tatiana; Holterman, AiXuan L.; Estes, Norman; Cines, Douglas B.; Rao, Jasti S.; Gondi, Christopher S.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost always lethal. One of the underlying reasons for this lethality is believed to be the presence of cancer stem cells (CSC), which impart chemoresistance and promote recurrence, but the mechanisms responsible are unclear. Recently the poor prognosis of PDAC has been correlated with increased expression of urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). In the present study we examine the role of uPA in the generation of PDAC CSC. We observe a subset of cells identifiable as a side population (SP) when sorted by flow cytometry of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells that possess the properties of CSC. A large fraction of these SP cells are CD44 and CD24 positive, are gemcitabine resistant, possess sphere-forming ability, and exhibit increased tumorigenicity, known characteristics of cancer stemness. Increased tumorigenicity and gemcitabine resistance decrease after suppression of uPA. We observe that uPA interacts directly with transcription factors LIM homeobox-2 (Lhx2), homeobox transcription factor A5 (HOXA5), and Hey to possibly promote cancer stemness. uPA regulates Lhx2 expression by suppressing expression of miR-124 and p53 expression by repressing its promoter by inactivating HOXA5. These results demonstrate that regulation of gene transcription by uPA contributes to cancer stemness and clinical lethality. PMID:23864708

  11. Current perspectives on the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) for treatment of acute ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sherita N; Mehndiratta, Prachi; Johansen, Michelle C; McMurry, Timothy L; Johnston, Karen C; Southerland, Andrew M

    2014-01-01

    In 1995, the NINDS (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke) tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) Stroke Study Group published the results of a large multicenter clinical trial demonstrating efficacy of intravenous tPA by revealing a 30% relative risk reduction (absolute risk reduction 11%–15%) compared with placebo at 90 days in the likelihood of having minimal or no disability. Since approval in 1996, tPA remains the only drug treatment for acute ischemic stroke approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. Over the years, an abundance of research and clinical data has supported the safe and efficacious use of intravenous tPA in all eligible patients. Despite such supporting data, it remains substantially underutilized. Challenges to the utilization of tPA include narrow eligibility and treatment windows, risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage, perceived lack of efficacy in certain high-risk subgroups, and a limited pool of neurological and stroke expertise in the community. With recent US census data suggesting annual stroke incidence will more than double by 2050, better education and consensus among both the medical and lay public are necessary to optimize the use of tPA for all eligible stroke patients. Ongoing and future research should continue to improve upon the efficacy of tPA through more rapid stroke diagnosis and treatment, refinement of advanced neuroimaging and stroke biomarkers, and successful demonstration of alternative means of reperfusion. PMID:24591838

  12. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  13. Influence of Activity Monitor Location and Bout Duration on Free-Living Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heil, Daniel P.; Bennett, Gary G.; Bond, Kathleen S.; Webster, Michael D.; Wolin, Kathleen Y.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the location (ankle, hip, wrist) where an activity monitor (AM) is worn and of the minimum bout duration (BD) on physical activity (PA) variables during free-living monitoring. Study 1 participants wore AMs at three locations for 1 day while wearing the Intelligent Device for Energy…

  14. [Adapting physical activities for an active retirement].

    PubMed

    Renaudie, François

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of doing adapted physical exercise for elderly people have been proven. For more than thirty years, the French Federation for an Active Retirement has been striving to help people age well by proposing multiple activities to remain in good health after the age of 50. Doctors, activity leaders and federal instructors are attentive to each individual's capacities. PMID:27449307

  15. Understanding the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Physical Activity-Induced Health Benefits.

    PubMed

    Neufer, P Darrell; Bamman, Marcas M; Muoio, Deborah M; Bouchard, Claude; Cooper, Dan M; Goodpaster, Bret H; Booth, Frank W; Kohrt, Wendy M; Gerszten, Robert E; Mattson, Mark P; Hepple, Russell T; Kraus, William E; Reid, Michael B; Bodine, Sue C; Jakicic, John M; Fleg, Jerome L; Williams, John P; Joseph, Lyndon; Evans, Mary; Maruvada, Padma; Rodgers, Mary; Roary, Mary; Boyce, Amanda T; Drugan, Jonelle K; Koenig, James I; Ingraham, Richard H; Krotoski, Danuta; Garcia-Cazarin, Mary; McGowan, Joan A; Laughlin, Maren R

    2015-07-01

    The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) are well documented, yet the mechanisms by which PA prevents disease and improves health outcomes are poorly understood. To identify major gaps in knowledge and potential strategies for catalyzing progress in the field, the NIH convened a workshop in late October 2014 entitled "Understanding the Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Physical Activity-Induced Health Benefits." Presentations and discussions emphasized the challenges imposed by the integrative and intermittent nature of PA, the tremendous discovery potential of applying "-omics" technologies to understand interorgan crosstalk and biological networking systems during PA, and the need to establish an infrastructure of clinical trial sites with sufficient expertise to incorporate mechanistic outcome measures into adequately sized human PA trials. Identification of the mechanisms that underlie the link between PA and improved health holds extraordinary promise for discovery of novel therapeutic targets and development of personalized exercise medicine. PMID:26073496

  16. Health Promotion Efforts as Predictors of Physical Activity in Schools: An Application of the Diffusion of Innovations Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M.; Centeio, Erin E.; Van Dongen, Daniel J.; Carson, Russell L.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Implementing a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) effectively addresses public health issues by providing opportunities for physical activity (PA). Grounded in the Diffusion of Innovations model, the purpose of this study was to identify how health promotion efforts facilitate opportunities for PA. Methods: Physical…

  17. Walk on the Bright Side: Physical Activity and Affect in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Jutta; Thompson, Renee J.; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2014-01-01

    Although prescribed exercise has been found to improve affect and reduce levels of depression, we do not know how self-initiated everyday physical activity influences levels of positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) in depressed persons. Fifty-three individuals diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 53 never-depressed controls participated in a seven-day experience sampling study. Participants were prompted randomly eight times per day and answered questions about their physical activity and affective state. Over the week, the two groups of participants did not differ in average level of physical activity. As expected, participants with MDD reported lower average PA and higher average NA than did never-depressed controls. Both participants with MDD and controls reported higher levels of PA at prompts after physical activity than at prompts after inactive periods; moreover, for both groups of participants, PA increased from a prompt after an inactive period to a subsequent prompt at which activity was reported. Depressed participants in particular showed a dose-response effect of physical activity on affect: longer duration and/or higher intensity of physical activity increased their PA significantly more than did short duration and/or lower intensity physical activity. Physical activity did not influence NA in either group. In contrast to previous treatment studies that examined the effects of prescribed structured exercise, this investigation showed that self-initiated physical activity influences PA. These findings also underscore the importance of distinguishing between PA and NA to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the effects of physical activity on affect in MDD. PMID:21553939

  18. Physical Activity & Well-being.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seefeldt, Vern, Ed.

    This book reviews evidence in the biological and behavioral sciences relating physical activity to human well-being. The following articles are included: (1) "Physical Growth and Maturation" (Robert M. Malina); (2) "Acquisition of Motor Skills During Childhood" (John L. Haubenstricker and Vern D. Seefeldt); (3) "Development of Sensory-Motor…

  19. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children. PMID:26573442

  20. Individuals Underestimate Moderate and Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Canning, Karissa L.; Brown, Ruth E.; Jamnik, Veronica K.; Salmon, Art; Ardern, Chris I.; Kuk, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether the common physical activity (PA) intensity descriptors used in PA guidelines worldwide align with the associated percent heart rate maximum method used for prescribing relative PA intensities consistently between sexes, ethnicities, age categories and across body mass index (BMI) classifications. Objectives The objectives of this study were to determine whether individuals properly select light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA using the intensity descriptions in PA guidelines and determine if there are differences in estimation across sex, ethnicity, age and BMI classifications. Methods 129 adults were instructed to walk/jog at a “light,” “moderate” and “vigorous effort” in a randomized order. The PA intensities were categorized as being below, at or above the following %HRmax ranges of: 50–63% for light, 64–76% for moderate and 77–93% for vigorous effort. Results On average, people correctly estimated light effort as 51.5±8.3%HRmax but underestimated moderate effort as 58.7±10.7%HRmax and vigorous effort as 69.9±11.9%HRmax. Participants walked at a light intensity (57.4±10.5%HRmax) when asked to walk at a pace that provided health benefits, wherein 52% of participants walked at a light effort pace, 19% walked at a moderate effort and 5% walked at a vigorous effort pace. These results did not differ by sex, ethnicity or BMI class. However, younger adults underestimated moderate and vigorous intensity more so than middle-aged adults (P<0.05). Conclusion When the common PA guideline descriptors were aligned with the associated %HRmax ranges, the majority of participants underestimated the intensity of PA that is needed to obtain health benefits. Thus, new subjective descriptions for moderate and vigorous intensity may be warranted to aid individuals in correctly interpreting PA intensities. PMID:24835105

  1. QSAR study of substituted 2-pyridinyl guanidines as selective urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, C; Moorthy, N S Hari Narayana; Trivedi, Piyush

    2009-02-01

    A quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis was conducted on two different series of pyridinylguanidines acting as inhibitors of urokinase-type plasminogen activator using QuaSAR descriptors of molecular modeling software MOE. Multiple linear regression analysis following a stepwise scheme was employed to generate QSARs that relate molecular descriptors to uPA inhibitory activity data of the title compounds. Among the several QSARs generated by MLR analysis, the best models were selected on the basis of their statistical significance and predictive potential. The interpretation of the selected QSAR models suggest that uPA inhibitory activity of compounds in series 1 is influenced by their molecular shape, molecular flexibility and halogen atoms in the molecule whereas the uPA inhibitory potency of compounds in series 2 is dependent on molecular lipophilicity, number of double bonds and spatial orientation of bulky substituents in the molecule. PMID:19012070

  2. Strategies to encourage physical activity in patients with hemophilia to improve quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Goto, Miwa; Takedani, Hideyuki; Yokota, Kazuhiko; Haga, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Hemophilia is a bleeding disorder caused by a congenital abnormality of blood coagulation. Until the mid-1970s, patients with hemophilia (PWH) were advised to refrain from physical activity (PA) because of a perceived increased risk of bleeding. Since then, PA, which is recognized as being essential for health maintenance, is now recommended by the World Federation of Hemophilia. Moreover, a number of studies reported that PA can improve treatment efficacy and prevent bleeding in PWH. Physical assessment and intervention in PA are currently used in clinical practice. However, the necessity of PA is not emphasized, and many PWH generally have low- to- no PA. Therefore, a behavior change approach to encourage patient motivation is becoming ever more important. In this article, we review articles addressing PA in PWH and discuss strategies to encourage PA through a behavior change approach by focusing on factors relevant to hemophilia, such as benefits and bleeding risk of PA, risk management of bleeding, PA characteristics, and difficulty with exercise adherence. The trust relationship between clinicians and patients, a transtheoretical model of behavior change, and motivation theory as approaches to promote PA are introduced. Finally, we review a case report of the clinical success of a behavior change approach to promote PA. Many PWH find it difficult to continue PA because of aging, fear of bleeding, insufficient recognition of PA benefits, and psychological problems. Therefore, it is essential and important to perform prophylaxis with PWH and to heighten their understanding of the benefits and risks of PA, before initiating the exercise regimen. For those patients who find it difficult to participate in PA, it is necessary to plan individual-based behavior change approach and encourage self-efficacy. PMID:27274330

  3. An In-Depth Examination of Perceptions of Physical Activity in Regularly Active and Insufficiently Active Older African American Women: A Participatory Approach

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite considerable research and programmatic efforts to alleviate racial/ethnic disparities in physical activity (PA), disparities in PA among older minorities and major racial ethnic groups persist. This study explored perceptions of PA among regularly active (RA) and insufficiently active (IA) older African American women (AAW) and the factors that influence (positively and negatively) their physical participation in their socio-cultural environment. A total of 20 AAW aged 60 to 80 years participated in a cross-sectional mixed-methods study (i.e., qualitative and quantitative) employing participatory research approaches (i.e., photoelicitation) along with an objective assessment of PA. Nine women were considered RA and 11 IA according to current PA recommendations. RA and IA women held two major beliefs about the nature of PA (i.e., PA as a broadly defined construct that goes beyond traditional exercise routines; and PA and exercise are synonymous and can be used interchangeably) and had a good understanding of its benefits. Participants in both groups did not know about the importance of PA intensity for health benefits. Barriers and facilitator of PA were found to be similar among RA and IA participants. Special attention should be paid to providing access to no or low cost opportunities for PA participation in safe environments. PMID:26554842

  4. Strategies for Physical Activity Promotion beyond the Physical Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faber, Larry; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; Darst, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The current need for physical activity has extended beyond the limited time given to students in physical education classes. In order for students to receive appropriate levels of physical activity (i.e., at least 60 minutes per day), it is necessary for physical educators to incorporate physical activity opportunities outside the traditional…

  5. Physical Activity and Environmental Influences during Secondary School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Louie, Lobo

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity engagement during physical education is important for many reasons, including developing physical fitness and movement skills and promoting health. Much more is known about physical activity in elementary than secondary schools. We examined physical activity and how it was influenced by instructor-related and environmental…

  6. Physical Activity in Vietnam: Estimates and Measurement Issues

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Tan Van; Blizzard, Christopher Leigh; Luong, Khue Ngoc; Truong, Ngoc Le Van; Tran, Bao Quoc; Otahal, Petr; Srikanth, Velandai; Nelson, Mark Raymond; Au, Thuy Bich; Ha, Son Thai; Phung, Hai Ngoc; Tran, Mai Hoang; Callisaya, Michele; Gall, Seana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aims were to provide the first national estimates of physical activity (PA) for Vietnam, and to investigate issues affecting their accuracy. Methods Measurements were made using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) on a nationally-representative sample of 14706 participants (46.5% males, response 64.1%) aged 25−64 years selected by multi-stage stratified cluster sampling. Results Approximately 20% of Vietnamese people had no measureable PA during a typical week, but 72.9% (men) and 69.1% (women) met WHO recommendations for PA by adults for their age. On average, 52.0 (men) and 28.0 (women) Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET)-hours/week (largely from work activities) were reported. Work and total PA were higher in rural areas and varied by season. Less than 2% of respondents provided incomplete information, but an additional one-in-six provided unrealistically high values of PA. Those responsible for reporting errors included persons from rural areas and all those with unstable work patterns. Box-Cox transformation (with an appropriate constant added) was the most successful method of reducing the influence of large values, but energy-scaled values were most strongly associated with pathophysiological outcomes. Conclusions Around seven-in-ten Vietnamese people aged 25–64 years met WHO recommendations for total PA, which was mainly from work activities and higher in rural areas. Nearly all respondents were able to report their activity using the GPAQ, but with some exaggerated values and seasonal variation in reporting. Data transformation provided plausible summary values, but energy-scaling fared best in association analyses. PMID:26485044

  7. Physical activity in youth with well-controlled versus poorly controlled type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Type 2 diabetes increases risk of chronic disease. The existing guidelines are for American youth to attain at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity (PA). Fewer than 20% achieve this goal. This study examines differences between blood glucose control and PA in youth with type 2 diabetes durin...

  8. The Role of Biographical Characteristics in Preservice Classroom Teachers' School Physical Activity Promotion Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin A.; Monsma, Eva; Erwin, Heather E.

    2010-01-01

    Recommendations for increasing children's daily physical activity (PA) call on classroom teachers to assume an activist role at school. This study examined relationships among preservice classroom teachers' (PCT; n = 247) biographical characteristics, perceptions and attitudes regarding school PA promotion (SPAP). Results indicated participants…

  9. Children's Physical Activity Levels during Primary School Break Times: A Quantitative and Qualitative Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Emma; Woodfield, Lorayne A.; Nevill, Alan A. M.

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to assess the diversity of primary school children's physical activity (PA) during outdoor recess. The study was grounded in a mixed method approach, assisting in the identification of multifaceted predictors of children's PA, including insights to social behaviours during break time. Data were obtained from…

  10. Promoting Physical Activity in Elementary Schools: Needs Assessment and a Pilot Study of Brain Breaks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perera, Thushanthi; Frei, Simone; Frei, Balz; Bobe, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    A sedentary life style contributes to many chronic diseases and poor educational performance. Since elementary school-aged children spend most wakeful hours in school, classroom teachers are essential for providing physical activity (PA) breaks during school. As first objective, we assessed current PA levels for Oregon public elementary schools…

  11. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-01-01

    Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

  12. Seasonal and Daily Variation in Physical Activity among Three-Year-Old Finnish Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soini, Anne; Tammelin, Tuija; Sääkslahti, Arja; Watt, Anthony; Villberg, Jari; Kettunen, Tarja; Mehtälä, Anette; Poskiparta, Marita

    2014-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to assess seasonal, daily, and gender variations in children's physical activity (PA). ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers were used to record the three-year-old children's PA levels for five consecutive days in autumn and winter. Complete data for both seasons were obtained for 47 children. Despite a…

  13. A Cost Analysis of a Physical Activity Intervention for Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the costs of a physical activity (PA) and an educational comparison intervention. 424 older adults at risk for mobility disability were randomly assigned to either condition. The PA program consisted of center-based exercise sessions 3x weekly for 8 weeks, 2x weekly for weeks 9-24 and we...

  14. Longitudinal Changes in Beliefs by Stage of Physical Activity Adoption in Iranian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Berry, Tanya R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aims of this study were to examine the relationships among physical activity (PA)-related beliefs and to determine to what extent Iranian adolescents in different stages of PA adoption differ in perceived benefits and barriers during a 3-year transition from junior high school to high school. Methods: Data were collected from…

  15. Differences in the Correlates of Physical Activity between Urban and Rural Canadian Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loucaides, Constantinos A.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Bercovitz, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), a significant proportion of youth remains inactive. Studies assessing differences in the correlates of PA among urban and rural youth are scarce, and such investigations can help identify subgroups of the population that may need to be targeted for special intervention programs. The…

  16. Perceived Environmental Church Support and Physical Activity among Black Church Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Saunders, Ruth P.; Hooker, Steven P.; Hussey, James R.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Churches are an appealing setting for implementing health-related behavior change programs. Purpose: The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between perceived environmental church support for physical activity (PA) and PA behaviors. Method: Black church members from South Carolina ("n" = 309) wore an…

  17. Physical Activity Behaviors and Emotional Self-Efficacy: Is There a Relationship for Adolescents?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Robert F.; Umstattd, M. Renee; Zullig, Keith J.; Paxton, Raheem J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study explored relationships between physical activity (PA) behaviors and emotional self-efficacy (ESE) in a statewide sample of public high school adolescents in South Carolina (n = 3836). Methods: The Center for Disease Control Youth Risk Behavior Survey PA items and an adolescent ESE scale were used. Logistic regression…

  18. Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions, and Beliefs regarding Physical Activity on a College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullally, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the many proven benefits of exercise, obesity rates on college campuses continue to rise. At the same time, physical activity (PA) courses are being reduced or cut at various educational institutions. The loss of PA courses creates a problem because college students do not receive the necessary education they need in relation to the…

  19. Exploring Physical Activity by Ethnicity and Gender in College Students Using Social Cognitive Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip; Rhodes, Ryan; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Courneya, Kerry S.

    2012-01-01

    Intervention;The psychological determinants of physical activity (PA) among college students may vary by ethnicity and gender, but few studies have considered these characteristics. This study tested constructs from Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) by ethnicity and gender to explain differences in PA. A total of 231 Blacks (70% female) and 218 White…

  20. Determining Daily Physical Activity Levels of Youth with Developmental Disabilities: Days of Monitoring Required?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, So-Yeun; Yun, Joonkoo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way…

  1. Parent Perceptions of Factors Influencing After-School Physical Activity of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrusnikova, Iva; Miccinello, Dannielle L.

    2012-01-01

    The study assessed parental perceptions of the benefits of physical activity (PA) and the factors that influence participation of children with autism spectrum disorders in PA after school. Data were collected from 103 parents using an online open-ended questionnaire and focus-group interviews. Data were analyzed using a socioecological model.…

  2. Ethnicity as a Moderator of the Theory of Planned Behavior and Physical Activity in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Chris M.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phil; Nehl, Eric; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Courneya, Kerry S.; Baker, Frank; Hunt, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Most college students do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines, and ethnic disparities exist. The present study examined the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in explaining PA intentions and behavior in black and white college students and whether any TPB relationships were moderated by ethnicity. Black (n = 170) and white (n =…

  3. Effects of goal setting on dietary and physical activity changes in the Boy Scout badge projects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was...

  4. Physical Activity Related to Depression and Predicted Mortality Risk: Results from the Americans' Changing Lives Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin; Lan, William; Lee, Charles C.-L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the association between three types of physical activities (PA) and depression, and the relationship between PA and later mortality. Previous studies rarely assessed these associations in one single study in randomly selected population samples. Few studies have assessed these relations by adjusting the covariate of…

  5. Depressive Symptoms Negate the Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity on Mortality Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Pai-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to: (1) compare the association between various levels of physical activity (PA) and mortality; and (2) examine the potential modifying effect of depressive symptoms on the PA-mortality associations. Previous large scale randomized studies rarely assess the association in conjunction with modifying effects of depressive…

  6. Effect of Pedometer-Based Physical Activity Interventions: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Minsoo; Marshall, Simon J.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Lee, Jin-Oh

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) improves mental health and reduces the risk of a number of adverse health outcomes, including cardiovascular disease mortality, hypertension, colon cancer, and diabetes mellitus. Many studies with different strategies have been conducted to increase the level of PA for people of all ages. One of many strategies…

  7. Effects of Goal Setting on Dietary and Physical Activity Changes in the Boy Scout Badge Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latif, Hira; Watson, Kathy; Nguyen, Nga; Thompson, Debbe; Baranowski, Janice; Jago, Russell; Cullen, Karen W.; Baranowski, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Background: This study evaluates the relationship of goal setting to low-fat vegetable (LV) and fruit/100% juice (FJ) consumption and physical activity (PA) change. Methods: A total of 473 10- to 14-year-old Boy Scouts from Houston took part in a 9-week intervention. A two-group (LV and FJ or PA) intervention design was used with each group…

  8. Student Academic Performance Outcomes of a Classroom Physical Activity Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather; Fedewa, Alicia; Ahn, Soyeon

    2012-01-01

    Physical activity is beneficial to children's health, yet academic pressures limit opportunities for students throughout the school day. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a classroom PA intervention on student academic performance outcomes. Intervention participants (n = 15) received daily PA breaks. Reading and mathematics…

  9. A Qualitative Examination of Perceived Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity for Urban and Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Jilcott, Stephanie B.; Shores, Kindal A.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Brownson, Ross C.; Novick, Lloyd F.

