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Sample records for activity panama city

  1. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area is... enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as...

  2. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  3. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  4. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  5. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  6. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  7. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  8. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  9. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  10. 33 CFR 334.762 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. 334.762 Section 334.762 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.762 Naval Support Activity Panama City; North Bay and West Bay; restricted areas. (a) The..., Naval Support Activity, Panama City Florida, and such agencies as he/she may designate....

  11. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  12. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  13. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  14. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... waterline to 30°09′57.5″ N, 085°44′37″ W; then northerly to point of origin. (2) Area BA-1. The area...

  15. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... waterline to 30°09′57.5″ N, 085°44′37″ W; then northerly to point of origin. (2) Area BA-1. The area...

  16. Structural Seismic Risk at David City, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.; Battlo, J.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Lindhom, C.

    2007-12-01

    At the southwest margin of the Isthmus of Panama, the Cocos, Nazca and Panama Microplate join in a triple junction. In this tectonic setting, the Panama Fracture Zone (PFZ) which bounds the Nazca and Cocos plate, subducts in an oblique and shallow manner. This zone is one of the most active seismic areas of Central America. On July 18, 1934, the largest earthquake in Panama in historical times (Ms= 7.7) occurred in its northern region. This event caused extensive damage to towns located in the border of Panama and Costa Rica and during the two subsequent days, six aftershocks with magnitude greater than 6.0 were recorded. David City, with 130,000 inhabitants is the most important urban center in southwestern Panama and lies at the northern end of the PFZ. This city was impacted by the strong destructive earthquakes (Ms>7.0) that took place in 1879 and 1934, both with epicenters located on the northern terminus of the PFZ. In this work, we collected and digitized historical seismograms to measure the centroid moment tensor (CMT) from the main 1934 earthquake. Additionally, we gathered new macroseismic information to create improved and more complete isoseismals maps of the 1879 and 1934 events. We determined the probabilistic seismic hazard for David City using records of historical and recent seismicity and the characteristics of local faults. The hazard computation results are presented as peak iso-acceleration curves for rock/hard soil for a recurrence time of 500 years. An elastic response spectrum was obtained with a uniform exceedance probability of 10% in 50 years with one degree of freedom and 5% of damping. Our results indicate maximum peak ground acceleration (PGA) in downtown David of 3.8 and 4.5 m/s2 with a probability annual exceedance of 0.002 and 0.001, respectively. Structural vulnerability was determined analyzing the quality and construction design of housing, buildings, and critical facilities as well as the type of soil where these structures

  17. 76 FR 52632 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications... 73 Television, Television broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Barbara A. Kreisman, Chief... Gray Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of station WJHG-TV, channel 7, Panama...

  18. 76 FR 68117 - Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Television Broadcasting Services; Panama City, FL AGENCY: Federal Communications... Television Licensee, LLC (``Gray''), the licensee of WJHG-TV, channel 7, Panama City, Florida, requesting the... the Congressional review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73...

  19. 77 FR 77035 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... Register of December 4, 2012, in FR Doc. 2012-29306 on page 71778, first column, correct the subject... International Trade Administration U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogota, Columbia and Panama City, Panama, May 13-16, 2012; Correction AGENCY: International Trade...

  20. Panama.

    PubMed

    1985-05-01

    Panama's population characteristics, geographical features, communication system, history, government, economy, current political situation, and foreign relations are briefly described. Ethnically, Panama's population of 2,001,000 (1984) is 70% mestizo, 14% West Indian, 10% white, and 6% Indian. 93% of the population is Roman Catholic, and the official language is Spanish. The school enrollment rate is close to 100% at the primary level and 65% at the secondary level. The literacy rate is 93.7% for urban residents and 61.8% for rural residents. The infant mortality rate is 20.1, and life expectancy is 71 years. Panama is a hilly and mountainous country, and the eastern region is covered by tropical forests. In 1519, the Spanish established the old city of Panama near the isthmus, i.e., the narrowest section (52 miles) of the country separating the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, and between then and 1670s, the isthmus played a vital role in the movement of gold and silver from the New World to Spain. Ships from the western side of South American sailed to the western side of the isthmus. Their contents were unloaded, hauled across the isthmus, and reloaded on ships bound for Spain. In 1982 Panama won its independence from Spain and the following year voluntarily became a part of the Republic of Greater Colombia. Since the early 1860s, the idea of building a canal through the isthmus was entertained by various groups, and in the late 1800s a Frenchman unsuccessfully attempted the task. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia after Colombia refused to sign a treaty to allow the US to construct a canal. Panama, as an independent nation, then signed the Hay/Bunau-Varilla Treaty with the US. The treaty gave the US the right to build a canal. Panama retained sovereignty over the canal zone, i.e., a 5 mile area on each side of the canal, but the US was given all the rights in the area normally exercised by a sovereign power. The treaty was resented by

  1. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  2. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  3. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  4. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  5. 33 CFR 334.760 - Naval Support Activity Panama City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... City and Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. 334.760 Section... Alligator Bayou, a tributary of St. Andrew Bay, Fla.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters within... the south side of the entrance to Alligator Bayou; thence directly across the entrance to a point...

  6. 75 FR 32268 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB, FL.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... direct final rule with a request for comments in the Federal Register on April 1, 2010 (75 FR 16331... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB... Federal Register April 1, 2010 that establishes Class E airspace at Tyndall AFB, Panama City, FL....

  7. 75 FR 13670 - Establishment of Class D and E Airspace; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... the new Northwest Florida-Panama City International Airport, Panama City, FL (75 FR 5007) Docket No... 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0...

  8. Panama.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    Panama's territory is 77,381 square km or 29,762 square miles with a population of 2.4 million of whom 70% are mestizos or mixed Spanish and Indian. Literacy is 87%, infant mortality is 22/1000, and life expectancy is 72 years. Panama was part of the Spanish empire from 1538 to 1821. In 1903 Panama declared its independence from Colombia, and afterwards signed a treaty with the US to build a canal 10 miles wide. The existing 52-mile lock canal was completed in 1914. From the 1960s pressure mounted to renegotiate the treaty that was eventually accomplished in 1977. In 1989 the Noriega regime called elections and lost, but it did not accept the results, and continued repression until it was ousted by a 1989 US military action. Noriega surrendered and was indicted for drug trafficking. The economy was in disrepair after mismanagement and US sanctions. During 1990-91 the economy started to recover with the return of capital to banks, increase of exports and construction, and the decrease of government deficit and unemployment. The gross domestic product grew 3.45 in 1990 and 9.3% in 1991 with a low level of inflation. Government policies were proposed to stimulate foreign private investment, improve market conditions, and reduce tariffs and price controls. In 1992 the Endara government signed agreements with international financial institutions on credit that entailed tax, social security, and public investment reforms. The unemployment rate decreased from 35% in 1989 to 16% by 1992. The revenues from the canal have to be sustained, therefore the Panama Canal Commission approved a $200-million project to widen it over the next 20 years. PMID:12178035

  9. Panama.

    PubMed

    1989-06-01

    Panama has an area of 29,762 square miles, with a population of 2,274 million. The terrain is mountainous and the climate is tropical. The ethnic groups consist of mestizo 79% West Indian 14%, white 10%, and Indian 6%. The religions are Roman Catholic 93% and Protestant 6% and the official language is Spanish with 14% using English. There is 6 years of mandatory primary schooling and the literacy rate is 87.1%. The infant mortality rate is 25.6/1000 and life expectancy is 72.1 years. The work force of 770,000 has 26.6% in agriculture, 27.9% in government, 16% in commerce, 10.5% manufacturing, 5.3% in finance, canal 2.4% and utilities 1.4%. The government was a military dictatorship established in 1903 and a constitution was created in 1972 and revised in 1983. A president and 2 vice presidents, a legislative assembly with 67 members and a supreme court now make up the government. There are 9 provinces and 1 Indian territory and the major political parties are the Panamenista, Democratic Revolutionary, Christian Democratic, Labor, Republican, Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement and many other small parties. The economy has a gross national product of over 5 billion dollars and has a growth rate of .47% in 1987, with an inflation rate of 1.1% in 1985. National resources consist of timber, seafood, and copper ore. Agriculture products are bananas, corn, sugar, rice, coffee, shrimp, timber, vegetables, and cattle. There is 24% agricultural land, 20% forest land and industries include food and drink processing, metal working, petroleum products, chemicals, paper, printing, mining, sugar refining, clothing, furniture, and construction. Exports consist of bananas 21%, shrimp 21%, coffee 9%, sugar 6%, clothing 4%, and other 39%. During the colonial period Panama was ruled by Spain and won independence in 1821 and joined Columbia. In 1903 Panama proclaimed independence and made a treaty with the US to build the canal. PMID:12178029

  10. Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates from single outpatient clinic in Panama City exhibit wide genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Sambrano, Dilcia; Correa, Ricardo; Almengor, Pedro; Domínguez, Amada; Vega, Silvio; Goodridge, Amador

    2014-08-01

    Understanding Mycobacterium tuberculosis biodiversity and transmission is significant for tuberculosis control. This short report aimed to determine the genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates from an outpatient clinic in Panama City. A total of 62 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped by 12 loci mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) and Spoligotyping. Forty-five (72.6%) of the isolates showed unique MIRU-VNTR genotypes, and 13 (21%) of the isolates were grouped into four clusters. Four isolates showed polyclonal MIRU-VNTR genotypes. The MIRU-VNTR Hunter-Gaston discriminatory index reached 0.988. The Spoligotyping analysis revealed 16 M. tuberculosis families, including Latin American-Mediterranean, Harlem, and Beijing. These findings suggest a wide genetic diversity of M. tuberculosis isolates at one outpatient clinic. A detailed molecular epidemiology survey is now warranted, especially following second massive immigration for local Panama Canal expansion activities. PMID:24865686

  11. Historical Seismicity of Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.

    2013-05-01

    Central Panama lies in the Panama microplate, neighboring seismically active regions of Costa Rica and Colombia. This region, crossed by the Panama Canal, concentrates most of the population and economic activity of the Republic of Panama. Instrumental observation of earthquakes in Panama began on 1882 by the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique de Panama and continued from 1904 to 1977 by the Panama Canal Company. From October 1997 to March 1998 the USGS deployed a temporary digital seismic network. Since 2003 this region is monitored by a digital seismic network operated by the Panama Canal Authority and I complemented by the broad band stations of the University of Panama seismic network. The seismicity in this region is very diffuse and the few events which are recorded have magnitudes less than 3.0. Historical archives and antique newspapers from Spain, Colombia, Panama and the United Sates have been searched looking for historical earthquake information which could provide a better estimate of the seismicity in this region. We find that Panama City has been shaken by two destructive earthquakes in historical times. One by a local fault (i.e. Pedro Miguel fault) on May 2, 1621 (I=Vlll MM), and a subduction event from the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB) on September 7, 1882 (I=Vll MM). To test these findings two earthquakes scenarios were generated, using SELENA, for Panama City Old Quarter. Panama City was rebuilt on January 21, 1673, on a rocky point facing the Pacific Ocean after the sack by pirate Morgan on January 28, 1671. The pattern of damage to calicanto (unreinforced colonial masonry) and wood structures for a crustal local event are higher than those for an event from the NPDB and seem to confirm that the city has not been shaken by a major local event since May 2, 1621 and a subduction event since September 7, 1882

  12. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile...

  13. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile...

  14. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile...

  15. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile...

  16. International Senior Design Service Learning Project: Creating a Water System for Kuna Nega in Panama City, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budny, Dan

    2013-11-01

    International service-learning projects are an effective educational tool for universities striving to meet the ABET engineering criterion, while also providing transformational experiences to their students and a service to needy populations in the world. This student poster discusses the benefits of an international service-learning project in Panama City, Panama. The presentation will discuss the design and installation of a water distribution system including a two pressure system, two ground storage tanks, a pump station and the various control systems to fill the tanks. To meet the water demand with the limited supply additional individual rain water collection systems were also installed at individual houses to provide a gray water system for bathing. The year-long process of development design and construction will be described and how it fits within the Swanson School of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering senior design course. This project was a collaboration between the senior design course, and a local chapter of Engineers Without Borders.

  17. 75 FR 5007 - Establishment of Class D and E Airspace; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February.... 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class D and E Airspace; Panama City,...

  18. 75 FR 16331 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall AFB, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Panama City, Tyndall...

  19. 75 FR 43818 - Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does not warrant preparation of a...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Panama City,...

  20. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Fort Amador - Fort Amador, Pacific entrance to Panama Canal, Panama City, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  1. 77 FR 15600 - Special Local Regulation; Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix; Saint Andrew Bay; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary special local regulation for a portion of Saint Andrew Bay, Panama City, FL. This action is necessary for the safeguard of participants and spectators, including all crews, vessels, and persons on navigable waters during the Emerald Coast Super Boat Grand Prix high speed boat races. Entry into, transiting in or anchoring in this area is prohibited to......

  2. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. 81.68 Section 81.68 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING...

  3. Development of Dimensionless Surge Response Functions for Hazard Assessment at Panama City, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, N. R.; Irish, J. L.; Hagen, S. C.; Kaihatu, J. M.; McLaughlin, P. W.

    2013-12-01

    Reliable and robust methods of extreme value analysis in hurricane surge forecasting are of high importance in the coastal engineering profession. The Joint Probability Method (JPM) has become the preferred statistical method over the Historical Surge Population (HSP) method, due to its ability to give more accurate surge predictions, as demonstrated by Irish et. al in 2011 (J. Geophys. Res.). One disadvantage to this method is its high computational cost; a single location can require hundreds of simulated storms, each needing one thousand computational hours or more to complete. One way of overcoming this issue is to use an interpolating function, called a surge response function, to reduce the required number of simulations to a manageable number. These sampling methods, which use physical scaling laws, have been shown to significantly reduce the number of simulated storms needed for application of the JPM method. In 2008, Irish et. al. (J. Phys. Oceanogr.) demonstrated that hurricane surge scales primarily as a function of storm size and intensity. Additionally, Song et. al. in 2012 (Nat. Hazards) has shown that surge response functions incorporating bathymetric variations yield highly accurate surge estimates along the Texas coastline. This study applies the Song. et. al. model to 73 stations along the open coast, and 273 stations within the bays, in Panama City, Florida. The model performs well for the open coast and bay areas; surge levels at most stations along the open coast were predicted with RMS errors below 0.40 meters, and R2 values at or above 0.80. The R2 values for surge response functions within bays were consistently at or above 0.75. Surge levels at most stations within the North Bay and East Bay were predicted with RMS errors below 0.40 meters; within the West Bay, surge was predicted with RMS errors below 0.52 meters. Accurately interpolating surge values along the Panama City coast and bays enables efficient use of the JPM model in order to

  4. Evidence of recent jungle yellow-fever activity in eastern Panama*

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Pedro; Srihongse, Sunthorn

    1967-01-01

    Outbreaks of jungle yellow fever in man have been recorded twice from eastern Panama of recent years, first in 1948 and again in 1956. Since then, a close surveillance has been maintained on virus activity in eastern Panama. Recent field observations and serological tests on 402 monkey sera indicate that there was an outbreak of yellow fever among monkeys of southern Darién Province some time between 1963 and 1965. It does not appear that the outbreak has spread as yet to other areas. Virus transmission may have been permanently disrupted during the drought which affected the region in 1965. However, if the virus had managed to survive this unfavourable period, an epizootic wave might have evolved, invading forested areas immediately east of the Panama Canal, now inhabited by a dense non-immune human population. PMID:4962725

  5. Multibeam and CHIRP sonar imaging of sand ridge morphology and basal stratigraphy on the inner shelf offshore Panama City, Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, J. A.; de Moustier, C.; Kraft, B.

    2011-12-01

    Reconnaissance surveys were conducted with a multibeam swath bathymetry sonar and a CHIRP subbottom profiler, and vibracores were collected on the inner shelf offshore Panama City, Florida in April, 2011, to provide seabed characterization for an upcoming ONR acoustic reverberation experiment. The seafloor in this region is part of the MAFLA sand sheet: Holocene shelf marine sands extending from Mississippi to the Florida panhandle, 0-5 m thick and dominated by oblique sand ridge morphology. Coring typically samples a thin shelly layer, associated with the shoreface ravinement, at the base of the sand sheet, followed by finer-grained and organic-rich estuarine sediments. Prior CHIRP data collected off Fort Walton Beach, NW of Panama City, revealed an intermittent reflector beneath the sand ridges that can be correlated to the base of the sand sheet identified in cores. The Panama City CHIRP data also display an intermittent reflector at the base of the sand ridges, often outcropping in the swales between the ridges. Estuarine layering can also be identified, contained within erosional channels beneath the sand ridges. Three spatially correlated morphologic/stratigraphic transitions occur across the survey area. To the NW, the shoreface is narrow and steep, sand ridges are larger, and the base of the sand ridges is coincident with the top of the channel-fill deposits and can therefore be identified as the base of the sand sheet. To the SE, the shoreface is broad and gradual, sand ridges are smaller, and the reflector at the base of the sand ridges is distinct from the top of the channel fill. A core through the reflector at the base of the sand ridges, in a location where it is distinct from the top of the channel fill, sampled a ~0.5 m-thick shell layer coincident with the reflector, with well-sorted sand above and poorly-sorted sand with woody fragments beneath. The reflector at the base of the sand ridges therefore appears to be the transgressive ravinement

  6. 50 CFR 218.180 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Mission Activities in the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division § 218.180 Specified activity... operations) W-151 (includes Panama City Operating Area), W-155 (includes Pensacola Operating Area), and...

  7. Assessment of the Possible Association of Air Pollutants PM10, O3, NO2 With an Increase in Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Diabetes Mortality in Panama City

    PubMed Central

    Zúñiga, Julio; Tarajia, Musharaf; Herrera, Víctor; Urriola, Wilfredo; Gómez, Beatriz; Motta, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In recent years, Panama has experienced a marked economic growth, and this, in turn, has been associated with rapid urban development and degradation of air quality. This study is the first evaluation done in Panama on the association between air pollution and mortality. Our objective was to assess the possible association between monthly levels of PM10, O3, and NO2, and cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality, as well as the seasonal variation of mortality in Panama City, Panama. The study was conducted in Panama City, using air pollution data from January 2003 to December 2013. We utilized a Poisson regression model based on generalized linear models, to evaluate the association between PM10, NO2, and O3 exposure and mortality from diabetes, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The sample size for PM10, NO2, and O2 was 132, 132, and 108 monthly averages, respectively. We found that levels of PM10, O3, and NO2 were associated with increases in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. For PM10 levels ≥ 40 μg/m3, we found an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 9.7% (CI 5.8–13.6%), and an increase of 12.6% (CI 0.2–24.2%) in respiratory mortality. For O3 levels ≥ 20 μg/m3 we found an increase of 32.4% (IC 14.6–52.9) in respiratory mortality, after a 2-month lag period following exposure in the 65 to <74 year-old age group. For NO2 levels ≥20 μg/m3 we found an increase in respiratory mortality of 11.2% (IC 1.9–21.3), after a 2-month lag period following exposure among those aged between 65 and <74 years. There could be an association between the air pollution in Panama City and an increase in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. This study confirms the urgent need to improve the measurement frequency of air pollutants in Panama. PMID:26765444

  8. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol content in cultivated and wild edible fruits grown in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, Enrique; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Durant, Armando A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The present research was undertaken to determine the antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content of cultivated and wild edible fruits consumed in Panama. Materials and Methods: 39 cultivated and wild edible fruits antioxidant activity and total polyphenol content was assessed by using the DPPH and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Results and Discussion: The antioxidant composition of the fruits varied between 1083.33 and 16.22 mg TEAC/100 g fresh weight. On the other hand, the total phenolic content of the 39 fruits tested ranged from 604.80 to 35.10 mg GAE/100 g FW. Ziziphus mauritania presented the highest antioxidant activity and the largest phenolic content, whereas most fruits had a moderate TEAC value. Conclusion: Fruits polyphenol content was strongly correlated with antioxidant properties, which pointed out the important role of these compounds in the prevention of many types of cancer, neurological ailments, and cardiovascular diseases through diverse antioxidant mechanisms. PMID:23248565

  9. Seismic and core investigation off Panama city, Florida, reveals sand ridge influence on formation of the shoreface ravinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goff, John A.

    2014-10-01

    A high-resolution seismic reflection and vibracore survey was conducted on the inner shelf offshore of Panama City, Florida in April, 2011, to provide seabed characterization for Office of Naval Research acoustic reverberation experiments. The seafloor in this region is part of the MAFLA sand sheet: marine sands up to 5.5 m thick extending from Mississippi to the Florida panhandle. The survey area spanned a transition in sand ridge morphology: northwest of the St. Andrews Bay inlet channel, sand ridges are up to ~4 m tall, but die off southeast of the inlet channel. Analysis of reflection and core data documents a basal reflector beneath the ridges interpreted to be the shoreface ravinement separating estuarine and Pleistocene sediments below from the marine sands above scavenged from the eroded sediments. In the northwest, this surface truncates buried river channels filled with estuarine sediment. In the middle of the survey area, where sand ridges are ~2 m high, the basal reflector is stratigraphically above the channel tops, and the presence of woody fragments in the intervening sand implies that it is relict barrier/estuarine material that has not been reworked into marine sand. In the southeast, where no sand ridges are present, the basal reflector is not observed, but the shoreface ravinement is identified in cores just ~0.4 m below the seafloor; unreworked barrier/estuarine sands are up to ~4 m thick above the channel tops. The stratigraphic progression implies reduced depth of shoreface erosion to the southeast, correlating with the reduction in sand ridge height. It is hypothesized here that sand ridge migration provides an addition to wave erosion in the formation of the shoreface ravinement along the lower shoreface and inner shelf, eroding through net negative bedform climb, and transferring sand to the sand ridges comprising the modern sand sheet.

  10. The Republic of Panama.

    PubMed

    1986-08-01

    Panama's open financial system, skilled labor force, adequate infrastructure, and export-oriented commercial sector give it a greater prospect for recovery from Latin America's economic crisis than other countries. Indicators such as average daily caloric rate, population per health care worker, per capita income, total fertility rate, life expectancy, and percent of population under 15 years are more favorable in Panama than neighboring countries. However, economic growth is at present being undermined by internal and external debt, unemployment, high labor costs, and a rising trade deficit. Real per capita output has stagnated since 1980 and growth in the gross domestic product stood at 4.4% in 1982. Over 60% of married women in Panama use modern contraceptive methods, making the birth rate of 28/1000 the lowest in Central America. Panama's growth rate is expected to be 1.9%/year until the year 2000, at which point the population is projected to be 3 million. The infant mortality rate was 26/1000 in 1985, comparable to that in developed countries. Of concern has been rapid urbanization. 54% of the total population in 1980 lived in urban areas, and 66% of the urban population is concentrated in Panama City. Another concern is the tremendous gap between the rich and the poor in Panama. In 1980, the poorest 20% of the population received only 2.7% of total income, while the richest 20% received 60.3%. Such inequality has been somewhat compensated for by above average health services, a national sanitation program to provide safe drinking water, and strong government support for public education. Female labor force participation rates are higher in urban areas, but tends to be concentrated in the low-paying service sector. To absorb additions to the labor force, the economy needs to grow by 7.5%/year. PMID:12268220

  11. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children in rural Panama: role of subsistence agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2016-07-01

    This longitudinal study explored whether aspects of subsistence agriculture were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children in rural Panama. Questionnaires were used to collect data on household socio-demographics, child exposure to agriculture and household agricultural practices. Stool samples were collected from children (6 months-5 years) at 3 time points, with albendazole administered after each to clear infections, resulting in 1 baseline and 2 reinfection measures. A novel Agricultural Activity Index (AAI) was developed using principal components analysis to measure the intensity of household agricultural practices. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed baseline hookworm egg counts were higher if children went to the agricultural plot and if the plot was smaller. Baseline and reinfection Ascaris egg counts were higher if children went to the plot and households had higher AAI, and higher at baseline if the plot was smaller. Caregiver time in the plot was negatively associated with baseline Ascaris egg counts, but positively associated with baseline hookworm and Ascaris reinfection egg counts. Children who spent more time playing around the home were less likely to be infected with Ascaris at baseline. We conclude that preschool child exposure to subsistence agriculture increased Ascaris and hookworm intensity. PMID:27000494

  12. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Different Species of Piper from Panama.