    2010-01-01

    Many adolescents, both rural and urban, are not meeting the recommended levels for physical activity (PA). This investigation was designed to elicit socioecologic barriers and facilitators for PA in rural and urban middle school youth and their parents. Thirteen focus groups were conducted with 41 youth and 50 parents from eastern North Carolina.…

  10. Is School Community Readiness Related to Physical Activity before and after the Ready for Recess Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehlers, Diane K.; Huberty, Jennifer L.; Beseler, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine: (i) the effect of schools' baseline community readiness (CR) on youth physical activity (PA) at recess prior to the Ready for Recess intervention; (ii) if changes in PA due to the intervention were explained by baseline CR and (iii) if specific components of the intervention altered an association…

  11. A Qualitative Study of Staff's Perspectives on Implementing an After School Program Promoting Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrett, Nicole; Skiles, Brittany; Wilson, Dawn K.; McClintock, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Minimal effects found across youth physical activity (PA) interventions, and increased attention to circumstances that impede adequate delivery of program components, has highlighted the importance of learning from staff what is needed to foster staff comprehension and engagement for developing, adopting, and successfully implementing PA-based…

  12. Evaluating the Responsiveness of Accelerometry to Detect Change in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Alexander H.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Suton, Darijan; Trost, Stewart G.

    2014-01-01

    The responsiveness to change of the Actical and ActiGraph accelerometers was assessed in children and adolescents. Participants (N = 208) aged 6 to 16 years completed two simulated free-living protocols, one with primarily light-to-moderate physical activity (PA) and one with mostly moderate-to-vigorous PA. Time in sedentary, light, moderate, and…

  13. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  14. Increasing Physical Activity in Preschool: A Pilot Study to Evaluate Animal Trackers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Christine L.; Carter, Betty Jean; Kibbe, Debra L.; Dennison, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This report describes a pilot study to evaluate Animal Trackers (AT), a preschool program designed to (1) increase structured physical activity (PA) during the preschool day; (2) increase practice of gross motor skills; (3) provide teachers with an easy-to-use PA program regardless of teacher experience; and (4) implement a teacher…

  15. Defining Standards and Policies for Promoting Physical Activity in Afterschool Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Wallner, Megan; Beighle, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Background: National guidelines exist that define "quality" afterschool programs (3-6 pm, ASP). No widely adopted national standards/policies exist, however, for ASP providers for the promotion of physical activity (PA). To address this gap, state-level ASP organizations have developed or adopted standards/policies related to PA. The extent to…

  16. Physical Activity and Diet Relative to Socio-Economic Status and Gender in British Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study considers the physical activity (PA) and dietary habits of British young people according to socio-economic status (SES). Methods: The PA and dietary habits of 98 boys and 101 girls (12.9 0.3 years) from two Welsh secondary schools (school 1 and school 2) were examined. Free school meal eligibility and Census 2001 data were…

  17. Usability of Mobile Phones in Physical Activity-Rrelated Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Courtney M.; Thompson, Dixie L.; Bassett, David R., Jr.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phones for physical activity (PA) promotion and assessment represents an attractive research area because this technology is characterized by a widespread reach and dynamic features. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of mobile phone-based approaches for encouraging and assessing PA.…

  18. Sedentary behavior and physical activity in youth with recent onset of type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    With the rise of type 2 diabetes in youth, it is critical to investigate factors such as physical activity (PA) and time spent sedentary that may be contributing to this public health problem. This article describes PA and sedentary time in a large cohort of youth with type 2 diabetes and compares t...

  19. A Framework for Physical Activity Programs within School-Community Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Acker, Ragnar; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; De Martelaer, Kristine; Seghers, Jan; Kirk, David; Haerens, Leen; De Cocker, Katrien; Cardon, Greet

    2011-01-01

    School-community partnerships have shown their potential as incubators for innovations and for contributing to comprehensive physical activity (PA) programs. However, implementation frameworks for school-community partnerships that allow local tailoring of PA programs remain scarce. The present paper aims at documenting the composition of a…

  20. Physical Activity Behavior Change Interventions Based on the Transtheoretical Model: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchison, Andrew J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Johnston, Lynne H.

    2009-01-01

    This review critically examines Transtheoretical Model (TTM)-based interventions for physical activity (PA) behavior change. It has been suggested that the TTM may not be the most appropriate theoretical model for applications to PA behavior change. However, previous reviews have paid little or no attention to how accurately each intervention…

  1. Correlates of Physical Activity of Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterdt, Elena; Liersch, Sebastian; Walter, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to identify promoting and inhibiting correlates associated with the physical activity (PA) of children and adolescents (aged 3-18). The intention was to demonstrate the complexity of correlates of PA and to determine possible influencing factors. Design: A systematic review of reviews. Methods: Systematic…

  2. Worksite Physical Activity Intervention for Ambulatory Clinic Nursing Staff.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon; Farrington, Michele; Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine M; Clark, M Kathleen; Dawson, Cindy; Quinn, Geralyn J; Laffoon, Trudy; Perkhounkova, Yelena

    2016-07-01

    Health behaviors, including physical activity (PA), of registered nurses (RNs) and medical assistants (MAs) are suboptimal but may improve with worksite programs. Using a repeated-measures crossover design, the authors explored if integrating a 6-month worksite non-exercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT) intervention, with and without personalized health coaching via text messaging into workflow could positively affect sedentary time, PA, and body composition of nursing staff without jeopardizing work productivity. Two ambulatory clinics were randomly assigned to an environmental NEAT intervention plus a mobile text message coaching for either the first 3 months (early texting group, n = 27) or the last 3 months (delayed texting group, n = 13), with baseline 3-month and 6-month measurements. Sedentary and PA levels, fat mass, and weight improved for both groups, significantly only for the early text group. Productivity did not decline for either group. This worksite intervention is feasible and may benefit nursing staff. PMID:27143144

  3. Effect of Physical Activity in Treatment of Paediatric Obesity.

    PubMed

    Pastucha, Dalibor; Malinčíková, Jana; Horák, Stanislav; Povová, Jana; Konečný, Petr

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the differences in anthropometric parameters, maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and physical activity (PA) between groups of 146 obese boys and 128 obese girls. We tried to describe the relationships between changes in PA and changes in VO₂max, body fat, weight, waist circumference and hip circumference. We found statistically significant changes in VO₂max and waist circumference only in the group of boys and significant changes in VO₂max in the group of girls. PMID:26849545

  4. Diet and Physical Activity Apps: Perceived Effectiveness by App Users

    PubMed Central

    Egelandsdal, Bjørg; Amdam, Gro V; Almli, Valerie L; Oostindjer, Marije

    2016-01-01

    Background Diet and physical activity apps are two types of health apps that aim to promote healthy eating and energy expenditure through monitoring of dietary intake and physical activity. No clear evidence showing the effectiveness of using these apps to promote healthy eating and physical activity has been previously reported. Objective This study aimed to identify how diet and physical activity (PA) apps affected their users. It also investigated if using apps was associated with changes in diet and PA. Methods First, 3 semi-structured focus group discussions concerning app usability were conducted (15 app users and 8 nonusers; mean age 24.2 years, SD 6.4), including outcome measures such as motivations, experiences, opinions, and adherence. Results from the discussions were used to develop a questionnaire. The questionnaire, which contained questions about behavior changes, app usage, perceived effectiveness, and opinions of app usability, was answered by 500 Norwegians, with a mean age of 25.8 years (SD 5.1). Results App users found diet and PA apps effective in promoting healthy eating and exercising. These apps affected their actions, health consciousness, and self-education about nutrition and PA; and were also a part of their social lives. Over half of the users perceived that apps were effective in assisting them to eat healthily and to exercise more. Diet apps were more effective when they were frequently used and over a long period of time, compared to infrequent or short-term use (P=.01 and P=.02, respectively). Users who used diet and PA apps, perceived apps as more effective than users who only used one type of app (all P<.05). App users were better at maintaining diet and PA behaviors than nonusers (all P<.05). Young adults found apps fun to use, but sometimes time consuming. They wanted apps to be designed to meet their personal expectations. Conclusions App usage influenced action, consciousness, self-education about nutrition and PA, and social

  5. [Afterschool physical activity programs: Literature review].

    PubMed

    Reloba-Martínez, Sergio; Martín-Tamayo, Ignacio; Martínez-López, Emilio José; Guerrero-Almeida, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to analyze the scientific production about extra-curricular physical activity (PA) in western children of 6-12 years. Medline / Pub-Med, Scopus and Google Scholar were used. This search collects articles published between January 1990 and May 2013. A total of 104 publications were analyzed. The body composition parameters are best used to assess the results of the studies, followed by those which estimate the maximum aerobic capacity. Articles of intervention are presented with very heterogeneous methodological features but there are clear trends in the use of certain aspects. As for the reviews, most are systematic and include meta-analysis. In this studies, body mass index (BMI) is the most used parameter. PMID:26679320

  6. Changing physical activity and sedentary behaviour in people with COPD.

    PubMed

    Cavalheri, Vinicius; Straker, Leon; Gucciardi, Daniel F; Gardiner, Paul A; Hill, Kylie

    2016-04-01

    People with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) engage in low levels of physical activity (PA). Given the evidence for the health benefits associated with participating in 150 min of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA each week, there is considerable interest in methods to increase PA in people with COPD. Studies to date have focused largely on exercise training and behavioural approaches, and many have demonstrated minimal, if any effect. An intermediate goal that focuses on reducing time spent in sedentary behaviour (SB) and increasing participation in light intensity PA is a more realistic goal in this population and offers a gateway to higher intensity PA. Although strategies that are capable of reducing time spent in SB in COPD are unknown, studies that have shown some increase in PA in this population often provide individualized goal setting, motivational interviewing and frequent contact with health-care professionals to provide advice regarding strategies to overcome barriers. Therefore, these approaches should be considered in interventions to reduce time in SB. There are a range of devices available to monitor time in SB for use in both clinical and research settings. To move this area forward, a theoretically informed and systematic approach to behaviour change is needed. The theoretical model, the 'behaviour change wheel', is described and an example is provided of how it can be applied to a person with COPD. PMID:26560834

  7. Physical activity and sleep profiles in Finnish men and women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and sleep are related to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their risk factors. The interrelationship between these behaviors has been studied, but there remain questions regarding the association of different types of PA, such as occupational, commuting, and leisure time to sleep, including quality, duration and sufficiency. It is also unclear to what extent sleep affects peoples’ PA levels and patterns. Our aim is to investigate the interrelationship between PA and sleep behaviors in the Finnish population, including employment status and gender. Methods The study comprised population based data from the FINRISK 2012 Study. A stratified, random sample of 10,000 Finns, 25 to 74 years-old, were sent a questionnaire and an invitation to a health examination. The participation rate was 64% (n = 6,414). Latent class analysis was used to search for different underlying profiles of PA and sleep behavior in men and women, respectively. Models with one through five latent profiles were fitted to the data. Based on fit indicators, a four-class model for men and women, respectively, was decided to be the best fitted model. Results Four different profiles of PA and sleep were found in both men and women. The most common profile of men comprised 45% of the total participants, and in women, 47%. These profiles were distinguished by probabilities for high leisure time PA and sleep, subjectively rated as sufficient, as well as sleep duration of 7–7.9 hours. The least common profiles represented 5% (men) and 11% (women) of the population, and were characterized by probabilities for physical inactivity, short sleep, and evening type for women and morning type for men. There was also one profile in both genders characterized by likelihood for both high occupational PA and subjectively experienced insufficient sleep. Conclusions The use of latent class analysis in investigating the interrelationship between PA and sleep is a novel

  8. Bringing Nature to Schools to Promote Children's Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Sharma-Brymer, Vinathe; Bland, Derek

    2016-07-01

    Physical activity (PA) is essential for human health and wellbeing across all age, socioeconomic, and ethnic groups. Engagement with the natural world is a new defining criterion for enhancing the benefits of PA, particularly for children and young people. Interacting with nature benefits children's social and emotional wellbeing, develops resilience, and reduces the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus across all population groups. Governments around the world are now recognizing the importance of children spending more active time outdoors. However, children's outdoor activities, free play, and nature-related exploration are often structured and supervised by adults due to safety concerns and risks. In this context, schools become more accessible and safe options for children to engage in PA outdoors with the presence of nature features. Research on school designs involving young children has revealed that children prefer nature-related features in school environments. Affordances in nature may increase children's interest in physically active behaviors. Given that present school campuses are designed for operational efficiency and economic reasons, there is a need to re-design schools responding to the positive role of nature on human health. If schools were re-designed to incorporate diverse natural features, children's PA and consequent health and wellbeing would likely improve markedly. PMID:26888647

  9. Neighborhood Factors Influence Physical Activity among African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V.; Ho, Angela; Adamus, Heather J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements, such as traffic lights and crossing aids, and physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance in African American and Hispanic or Latina women. Women (N=309) participated in a 6-month intervention and completed baseline and post-intervention assessments of PA. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants’ neighborhoods. Adjusted linear regression models found attractiveness for bicycling significantly predicted post-intervention accelerometer-measured PA. Greater traffic control devices and crossing aids were associated with greater PA among women assigned to the PA intervention group, and greater street amenities were associated with greater PA among those in the comparison group. Neighborhood factors may interact favorably with behavioral interventions to promote PA adoption and maintenance, and should be considered in health promotion efforts. PMID:22243907

  10. Interactive Effects of Physical Activity and APOE-ε4 on BOLD Semantic Memory Activation in Healthy Elders

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J. Carson; Nielson, Kristy A.; Woodard, John L.; Seidenberg, Michael; Durgerian, Sally; Antuono, Piero; Butts, Alissa M.; Hantke, Nathan C.; Lancaster, Melissa A.; Rao, Stephen M.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) is associated with the maintenance of cognitive function across the lifespan. In contrast, the apolipoproteinE-ε4 (APOE-ε4) allele, a genetic risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), is associated with impaired cognitive function. The objective of this study was to examine the interactive effects of PA and APOE-ε4 on brain activation during memory processing in older (ages 65–85) cognitively intact adults. A cross-sectional design was used with four groups (n = 17 each): (1) Low Risk/Low PA; (2) Low Risk/High PA; (3) High Risk/Low PA; and (4) High Risk/High PA. PA level was based on self-reported frequency and intensity. AD risk was based on presence or absence of an APOE-ε4 allele. Brain activation was measured using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants performed a famous name discrimination task. Brain activation subserving semantic memory processing occurred in 15 functional regions of interest. High PA and High Risk were associated with significantly greater semantic memory activation (famous > unfamiliar) in 6 and 3 of the 15 regions, respectively. Significant interactions of PA and Risk were evident in 9 of 15 brain regions, with the High PA/High Risk group demonstrating greater semantic memory activation than the remaining three groups. These findings suggest that PA selectively increases memory-related brain activation in cognitively intact but genetically at-risk elders. Longitudinal studies are required to determine whether increased semantic memory processing in physically active at-risk individuals is protective against future cognitive decline. PMID:20691792

  11. The association between park visitation and physical activity measured with accelerometer, GPS, and travel diary.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Orion T; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Fesinmeyer, Megan D; Zhou, Chuan; Saelens, Brian E

    2016-03-01

    Public parks are promoted as places that support physical activity (PA), but evidence of how park visitation contributes to overall PA is limited. This study observed adults living in the Seattle metropolitan area (n=671) for one week using accelerometer, GPS, and travel diary. Park visits, measured both objectively (GPS) and subjectively (travel diary), were temporally linked to accelerometer-measured PA. Park visits occurred at 1.4 per person-week. Participants who visited parks at least once (n=308) had an adjusted average of 14.3 (95% CI: 8.9, 19.6)min more daily PA than participants who did not visit a park. Even when park-related activity was excluded, park visitors still obtained more minutes of daily PA than non-visitors. Park visitation contributes to a more active lifestyle, but is not solely responsible for it. Parks may best serve to complement broader public health efforts to encourage PA. PMID:26798965

  12. Relationship between physical activity, physical fitness and multiple metabolic risk in youths from Muzambinho's study.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, João Paulo Dos Anjos Souza; Basso, Luciano; Seabra, André; Prista, Antonio; Tani, Go; Maia, José António Ribeiro; Forjaz, Cláudia Lúcia De Moraes

    2016-08-01

    Negative associations between physical activity (PA), physical fitness and multiple metabolic risk factors (MMRF) in youths from populations with low PA are reported. The persistence of this association in moderately-to highly active populations is not, however, well established. The aim of the present study was to investigate this association in a Brazilian city with high frequency of active youths. We assessed 122 subjects (9.9 ± 1.3 years) from Muzambinho city. Body mass index, waist circumference, glycaemia, cholesterolaemia, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured. Maximal handgrip strength and one-mile walk/run test were used. Leisure time PA was assessed by interview. Poisson regression was used in the analysis. The model explained 11% of the total variance. Only relative muscular strength and one-mile walk/run were statistically significant (p < .05). Those who needed more time to cover the one-mile walk/run test had an increased in metabolic risk of 11%, and those with greater strength reduced the risk by about 82%. In conclusion, children and youths from an active population who need less time to cover the one-mile walk/run test or who had greater muscular strength showed a reduced metabolic risk. These results suggest that even in children and youths with high leisure time PA, a greater aerobic fitness and strength might help to further reduce their MMRF. PMID:26452452

  13. Women Bound to Be Active: a pilot study to explore the feasibility of an intervention to increase physical activity and self-worth in women.

    PubMed

    Huberty, Jennifer L; Vener, Jamie; Sidman, Cara; Meendering, Jessica; Blissmer, Bryan; Schulte, Laura; Flohr, Judith A; Ransdell, Lynda B

    2008-01-01

    Increasing physical activity (PA) has become a national health objective due to its associated health benefits, but low participation rates. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of an 8-month (September 2006-April 2007) PA book club (Women Bound to Be Active-WBA) in increasing PA and self-worth (SW) among women. Fifty-six adult women participated in an 8-month intervention consisting of weekly meetings designed to improve PA knowledge, awareness, confidence, and SW. Results indicated a significant increase in PA and SW. The WBA program represents a creative theory-based approach to empowering women to be more active. PMID:18843841

  14. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  15. Physical activity barriers and enablers in older Veterans with lower-limb amputation.

    PubMed

    Littman, Alyson J; Boyko, Edward J; Thompson, Mary Lou; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Sangeorzan, Bruce J; Arterburn, David E

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the types of physical activities that older individuals with lower-limb loss perform, correlates of regular physical activity (PA), and barriers and facilitators to PA. We conducted an exploratory study in 158 older Veterans from the Pacific Northwest with a partial foot (35%), below-knee (39%) and above-knee (26%) amputation. Ninety-eight percent of survey respondents were male, on average 65 yr of age and 15 yr postamputation; 36% of amputations were trauma-related. The most commonly reported physical activities were muscle strengthening (42%), yard work and/or gardening (30%), and bicycling (11%). Forty-three percent were classified as physically active based on weekly moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA. History of vigorous preamputation PA was positively associated with being active, while low wealth and watching ≥5 h/d of television/videos were inversely associated. While pain- and resource-related barriers to PA were most frequently reported, only knowledge-related and interest/motivation-related barriers were inversely associated with being active. Family support and financial assistance to join a gym were the most commonly reported factors that would facilitate PA. To increase PA in the older amputee population, interventions should address motivational issues, knowledge gaps, and television watching; reduce financial barriers to exercising; and consider involving family members. PMID:25356624

  16. Can Population Levels of Physical Activity be Increased? Global Evidence and Experience

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Michael; Perez, Lilian G.; Goenka, Shifalika; Brownson, Ross C.; Bauman, Adrian; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2016-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease and has become a global public health priority. We review the evidence on physical activity (PA) interventions, actions, and strategies that have the greatest potential to increase PA at the population level. Using the socio-ecological framework to conceptualize PA interventions, we show that PA can be targeted at multiple levels of influence and by multiple sectors outside the health system. Examples of promoting PA on a national scale are presented from Finland, Canada, Brazil, and Colombia. A strong policy framework, consistent investment in public health programs, multi-sectoral support and actions, and good surveillance characterize each of these success stories. Increasing PA globally will depend on successfully applying and adapting these lessons around the world taking into account country, culture, and context. PMID:25304047

  17. Late Quaternary mass-wasting records in the actively uplifting Pa-chang catchment, southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Meng-Long; Ching, Kuo-En; Chyi, Shyh-Jeng; Kang, Su-Chen; Chou, Chun-Yen

    2014-07-01

    Although dominated by erosion over long term, the tectonically active mountains of Taiwan commonly contain thick landslide and debris-flow gravels capping hillslopes or forming alluvial terraces. These deposits and their associated landforms serve to study ancient mass-wasting histories and their controls on fluvial processes. This study focuses on the Pa-chang River draining the < 2000 m high Ali-shan area in southwestern Taiwan (current tectonic uplift: 5-8 mm yr- 1). Although small (catchment area: 83 km2), the Pa-chang exhibits one of the largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, which stretches from the outlet of the catchment for 9 km along the river and comprises fluvial and debris-flow gravels up to 150 m thick. Totally 55 radiocarbon dates have been obtained, tracing the mass-wasting records back to 14.8 ka. The largest events, which created the studied major terraces, occurred in 10.0-11.3 and 8.7-9.4 ka. These events are synchronous with the formation of some regionally largest alluvial terraces in Taiwan, and may have been triggered by the frequent heavy rains associated with the early Holocene East Asian summer-monsoon maximum. More mass-wasting events have been dated at ~ 5.4, ~ 1.9, 1.2-1.7, 0.7-0.9, ~ 0.6, and < 0.3 ka. The vast supply of sediment from the recorded mass-wasting events not only caused river aggradation but also regulated the subsequent incision by forming boulder armors. As a result, the bedrock incision in the upper part of the catchment has been negligible since the early Holocene debris-flow deposition. The incision rates increase to the downstream direction as the size and concentration of boulders reduce. Still, the 14.8 ka-averaged bedrock incision rate (< 4.5 mm yr- 1) at the catchment outlet is lower than the current uplift rate (6 mm yr- 1). At the same site, however, the bedrock incision rate is 23 mm yr- 1 averaged over the past 0.6 ka. Even higher rates of incision (> 50 mm yr- 1) are detected further downstream after the

  18. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Assessing Physical Activity and Its Contexts Using Systematic Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Thomas L.; van der Mars, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Numerous methods are available to assess physical activity (PA) but systematic observation (SO) excels in being able to provide contextually rich data on the setting in which the activity occurs. As SO is particularly useful for determining how activity is influenced by the immediate physical and social environments, its use is becoming more…

  19. Changes in physical activity levels, lesson context, and teacher interaction during physical education in culturally and linguistically diverse Australian schools

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent data show that only 15% of Australian adolescents participate in adequate amounts of physical activity (PA) and those students from Asian and Middle-Eastern backgrounds in Grades 6–12 are significantly less active than their English-speaking background peers. Schools have recently been recognised as the most widely used and cost-effective setting for promoting PA among youth and one domain within schools where PA can occur regularly for all youth, regardless of cultural background or socio-economic status, is during physical education (PE). Methods This study describes changes in physical activity (PA), lesson context and teacher interaction in physical education over the first two years in culturally and linguistically diverse secondary schools. Grade 7 PE classes in six schools were randomly observed using systematic direct observation (n = 81) and then followed up over the same period (n = 51) twelve months later. Results There was no significant decline in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during PE (MD = −4.8%; p = .777), but a significant decline and medium negative effect in time spent in vigorous physical activity (VPA) (MD = −7.9%; p = .009) during PE was observed. Significant declines and large negative effects over time in percentage of PE time spent in management (MD = −8.8%; p < .001) and the number of observations where teachers promoted PA (MD = −20.7%; p < .001). Conclusions The decline of VPA and teacher promotion of PA in culturally and linguistically diverse schools is of concern. Given the declines in VPA and the increases in time spent in game play, further research is needed to ascertain whether PE instruction could be improved by focussing on skill instruction and fitness in a games-based PE instruction model. Further research for increasing teacher promotion of PA during PE is needed. PMID:22989149

  20. Understanding physical activity in individuals with prediabetes: an application of social cognitive theory.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Lorian M; Raine, Kim D; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Vallance, Jeff K; Sharma, Arya M; Spence, John C

    2016-01-01

    Despite well-documented evidence implicating physical activity (PA) in the prevention of type 2 diabetes, the overwhelming majority of individuals with prediabetes are not physically active enough. The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of the social cognitive theory (SCT) in understanding PA behaviour in individuals with prediabetes. Individuals with prediabetes (N = 232) completed a mailed questionnaire assessing demographics, self-reported PA (MET.min/wk) and SCT constructs for PA MET.min/wk. For PA MET.min/wk, scheduling and task efficacy both had significant effects on PA (β = .30 and .22, respectively). Goal formation also had a direct effect on PA for scheduling, coping and task efficacy (β = .20, .34 and .30, respectively). Task, coping and scheduling efficacy explained a significant portion of the variance in PA behaviour. Overall, SCT appears to have merit as a model for understanding PA in individuals with prediabetes. Further evaluative inquiry is needed to establish support for the use of the SCT as a framework for developing, implementing and evaluating PA behaviour change interventions in this population. PMID:26300537

  1. Creating a Before-School Physical Activity Program: Pre-Service Physical Educators' Experiences and Implications for PETE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Jaimie; van der Mars, Hans; Jahn, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences of physical education teacher education (PETE) majors enrolled in an internship course that provided them with authentic experiences promoting and facilitating a before-school physical activity (PA) program and to examine the associated implications for PETE programs within the Comprehensive…

  2. Physical Activity for Everyone: What Every Physical Educator Should Know about Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses common misconceptions about physical activity among children (e.g., children are fragile, children are miniature adults, girls are not interested in physical activity, and all skills are motor skills), offering alternatives for change (e.g., recognizing children's unique physical activity needs, promoting opportunities for girls, and…

  3. Accelerometer Use in a Physical Activity Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Borradaile, Kelley E.; Lewis, Beth A.; Whiteley, Jessica A.; Longval, Jaime L.; Parisi, Alfred F.; Albrecht, Anna E.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.; Jakicic, John M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Marcus, Bess H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the application of best practice recommendations for using accelerometers in a physical activity (PA) intervention trial, and the concordance of different methods for measuring PA. A subsample (n=63; 26%) of the 239 healthy, sedentary adults participating in a PA trial (mean age=47.5; 82% women) wore the ActiGraph monitor at all 3 assessment time points. ActiGraph data were compared with self-report (i.e., PA weekly recall and monthly log) and fitness variables. Correlations between the PA recall and ActiGraph for moderate intensity activity ranged from 0.16–0.48 and from 0.28–0.42 for vigorous intensity activity. ActiGraph and fitness [estimated VO2(ml/kg/min)] had correlations of 0.15–0.45. The ActiGraph and weekly self-report were significantly correlated at all time points (correlations ranged from 0.23–0.44). In terms of detecting intervention effects, intervention groups recorded more minutes of at least moderate-intensity PA on the ActiGraph than the control group at 6 months (min=46.47, 95% CI=14.36–78.58), but not at 12 months. Limitations of the study include a small sample size and only 3 days of ActiGraph monitoring. To obtain optimal results with accelerometers in clinical trials, the authors recommend following best practice recommendations: detailed protocols for monitor use, calibration of monitors and validation of data quality, and use of validated equations for analysis. The ActiGraph has modest concordance with other assessment tools and is sensitive to change over time. However, until more information validating the use of accelerometry in clinical trials becomes available, properly administered self-report measures of PA should remain part of the assessment battery. PMID:20723619

  4. [Physical activity and cardiovascular health].

    PubMed

    Temporelli, Pier Luigi

    2016-03-01

    It is well known that regular moderate physical activity, in the context of a healthy lifestyle, significantly reduces the likelihood of cardiovascular events, both in primary and secondary prevention. In addition, it is scientifically proven that exercise can reduce the incidence of diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, breast cancer and colon cancer. Despite this strong evidence, sedentary lifestyle remains a widespread habit in the western world. Even in Italy the adult population has a poor attitude to regular physical activity. It is therefore necessary, as continuously recommended by the World Health Organization, to motivate people to "move" since the transition from inactivity to regular light to moderate physical activity has a huge impact on health, resulting in significant savings of resources. We do not need to be athletes to exercise - it should be part of all our daily routines. PMID:27029874

  5. Predicting Child Physical Activity and Screen Time: Parental Support for Physical Activity and General Parenting Styles

    PubMed Central

    Crain, A. Lauren; Senso, Meghan M.; Levy, Rona L.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between parenting styles and practices and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time. Methods: Participants were children (6.9 ± 1.8 years) with a body mass index in the 70–95th percentile and their parents (421 dyads). Parent-completed questionnaires assessed parental support for child physical activity (PA), parenting styles and child screen time. Children wore accelerometers to assess MVPA. Results: Parenting style did not predict MVPA, but support for PA did (positive association). The association between support and MVPA, moreover, varied as a function of permissive parenting. For parents high in permissiveness, the association was positive (greater support was related to greater MVPA and therefore protective). For parents low in permissiveness, the association was neutral; support did not matter. Authoritarian and permissive parenting styles were both associated with greater screen time. Conclusions: Parenting practices and styles should be considered jointly, offering implications for tailored interventions. PMID:24812256

  6. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  7. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA. PMID:25014307

  8. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Language: English Español (Spanish) ...

  9. Are Physical Education-Related State Policies and Schools' Physical Education Requirement Related to Children's Physical Activity and Obesity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinsook

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study examines whether the extent of states' physical education (PE) requirement policies and the prevalence of schools requiring PE are associated with children's physical activity (PA) and obesity. Methods: Two cycles (2002-2003 and 2006-2007) of cross-sectional data with individual- and state-level information were…

  10. School travel mode, parenting practices and physical activity among UK Year 5 and 6 children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background School travel mode and parenting practices have been associated with children’s physical activity (PA). The current study sought to examine whether PA parenting practices differ by school travel mode and whether school travel mode and PA parenting practices are associated with PA. Methods 469 children (aged 9-11) wore accelerometers from which mean weekday and after-school (3.30 to 8.30 pm) minutes of moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and counts per minute (CPM) were derived. Mode of travel to and from school (passive vs. active) and PA parenting practices (maternal and paternal logistic support and modelling behaviour) were child-reported. Results Children engaged in an average of 59.7 minutes of MVPA per weekday. Active travel to school by girls was associated with 5.9 more minutes of MVPA per day compared with those who travelled to school passively (p = 0.004). After-school CPM and MVPA did not differ by school travel mode. There was no evidence that physical activity parenting practices were associated with school travel mode. Conclusions For girls, encouraging active travel to school is likely to be important for overall PA. Further formative research may be warranted to understand how both parental logistic support and active travel decisions are operationalized in families as a means of understanding how to promote increased PA among pre-adolescent children. PMID:24739338

  11. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  12. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Home Guard Soldiers During Military Service and Civilian Life.

    PubMed

    Aandstad, Anders; Hageberg, Rune; Holme, Ingar M; Anderssen, Sigmund A

    2016-07-01

    Soldiers are encouraged to be physically active, and thereby maintain or increase their fitness level to meet job-related physical demands. However, studies on objectively measured physical activity (PA) in soldiers are scarce, particular for reserve soldiers. Hence, the aim of this study was to present PA data on Norwegian Home Guard (HG) soldiers. A total of 411 HG soldiers produced acceptable PA measurements (SenseWear Armband Pro2) during civilian life, of which 299 soldiers also produced acceptable data during HG military training. Reference data on total energy expenditure, metabolic equivalents, steps per day, and minutes of PA in three different metabolic equivalent categories are presented. The HG soldiers produced more minutes of moderate PA during HG military training compared to civilian life, but less vigorous and very vigorous PA. Furthermore, HG soldiers were more physically active during civilian week days compared to weekend days. The presented reference data can be used for comparisons against other groups of soldiers. Our data indicate that aerobic demands during HG military training were not very high. Promoting PA and exercise could still be important to ensure HG soldiers are physically prepared for more unforeseen job tasks. PMID:27391624

  13. Physical Training of School Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Daily Activity, Fat Mass and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg-Emons, R. J.; Van Baak, M. A.; Speth, L.; Saris, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of two 9-month sports programs (four or two sessions per week) on daily physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), and physical fitness were assessed in 20 Dutch children (ages 7-13) with spastic cerebral palsy. Four sessions per week tended to increase PA ratio and held FM constant. (Author/CR)

  14. Peer 2 Peer: Efficacy of a Course-Based Peer Education Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Jennifer; Mattern, Craig O.; Lassiter, Jill W.; Ritzler, Julia A.

    2011-01-01

    There are few physical activity (PA) interventions in higher education, and they have been only minimally effective. Objective: To determine if a course-based, peer education intervention was associated with increases in PA and physical fitness. Participants: Participants were 178 students enrolled in a personal health class during the 2007-2008…

  15. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  16. Relationship between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients

    PubMed Central

    Iwakura, Masahiro; Okura, Kazuki; Shibata, Kazuyuki; Kawagoshi, Atsuyoshi; Sugawara, Keiyu; Takahashi, Hitomi; Shioya, Takanobu

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known regarding the relationship between balance impairments and physical activity in COPD. There has been no study investigating the relationship between balance and objectively measured physical activity. Here we investigated the association between balance and physical activity measured by an activity monitor in elderly COPD patients. Materials and methods Twenty-two outpatients with COPD (mean age, 72±7 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second, 53%±21% predicted) and 13 age-matched healthy control subjects (mean age, 72±6 years) participated in the study. We assessed all 35 subjects’ balance (one-leg standing test [OLST] times, Short Physical Performance Battery total scores, standing balance test scores, 4 m gait speed, and five-times sit-to-stand test [5STST]) and physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity per day [MV-PA]). Possible confounders were assessed in the COPD group. The between-group differences in balance test scores and physical activity were analyzed. A correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were conducted in the COPD group. Results The COPD patients exhibited significant reductions in OLST times (P=0.033), Short Physical Performance Battery scores (P=0.013), 4 m gait speed (P<0.001), five-times sit-to-stand times (P=0.002), daily steps (P=0.003), and MV-PA (P=0.022) compared to the controls; the exception was the standing balance test scores. The correlation and multivariate regression analyses revealed significant independent associations between OLST times and daily steps (P<0.001) and between OLST times and MV-PA (P=0.014) in the COPD group after adjusting for possible confounding factors. Conclusion Impairments in balance and reductions in physical activity were observed in the COPD group. Deficits in balance are independently associated with physical inactivity. PMID:27445470

  17. Physical activity patterns in adults who are blind as assessed by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Marmeleira, José; Laranjo, Luis; Marques, Olga; Pereira, Catarina

    2014-07-01

    The main purpose of our study was to quantify, by using accelerometry, daily physical activity (PA) in adults with visual impairments. Sixty-three adults (34.9% women) who are blind (18-65 years) wore an accelerometer for at least 3 days (minimum of 10 hr per day), including 1 weekend day. Nineteen participants (~30%) reached the recommendation of 30 min per day of PA, when counting every minute of moderate or greater intensity. No one achieved that goal when considering bouts of at least 10 min. No differences were found between genders in PA measures. Chronological age, age of blindness onset, and body mass index were not associated with PA. We conclude that adults who are blind have low levels of PA and are considerably less active compared with the general population. Health promotion strategies should be implemented to increase daily PA for people with visual impairments. PMID:25028478

  18. The home physical environment and its relationship with physical activity and sedentary behavior: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-10-01

    Reviews of neighborhood (macro) environment characteristics such as the presence of sidewalks and esthetics have shown significant correlations with resident physical activity (PA) and sedentary (SD) behavior. Currently, no comprehensive review has appraised and collected available evidence on the home (micro) physical environment. The purpose of this review was to examine how the home physical environment relates to adult and child PA and SD behaviors. Articles were searched during May 2014 using Medline, PsycINFO, PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases which yielded 3265 potential studies. Papers were considered eligible if they investigated the presence of PA (ie. exercise equipment, exergaming devices) or SD (ie. television, videogames) equipment and PA or SD behavior. After, screening and manual cross-referencing, 49 studies (20 experimental and 29 observational designs) were found to meet the eligibility criteria. Interventions that reduced sedentary time by using TV limiting devices were shown to be effective for children but the results were limited for adults. Overall, large exercise equipment (ie. treadmills), and prominent exergaming materials (exergaming bike, dance mats) were found to be more effective than smaller devices. Observational studies revealed that location and quantity of televisions correlated with SD behavior with the latter having a greater effect on girls. This was similarly found for the quantity of PA equipment which also correlated with behavior in females. Given the large market for exercise equipment, videos and exergaming, the limited work performed on its effectiveness in homes is alarming. Future research should focus on developing stronger randomized controlled trials, investigate the location of PA equipment, and examine mediators of the gender discrepancy found in contemporary studies. PMID:25084562

  19. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  20. Physical activity, functional ability, and disease activity in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Gueddari, S; Amine, B; Rostom, S; Badri, D; Mawani, N; Ezzahri, M; Moussa, F; Shyen, S; Abouqal, R; Chkirat, B; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2014-09-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a chronic condition known to cause pain-related complications in youth and affect children's physical functioning. There is no data in Arabic children with JIA about the impact of illness upon their physical activity. The objective of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) in children and adolescents with JIA compared with a healthy population and to examine associations between PA, functional ability, and disease activity. Our study included patients with JIA and group control aged between 8 and 17 years. The diagnosis was used according to the International League of Association of Rheumatology (ILAR) criteria 2001. Sociodemographic data and clinical features were collected. Physical activity level and energy expenditure were assessed with a 1-day activity diary and the metabolic equivalent (MET), respectively. Functional ability was assessed with the Moroccan version of the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ). Disease activity was measured using the Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS). Fifty patients and 50 controls were included (mean ± SD age 11.5 ± 3.3 and 10.5 ± 3.8 years, respectively; p = 0.49) with masculine predominance n = 30 (59.6 %) and n = 29 (58 %), respectively (p = 0.26). The median disease duration was 4.3 years (2-5). The median analog scale (VAS) pain was 20 (10-40). Fourteen patients (28 %) had an active disease. Patient population consisted in majority of oligoarticular arthritis (28 %), 14 patients. The mean of energy expenditure and physical activity were significantly higher in the JIA group. The JIA group spent more time in bed and less time on moderate to vigorous PA than the control group. There is no significant relationship between PA, functional ability, and disease activity. Our study suggests that children and adolescents with JIA have low PA levels and are at risk of losing the benefits of PA. Low PA is not related to

  1. Association between Family Structure and Physical Activity of Chinese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lijuan; Qi, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background. This study examines the association between family structure and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of adolescents in China. Methods. The participants included 612 adolescents (317 boys and 295 girls) from Shanghai with ages ranging from 10 to 16 years. Accelerometers were used to measure the duration of MVPA of adolescents, and questionnaires on family structure were completed by the parents of these adolescents. Results. Findings suggested that family structure significantly increased the likelihood of adolescents engaging in physical activity (PA) and explained 6% of MPVA variance. Adolescents living in single-parent households and step families were more physically active than those living in two-parent homes and with biological parents, respectively. However, adolescents residing with grandparents were less active than those living with neither grandparent. No significant difference was found in MVPA time between adolescents living with one sibling and those without siblings. Conclusion. Family environment may be considered in the development of PA interventions and policies, and adolescents living with their grandparents may be targeted in PA promotion. PMID:27123446

  2. Physical Activity and Musculoskeletal Injuries in Women: The Women's Injury Study

    PubMed Central

    DeFina, Laura F.; Leonard, David; Custodio, Michelle A.; Morrow, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Increased injury rates have been associated with physical activity (PA). The differences in musculoskeletal injury (MSI) characteristics resulting from PA, versus those unrelated to PA, are unknown. We describe the pattern of PA and non-PA MSI incurred by community-dwelling women. Methods Data were extracted from the Women's Injury Study, a web-based observational study that tracked weekly PA behaviors and self-reported MSI of 909 community-dwelling women ages 20–83 years. The primary outcome was self-reported MSI that interrupted daily activities ≥2 days and/or required treatment from a health care provider. Follow-up telephone reporting of MSIs allowed further description of injuries. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to identify injury sites associated with PA, controlling for age, body mass index, previous injury, and use of alcohol. Results Incidence of PA and non-PA MSIs were comparable; some differences in injury characteristics were evident across 83,241 person-weeks of reporting. Non-PA MSIs were more likely to come on “suddenly” (54% vs. 8%) and commonly involved head/jaw/neck injuries. Reported PA-related MSIs were less likely to require health care provider treatment (60% vs. 80%) and resulted in less missed days of work/school (11%) versus non-PA MSIs (17%). Compared to non-PA related injuries, PA-related injuries were more likely to involve the lower (odds ratio [OR]=3.10, p=0.002) or upper limbs (OR=2.54, p=0.01) and less likely to involve the head/jaw/neck (OR=0.21, p=0.002). Conclusion There are some differences in mechanisms of injury, the distribution of injuries by anatomical location, and the treatment of injuries depending on aerobic activity participation, although absolute rates of MSI were comparable. PMID:24117001

  3. The sociodemographics of land use planning: relationships to physical activity, accessibility, and equity.

    PubMed

    Aytur, Semra A; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Evenson, Kelly R; Catellier, Diane J; Rosamond, Wayne D

    2008-09-01

    Little is known about relationships between attributes of land use plans and sociodemographic variations in physical activity (PA). This study evaluates associations between policy-relevant plan attributes, sociodemographic factors, and PA in North Carolina. Results suggest that land use plans that included non-automobile transportation improvements and more comprehensive policies to guide development were positively associated with both leisure and transportation-related PA. However, residents of counties with lower-income levels and higher proportions of non-white residents were less likely to have attributes supportive of PA included in their plans. Implications for transdisciplinary collaboration with respect to reducing health disparities are discussed. PMID:17890137

  4. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  5. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  6. Gender differences in sociodemographic and behavioral influences of physical activity in Mexican-origin adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Strong, Larkin L; Anderson, Cheryl B; Miranda, Patricia Y; Bondy, Melissa L; Zhou, Renke; Etzel, Carol J; Spitz, Margaret R; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2011-01-01