    PubMed

    Santana, Ana I; Vila, Roser; Cañigueral, Salvador; Gupta, Mahabir P

    2016-07-01

    The chemical composition of leaf essential oils from 11 species of Piper from Panama was analyzed by a combination GC-FID and GC-MS procedures. Six of them had sesquiterpene hydrocarbons as major constituents, three were characterized by monoterpene hydrocarbons, one by a diterpene, and one by a phenylpropanoid, dillapiole. The main components identified in each species were: cembratrienol (25.4 %) in Piper augustum; β-pinene (26.6 %) in Piper corrugatum; α-pinene (19.4 %) in Piper curtispicum; trans-β-farnesene (63.7 %) in Piper darienense; p-cymene (43.9 %) in Piper grande; dillapiole (57.7 %) in Piper hispidum; linalool (14.5 %), α-phellandrene (13.8 %), and limonene (12.2 %) in Piper jacquemontianum; β-caryophyllene (45.2 %) in Piper longispicum; linalool (16.5 %), α-phellandrene (11.8 %), limonene (11.4 %), and p-cymene (9.0 %) in Piper multiplinervium; β-selinene (19.0 %), β-elemene (16.1 %), and α-selinene (15.5 %) in Piper reticulatum; and germacrene D (19.7 %) in Piper trigonum. The essential oils of P. hispidum and P. longispicum at a concentration of 250 µg/mL showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, while the oils from P. curtispicum, P. multiplinervium, P. reticulatum, and P. trigonum were inactive (LC100 ≥ 500 µg/mL). The essential oils of P. grande, P. jacquemontianum, and P. multiplinervium showed no significant antifungal activity (MIC > 250 µg/mL) against several yeasts and filamentous fungal strains. PMID:27286333

  13. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  14. Cruise Report; RV Moana Wave cruise M1-01-GM; the bathymetry and acoustic backscatter of the mid shelf to upper slope off Panama City, Florida, northeastern Gulf of Mexico; September 3, through October 12, 2001, Panama City, FL to Panama City, FL

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, James V.; Mayer, Larry A.; Hughes-Clarke, John E.; Dartnell, Peter; Sulak, Kenneth J.

    2001-01-01

    A zone of deep-water reefs is thought to extend from the mid and outer shelf south of Mississippi and Alabama to at least the northwestern Florida shelf off Panama City, Florida (Figure 1, 67kb). The reefs off Mississippi and Alabama are found in water depths of 60 to 120 m (Ludwick and Walton, 1957; Gardner et al., in press) and were the focus of a multibeam echosounder (MBES) mapping survey by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2000 (Gardner et al., 2000; in press). If this deep-water-reef trend does exist along the northwestern Florida shelf, then it is critical to determine the accurate geomorphology and type of the reefs that occur because of their importance as benthic habitats for fisheries. Precisely georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry is a fundamental first step in the study of areas suspected to be critical habitats. Morphology is thought to be critical to defining the distribution of dominant demersal plankton/planktivores communities. Fish faunas of shallow hermatypic reefs have been well studied, but those of deep ahermatypic reefs have been relatively ignored. The ecology of deep-water ahermatypic reefs is fundamentally different from hermatypic reefs because autochthonous intracellular symbiotic zooxanthellae (the carbon source for hermatypic corals) do not form the base of the trophic web in ahermatypic reefs. Instead, exogenous plankton, transported to the reef by currents, serves as the primary carbon source. Thus, one of the principle uses of the morphology data will be to identify whether any reefs found are hermatypic or ahermatypic in origin. Community structure and trophodynamics of demersal fishes of the outer continental of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico presently are the focus of a major USGS reseach project. A goal of the project is to answer questions concerning the relative roles played by morphology and surficial geology in controling biological differentiation. Deep-water reefs are important because they are fish

  15. Panama Canal capacity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bronzini, M.S.

    1995-04-27

    Predicting the transit capacities of the various Panama Canal alternatives required analyzing data on present Canal operations, adapting and extending an existing computer simulation model, performing simulation runs for each of the alternatives, and using the simulation model outputs to develop capacity estimates. These activities are summarized in this paper. A more complete account may be found in the project final report (TAMS 1993). Some of the material in this paper also appeared in a previously published paper (Rosselli, Bronzini, and Weekly 1994).

  16. Assessment of the Possible Association of Air Pollutants PM10, O3, NO2 With an Increase in Cardiovascular, Respiratory, and Diabetes Mortality in Panama City: A 2003 to 2013 Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zúñiga, Julio; Tarajia, Musharaf; Herrera, Víctor; Urriola, Wilfredo; Gómez, Beatriz; Motta, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, Panama has experienced a marked economic growth, and this, in turn, has been associated with rapid urban development and degradation of air quality. This study is the first evaluation done in Panama on the association between air pollution and mortality. Our objective was to assess the possible association between monthly levels of PM10, O3, and NO2, and cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality, as well as the seasonal variation of mortality in Panama City, Panama.The study was conducted in Panama City, using air pollution data from January 2003 to December 2013. We utilized a Poisson regression model based on generalized linear models, to evaluate the association between PM10, NO2, and O3 exposure and mortality from diabetes, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases. The sample size for PM10, NO2, and O2 was 132, 132, and 108 monthly averages, respectively.We found that levels of PM10, O3, and NO2 were associated with increases in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. For PM10 levels ≥ 40 μg/m3, we found an increase in cardiovascular mortality of 9.7% (CI 5.8-13.6%), and an increase of 12.6% (CI 0.2-24.2%) in respiratory mortality. For O3 levels ≥ 20 μg/m3 we found an increase of 32.4% (IC 14.6-52.9) in respiratory mortality, after a 2-month lag period following exposure in the 65 to <74 year-old age group. For NO2 levels ≥20 μg/m3 we found an increase in respiratory mortality of 11.2% (IC 1.9-21.3), after a 2-month lag period following exposure among those aged between 65 and <74 years.There could be an association between the air pollution in Panama City and an increase in cardiovascular, respiratory, and diabetes mortality. This study confirms the urgent need to improve the measurement frequency of air pollutants in Panama. PMID:26765444

  17. Seismicity at Baru Volcano, Western Panama, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the volcano. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the volcano and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the volcano in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different locations using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the volcano seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and located at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are located in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of

  18. 78 FR 59650 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 65 Under Alternative Site Framework, Panama City, Florida

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... 5 as magnet sites; Whereas, notice inviting public comment was given in the Federal Register (78 FR...-acre activation limit for the overall zone, and to a five-year ASF sunset provision for magnet...

  19. The Rio Chagres, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harmon, Russell S.

    This book calls the attention of the scientific community, government organizations and non-government agencies, and the general public to arguably one of the most important and complex of the world's tropical rainforest regions -- the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The Rio Chagres basin is the primary source for water to operate the Panama Canal, and also supplies water for electricity generation and potable water for municipal use, but this important national resource is largely unstudied from a scientific point of view.

  20. Production Schools in Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isos, Ramon

    1977-01-01

    Since 1974, Panama has instituted a program of educational reform to provide practical skills and knowledge, especially in rural areas. District centers of integrated educational development which identify and meet local economic and social needs have replaced traditional schools. (Author/AV)

  1. 75 FR 9578 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Change to Mission Dates

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...-to-business matchmaking appointments with local companies, as well as market briefings and networking.... They will also attend market briefings by U.S. Embassy officials, as well as networking events offering..., Networking reception. Tuesday, September 21, 2010, Panama City, Panama and Cartagena, Colombia, Travel...

  2. A Variationist Account of Voice Onset Time among Bilingual West Indians in Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Delano Sydney

    2012-01-01

    The present study is concerned with language contact between Creole English and Spanish spoken by bilingual West Indians who live in Panama City, Panama. The goal of this study is to examine the speech patterns of monolinguals of Creole English and Spanish and Spanish-Creole English bilinguals in the local communities of this region, by employing…

  3. The Public Good, the Market, and Academic Capitalism: U.S. Cross-Border Higher Education in Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoto, Lisette

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, U.S. colleges and universities have begun to extend their international presence through different models of cross-border higher education. This research explores three models of U.S. higher education in Panama City, Panama: a branch campus, a franchise model and merger/acquisition models. Using a qualitative approach, this study…

  4. Panama Canal Watershed Experiment- Agua Salud Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stallard, Robert F.; Ogden, Fred L.; Elsenbeer, Helmut; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2010-01-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal’s (Canal) central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. The Canal was one of the great engineering projects in the world. Completed in 1914, after almost a decade of concerted effort, its 80 km length greatly shortened the voyage between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. An entire class of ships, the Panamax, has been constructed to maximize the amount of cargo that can be carried in a Canal passage. In today’s parlance, the Canal is a “green” operation, powered largely by water (Table 1). The locks, three pairs on each end with a net lift of 27 meters, are gravity fed. For each ton of cargo that is transferred from ocean to ocean, about 13 tons of water (m3) are used. Lake Gatún forms much of the waterway in the Canal transect. Hydroelectricity is generated at the Gatún dam, whenever there is surplus water, and at Madden Dam (completed in 1936) when water is transferred from Lake Alhajuela to Lake Gatún. The Canal watershed is the source of drinking water for Panama City and Colon City, at either end of the Canal, and numerous towns in between.

  5. Antiplasmodial activity of bacilosarcin A isolated from the octocoral-associated bacterium Bacillus sp. collected in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Boya, Cristopher A.; Herrera, Liuris; Guzman, Hector M.; Gutierrez, Marcelino

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed for isolating and characterizing antiplasmodial compounds from marine octocoral-associated bacteria. Materials and Methods: The organic extract of the Bacillus sp. was subjected to purification using several chromatography techniques guided by bioassays to yield three isocoumarin derivatives (1–3). Chemical structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of HRMS spectra and NMR spectroscopy. The antiplasmodial activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum strain W2. Results: Isolated compounds were identified as bacilosarcin A (1), AI77-F (2), and AI77-H (3). Bacilosarcin A (1) displayed a low micromolar activity (IC50 = 2.2 μM) against P. falciparum while compounds 2 and 3 showed no activity. Conclusions: Bacilosarcin A was found to be responsible for the antiplasmodial activity observed in the crude extract obtained from the Bacillus sp. PMID:22368402

  6. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Balboa Heights with Balboa Elementary School in background center. - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  7. Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph from Panama Birdseye presented to The Panama Canal by Major General Sturgis, October 1, 1938 (original print located in the Panama Canal Commission Technical Resources Center Collection Balboa, Republic of Panama). Aerial view of Ancon Hill and Quarry Heights - Quarry Heights Military Reservation, Ancon Hill, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  8. Ticks (Ixodida) on humans from central Panama, Panama (2010-2011).

    PubMed

    Bermúdez C, Sergio E; Castro, Angélica; Esser, Helen; Liefting, Yorick; García, Gleydis; Miranda, Roberto J

    2012-09-01

    From January 2010 to December 2011, a total of 138 cases of ticks feeding on humans were reported from 11 locations in central Panama. Five of these locations were situated in forest environments, three in rural landscapes and three in urban areas. The ticks were submitted to the Gorgas Memorial Institute, where nine species were identified among 65 specimens: Amblyomma cajennense s.l., A. dissimile, A. naponense, A. oblongoguttatum, A. ovale, A. sabanerae, A. tapirellum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi and Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. The remaining 73 specimens consisted of unidentified immature ticks, all belonging to the genus of Amblyomma. Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. was the species most frequently associated with humans, particularly in urban environments. In rural landscapes, tick bites were most often caused by A. cajennense s.l., whereas A. tapirellum was the species most often found parasitizing humans in forest environments. These data provide information on the tick species most commonly associated with humans in forested environments, rural areas and cities around the Panama Canal. PMID:22544074

  9. Evidence of Multiple Flank Collapse at Volcan Baru, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, J. A.; Rose, W. I.

    2009-12-01

    Michigan Tech's Peace Corps Master's International program (PCMI) in Geological Hazards has enabled several long-term investigations of active volcanoes in Latin America. To contribute to volcanic hazard assessments in Panama and achieve the goals defined by the PCMI program, we developed this debris avalanche project to address outstanding questions regarding Volcan Baru's most devastating event - massive slope failure of the western flank. Relying on basic mapping tools as well as the 2007 USGS Open-File Report focusing on hazard assessments of Panama's youngest and potentially active volcano, identification of the debris avalanche deposits (DAD) required detailed field investigations to determine the limits of the units. Extending across an area larger than 600 km2, field strategies were developed based on outcrop exposures within drainages and road-cuts. Aerial photos and DEMs of Baru's nested craters were interpreted by earlier scientists as the remains of two collapsed flanks. The results from in-depth field traverses provide several important discoveries: paleosols and sharp contacts within the stratigraphy indicate multiple DAD, deeply weathered hummocks red-flag the deposits more than 50-km away from Baru's crater, and high-quality radiocarbon samples (up to 45-cm long fragments of entrained wood) lie in the distal reaches of the debris flow area. During the 2008-2009 field seasons, we received assistance from the University of Panama, Civil Protection, and Panama's National Institute of Geography. Support from local experts and feedback from professional scientists of the Smithsonian Institution and Costa Rica's Institute of Electricity were invaluable. The 2-year investment in volcanic hazard studies has brought together resources from several countries as well as fresh data that will benefit the residents and emergency management officials of Panama. Jigsaw fractured clasts lie within Volcan Baru's debris avalanche deposits more than 28 km south of the

  10. Promoting active living in healthy cities of Europe.

    PubMed

    Faskunger, Johan

    2013-10-01

    Local governments in Europe have a vital role in promoting physical activity in the daily life of citizens. However, explicit investment in active living has been limited. One of the four core themes for Phase IV (2003-2008) of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Healthy Cities Network (WHO-EHCN) was to encourage local governments and their partners to implement programs in favor of active living. This study analyzes the performance of network cities during this period. Responses to a general evaluation questionnaire are analyzed by content according to a checklist, and categorized into themes and dimensions. Most cities viewed "active living" as an important issue for urban planning; to improve visual appeal, enhance social cohesion, create a more sustainable transport system to promote walkability and cyclability and to reduce inequalities in public health. Almost all member cities reported on existing policies that support the promotion of active living. However, only eight (of the 59) responding cities mentioned an integrated framework specific for active living. Many efforts to promote active living are nested in programs to prevent obesity among adults or children. Future challenges include establishing integrated policies specifically for active living, introducing a larger range of actions, as well as increasing funding and capacity to make a difference at the population level. PMID:22700323

  11. The Panama Canal and Social Justice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Margaret D., Ed.

    The booklet, designed to explore the issues of international justice in the context of the Gospel, reviews relations between the United States and Panama. It includes background materials and a study guide for parish leaders and other educators. The central question pertaining to the Panama Canal concerns the rights of the United States according…

  12. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities. PMID:22175080

  13. Current status of health promotion activities in four midwest cities.

    PubMed

    Weisbrod, R R; Bracht, N F; Pirie, P L; Veblen-Mortenson, S

    1991-01-01

    Community-wide surveys were conducted in Winona and St. Cloud, MN, Eau Claire, WI, and Sioux Falls, SD, in 1986 and 1987 to determine the current status of the supply and demand of health promotion activities in nine categories. Supply and demand indicators were conceptualized and defined as program options (different activities in a coded list) and participation (registrations). An annual inventory of all health promotion activities in each community was complied from interviews with providers of such activities. Interviews of probable community providers was followed by a nomination process to identify others. Providers at worksites were interviewed in a separate study with matching data endpoints. Results show that exercise programs have the highest levels of options and participation in all four cities. On the supply side of total programs offered, there was similarity in rates among three of the cities, with only Winona offering more health promotion opportunities. There was similarity also in the areas of health where most programs are offered, favoring exercise, followed by the heart disease risk factor areas of screening, smoking cessation, and nutrition education. On the demand side of participation, there was similarity in total participation rates among three of the four cities with Sioux Falls showing substantially higher demand. Exercise showed the highest participation in all cities, but there was little similarity among the cities in ranking participation in the other areas of health promotion. In the four cities combined, high levels of program options with low participation were characteristic of smoking cessation. In contrast, low levels of program options and high participation were shown in chemical dependency. Worksites are the main providers of health promotion programs for adults, with schools and colleges also major program providers. Educational organizations account for the largest percentage of total participation in health promotion

  14. CurioCity, Developing an "Active Learning" Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Lynne

    1999-01-01

    Describes a case study that takes readers through a human-centered design process used in developing an "Active Learning" tool, CurioCity, a game for students in grades 7-10. Attempts to better understand multiculturalism and to bridge formal in-school learning with informal field trip learning. (SC)

  15. Survey of City/County Drug Abuse Activities 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drug Abuse Council, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This monograph is the second of a two-part report delineating state and local government activities and programs in the area of drug abuse. Presented here are the efforts of cities and counties to control drug abuse, accompanied by comparisons with state actions where appropriate. A survey instrument was developed by the Drug Abuse Council, Inc.…

  16. Role of Temperature, Humidity and Rainfall on Influenza Transmission in Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Bonilla, Luis; Jara, Jorge; McCracken, John; Azziz?-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Kiang, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, seasonal influenza causes about 500,000 deaths and 5 million severe illnesses per year. The environmental drivers of influenza transmission are poorly understood especially in the tropics. We aimed to identify meteorological factors for influenza transmission in tropical Central America. We gathered laboratory-confirmed influenza case-counts by week from Guatemala City, San Salvador Department (El Salvador) and Panama Province from 2006 to 2010. The average total cases per year were: 390 (Guatemala), 99 (San Salvador) and 129 (Panama). Meteorological factors including daily air temperature, rainfall, relative and absolute humidity (RH, AH) were obtained from ground stations, NASA satellites and land models. For these factors, we computed weekly averages and their deviation from the 5-yr means. We assessed the relationship between the number of influenza case-counts and the meteorological factors, including effects lagged by 1 to 4 weeks, using Poisson regression for each site. Our results showed influenza in San Salvador would increase by 1 case within a week of every 1 day with RH>75% (Relative Risk (RR)= 1.32, p=.001) and every 1C increase in minimum temperature (RR=1.29, p=.007) but it would decrease by 1 case for every 1mm-above mean weekly rainfall (RR=0.93,p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.55). Within 2 weeks, influenza in Panama was increased by 1 case for every 1% increase in RH (RR=1.04, p=.003), and it was increased by 2 cases for every 1C increase of minimum temperature (RR=2.01, p<.001) (model pseudo-R2=0.4). Influenza counts in Guatemala had 1 case increase for every 1C increase in minimum temperature in the previous week (RR=1.21, p<.001), and for every 1mm/day-above normal increase of rainfall rate (RR=1.03, p=.03) (model pseudo-R2=0.54). Our findings that cases increase with temperature and humidity differ from some temperate-zone studies. But they indicate that climate parameters such as humidity and temperature could be predictive of influenza

  17. 4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Panama Mount. Note concrete ring and metal rail. Note cliff erosion under foundation at left center. Looking 297° W. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Formation of the Isthmus of Panama

    PubMed Central

    O’Dea, Aaron; Lessios, Harilaos A.; Coates, Anthony G.; Eytan, Ron I.; Restrepo-Moreno, Sergio A.; Cione, Alberto L.; Collins, Laurel S.; de Queiroz, Alan; Farris, David W.; Norris, Richard D.; Stallard, Robert F.; Woodburne, Michael O.; Aguilera, Orangel; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Budd, Ann F.; Cozzuol, Mario A.; Coppard, Simon E.; Duque-Caro, Herman; Finnegan, Seth; Gasparini, Germán M.; Grossman, Ethan L.; Johnson, Kenneth G.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Knowlton, Nancy; Leigh, Egbert G.; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S.; Marko, Peter B.; Pyenson, Nicholas D.; Rachello-Dolmen, Paola G.; Soibelzon, Esteban; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Todd, Jonathan A.; Vermeij, Geerat J.; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the Isthmus of Panama stands as one of the greatest natural events of the Cenozoic, driving profound biotic transformations on land and in the oceans. Some recent studies suggest that the Isthmus formed many millions of years earlier than the widely recognized age of approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), a result that if true would revolutionize our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary change across the Americas. To bring clarity to the question of when the Isthmus of Panama formed, we provide an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records. These independent lines of evidence converge upon a cohesive narrative of gradually emerging land and constricting seaways, with formation of the Isthmus of Panama sensu stricto around 2.8 Ma. The evidence used to support an older isthmus is inconclusive, and we caution against the uncritical acceptance of an isthmus before the Pliocene. PMID:27540590

  19. Formation of the Isthmus of Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Aaron; Aguilera, Orangel; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Cione, Alberto L.; Coates, Anthony G.; Collins, Laurel S.; Coppard, Simon E.; Cozzuol, Mario A.; de Queiroz, Alan; Duque-Caro, Herman; Eytan, Ron I.; Farris, David W.; Gasparini, German M.; Grosmman, Ethan L.; Jackson, Jeremy B. C.; Johnson, Kenneth G.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Knowlton, Nancy; Leigh, Egbert G.; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S.; Lessios, Hailaos A.; Marko, Peter B.; Norris, Richard D.; Rachello-Dolmen, Paola G.; Restrepo-Moreno, Sergio A.; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Stallard, Robert F.; Todd, Jonathan A.; Vermeiju, Geerat J.; Woodburne, Michael O.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of the Isthmus of Panama stands as one of the greatest natural events of the Cenozoic, driving profound biotic transformations on land and in the oceans. Some recent studies suggest that the Isthmus formed many millions of years earlier than the widely recognized age of approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), a result that if true would revolutionize our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary change across the Americas. To bring clarity to the question of when the Isthmus of Panama formed, we provide an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records. These independent lines of evidence converge upon a cohesive narrative of gradually emerging land and constricting seaways, with formation of the Isthmus of Panama sensu stricto around 2.8 Ma. The evidence used to support an older isthmus is inconclusive, and we caution against the uncritical acceptance of an isthmus before the Pliocene.

  20. Formation of the Isthmus of Panama.

    PubMed

    O'Dea, Aaron; Lessios, Harilaos A; Coates, Anthony G; Eytan, Ron I; Restrepo-Moreno, Sergio A; Cione, Alberto L; Collins, Laurel S; de Queiroz, Alan; Farris, David W; Norris, Richard D; Stallard, Robert F; Woodburne, Michael O; Aguilera, Orangel; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A; Budd, Ann F; Cozzuol, Mario A; Coppard, Simon E; Duque-Caro, Herman; Finnegan, Seth; Gasparini, Germán M; Grossman, Ethan L; Johnson, Kenneth G; Keigwin, Lloyd D; Knowlton, Nancy; Leigh, Egbert G; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Marko, Peter B; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Rachello-Dolmen, Paola G; Soibelzon, Esteban; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Todd, Jonathan A; Vermeij, Geerat J; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2016-08-01

    The formation of the Isthmus of Panama stands as one of the greatest natural events of the Cenozoic, driving profound biotic transformations on land and in the oceans. Some recent studies suggest that the Isthmus formed many millions of years earlier than the widely recognized age of approximately 3 million years ago (Ma), a result that if true would revolutionize our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary change across the Americas. To bring clarity to the question of when the Isthmus of Panama formed, we provide an exhaustive review and reanalysis of geological, paleontological, and molecular records. These independent lines of evidence converge upon a cohesive narrative of gradually emerging land and constricting seaways, with formation of the Isthmus of Panama sensu stricto around 2.8 Ma. The evidence used to support an older isthmus is inconclusive, and we caution against the uncritical acceptance of an isthmus before the Pliocene. PMID:27540590

  1. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama...

  2. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama...

  3. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama...

  4. Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of architectural drawing (original located at the Panama Canal Commission Headquarters Building, Department of Engineering Vault, Balboa Heights, Republic of Panama), 1916. Second floor wiring plan - Balboa School, Northeast end of El Prado, Balboa, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  5. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550... PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart, an employee separated from employment with the Panama...

  6. Perspective View with Color-Coded Shaded Relief, Panama Canal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows the Panama Canal with the Gulf of Panama in the foreground and the Caribbean Sea in the distance. The canal runs northwest-southeast from the city of Colon on the Atlantic side to Panama City on the Pacific side. Water levels are maintained along its length by three reservoirs, the largest of which is Lake Gatun, visible at the right center of the image. Built by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers between 1904 and 1914, the canal extends for approximately 50 miles, and is widely considered to be one of the world's great engineering achievements.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, and range from green at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the German (DLR) and Italian (ASI) space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Earth Science Enterprise, Washington, D.C.

    Size: scale varies in this perspective image Location: 9.0 degrees North latitude, 79.8 degrees West longitude Orientation

  7. The late Miocene Panama isthmian strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Laurel S.; Coates, Anthony G.; Berggren, William A.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Zhang, Jijun

    1996-08-01

    Miocene sediments of the Caribbean Gatun and Chagres formations, Panama Canal basin, were deposited within an archipelagic strait that connected Caribbean and Pacific waters. Shallow-water (˜ 25 m) benthic foraminifera of the Gatun Formation have a strong Caribbean affinity, indicating that a significant interoceanic, biogeographic barrier had formed at ˜ 8 Ma. However, benthic foraminifera of the overlying Chagres Formation are bathyal and markedly Pacific in affinity, indicating that at ˜ 6 Ma, waters of the Panama isthmian strait deepened to ˜ 200 500 m and Pacific bathyal waters flowed into the Caribbean. The Chagres Formation crops out at the Caribbean entrance to the Panama Canal in a large wedge of cross-laminated sandstone and coquina. The cross-laminations and coarse grain size indicate high-energy currents atypical of bathyal settings. We infer that a jet of the Pacific North Equatorial Countercurrent Equatorial Undercurrent passed through the Panama isthmian strait to deposit these sediments on the Caribbean side. This later entry of Pacific taxa into the Caribbean had no apparent effect on the subsequent composition of Caribbean faunas.

  8. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall. PMID:21348602

  9. Ancon Hospital: an American Hospital during the construction of the Panama Canal, 1904-1914.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Carballo, E

    1999-10-01

    The control of yellow fever, malaria, and other tropical diseases was essential for the successful completion of the Panama Canal. COL William C. Gorgas, Chief Sanitary Officer, found Ancon Hospital quite satisfactory as a site from which to direct his sanitation efforts. Ancon Hospital played an important role during the period of the excavation of the canal (1904-1914). In 1928, Ancon Hospital was renamed Gorgas Hospital to commemorate this achievement. After more than a century of clinical and research activities in Panama, Ancon Hospital closed its doors in 1997. PMID:10544628

  10. The City and Government: The Art of Making Choices. Instructional Activities Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueff, Joseph A.

    This unit, one in a set of elementary teacher-developed materials for geography, is on land use in cities. It contains follow-up activities to the "Cities at Work" filmstrips, which are part of the "Our Working World" program published by Science Research Associates (SRA). The filmstrips deal with resource allocation and zoning problems in cities.…

  11. Long-Period Cultural Noise: The Panama Canal Seiche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Hutt, C. R.; Ringler, A.; Gee, L. S.

    2009-12-01

    Traditionally, the spectral composition of human generated or “cultural” seismic noise is dominated by short-period (SP) energy (<1s). In this study, we present evidence for long-period (LP) cultural noise (100-200s) at the USGS Global Seismographic Network (GSN) station CU.BCIP, located at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) on Barro Colorado Island (BCI) in the Panama Canal. The LP seismic energy has a strong diurnal signal, with highest power during the daytime when traffic through the Panama Canal is the heaviest, ~1 ship every 10 minutes. The lowest power occurs during the late-night/early-morning hours, when container ship traffic slows to ~1 ship every hour. Spectral power observations are corroborated with data recorded by a water-level meter located approximately 80m from the seismic station, indicating that water waves are the primary source of the LP seismic signal. We show that the observed water waves are a “seiche” induced by the wakes of container ship traffic in the canal. As passing ships disturb the water surface, standing waves are induced by the summation of propagating waves, traveling in opposite directions, due to reflections off the opposite shorelines of the Panama Canal. Vertical harmonic motion results as gravity seeks to restore the horizontal surface of the body of water to a state of hydrostatic equilibrium. The longest natural-period of a seiche in an enclosed body of water is a function of basin depth and length and can be computed by a common oceanographic relationship, known as the Merian formula. For a reasonable range of Panama Canal dimensions in the vicinity of BCI, (depths from 15 to 30m and lengths from 700 to 1500m), the predicted dominant period of a seiche is between 100-200s, consistent with our seismic spectral power observations. Small rhythmic seiches are always present in disturbed enclosed bodies of water and are most often caused by either meteorological effects (wind and atmospheric pressure

  12. Advocacy for active transport: advocate and city council perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Effective advocacy is an important part of efforts to increase population participation in physical activity. Research about effective health advocacy is scarce, however, the health sector can learn from the experiences and knowledge of community advocates and those who are on the receiving end of this advocacy. The aim of this study is to explore advocacy for active transport from the perspectives of community advocates and representatives from City councils. Methods Cycling and walking advocates were identified from the local contact list of Cycling Advocates Network and Living Streets Aotearoa. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with cycle and walking advocates from throughout New Zealand. Advocates also nominated a suitable council officer at their local City council to be interviewed. Interviews were recorded and transcribed and categories of responses for each of the questions created. Results Several processes were used by advocates to engage with council staff, including formal council submissions, meetings, stakeholder forums and partnership in running community events promoting active transport. Several other agencies were identified as being influential for active transport, some as potential coalition partners and others as potential adversaries. Barriers to improving conditions for active transport included a lack of funding, a lack of will-power among either council staff or councillors, limited council staff capacity (time or training) and a culture of providing infrastructure for motor vehicles instead of people. Several suggestions were made about how the health sector could contribute to advocacy efforts, including encouraging political commitment, engaging the media, communicating the potential health benefits of active transport to the general public and being role models in terms of personal travel mode choice and having workplaces that support participation in active transport. Conclusions There is potential for the

  13. Legacy of Health: Documentary Photographs of the Panama Canal Construction. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schamel, Wynell; Potter, Lee Ann; West, Jean M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on the health issues during the construction of the Panama Canal, focusing on issues such as the identification of mosquitoes as carriers of yellow fever and malaria and the role of Colonel William Crawford Gorgas in the battle against mosquito-born disease. Includes teaching activities. (CMK)

  14. Oil cuts a path across Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-04

    Nineteen photographs illustrate the Panamian jungle, swamp, and mountain terrain which oil-pipeline construction crews faced as they crossed the country from Chirique Grande to Puerto Armuelles. The pipeline, completed in October 1982, after only 14 months, will move Alaskan crude from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic considerably faster and cheaper. Modern technology made the project faster, cheaper, and safer than the Panama Canal construction of 70 years ago. (DCK)

  15. Magmatic consequences of the transition from orthogonal to oblique subduction in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Tyrone O.; Morell, Kristin D.; Hidalgo, Paulo; Fraceschi, Pastora

    2015-12-01

    The closure of the Central American Seaway is linked with tectonic and magmatic processes that have controlled the evolution of the Isthmus of Panama. We focus on the terminal stages of arc activity in the Central Panama region, and present new geochemical data from ˜9 Ma explosive silicic volcanism preserved in three syngenetic tuff beds from the Gatun. The magmatic evolution of the Gatun Formation is controlled by a series of magma mushes where pyroxene is the dominant early forming mafic mineral, with amphibole appearing only relatively late in the fractionation sequence. Our data show Gatun lavas exhibit a strong subduction signature, consistent with plate reconstruction models showing arc-normal subduction from Costa Rica to Panama pre-8.5 Ma. However, large ion lithophile elements are depleted in the Gatun Formation in comparison to other regional suites, indicative of a lower flux of subduction fluid to the Gatun Formation mantle source, which is explained by a shift toward magma generation by decompression following the collision of the arc with South America. Oblique subduction commencing ˜8.5 Ma resulted in the shutdown of normal arc activity throughout Panama. We interpret subsequent regional Quaternary adakitic volcanism as a response to this oblique subduction. The now more refractory mantle wedge required greater fluid flux in order to melt. The resultant volatile-rich melts were more prone to deep fractionation of amphibole and garnet cumulates forming adakites. Deep fractionation was potentially enhanced by changing stress regimes on the upper plate caused by oblique subduction.

  16. View of western portion of the Republic of Panama on Isthmus of Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A vertical view of the western portion of the Republic of Panama on the Isthmus of Panama as photographed from Earth orbit by one of the six lenses of the Itek-furnished S190-A Multispectral Photographic Facility Experiment aboard the Skylab space station. This picture was taken with 2443 infrared color film. The large, clear body of water on the north side of the isthmus is Golfo de los Mosquitos, an extension of the Caribbean Sea. The large, partly cloud-covered body of water on the south side of the isthmus is Golfo de Chiriqui, and extension of the Pacific Ocean.

  17. Lagrangian study of the Panama Bight and surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaigneau, Alexis; Abarca Del Rio, Rodrigo; Colas, FrançOis

    2006-09-01

    Near-surface circulation of the Panama Bight and surrounding regions [0-9°N; 73°W-90°W] was studied using satellite-tracked drifter trajectories from 1979-2004. This region encompasses three major currents showing typical velocities of ˜30 cm s-1: (1) the eastward North Equatorial Counter Current (NECC), (2) the near-circular Panama Bight Cyclonic Gyre (PBCG), and (3) the westward South Equatorial Current (SEC). We do not observe significant modification of the mean surface circulation during El Niño Southern Oscillation events, even if the SEC is slightly reinforced during relatively warm El Niño periods. At seasonal scales, the circulation is strongly controlled by the activity of the Panama wind-jet: in boreal winter, the currents are stronger and an anticyclonic cell is present west of the PBCG. This dipole leads to a strong ˜200 km wide southward current which then disappears during the rest of the year. In summer, the three major currents have reduced intensity by 30%-40%. Large-scale current vorticity shows that the upwelling associated with the PBCG is also 3-4 times stronger in winter than during summer months. The kinetic energy is largely dominated by eddy activity and its intensity is double in winter than during summer. Ageostrophic motions and eddy activity appear to have a substantial impact on the energy spatial distribution. In the NECC and SEC regions, Lagrangian scales are anisotropic and zonally enhanced in the direction of the mean currents. The typical integral time and length scales of these regions are 2.5 days and 50-60 km in the zonal direction and 1.5 days and 25-30 km in the meridional direction. Lateral eddy diffusivity coefficients are on the order of 11-14 107 cm2 s-1 zonally and 5-6 107 cm2 s-1 meridionally. In contrast, in the PBCG region, the Lagrangian characteristics are isotropic with typical timescales of 1.7 days, space scales of 30 km and eddy diffusivity coefficients of 6 107 cm2 s-1 in both directions.

  18. 10. Detail of map showing Battery Davis and Panama Gun ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail of map showing Battery Davis and Panama Gun Mounts at right, by U.S. Engineering Office, San Francisco, California, August 5, 1934. - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 5 CFR 550.714 - Panama Canal Commission employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Panama Canal Commission employees. 550.714 Section 550.714 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY ADMINISTRATION (GENERAL) Severance Pay § 550.714 Panama Canal Commission employees. (a) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subpart,...

  20. Country of Contrasts: A Study Guide on Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athey, Lois E., Ed.; And Others

    This study guide seeks to provide resources to bring the voices and experiences of Panamanian students into classrooms. This guide includes: (1) "History of a Canal" (in English and Spanish) (Pablo Neruda); (2) "Poems by Cubena"; (3) "Maps of Panama and The Canal Zone"; (4) "Historical Overview: Panama (1501-1992)"; (5) "Molas" (Maria…

  1. Epidemic and Non-Epidemic Hot Spots of Malaria Transmission Occur in Indigenous Comarcas of Panama.

    PubMed

    Lainhart, William; Dutari, Larissa C; Rovira, Jose R; Sucupira, Izis M C; Póvoa, Marinete M; Conn, Jan E; Loaiza, Jose R

    2016-05-01

    From 2002-2005, Panama experienced a malaria epidemic that has been associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation weather patterns, decreased funding for malaria control, and landscape modification. Case numbers quickly decreased afterward, and Panama is now in the pre-elimination stage of malaria eradication. To achieve this new goal, the characterization of epidemiological risk factors, foci of transmission, and important anopheline vectors is needed. Of the 24,681 reported cases in these analyses (2000-2014), ~62% occurred in epidemic years and ~44% in indigenous comarcas (5.9% of Panama's population). Sub-analyses comparing overall numbers of cases in epidemic and non-epidemic years identified females, comarcas and some 5-year age categories as those disproportionately affected by malaria during epidemic years. Annual parasites indices (APIs; number of cases per 1,000 persons) for Plasmodium vivax were higher in comarcas compared to provinces for all study years, though P. falciparum APIs were only higher in comarcas during epidemic years. Interestingly, two comarcas report increasing numbers of cases annually, despite national annual decreases. Inclusion of these comarcas within identified foci of malaria transmission confirmed their roles in continued transmission. Comparison of species distribution models for two important anophelines with Plasmodium case distribution suggest An. albimanus is the primary malaria vector in Panama, confirmed by identification of nine P. vivax-infected specimen pools. Future malaria eradication strategies in Panama should focus on indigenous comarcas and include both active surveillance for cases and comprehensive anopheline vector surveys. PMID:27182773

  2. Marine mammals from the Miocene of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhen, Mark D.; Coates, Anthony G.; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Montes, Camilo; Pimiento, Catalina; Rincon, Aldo; Strong, Nikki; Velez-Juarbe, Jorge

    2010-12-01

    Panama has produced an abundance of Neogene marine fossils both invertebrate (mollusks, corals, microfossils etc.) and vertebrate (fish, land mammals etc.), but marine mammals have not been previously reported. Here we describe a cetacean thoracic vertebra from the late Miocene Tobabe Formation, a partial cetacean rib from the late Miocene Gatun Formation, and a sirenian caudal vertebra and rib fragments from the early Miocene Culebra Formation. These finds suggest that Central America may yet provide additional fossil marine mammal specimens that will help us to understand the evolution, and particularly the biogeography of these groups.

  3. Heat flow from eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sass, J.H.; Munroe, R.J.; Moses, T.H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Heat flows were determined at 12 sites in four distinct areas between longitude 77?? and 80??W in eastern Panama and northwestern Colombia. Evidently, most of the region is underlain by mafic oceanic crust so that the crustal radiogenic component of heat flow is very small (??? 0.1 ??cal cm-2 sec-1). Low heat-flow values (??? 0.7 ??cal cm-2 sec-1) in northwestern Colombia may reflect thermal transients associated with shallow subduction. The normal values (??? 1) at about 78??W are consistent with the mean heat flow from the western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. At 80??W, a fairly high value of 1.8 may define the easterly limit of thermal transients due to Cenozoic volcanic activity in Central America. ?? 1974.

  4. After School Activities, Overweight, and Obesity among Inner City Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkins, Whitney L.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Koralewicz, Lisa M.; Taylor, Stephanie N.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the association of adolescent obesity with participation in sports among 5489 low-income, inner city public high school students. Among inner city youth 28.5% of males and 33.7% of females were overweight and 15.9% of boys and 16.4% of girls were obese. For both males and females, participation in an increasing number of athletic…

  5. Ecological Analysis of Parking Prices and Active Commuting in US Cities, 2009.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Geoffrey P; Wendel, Arthur M; Auchincloss, Amy H

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an ecological study to determine whether parking prices are associated with active commuting across US cities. We obtained parking prices for 107 US cities from the Drexel University Central Business District Public Parking Survey, obtained city prevalence of walking and bicycling to work from the American Community Survey, and used weighted least squares linear regression to explore associations between parking prices and active commuting. After adjusting for several covariates, walking to work was 3.1% higher for every additional dollar charged for off-street daily parking, but only among more densely populated cities, and no such association was detected for bicycling to work. These preliminary results hint at the potential for parking policies to influence commuting mode choice, a link that city planners and public health officials could consider when evaluating parking policies and active transportation behaviors. PMID:27609301

  6. The Agua Salud Project, Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, R. F.; Elsenbeer, H.; Ogden, F. L.; Hall, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    The Agua Salud Project utilizes the Panama Canal's central role in world commerce to focus global attention on the ecosystem services provided by tropical forests. It will be the largest field experiment of its kind in the tropics aimed at quantifying the environmental services (water, carbon, and biodiversity) provided by tropical forests. The Agua Salud Watershed is our principal field site. This watershed and the headwaters of several adjacent rivers include both protected mature forests and a wide variety of land uses that are typical of rural Panama. Experiments at the scale of entire catchments will permit complete water and carbon inventories and exchanges for different landscape uses. The following questions will be addressed: (1) How do landscape treatments and management approaches affect ecosystem services such as carbon storage, water quality and quantity, dry- season water supply, and biodiversity? (2) Can management techniques be designed to optimize forest production along with ecosystem services during reforestation? (3) Do different tree planting treatments and landscape management approaches influence groundwater storage, which is thought to be critical to maintaining dry-season flow, thus insuring the full operation of the Canal during periods of reduced rainfall and severe climatic events such as El Niño. In addition we anticipate expanding this project to address biodiversity, social, and economic values of these forests.

  7. Net ecosystem exchange of two tropical ecosystems in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2009-04-01

    Land-use change, particularly in the tropics, has a significant impact on the global climate due to biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks. With a changing climate, an improved understanding of changes in net primary productivity and carbon storage potentials of tropical ecosystems is needed. However, continuous measurements of ecosystem fluxes are sparse in tropical regions and only few localities exist in Central America. Thus, our objective is to analyse the Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) of two tropical ecosystems in Sardinilla, Central Panama (9.3˚ N, 79.6˚ W, 70 m a.s.l.) and to assess their carbon storage potentials based on flux tower measurements using the eddy covariance method. Ecosystem CO2 and H2O fluxes of a native tree plantation (planted in 2001) and an adjacent, traditionally grazed pasture are measured continuously and simultaneously since June 2007. Our results of nearly two years of continuous operation show clear seasonal and annual differences of NEE between a tropical pasture and a native tree plantation in Panama. Although midday photosynthetic activity of the pasture vegetation leads to high productivity of the dominating C4 grasses, respiration losses exceed photosynthetic inputs and the pasture ecosystem is a carbon source on an annual scale. In contrast, our results indicate a clear carbon storage potential for the plantation ecosystem. Since our measurements only provide an insight into the initial establishment phase of an improved afforestation project, it will be essential to investigate whether these differences already allow to estimate carbon sequestration potentials, or whether longer-term developments will reduce these differences of CO2 uptake with increasing age of the plantation.

  8. Introduction of studio physics teaching in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrera-Garrido, Azael

    2013-01-01

    Physics Studio teaching was recently introduced at an international and multicultural academic program of a U.S. university in Panama. The results of introducing and implementing studio-style teaching on the conceptual understanding of calculus-based introductory physics have been measured by comparing before and during studio implementation. The research was carried on over the last five years in different semesters. The measurement tool was the Force Concept Inventory. The initial learning stage of the incoming diverse students has been found to be at a significantly lower level than generally reported in the U.S. The normalized gain in conceptual understanding was significantly larger than in the former traditional system, and has become consistent in the last semesters. Multicultural aspects that may affect the entry level and performance enhancement are discussed.

  9. Pipeliners beat designers across Panama's jungle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-27

    Hard-driving pipeline crews are slashing a path down the steep slopes of the Andes range on Panama's Caribbean coast for the final leg of an 80-mile Pacific-Atlantic oil link that will reduce shipping times for North Slope crude to Gulf Coast refineries. When completed in late August, the trans-isthmus tube will be able to drain the Panama Canal of Alaskan oil, which currently must be pumped from large tankers to 65,000 ton ships before passage through the 50-mile cut. The 36 and 40-in.-dia pipe will connect an existing Northville oil transshipment terminal at Puerto Armuelles, near Costa Rica on the Pacific Coast, with a new 2.5-million-bbl storage area at Chiriqui Grande on the Caribbean coast. Two pumping stations, one at Puerto Armuelles and another at the base of the Serrania de Tabasara mountains, will lift the oil 4,000 ft over the Continental Divide. Gravity flows of 7 1/2 ft per second down the steep drop to the swamps along the Caribbean will feed three 833,000-bbl tanks being built on a hillside overlooking Chiriqui Bay. From there, two 36-in. lines will feed concrete-coated pipe sections trenched into the surf zone and placed on the muddy bottom for the remaining distance to two marine loading buoys over a mile offshore. The catenary anchor-leg mooring buoys are designed to handle tankers of up to 160,000 tons in 65 ft of water at maximum fill rates of 120,000 bbl per hour.

  10. Second Line of Defense Megaports Initiative Operational Testing and Evaluation Plan Colon Container Terminal (CCT) Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Newhouse, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    Report on the Operational Testing and Evaluation to validate and baseline an operable system that meets the Second Line of Defense (SLD) mission requirements. An SLD system is defined as the detection technology and associated equipment, the system operators from the host country, the standard operating procedures (SOPs), and other elements such as training and maintenance which support long-term system sustainment. To this end, the activities conducted during the OT&E phase must demonstrate that the Megaports System can be operated effectively in real-time by Panama Direccion General de Aduanas (DGA Panama Customs) personnel to the standards of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA).

  11. School Libraries in Panama. School Libraries and International Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penna, Carlos Victor

    1970-01-01

    Report of a meeting organized by Unesco for planning school library services in Central America and Panama. Present state, functions, and organization of national school library plans, and education of school librarians, were considered. (JS)

  12. City Kids and City Critters! Activities for Urban Explorers from the Houston Arboretum & Nature Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Janet Wier; Huelbig, Carole

    This guide contains activities from the Houston Arboretum and Nature Center programs for children ages 8 to 12 years. The multisensory activities help students improve their observational skills and utilize activity sheets, journals, and hands-on projects to involve them. Children observe, draw, and photograph animals in their natural settings and…

  13. Epidemic and Non-Epidemic Hot Spots of Malaria Transmission Occur in Indigenous Comarcas of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Dutari, Larissa C.; Rovira, Jose R.; Sucupira, Izis M. C.; Póvoa, Marinete M.; Conn, Jan E.; Loaiza, Jose R.

    2016-01-01

    From 2002–2005, Panama experienced a malaria epidemic that has been associated with El Niño Southern Oscillation weather patterns, decreased funding for malaria control, and landscape modification. Case numbers quickly decreased afterward, and Panama is now in the pre-elimination stage of malaria eradication. To achieve this new goal, the characterization of epidemiological risk factors, foci of transmission, and important anopheline vectors is needed. Of the 24,681 reported cases in these analyses (2000–2014), ~62% occurred in epidemic years and ~44% in indigenous comarcas (5.9% of Panama’s population). Sub-analyses comparing overall numbers of cases in epidemic and non-epidemic years identified females, comarcas and some 5-year age categories as those disproportionately affected by malaria during epidemic years. Annual parasites indices (APIs; number of cases per 1,000 persons) for Plasmodium vivax were higher in comarcas compared to provinces for all study years, though P. falciparum APIs were only higher in comarcas during epidemic years. Interestingly, two comarcas report increasing numbers of cases annually, despite national annual decreases. Inclusion of these comarcas within identified foci of malaria transmission confirmed their roles in continued transmission. Comparison of species distribution models for two important anophelines with Plasmodium case distribution suggest An. albimanus is the primary malaria vector in Panama, confirmed by identification of nine P. vivax-infected specimen pools. Future malaria eradication strategies in Panama should focus on indigenous comarcas and include both active surveillance for cases and comprehensive anopheline vector surveys. PMID:27182773

  14. High resolution seismic imaging of faults beneath Limón Bay, northern Panama Canal, Republic of Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Holmes, Mark; Schweig, Eugene S.; Gomberg, Joan S.; Cowan, Hugh A.