    Background Understanding the factors that contribute to physical activity (PA) in Mexican-origin adolescents is essential to the design of effective efforts to enhance PA participation in this population. Methods Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic and behavioral correlates of self-reported PA in school and community settings in 1,154 Mexican-origin adolescents aged 12–17 years in Houston, TX. Results The majority of adolescents were born in the US (74%), approximately half (51%) were overweight or obese, and nearly three-quarters (73%) watched more than 2 hours of weekday television. Similarities and differences by setting and gender were observed in the relationships between sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics and PA. In boys, parental education and attending physical education (PE) were positively associated with PA across multiple PA outcomes. Adolescent linguistic acculturation was inversely associated with participation in community sports, whereas parental linguistic acculturation was positively associated with PA at school. In girls, PA in school and community settings was inversely associated with TV viewing and positively associated with PE participation. Conclusions These findings highlight similarities and differences in correlates of PA among boys and girls, and point towards potential sources of opportunities as well as disparities for PA behaviors in Mexican-origin adolescents. PMID:21952224

  7. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Background Psychological stress and physical activity (PA) are believed to be reciprocally related; however, most research examining the relationship between these constructs is devoted to the study of exercise and/or PA as an instrument to mitigate distress. Objective The aim of this paper was to review the literature investigating the influence of stress on indicators of PA and exercise. Methods A systematic search of Web of Science, Pub-Med, and SPORTDiscus was employed to find all relevant studies focusing on human participants. Search terms included “stress”, “exercise”, and “physical activity”. A rating scale (0–9) modified for this study was utilized to assess the quality of all studies with multiple time points. Results The literature search found 168 studies that examined the influence of stress on PA. Studies varied widely in their theoretical orientation and included perceived stress, distress, life events, job strain, role strain, and work–family conflict but not lifetime cumulative adversity. To more clearly address the question, prospective studies (n = 55) were considered for further review, the majority of which indicated that psychological stress predicts less PA (behavioral inhibition) and/or exercise or more sedentary behavior (76.4 %). Both objective (i.e., life events) and subjective (i.e., distress) measures of stress related to reduced PA. Prospective studies investigating the effects of objective markers of stress nearly all agreed (six of seven studies) that stress has a negative effect on PA. This was true for research examining (a) PA at periods of objectively varying levels of stress (i.e., final examinations vs. a control time point) and (b) chronically stressed populations (e.g., caregivers, parents of children with a cancer diagnosis) that were less likely to be active than controls over time. Studies examining older adults (>50 years), cohorts with both men and women, and larger sample sizes (n > 100) were more likely

  8. Physical activity, hydration and health.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Ascensión; Manonelles, Pedro; Palacios, Nieves; Wärnberg, Julia; Casajús, José A; Pérez, Margarita; Aznar, Susana; Benito, Pedro J; Martínez-Gomez, David; Ortega, Francisco B; Ortega, Eduardo; Urrialde, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences. PMID:24972459

  9. Calibrating a novel multi-sensor physical activity measurement system

    PubMed Central

    John, D; Liu, S; Sasaki, J E; Howe, C A; Staudenmayer, J; Gao, R X; Freedson, P S

    2011-01-01

    Advancing the field of physical activity (PA) monitoring requires the development of innovative multi-sensor measurement systems that are feasible in the free-living environment. The use of novel analytical techniques to combine and process these multiple sensor signals is equally important. This paper, describes a novel multi-sensor ‘Integrated PA Measurement System’ (IMS), the lab-based methodology used to calibrate the IMS, techniques used to predict multiple variables from the sensor signals, and proposes design changes to improve the feasibility of deploying the IMS in the free-living environment. The IMS consists of hip and wrist acceleration sensors, two piezoelectric respiration sensors on the torso, and an ultraviolet radiation sensor to obtain contextual information (indoors vs. outdoors) of PA. During lab-based calibration of the IMS, data were collected on participants performing a PA routine consisting of seven different ambulatory and free-living activities while wearing a portable metabolic unit (criterion measure) and the IMS. Data analyses on the first 50 adult participants are presented. These analyses were used to determine if the IMS can be used to predict the variables of interest. Finally, physical modifications for the IMS that could enhance feasibility of free-living use are proposed and refinement of the prediction techniques is discussed. PMID:21813941

  10. Psychosocial and demographic correlates of objectively measured physical activity in structured and unstructured after-school recreation sessions.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Welk, Gregory J; Hastmann, Tanis J; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2011-07-01

    Most studies of psychosocial and demographic correlates of physical activity (PA) have examined relationships across various types of physical and social environments, rather than within a specific environmental behavior setting. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates of PA in structured and unstructured after-school recreation sessions. This study is cross-sectional. School records, questionnaires, and anthropometry were used to obtain demographic and psychosocial variables. Third and fourth-grade children (n = 230) from seven schools wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers up to six times per year during after-school programming. Accelerometer data were processed to determine percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (T scores, reflective of an individual child's PA level relative to group mean, were computed for each session and averaged across sessions). Pearson correlations, point-biserial correlations, and mixed-model analyses were used to determine significant associations with PA for each session type (structured and unstructured). For structured sessions, gender, PA barriers self-efficacy, and PA enjoyment were significantly related to PA. For unstructured sessions, only gender was related to PA. Despite equivalent opportunities to participate in active recreation, boys were more active than girls, and children varied in PA level partly due to psychosocial factors. Our results showed that PA self-efficacy and enjoyment explained variability in structured PA sessions. PMID:21349765

  11. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    PubMed Central

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  12. Fear of Movement and Low Self-Efficacy Are Important Barriers in Physical Activity after Renal Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Zelle, Dorien M.; Corpeleijn, Eva; Klaassen, Gerald; Schutte, Elise; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) and exercise are commonly used as preventive measures for cardiovascular disease in the general population, and could be effective in the management of post-transplantation cardiovascular risk. PA levels are low after renal transplantation and very few renal transplant recipients (RTR) meet the PA guidelines. Identification of barriers to regular PA is important to identify targets for intervention to improve PA levels after renal transplantation. We investigated fear of movement and physical self-efficacy as barriers to PA in RTR. Methods RTR were investigated between 2001–2003. The Tampa Score of Kinesiophobia–Dutch Version (TSK-11) was used to assess fear of movement. Physical self-efficacy was measured with the LIVAS-scale. PA was assessed using validated questionnaires (Tecumseh Occupational Activity Questionnaire and the Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnaire). Results A total of 487 RTR (age 51±12 years, 55% men) were studied. Median score [interquartile range] on TSK-11 was 22 [17–26]. Low physical self-efficacy (Exp B:0.41[0.31–0.54], p<0.001) and history of myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and cerebrovascular accident (Exp B:1.30[1.03–1.63],p = 0.03) were independent determinants for fear of movement. Fear of movement was associated with lower daily PA, occupational, sports and leisure time PA. Mediation-analysis showed that a large part (73%) of the effect of fear of movement on PA was explained by low physical self-efficacy. Conclusions This study was the first to examine fear of movement and self-efficacy in relation to PA in RTR. Fear of movement was associated with a low PA level, and the larger part of this relation was mediated by low physical self-efficacy. Both fear of movement and physical self-efficacy level are important targets for intervention during rehabilitation after renal transplantation. PMID:26844883

  13. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  14. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  15. The influence of dairy consumption and physical activity on ultrasound bone measurements in Flemish children.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Stephanie; Michels, Nathalie; Polfliet, Carolien; D'Haese, Sara; Roggen, Inge; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sioen, Isabelle

    2015-03-01

    The study's aim was to analyse whether children's bone status, assessed by calcaneal ultrasound measurements, is influenced by dairy consumption and objectively measured physical activity (PA). Moreover, the interaction between dairy consumption and PA on bone mass was studied. Participants of this cross-sectional study were 306 Flemish children (6-12 years). Body composition was measured with air displacement plethysmography (BodPod), dairy consumption with a Food Frequency Questionnaire, PA with an accelerometer (only in 234 of the 306 children) and bone mass with quantitative ultrasound, quantifying speed of sound (SOS), broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and Stiffness Index (SI). Regression analyses were used to study the associations between dairy consumption, PA, SOS, BUA and SI. Total dairy consumption and non-cheese dairy consumption were positively associated with SOS and SI, but no significant association could be demonstrated with BUA. In contrast, milk consumption, disregarding other dairy products, had no significant effect on calcaneal bone measurements. PA [vigorous PA, moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and counts per minute] was positively associated and sedentary time was negatively associated with BUA and SI, but no significant influence on SOS could be detected. Dairy consumption and PA (sedentary time and MVPA) did not show any interaction influencing bone measurements. In conclusion, even at young age, PA and dairy consumption positively influence bone mass. Promoting PA and dairy consumption in young children may, therefore, maximize peak bone mass, an important protective factor against osteoporosis later in life. PMID:24633491

  16. The Effect of a Pedometer-based Program Improvement of Physical Activity in Tabriz University Employees

    PubMed Central

    Baghianimoghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Bakhtari-Aghdam, Fatemeh; Asghari-Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Allahverdipour, Hamid; Dabagh-Nikookheslat, Saeed; Nourizadeh, Roghaiyeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce risk of morbidity and overall mortality. A study has displayed that achieving 10,000 steps/day is associated with important health outcomes and have been used to promote PA. Pedometers are a popular tool for PA interventions in different setting. This study investigated the effects on pedometer-based and self-reported PA among Tabriz University employees. Methods: This experimental study assessed the effects of 16 weeks pedometer-based workplace intervention. Participants (n = 154) were employees of two worksites. Pedometer-based and self-reported PA from one intervention worksite was compared with the data of a comparison workplace. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for self-reported measure of PA, and demographic (age, marital status, educational level, employment status, and stage of change) variables were obtained. To measure PA objectively pedometer was used. Results: Participants reported to increase the step counts from baseline (end of summer) to posttest (winter). The intervention effect revealed significant increase in the intervention group (8279 ± 2759 steps/day than in the comparison work place (4118 ± 1136). Self-reported based on IPAQ concluded women in intervention worksite had a significant increase in the leisure time domain, but similar finding was not found in the comparison worksite. Conclusions: Pedometer used might rather benefit those individuals who want feedback on their current PA, also walking should be considered to increase PA in employee women. PMID:27076888

  17. Activity Adherence and Physical Function in Older Adults with Functional Limitations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity on measures of disability risk in previously sedentary older adults at risk for disability. We examined adherence and retention to the LIPE-P physical activity (PA) interventio...

  18. Sustaining Comprehensive Physical Activity Practice in Elementary School: A Case Study Applying Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tjomsland, Hege Eikland

    2010-01-01

    This study examines an elementary school which during enrollment in the European Network of Health Promoting Schools, 1993-2003, and the Norwegian Physical Activity and Healthy Meals Project, 2004-2006, selected physical activity (PA) as a prioritized area. Survey data, school documents, and focus group data were collected and analyzed through a…

  19. Self-Regulated Learning and Perceived Health among University Students Participating in Physical Activity Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Ron E.; Altunsöz, Irmak Hürmeriç; Su, Xiaoxia; Xiang, Ping; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore motivational indicators of self-regulated learning (SRL) and the relationship between self-regulation (SR) and perceived health among university students enrolled in physical activity (PA) classes. One hundred thirty-one Turkish students participating in physical education activity classes at two…

  20. Adherence to a Physical Activity Program by Older Adults in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Souza, Doralice Lange; Vendruscolo, Rosecler

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of a qualitative research project in which we investigated adherence factors to a physical activity (PA) program for older adults in Brazil named "Sem Fronteiras: Atividades Corporais Para Adultos Maduros e Idosos", which translated into English means "Without Borders: Physical Activities for Mature and Older…

  1. Developing the School Physical Activity and Nutrition Environment Tool to Measure Qualities of the Obesogenic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Deborah H.; Gunter, Katherine; Jackson, Jennifer A.; Manore, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical tools are needed that reliably measure the complex physical activity (PA) and nutrition environments of elementary schools that influence children's health and learning behaviors for obesity prevention. The School Physical Activity and Nutrition-Environment Tool (SPAN-ET) was developed and beta tested in 6 rural Oregon…

  2. School Influences on the Physical Activity of African American, Latino, and White Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Susan C.; Strycker, Lisa A.; Chaumeton, Nigel R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of school-related variables on the physical activity (PA) levels of early adolescent African American, Latino, and White girls. Methods: Data were collected from 353 African American (N?=?123), Latino (N?=?118), and White (N?=?112) girls. Physical activity levels included a PA…

  3. Intensity Classification Accuracy of Accelerometer-Measured Physical Activities in Chinese Children and Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Zheng; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Many ActiGraph accelerometer cutoff points and equations have been developed to classify children and youth's physical activity (PA) into different intensity levels. Using a sample from the Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study, this study was to develop new ActiGraph cutoff points for moderate-to-vigorous physical…

  4. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose BMI were…

  5. Alternative High School Students' Physical Activity: Role of Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenyon, Denyelle Baete; Kubik, Martha Y.; Davey, Cynthia; Sirard, John; Fulkerson, Jayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine physical activity self-efficacy as a mediator of the association between perceived barriers to PA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among alternative high school (AHS) students. Methods: Students (N = 145) from 6 AHS completed self-report questionnaires. Results: Mediation analyses revealed partial mediation…

  6. Psychometrics of the preschooler physical activity parenting practices instrument among a Latino sample

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latino preschoolers (3-5 year old children) have among the highest rates of obesity. Low levels of physical activity (PA) are a risk factor for obesity. Characterizing what Latino parents do to encourage or discourage their preschooler to be physically active can help inform interventions to increas...

  7. Challenges in Offering Inner-City After-School Physical Activity Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljak, Kimberly; Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel; Martin, Jeffrey; Shen, Bo; Whalen, Laurel; Fahlman, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Background: Offering physical activity clubs (PACs) for students in urban high schools can provide avenues for increased physical activity (PA); however, little is known about why some clubs are not successful. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine leaders' and students' perspectives on the challenges faced when…

  8. Measuring Japanese mothers' perception of child abuse: development of a Japanese version of the child abuse blame scale – physical abuse (CABS-PA-J)

    PubMed Central

    Fujimoto, Masaki; Hirose, Taiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Okawa, Hiroji; Takigawa, Itsurou

    2007-01-01

    Background The Child Abuse Blame Scale – Physical Abuse (CABS-PA) was translated into Japanese and its subscale items modified by the authors according to the Japanese cultural context. The aim of the current study was to investigate the appropriateness, reliability, and clinical applicability of the CABS-PA Japanese version (CABS-PA-J). Modifications were made to enable the determination of child abuse recognition in a Japanese cultural setting and early clinical intervention in child abuse cases. Methods The CABS-PA text was translated into Japanese, then back translated. The appropriateness of scale item translations was verified based on e-mail discussions with the original CABS-PA author. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the validity of CABS-PA-J responses and to confirm the validity of factor structure. Criterion-related validity was also confirmed. The Japanese scale was used to examine the characteristic differences between mothers of premature infants (< 1500 g) and those of other infants (≧ 1500 g). Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses found the factor structure to be similar between the original scale and the translated CABS-PA-J, suggesting adequate factor validity. There was a statistically significant correlation between social support from a spouse or third party and the abuse score on a subscale, partially demonstrating criterion-referenced validity. Similarities and differences were found in the stress reactions of the mothers of premature infants (< 1500 g) and those of other infants (≧ 1500 g). Conclusion CABS-PA-J was shown to be appropriate and reliable. It is an effective tool for determining the recognition of child abuse among Japanese mothers. PMID:17623078

  9. Physical Activity Levels in Chinese One-Year-Old Children and Their Parents, an Early STOPP China Study

    PubMed Central

    Hagströmer, Maria; Xiong, Yuelin; Zhang, Lanlan; Zhang, Jianduan; Marcus, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health benefits, already in childhood. However, little is known about actual levels, patterns and gender differences in PA level in very young children. This study examines Chinese one-year-old children and their parents’ PA levels and patterns, and assesses the correlations between children’s PA level and gender, body mass index standard deviation score (BMI SDS), parental BMI and parental PA level. Methods Data from 123 families participating in the Early STOPP China study were used. Families were recruited based on parental BMI and were classified as either high-risk or low-risk of obesity. Parents and children wore an ActiGraph GT3X+ to assess the average PA levels. PA levels and hourly patterns during weekdays and weekends were examined as were correlations with gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI and parental PA levels. Results There were no significant differences in children’s averaged PA between risk groups, genders, or between weekdays and weekends. Children’s peak average activity level was at 7 pm and they were least active at 3 pm (p<0.001). Both mothers and fathers demonstrated a similar PA pattern as their children, although paternal PA level was consistently lower than that of mothers and children. No significant association was found between children’s PA and their gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA levels. Maternal PA was found positively associated with child PA (p<0.05). Conclusion PA in one-year-old Chinese children vary over the day but weekdays and weekends are similar. At this age, children’s PA is not related to gender, BMI SDS, parental BMI or paternal PA. Larger scale studies with more contextual information are needed to improve the understanding of our findings. PMID:27078684

  10. Habit as moderator of the intention-physical activity relationship in older adults: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    van Bree, Rob J H; van Stralen, Maartje M; Bolman, Catherine; Mudde, Aart N; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined whether habit strength moderates the intention-physical activity (PA) relationship in older adults, within the framework of the attitude-social influences-efficacy (ASE) model and the theory of planned behaviour (TPB). A total of 1836 older adults (Mage = 62.95 years, SDage = 8.17) completed a questionnaire on social cognitive constructs and PA habit strength at baseline, and six months later a measure of PA. Three PA habit groups (i.e., low, medium and high) were composed, based on tertiles of the mean index score. Multi-group structural equation modelling analyses showed that intention significantly determined PA behaviour only in participants with a low or medium habit strength towards PA. This result suggests that PA is not intentional at high levels of habit strength and demonstrates the usefulness of incorporating habit in the ASE and TPB models. Results also showed that about half of the participants with a strong PA habit did not meet the recommended PA level. As strong habits may prevent intentional behavioural change and may hinder the receptiveness and openness for informational PA change strategies, additional intervention strategies, such as awareness raising and the use of implementation intentions, are needed for strongly habitual, but insufficiently active older adults. PMID:23244776

  11. Long-term physical activity: an exogenous risk factor for sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, Ceryl A.; Westgate, Kate; Gunstone, Sue; Brage, Soren; Wareham, Nicholas J.; McDermott, Christopher J.; Shaw, Pamela J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To conduct a geographically defined, UK-based case-control study, to examine any association between physical activity (PA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: A novel historical PA questionnaire was designed, validated, and subsequently administered in individual face-to-face interviews of 175 newly diagnosed sporadic ALS cases and 317 age- and sex-matched community controls. Historical PA energy expenditure and time spent in vigorous-intensity PA were derived from questionnaire data and compared between cases and controls. Results: Participation in an extra 10kJ/kg/day of PA (equivalent to approximately 45minutes brisk walking) was consistently associated with an increased risk of ALS, with the strongest association observed for adulthood exercise-related PA (OR 1.47, 95% CI 1.10-1.97). An extra 10mins/day of vigorous PA was also associated with the odds of ALS (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1·01-1·05). Results were slightly attenuated following adjustment for smoking and educational attainment. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a positive association between ALS and PA participation using a specifically designed and validated historical PA questionnaire. Despite the well-established health benefits of PA, a high activity lifestyle may also be associated with elevated risk of ALS. Large-scale prospective studies in the future may help to confirm this association. PMID:26998882

  12. Investigating the psychosocial determinants of physical activity in older adults: A qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Kosteli, Maria-Christina; Williams, Sarah E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Despite the benefits of physical activity (PA), only one-third of older adults meet the recommended levels. The present study focused on psychosocial determinants of PA following retirement. Social cognitive theory (SCT) was used to better understand pre- and post-retirement adults’ thoughts about PA, the reasons why some individuals are more active than others, and how PA is incorporated into daily life after retirement. Design: Seven focus groups of older adults (N = 37, M = 64, SD = 5.20; males = 20) representing a range of PA levels and retirement length participated in one of seven focus groups. Results: Aligned with SCT, self-efficacy beliefs along with perceptions about barriers and benefits of PA were among the major determinants of PA. Findings highlighted the importance of social support, positive outcome expectations and self-regulatory strategies as motivators. The lack of structure in retirement was a hindrance to incorporating PA into daily routine but, when incorporated, PA provided a sense of purpose in the lives of retired individuals. Conclusion: It is important to understand the meaning of retirement as a life transition and how it affects beliefs about PA to inform SCT-based health promotion interventions targeting individuals in retirement age. PMID:26964473

  13. Prevalence, trends and environmental influences on child and youth physical activity.

    PubMed

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter was to describe prevalence and trends in children's physical activity (PA) and to overview the evidence of relationships between the broader neighborhood social and physical environment and child and youth PA. PA typically declines throughout childhood and adolescence. Few countries describe prevalence estimates of the proportion of children and youth meeting current PA recommendations; however, trends suggest declines in population level PA among children, in particular declines in active transport and school physical education. While reasons for these changes are not well-understood, there is an increasing research focus on the influence of the neighborhood social and physical environment as possible determinants of these declines. Literature examining associations between the broader social and physical environment and child and youth PA identified factors such as safety concerns (e.g. road safety, crime and concerns about strangers), social interaction (e.g. child visits with peers, neighborhood relationships, other children live in neighborhood close by), and urban design (e.g. connectivity of streets, access and availability of public open spaces and sports facilities) as important influences. However, much of the evidence is preliminary and context specific. That is, studies that reported null associations with children's PA used global rather than context-specific measures of PA (e.g. walking in the neighborhood). Future research requires better conceptualization of the social and physical environment in which children live and consideration of context-specific behaviors and behavior-specific aspects of the environment relevant to children and youth. Prospective studies are needed to establish temporal relationships between the social and physical environment and child and youth PA. PMID:17387258

  14. Bullied Status and Physical Activity in Texas Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Case, Kathleen R; Pérez, Adriana; Saxton, Debra L; Hoelscher, Deanna M; Springer, Andrew E

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the association between having been bullied at school during the past 6 months ("bullied status") and not meeting physical activity (PA) recommendations of 60 minutes of daily PA during the past week among 8th- and 11th-grade Texas adolescents. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine this association, adjusted for weight status, grade, race/ethnicity, and stratified by gender; furthermore, a significant interaction was found between bullied status and weight status. Results are presented by interaction status. Results indicated that overweight girls who reported never being bullied, as well as those who reported being bullied more than twice, had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.12, 3.99]; AOR = 9.18, 95% CI [2.26, 37.27], respectively). Obese girls who were bullied once or twice had higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight girls who were never bullied (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI [1.06, 7.89]). Overweight boys who reported never being bullied had lower odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 0.62, 95% CI [0.39, 0.97]). Conversely, obese boys who were bullied once or twice reported higher odds of not meeting PA recommendations than normal weight boys who were never bullied (AOR = 3.61, 95% CI [1.22, 10.67]). Findings from this study indicate that the association between bullied status and meeting PA recommendations is complex and may differ by gender and the interaction between bullied status and weight status. PMID:26304711

  15. Physical Activity Assessments for Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fittipaldi-Wert, Jeanine; Brock, Sheri J.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity is important in maintaining and improving overall health for all. Students with disabilities tend to have lower fitness levels due to the lack of participation in physical activities, therefore, progressions and modifications to physical activities are needed. Assessing the physical activity levels of students with disabilities…

  16. Let's Get Moving! Physical Activity and Students with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi Sayers; Shapiro, Deborah R.