    2003-01-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles from Limo??n Bay, Republic of Panama, were acquired as part of a seismic hazard investigation of the northern Panama Canal region. The seismic profiles image gently west and northwest dipping strata of upper Miocene Gatu??n Formation, unconformably overlain by a thin (<20 m) sequence of Holocene muds. Numerous faults, which have northeast trends where they can be correlated between seismic profiles, break the upper Miocene strata. Some of the faults have normal displacement, but on many faults, the amount and type of displacement cannot be determined. The age of displacement is constrained to be Late Miocene or younger, and regional geologic considerations suggest Pliocene movement. The faults may be part of a more extensive set of north- to northeast-trending faults and fractures in the canal region of central Panama. Low topography and the faults in the canal area may be the result of the modern regional stress field, bending of the Isthmus of Panama, shearing in eastern Panama, or minor deformation of the Panama Block above the Caribbean subduction zone. For seismic hazard analysis of the northern canal area, these faults led us to include a source zone of shallow faults proximal to northern canal facilities. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. High resolution seismic imaging of faults beneath Limón Bay, northern Panama Canal, Republic of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pratt, Thomas L.; Holmes, Mark; Schweig, Eugene S.; Gomberg, Joan; Cowan, Hugh A.

    2003-06-01

    High-resolution seismic reflection profiles from Limón Bay, Republic of Panama, were acquired as part of a seismic hazard investigation of the northern Panama Canal region. The seismic profiles image gently west and northwest dipping strata of upper Miocene Gatún Formation, unconformably overlain by a thin (<20 m) sequence of Holocene muds. Numerous faults, which have northeast trends where they can be correlated between seismic profiles, break the upper Miocene strata. Some of the faults have normal displacement, but on many faults, the amount and type of displacement cannot be determined. The age of displacement is constrained to be Late Miocene or younger, and regional geologic considerations suggest Pliocene movement. The faults may be part of a more extensive set of north- to northeast-trending faults and fractures in the canal region of central Panama. Low topography and the faults in the canal area may be the result of the modern regional stress field, bending of the Isthmus of Panama, shearing in eastern Panama, or minor deformation of the Panama Block above the Caribbean subduction zone. For seismic hazard analysis of the northern canal area, these faults led us to include a source zone of shallow faults proximal to northern canal facilities.

  16. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, D. E.; Ringler, A. T.; Hutt, C. R.; Gee, L. S.

    2011-04-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally <1 s period, microseisms dominate the seismic spectrum from periods of 2 to 20 s, and the Earth's "hum" is in the range of 50 to 600 s. We show that in a large lake in the Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact.

  17. Seismically observed seiching in the Panama Canal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNamara, D.E.; Ringler, A.T.; Hutt, C.R.; Gee, L.S.

    2011-01-01

    A large portion of the seismic noise spectrum is dominated by water wave energy coupled into the solid Earth. Distinct mechanisms of water wave induced ground motions are distinguished by their spectral content. For example, cultural noise is generally <1 s period, microseisms dominate the seismic spectrum from periods of 2 to 20 s, and the Earth's "hum" is in the range of 50 to 600 s. We show that in a large lake in the Panama Canal there is an additional source of long-period noise generated by standing water waves, seiches, induced by disturbances such as passing ships and wind pressure. We compare seismic waveforms to water level records and relate these observations to changes in local tilt and gravity due to an oscillating seiche. The methods and observations discussed in this paper provide a first step toward quantifying the impact of water inundation as recorded by seismometers. This type of quantified understanding of water inundation will help in future estimates of similar phenomena such as the seismic observations of tsunami impact. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. Control of Panama disease of banana by rotating and intercropping with Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler): role of plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Mallik, Azim; Zeng, Ren Sen

    2013-02-01

    Intercropping and rotating banana (Musa spp.) with Chinese chive (Allium tuberosum Rottler) has been used as an effective method to control Panama disease (Fusarium wilt) of banana in South China. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. In this study, we used aqueous leachates and volatiles from Chinese chive to evaluate their antimicrobial activity on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC), the causal agent of Panama disease in banana, and identified the antifungal compounds. Both leaf and root leachates of Chinese chive displayed strong inhibition against FOC, but the concentrated leachates showed lower inhibition than the original leachates. In a sealed system volatiles emitted from the leaves and roots of Chinese chive inhibited mycelial growth of FOC. Volatile compounds emitted from the intact growing roots mimicking natural environment inhibited spore germination of FOC. We identified five volatiles including 2-methyl-2-pentenal and four organosulfur compounds (dimethyl trisulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide) from the leaves and roots of Chinese chive. All these compounds exhibited inhibitory effects on FOC, but 2-methyl-2-pentenal and dimethyl trisulfide showed stronger inhibition than the other three compounds. 2-Methyl-2-pentenal at 50-100 μl/l completely inhibited the mycelial growth of FOC. Our results demonstrate that antifungal volatiles released from Chinese chive help control Panama disease in banana. We conclude that intercropping and rotating banana with Chinese chive can control Panama disease and increase cropland biodiversity. PMID:23355016

  19. 8. Engineering Drawing of Panama Gun Mount by U.S. Engineering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Engineering Drawing of Panama Gun Mount by U.S. Engineering Office, San Francisco, California - Fort Funston, Panama Mounts for 155mm Guns, Skyline Boulevard & Great Highway, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Relationship between Brazilian adolescents' physical activity and social and economic indicators of the cities where they live.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between sufficient amounts of physical activity among Brazilian adolescents and the economic and social indicators of the cities where they live. Data from a large national survey including 109,104 boys and girls ages 13 to 15 yr. (47.8% boys, 52.2% girls) were analyzed. The economic and social indicators were the Human Development Index (HDI), which is a comparative measure to rank cities according to their degree of human development, the Gini index (income inequality), population density, and maternal education. Stepwise regression was used to identify associations between physical activity and economic and social indicators of the cities. The physical activity of Brazilian adolescents was associated with the social and economic conditions of the cities where they live. The amount of physical activity of girls was greater in the cities with fewer income inequalities. For boys, physical activity was greater in the cities with a higher HDI and fewer income inequalities. PMID:25799032

  1. Comparative Analysis of Passenger Traffic Fleets in Asian Cities: Technology, Driving Activities, and Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KIM Oanh, N. T.; Huynh, H. V.; Saikawa, E.

    2015-12-01

    The road transport sector is the major emission source of toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) in large Asian cities. This paper comparatively analyzed on-road passenger traffic fleets (cars, buses, taxis, motorcycles), using local data collected in cities of Bangkok (BKK), Kathmandu, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), and Yangon. Surveys were done in 2010-2014 to obtain information on vehicle technology, driving activities (speed, distance, number, and types of starts), traffic density, and fuel characteristics. Large shares of pre-Euro vehicles were still observed, especially for public buses. The most advanced technology was Euro4, which was observed in small shares (<5%) of the personal car fleets in BKK, HCMC, and Yangon. Euro3 was generally the most advanced technology found in other fleets in these cities. Motorcycles (MC) was the most dominant fleet in all cities, except in Yangon, where they were not allowed. Low vehicle speeds, mainly below 25 km/h, were observed for all vehicle types, indicating traffic jams. Natural gas and LPG had considerable shares in BKK and Yangon while for other cities diesel and gasoline were still the two major fuels used in transportation. Running emission factors (EF) of buses and taxis in Kathmandu were considerably higher than other cities due to its hilly topography, low speeds, high mileage, and less advanced vehicle technologies. The number of passenger vehicles per 1000 people were 400-500 in HCMC and Hanoi (mainly by MC) and in BKK (also by cars), moderate in Kathmandu (200) and the lowest in Yangon (40) because of the MC ban. Annual emissions of the passenger fleets were calculated for each city using the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) for 14 species. BC and OC emissions were estimated using their fractions of PM10 emission. Annual emission per capita of toxic air pollutants and GHGs was analyzed. For example, the emission in kg/year/person for CO, VOC, NOx and PM10 in these cities was 24-150 for CO, 0

  2. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  3. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  4. 76 FR 55732 - Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal Expansion Study...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Maritime Administration Public Listening Sessions Regarding the Maritime Administration's Panama Canal... workshops regarding the expansion of the Panama Canal and the America's Marine Highway Program. The meetings... Administration (MARAD) should consider in the development of its comprehensive study of the 2014 Panama...

  5. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  6. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  7. 19 CFR 4.4 - Panama Canal; report of arrival required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Panama Canal; report of arrival required. 4.4... OF THE TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Arrival and Entry of Vessels § 4.4 Panama Canal; report of arrival required. Vessels which merely transit the Panama Canal without transacting...

  8. 77 FR 69723 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement-Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Regulation; Free Trade Agreement--Panama AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General Services... implement the United States-- Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free... Promotion Agreement is designated in the FAR as the Panama Free Trade Agreement (FTA). This FTA provides...

  9. Geologic Evolution of the eastern Panama Isthmus from biostratigraphic, tectonic and geophysical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, F.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Sosson, M.; Müller, C.

    2012-04-01

    identified a magmatic episode during the Lower Miocene in Mahé and Sapo Massifs. We present a new structural map of eastern Panama and five geological transects across the isthmus, summarizing the complex history. Our study documents: (1) a southwestward compression phase (in its present-day position) between Late Campanian and Middle Eocene, along the Pacific coast, in agreement with the subduction activity; (2) a Middle Eocene extension phase (Chucunaque-Tuira forearc basin formation); (3) a Middle Miocene compression phase, inverting some of the inherited normal faults and reactivating geological structures; (4) and a Plio-quaternary transpressive tectonic regime, evidenced by several left-lateral strike-slip faults with en echelon folds in the areas of Mahé Massif, Sanson Hills, Pirre Massif and Sapo Massif. These deformations are the result of the collision of Panama Choco block with the South America Plate.

  10. Chinese City Children and Youth Physical Activity Study: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Peijie

    2013-01-01

    Childhood obesity and its repercussions will be one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Promoting physical activity and preventing the decline of children's fitness and the increase of childhood obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease therefore need to be a high priority. So far, besides a few large-scale…

  11. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that pays for itself'' through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  12. Solid waste recycling activities at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.L.; Huyett, J.D.; Westlake, N.M.

    1992-02-01

    The DCP has as Proactive Solid Waste Recycling Program. Historical activities have consisted of extensive Precious and Scarp Metal Recovery through dedicated efforts of the Excess and Reclamation department. This is the only organization at the KCP that ``pays for itself`` through utilization of manpower to recover reclaimable material from the teardown of scrap parts, equipment, and machinery. The KCP also initiated an expansion of this program through increased efforts to recovery recyclable materials from normal plant trash. Efforts to date have resulted in the establishment of waste paper and cafeteria grease recycling programs. Another initiative nearing fruition is to recycle waste styrofoam. Activities are also underway to establish future programs to recycle spent carbon, other plastic resins, glass and cardboard.

  13. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city. PMID:20714928

  14. Assessing the ecological effects of human impacts on coral reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Janina; González, Cindy T; Carballo-Bolaños, Rodrigo; Berry, Kathryn; Heiss, Georg A; Struck, Ulrich; Leinfelder, Reinhold R

    2014-03-01

    Environmental and biological reef monitoring was conducted in Almirante Bay (Bahía Almirante) in Bocas del Toro, Panama, to assess impacts from anthropogenic developments. An integrated monitoring investigated how seasonal temperature stress, turbidity, eutrophication and physical impacts threatened reef health and biodiversity throughout the region. Environmental parameters such as total suspended solids [TSS], carbon isotopes (δ(13)C), C/N ratios, chlorophyll a, irradiance, secchi depth, size fractions of the sediments and isotope composition of dissolved inorganic carbon [DIC] of the water were measured throughout the years 2010 and 2011 and were analysed in order to identify different impact sources. Compared to data from Collin et al. (Smithsonian Contributions to the Marine Sciences 38:324-334, 2009) chlorophyll a has doubled at sites close to the city and the port Almirante (from 0.46-0.49 to 0.78-0.97 μg l(-1)) and suspension load increased, visible by a decrease in secchi depth values. Visibility decreased from 9-13 m down to 4 m at the bay inlet Boca del Drago, which is strongly exposed to river run off and dredging for the shipping traffic. Eutrophication and turbidity levels seemed to be the determining factor for the loss of hard coral diversity, most significant at chlorophyll a levels higher than 0.5 μg l(-1) and TSS levels higher than 4.7 mg l(-1). Hard coral cover within the bay has also declined, at some sites down to <10 % with extremely low diversities (7 hard coral species). The hard coral species Porites furcata dominated the reefs in highly impacted areas and showed a strong recovery after bleaching and a higher tolerance to turbidity and eutrophication compared to other hard coral species in the bay. Serious overfishing was detected in the region by a lack of adult and carnivorous fish species, such as grunts, snappers and groupers. Study sites less impacted by anthropogenic activities and/or those with local protection showed a

  15. Molecular Characterization of Citrus tristeza virus Isolates from Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twelve isolates of Citrus tristeza virus (CTV) were collected from the main citrus growing regions in Panama and characterized at the molecular level. The CTV coat protein gene (CPG) was amplified by RT-PCR, and the amplified PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The sequences analyses showed the ...

  16. Efficacy of Professional Development Schools in Developing Countries: Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gordon; Shaklee, Beverly

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to describe the creation and implementation of the first Professional Development School (PDS) model of teacher education in Panama. The authors set the context within brief histories of international education and PDSs and provide operational definitions of the critical terminology. To be sure, the scope and scale of the…

  17. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM DESIGN FOR A REMOTE COMMUNITY IN PANAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Santo Domingo, Panama, is a rural town of 100, located in the Colon province within Chagres National Park. The town’s inhabitants are small-scale farmers and ranchers. The town is only accessible via rugged roads and has neither electric nor phone lines. Since the town i...

  18. Active faults and seismogenic models for the Urumqi city, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingzhen; Yu, Yang; Shen, Jun; Shao, Bo; Qi, Gao; Deng, Mei

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the characteristics of the active faults and seismicity in the vicinity of Urumqi city, the capital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region, China, and have proposed a seismogenic model for the assessment of earthquake hazard in this area. Our work is based on an integrated analysis of data from investigations of active faults at the surface, deep seismic reflection soundings, seismic profiles from petroleum exploration, observations of temporal seismic stations, and the precise location of small earthquakes. We have made a comparative study of typical seismogenic structures in the frontal area of the North Tianshan Mountains, where Urumqi city is situated, and have revealed the primary features of the thrust-fold-nappe structure there. We suggest that Urumqi city is comprised two zones of seismotectonics which are interpreted as thrust-nappe structures. The first is the thrust nappe of the North Tianshan Mountains in the west, consisting of the lower (root) thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front. Faults active in the Pleistocene are present in the lower and upper parts of this structure, and the detachment in the middle spreads toward the north. In the future, M7 earthquakes may occur at the root thrust fault, while the seismic risk of frontal fold-uplift at the front will not exceed M6.5. The second structure is the western flank of the arc-like Bogda nappe in the east, which is also comprised a root thrust fault, middle detachment, and upper fold-uplift at the front, of which the nappe stretches toward the north; several active faults are also developed in it. The fault active in the Holocene is called the South Fukang fault. It is not in the urban area of Urumqi city. The other three faults are located in the urban area and were active in the late Pleistocene. In these cases, this section of the nappe structure near the city has an earthquake risk of M6.5-7. An earthquake M S6.6, 60 km east to Urumqi city occurred along the

  19. Bird communities of natural and modified habitats in Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petit, L.J.; Petit, D.R.; Christian, D.G.; Powell, H.D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Only a small proportion of land can realistically be protected as nature reserves and thus conservation efforts also must focus on the ecological value of agroecosystems and developed areas surrounding nature reserves. In this study, avian communities were surveyed in 11 habitat types in central Panama, across a gradient from extensive forest to intensive agricultural land uses, to examine patterns of species richness and abundance and community composition. Wooded habitats, including extensive and fragmented forests, shade coffee plantations, and residential areas supported the most species and individuals. Nearctic-Neotropical migratory species were most numerous in lowland forest fragments, shade coffee, and residential areas. Introduced Pinus caribbea and sugar cane plantations supported the fewest species compared to all other habitats. Cattle pastures left fallow for less than two years supported more than twice as many total species as actively grazed pastures, such that species richness in fallow pastures was similar to that found in wooded habitats. Community similarities were relatively low among all habitat types (none exceeding the observed 65% similarity between extensive and fragmented lowland forests), but communities in shade coffee and residential areas were 43% and 54% similar to lowland forest fragments, respectively. Fallow pastures and residential areas shared 60% of their species. Bird communities in shade coffee and residential areas were characterized by higher proportions of frugivorous and nectarivorous species than in native forests. These same guilds also were better represented in fallow than in grazed pastures. Raptors and piscivorous species were most prevalent in cattle pastures and rice fields. These results, though based upon only species richness and abundance, demonstrate that many human-altered habitats have potential ecological value for birds, and conservation efforts in tropical areas should focus greater attention on

  20. Characterization of Seismicity at Volcán Baru, Panama: May 2013 through April 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, C. J.; Waite, G. P.

    2014-12-01

    Volcán Baru, located in the western province of Chiriquí, is Panamas youngest and most active volcano. Although Baru has experienced no historic eruptions there have been four eruptive episodes in the last 1,600 years, the most recent occuring 400-500 years ago (Sherrod et al., 2008). In addition there have been four reported earthquake swarms in the last 100 years. The most recent swarm occured in May of 2006, prompting a USGS hazard assessment (Sherrod et al., 2008). Given its proximity to populated valleys on both the east and west flanks as well as to the coastal plain and interamerican highway 30km to the south, Baru presents a significant hazard. Residents of the small towns on the flanks of Baru frequently feel and hear earthquakes, yet there is no permanent monitoring network, seismic or otherwise, in place. In order to characterize local seismicity and provide a reference for future monitoring efforts, we established a seismic network that operated from May 2013 through April 2014. The network consisted of eight temporary single component, short period sensors generously loaned by OSOP Panama, two permanent sensors (one three component and one single component) funded by the University of Panama, and one three component broadband sensor owned by Angel Rodriguez. These were distributed over a 35 by 15 km area. Preliminary analysis suggests that local, M 0-3.5 events occur at the rate of 10-20 per month. Analysis of the earthquake catalog and the significance of shallow seismicity at Baru will be presented. Sherrod, D.R., Vallance, J.W., Tapia Espinosa, A., and McGeehin, J.P., 2008, Volcan Baru—eruptive history and volcano-hazards assessment: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007-1401, 33 p.

  1. 77 FR 71778 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; Bogotá, Columbia and Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... open and public manner, including publication in the Federal Register ( http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr..., port equipment, and intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Commercial Setting Colombia Colombia... must complete and submit an application package for consideration by the Department of Commerce....

  2. Historical biogeography of the Isthmus of Panama.

    PubMed

    Leigh, Egbert G; O'Dea, Aaron; Vermeij, Geerat J

    2014-02-01

    About 3 million years ago (Ma), the Isthmus of Panama joined the Americas, forming a land bridge over which inhabitants of each America invaded the other-the Great American Biotic Interchange. These invasions transformed land ecosystems in South and Middle America. Humans invading from Asia over 12000 years ago killed most mammals over 44 kg, again transforming tropical American ecosystems. As a sea barrier, the isthmus induced divergent environmental change off its two coasts-creating contrasting ecosystems through differential extinction and diversification. Approximately 65 Ma invading marsupials and ungulates of North American ancestry, and xenarthrans of uncertain provenance replaced nearly all South America's non-volant mammals. There is no geological evidence for a land bridge at that time. Together with rodents and primates crossing from Africa 42 to 30 Ma, South America's mammals evolved in isolation until the interchange's first heralds less than 10 Ma. Its carnivores were ineffective marsupials. Meanwhile, North America was invaded by more competitive Eurasian mammals. The Americas had comparable expanses of tropical forest 55 Ma; later, climate change confined North American tropical forest to a far smaller area. When the isthmus formed, North American carnivores replaced their marsupial counterparts. Although invaders crossed in both directions, North American mammals spread widely, diversified greatly, and steadily replaced South American open-country counterparts, unused to effective predators. Invading South American mammals were less successful. South America's birds, bats, and smaller rainforest mammals, equally isolated, mostly survived invasion. Its vegetation, enriched by many overseas invaders, remained intact. This vegetation resists herbivory effectively. When climate permitted, South America's rainforest, with its bats, birds and mammals, spread to Mexico. Present-day tropical American vegetation is largely zoned by trade

  3. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008-2013

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; Antinori, Maria E. Barnett de; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/ Findings: Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07-1.31) and 1.32 (1.08-1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.93) and 1.97 (1.34-2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6-0.86) and 0.79 (0.69-0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7-0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05-1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5-0.9). Conclusions/Significance: The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had annual mean temperature and specific

  4. The Role of Temperature and Humidity on Seasonal Influenza in Tropical Areas: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama, 2008–2013

    PubMed Central

    Soebiyanto, Radina P.; Clara, Wilfrido; Jara, Jorge; Castillo, Leticia; Sorto, Oscar Rene; Marinero, Sidia; de Antinori, María E. Barnett; McCracken, John P.; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Kiang, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of meteorological factors on influenza transmission in the tropics is less defined than in the temperate regions. We assessed the association between influenza activity and temperature, specific humidity and rainfall in 6 study areas that included 11 departments or provinces within 3 tropical Central American countries: Guatemala, El Salvador and Panama. Method/Findings Logistic regression was used to model the weekly proportion of laboratory-confirmed influenza positive samples during 2008 to 2013 (excluding pandemic year 2009). Meteorological data was obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite and the Global Land Data Assimilation System. We found that specific humidity was positively associated with influenza activity in El Salvador (Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Interval of 1.18 (1.07–1.31) and 1.32 (1.08–1.63)) and Panama (OR = 1.44 (1.08–1.93) and 1.97 (1.34–2.93)), but negatively associated with influenza activity in Guatemala (OR = 0.72 (0.6–0.86) and 0.79 (0.69–0.91)). Temperature was negatively associated with influenza in El Salvador's west-central departments (OR = 0.80 (0.7–0.91)) whilst rainfall was positively associated with influenza in Guatemala's central departments (OR = 1.05 (1.01–1.09)) and Panama province (OR = 1.10 (1.05–1.14)). In 4 out of the 6 locations, specific humidity had the highest contribution to the model as compared to temperature and rainfall. The model performed best in estimating 2013 influenza activity in Panama and west-central El Salvador departments (correlation coefficients: 0.5–0.9). Conclusions/Significance The findings highlighted the association between influenza activity and specific humidity in these 3 tropical countries. Positive association with humidity was found in El Salvador and Panama. Negative association was found in the more subtropical Guatemala, similar to temperate regions. Of all the study locations, Guatemala had

  5. 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity at the lost city vent field.

    PubMed

    Früh-Green, Gretchen L; Kelley, Deborah S; Bernasconi, Stefano M; Karson, Jeffrey A; Ludwig, Kristin A; Butterfield, David A; Boschi, Chiara; Proskurowski, Giora

    2003-07-25

    Strontium, carbon, and oxygen isotope data and radiocarbon ages document at least 30,000 years of hydrothermal activity driven by serpentinization reactions at Lost City. Serpentinization beneath this off-axis field is estimated to occur at a minimum rate of 1.2 x 10(-4) cubic kilometers per year. The access of seawater to relatively cool, fresh peridotite, coupled with faulting, volumetric expansion, and mass wasting processes, are crucial to sustain such systems. The amount of heat produced by serpentinization of peridotite massifs, typical of slow and ultraslow spreading environments, has the potential to drive Lost City-type systems for hundreds of thousands, possibly millions, of years. PMID:12881565

  6. Mercadeo Virus: A Novel Mosquito-Specific Flavivirus from Panama.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Jean-Paul; Guzman, Hilda; Beltrán, Davis; Díaz, Yamilka; López-Vergès, Sandra; Torres-Cosme, Rolando; Popov, Vsevolod; Widen, Steven G; Wood, Thomas G; Weaver, Scott C; Cáceres-Carrera, Lorenzo; Vasilakis, Nikos; Tesh, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Viruses in the genus Flavivirus (family Flaviviridae) include many arthropod-borne viruses of public health and veterinary importance. However, during the past two decades an explosion of novel insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs), some closely related to vertebrate pathogens, have been discovered. Although many flavivirus pathogens of vertebrates have been isolated from naturally infected mosquitoes in Panama, ISFs have not previously been reported from the country. This report describes the isolation and characterization of a novel ISF, tentatively named Mercadeo virus (MECDV), obtained from Culex spp. mosquitoes collected in Panama. Two MECDV isolates were sequenced and cluster phylogenetically with cell-fusing agent virus (CFAV) and Nakiwogo virus (NAKV) to form a distinct lineage within the insect-specific group of flaviviruses. PMID:26304915

  7. Trans-oceanic pipeline: reaffirms Panama's strategic position

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-24

    The Trans-Panama Pipeline, which began in July 1980 and was finished October 1, 1982, will transport Alaskan crude from Puerto Armuelles, in the Pacific Ocean, to Chiriqui Grande, in the Atlantic. Built at a total cost of $400 million, the facility will speed deliveries of North Slope crude to refining centers in Houston, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and New Jersey; it is expected to move about 800,000 barrels/day by January 1983. With construction of a pump station near Chiriqui Grande, the pipeline could easily be altered for reverse-flow capability. This issue of Energy Detente reviews the use of the new pipeline, as it cuts crude oil transportation time and cost and provides an alternative to the Panama Canal. The issue also updates the fuel price/tax series for the countries of the Western Hemisphere.

  8. Historical decline in coral reef growth after the Panama Canal.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Hector M; Cipriani, Roberto; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2008-07-01

    The Panama Canal is near its vessel size and tonnage handling capacity, and Panamanians have decided to expand it. The expansion of the Canal may consider the historical long-lasting impacts on marine coastal habitats particularly on sensitive coral reefs. These potential impacts were discussed during the national referendum as were other equally important issues, such as its effects on forests, watersheds, and water supply. Coral growth rates provide a direct measure of coral fitness and past environmental conditions comparable to analyses of tree rings. We examined stable isotopes, metal geochemical tracers, and growth rates on a century-long (1880-1989) chronology based on 77 cores of the dominant reef-building coral Siderastrea siderea collected near the Caribbean entrance to the canal. Our results showed a gradual decline in coral growth unrelated to changes in sea surface temperature but linked to runoff and sedimentation to coastal areas resulting from the construction and operation of the Panama Canal. PMID:18828279

  9. Interactions Between Serpentinization, Hydrothermal Activity and Microbial Community at the Lost City Hydrothermal Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delacour, A.; Frueh-Green, G. L.; Bernasconi, S. M.; Schaeffer, P.; Frank, M.; Gutjahr, M.; Kelley, D. S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor investigations of slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges have reported many occurrences of exposed mantle peridotites and gabbroic rocks on the ocean floor. Along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, these uplifted portions of oceanic crust host high-temperature black smoker-type hydrothermal systems (e.g., Rainbow, Logatchev, Saldanha), and the more distinct low-temperature Lost City Hydrothermal Field (LCHF). Built on a southern terrace of the Atlantis Massif, the LCHF is composed of carbonate-brucite chimneys that vent alkaline and low-temperature (40-90°C) hydrothermal fluids. These fluids are related to serpentinization of mantle peridotites, which together with minor gabbroic intrusions form the basement of the LCHF. Long-lived hydrothermal activity at Lost City led to extensive seawater-rock interaction in the basement rocks, as indicated by seawater-like Sr- and mantle to unradiogenic Nd-isotope compositions of the serpentinites. These high fluid fluxes in the southern part of the massif influenced the conditions of serpentinization and have obliterated the early chemical signatures in the serpentinites, especially those of carbon and sulfur. Compared to reducing conditions commonly formed during the first stages of serpentinization, serpentinization at Lost City is characterized by relatively oxidizing conditions resulting in a predominance of magnetite, the mobilization/dissolution and oxidation of igneous sulfides to secondary pyrite, and the incorporation of seawater sulfate, all leading to high bulk-rock S-isotope compositions. The Lost City hydrothermal fluids contain high concentrations in methane, hydrogen, and low-molecular weight hydrocarbons considered as being produced abiotically. In contrast, organic compounds in the serpentinites are dominated by the occurrences of isoprenoids (pristane, phytane, and squalane), polycyclic compounds (hopanes and steranes), and higher abundances of C16 to C20 n-alkanes indicative of a marine organic input. We

  10. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  11. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  12. Patterns of Physical Activity Among Older Adults in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Stephen J.; Joshi, Spruha; Cerdá, Magdalena; Quinn, James W.; Beard, John R.; Kennedy, Gary J.; Benjamin, Ebele O.; Ompad, Danielle C.; Rundle, Andrew G.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Little research to date has explored typologies of physical activity among older adults. An understanding of physical activity patterns may help to both determine the health benefits of different types of activity and target interventions to increase activity levels in older adults. This analysis, conducted in 2014, used a latent class analysis approach to characterize patterns of physical activity in a cohort of older adults. Methods A total of 3,497 men and women aged 65–75 years living in New York City completed the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) in 2011. PASE scale items were used to classify subjects into latent classes. Multinomial regression was then used to relate individual and neighborhood characteristics to class membership. Results Five latent classes were identified: “least active,” “walkers,” “domestic/gardening,” “athletic,” and “domestic/gardening athletic.” Individual-level predictors, including more education, higher income, and better self-reported health, were associated with membership in the more-active classes, particularly the athletic classes. Residential characteristics, including living in single-family housing and living in the lower-density boroughs of New York City, were predictive of membership in one of the domestic/gardening classes. Class membership was associated with BMI even after controlling for total PASE score. Conclusions This study suggests that individual and neighborhood characteristics are associated with distinct physical activity patterns in a group of older urban adults. These patterns are associated with body habitus independent of overall activity. PMID:26091927

  13. Computer simulation and capacity evaluation of Panama Canal alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Rosselli, A.T.; Bronzini, M.S.; Weekly, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The Operating Characteristics and Capacity Evaluation (OCCE) Study was one of the components of a group of studies of future alternatives to the Panama Canal, sponsored by a study commission formed by the governments of Panama, the US and Japan. The basic tool in the conduct of the study was the Waterway Analysis Model (WAM), developed originally by the US Army Corps of Engineers for use on the US inland waterway system and adapted under OCCE for study of Panama Canal alternatives. The study synthesized the many alternative plans for the Canal proposed historically into four basic groups: High-Rise Lock Canal, Low-Rise Lock Canal, Sea-Level Canal and Status Quo Canal. For economy, the sea-level cases were based on, essentially, a single-lane canal, in conjunction with the status quo canal. Hydraulic and navigation studies indicted that to achieve safe navigation, tide gates or locks would be required to control currents that would otherwise be generated by the differences in tides between the two oceans. The alternatives studied in detail are illustrated in the body of the paper.

  14. [Contribution to the knowledge of the Aphididae and Phylloxeridae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha) from Panama].

    PubMed

    Quirós, Dora I; Remaudière, Georges; Nieto Nafría, Juan M

    2009-01-01

    A catalogue is presented containing 71 species of aphids and one phylloxerid from Panama. Fifty-nine species are new records for Panama and 12 of them are new records for Central America. Eleven species are of Neotropical origin and 17 are of Nearctic origin. Forty-four species own their presence in Panama to direct or indirect anthropogenic introduction. The catalogue records 227 'aphid species/host-plant species' relationships, with 25 new records 'aphid species/host-plant genus'. PMID:20098926

  15. Neighborhood walkability and active travel (walking and cycling) in New York City.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Lance; Neckerman, Kathryn; Schwartz-Soicher, Ofira; Quinn, James; Richards, Catherine; Bader, Michael D M; Lovasi, Gina; Jack, Darby; Weiss, Christopher; Konty, Kevin; Arno, Peter; Viola, Deborah; Kerker, Bonnie; Rundle, Andrew G

    2013-08-01

    Urban planners have suggested that built environment characteristics can support active travel (walking and cycling) and reduce sedentary behavior. This study assessed whether engagement in active travel is associated with neighborhood walkability measured for zip codes in New York City. Data were analyzed on engagement in active travel and the frequency of walking or biking ten blocks or more in the past month, from 8,064 respondents to the New York City 2003 Community Health Survey (CHS). A neighborhood walkability scale that measures: residential, intersection, and subway stop density; land use mix; and the ratio of retail building floor area to retail land area was calculated for each zip code. Data were analyzed using zero-inflated negative binomial regression incorporating survey sample weights and adjusting for respondents' sociodemographic characteristics. Overall, 44 % of respondents reported no episodes of active travel and among those who reported any episode, the mean number was 43.2 episodes per month. Comparing the 75th to the 25th percentile of zip code walkability, the odds ratio for reporting zero episodes of active travel was 0.71 (95 % CI 0.61, 0.83) and the exponentiated beta coefficient for the count of episodes of active travel was 1.13 (95 % CI 1.06, 1.21). Associations between lower walkability and reporting zero episodes of active travel were significantly stronger for non-Hispanic Whites as compared to non-Hispanic Blacks and to Hispanics and for those living in higher income zip codes. The results suggest that neighborhood walkability is associated with higher engagement in active travel. PMID:22941058

  16. Management of city aquifers from anthropogenic activities: Example of the Windhoek aquifer, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mapani, Benjamin S.; Schreiber, Ute

    As the city of Windhoek is growing rapidly, it has become increasingly obvious that dangers to the underlying groundwater aquifer have become imminent, and need addressing immediately. Water infiltration and the transportation of contaminants from anthropogenic activities through soils into the bedrock and hence the aquifer involve soil maturity, chemical and microbial processes and the climate of a particular area. The thin immature soil horizon (circa 5-20 cm) over the Windhoek schist implies that most areas of the city are built directly on bedrock, making the aquifer vulnerable. Anthropogenic activities from the use of pesticides for weed control, oil spills, toxic chemical spills, dumping of undesired substances by residents and high fertilizer application rates for lawns can lead to the contamination of groundwater. The result of our study show that the soil composition in Windhoek lacks mature clay minerals and is enriched in micas, quartz and albite. Some areas in the northern and southern industrial areas show contamination in heavy metals Pb, Zn, Cu and Ni. To the west of the city, close to the textile factory, soils are contaminated with ammonium compounds. The hydrochemistry of these pesticides and fertilizers can cause severe pollution to the groundwater if the practice is not carefully monitored. In addition, the rapid expansion of uncontrolled settlements without proper sanitation and reticulation has made the problems much more difficult. The geology of the city of Windhoek consists of the Kuiseb Schist, locally known as the “Windhoek Schist” and amphibolites. The Kuiseb schist possesses pervasive cleavage that renders the underlying lithology to be permeable to percolating water and fluids from the surface into the aquifer. The fissility and fracture density of the schist imply that leakage of surface waters, phenols, septic tank spills and industrial contaminants may reach the aquifer in unusually high rainfall years. Organic fuels and oils

  17. New Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Panama with a key to the known species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski, new species, and C. univittatus Norrbom & Korytkowski, new species, are described from Panama. New distribution records are reported for C. obliquus Hendel (Panama), C. ornatus Norrbom (Ecuador), and C. tau (Foote) (Costa Rica). A key to the species of t...

  18. Nutritional evaluation of children in high-risk rural and indigenous populations in Panama

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Panama continues to have a substantial incidence of malnutrition. Among the most affected populations are children in rural areas and in indigenous populations. We evaluated nutritional status of preschool (PS) and school-aged (SA) children in two high-risk areas in Panama to determine the prevalenc...

  19. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and... Panama Canal are subject to Customs examination and treatment in the same manner as arrivals from any... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the...

  20. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured and certificated under the system prescribed in 35 CFR part 135. (b) All vessels intending to transit the Suez... Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in addition to...

  1. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and... Panama Canal are subject to Customs examination and treatment in the same manner as arrivals from any... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the...

  2. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured and certificated under the system prescribed in 35 CFR part 135. (b) All vessels intending to transit the Suez... Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in addition to...

  3. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and... Panama Canal are subject to Customs examination and treatment in the same manner as arrivals from any... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the...

  4. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured and certificated under the system prescribed in 35 CFR part 135. (b) All vessels intending to transit the Suez... Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in addition to...

  5. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and... Panama Canal are subject to Customs examination and treatment in the same manner as arrivals from any... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the...

  6. 19 CFR 148.3 - Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 148.3 Customs treatment after transiting the Panama Canal. Passengers' baggage and effects and... Panama Canal are subject to Customs examination and treatment in the same manner as arrivals from any... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Customs treatment after transiting the...

  7. Public Education in the Panama Canal Zone. Bulletin, 1939, No. 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Katherine M.

    1939-01-01

    Americans are justly proud of the Panama Canal, the first and the most significant of our larger ventures as a Nation in commercial engineering. Two successful means of trans-Isthmian travel are now in operation--one by rail, established with the completion of the Panama Railroad, and one by water with the completion of the Canal. The community is…

  8. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured and certificated under the system prescribed in 35 CFR part 135. (b) All vessels intending to transit the Suez... Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in addition to...

  9. 46 CFR 69.7 - Vessels transiting the Panama and Suez Canals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) All vessels intending to transit the Panama Canal, other than vessels of war, must be measured and certificated under the system prescribed in 35 CFR part 135. (b) All vessels intending to transit the Suez... Navigation, part IV. (c) Panama Canal and Suez Canal tonnage certificates are in addition to...

  10. Role of drop distortion in enhancing the lightning activity in clouds formed over cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhalwankar, Rohini; Kamra, A. K.

    2013-03-01

    Atmospheric pollutants can modify the electrification and lightning activity in thunderclouds. Laboratory simulation experiments show that distortion of water drops is more when drops are formed from water polluted with Sulfate/Nitrate salts than that from distilled water and the difference in distortions is more in a higher electric field. Further, the polluted water drops falling in a horizontal electric field can trigger a discharge on their surface and the discharge can propagate as a streamer in lower electric fields as compared to that from distilled water drops. The difference in electrical conductivities of polluted and unpolluted water drops is most likely the key factor for manifestation of these differences. It is proposed that the enhanced distortion of polluted drops coupled with the change in their characteristics to trigger and propagate a discharge in lower electric fields may significantly contribute to the enhancement of lightning activity observed in clouds formed over big cities.

  11. Block Rotations And Translations in the Isthmus of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. A.; Bayona, G. A.; Channell, J. E.; Osorio, A.

    2008-12-01

    In order to determine rotations and paleolatitudinal movements of several tectonic terrains in Panama, a total of 23 paleomagnetic sites of Upper Cretaceous to Pleistocene tuffs, lavas and limestones were sampled in five areas of the Panama Isthmus. In the Colon area, the left-lateral Rio Gatun fault places Upper Cretaceous and Miocene rocks to the north and Eocene-Oligocene strata to the south. Mean directions of two sites in the northern block, after tilt correction, are westerly (Upper Cretaceous, D=275.4 I=-20.8 k=20.46 a95=10.9; Miocene, D=264.6 I=5.3 k=292.35 a95=3.5), whereas the mean direction of a site in the southern block is pointing North (Oligocene, D=346.3 I=14.3 k=18.43 a95=14.4). Comparison between Oligocene and Miocene directions documents a counterclockwise rotation of the northern block of the Rio Gatun fault (81.7º ± 13.3º) with respect to the southern block. Cretaceous and Cenozoic sites record the northward path of the trailing edge of the Caribbean plate, from 10.8ºS for Late Cretaceous to 6.6ºN for Oligocene. Components isolated in the El Valle volcano and Canal areas for Middle Miocene to Pleistocene rocks, indicate normal and reverse directions similar to the present direction of the magnetic field, therefore indicating no major latitudinal displacement of the Panama Isthmus since Oligocene.

  12. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal...

  13. 5 CFR 315.609 - Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. 315.609 Section 315.609 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. (a) Agency authority. An agency may appoint... nontemporary appointment in a continuing career position of the Panama Canal Commission located in the...

  14. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal...

  15. 5 CFR 315.609 - Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. 315.609 Section 315.609 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. (a) Agency authority. An agency may appoint... nontemporary appointment in a continuing career position of the Panama Canal Commission located in the...

  16. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal...

  17. 75 FR 5761 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; November 15-18, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... the Panama Canal, banking, the Colon Free Zone, insurance, container ports, and flagship registry. The... the balance. Anchoring growth is the $5.25 billion multi-year Panama Canal expansion program already... International Trade Administration Executive-Led Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama; November 15- 18,...

  18. 5 CFR 315.609 - Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. 315.609 Section 315.609 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. (a) Agency authority. An agency may appoint... nontemporary appointment in a continuing career position of the Panama Canal Commission located in the...

  19. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative... employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. (a) Agency authority. This... Zone Merit System, which was in effect before March 31, 1982, or under the Panama Canal...

  20. 5 CFR 315.609 - Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. 315.609 Section 315.609 Administrative Personnel OFFICE... States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. (a) Agency authority. An agency may appoint... nontemporary appointment in a continuing career position of the Panama Canal Commission located in the...

  1. An Eco-hydrologic Assessment of Small Experimental Catchments with Various Land Uses within the Panama Canal Watershed: Agua Salud Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Stallard, R. F.; Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project

    2010-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to water management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One of the project’s main objectives is to understand how reforestation effects seasonal stream flows. To meet this objective, a baseline characterization of hydrology on the small catchment scale is being assessed across different land uses typical in rural Panama. The small experimental catchments are found within Panama’s protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all of which are part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. The land uses being monitored include a variety of control catchments as well as treated pasture sites. The catchments used for this study include a mature old regrowth forest, a 50% deforested or mosaic regrowth site, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site (saccharum spontaneum) as experimental controls and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. Installed instrumentation includes a network of rain gauges, v-notched weirs, atmometers, an eddy covariance system and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across these six geologically and topographically similar catchments are available from 2009 and 2010. Classic water balance and paired catchment techniques were used to compare the catchments on an annual, seasonal, and event basis. This study sets the stage for hydrologic modeling and for better understanding the effects of vegetation and land-use history on rainfall-runoff processes for the Agua Salud Project and Panama Canal

  2. Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed

    PubMed Central

    Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially explicit model to evaluate the implications of reforestation both for water flows and for other services. We find that reforestation does not necessarily increase water supply, but does increase carbon sequestration and timber production. PMID:23690598

  3. Stratospheric aerosols in the intertropical convergence zone, Panama Canal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farlow, N. H.; Ferry, G. V.; Lem, H. Y.; Hayes, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate whether injection sources of the stratospheric aerosol layer could be detected in the tropical stratosphere, an examination of the aerosol vertical and horizontal size distribution around the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) at the Panama Canal Zone was performed during the summer of 1977. By comparing these data with similar measurements in temperate and polar regions, it was hoped to discover variations in particle size that would indicate whether a young aerosol is forming and entering the stratosphere at the ITCZ; where the aerosol matures; and finally, where it reenters the troposphere. The methods used in the investigations and the results obtained from the analyses are described.

  4. Medical ethnobotany of the Teribes of Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M P; Solís, P N; Calderón, A I; Guionneau-Sinclair, F; Guinneau-Sinclair, F; Correa, M; Galdames, C; Guerra, C; Espinosa, A; Alvenda, G I; Robles, G; Ocampo, R

    2005-01-15

    Ethnomedical uses of 108 medicinal plant species, belonging to 52 families, 89 genera, used by the Teribe Amerindians of Bocas del Toro Province in Panama, along with their socio-cultural practices are reported here. The methods of administration of the herbal remedies, the plant parts used, their families and local names are also documented. The recorded medicinal plants were used mainly for fever, various type of pain and inflammation. The potential value of 26 plants and their traditional uses was elucidated through literature search. PMID:15619557

  5. Bundling ecosystem services in the Panama Canal watershed.

    PubMed

    Simonit, Silvio; Perrings, Charles

    2013-06-01

    Land cover change in watersheds affects the supply of a number of ecosystem services, including water supply, the production of timber and nontimber forest products, the provision of habitat for forest species, and climate regulation through carbon sequestration. The Panama Canal watershed is currently being reforested to protect the dry-season flows needed for Canal operations. Whether reforestation of the watershed is desirable depends on its impacts on all services. We develop a spatially explicit model to evaluate the implications of reforestation both for water flows and for other services. We find that reforestation does not necessarily increase water supply, but does increase carbon sequestration and timber production. PMID:23690598

  6. Calcite dissolution: an in situ study in the Panama Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Thunell, R.C.; Keir, R.S.; Honjo, S.

    1981-05-08

    The results of an in situ study of calcite dissolution in the Panama Basin indicate that the rate of dissolution in the water column increases suddenly below a water depth of about 2800 meters. This coincides with the depth at which the calcium carbonate content of surface sediments begins to decrease rapidly or the sedimentary lysocline. Since this level of increased dissolution both in the water column and on the sea floor does not appear to be related to the transition from supersaturation to undersaturation with respect to carbonate, there may be a kinetic origin for the lysocline in this region.

  7. Mephenytoin hydroxylation in the Cuna Amerindians of Panama.

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, T; Jorge, L F; Arias, T D

    1988-01-01

    1 Mephenytoin p(4')-hydroxylation, which is deficient in 3-5% of Caucasians, was examined in 96 Cuna Amerindians of Panama. 2 Attempts were made to exclude poor compliance with urine collection and ingestion of the drug dose since the assignment of phenotype was based upon urinary recovery of the metabolite. These involved the measurement of the urinary recovery of sparteine, added to the ingested capsule, and of the renal excretion of creatinine. 3 Of the 90 Cunas deemed to be reasonably complaint, none of them appeared to be deficient in p(4')-hydroxylation of mephenytoin. PMID:3370193

  8. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Panama: Fatal Endemic Disease and Genetic Diversity of Etiologic Viral Strains

    PubMed Central

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.

    2009-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961–2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America. PMID:19564908

  9. Host association and the capacity of sand flies as vectors of lizard malaria in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kimsey, R B

    1992-08-01

    In this paper the capacity of sand flies (Lutzomyia) as vectors of parasites that cause malaria in anoles (Anolis limifrons) in the Zona de Canal, Panama was investigated. Inhabiting all study plots, often in local abundance, L. trinidadensis emerged as the principal candidate sand fly vector; the results of surveys did not suggest a likely mosquito vector. Although L. trinidadensis and infected anoles co-inhabited all plots, their abundances seemed unrelated. No evidence that sand flies parasitized anoles was uncovered. As anole activity patterns in daylight reciprocate with those of sand flies and at night anoles seem to avoid locations that sand flies frequent, anoles may evade sand fly bites altogether. Further, these sand flies occurred in close numerical and ecological association with Thecadactylus rapicauda, a reclusive moist forest gecko, often parasitizing these hosts in large numbers. Thus, sand flies lack capacity as vectors of malaria-causing parasites in central Panamanian anoles. PMID:1356940

  10. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    This paper details the Indian Solar City Programme, provides an overview of one city's Master Plan and implementation progress, describes NREL's support of the Indian Solar City Programme, and outlines synergies and differences between the Indian and American programs including unique challenges and opportunities India is facing.