    2004-01-01

    Roughly 39% of children and youth with disabilities are physically active (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 2000). Increasing the number of individuals with disabilities who are physically active is a public health priority (Kosma, Cardinal & Rintala, 2002). This paper will highlight the current status of physical activity for persons with a disability by…

  17. Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity through Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Despite the recognized health risks associated with physical inactivity, most Americans are not active enough to achieve health benefits, and many report no planned physical activity at all. The Surgeon General's report on physical activity and health and several research studies have provided evidence that most Americans do not exercise and are…

  18. Decreased physical activity in adults with bronchial asthma.

    PubMed

    van 't Hul, Alex J; Frouws, Siete; van den Akker, Edmee; van Lummel, Rob; Starrenburg-Razenberg, Anja; van Bruggen, Alie; Braunstahl, Gert-Jan; In 't Veen, Johannes C C M

    2016-05-01

    Contradictory findings have been reported in the literature on the impact that bronchial asthma may have on habitual physical activity. The present study was designed to compare physical activity, objectively measured with an activity monitor, between adults with bronchial asthma and apparently healthy controls. Valid registrations of physical activity were obtained in 226 patients with asthma and 201 healthy controls. A multiple general linear model was used to test between group differences and to correct for confounding of the results due to between group differences in BMI and employment status. In the patients, statistically significantly lower values were found for average steps/day (-1202; CI -1893 to -511; P = 0.001), physical activity level based on an estimate of a person's total energy expenditure (-0.035; CI -0.067 to -0.003); P = 0.034) and daily time (minutes) spent at vigorous intensive physical activity (-11; CI -17 to -1; P < 0.001). In addition, weak albeit significant correlations were found between measures of physical activity and asthma control. We conclude that bronchial asthma in adults is associated with a significant reduction in physical activity as compared to apparently healthy controls and is accompanied by a lower perceived health status. This is in support of the postulation of PA as potential pathway to better the outcome of care for these patients. PMID:27109814

  19. "Feeling unsafe": a photovoice analysis of factors influencing physical activity behavior among Malaysian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Saimon, Rosalia; Choo, Wan Yuen; Bulgiba, Awang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the factors influencing physical activity (PA) in the Asia-Pacific region is critical, given the high prevalence of inactivity in this area. The photovoice technique explores the types of PA and factors influencing PA among adolescents in Kuching, Sarawak. A total of 160 photographs were collected from participants (adolescents, n = 22, mean age = 14.27 ± 0.7 years, and parents, n = 8, mean age = 48 ± 6.8 years). Data analysis used constant comparison methods of a grounded theory. The Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity was used to categorize PA factors. Study findings were centered on the concept of safety, facilities, parental restriction, friends, cultural traits, media, community cohesiveness, and weather. The central theme was "feeling unsafe" when being outdoors. To promote PA behavior, provision of PA facilities needs to be supported by other programs that build on peer support, crime prevention, and traffic safety, together with other educational campaigns. PMID:23513006

  20. Interrelationships of adolescent physical activity, screen-based sedentary behaviour, and social and psychological health

    PubMed Central

    Iannotti, Ronald J.; Janssen, Ian; Haug, Ellen; Kololo, Hanna; Annaheim, Beatrice; Borraccino, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    Summary Objectives To examine how adolescent physical activity (PA) and screen-based media sedentary behaviours (SBM) relate to psychological and social health and identify cross-national differences in these relationships. Methods Associations were examined in five regions using two Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) countries from each. Results Self-reported psychological and social health indices such as self-image, perceived health status, and quality of life were positively related to PA in all five regions but, with a few exceptions, negatively related to SBM. Negative health indices such as health complaints and tobacco use were negatively related to PA but, with exceptions, positively related to SBM. Significant regional differences were present. Conclusions Regional differences in correlates of PA and SBM suggest cultural differences in potential effects of PA and SBM and the need to tailor school and public health efforts to the different meanings of PA and SBM for positive and negative health consequences. PMID:19639256

  1. Physical and Social Contexts of Physical Activities Among Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, JoAnn; Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Evenson, Kelly R.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Jobe, Jared B.; Rung, Ariane L.; Gittelsohn, Joel; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    Background With limited opportunities for physical activity during school hours, it is important to understand the contexts of physical activities done outside of school time. Given the importance of physical and social aspects of environments, the purpose of this study was to describe where and with whom girls participate in physical activities outside of school. Methods Participants were 1925 sixth-grade girls in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG). At baseline, they completed a 3-day physical activity recall (3DPAR), reporting the main activity performed during 30-minute intervals and the physical and social contexts of physical activities. Results The most frequently reported physical activities done outside of school time were house chores, walking (for transportation or exercise), dance, basketball, playing with younger children, and running or jogging. The most common location for these activities was at home or in the neighborhood. With the exception of household chores, these activities were typically done with at least one other person. Conclusions Interventions that promote physical activities that can be done at or around home or developing supportive social networks for physical activity would be consistent with the current physical activity contexts of adolescent girls. PMID:19420391

  2. Differences in resting metabolic rate and physical activity patterns in lean and overweight/obese pregnant women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy requirements vary during pregnancy due to changes in physical activity (PA) and maternal fat stores. This study measured resting metabolic rate (RMR) and PA patterns in healthy lean and overweight/obese (OW) pregnant women. RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry (MOXUS), activity pattern...

  3. Life events and change in leisure time physical activity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Engberg, Elina; Alen, Markku; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Peltonen, Juha E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Pekkarinen, Heikki

    2012-05-01

    The global epidemic of chronic non-communicable diseases is closely related to changes in lifestyle, including decreasing leisure time physical activity (PA). Physical inactivity is a major public health challenge. To respond to that challenge, it is essential to know which personal and environmental factors affect PA behaviour. Certain life events may be one contributing factor, by creating emotional distress and disrupting a person's daily routine. The aim was to examine the literature concerning the effects of life events on changes in PA. A systematic literature search was performed on studies that assessed at least one major change in life circumstances and a change in PA. To be included, studies had to assess PA at two timepoints at least (before and after the event). Diseases as life events were excluded from this review. Thirty-four articles met the inclusion criteria. The studies examined the following life-change events: transition to university; change in employment status; marital transitions and changes in relationships; pregnancy/having a child; experiencing harassment at work, violence or disaster; and moving into an institution. The studies reviewed showed statistically significant changes in leisure PA associated with certain life events. In men and women, transition to university, having a child, remarriage and mass urban disaster decreased PA levels, while retirement increased PA. In young women, beginning work, changing work conditions, changing from being single to cohabiting, getting married, pregnancy, divorce/separation and reduced income decreased PA. In contrast, starting a new personal relationship, returning to study and harassment at work increased PA. In middle-aged women, changing work conditions, reduced income, personal achievement and death of a spouse/partner increased PA, while experiencing violence and a family member being arrested or jailed decreased PA. In older women, moving into an institution and interpersonal loss

  4. Top 10 research questions related to physical activity and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Motl, Robert W; Learmonth, Yvonne C; Pilutti, Lara A; Gappmaier, Eduard; Coote, Susan

    2015-06-01

    An estimated 2.5 million people worldwide are living with multiple sclerosis (MS), and this disease may be increasing in prevalence. MS is a disease of the central nervous system that is associated with heterogeneous symptoms and functional consequences, and the current first-line disease-modifying therapies often become ineffective later in the disease. There is increasing evidence for the benefits of physical activity (PA) in people with MS, but this population is generally physically inactive and sedentary. We proposed 10 research questions to guide future research on PA and MS: (1) Is PA an MS disease-modifying behavior? (2) What are the benefits of PA among people with MS? (3) What is the optimal PA prescription for people with MS? (4) What are the safety issues with PA in people with MS? (5) What characteristics of people with MS modify the benefits of PA? (6) What variables explain participation in PA among people with MS? (7) What are effective behavioral interventions for PA change in people with MS? (8) How do we translate PA research into clinical MS practice? (9) What is the role of sedentary behavior in people with MS? And (10) what is the optimal measurement of PA in people with MS? These questions are critical for informing our understanding of the short- and long-term consequences of PA in MS as well as for identifying approaches for promoting and sustaining PA in MS. Addressing these questions may greatly improve the lives of people with this chronic disease. PMID:25874730

  5. Quantification of Daily Physical Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Robert; Breit, Greg; Quintana, Jason

    1994-01-01

    The influence of physical activity on the maintenance and adaptation of musculoskeletal tissue is difficult to assess. Cumulative musculoskeletal loading is hard to quantify and the attributes of the daily tissue loading history affecting bone metabolism have not been completely identified. By monitoring the vertical component of the daily ground reaction force (GRFz), we have an indirect measure of cumulative daily lower limb musculoskeletal loading to correlate with bone density and structure. The objective of this research is to develop instrumentation and methods of analysis to quantify activity level in terms of the daily history of ground reaction forces.

  6. SALSA : SAving Lives Staying Active to Promote Physical Activity and Healthy Eating

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley; Orlando Edwards, Raul; McNeill, Lorna

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are vexing problems among minorities. SAving Lives, Staying Active (SALSA) was an 8-week randomized controlled crossover design, pilot study to promote regular physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption as a means to preventing weight gain among women of color. Participants completed measures of demographics, PA, and dietary habits. Women (N = 50; M = 42 years) who participated were overweight (MBMI = 29.7 kg/m2; Mbody fat = 38.5%) and reported low levels of leisure time PA (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) and FV consumption (M = 4.2 servings/day). All were randomized to a four-week (1) semiweekly Latin dance group or (2) internet-based dietary education group. All participants reported a significant increase in weekly leisure time PA from baseline (M = 10.7 MET-min/wk) to follow up (M = 34.0 MET-min/wk, P < .001), and FV consumption increased over time by group (P = .02). Data suggest that Latin dance interventions to improve PA and web-based interventions to improve dietary habits show promise for improving health among women of color. PMID:21234315

  7. DOING Physics: Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Recommends an experiment which will help students experience the physical evidence that floors, tables, and walls actually bend when pressure is exerted against them. Set-up includes: laser, radio, solar cell, and wall-mounted mirror. When the beam is moved by pressure on the wall, participants can "hear the wall bend." (DH)

  8. Attitudes toward physical activity and exercise: comparison of memory clinic patients and their caregivers and prediction of activity levels.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Megan E; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Crossley, Margaret; Morgan, Debra G

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons' Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers' attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients' participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E. PMID:24451476

  9. Hemothorax under thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue: plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in a 16-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Varnholt, V; Ringe, H; Nietsch, L; Gaedicke, G

    1999-12-01

    We present the case of a 16-year-old girl with an extended thrombosis of the femoral and iliac vein and the inferior vena cava during pleuropneumonia; predisposing risk factors for thrombophilia were: use of contraceptives, nicotine abuse and congenital deficiency of antithrombin III (not previously diagnosed). Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA; initial dose: 0.08 mg/kg/h) was started. 2 days later--after diagnosis of an extended hemothorax: 1500 ml blood were obtained after thoracocentesis, transfusion of packed red blood cells was necessary--rt-PA was stopped, with only heparin (400 U/kg/d) being administered. 36 h later--the thrombosis had not yet changed--the thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA was continued in a markedly reduced dose (0.015 mg/kg/d) with no further bleeding complications. 8 days later--after successful thrombolysis--t-PA was stopped, heparin was given for another 10 days, then cumarin was administered orally. PMID:10650854

  10. The concordance of directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes and physical activity adoption

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) adoption is essential for obesity prevention and control, yet ethnic minority women report lower levels of PA and are at higher risk for obesity and its comorbidities compared to Caucasians. Epidemiological studies and ecologic models of health behavior suggest that built environmental factors are associated with health behaviors like PA, but few studies have examined the association between built environment attribute concordance and PA, and no known studies have examined attribute concordance and PA adoption. Purpose The purpose of this study was to associate the degree of concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes with changes in PA over time among African American and Hispanic Latina women participating in a PA intervention. Method Women (N = 410) completed measures of PA at Time 1 (T1) and Time 2 (T2); environmental data collected at T1 were used to compute concordance between directly and indirectly measured built environment attributes. The association between changes in PA and the degree of concordance between each directly and indirectly measured environmental attribute was assessed using repeated measures analyses. Results There were no significant associations between built environment attribute concordance values and change in self-reported or objectively measured PA. Self-reported PA significantly increased over time (F(1,184) = 7.82, p = .006), but this increase did not vary by ethnicity or any built environment attribute concordance variable. Conclusions Built environment attribute concordance may not be associated with PA changes over time among minority women. In an effort to promote PA, investigators should clarify specific built environment attributes that are important for PA adoption and whether accurate perceptions of these attributes are necessary, particularly among the vulnerable population of minority women. PMID:21736740

  11. Early motor skill competence as a mediator of child and adult physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Davis, Robert E.; Fu, Yang-Chieh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In order to effectively promote physical activity (PA) during childhood, and across the lifespan, a better understanding of the role of early motor skill development on child and adult PA is needed. Methods: Here, we propose a conceptual model delineating the hypothesized influence of motor skill development on child and adult PA, while providing an overview of the current empirical research related to this model. Results: There is consistent and emerging evidence showing that adequate motor skill competence, particularly locomotor and gross motor skills, is associated with increased PA levels during the preschool, child, and adolescent years, with early motor skill development also influencing enjoyment of PA as well as long-term PA and motor skill performance. The physical education setting appears to be a well-suited environment for motor skill development. Conclusion: Employing appropriate strategies to target motor skill development across the childhood years is of paramount interest in helping shape children's PA behavior, their experiences related to PA, as well as maintain their PA. PMID:26844157

  12. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  13. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  14. Objective Habitual Physical Activity and Estradiol Levels in Obese Latina Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gyllenhammer, Lauren E.; Vanni, Amanda K.; Byrd-Williams, Courtney E.; Kalan, Marc; Bernstein, Leslie; Davis, Jaimie N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lifetime physical activity (PA) is associated with decreased breast cancer (BC) risk; reports suggest that PA during adolescence contributes strongly to this relationship. PA lowers production of sex hormones, specifically estradiol, or decreases insulin resistance (IR), thereby lowering risk. Overweight Latina adolescents are insulin resistant and exhibit low levels of PA, potentially increasing their future BC risk. Methods 37 obese Latina adolescents (15.7 ±1.1 yrs) provided measures of PA using accelerometry; plasma follicular phase estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, total and free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS); IR using HOMA-IR; body composition via DEXA. Partial correlations and stepwise linear regressions assessed cross-sectional relationships between sex hormones, IR and PA. Body composition, and age were included a priori as covariates. Results Estradiol was negatively associated with accelerometer counts per minute (CPM) (r= −0.4; p=0.02), percent time spent in moderate PA (%MPA) (r= −0.5; p=0.006), and percent time in moderate or vigorous PA (%MVPA) (r= −0.5; p=0.007). DHEAS was positively associated with CPM (r=0.4, p=0.009), %MPA (r=0.3, p=0.04), and %MVPA (r=0.3, p=0.04). Other sex hormones and IR were not associated with PA measures. Conclusion This study is the first to show that higher habitual PA was inversely associated with estradiol in obese adolescents. PMID:23038707

  15. Interventions to modify physical activity in patients with COPD: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mantoani, Leandro Cruz; Rubio, Noah; McKinstry, Brian; MacNee, William; Rabinovich, Roberto A

    2016-07-01

    The broad range of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been systematically assessed. We aimed to perform a systematic review of the interventional studies that have assessed PA as an outcome in patients with COPD.A systematic search in five different databases (Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and Web of Science) was performed in March 2015. Two independent reviewers analysed the studies against the inclusion criteria (COPD defined by spirometry; prospective, randomised/nonrandomised studies, cohort and experimental studies with interventions using PA as an outcome), extracted the data and assessed the quality of evidence.60 studies were included. Seven intervention groups were identified. PA counselling increased PA levels in COPD, especially when combined with coaching. 13 studies showed positive effects of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) on PA, while seven studies showed no changes. All three PR programmes >12 weeks in duration increased PA. Overall, the quality of evidence was graded as very low.Interventions focusing specifically on increasing PA, and longer PR programmes, may have greater impacts on PA in COPD. Well-designed clinical trials with objective assessment of PA in COPD patients are needed. PMID:27103381

  16. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  17. Do Coaches Perceive Themselves as Influential on Physical Activity for Girls in Organised Youth Sport?

    PubMed Central

    Guagliano, Justin M.; Lonsdale, Chris; Rosenkranz, Richard R.; Kolt, Gregory S.; George, Emma S.

    2014-01-01

    Participation in organised youth sports (OYS) has been recommended as an opportunity to increase young peoples' physical activity (PA) levels. While coaches can potentially influence athletes' PA levels, what has not been explored is the question; do coaches perceive themselves as influential on PA for girls in OYS? Participants were 30 coaches of girls OYS teams aged 9–17 years in the Greater Sydney Metropolitan Area, Australia. Participants took part in a semi-structured interview that lasted approximately 30 minutes. They responded to questions regarding their perceived role as coaches, their perceptions of themselves as role models for PA, their views on their athletes' current PA levels, their opinions on improving their athletes' PA levels, and their perceived challenges as coaches in OYS. Many coaches considered themselves role models for PA due to their own involvement in organised sports. Coaches felt that they were conscious of girls' PA levels during training and could accurately gauge how active girls were. Coaches perceived their training sessions to provide sufficient PA and thus, did not feel the need to try to increase PA during training. Many coaches were cautious about conducting training sessions where the PA intensity was high for prolonged periods because they believed that it could potentially result in dropout from OYS. Coaches' perceived time commitment to OYS, variability of skill/experience amongst girls, and poor parental support as major challenges they experienced in OYS. This study provided a unique insight from the perspective of coaches in OYS. Most coaches felt that they had the potential to influence PA for girls in OYS; however, coaches may underestimate or not fully realise the impact they can have on the girls they coach. Future research should focus on educating coaches to capitalise on the opportunity they have to promote PA through OYS. PMID:25184413

  18. Macronutrient Intake for Physical Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buford, Thomas

    Proper nutrition is an essential element of athletic performance, body composition goals, and general health. Although natural variability among persons makes it impossible to create a single diet that can be recommended to all; examining scientific principles makes it easier for athletes and other physically active persons to eat a diet that prepares them for successful training and/or athletic competition. A proper nutritional design incorporates these principles and is tailored to the individual. It is important for the sports nutritionist, coach, and athlete to understand the role that each of the macronutrients plays in an active lifestyle. In addition, keys to success include knowing how to determine how many calories to consume, the macronutrient breakdown of those calories, and proper timing to maximize the benefits needed for the individual's body type and activity schedule.

  19. Compulsory School In- and Outdoors-Implications for School Children's Physical Activity and Health during One Academic Year.