  11. First-order catchment mass balance during the wet season in the Panama Canal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedzialek, Justin M.; Ogden, Fred L.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryTropical hydrology is poorly understood for a number of reasons. Intense biological activity in the tropics introduces complexities to the hydrologic process. Bioturbation, rapid rates of decay, and intensive insect activity all tend to promote rapid flow paths in the upper soil. Aggressive weathering leads to clays depleted of light cations and deep soil profiles. Processes in the seasonal tropics are further complicated by seasonal transitions, and very large changes in catchment storage between seasons. Beginning in 2005, we installed a suite of hydrologic sensors in a 16.7 ha first-order catchment in the Panama Canal Watershed to observe hydrologic variables and identify the dominant streamflow generation processes. The site is located near the village of Gamboa, which is located on the east bank of the Panama Canal at the confluence of Lake Gatun and the Chagres River. The study catchment is located on the north side of a ridge off the eastern flank of a 230 m tall hill known as Cerro Pelado, and is covered by 70-120 year old re-growth triple-canopy forest. Measurements included: rainfall above the canopy, throughfall, stemflow, evapotranspiration, shallow groundwater levels and streamflow. Deep groundwater storage was not measured. This paper describes measurements made, data collected, and the worth of those data in estimating the mass balance closure of a first-order catchment during the wet season. We compare measurements of the different components of the water cycle with observations from other published studies from the tropics. Data analysis results indicate water balance closure errors of approximately 8%.

  12. A pilot randomized controlled trial of a brief parenting intervention in low-resource settings in Panama.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Anilena; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether an intervention from the Triple P Positive Parenting Program system was effective in reducing parental reports of child behavioral difficulties in urban low-income settings in Panama City. A pilot parallel-group randomized controlled trial was carried out. A total of 108 parents of children 3 to 12 years old with some level of parent-rated behavioral difficulties were randomly assigned to a discussion group on "dealing with disobedience" or to a no intervention control. Blinded assessments were carried out prior to the intervention, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months later. Results indicated that parental reports of child behavioral difficulties changed over time and decreased more steeply in the intervention than in the control group. The effects of the intervention on parental reports of behavioral difficulties were moderate at post-intervention and 3-month follow-up, and large at 6-month follow-up. Parents who participated in the discussion group reported fewer behavioral difficulties in their children after the intervention than those in the control condition. They also reported reduced parental stress and less use of dysfunctional parenting practices. There is a limited amount of evidence on the efficacy of parenting interventions in low-resource settings. This pilot trial was carried out using a small convenience sample living in low-income urban communities in Panama City, and therefore, the findings are of reduced generalizability to other settings. However, the methodology employed in this trial represents an example for future work in other low-resource settings. PMID:25703382

  13. [Syllids (Syllidae: Polychaeta) from Coiba National Park (Pacific of Panama)].

    PubMed

    Aguado, María Teresa; San Martín, Guillermo

    2006-09-01

    During a study carried out on soft bottoms from Coiba National Park (Panama), 218 specimens of syllids (Annelida: Polychaeta) belonging to 19 interstitial species have been identified. Two species are new reports for the Pacific Ocean, Exogone (Exogone) arenosa Perkins, 1981 and Streptosyllis websteri Southern, 1914; five are new for Panama, E. (E.) dispar (Webster, 1879); E. (E.) longicornis Westheide, 1974; Salvatoria mediodentata (Westheide, 1974); Pionosyllis heterocirrata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1959) and Syllis glarearia (Westheide, 1974). A characteristic not mentioned in the original description is herein reported for E. (E.) longicornis: the presence of triangular subterminal processes in the spiniger-like compound chaetae of chaetiger one. Specimens of the species Syllis botosaneanui Hartmann-Schröder, 1973 harboring inside embryos of various stages of development have been found; this is the first report for this species as viviparous. Lastly, one specimen of the genus Syllis has been found that is mainly characterized by its long pharynx, two dorsal prostomial lobes, and compound chaetae with short blades and long spinulation. Because we consider that one specimen is not sufficient to describe a new species we refer it as Syllis sp. PMID:18491613

  14. Ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda and Panama Canal traffic.

    PubMed

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A; McDonald, Mark A

    2016-05-01

    Comparisons of current and historic ocean ambient noise levels are rare, especially in the North Atlantic. Recent (2013-2014) monthly patterns in ocean ambient sound south of Bermuda were compared to those recorded at the same location in 1966. Additionally, trends in ocean traffic, in particular, Panama Canal traffic, over this time were also investigated. One year of ocean ambient noise measurements were collected in 1966 using cabled, omnidirectional hydrophones at the U.S. Navy Tudor Hill Laboratory in Bermuda, and repeat measurements were collected at the same location from June 2013-May 2014 using a High-frequency Acoustic Recording Package. Average monthly pressure spectrum levels at 44 Hz increased 2.8 ± 0.8 dB from 1966 to 2013, indicating an average increase of 0.6 dB/decade. This low level of increase may be due to topographic shielding at this site, limiting it to only southern exposure, and the limit in the number of ship transits through the Panama Canal, which did not change substantially during this time. The impending expansion of the Canal, which will enable the transit of larger ships at twice the current rate, is likely to lead to a substantial increase in ocean ambient sound at this location in the near future. PMID:27250138

  15. Evaluation of rainfall prediction for the Panama Canal watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, F.; Spencer, C.; Sperfslage, J.; Georgakakos, K. P.

    2008-12-01

    The MM5 PSU/NCAR mesoscale meteorological model system, operating at HRC (Hydrologic Research Center), produces 54- hour forecasts at 18 km (Central America) and 6 km (Panama Canal watershed areas) domains. The forecasting system is executed twice a day (for 00Z and 12Z). The initial and boundary fields are from National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) global forecasting system (GFS) datasets. The 6-km forecasting precipitation in a gridded format is re-processed into mean area precipitation (MAP) by 11 sub-catchments which are defined by the Hydrology Section of the Panama Canal Authority (ACP). The MAP and other meteorological parameters are fed into hydrologic model which is operated routinely in ACP. The system design and the methodology for the evaluation will be presented. The goal is to evaluate the current model forecasting capability in the prediction of rainfall amounts which is important to control the Canal flows and facilitate ship passage through the Canal. The preliminary results show that the MM5 is able to capture the heavy rainfall events and provide adequate information into hydrologic forecast model.

  16. Tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke: a New York city emergency medicine perspective.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yu-Feng; Kwiatkowski, Thomas G; Rella, Joseph G; Rennie, William P; Kwon, Robert K; Silverman, Robert A

    2005-11-01

    Nationally, only 2-3% of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) currently receive tissue plasminogen activator (TPA). To better understand the reasons, we investigated the practice patterns, level of familiarity and acceptance of TPA for AIS among emergency physicians in New York City (NYC). Fifty-seven 911-receiving hospital emergency department directors were surveyed regarding TPA use. Of those responding, 37% had never used TPA to treat AIS. Lack of neurological support was reported by 33%. Departments with formal protocols were more likely to use TPA for AIS. In conclusion, there is considerable variation in the practice, knowledge, and attitudes regarding the use of TPA for AIS in NYC emergency departments. Improved educational efforts and institutional support may be necessary to ensure the appropriate use of TPA by emergency physicians. PMID:16243196

  17. Spatiotemporal trends of terrestrial vegetation activity along the urban development intensity gradient in China's 32 major cities.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Decheng; Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhang, Liangxia

    2014-08-01

    Terrestrial vegetation plays many pivotal roles in urban systems. However, the impacts of urbanization on vegetation are poorly understood. Here we examined the spatiotemporal trends of the vegetation activity measured by MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) along Urban Development Intensity (UDI) gradient in 32 major Chinese cities from 2000 to 2012. We also proposed to use a new set of concepts (i.e., actual, theoretical, and positive urbanization effects) to better understand and quantify the impacts of urbanization on vegetation activities. Results showed that the EVI decreased significantly along a rising UDI for 28 of 32 cities (p<0.05) in linear, convex or concave form, signifying the urbanization impacts on vegetation varied across cities and UDI zones within a city. Further, the actual urbanization effects were much weaker than the theoretical estimates because of the offsetting positive effects generated by multiple urban environmental and anthropogenic factors. Examining the relative changes of EVI in various UDI zones against that in the rural area (ΔEVI), which effectively removed the effects of climate variability, demonstrated that ΔEVI decreased markedly from 2000 to 2012 for about three-quarters of the cities in the exurban (0.05cities in the urban (0.5cities could primarily be attributed to the importance of positive effects derived from the urban environment and the improvement of management and maintenance of urban green space. More work is needed to quantify mechanistically the detailed negative and positive effects of urban environmental factors and management practices on vegetation activities. PMID:24829041

  18. Characterization of seismicity at Volcan Baru, Panama: May 2013 through April 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, Chet J.

    Volcan Baru, in the western province of Chiriqui, is Panama's youngest and most active volcano. Although Baru has experienced no historic eruptions there have been four eruptive episodes in the last 1600 years, the most recent occurring 400-500 years ago (Sherrod et al., 2007). In addition, there have been four reported earthquake swarms in the last 100 years. The most recent swarm occurred in May of 2006, prompting a USGS hazard assessment (Sherrod et al., 2007). In order to characterize local seismicity and provide a reference for future monitoring efforts, we established a seismic network that operated from May 2013 through April 2014. The network consisted of eight temporary single-component, short-period sensors loaned by OSOP Panama, and three permanent stations distributed over a 35 by 15 km area. During operation of the network a catalog of 91 local events were detected, located and then used to calculate a minimum 1-D velocity model for Baru. Of particular interest were a cluster of events west of the town of Boquete. A template matching detection technique was used to identify another 47 smaller magnitude events in the area of this cluster. Spectrograms for the largest events in the cluster show a broad band of frequencies up to ˜20 Hz suggesting a predominantly tectonic source while eight focal mechanisms were calculated which suggest strike-slip and reverse faulting may be the predominant source processes. Further study is encouraged to better constrain the source processes and investigate how volcanic processes might affect local tectonics. 1. 1The material contained in this thesis is intended for submission to the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research .

  19. Neighborhood Perceptions and Active School Commuting in Low-Income Cities

    PubMed Central

    DeWeese, Robin S.; Yedidia, Michael J.; Tulloch, David L.; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2016-01-01

    Background Few children accumulate the recommended ≥60 minutes of physical activity each day. Active travel to and from school (ATS) is a potential source of increased activity for children, accounting for 22% of total trips and time spent traveling by school-aged children. Purpose This study identifies the association of parents’ perceptions of the neighborhood, geospatial variables, and demographic characteristics with ATS among students in four low-income, densely populated urban communities with predominantly minority populations. Methods Data were collected in 2009–2010 from households with school-attending children in four low-income New Jersey cities. Multivariate logistic regression analyses (n=765) identified predictors of ATS. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results In all, 54% of students actively commuted to school. Students whose parents perceived the neighborhood as very unpleasant for activity were less likely (OR=0.39) to actively commute, as were students living farther from school, with a 6% reduction in ATS for every 0.10 mile increase in distance to school. Perceptions of crime, traffic, and sidewalk conditions were not predictors of ATS. Conclusions Parents’ perceptions of the pleasantness of the neighborhood, independent of the effects of distance from school, may outweigh concerns about crime, traffic, or conditions of sidewalks in predicting active commuting to school in the low-income urban communities studied. Efforts such as cleaning up graffiti, taking care of abandoned buildings, and providing shade trees to improve neighborhood environments are likely to increase ATS, as are efforts that encourage locating schools closer to the populations they serve. PMID:24050414

  20. Human trypanosome infection and the presence of intradomicile Rhodnius pallescens in the western border of the Panama Canal, Panama.

    PubMed

    Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Montalvo, Edilma; Alvarez, Dayra; Santamaría, Ana María; Samudio, Franklyn; Bayard, Vicente; Cáceres, Lorenzo; Saldaña, Azael

    2006-05-01

    An entomologic search was carried out to collect intradomicile triatomines in dwellings from rural communities in the western border of the Panama Canal, Panama. Sixty-nine triatomines were collected inside 20 houses of 67 houses investigated. Rhodnius pallescens was the only triatomine species found and included adults of both sexes and nymphs. A significantly high Trypanosoma cruzi (72.7%) and T. rangeli (40%) vector infection rate was detected. Blood meal analysis showed that 68% of R. pallescens had fed on humans. Human serologic analysis and hemoculture performed on inhabitants from triatomine-infested houses showed that 32.1% (18 of 56) of the samples were trypanosome infected. Thirteen samples (23.2%) had antibodies against T. cruzi. Six of these seropositive samples were from children less than 15 years old. Trypanosoma rangeli was isolated in five hemoculture samples, all from children less than 11 years old. The epidemiologic implications of these findings in terms of human infection are discussed. PMID:16687677

  1. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  2. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: Monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ibanez, R.; Condit, R.; Angehr, G.; Aguilar, S.; Garcia, T.; Martinez, R.; Sanjur, A.; Stallard, R.; Wright, S.J.; Rand, A.S.; Heckadon, S.

    2002-01-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  3. An ecosystem report on the Panama Canal: monitoring the status of the forest communities and the watershed.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Roberto; Condit, Richard; Angehr, George; Aguilar, Salomón; García, Tomas; Martínez, Raul; Sanjur, Amelia; Stallard, Robert; Wright, S Joseph; Rand, A Stanley; Heckadon, Stanley

    2002-11-01

    In 1996, the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute and the Republic of Panama's Environmental Authority, with support from the United States Agency for International Development, undertook a comprehensive program to monitor the ecosystem of the Panama Canal watershed. The goals were to establish baseline indicators for the integrity of forest communities and rivers. Based on satellite image classification and ground surveys, the 2790 km2 watershed had 1570 km2 of forest in 1997, 1080 km2 of which was in national parks and nature monuments. Most of the 490 km2 of forest not currently in protected areas lies along the west bank of the Canal, and its management status after the year 2000 turnover of the Canal from the U.S. to Panama remains uncertain. In forest plots designed to monitor forest diversity and change, a total of 963 woody plant species were identified and mapped. We estimate there are a total of 850-1000 woody species in forests of the Canal corridor. Forests of the wetter upper reaches of the watershed are distinct in species composition from the Canal corridor, and have considerably higher diversity and many unknown species. These remote areas are extensively forested, poorly explored, and harbor an estimated 1400-2200 woody species. Vertebrate monitoring programs were also initiated, focusing on species threatened by hunting and forest fragmentation. Large mammals are heavily hunted in most forests of Canal corridor, and there was clear evidence that mammal density is greatly reduced in hunted areas and that this affects seed predation and dispersal. The human population of the watershed was 113 000 in 1990, and grew by nearly 4% per year from 1980 to 1990. Much of this growth was in a small region of the watershed on the outskirts of Panama City, but even rural areas, including villages near and within national parks, grew by 2% per year. There is no sewage treatment in the watershed, and many towns have no trash collection, thus streams near large

  4. City Geology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markle, Sandra

    1989-01-01

    This article provides information on the evolution of the building material, concrete, and suggests hands-on activities that allow students to experience concrete's qualities, test the heat absorbency of various ground surface materials, discover how an area's geology changes, and search for city fossils. A reproducible activity sheet is included.…

  5. A National Survey of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior of Chinese City Children and Youth Using Accelerometers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Chao; Chen, Peijie; Zhuang, Jie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to objectively assess levels of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) of Chinese city children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old using accelerometers and to examine their differences by gender, age, grade, and weight status. Method: The PA and SB of 2,163 students in 4th grade through 11th grade…

  6. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades K-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  7. Psychosocial constructs and postintervention changes in physical activity and dietary outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, 2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To examine relationships among psychosocial constructs (PSC) of behavior change and post-intervention changes in physical activity (PA) and dietary outcomes. Design: Non-controlled, pre- post-experimental intervention. Setting: Midsized, southern United States city. Subjects: 269 prima...

  8. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 2-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  9. PARK-IT! Elementary School Land Laboratories in Toledo City Parks. Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuFour, Marilyn Berry; Courter, Linda Kothera; Garvin, Dennis M.

    The project PARK-IT! represents a unique partnership between a public elementary school and a city park in which students and teachers utilize a small naturalized area of the park as a Land Laboratory, and in return become its stewards. The project also includes this curriculum activity guide which can assist teachers in using the Land Lab with…

  10. An Exploration of the Attitudinal and Perceptual Dimensions of Body Image among Male and Female Adolescents from Six Latin American Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Laura H.; Holbert, Donald; Pena, Manuel

    2005-01-01

    Using survey methodology, this exploratory study examined the attitudinal and perceptual dimensions of body image among 1,272 eighth- and ninth-grade males and females from higher and lower socioeconomic backgrounds in Buenos Aires, Argentina (n = 195), Guatemala City, Guatemala (n = 212), Havana, Cuba (n = 213), Lima, Peru (n = 218), Panama City,…

  11. Analysis of scavengers' activities and recycling in some cities of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agunwamba, J C

    2003-07-01

    The state of solid waste recycling by scavengers in Onitsha, a heavily commercial city in Anambra State, and some other urban areas such as Nsukka, Enugu, and Port Harcourt was analyzed. Data were obtained through interviews of scavengers who deal with recyclables. Although the activities of scavengers are sub-optimal, they can have a great impact on Nigerian economy with respect to resource conservation, creation of job opportunities, and reduction of the magnitude of waste disposal problems. A cost analysis is presented to compare the different forms of recycling utilized by municipal solid waste management. It is shown that a well-planned recycling program with recycling and composting would result in 18.6% savings in waste management costs and 57.7% in landfill avoidance costs. However, if the compost materials are not recycled, the corresponding savings in cost become 8.6% and 28.6%, respectively. The option with the lowest cost involves encouraging individual households to separate at the source their recyclables, which are bought by scavengers. This results in 78.0% savings in waste management cost and 79.5% landfill avoidance cost. A low-cost approach aimed at the integration of scavenging activities into conventional solid waste management is presented. PMID:14703917

  12. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of New York City Children from Different Ethnic Minority Subgroups

    PubMed Central

    Vangeepuram, N; Mervish, N; Galvez, MP; Brenner, B; Wolff, MS

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine racial/ethnic differences in diet and physical activity behaviors in ethnic minority New York City children. Methods Cross-sectional data from a community-based study of 486 6–8 year old children were used. Race/ethnicity was derived using caregiver report of child’s race and Hispanic ancestry. Dietary intake was obtained by 24-hour diet recalls using the Nutrition Data System for Research. Physical activity was assessed with pedometers and caregiver interviews. We compared diet and activity measures across racial/ethnic subgroups using Chi Square and ANOVA tests. Multivariate analyses adjusted for age, gender, BMI, and caregiver education (with breastfeeding history and total energy intake included in diet models). Results Participants (n=486) were categorized as Mexican (29.4%), Dominican (8.4%), Puerto Rican (20.6%), other/mixed Hispanic (14.0%) or non-Hispanic Black (27.6%). Obesity rates were lower in non-Hispanic Blacks (18%) than in Hispanics (31%). Mexicans had the lowest obesity prevalence among Hispanic subgroups (25%) and Dominicans had the highest (39%). There were differences in mean daily servings of food groups with Mexicans having healthier diets and Puerto Ricans and non-Hispanic Blacks having less healthy diets. Sedentary time was lower in Mexicans than in other groups in adjusted models. Examination of additional models including home language did not show significant differences in the estimates. Conclusion Diet and activity behaviors varied across racial/ethnic subgroups. Specifically, Mexican children had healthier diets, the least amount of sedentary time and the lowest rates of obesity among the Hispanic subgroups examined. Targeted interventions in ethnic subgroups may be warranted to address specific behaviors. PMID:22985985

  13. Neighborhood Poverty, Park Use, and Park-Based Physical Activity in a Southern California City

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah; Han, Bing; Derose, Kathryn; Williamson, Stephanie; Marsh, Terry; Rudick, Jodi; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2013-01-01

    A rich literature indicates that individuals of lower socio-economic status engage in less leisure time physical activity than individuals of higher socio-economic status. However, the source of the difference is believed to be, in part, due to differential access to resources that support physical activity. However, it has not been shown as to whether equal access to parks can mitigate differences in leisure time physical activity. Using systematic direct observation, we quantified physical activity in neighborhood parks in a large Southern California city located in areas with high, medium, and a low percentage of households in poverty. We documented how neighborhood parks are managed and programmed and also interviewed both a sample of park users and a random sample of households within a mile radius of the parks. We found that parks are used less in high-poverty areas compared to medium- and low-poverty area parks, even after accounting for differences in size, staffing, and programming. The strongest correlates of park use were the number of part time staff, the number of supervised and organized programs, and knowing the park staff. Perceptions of safety were not relevant to park use among those interviewed in the park, however it had a small relationship with reported frequency of park use among local residents. Among park users, time spent watching electronic media was negatively correlated with the frequency of visiting the park. Future research should test whether increasing park staffing and programming will lead to increased park use in high-poverty neighborhoods. PMID:23010338

  14. Child-Friendly Cities: A Place for Active Citizenship in Geographical and Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Judith

    2010-01-01

    This research was designed to investigate innovative practices associated with child-friendly cities initiatives in the United Kingdom and Italy and how civics and citizenship initiatives are being applied into practical programmes of exploration and learning in geography and environmental education. The Child-Friendly Cities Initiative (CFCI) of…

  15. Indian Solar Cities Programme: An Overview of Major Activities and Accomplishments (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Kandt, A.

    2012-05-01

    Indian Solar Cities Programme supports 60 Indian cities in the development of EE and RE projects. Aims to reduce conventional energy demand by 10% by 2013, compared to a baseline year of 2008, and support is provided to municipal corporations for preparing and implementing a master plan.

  16. Tomorrow's City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Emrys

    1979-01-01

    Examines several simple models of cities, discussing possible future changes in city design. The concepts of the megalopolis, linear city, tower block, imploded or miniaturized city, and dispersed city are described. (CS)

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Brazilian Leptospira noguchii Serogroup Panama Strain U73, Isolated from Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Luisa Z.; Loureiro, Ana P.; Miraglia, Fabiana; Matajira, Carlos E. C.; Kremer, Frederico S.; Eslabao, Marcos R.; Dellagostin, Odir A.; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Leptospira noguchii is a current zoonotic pathogen in Brazil. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of the Brazilian L. noguchii serogroup Panama strain U73, isolated from asymptomatic cattle urine. PMID:26472831

  18. A new Late Miocene chondrichthyan assemblage from the Chagres Formation, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D.; De Gracia, Carlos; Pimiento, Catalina; Aguilera, Orangel A.; Kindlimann, René; Santamarina, Patricio; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    The lLate Miocene Chagres Formation from northern Panama contains the youngest outcrops of the Panama Canal Basin. Here we report two chondrichthyan assemblages that include 30 taxa from both the Rio Indio and Chagres Sandstone Members of the Chagres Formation. We report 18 new fossil records for Panama and four for tropical America, constituting the most diverse chondrichthyan association for the Cenozoic of Panama. We performed a paleobathymetry analysis based on the modern water depth preference of extant chondrichthyan taxa. The assemblage from the Rio Indio Member is characterized by taxa with neritic affinities, suggesting depths <100 m, whereas the assemblage from the Chagres Sandstone Member is dominated by taxa with oceanic affinities, suggesting 200-300 m water depths. The Chagres Sandstone Member could have accumulated at the edge of a platform-upper slope, bordered by a deep oceanic margin.

  19. Chicanos, the Panama Canal Issues and the Reagan Campaign: Reflections from 1976 and Projections for 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothenberg, Irene Fraser

    1980-01-01

    Reviews editorial opinion regarding Ronald Reagan's 1976 anti-Panama stance as registered in numerous Mexican American California newspapers. Discusses the potential political impact of anti-Reagan sentiment among Chicanos in the 1980 presidential election campaign. (GC)

  20. Microbial Contamination of Ice Machines Is Mediated by Activated Charcoal Filtration Systems in a City Hospital.

    PubMed

    Yorioka, Katsuhiro; Oie, Shigeharu; Hayashi, Koji; Kimoto, Hiroo; Furukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    Although microbial contamination of ice machines has been reported, no previous study has addressed microbial contamination of ice produced by machines equipped with activated charcoal (AC) filters in hospitals. The aim of this study was to provide clinical data for evaluating AC filters to prevent microbial contamination of ice. We compared microbial contamination in ice samples produced by machines with (n = 20) and without an AC filter (n = 40) in Shunan City Shinnanyo Municipal Hospital. All samples from the ice machine equipped with an AC filter contained 10-116 CFUs/g of glucose nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Chryseobacterium meningosepticum. No microorganisms were detected in samples from ice machines without AC filters. After the AC filter was removed from the ice machine that tested positive for Gram-negative bacteria, the ice was resampled (n = 20). Analysis found no contaminants. Ice machines equipped with AC filters pose a serious risk factor for ice contamination. New filter-use guidelines and regulations on bacterial detection limits to prevent contamination of ice in healthcare facilities are necessary. PMID:27348980

  1. Unhinging an indenter: A new tectonic model for the internal deformation of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rockwell, Thomas K.; Bennett, Richard A.; Gath, Eldon; Franceschi, Pastora

    2010-08-01

    New paleoseismic results from Panama, conducted as part of the seismic hazard assessment for the expansion of the Panama Canal, have led to a reevaluation of the tectonic framework and geologic history of the isthmus of Central America. We propose a soft block indenter model wherein the collision of Central America and South America has resulted in significant internal deformation of the isthmus. Deformation is accommodated by both rapid slip on conjugate strike-slip faults within the isthmus, as well as the generally assumed flexure and northward buckling of Panama. The model is kinematically self-consistent in that there are little or no space problems created with 3 Ma of retrodeformation. Sparse GPS velocity data are consistent to within uncertainties with the new geologically constrained block model, supporting the rapid and extensive internal deformation of Panama. Together, the paleoseismologic and geodetic data suggest that central Panama is an area of high risk due to earthquakes, which is consistent with the historical occurrence of several moderate to large earthquakes in this region. However, this is generally counter to the current perception in central Panama where most people live and where there have been no large, damaging earthquakes for over 100 years.

  2. [Food environment and space accessibility evaluation to perform physical activity in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city].

    PubMed

    Garipe, Leila Yasmin; Gónzalez, Verónica; Biasizzo, Antonella; Soriano, Jennifer Laila; Perman, Gaston; Giunta, Diego

    2014-01-01

    Due to the environmental influences on health, the goal of this study was to describe and compare the built environment in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city.In 2011 a cross-sectional study was conducted in 3 socially contrasting neighbourhoods of Buenos Aires city: Recoleta (upper class), Almagro (middle class) and Constitución (lower class). Grocery stores and food stands were surveyed as well as all suitable spaces to perform physical activity. An analysis was conducted to assess the density of every food outlet per Km2 of each neighbourhood's area and per 10000 inhabitants. 2778 food stores and 149 outdoor physical activity facilities were surveyed. A higher density was observed in Constitución for fast food restaurants (Recoleta 3.6; Almagro 2.4; Constitución 6.7) and food stands (Recoleta 4.2; Almagro 1.2; Constitución 25.7) and a lower density for outdoor physical activity facilities. Population density and area density proved to be analogous. Statistically relevant differences were observed regarding the dimension of each food outlet: grocery stores, fruit stands, pubs, restaurants and food stands, as well as in the number of food stores and outdoor physical activity facilities. The information gathered in this study could be highly useful for public health policies on healthy lifestyles, and could eventually redefine the built environment in order to improve the city's equality regarding outdoor physical activity facilities and food stores. PMID:25647550

  3. Perspective View with Color-Coded Shaded Relief, Central Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This perspective view shows central Panama, with the remnants of the extinct volcano El Valle in the foreground and the Caribbean Sea in the distance. El Valle underwent an explosive eruption about 3 million years ago, forming a crater 5 kilometers (3.1 miles) across, one of the largest in the Americas. The crater subsequently filled with water forming a huge lake, but about 12,000 years ago a breach at the present site of the waterfall Choro de las Mozas caused it to drain, forming the present valley. Within the crater is the town of El Valle de Anton, whose 600-meter (1,968-foot) elevation and resulting cooler climate make it a popular tourist and vacation site.

    The lake in the distance is Lake Gatun, at the west end of the Panama Canal. The canal itself extends to the southwest (to the right in this northeast facing view) but is hidden by the intervening terrain.

    This shaded relief perspective view was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, and range from green at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations.

    SRTM, launched on February 11, 2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between NASA, the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) and the

  4. Participant Adherence Indicators Predict Changes in Blood Pressure, Anthropometric Measures, and Self-Reported Physical Activity in a Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Jessica L.; Landry, Alicia S.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B.; Molaison, Elaine Fontenot; Yadrick, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this secondary analysis was to evaluate the utility of several participant adherence indicators for predicting changes in clinical, anthropometric, dietary, fitness, and physical activity (PA) outcomes in a lifestyle intervention, HUB City Steps, conducted in a southern, African American cohort in 2010. HUB City Steps was a…

  5. Bots (Diptera: Oestridae) infesting a neotropical forest rodent, Proechimys semispinosus (Rodentia: Echimyidae), in Panama.

    PubMed

    Adler, Gregory H; Davis, Shannon L; Carvajal, Alejandra

    2003-08-01

    Botfly larvae (Cuterebra sp.) infesting spiny rats (Proechimys semispinosus) in 8 small islands in the Panama Canal were studied. Rats were live trapped monthly on each island from January 1991 through February 2000 and visually examined for the presence of bots. Overall, bot prevalence was 4.6% and differed statistically among island rat populations. Rats were simultaneously infested by as many as 4 bots. Overall bot intensity was 1.3 bots per infested rat and did not differ among islands. Mean bot density across all islands was 0.0111 and was greater during the dry seasons than during the rainy seasons, but it did not differ among islands. Bots were found during all the 12 calendar months, suggesting a multivoltine reproductive schedule. Although bot activity varied seasonally, there was little synchrony of bot activity among islands. Bot density was related negatively to rainfall but was not related to host density, suggesting that drier ambient conditions may promote reproduction by adult bot flies in this system. PMID:14533675

  6. Clonal Outbreak of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Eastern Panama

    PubMed Central

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Baro, Nicholas K.; Calzada, Jose E.; Santamaria, Ana M.; Daniels, Rachel; Wong, Wesley; Chang, Hsiao-Han; Hamilton, Elizabeth J.; Arevalo-Herrera, Myriam; Herrera, Socrates; Wirth, Dyann F.; Hartl, Daniel L.; Marti, Matthias; Volkman, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the source of resurgent parasites is paramount to a strategic, successful intervention for malaria elimination. Although the malaria incidence in Panama is low, a recent outbreak resulted in a 6-fold increase in reported cases. We hypothesized that parasites sampled from this epidemic might be related and exhibit a clonal population structure. We tested the genetic relatedness of parasites, using informative single-nucleotide polymorphisms and drug resistance loci. We found that parasites were clustered into 3 clonal subpopulations and were related to parasites from Colombia. Two clusters of Panamanian parasites shared identical drug resistance haplotypes, and all clusters shared a chloroquine-resistance genotype matching the pfcrt haplotype of Colombian origin. Our findings suggest these resurgent parasite populations are highly clonal and that the high clonality likely resulted from epidemic expansion of imported or vestigial cases. Malaria outbreak investigations that use genetic tools can illuminate potential sources of epidemic malaria and guide strategies to prevent further resurgence in areas where malaria has been eliminated. PMID:25336725

  7. Interactions between carbon and water vapor fluxes in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, S.; Buchmann, N.; Eugster, W.

    2009-04-01

    Tropical ecosystems are particularly sensitive to changes in environmental conditions and have a significant impact on the global climate due to biophysical and biogeochemical feedbacks. It is still unclear how precipitation variability and soil moisture will develop under future climatic conditions, with large implications on ecosystems in the tropics. Thus, an improved understanding of the interactions between carbon and water vapor fluxes in the tropics is needed. However, continuous measurements of these fluxes in tropical regions are sparse in general and only few localities exist in Central America. Our two eddy flux towers were established in Sardinilla, Central Panama (9.3° N, 79.6° W, 70 m a.s.l.) to measure carbon and water vapor fluxes continuously over an afforestation with native tree species and an adjacent, traditionally grazed pasture. Our objective is to understand the variability of carbon and water vapor fluxes, their environmental drivers and their interaction in these two ecosystems. First results from nearly two years of continuous operation will be presented and discussed, focusing particularly on seasonal transition periods and the effects of a prolonged dry season caused by a strong ENSO event (La Niña) in 2008.

  8. Methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Michael; Stallard, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    We studied methane emission by bubbling from Gatun Lake, Panama, at water depths of less than 1 m to about 10 m. Gas bubbles were collected in floating traps deployed during 12- to 60-hour observation periods. Comparison of floating traps and floating chambers showed that about 98% of methane emission occurred by bubbling and only 2% occurred by diffusion. Average methane concentration of bubbles at our sites varied from 67% to 77%. Methane emission by bubbling occurred episodically, with greatest rates primarily between the hours of 0800 and 1400 LT. Events appear to be triggered by wind. The flux of methane associated with bubbling was strongly anticorrelated with water depth. Seasonal changes in water depth caused seasonal variation of methane emission. Bubble methane fluxes through the lake surface into the atmosphere measured during 24-hour intervals were least (10-200 mg/m2/d) at deeper sites (greater than 7 m) and greatest (300-2000 mg/m2/d) at shallow sites (less than 2 m).

  9. 75 FR 14385 - Revocation of Class D and E Airspace; Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-25

    ... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034; February 26, 1979); and (3) does... to read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR... established for the new airport under separate rulemaking. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  10. 76 FR 76044 - Safety Zone; Power Line Replacement, West Bay, Panama City, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone for a portion of West Bay Creek and West Bay, to include all waters between the Highway 79 Fixed Bridge and the mouth of West Bay Creek out to buoy markers 27 and 28 of the Intracoastal Waterway. This action is necessary for the protection of vessels and persons on navigable waters during the replacement of overhead power lines. Entry......

  11. Chytridiomycosis and amphibian population declines continue to spread eastward in Panama.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Kilburn, Vanessa L; Reinert, Laura K; Voyles, Jamie; Medina, Daniel; Ibáñez, Roberto; Hyatt, Alex D; Boyle, Donna G; Pask, James D; Green, David M; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2008-09-01

    Chytridiomycosis is a globally emerging disease of amphibians and the leading cause of population declines and extirpations at species-diverse montane sites in Central America. We continued long-term monitoring efforts for the presence of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and for amphibian populations at two sites in western Panama, and we began monitoring at three new sites to the east. Population declines associated with chytridiomycosis emergence were detected at Altos de Campana National Park. We also detected Bd in three species east of the Panama Canal at Soberanía National Park, and prevalence data suggests that Bd may be enzootic in the lowlands of the park. However, no infected frogs were found further east at Tortí (prevalence <7.5% with 95% confidence). Our results suggest that Panama's diverse and not fully described amphibian communities east of the canal are at risk. Precise predictions of future disease emergence events are not possible until factors underlying disease emergence, such as dispersal, are understood. However, if the fungal pathogen spreads in a pattern consistent with previous disease events in Panama, then detection of Bd at Tortí and other areas east of the Panama Canal is imminent. Therefore, development of new management strategies and increased precautions for tourism, recreation, and biology are urgently needed. PMID:18807089

  12. Evaluation design of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in early child care centers.

    PubMed

    Breck, Andrew; Goodman, Ken; Dunn, Lillian; Stephens, Robert L; Dawkins, Nicola; Dixon, Beth; Jernigan, Jan; Kakietek, Jakub; Lesesne, Catherine; Lessard, Laura; Nonas, Cathy; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Osuji, Thearis A; Bronson, Bernice; Xu, Ye; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the multi-method cross-sectional design used to evaluate New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's regulations of nutrition, physical activity, and screen time for children aged 3 years or older in licensed group child care centers. The Center Evaluation Component collected data from a stratified random sample of 176 licensed group child care centers in New York City. Compliance with the regulations was measured through a review of center records, a facility inventory, and interviews of center directors, lead teachers, and food service staff. The Classroom Evaluation Component included an observational and biometric study of a sample of approximately 1,400 children aged 3 or 4 years attending 110 child care centers and was designed to complement the center component at the classroom and child level. The study methodology detailed in this paper may aid researchers in designing policy evaluation studies that can inform other jurisdictions considering similar policies. PMID:25321635

  13. Analyzing the Roles, Activities, and Skills of Learning Technologists: A Case Study from City University London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Olivia; Sumner, Neal

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a case study carried out at City University London into the role of learning technologists. The article examines how the role developed by providing points of comparison with a report on the career development of learning technology staff in UK universities in 2001. This case study identified that learning technologists…

  14. Community Service and Activism in Heritage Languages, New York City, 1915-1956

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I describe the work of Leonard Covello, a New York City language educator and high school principal of the early 20th century who argued for Italian and Spanish heritage language (HL) preservation in schools. Although Covello promoted standard language Italian and Spanish in the HL classroom, he also encouraged HL students to use…

  15. Age and geochemistry of host rocks of the Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, central Panama: Implications for the Paleogene evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Michael J.; Hollings, Peter; Thompson, Jennifer A.; Thompson, Jay M.; Burge, Colin

    2016-04-01

    The Cobre Panama porphyry Cu-Au deposit, located in the Petaquilla district of central Panama, is hosted by a sequence of medium- to high-K calc-alkaline volcanic and sub-volcanic rocks. New crystallisation ages obtained from a granodiorite Petaquilla batholith and associated mineralised diorite to granodiorite porphyry stocks and dikes at Cobre Panama indicate that the batholith was emplaced as a multi-phase intrusion, over a period of ~ 4 million years from 32.20 ± 0.76 Ma to 28.26 ± 0.61 Ma, while the porphyritic rocks were emplaced over a ~ 2 million year period from 28.96 ± 0.62 Ma to 27.48 ± 0.68 Ma. Both the volcanic to sub-volcanic host rocks and intrusive rocks of the Cobre Panama deposit evolved via fractional crystallisation processes, as demonstrated by the major elements (e.g. Al2O3, Fe2O3, TiO2 and MgO) displaying negative trends with increasing SiO2. The Petaquilla intrusive rocks, including the diorite-granodiorite porphyries and granodiorite batholith, are geochemically evolved and appear to have formed from more hydrous magmas than the preceding host volcanic rocks, as evidenced by the presence of hornblende phenocrysts, higher degrees of large-ion lithophile element (LILE) and light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment and heavy rare earth element (HREE) depletion, and higher Sr/Y and La/Yb values. However, the degree of LREE enrichment, HREE depletion and La/Yb values are insufficient for the intrusive rocks to be considered as adakites. Collectively, the volcanic and intrusive rocks have LILE, REE and mobile trace element concentrations similar to enriched Miocene-age Cordilleran arc magmatism found throughout central and western Panama. Both the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc magmatic suites are geochemically more evolved than the late Cretaceous to Eocene Chagres-Bayano arc magmas from northeastern Panama, as they display higher degrees of LILE and LREE enrichment. The geochemical similarities between the Petaquilla and Cordilleran arc

  16. 77 FR 65439 - Implementation of United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement Tariff-Rate Quota for Imports of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... for Imports of Sugar AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: USTR is providing notice that the tariff-rate quotas for sugar established by the United States-Panama... imports of sugar from Panama. USTR is providing notice that the United States, consistent with Note...

  17. 78 FR 70276 - Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction With Trade Winds-The...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ..., and inputs for key industries including, agriculture, construction, energy and electric power, food... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama, and Ecuador in Conjunction..., International Trade Administration is organizing a trade mission to Colombia, Peru, Chile, Panama and...

  18. Liana Abundance, Diversity, and Distribution on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Schnitzer, Stefan A.; Mangan, Scott A.; Dalling, James W.; Baldeck, Claire A.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Ledo, Alicia; Muller-Landau, Helene; Tobin, Michael F.; Aguilar, Salomon; Brassfield, David; Hernandez, Andres; Lao, Suzanne; Perez, Rolando; Valdes, Oldemar; Yorke, Suzanne Rutishauser

    2012-01-01

    Lianas are a key component of tropical forests; however, most surveys are too small to accurately quantify liana community composition, diversity, abundance, and spatial distribution – critical components for measuring the contribution of lianas to forest processes. In 2007, we tagged, mapped, measured the diameter, and identified all lianas ≥1 cm rooted in a 50-ha plot on Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI). We calculated liana density, basal area, and species richness for both independently rooted lianas and all rooted liana stems (genets plus clones). We compared spatial aggregation patterns of liana and tree species, and among liana species that varied in the amount of clonal reproduction. We also tested whether liana and tree densities have increased on BCI compared to surveys conducted 30-years earlier. This study represents the most comprehensive spatially contiguous sampling of lianas ever conducted and, over the 50 ha area, we found 67,447 rooted liana stems comprising 162 species. Rooted lianas composed nearly 25% of the woody stems (trees and lianas), 35% of woody species richness, and 3% of woody basal area. Lianas were spatially aggregated within the 50-ha plot and the liana species with the highest proportion of clonal stems more spatially aggregated than the least clonal species, possibly indicating clonal stem recruitment following canopy disturbance. Over the past 30 years, liana density increased by 75% for stems ≥1 cm diameter and nearly 140% for stems ≥5 cm diameter, while tree density on BCI decreased 11.5%; a finding consistent with other neotropical forests. Our data confirm that lianas contribute substantially to tropical forest stem density and diversity, they have highly clumped distributions that appear to be driven by clonal stem recruitment into treefall gaps, and they are increasing relative to trees, thus indicating that lianas will play a greater role in the future dynamics of BCI and other neotropical forests. PMID:23284889

  19. Runoff Production in the Upper Rio Chagres Catchment, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niezialek, J. M.; Ogden, F. L.

    2003-12-01

    Runoff production in watersheds in the seasonal tropics is governed by a number of factors. The mountainous 414 sq. km upper Rio Chagres watershed offers a unique opportunity to better understand the runoff production mechanisms in seasonal tropical catchments through data analysis and modeling. The upper Rio Chagres catchment provides the majority of inflows to the Panama Canal, has been monitored for over 60 years as part of canal operations. Discharge data are available at both the catchment outlet (Chico gaging station) and an internal catchment location (Rio Piedras gaging station). There are also seven tipping bucket recording rain gages in and around the catchment. Analysis of runoff data reveals anomalously-high runoff production efficiencies early in the wet season. Furthermore, the existence of two quasi-stable base flow regimes during the wet season imply critical threshold storages. Initial field studies have shown that the soils are water repellent during the dry season. Runoff data from the 80 sq. km Rio Piedras subcatchment reveal ephemeral flows throughout the wet season, indicating significant heterogeneity in runoff production and deep groundwater circulation. Preliminary hydrologic modeling is performed with the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting Model (SAC-SMA), calibrated using data from 1988 and verified using data from 1989. Further modeling on the flood of 28-31 December, 2000 is also performed. Modeling using the distributed parameter GSSHA model combined with the Sacramento groundwater module allows simulation of distributed runoff. However, the role of interception by the triple-layer tropical canopy and the magnitude of evapotranspiration are uncertain. New data collection is proposed in the Rio Chagres catchment to help quantify interception and evapotranspiration. This instrumentation will include measurements of rainfall above the canopy, cloud stripping, stemflow, throughfall, soil moisture, groundwater, interflow

  20. Flood vulnerability and commercial activities: the case of the city of Girona, Spain.

    PubMed

    Masgrau, Lluís Ribera; Palom, Anna Ribas

    2012-10-01

    This paper is based on a case study of the city of Girona in Catalonia, Spain, and analyses the vulnerability of commercial establishments to floods caused by the Onyar River. A mapping and statistical approach (cluster analysis) was applied to the information obtained from 568 questionnaires answered by the shops and the workshops located in the flood risk area. The results obtained allowed the authors to determine five different flood vulnerability profiles of the commercial establishments analysed. These profiles paint a picture of little individual adaptation to the risk and the possibility of suffering, sooner or later, large economic losses due to overflowing of the Onyar River. The authors established a methodology for carrying out a detailed multidimensional analysis of the flood vulnerability of the city's commercial establishments in order to provide the foundations for local government policies and for strategies for shop owners to reduce flood vulnerability. PMID:22356531

  1. Tick species (Acari: Ixodida) in Antalya City, Turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.

    PubMed

    Koc, Samed; Aydın, Levent; Cetin, Huseyin

    2015-07-01

    Ticks (Acari: Ixodida) are an important group of ectoparasites of vertebrates. Most species are known vectors of diseases including Lyme disease, Q fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. A 3-year research was conducted in Antalya, Turkey, to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. The study was carried out in five districts (Aksu, Dosemealtı, Kepez, Konyaaltı, and Muratpasa) of Antalya Metropolitan Municipality area in Turkey, between May 2010 and May 2013, where 1393 tick specimens were collected from domestic and wild animals (cattle, goats, sheep, hedgehogs, tortoises, dogs, cats, chickens) and from the environment. The collected ticks were preserved in 70 % alcohol and then were identified. Five genus and eight hard and soft tick species were identified, including Argas persicus, Rhipicephalus annulatus, R. sanguineus, R. turanicus, Hyalomma aegyptium, H. marginatum, Haemaphysalis parva, and Dermacentor niveus. Rhipicephalus sanguineus, R. turanicus, and H. aegyptium were the most common tick species in Antalya city. Rhipicephalus turanicus and R. sanguineus were the most abundant tick species infesting dogs in the city. The hosts of H. aegyptium are primarily tortoises in Antalya. The results of this research will contribute to establishing appropriate measures to control tick infestations on animals and humans and their environment in the city of Antalya. PMID:25869959

  2. A Case Study: Analyzing City Vitality with Four Pillars of Activity-Live, Work, Shop, and Play.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Matt; Nordstrom, Blake W; Scholes, Jon; Joncas, Kate; Gordon, Patrick; Krivenko, Elliott; Haynes, Winston; Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Kolker, Natali; Montague, Elizabeth; Kolker, Eugene

    2016-03-01

    This case study evaluates and tracks vitality of a city (Seattle), based on a data-driven approach, using strategic, robust, and sustainable metrics. This case study was collaboratively conducted by the Downtown Seattle Association (DSA) and CDO Analytics teams. The DSA is a nonprofit organization focused on making the city of Seattle and its Downtown a healthy and vibrant place to Live, Work, Shop, and Play. DSA primarily operates through public policy advocacy, community and business development, and marketing. In 2010, the organization turned to CDO Analytics ( cdoanalytics.org ) to develop a process that can guide and strategically focus DSA efforts and resources for maximal benefit to the city of Seattle and its Downtown. CDO Analytics was asked to develop clear, easily understood, and robust metrics for a baseline evaluation of the health of the city, as well as for ongoing monitoring and comparisons of the vitality, sustainability, and growth. The DSA and CDO Analytics teams strategized on how to effectively assess and track the vitality of Seattle and its Downtown. The two teams filtered a variety of data sources, and evaluated the veracity of multiple diverse metrics. This iterative process resulted in the development of a small number of strategic, simple, reliable, and sustainable metrics across four pillars of activity: Live, Work, Shop, and Play. Data during the 5 years before 2010 were used for the development of the metrics and model and its training, and data during the 5 years from 2010 and on were used for testing and validation. This work enabled DSA to routinely track these strategic metrics, use them to monitor the vitality of Downtown Seattle, prioritize improvements, and identify new value-added programs. As a result, the four-pillar approach became an integral part of the data-driven decision-making and execution of the Seattle community's improvement activities. The approach described in this case study is actionable, robust, inexpensive