    PubMed

    Pagels, Peter; Raustorp, Anders; Guban, Peter; Fröberg, Andreas; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Regulated school days entail less free-living physical activity (PA) and outdoor stay, which may jeopardize the opportunities for cohesive moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and, by extension, children's health. The role of outdoor stay during school time for pupils' free-living PA vs. physical education (PE) and indoor stay was studied during one academic year in 196 pupils aged 7-14 years at four schools in mid-southern Sweden during five consecutive days each in September, March, and May. Actigraph GT3X+ Activity monitors were used. Predictors for PA during school stay were expressed as mean daily accelerometer counts and were measured per season, day, grade, gender, weather, and time outdoors. Overall, free-living PA outdoors generated the highest mean accelerometer counts for moderate and vigorous PA. Outdoor PA and PE, representing 23.7% of the total school time contributed to 50.4% of total mean accelerometer counts, and were the greatest contributors to moderate and vigorous PA. Age and weather impacted PA, with less PA in inclement weather and among older pupils. More time outdoors, at all seasons, would favorably increase school children's chances of reaching recommended levels of PA. PMID:27420079

  20. Compulsory School In- and Outdoors—Implications for School Children’s Physical Activity and Health during One Academic Year

    PubMed Central

    Pagels, Peter; Raustorp, Anders; Guban, Peter; Fröberg, Andreas; Boldemann, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Regulated school days entail less free-living physical activity (PA) and outdoor stay, which may jeopardize the opportunities for cohesive moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and, by extension, children’s health. The role of outdoor stay during school time for pupils’ free-living PA vs. physical education (PE) and indoor stay was studied during one academic year in 196 pupils aged 7–14 years at four schools in mid-southern Sweden during five consecutive days each in September, March, and May. Actigraph GT3X+ Activity monitors were used. Predictors for PA during school stay were expressed as mean daily accelerometer counts and were measured per season, day, grade, gender, weather, and time outdoors. Overall, free-living PA outdoors generated the highest mean accelerometer counts for moderate and vigorous PA. Outdoor PA and PE, representing 23.7% of the total school time contributed to 50.4% of total mean accelerometer counts, and were the greatest contributors to moderate and vigorous PA. Age and weather impacted PA, with less PA in inclement weather and among older pupils. More time outdoors, at all seasons, would favorably increase school children’s chances of reaching recommended levels of PA. PMID:27420079

  1. Women, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: Self-concept as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p < .050), and not global self-concept. Physical self-concept was the strongest predictor and approximately 32.45 % of PA's effect on PQL was mediated by it. This study's findings support a multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept. PMID:26898406

  2. Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Valentina; Vanacore, Nicola; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Vermeulen, Roel; Brayne, Carol; Pearce, Neil; Wark, Petra A; Ward, Heather A; Ferrari, Pietro; Jenab, Mazda; Andersen, Peter M; Wennberg, Patrik; Wareham, Nicholas; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Peeters, Petra H; Mattiello, Amalia; Pala, Valeria; Barricante, Aurelio; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Travier, Noémie; Travis, Ruth C; Sanchez, Maria-Jose; Pessah-Rasmussen, Hélène; Petersson, Jesper; Tjønneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; Quiros, Jose Ramon; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Kyrozis, Andreas; Oikonomidou, Despoina; Masala, Giovanna; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Arriola, Larraitz; Boeing, Heiner; Vigl, Matthaeus; Claver-Chapelon, Francoise; Middleton, Lefkos; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2016-03-01

    Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33% less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95% CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity. PMID:26968841

  3. High-level expression of a novel recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) in the milk of transgenic rabbits and its thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Song, Shaozheng; Ge, Xin; Cheng, Yaobin; Lu, Rui; Zhang, Ting; Yu, Baoli; Ji, Xueqiao; Qi, Zhengqiang; Rong, Yao; Yuan, Yuguo; Cheng, Yong

    2016-08-01

    The human tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a key kinase of fibrinolysis that plays an important role in dissolving fibrin clots to promote thrombolysis. The recombinant human plasminogen activator (rhPA) has more thrombolytic advantages than the wild type tPA. To increase the half-life and thrombolytic activity of tPA, a mutant containing only the essential K2 fibrin-binding and P activating plasminogen domains of the wild type tPA was cloned. This fragment was then inserted into goat β-casein regulatory sequences. Then, a mammary gland-specific expression vector, PCL25/rhPA, was constructed, and the transgenic rabbits were generated. In this study, 18 live transgenic founders (12♀, 6♂) were generated using pronuclear microinjection. Six transgenic rabbits were obtained, and the expression levels of rhPA in the milk had a range of 15.2-630 µg/ml. A fibrin agarose plate assay of rhPA showed that it had strong thrombolytic bioactivity in vitro, and the highest specific activity was >360 (360 times more than that of alteplase). The results indicated that the rhPA containing only the K2 and P domains is efficiently expressed with higher thrombolytic bioactivity in the milk of transgenic rabbits. Our study also demonstrated a new method for the large-scale production of clinically relevant recombinant pharmaceutical proteins in the mammary glands of transgenic rabbits. PMID:27230577

  4. "LET US Play": Maximizing Physical Activity "in" Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin; Beets, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Schools have been identified as a promising setting for increasing youth physical activity levels because of their broad reach and the amount of time youth spend in attendance. Specifically, physical education is one key time during the school day where youth can accumulate health-enhancing levels of physical activity. Indicators of quality…

  5. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  6. Changes in Commitment to Physical Activity among 8-to-11-Year-Old Girls Participating in a Curriculum-Based Running Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBate, Rita; Zhang, Yan; Thompson, Sharon H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Despite findings that support physical activity (PA) as an effective means of improving health and quality of life, PA levels among girls tend to decline with age. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess changes pertaining to PA commitment following a curriculum-based running program designed for 3rd-to-5th-grade girls.…

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial of Positive Affect Induction to Promote Physical Activity After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Janey C.; Charlson, Mary E.; Hoffman, Zachary; Wells, Martin T.; Wong, Shing-Chiu; Hollenberg, James P.; Jobe, Jared B.; Boschert, Kathryn A.; Isen, Alice M.; Allegrante, John P.

    2013-01-01

    Background Within 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention, more than 20% of patients experience new adverse events. Physical activity confers a 25% reduction in mortality; however, physical activity is widely underused. Thus, there is a need for more powerful behavioral interventions to promote physical activity. Our objective was to motivate patients to achieve an increase in expenditure of 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months as assessed by the Paffenbarger Physical Activity and Exercise Index. Methods Two hundred forty-two patients were recruited immediately after percutaneous coronary intervention between October 2004 and October 2006. Patients were randomized to 1 of 2 groups. The patient education (PE) control group (n=118) (1) received an educational workbook, (2) received a pedometer, and (3) set a behavioral contract for a physical activity goal. The positive affect/self-affirmation (PA) intervention group (n=124) received the 3 PE control components plus (1) a PA workbook chapter, (2) bimonthly induction of PA by telephone, and (3) small mailed gifts. All patients were contacted with standardized bimonthly telephone follow-up for 12 months. Results Attrition was 4.5%, and 2.1% of patients died. Significantly more patients in the PA intervention group increased expenditure by 336 kcal/wk or more at 12 months, our main outcome, compared with the PE control group (54.9% vs 37.4%, P=.007). The PA intervention patients were 1.7 times more likely to reach the goal of a 336-kcal/wk or more increase by 12 months, controlling for demographic and psychosocial measures. In multivariate analysis, the PA intervention patients had nearly double the improvement in kilocalories per week at 12 months compared with the PE control patients (602 vs 328, P=.03). Conclusion Patients who receive PA intervention after percutaneous coronary intervention are able to achieve a sustained and clinically significant increase in physical activity by 12 months. Trial Registration

  8. Translating Physical Activity Evidence to Hospital Settings: A Call for Culture Change.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Sharon J; Carr, Lucas J

    2016-01-01

    Extensive evidence exists on the multiple physical and psychological benefits of physical activity (PA) across the lifespan. Yet, the vast majority of Americans engage in highly sedentary lifestyles, and most do not meet recommended PA levels that can achieve health benefits. Moreover, nurses and other healthcare providers are highly inconsistent in their PA recommendations to patients in all settings, as well as in achieving their own levels of PA. The consequences are growing obesity and health-related conditions, disability, and mortality. A culture change is sorely needed that reimagines and reintegrates PA into the course of daily life activities. In this article, we present the research on PA benefits, declining PA levels, and healthcare practice deficits and propose designing an inpatient unit of the future with a mission of PA for all that is integrated into the fabric and operations of the unit. Malcolm Gladwell's Tipping Point ideas are used as a change framework to guide strategies recommended in this futuristic unit. These strategies include leadership by clinical nurse specialists, engagement of other key people, resources, and structures. The entire process will require bold leadership and a willingness to think outside existing models of hospital care, which are costly and outdated. PMID:27309785

  9. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Geon Ha; Im, Kiho; Kwon, Hunki; Seo, Sang Won; Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Hojeong; Hwang, Jung Won; Kang, Sue J.; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA) in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior, and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention. PMID:27597826

  10. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated with Increased Attentional Network Connectivity in the Healthy Elderly.

    PubMed

    Kim, Geon Ha; Im, Kiho; Kwon, Hunki; Seo, Sang Won; Ye, Byoung Seok; Cho, Hanna; Noh, Young; Lee, Jong Min; Kim, Sung Tae; Park, Sang Eon; Kim, Hojeong; Hwang, Jung Won; Kang, Sue J; Jeong, Jee Hyang; Na, Duk L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the potential alterations in structural network properties related to physical activity (PA) in healthy elderly. We recruited 76 elderly individuals with normal cognition from Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, Korea. All participants underwent the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery and 3.0T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Participants were subdivided into quartiles according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores, which represents the amount of PA. Through graph theory based analyses, we compared global and local network topologies according to PA quartile. The higher PA group demonstrated better performance in speed processing compared to the lower PA group. Regional nodal strength also significantly increased in the higher PA group, which involved the bilateral middle frontal, bilateral inferior parietal, right medial orbitofrontal, right superior, and middle temporal gyri. These results were further replicated when the highest and the lowest quartile groups were compared in terms of regional nodal strengths and local efficiency. Our findings that the regional nodal strengths associated with the attentional network were increased in the higher PA group suggest the preventive effects of PA on age-related cognitive decline, especially in attention. PMID:27597826

  11. Smart phones are useful for food intake and physical activity surveys.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Erica M; Sirard, John R; Barden, Charles M; Moon, Jon K

    2009-01-01

    Current self-report methods of recording food intake and Physical Activity (PA) are cumbersome and inaccurate. Food and activity surveys implemented on a smart phone will allow for immediate entry, data transfer to a researcher, and feedback to the user. Ten subjects followed a script, representative of one day, to enter food intake and PA on a smart phone. In the follow-up report, all subjects were interested in using the tested program to compare food intake with PA to predict weight gain and loss. PMID:19964382

  12. The influence of the macro-environment on physical activity: a multilevel analysis of 38 countries worldwide

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As indicated by the ANGELO framework and similar models, various environmental factors influence population levels of physical activity (PA). To date attention has focused on the micro-level environment, while evidence on the macro-level environment remains scarce and mostly limited to high-income countries. This study aims to investigate whether environmental factors at macro-level are associated with PA among a broader range of countries. Methods Data from the World Health Survey (WHS) was used to analyze 177,035 adults from 38 (mostly low and middle income) countries. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-S) was used to measure PA. Respondents were classified as active or inactive for vigorous PA, moderate PA and walking. Multilevel logistic regression was performed to assess associations between macro-level environmental factors and the prevalence of PA, with control for individual-level socioeconomic factors. Results The prevalence of PA varied widely between countries and types of PA (5.0%-93.8%). A negative association was found between gross domestic product and PA, odds ratios for men were 0.76 (95% CI: 0.65-0.89) for moderate PA and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.63-0.98) for walking. A higher temperature was associated with less PA (all types) and higher urbanization was associated with less vigorous and moderate PA. More gender equality was also associated with more walking for women. Governmental functioning and literacy rate were not found to be associated with any type of PA. Conclusions This exploratory study indicates that factors such as climate, economic development and cultural factors are determinants of the level of overall PA at national levels. This underlines the suggestion that the macro-environment should be regarded as an important influence on PA. PMID:22967164

  13. Formative Research Conducted in Rural Appalachia to Inform a Community Physical Activity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kruger, Tina M.; Swanson, Mark; Davis, Rian E.; Wright, Sherry; Dollarhide, Katie; Schoenberg, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Despite the well-established benefits of physical activity (PA), most Americans, especially those in rural, traditionally underserved areas, engage in considerably less PA than recommended. This study examines perceived barriers to and facilitators of PA and promising organized PA programs among rural Appalachians. Design Eight focus groups and seven group key informant interviews were conducted. Setting This study was conducted in eastern Kentucky, in Central Appalachia. Subjects 114 rural Appalachian residents (74% female, 91% White) participated. Measures Open-ended, semi-structured, and structured questions regarding perceptions of, barriers to/facilitators of, and examples of successful/failed PA programs were asked. Analysis Qualitative data analysis was conducted, including codebook development and steps taken to ensure rigor and transferability. Interrater reliability was over 94%. Results In addition to barriers that are consistent with other populations, rural Appalachian residents indicated that travel time, family commitments, and inadequate community resources undermine PA. Suggested avenues to increase PA include partnership with churches and the U.S. Cooperative Extension Service; programs that include families, are well-advertised, focus on health rather than appearance; and, underlying all suggestions, culturally-relevant yet non-stereotyping activities. Conclusions When developing PA interventions in rural Appalachia, it is important to employ community-based participatory approaches that leverage unique assets of the population and show potential in overcoming challenges to PA. PMID:22208411

  14. Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Are Beneficial for White Matter in Low-Fit Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Zofia; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Knecht, Anya; Lewis, Andrew; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Chung, Hyondo David; Awick, Elisabeth; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM) integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60–78). Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA) over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging) was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle. PMID:25229455

  15. Accelerometry: a feasible method to quantify physical activity in ambulatory and nonambulatory adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Gorter, Jan Willem; Noorduyn, Stephen G; Obeid, Joyce; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the feasibility of physical activity monitoring in adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). Methods. A convenience sample of ambulatory and non-ambulatory adolescents (N = 23; 17 males, 6 females; mean age 13.5 y, SD 2.6 y; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) distribution: n = 9 Level I, n = 5 Level II, n = 5 Level III, n = 4 Level IV) was recruited. Physical activity (PA) was objectively assessed using the ActiGraph GT1M activity monitor. Discomfort or adverse effects of wearing the accelerometers were recorded by participants. Levels of physical activity were determined as total PA, light PA (LPA), moderate PA (MPA), moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA), and vigorous PA (VPA) using cut-points recently validated for CP. Results. Most participants showed little reluctance. Mean daily MVPA for all participants was 30.7 minutes (SD 30.3), which corresponded to 2.7 (SD 2.4) minutes of MVPA per hour or 4.5% (SD 3.9) of the total monitoring time. Total PA and MVPA were greatest in ambulatory youth (GMFCS levels I and II) compared with youth who use a walking aid or wheelchair (GMFCS levels III and IV) (P < 0.05). Conclusion(s). The results support the use of the accelerometer as a feasible and useful measure of activity in ambulatory and nonambulatory adolescents with CP. PMID:22792119

  16. Promoting Physical Activity in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Joel; Lindsay, Elizabeth A.; Wilson, Douglas M.C.

    1991-01-01

    The principle barriers preventing health care professionals from promoting physical activity include an incomplete understanding of the evidence linking physical activity and health, difficulty in translating research findings into a feasible and efficacious clinical intervention, resistance to adopting a preventive orientation, and concerns about the risks of physical activity. Low level activities likely provide benefit with little risk. PMID:21229089

  17. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  18. Physical activity among employee women based on transtheoretical model

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Pirzadeh, Asiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Today, many jobs are associated with the inactivity or sedentary lifestyle. Employees’ health will be affected by their depriving of the benefits of physical activity (PA). Therefore, the present study was undertaken to determine the PA among employee women in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences based on the transtheoretical model. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study has been performed in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences employee women (2013). A convenience sample of 100 women was selected. Data were collected by validated and reliable questionnaire in three parts (demographics information, PA scale, and TTM constructs). Data were analyzed by SPSS SPSS (version 16.0; SPSS, IBM, Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) and descriptive and analytical statistics such as ANOVA and independent t-test were used. A two-tailed P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean of PA was 21.17 ± 27.30 min in a day. Weekly heavy, moderate, and light exercise mean was 0.72 ± 1.81, 0.89 ± 1.87 and 0.57 ± 1.57 days, respectively. In this study, 26% of women were in contemplation, 22% in contemplation, 20% in preparation, 13% in action, and 19% in the maintenance stage. Furthermore, there were significant differences between consciousness raising, dramatic relief, counter-conditioning, stimulus control, helping relationships, reinforcement management, and self-liberation with stages of change constructs. Conclusion: Because of a significant relationship between cognitive and behavioral processes and PA in this group, designing and implementing an educational program based on the transtheoretical model may be useful in promoting PA of a female employee. PMID:27462623

  19. Correlates of physical activity and the theory of planned behavior between African American women who are physically active and those who are not.

    PubMed

    Carter-Parker, Kathleen; Edwards, Karethy A; McCleary-Jones, Voncella

    2012-01-01

    Many people have positive intention to engage in physical activity but fail to act. In general, Physical activity (PA) levels among Americans are declining. However, when compared to all other racial groups, middle aged African American women (AAW) have the lowest rate of PA participation. The lack of physical activity has dire illness consequences for AAW Despite significant efforts to increase physical activity to levels that benefit health, the need to understand successful translation of intention to engage in physical activity, attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control is warranted in order to design theoretically derived culturally tailored interventions to increase physical activity participation among middle aged AAW. Moreover, there is a paucity of studies that use theoretical underpinnings to elucidate the differences between middle aged AAW who are physically active and those who are not physically active. Therefore, the Theory of Planned Behavior's (TPB) measuring the constructs of intention, subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control was used to guide the design of this study. One-hundred-fifty-three respondents completed the socio-demographic profile, a Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire (TPBQ), and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). The Pearson's Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient indicated the highest correlation between intention and attitude r (137) = .740, p < .001. The correlation between intention and perceived behavior control was r (137) = .546, p < .001; intention and physical activity r (137) = .439, p < .001; attitude and perceived behavior control r (137) = .487, p < .001; and attitude and physical activity r (137) = .429, p < .001 demonstrated a moderately strong positive relationship. Subjective norm and perceived behavior control demonstrate the smallest correlational significance r (137) = .264, p <.001. Multiple regression analysis revealed attitude towards physical

  20. Fundamental Movement Skills and Physical Activity among Children with and without Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capio, Catherine M.; Sit, Cindy H. P.; Abernethy, Bruce; Masters, Rich S. W.

    2012-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) proficiency is believed to influence children's physical activity (PA), with those more proficient tending to be more active. Children with cerebral palsy (CP), who represent the largest diagnostic group treated in pediatric rehabilitation, have been found to be less active than typically developing children. This…

  1. Activities report in applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning acoustics, heat, architecture, materials research, and (optical) instrumentation is presented; active noise control and acoustic path identification were investigated. Energy conservation, solar energy, and building physics activities were carried out. Ultraviolet absorbing glasses, glass fibers, sheet glass, and aluminium and silicon oxynitrides, were studied. Glass fiber based sensor and laser applications, and optical space-instrumentation are discussed. Signal processing, sensors, and integrated electronics applications were developed. Scale model experiments for flow induced noise and vibrations, caused by engines, ventilators, wind turbines, and propellers, were executed. A multispectral charge coupled device airborne scanner, with four modules (one for forward observations) is described. A ground radar, based on seismic exploration signal processing and used for the location of pipes, sewers and cables, was developed.

  2. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Rodney P.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and 42 studies (27 qualitative, 14, quantitative, 1 mixed method) published since 1990 (Range 1998–2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included: lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included: family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included: safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women. PMID:25909603

  3. Barriers to Physical Activity Among African American Women: An Integrative Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Rodney P; Ainsworth, Barbara E; Keller, Colleen; Dodgson, Joan E

    2015-01-01

    A key aspect for researchers to consider when developing culturally appropriate physical activity (PA) interventions for African American (AA) women are the specific barriers AA women face that limit their participation in PA. Identification and critical examination of these barriers is the first step in developing comprehensive culturally relevant approaches to promote PA and help resolve PA-related health disparities in this underserved population. We conducted a systematic integrative literature review to identify barriers to PA among AA women. Five electronic databases were searched, and forty-two studies (twenty-seven qualitative, fourteen quantitative, one mixed method) published since 1990 (range 1998-2013) in English language journals met inclusion criteria for review. Barriers were classified as intrapersonal, interpersonal, or environment/community according to their respective level of influence within our social ecological framework. Intrapersonal barriers included lack of time, knowledge, and motivation; physical appearance concerns; health concerns; monetary cost of exercise facilities; and tiredness/fatigue. Interpersonal barriers included family/caregiving responsibilities; lack of social support; and lack of a PA partner. Environmental barriers included safety concerns; lack of facilities; weather concerns; lack of sidewalks; and lack of physically active AA role models. Results provide key leverage points for researchers to consider when developing culturally relevant PA interventions for AA women. PMID:25909603

  4. CFTR suppresses tumor progression through miR-193b targeting urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Xie, C; Jiang, X H; Zhang, J T; Sun, T T; Dong, J D; Sanders, A J; Diao, R Y; Wang, Y; Fok, K L; Tsang, L L; Yu, M K; Zhang, X H; Chung, Y W; Ye, L; Zhao, M Y; Guo, J H; Xiao, Z J; Lan, H Y; Ng, C F; Lau, K M; Cai, Z M; Jiang, W G; Chan, H C

    2013-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is expressed in the epithelial cells of a wide range of organs/tissues from which most cancers are derived. Although accumulating reports have indicated the association of cancer incidence with genetic variations in CFTR gene, the exact role of CFTR in cancer development and the possible underlying mechanism have not been elucidated. Here, we report that CFTR expression is significantly decreased in both prostate cancer cell lines and human prostate cancer tissue samples. Overexpression of CFTR in prostate cancer cell lines suppresses tumor progression (cell growth, adhesion and migration), whereas knockdown of CFTR leads to enhanced malignancies both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, we demonstrate that CFTR knockdown-enhanced cell proliferation, cell invasion and migration are significantly reversed by antibodies against either urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) or uPA receptor (uPAR), which are known to be involved in various malignant traits of cancer development. More interestingly, overexpression of CFTR suppresses uPA by upregulating the recently described tumor suppressor microRNA-193b (miR-193b), and overexpression of pre-miR-193b significantly reverses CFTR knockdown-enhanced malignant phenotype and abrogates elevated uPA activity in prostate cancer cell line. Finally, we show that CFTR gene transfer results in significant tumor repression in prostate cancer xenografts in vivo. Taken together, the present study has demonstrated a previously undefined tumor-suppressing role of CFTR and its involvement in regulation of miR-193b in prostate cancer development. PMID:22797075

  5. Free-Living Physical Activity in COPD: Assessment with Accelerometer and Activity Checklist

    PubMed Central

    MATTHESS, KIRBY; STOLZMANN, KELLY; REILLY, JOHN; GARSHICK, ERIC

    2009-01-01

    Rationale In order to assess participation in physical activities (PA) and disability in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we evaluated the use of an accelerometer and checklist to measure free-living PA. Methods 17 males with stable COPD completed a daily activity checklist for 14 days. 10 subjects concurrently wore an accelerometer (FitSense, Southborough, MA) that records steps per day. Regression models assessed relationships between steps per day, number of daily checklist activities performed, and clinical measures of COPD status. Results The average steps per day ranged from 406 to 4,856. The median intra-subject coefficient of variation for steps per day was 0.52 (interquartile range [IQR] 0.41-0.58) and for number of daily checklist activities performed was 0.28 (IQR 0.22-0.32). A higher number of steps per day were associated with a greater distance walked on the 6-minute walk test and better health-related quality of life. A higher number of daily checklist activities performed was associated with a higher FEV1 % predicted and lower BODE index. Conclusions It is feasible to prospectively measure free-living PA in COPD using an unobtrusive accelerometer and simple activity checklist. There is low intra-subject variation in free-living PA, which is significantly associated with clinical measures of COPD status. PMID:19533541

  6. "Power, Regulation and Physically Active Identities": The Experiences of Rural and Regional Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…

  7. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  8. Changes in Physical Activity and Body Composition in Postmenopausal Women over Time

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Stacy T.; Kubo, Jessica; Desai, Manisha; Bea, Jennifer; Beasley, Jeannette M.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Allison, Matthew; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Chen, Zhao; Michael, Yvonne L.; Sullivan, Shannon D.; Beresford, Shirley; Stefanick, Marcia L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Higher physical activity (PA) has been associated with greater attenuation of body-fat gain and preservation of lean mass across the lifespan. These analyses aimed to determine relationships of change in PA to changes in fat and lean body mass in a longitudinal prospective study of postmenopausal women. Methods Among 11,491 women enrolled at three Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) clinical centers were selected to undergo dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), 8,352 had baseline body composition measurements, with at least one repeated measure at yr 1, 3, and 6. PA data were obtained by self-report at baseline, 3 and 6 yr of follow-up. Time-varying PA impact on change in lean and fat mass during the six-yr study period for age groups (50–59y, 60–69y, 70–79y) was estimated using mixed effects linear regression. Results Baseline PA and body composition differed significantly among the three age groups. The association of change in fat mass from baseline and time-varying PA differed across the three age groups (p=0.0006). In women aged 50–59, gain in fat mass from baseline was attenuated with higher levels of physical activity. Women aged 70–79 lost fat mass at all PA levels. In contrast, change in lean mass from baseline and time-varying PA did not differ by age group (p=0.1935). Conclusions The association between PA and change in fat mass varies by age group, with younger, but not older, women benefitting from higher levels of aerobic PA. Higher levels of aerobic activity are not associated with changes in lean mass, which tends to decrease in older women regardless of activity level. Greater attention to resistance training exercises may be needed to prevent lean mass loss as women age. PMID:23439422

  9. Physical Activity and the Perceived Neighbourhood Environment — Looking at the Association the Other Way Around

    PubMed Central

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Froboese, Ingo; Schantz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The association between physical activity (PA) and variables of the perceived environment mainly originate from cross-sectional studies that introduced the idea that the environment influences the PA level of residents. However, the direction of cause and effect has not been solved with finality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether residents’ perception of their proximate environment differs depending on their level of PA in transport and recreation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with residents of six different parts of the city of Cologne, Germany. The sample of 470 adults (52.8% females; mean age = 35.5 ± 13.8 years) filled in the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), as well as the European Environmental Questionnaire ALPHA. To distinguish between residents with “low” and “high” PA, we split the samples into two on the basis of the specific median in transport- and recreation-related PA. In the “high” vs. “low” PA group of the overall sample, we noted 4%–16% more “PA favourable” environmental perceptions in seven of the 15 environmental variables. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to investigate associations of socio-demographic correlates and transport- and recreation-related PA on the dependent variables of the environmental perception. In this case, levels of PA were significant predictors for eight of the 15 items concerning environmental perceptions. Thus, the present study introduces the idea that residents with higher levels of transport and recreational PA may perceive their environment in a more “PA-favourable” way than residents with lower levels. PMID:25111877

  10. Correlates of Heart Rate Measures with Incidental Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Laís; Reichert, Felipe F.; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Leicht, Anthony S.; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) levels and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). However, previous studies evaluating PA levels did not discriminate between incidental PA and regular exercise. We hypothesized that incidental PA “per se” would influence cardiac autonomic indices as assessed via HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR) in non-exercisers. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective PA levels, CRF, and cardiac autonomic indices in adult, regular non-exercising female workers. After familiarization with procedures and evaluation of body composition, 21 women completed a submaximal cycling test and evaluation of HRR on four different days. Resting (2-min seated and standing) and ambulatory (4-h) HRV were also recorded. Levels of PA were assessed by accelerometry over five consecutive days (i.e., Wednesday to Sunday). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured as an index of CRF. As reliability was low to moderate for most HR measures, relationships between these and PA and CRF were examined using the 4-day average measures. Significant correlations were identified between post-exercise HRR in the first min with various PA indices (daily moderate PA, daily vigorous PA, and the sum of vigorous and very vigorous daily PA). Additionally, VO2max was significantly correlated to HRV but not to HRR. The current results indicated that CRF was influential in enhancing HRV while incidental or non-exercise based PA was associated with greater autonomic reactivation in adult overweight women. Therefore, both CRF and non-exercise based PA contribute significant but diverse effects on cardiac health. The use of 4-day averages instead of single measures for evaluation of autonomic control of HR may provide a better indication of regular cardiac autonomic function that remains to be refined. PMID:26779034

  11. Evaluation of GoGirlGo!; A practitioner based program to improve physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background GoGirlGo! (GGG) is designed to increase girls’ physical activity (PA) using a health behavior and PA-based curriculum and is widely available for free to afterschool programs across the nation. However, GGG has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the GGG curricula to improve PA, and self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA in elementary aged girls (i.e., 5-13 years). Methods Nine afterschool programs were recruited to participate in the pilot (within subjects repeated measures design). GGG is a 12-week program, with a once a week, one-hour lesson with 30 minutes of education and 30 minutes of PA). Data collection occurred at baseline, mid (twice), post, and at follow-up (3-months after the intervention ended). PA was assessed via accelerometry at each time point. Self-efficacy for and enjoyment of PA was measured using the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Short-PA enjoyment scale and was assessed at baseline, post, and follow-up. Fidelity was assessed at midpoint. Results Across all age groups there was a statistically significant increase in PA. Overall, on days GGG was offered girls accumulated an average of 11 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA compared to 8 minutes during non-GGG days. There was a statistically significant difference in girls’ self-efficacy for PA reported between baseline and post, which was maintained at follow-up. An improvement in enjoyment of PA for girls was found between baseline and follow-up. According to fidelity assessment, 89% of the activities within the curriculum were completed each lesson. Girls appeared to respond well to the curriculum but girls 5-7 years had difficulties paying attention and understanding discussion questions. Conclusions Even though there were statistically significant differences in self-efficacy for PA and enjoyment of PA, minimal increases in girls’ PA were observed. GGG curricula improvements are warranted. Future GGG programming

  12. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  13. The Effect of Team Pentathlon on Ten- to Eleven-Year-Old Childrens' Engagement in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michaud, Valerie; Nadeau, Luc; Martel, Denis; Gagnon, Jocelyn; Godbout, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Background: To promote regular physical activity (PA) among children and adolescents, authors recommend that physical education (PE) teachers offer their students programmes that would allow them to be physically active outside PE classes. However, such programmes are rarely rigorously assessed and it is recommended that further studies be…

  14. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommends that all PK-12 schools implement a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program. Schools play an important role in public health, and the physical, mental, and social benefits of regular physical activity for youth are well documented. Leading public health, medical,…

  15. Physical Activity during the School Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Ward, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    In response to concerns that children are physically inactive, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention committee developed school-based implementation strategies centered on the components of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP), composed of the physical education program, physical activity during the school day, staff…

  16. School Programs to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Amelia; Solmon, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    A quality physical education program is at the heart of any plan to promote lifelong participation in physical activity, but it has become evident at many schools that physical education specialists alone cannot address the physical activity needs of children. This is why a series of studies were conducted to develop strategies for the…

  17. Physical Activity Patterns Among U.S. Adults with and without Serious Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Stoodt, Georjean; Rohrer, James E.; Strine, Tara W.; Li, Chaoyang; Balluz, Lina S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A physically active lifestyle is recommended for overall health—both physical and mental. Serious psychological distress (SPD) is associated with adverse health behaviors. We compared patterns of physical activity (PA) among adults with and without SPD using current public health guidelines for PA and examined whether adults with SPD were physically active at recommended levels. Methods We used data from the 2009 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess SPD using the Kessler 6 (K6) scale of nonspecific psychological distress and PA categories based on the 2008 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services guidelines. Complete data were available for 78,886 adults in 16 states that used an optional BRFSS mental illness and stigma module containing the K6 scale. We performed multiple logistic regression analyses to estimate prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The unadjusted prevalence of SPD was 3.9% (95% CI 3.6, 4.2), and the age-adjusted prevalence of SPD was 3.8% (95% CI 3.5, 4.1). After adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, employment, body mass index, smoking status, and heavy drinking, adults with SPD were significantly less likely to be physically active at recommended levels than adults without SPD. PRs were attenuated but remained significant after further adjustment for limitations to PA. Conclusion Adults with SPD are less likely to meet current PA recommendations than adults without SPD, highlighting the need for targeted interventions. PMID:24381357

  18. Pre- to Post-operative Changes in Physical Activity: Report from the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Hsu, Jesse Y; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Eid, George M; Flum, David R; Mitchell, James E; Pender, John R; Smith, Mark D; Steffen, Kristine J; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2011-01-01

    Background Numerous studies report that bariatric surgery patients report more physical activity (PA) after surgery than before, but the quality of PA assessment has been questionable. Methods The Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery-2 is a 10-center longitudinal study of adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Of 2458 participants, 455 were given an activity monitor, which records steps/minute, and an exercise diary before and 1 year after surgery. Mean step/day, active minutes/day, and high-cadence minutes/week were calculated for 310 participants who wore the monitor at least 10 hours/day for at least 3 days at both time points. Pre- and post-surgery PA were compared for differences using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Generalized Estimating Equations identified independent pre-operative predictors of post-operative PA. Results PA increased significantly (p<.0001) pre- to post-operative for all PA measures. Median values pre- and post-operative were: 7563 and 8788 steps/day; 309 and 340 active minutes/day; and 72 and 112 high-cadence minutes/week, respectively. However, depending on the PA measure, 24–29% of participants were at least 5% less active post-operative than pre-operative. Controlling for surgical procedure, sex, age and BMI, higher PA preoperative independently predicted higher PA post-operative (p<.0001, all PA measures). Less pain, not having asthma and self-report of increasing PA as a weight loss strategy pre-operative also independently predicted more high-cadence minutes/week post-operative (p<.05). Conclusion The majority of adults increase their PA level following bariatric surgery. However, most remain insufficiently active and some become less active. Increasing PA, addressing pain and treating asthma prior to surgery may have a positive impact on post-operative PA. PMID:21944951

  19. Comparison of Obesity, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behaviors Between Adolescents With Autism Spectrum Disorders and Without.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Stephanie M; Jakicic, John M; Gibbs, Bethany Barone

    2016-07-01

    Body mass index classification, physical activity (PA), and sedentary behaviors were compared in adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to typically developing adolescents. Participants included 42,747 adolescents (ASD, n = 915) from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. After controlling for covariates, adolescents were more likely to be overweight and obese, and less likely to engage in regular PA versus typically developing adolescents (p's < 0.05). Increased odds for overweight and obesity were attenuated after adjustment for PA. Higher autism severity was associated with increased odds of overweight and obesity and decreased odds of PA, sport, and club participation. These findings suggest adolescents with ASD are in need of targeted programs to decrease obesity and increase physical activity. PMID:26936162

  20. High Levels of Physical Activity in Anorexia Nervosa: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gümmer, Ricarda; Giel, Katrin Elisabeth; Schag, Kathrin; Resmark, Gaby; Junne, Florian Philipp; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Teufel, Martin

    2015-09-01

    High level physical activity is a frequent symptom in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN), influencing the development, maintenance, complications, treatment success, relapse rate and severity of the disease. Accelerometry is assumed to be an objective method to assess physical activity (PA) in AN. We aimed to review objectively measured levels of PA in AN and to give an overview for clinical practice and future research. Data were searched in PubMed and PsychINFO until April 2015 following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement. Twenty studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A notable heterogeneity of measurements, outcomes, participants and settings was found. Overall, HLPA is not adressed enough by current evidence. A common valid terminology of HLPA is not available, and accurate criteria of different levels of PA must be defined to create comparability of future studies. Further objective PA assessments are needed to improve treatment outcome and relapse rate. PMID:26087044

  1. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  2. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 2014 Trends in Adults Receiving a Recommendation for Exercise or Other Physical Activity From a Physician or ...

  3. Associations between physical activity and mental health among bariatric surgical candidates

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C.; Kalarchian, Melissa A.; Steffen, Kristine J.; Wolfe, Bruce M.; Elder, Katherine A.; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine associations between physical activity (PA) and mental health among adults undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods Cross sectional analysis was conducted on pre-operative data of 850 adults with ≥ class 2 obesity. PA was measured with a step activity monitor; mean daily steps, active minutes, and high-cadence minutes (proxy for moderate-vigorous intensity PA) were determined. Mental health functioning, depressive symptoms and treatment for depression or anxiety were measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form, Beck Depression Inventory, and a study-specific questionnaire, respectively. Logistic regression analyses tested associations between PA and mental health indicators, controlling for potential confounders. Receiver operative characteristic analysis determined PA thresholds that best differentiated odds of each mental health indicator. Results Each PA parameter was significantly (P<.05) associated with a decreased odds of depressive symptoms and/or treatment for depression or anxiety, but not with impaired mental health functioning. After controlling for sociodemographics and physical health, only associations with treatment for depression and anxiety remained statistically significant. PA thresholds that best differentiated those who had vs. had not recently received treatment for depression or anxiety were <191 active minutes/day, <4750 steps/day, and <8 high-cadence minutes/day. Utilizing high-cadence minutes, compared to active minutes or steps, yielded the highest classification accuracy. Conclusion Adults undergoing bariatric surgery who meet relatively low thresholds of PA (e.g., ≥ 8 high-cadence minutes/day, representative of approximately one hour/week of moderate-vigorous intensity PA) are less likely to have recently received treatment for depression or anxiety compared to less active counterparts. PMID:23332532

  4. Associations of season and region on objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagströmer, Maria; Rizzo, Nico S; Sjöström, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variation may influence physical activity (PA) patterns. These associations are in need of further investigation. The objective of the current study was to examine the association of season and region on objectively measured PA. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with 1172 participants living in Sweden. Data on PA were collected throughout a calendar year using accelerometry. Regions were categorised as south (Götaland), central (Svealand) and north (Norrland). Outcome variables included accelerometer-measured mean counts per minute, sedentary time and time in low intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (MVPA) or greater. ANCOVA was used to determine the associations of season and region with PA, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and education. The results showed that during the Spring season more time was spent in MVPA than during the Autumn. For participants living in the south of Sweden, a significant trend for season was found for MVPA, with Spring having the highest MVPA (P = 0.025). Season had a borderline significant association with MVPA or higher intensity activities (P = 0.051). No significant effects of region or season on total PA, low-intensity PA and sedentary periods of time were observed. The results indicate that studies conducted in a population living in high latitudes, may not be significantly affected by seasonality or region when assessing PA. PMID:24102558

  5. Physical Activity is Associated with Better Neurocognitive and Everyday Functioning Among Older Adults with HIV Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fazeli, Pariya L.; Marquine, Maria J.; Dufour, Catherine; Henry, Brook L.; Montoya, Jessica; Gouaux, Ben; Moore, Raeanne C.; Letendre., Scott L.; Woods, Steven Paul; Grant, Igor; Jeste, Dilip V.; Moore, David J.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between physical activity (PA), neurocognitive impairment (NCI), and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) among older HIV+ persons. One hundred older HIV+ adults completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), a neurocognitive battery, and IADL scale. Higher levels of moderate PA were associated with lower odds of NCI (p=0.01), even when covariates were modeled. The association between moderate PA and NCI was driven by executive function (p=0.04). Higher levels of moderate PA were also associated with lower odds of IADL Dependence (p = 0.03), although this fell to a trend (p = 0.08) when including covariates. Follow-up analysis showed those with both NCI and IADL Dependence had lower moderate PA than those with neither (p=0.03). While these cross-sectional findings suggest PA is associated with better neurocognitive and everyday functioning in older HIV+ adults, longitudinal studies utilizing objective PA methods are needed to evaluate directionality and mechanisms. PMID:25731660

  6. Long-term effects of 4-year longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention on the physical fitness of children and youth during 7-year followup assessment.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Gregor; Cooper, Ashley; Leskosek, Bojan; Kovac, Marjeta

    2013-12-01

    Many school-based physical activity (PA) interventions have been developed, but only a few have assessed their long-term effects. A PA intervention taking place in the first four years of some Slovenian primary schools entails an enhanced physical education (PE) curriculum, including two extra lessons of PE per week, a wider selection of PE content, and additional outdoor education delivered by both a specialist PE teacher and a general teacher. The effects of the intervention on children's physical fitness (motor tasks and anthropometry) were evaluated within a quasi-experimental study. In total, 324 children from nine Slovenian primary schools either received the enhanced curriculum (intervention (n=160)) or standard PE (control (n=164)), and were followed for a four-year intervention period and seven years post intervention. Data from the SLOFIT database were used to compare differences in the physical fitness of children each year. Linear Mixed Models were used to test the influence of the PA intervention. Over an 11-year period, the PA intervention group significantly differed in all motor tasks, but not in anthropometric measures or body mass index, after controlling for year of measurement and sex. Differences between the control and intervention groups decreased with time. This study highlights the importance of tracking the long term effects of PA interventions. PA intervention in the first four years of Slovenian primary school offers the possibility of improving physical performance in children; initiatives aiming to increase their performance (physical fitness, physical activity) and health outcomes are warranted. PMID:24592722

  7. The Evidence in Support of Physicians and Health Care Providers as Physical Activity Role Models

    PubMed Central

    Lobelo, Felipe; de Quevedo, Isabel Garcia

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity constitutes the fourth leading cause of death worldwide. Health care providers (HCPs) should play a key role in counseling and appropriately referring their patients to adopt physical activity (PA). Previous reports suggest that active HCPs are more likely to provide better, more credible, and motivating preventive counseling to their patients. This review summarizes the available evidence on the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their related PA counseling practices. Based on relevant studies, a snowball search strategy identified, out of 196 studies screened, a total of 47 pertinent articles published between 1979 and 2012. Of those, 23 described HCPs’ PA habits and/or their counseling practices and 24 analytic studies evaluated the association between HCPs’ personal PA habits and their PA counseling practices. The majority of studies came from the United States (n = 33), and 9 studies included nonphysicians (nurses, pharmacists, and other HCPs). PA levels were mostly self-reported, and counseling was typically assessed as self-reported frequency or perceived self-efficacy in clinical practice. Most (19 out of 24) analytic studies reported a significant positive association between HCPs’ PA habits and counseling frequency, with odds ratios ranging between 1.4 and 5.7 (P < .05), in 6 studies allowing direct comparison. This review found consistent evidence supporting the notion that physically active physicians and other HCPs are more likely to provide PA counseling to their patients and can indeed become powerful PA role models. This evidence appears sufficient to justify randomized trials to determine if adding interventions to promote PA among HCPs, also results in improvements in the frequency and quality of PA preventive counseling and referrals, delivered by HCPs, to patients in primary care settings. Future studies should also aim at objectively quantifying the effect of HCPs’ PA role-modeling and how it

  8. Roles and strategies of state organizations related to school-based physical education and physical activity policies.

    PubMed

    Cradock, Angie L; Barrett, Jessica L; Carnoske, Cheryl; Chriqui, Jamie F; Evenson, Kelly R; Gustat, Jeanette; Healy, Isobel B; Heinrich, Katie M; Lemon, Stephenie C; Tompkins, Nancy Oʼhara; Reed, Hannah L; Zieff, Susan G

    2013-01-01

    School-based physical education (PE) and physical activity (PA) policies can improve PA levels of students and promote health. Studies of policy implementation, communication, monitoring, enforcement, and evaluation are lacking. To describe how states implement, communicate, monitor, enforce, and evaluate key school-based PE and PA policies, researchers interviewed 24 key informants from state-level organizations in 9 states, including representatives from state departments of health and education, state boards of education, and advocacy/professional organizations. These states educate 27% of the US student population. Key informants described their organizations' roles in addressing 14 school-based PE and PA state laws and regulations identified by the Bridging the Gap research program and the National Cancer Institute's Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (C.L.A.S.S.) system. On average, states had 4 of 14 school-based PE and PA laws and regulations, and more than one-half of respondents reported different policies in practice besides the "on the books" laws. Respondents more often reported roles implementing and communicating policies compared with monitoring, enforcing, and evaluating them. Implementation and communication strategies used included training, technical assistance, and written communication of policy to local education agency administrators and teachers. State-level organizations have varying roles in addressing school-based PE and PA policies. Opportunities exist to focus state-level efforts on compliance with existing laws and regulations and evaluation of their impact. PMID:23529053

  9. The Differentiated Effectiveness of a Printed versus a Web-Based Tailored Physical Activity Intervention among Adults Aged over 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peels, D. A.; van Stralen, M. M.; Bolman, C.; Golsteijn, R. H. J.; de Vries, H.; Mudde, A. N.; Lechner, L.

    2014-01-01

    This study provides insight in the effectiveness of a print-delivered and a Web-based physical activity (PA) intervention (with or without additional environmental information on local PA possibilities) among people aged over 50. Intervention groups (print-delivered basic [PB; n = 439], print-delivered environmental [PE; n = 435], Web-based basic…

  10. A National Survey of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Chinese City Children and Youth Using Accelerometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) of Chinese city children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old using accelerometers and to examine their differences by gender, age, grade, and weight status. Method: The PA and SB of 2,163 students in 4th grade through 11th grade…

  11. A Formative Evaluation of Customized Pamphlets to Promote Physical Activity and Symptom Self-Management in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plow, Matthew; Bethoux, Francois; Mai, Kimloan; Marcus, Bess

    2014-01-01

    Inactivity is a prevalent problem in the population affected with multiple sclerosis (MS). Thus, there is a need to develop and test physical activity (PA) interventions that can be widely disseminated. We conducted a formative evaluation as part of a randomized controlled trial of a pamphlet-based PA intervention among 30 women with MS. Pamphlets…

  12. Land of the Rising Pulse: A Social Ecological Perspective of Physical Activity Opportunities for Schoolchildren in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Collin Andrew; Suzuki, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    The uptake of policies and recommendations to promote physical activity (PA) in American schools has been slow. It can be useful to investigate international contexts where school-based PA promotion has had more success and consider whether facilitative factors have transferability to American schools. This study employed a social ecological…

  13. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents can influence their children's physical activity (PA) through parenting practices (PP). Correlates of PA-PP have not been investigated. This study therefore aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) socio-demographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived-environmental, and (4) obje...

  14. Environmental and cultural correlates of physical activity parenting practices among Latino parents with preschool-aged children: Ninos Activos

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Latino children are at high risk of becoming obese. Physical activity (PA) can help prevent obesity. Parents can influence children's PA through parenting practices. This study aimed to examine the independent contributions of (1) sociodemographic, (2) cultural, (3) parent perceived environmental, a...

  15. A Cluster-Analytical Approach towards Physical Activity and Eating Habits among 10-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabbe, Dieter; De Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Legiest, E.; Maes, L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to investigate whether clusters--based on physical activity (PA) and eating habits--can be found among children, and to explore subgroups' characteristics. A total of 1725 10-year olds completed a self-administered questionnaire. K-means cluster analysis was based on the weekly quantity of vigorous and moderate PA, the excess index…

  16. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  17. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  18. Associations between children's social functioning and physical activity participation are not mediated by social acceptance: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) during childhood often occurs in social contexts. As such, children's ability to develop and maintain friendship groups may be important in understanding their PA. This paper investigates the associations among children's social functioning, and physical activity and whether perceptions of social acceptance mediate any social functioning-PA association. Methods A cross sectional survey in which 652 10-11 year olds self-reported their peer (e.g. difficulties with friends) and conduct (e.g. anger/aggression) problems, prosocial behaviours (e.g. being kind to others) and perceptions of social acceptance. Physical activity was objectively assessed by Actigraph GT1M accelerometers to estimate counts per minute, (CPM) and minutes of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate associations between social functioning and PA. Indirect effects were analysed to explore mediation by social acceptance. Results Among boys, peer problems were negatively associated with CPM and MVPA and conduct problems were positively associated with CPM and MVPA. Prosocial behaviour was unrelated to PA in boys. Social functioning was not associated with PA among girls. Social acceptance did not mediate the social functioning-PA relationship. Conclusions Boys' conduct and peer problems were associated positively and negatively respectively with their PA but this relationship was not mediated by perceptions of social acceptance. Future research should study alternative mediators to understand the processes underpinning this relationship. PMID:21961734

  19. Psychosocial Mediators of a Faith-Based Physical Activity Intervention: Implications and Lessons Learned from Null Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Blair, Steve; Hooker, Steve; Hussey, Jim; Saunders, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Mediation analyses in faith-based physical activity (PA) interventions targeting African-American adults are lacking. The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial mediators of a faith-based PA intervention with African-American adults. Churches were randomly assigned to receive immediate or delayed (1-year later) training in PA…

  20. Physical Activity Levels in Normal Weight and Overweight Portuguese Children: An Intervention Study during an Elementary School Recess

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes, Luis; Lopes, Vitor; Pereira, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of an intervention strategy during the school recess on physical activity (PA) levels, by gender, age and body mass index (BMI). The sample comprises 158 Portuguese children aged 6 to 12 years. Weight and height were objectively measured. PA was assessed by accelerometry during the recess in pre-intervention…

  1. Validity and reliability of questionnaires measuring physical activity self-efficacy, enjoyment, social support among Hong Kong Chinese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) correlates have not been extensively studied in Hong Kong children. The aim of this study is to assess the validity and reliability of translated scales to measure PA related self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support in Hong Kong Chinese children. Sample 1 (n=273, aged 8–12 ...

  2. The Effect of a Multi-Strategy Workplace Physical Activity Intervention Promoting Pedometer Use and Step Count Increase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cocker, Katrien A.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M.; Cardon, Greet M.

    2010-01-01

    Pedometer use and step count goals have become popular in physical activity (PA) interventions in different settings. Previous pedometer-based workplace interventions were short term, uncontrolled and executed outside Europe. This European quasi-experimental study evaluated the effects of a 20-week pedometer-based PA workplace intervention.…

  3. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  4. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  5. A socio-ecological approach to physical activity interventions in childcare: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical activity (PA) in young children requires effective interventions. This article reviews the evidence on PA interventions in childcare by applying a socio-ecological approach. A computer-based literature search for intervention studies aimed at increasing children’s PA levels was run across four databases: SPORTDiscus, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO and ERIC. The participants had to be in childcare, aged 2-6-year-old, and their pre- and post- intervention PA levels measured. Selection was restricted to peer-reviewed publications and to studies conducted in childcare settings. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria and their methodological quality was assessed. Seven studies exhibited high methodological quality; twelve were rated as moderate and four low. The effectiveness of the interventions was determined according to the post-intervention behavioral changes reported in children’s PA. Fourteen studies found increases in PA levels or reductions in sedentary time, although the changes were modest. The data remain too limited to allow firm conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of the components mediating PA interventions, although PA-specific in-service teacher training seems a potential strategy. The findings of this review indicate that children’s PA remained low and did not approach the 180 min/day criteria. It may be that more intensive multilevel and multicomponent interventions based on a comprehensive model are needed. PMID:24559188

  6. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed. PMID:26254884

  7. Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guedes, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    Although many recent studies have shown that the lack of physical activity is one of the major causes of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among children and adolescents, few studies have shown the connection between the lack of physical education and the prevalence of a sedentary lifestyle. However, it is clear that physical education…

  8. Do the Features, Amenities, and Quality of Physical Activity Resources Differ Between City and County Areas of a Large Rural Region?

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennie L; Waters, Clarice N; Kolivras, Korine N; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to provide a community-academic partnership with actionable information for physical activity (PA) for a rural health-disparate region. Identified PA outlets were audited and combined with survey data for 813 residents in the region. Less than a third of sampled residents (28%) met PA recommendations, with low perceptions of safety for PA. PA resource outlets in rural areas had higher numbers of incivilities. On the basis of our findings, 4 actionable strategies are recommended: shared-use agreements, reducing incivilities, addressing issues related to safety from traffic, and increasing the number of PA resources in rural areas. PMID:27536932

  9. mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Pilot Study in Physically Inactive Pregnant Women.

    PubMed

    Choi, JiWon; Lee, Ji Hyeon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Physical inactivity is prevalent in pregnant women, and innovative strategies to promote physical activity are strongly needed. The purpose of the study was to test a 12-week mobile health (mHealth) physical activity intervention for feasibility and potential efficacy. Methods Participants were recruited between December 2012 and February 2014 using diverse recruitment methods. Thirty pregnant women between 10 and 20 weeks of gestation were randomized to an intervention (mobile phone app plus Fitbit) or a control (Fitbit) group. Both conditions targeted gradual increases in physical activity. The mHealth intervention included daily messages and a mobile phone activity diary with automated feedback and self-monitoring systems. Results On monthly average, 4 women were screened for initial eligibility by telephone and 2.5 were randomized. Intervention participants had a 1096 ± 1898 step increase in daily steps compared to an increase of 259 ± 1604 steps in control participants at 12 weeks. The change between groups in weekly mean steps per day during the 12-week study period was not statistically significant (p = 0.38). The intervention group reported lower perceived barrier to being active, lack of energy, than the control group at 12-week visit (p = 0.02). The rates of responding to daily messages and using the daily diary through the mobile app declined during the 12 week study period. Discussion It was difficult to recruit and randomize inactive women who wanted to increase physical activity during pregnancy. Pregnant women who were motivated to increase physical activity might find using mobile technologies in assessing and promoting PA acceptable. Possible reasons for the non-significant treatment effect of the mHealth intervention on physical activity are discussed. Public awareness of safety and benefits of physical activity during pregnancy should be promoted. Clinicaltrials.Gov Identifier NCT01461707. PMID:26649879

  10. Exploring the influence of a social ecological model on school-based physical activity.

    PubMed

    Langille, Jessie-Lee D; Rodgers, Wendy M

    2010-12-01

    Among rising rates of overweight and obesity, schools have become essential settings to promote health behaviors, such as physical activity (PA). As schools exist within a broader environment, the social ecological model (SEM) provided a framework to consider how different levels interact and influence PA. The purpose of this study was to provide insight on school-based PA promotion by investigating the integration between different levels of Emmons's SEM within one public school board in a large Canadian city. Interviews were conducted with participants from the government (n = 4), the public school board (n = 3), principals (n = 3), and teachers (n = 4) and analyzed to explore perspectives on the various levels of the model. The results suggested that higher level policies "trickled down" into the organizational level of the SEM but there was pivotal responsibility for schools to determine how to implement PA strategies. Furthermore, schools have difficulty implementing PA because of the continued priority of academic achievement. PMID:20980534

  11. The role of physical activity and heart rate variability for the control of work related stress

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Laís; Rodrigues, Fábio B.; Souza, Jeniffer W. S.; Campbell, Carmen S. G.; Leicht, Anthony S.; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and exercise are often used as tools to reduce stress and therefore the risk for developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Meanwhile, heart rate variability (HRV) has been utilized to assess both stress and PA or exercise influences. The objective of the present review was to examine the current literature in regards to workplace stress, PA/exercise and HRV to encourage further studies. We considered original articles from known databases (PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge) over the last 10 years that examined these important factors. A total of seven studies were identified with workplace stress strongly associated with reduced HRV in workers. Longitudinal workplace PA interventions may provide a means to improve worker stress levels and potentially cardiovascular risk with mechanisms still to be clarified. Future studies are recommended to identify the impact of PA, exercise, and fitness on stress levels and HRV in workers and their subsequent influence on cardiovascular health. PMID:24600407

  12. Bridging the physical activity intention-behaviour gap: contemporary strategies for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Ryan E

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of regular moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (PA) are numerous, yet most Canadians are inactive. Behavioural researchers have amassed considerable literature on theories-models of PA and many postulate that intention is the proximal antecedent. While intentions are clearly necessary, they are often not sufficient. In this brief overview, I summarize some of the contemporary areas of research aimed at overcoming the intention-behaviour gap in the behavioural science of PA. These are followed by suggestions for how PA practitioners may wish to employ strategies to help their clients translate good intentions into actual behaviour. The topics include the promotion of affect, organization, automaticity, and social responsibility. These areas of research are not meant to be exhaustive in breadth, but they highlight complementary additions to the typical approaches of changing PA through increases in self-efficacy-capability and personal outcome expectations and attitudes. PMID:24383514

  13. Neighborhood context and immigrant children's physical activity.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Mackenzie; Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert

    2014-09-01

    Physical activity is an important determinant of obesity and overall health for children, but significant race/ethnic and nativity disparities exist in the amount of physical activity that children receive, with immigrant children particularly at risk for low levels of physical activity. In this paper, we examine and compare patterns in physical activity levels for young children of U.S.-born and immigrant mothers from seven race/ethnic and nativity groups, and test whether physical activity is associated with subjective (parent-reported) and objective (U.S. Census) neighborhood measures. The neighborhood measures include parental-reported perceptions of safety and physical and social disorder and objectively defined neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and immigrant concentration. Using restricted, geo-coded Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten (ECLS-K) data (N = 17,510) from 1998 to 1999 linked with U.S. Census 2000 data for the children's neighborhoods, we utilize zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) models to predict the odds of physical inactivity and expected days of physical activity for kindergarten-aged children. Across both outcomes, foreign-born children have lower levels of physical activity compared to U.S.-born white children. This disparity is not attenuated by a child's socioeconomic, family, or neighborhood characteristics. Physical and social disorder is associated with higher odds of physical inactivity, while perceptions of neighborhood safety are associated with increased expected days of physical activity, but not with inactivity. Immigrant concentration is negatively associated with both physical activity outcomes, but its impact on the probability of physical inactivity differs by the child's race/ethnic and nativity group, such that it is particularly detrimental for U.S.-born white children's physical activity. Research interested in improving the physical activity patterns of minority and second-generation immigrant children should

  14. Physical Activity Participation and Preferences: Developmental and Oncology-Related Transitions in Adolescents Treated for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe motor function and participation in, barriers to, and preferences for physical activity (PA) in adolescents during and after treatment of cancer and to discuss PA promotion in the context of developmental and cancer transitions. Method: A cross-sectional survey study used the Transfer and Basic Mobility and Sports/Physical Functioning self-report and parent-report scales of the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) and questions about PA participation and preferences to collect information from 80 adolescents and 63 parents. Results: PODCI scores for adolescents receiving treatment were more variable and significantly lower than those of adolescents who had been off treatment for more than 2 years. Fatigue, pain, general health, and doctor's orders were frequently identified as barriers to PA for adolescents receiving treatment. Many did not achieve recommended levels of PA. The adolescents expressed preferences for being active with friends and family, at home or in school, in the afternoon or evening, and through daily recreational and sports activities typical of teenagers. Conclusions: Physical abilities and participation in and barriers to PA vary across the cancer journey. Interventions should be sensitive to variability and acknowledge individual preferences and environments throughout the trajectories and transitions of cancer treatment and youth development to achieve lifelong healthy lifestyles. PMID:26839461

  15. Exergaming for Physical Activity in Online Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kooiman, Brian J.; Sheehan, Dwayne P.; Wesolek, Michael; Reategui, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    For many the thought of students taking an online course conjures up images of students sitting at a computer desk. Students taking online physical education (OLPE) at home may lack opportunities for competitive or cooperative physical activity that are available to students in a traditional setting. Active video games (exergames) can be played…

  16. Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Intake Among American Indians

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Daley, Christine Makosky; Nazir, Niaman; Kinlacheeny, J. B.; Ashley, Amber; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.; Greiner, K. Allen; Choi, Won S.

    2011-01-01

    The American Indian population has among the highest rates of obesity in the United States. Thus, it is critical to understand factors related to this epidemic (e.g., physical activity, nutrition) among this ethnic minority population. The current study examined factors related to engaging in at least 4 days of physical activity (PA) per week and factors related to consuming at least 5 fruits and vegetables (FV) per day among a sample of American Indians in the Midwest. We used multiple methods to recruit participants for this study, including recruitment at pow wows, focus groups, health fairs, new student orientation for American Indian students, and other venues. A total of 998 American Indians (76% participation rate) completed a survey assessing sociodemographics, physical activity level, fruit and vegetable intake, and perceptions regarding the recommendations for physical activity and fruit and vegetable intake. Factors associated with exercising ≥4 days in the past week (44.77% of the sample) include being younger (P = .002), being male (P<.001), having at least some college education (P = .048), eating ≥5 FV per day, and higher perceived number of days of PA recommended (P<.001). Factors associated with eating ≥5 servings of FV per day (37.01% of the sample) included exercising ≥4 days in the past week (P<.001) and higher perceived number of servings of FV recommended (P<.001). These findings highlight the importance of education in enhancing engagement in positive weight control behaviors and the importance of addressing both physical activity and nutrition among the American Indian population. PMID:21630108

  17. Association between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms: Midlife Women in SWAN

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Sheila A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Segawa, Eisuke; Avery, Elizabeth; Sternfeld, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The relationship of physical activity (PA) and positive mood has been the focus of considerable research, primarily cross-sectional. This study was done to evaluate the relationship between PA and high depressive symptoms across time and to examine whether being physically active attenuates the risk of depressive symptoms in midlife women. Methods The present study is a longitudinal observation study of the menopausal transition in a multiethnic population. Ten years of data on 2891 women were analyzed. The participants were women from seven geographic areas nationwide, aged 42 to 52 years at baseline, still menstruating and not using exogenous reproductive hormones. Physical activity was measured with the Kaiser Permanente Physical Activity Scale (KPAS). The main outcome measure, depressive symptoms, was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) with primary outcome CES-D score of 16 or higher. Results In mixed effect logistic regression models adjusted for covariates, compared to inactivity, physical activity Meeting PA Guidelines (approximating public health guidelines) and physical activity Below PA Guidelines were each associated with lower risk of High Depressive Symptoms (CES-D score of 16 or higher) [odds ratio (OR) =0.52, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.40-0.70; OR =0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.98, respectively] across 10 years. Being married, Japanese and Hispanic ethnicity, current smoking, reporting very upsetting life events, using anti-depressive medications, having hot flashes, and high BMI were all positively associated with High Depressive Symptoms, while high social support was negatively associated. Conclusions Higher PA was associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms persistently over ten years independent of potential confounders. Our findings suggest that reaching moderate intensity PA levels during midlife may be protective against depressive symptoms. PMID:24914519

  18. Perceived environment in relation to objective and self-reported physical activity in Spanish youth. The UP&DOWN study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cervantes, Laura; Rodríguez-Romo, Gabriel; Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Cabanas-Sanchez, Verónica; Delgado-Alfonso, Álvaro; Castro-Piñero, José; Veiga, Óscar L

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess the association of environmental perception with objective and self-reported physical activity (PA) and the relation between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations on children and adolescents. A sample of 1520 youth (770 boys) aged 8-18 years (12.1 ± 2.5 years) from the UP&DOWN study were included in the data analyses. Environmental perception was assessed with the short adapted version of the ALPHA environmental questionnaire. PA was objectively (accelerometers) and self-reported measured (PA Questionnaire for Children, Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise Questionnaire and Finnish PA Index). Linear regression models were used to assess the association of environmental perception with PA. Bivariate logistic regression models were used to assess differences between environmental perception and meeting PA recommendations. Environmental perception was positively associated with both objective and self-reported PA. Some differences were found in the association of environmental perception and PA between sex- and age-specific groups. Youth who perceived a more favourable environment were more likely to meet PA recommendations (at least 60 min · day(-1) of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA)). Results suggest that environmental perceptions of children and adolescents may play an important role in achieving higher levels of PA. PMID:26641935

  19. Physical activity levels in adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dairo, Yetunde Marion; Collett, Johnny; Dawes, Helen; Oskrochi, G Reza

    2016-12-01

    Despite evidence that inactivity is a major factor causing ill health in people with intellectual disabilities (pwID) there are gaps in our knowledge of their physical activity (PA). To date, there is no published systematic review of their PA levels. Therefore, we performed a systematic review from January-October 2015, comprising studies from across the globe to establish PA levels, determine how they were measured, and what factors influenced PA in adults with intellectual disabilities (awID). Five databases were searched. Studies were included if written in English, peer-reviewed, had primary research data, and measured PA levels of awID. Quality was assessed using a 19-item checklist. Meta-summary of the findings was performed and a meta-analysis of factors influencing PA using multiple regression. Fifteen studies were included consisting of 3159 awID, aged 16-81 years, 54% male and 46% female. Only 9% of participants achieved minimum PA guidelines. PA levels were measured using objective and subjective methods. ID severity, living in care, gender, and age were independently significantly correlated with the number of participants achieving PA guidelines with the strongest predictor being ID severity (Beta 0.631, p < 0.001). Findings should be in the context that most of the participants were in the mild/moderate range of ID severity and none of the studies objectively measured PA in people with profound ID. To inform measurement and intervention design for improved PA, we recommend that there is an urgent need for future PA studies in awID population to include all disability severity levels. PROSPERO registration number CRD42015016675. PMID:27413684

  20. Peers Promoting Physical Activity among Breast Cancer Survivors: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Bernardine M.; Stein, Kevin; Dunsiger, Shira

    2015-01-01

    Objective Although studies have shown that physical activity (PA) can reduce some treatment-related side-effects of breast cancer, there is a need to offer PA programs outside of research settings to reach more cancer survivors. We partnered with the American Cancer Society's Reach to Recovery program (RTR) to train their volunteers (breast cancer survivors) to deliver a 12-week PA intervention to other breast cancer survivors. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial to compare the PA intervention delivered by RTR volunteers (PA plus RTR) with contact control (RTR Control). Eighteen RTR volunteers/coaches (mean age=54.9 years, mean years since diagnosis=7.0) delivered the contact control condition or the PA intervention. Seventy-six breast cancer survivors in New England (mean age=55.6 years, mean years since diagnosis=1.1) were randomized to one of the two groups. At baseline, 12 weeks (post-intervention) and at 24 weeks, participants wore an accelerometer for seven days, were interviewed about their PA and reported their motivational readiness for PA. Results Adjusted mixed effects longitudinal regression models showed significant group differences favoring the PA plus RTR group in minutes of moderate to vigorous PA at 12 weeks (mean difference=103 minutes/ week, p<.001) and 24 weeks (mean difference=34.7 minutes/week, p=.03). Results were corroborated with significant group differences in accelerometer data favoring the PA plus RTR group at both time-points. Conclusions Peer volunteers were able to significantly increase PA among cancer survivors relative to contact control. Partnerships with existing volunteer programs can help to widen the reach of behavioral interventions among cancer survivors. PMID:25110844