  3. The Cocos Ridge drives collision of Panama with northwestern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaFemina, Peter; Govers, Rob; Mora-Paez, Hector; Geirsson, Halldor; Cmacho, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The collision of the Panamanian isthmus with northwestern South America is thought to have initiated as early as Oligocene - Miocene time (23-25 Ma) based on geologic and geophysical data and paleogeographic reconstructions. This collision was driven by eastward-directed subduction beneath northwestern South America. Cocos - Caribbean convergence along the Middle America Trench, and Nazca - Caribbean oblique convergence along the South Panama Deformed Belt have resulted in complex deformation of the southwestern Caribbean since Miocene - Pliocene time. Subduction and collision of the aseismic Cocos Ridge is thought to have initiated <3.5 Ma and has been linked to: 1) late Miocene-Pliocene cessation of volcanism and uplift of the Cordillera de Talamanca; 2) Quaternary migration of the volcanic arc toward the back-arc; 3) Quaternary to present deformation within the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt; 4) Quaternary to present shortening across the fore-arc Fila Costeña fold and thrust belt and back-arc North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB); 5) Quaternary to present outer fore-arc uplift of Nicoya Peninsula above the seamount domain, and the Osa and Burica peninsulas above the ridge; and 6) Pleistocene to present northwestward motion of the Central American Fore Arc (CAFA) and northeastward motion of the Panama Region. We investigate the geodynamic effects of Cocos Ridge collision on motion of the Panama Region with a new geodynamic model. The model is compared to a new 1993-2015 GPS-derived three-dimensional velocity field for the western Caribbean and northwestern South America. Specifically, we test the hypotheses that the Cocos Ridge is the main driver for upper plate deformation in the western Caribbean. Our models indicate that Cocos Ridge collision drives northwest-directed motion of the CAFA and the northeast-directed motion of the Panama Region. The Panama Region is driven into the Caribbean across the NPDB and into northwestern South America, which is also

  4. Physical activity among elderly people in a city population: the influence of neighbourhood level violence and self perceived safety

    PubMed Central

    Piro, Fredrik Niclas; Nœss, Øyvind; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2006-01-01

    Study objective To study the associations between neighbourhood level violence/fear of violence and physical activity among elderly people, accounting for somatic health. Design Self reported data from the Oslo health study, a cross sectional study conducted in 2000, were linked with sociodemographic and social security data from Statistics Norway. A multilevel regression analysis was conducted by MlwiN using contextual level variables provided by the Oslo City Council. Setting Oslo, Norway. Participants 3499 inhabitants aged 74/5 (53.2% of all invitees). Main results 20.5% of the elderly were physically active less than one hour a week. Somatic health was clearly associated with physical activity among both men and women. Neighbourhood level violence was associated with physical activity only for men, while fear of violence was only associated with physical activity for women. Differences in somatic health did not explain differences in physical activity between neighbourhoods. These differences were explained by socioeconomic variables, and neighbourhood level violence/fear of violence. Conclusions In a sample of presumably healthy 75/76 year olds in Oslo, the associations between neighbourhood level violence and physical activity (among men), and fear of violence and physical activity (among women), are of the same sizes as those between somatic health and physical activity. These two dimensions of violence have, in contrast with somatic health, an explanatory function in exploring differences in physical activity between neighbourhoods in Oslo. PMID:16790836

  5. Seasonal and spatial distributions of adult screwworms (Diptera: Calliphoridae) in the Panama Canal area, Republic of Panama.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Pamela L; Welch, John B; Kramer, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    The distribution of screwworms, Cochliomyia hominivorax, (Coquerel) was studied in a seasonally moist lowland tropical forest in the Republic of Panama using a combination of field collections and satellite imagery. We found that different forest types could be distinguished and mapped using remotely sensed data. To determine the temporal and spatial distribution of flies, we collected flies coming to rotted liver at 82 sites in ten vegetation types (open areas, edge forest, dry scrub forest, forest successional stage 1, forest successional stage 2, forest successional stage 3, forest successional stage 4, forest successional stage 5, mature forests, palm swamp forest, and forest along streams) over three seasons (dry, transitional, wet). Nine of the vegetation types (excluding dry scrub forest) were identified and mapped using SPOT XS and Landsat 5 TM satellite data. Screwworm flies were most abundant during the transition from wet to dry season. Fly numbers were consistently higher in forest habitats, particularly those with trees 20-30 m in height and a fairly open canopy composed of many deciduous species that shed their leaves during the dry season. Screwworm numbers were also high in palm swamp forest, edge forest, and mature growth forest. Traps sampled in open areas had fewer flies and were unrelated to proximity to cattle. Females accounted for 88% of the total fly counts. This study further substantiates the importance of forests in the ecology and behavior of screwworm flies and demonstrates that remotely sensed data can be used to construct the spatial distribution of these flies in a tropical landscape. We discuss implications of this information to the screwworm eradication program. PMID:14989355

  6. Electric Pole Maintenance in Nagoya City Science Museum as a Cooperative Activity of Industry, School and Local Government

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabuchi, Koichi

    The object of this paper is to suggest an education model as a cooperative activity of industry, school and local government in science museums. Nagoya City Science Museum has opened the new exhibit on electric pole maintenance since 2002, which makes a visitor a temporary electrician working at a height of 3 meters. The exhibit, named “Be an Electrician”, is focusing on stimulating young people's interest in industrial technology. The electric pole and equipments on the pole like transformer, electric wires and so forth were donated from an electric power company to the museum. The museum manages volunteers including an active electrician and students to study engineering, who instruct the visitors in the bucket how to change the insulator on the pole. The active electrician also instructs some technical high school students in practical works at height. This new exhibit indicates the science museum positioned between companies and schools will make it possible to extend internship.

  7. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    PubMed

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty. PMID:24846528

  8. Science Education & Cultural Environments in the Americas. Report of the Inter-American Seminar on Science Education (Panama City, Panama, December 10-14, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J., Ed.; Dawson, George, Ed.

    The impact of cultural background on science learning is explored in this compilation of papers and reports from an inter-American Seminar on science education. For the purposes of enriching science program planning, teacher education, research, and practice in the schools, varying ideas are offered on the effects of cultural background on science…

  9. Medicolegal investigation in New York City. History and activities 1918-1978.

    PubMed

    Eckert, W G

    1983-03-01

    Medicolegal investigation in America can truly be said to have begun in an organized manner in 1918. The Massachusetts medical examiner system, which began in 1877, never developed with the central control and the completeness that characterizes the New York Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, nor did it influence the spread of this form of medicolegal investigation. An overview of the period before the establishment of the New York Office in 1918 and early experiences in coroner's investigation in New York is presented. The roots of the development of the office are discussed, as were the early days of the office under Dr. Charles Norris, whose influence on the spread of knowledge and of providing an important service to the community in general is detailed. The contributions of Alexander Gettler, the father of forensic toxicology in America, are also discussed. The contributions of Gonzales, Vance, Helpern, Umberger, and Wiener are also included. Special problems of New York City are described, including narcotic deaths, gas refrigerator deaths, malaria in addicts, plastic bag hazards, sudden infant deaths, operative deaths, as well as many famous cases involving murder, disasters, and unusual deaths over a period of 60 years. Milestones in the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of New York City are listed, as are chronological details of major cases and problems. Several comparative figures of the workload and frequency of various types of death are also included. A relationship of deaths to different life-styles is noted. PMID:6340467

  10. Promoting self-help activities for people living with HIV / AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le Truong Giang; Nguyen Huu Luyen; Le Thuy Lan Thao; Narimani, P

    1999-01-01

    The rising epidemic of HIV/AIDS in Ho Chi Minh City presents new challenges for sexually transmitted disease/HIV prevention in Vietnam. Most HIV/AIDS cases are found south of the country and this puts a burden on the Ho Chi Minh City AIDS Committee. Building on experiences from other countries, the AIDS Committee successfully implemented measures such as needle-exchange programs, condom distribution, peer education, and outreach activities. It also established a meeting place, the Cafe Hy Vong, for female sex workers and intravenous drug users. From the beginning, the Committee regarded meeting the special needs of people living with HIV/AIDS (PHA) as important prevention activities, and encouraged PHA to discuss their concerns with the committee. The PHA formed the Friend-to-Friend group in October 1995, where the Ho Chi Minh AIDS Committee gave its full support. The group organizes meetings and social gatherings where they can share their feelings and experiences, as well as get information and counseling. PMID:12349769

  11. Manipulating the banana rhizosphere microbiome for biological control of Panama disease.

    PubMed

    Xue, Chao; Penton, C Ryan; Shen, Zongzhuan; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Li, Rong; Ruan, Yunze; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection on banana is devastating banana plantations worldwide. Biological control has been proposed to suppress Panama disease, though the stability and survival of bio-control microorganisms in field setting is largely unknown. In order to develop a bio-control strategy for this disease, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial community of a disease-suppressive soil. Bacillus was identified as the dominant bacterial group in the suppressive soil. For this reason, B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from the suppressive soil was selected as a potential bio-control agent. A bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), formulated by combining this isolate with compost, was applied in nursery pots to assess the bio-control of Panama disease. Results showed that BIO significantly decreased disease incidence by 68.5%, resulting in a doubled yield. Moreover, bacterial community structure was significantly correlated to disease incidence and yield and Bacillus colonization was negatively correlated with pathogen abundance and disease incidence, but positively correlated to yield. In total, the application of BIO altered the rhizo-bacterial community by establishing beneficial strains that dominated the microbial community and decreased pathogen colonization in the banana rhizosphere, which plays an important role in the management of Panama disease. PMID:26242751

  12. 78 FR 16470 - U.S. Infrastructure Trade Mission to Colombia and Panama-Amendment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... publishing this supplement to the Notice of the U.S. Healthcare Trade Mission to Russia published at 77 FR... for additional recruitment and marketing in support of the mission. Applications ] will be now be... Panama published at 77 FR 77032, December 31, 2012, is amended to read as follows: Timeframe...

  13. YELLOW-BLOTCH DISEASE OUTBREAK ON REEFS OF THE SAN BLAS ISLANDS, PANAMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the post-8th International Coral Reef Symposium field trip to the eastern Caribbean region of Panama, 3-5 July 1996, we observed an extensive outbreak of a new and significant disease of the scleractinian corals Montastraea faveolata and M. annularis. The first reported si...

  14. Situation Report--Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, Panama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 11 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Bermuda, Boliva, China, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Haiti, Hong Kong, Liberia, Mexico, and Panama. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where…

  15. A new species of Bolitoglossa (Caudata, Plethodontidae) from the continental divide of western Panama.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Andreas; Lotzkat, Sebastian; Köhler, Gunther

    2013-01-01

    We describe the new salamander species Bolitoglossa jugivagans from the Atlantic slopes of the Fortuna depression in western Panama on the basis of morphological and molecular data. Based on mtDNA data, the new species seems to be closely related to B. aureogularis and B. robinsoni, with which it forms a subclade within the subgenus Eladinea. PMID:26042305

  16. Situation Report--Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, Sarawak.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Hong Kong, Malawi, Pakistan, Panama, Philippines, Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa), Sabah, and Sarawak. Information is provided where appropriate and available, under two topics, general background and family planning…

  17. Bilingual Preschool Education in the United States and Panama: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivia, Rebeca

    This paper compares bilingual education policy and practice in Panama and the United States. Particular issues studied include the following: the social context of bilingual education in the two countries; programming and policy differences; teacher qualifications; availability of age-appropriate materials; and administrative support, level of…

  18. An Innovative Project in Educational Technology: The Panama-Venezuela Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas, Alicia Mabel

    1980-01-01

    Describes a project which is being implemented in the field of educational technology in Panama and Venezuela. The project emphasizes inservice training of a cadre of professionals who will direct efforts to identify and resolve significant problems in education. (Author/CHC)

  19. Building Collaborative Research Opportunities into Study Abroad Programs: A Case Study from Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solís, Patricia; Price, Marie; Adames de Newbill, María

    2015-01-01

    As universities increase their international study opportunities, enormous potential exists to create geography field courses that provide undergraduates and graduate students with primary research experience and intercultural collaboration. This paper draws from our experience leading a two-week collaborative field course in Panama. We outline…

  20. Manipulating the banana rhizosphere microbiome for biological control of Panama disease

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Chao; Ryan Penton, C.; Shen, Zongzhuan; Zhang, Ruifu; Huang, Qiwei; Li, Rong; Ruan, Yunze; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense infection on banana is devastating banana plantations worldwide. Biological control has been proposed to suppress Panama disease, though the stability and survival of bio-control microorganisms in field setting is largely unknown. In order to develop a bio-control strategy for this disease, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the microbial community of a disease-suppressive soil. Bacillus was identified as the dominant bacterial group in the suppressive soil. For this reason, B. amyloliquefaciens NJN-6 isolated from the suppressive soil was selected as a potential bio-control agent. A bioorganic fertilizer (BIO), formulated by combining this isolate with compost, was applied in nursery pots to assess the bio-control of Panama disease. Results showed that BIO significantly decreased disease incidence by 68.5%, resulting in a doubled yield. Moreover, bacterial community structure was significantly correlated to disease incidence and yield and Bacillus colonization was negatively correlated with pathogen abundance and disease incidence, but positively correlated to yield. In total, the application of BIO altered the rhizo-bacterial community by establishing beneficial strains that dominated the microbial community and decreased pathogen colonization in the banana rhizosphere, which plays an important role in the management of Panama disease. PMID:26242751

  1. Rural and Agricultural Education at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition. Bulletin, 1916, No. 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foght, H. W.

    1917-01-01

    This bulletin was prepared to indicate recent progress in rural life and education as disclosed by the educational exhibits at the Panama-Pacific Exposition of 1915. The discussion includes (1) the general phases of progress in rural education, and (2) advancement in its more specific agricultural phases. Little attempt has been made to present…

  2. The Rhetoric of Strategic Retreat: Carter and the Panama Canal Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sudol, Ronald A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses President Carter's televised address on the Panama Canal Treaties in terms of five "topoi" for a rhetoric of retreat: timeliness, urgency, value, advantage, and shrewdness. Compares his failure to employ the commonsense arguments that a policy of retreat requires in the televised speech with his more successful impromptu speeches. (JMF)

  3. The Public Controversy Over the Panama Canal Treaties: An Analysis of American Foreign Policy Rhetoric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollihan, Thomas A.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the public rhetoric created during the debate over the Panama Canal treaties. Examines three foreign policy dramas that emerged: Cold War, New World Order, and Power Politics. Argues that these dramas provide insight into how foreign policy rhetoric reflects Americans' conceptions of themselves and their global responsibility. (JD)

  4. Evaluating Pending Decisions in a Large Introductory Course: The Panama Canal Treaties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilman, Stuart C.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simulation for an introductory American government course. It was based on the Panama Canal treaties ratification process, a decision pending in the Senate which was due to culminate before the end of the course. By keying the simulation to a real event, participants obtained real-world feedback on how closely their roles approximated…

  5. Incorporating Community Education in the Strategy for Harpy Eagle Conservation in Panama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curti, Marta; Valdez, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Many species of top predators are threatened, in large part, because of human destruction. Although conservation programs that include captive breeding, release, and research are vital, environmental education is just as important for the long-term survival of many wildlife species. In Panama, The Peregrine Fund developed an education program to…

  6. 78 FR 37695 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Free Trade Agreement (FTA)-Panama

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ...DoD, GSA, and NASA have adopted as final, without change, an interim rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation (FAR) to implement the United States-Panama Trade Promotion Agreement. This Trade Promotion Agreement is a free trade agreement that provides for mutually non-discriminatory treatment of eligible products and services from...

  7. Opinion Polls and the Panama Canal Treaties of 1977: A Critical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ted J., III; Hogan, J. Michael

    Noting that 1977 public opinion polls concerning the new Panama Canal treaties were interpreted as showing increased support for the treaties, this paper contends that this interpretation was erroneous and that the major outcome of the extensive polling was misleading data. The paper is divided into three major analytical sections. The first…

  8. Panama Canal Expansion Illustrates Need for Multimodal Near-Source Air Quality Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The compelling issue raised is potential major changes in goods movement due to the Panama Canal expansion and considerations for near-source air quality. Near-source air quality may be affected both at near-port areas as well as along the freight transportation corridor.

  9. "The Panama Canal Episode: An Encounter with a Question and Answers." Occasional Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifman, Eli

    This is an account of the experience of a college instructor and a group of prospective social studies teachers as they answer a simple question concerned with direction of travel through the Panama Canal and explore the reactions of students. The situation originates in a class discussion focusing on ways of asking and responding to classroom…

  10. 78 FR 65221 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement: New Free Trade Agreement-Panama (DFARS Case...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Federal Register at 77 FR 68699 on November 16, 2012, to implement the United States--Panama Trade... rule under DFARS Case 2011-D046 (76 FR 78858, December 20, 2011). List of Subjects in 48 CFR Part 252... interim rule amending 48 CFR part 252, which was published at 77 FR 68699 on November 16, 2012, is...

  11. Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae) – a new species from Talamanca Mountain in Veraguas province, Western Panama

    PubMed Central

    González, Daniel A. Cáceres

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Guzmania panamensis (Bromeliaceae), a new species so far endemic to Veraguas province, Western Panama, is described and illustrated. The new species is recognized due to its peduncle much longer than the leaves and its red floral bracts, shorter than the yellow flowers. The new species is compared to morphologically similar species, namely Guzmania monostachia, Guzmania berteroniana, Guzmania elvallensis, and Guzmania skotakii. PMID:24198713

  12. New Genome Sequences of Gamboa Viruses (Family Bunyaviridae, Genus Orthobunyavirus) Isolated in Panama and Argentina

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, Clayton P. S.; Martins, Lívia C.; Aragão Dias, Amarílis; Cardoso, Jedson F.; Silva, Sandro P.; Da Silva, Daisy E. A.; Oliveira, Layanna F.; Vasconcelos, Janaina M.; Ferreira, João Paulo C.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Guzman, Hilda; Tesh, Robert B.; Vasconcelos, Pedro F. C.

    2014-01-01

    We describe here the nearly complete open reading frame (ORF) of five Gamboa virus strains isolated in Panama and Argentina. The viruses with complete ORF showed the regular genome organization observed in other orthobunyaviruses with exception to the presence of NSs protein. All predicted proteins showed homology with viruses belonging to members of the family Bunyaviridae. PMID:25414487

  13. Activity of Eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, Including Multidrug-Resistant Isolates, from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  14. Cumulative influences of a small city and former mining activities on the sediment quality of a subtropical estuarine protected area.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Ana Carolina Feitosa; Davanso, Marcela Bergo; Araujo, Giuliana Seraphim; Buruaem, Lucas M; Santaella, Sandra Tédde; de Morais, Rodofley Davino; Abessa, Denis M S

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the sediment quality in the estuarine protected area known as Cananéia-Iguape-Peruíbe (CIP-PA), located on the southeastern coast of Brazil. The study was designed considering possible negative effects induced by the city of Cananéia on the sediment quality of surrounding areas. This evaluation was performed using chemical and ecotoxicological analyses. Sediments were predominantly sandy, with low CaCO3 contents. Amounts of organic matter varied, but higher contents occurred closer to the city, as well as did Fe and Total Recoverable Oils and Greases (TROGs) concentrations. Contamination by Cd and Cu was revealed in some samples, while concentrations of Zn were considered low. Chronic toxicity was detected in all tested sediments and acute toxicity occurred only in sediments collected near the city. The principal component analysis (PCA) revealed an association among Cd, Cu, Fe, TROG, fines, organic matter, CaCO3, and chronic toxicity, whereas acute toxicity was found to be associated with Zn and mud. However, because Zn levels were low, acute toxicity was likely due to a contaminant that was not measured. Results show that there is a broad area within the CIP-PA that is under the influence of mining activities (chronic toxicity, moderate contamination by metals), whereas poorer conditions occur closer to Cananéia (acute toxicity); thus, the urban area seems to constitute a relevant source of contaminants for the estuarine complex. These results show that contamination is already capable of producing risks for the local aquatic biota, which suggests that the CIP-PA effectiveness in protecting estuarine biota may be threatened. PMID:25037965

  15. Changes in tobacco use among youths aged 13-15 years - Panama, 2002 and 2008.

    PubMed

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use is the single most preventable cause of death in the world today, and the majority of smokers begin using tobacco products before age 18 years. However, before the late 1990s, few countries had reliable data on youth tobacco use. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO), CDC, and the Canadian Public Health Association developed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) to help countries monitor youth tobacco use. At the same time, WHO initiated the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC), the first international public health treaty on tobacco control. Panama ratified WHO FCTC in 2004 and enacted two key antitobacco regulations in 2005 and 2008. To evaluate progress toward attaining tobacco control goals in Panama, Panama's Ministry of Health, CDC, and WHO compared results from GYTS surveys conducted in Panama in 2002 and 2008. This report summarizes the results of that comparison, which revealed substantial decreases from 2002 to 2008 in youth current cigarette smoking (13.2% versus 4.3%), current use of tobacco products other than cigarettes (9.8% versus 5.8%), and likely initiation of smoking by never smokers (13.8% versus 10.0%). In addition, factors influencing tobacco use showed substantial decreases, including 1) exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) at home and in public places, 2) best friends smoking, 3) protobacco advertising in newspapers and magazines, and 4) having an object with a tobacco company logo on it. These results suggest that comprehensive regulations in Panama helped reduce tobacco use among adolescents and further gains are possible. PMID:19129746

  16. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  17. Trend Analysis of Cancer Mortality and Incidence in Panama, Using Joinpoint Regression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Politis, Michael; Higuera, Gladys; Chang, Lissette Raquel; Gomez, Beatriz; Bares, Juan; Motta, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide and its incidence is expected to increase in the future. In Panama, cancer is also one of the leading causes of death. In 1964, a nationwide cancer registry was started and it was restructured and improved in 2012. The aim of this study is to utilize Joinpoint regression analysis to study the trends of the incidence and mortality of cancer in Panama in the last decade. Cancer mortality was estimated from the Panamanian National Institute of Census and Statistics Registry for the period 2001 to 2011. Cancer incidence was estimated from the Panamanian National Cancer Registry for the period 2000 to 2009. The Joinpoint Regression Analysis program, version 4.0.4, was used to calculate trends by age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates for selected cancers. Overall, the trend of age-adjusted cancer mortality in Panama has declined over the last 10 years (−1.12% per year). The cancers for which there was a significant increase in the trend of mortality were female breast cancer and ovarian cancer; while the highest increases in incidence were shown for breast cancer, liver cancer, and prostate cancer. Significant decrease in the trend of mortality was evidenced for the following: prostate cancer, lung and bronchus cancer, and cervical cancer; with respect to incidence, only oral and pharynx cancer in both sexes had a significant decrease. Some cancers showed no significant trends in incidence or mortality. This study reveals contrasting trends in cancer incidence and mortality in Panama in the last decade. Although Panama is considered an upper middle income nation, this study demonstrates that some cancer mortality trends, like the ones seen in cervical and lung cancer, behave similarly to the ones seen in high income countries. In contrast, other types, like breast cancer, follow a pattern seen in countries undergoing a transition to a developed economy with its associated lifestyle, nutrition, and

  18. Inner forearc response to subduction of the Panama Fracture Zone, southern Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, Kristin D.; Fisher, Donald M.; Gardner, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Subduction of the right-lateral Panama Fracture Zone, along the convergent margin of Central America creates abrupt lateral variations in convergence rate, obliquity, and subducting crustal thickness at its intersection with the Middle America Trench. This intersection, known as the Panama (CO-NZ-CA) Triple Junction, is migrating to the southeast at a rate of 55 mm/yr, and currently coincides with the lateral termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in the inner forearc of the overriding plate. Mapping in the inner forearc in the area that straddles the subducting Panama Fracture Zone reveals that Cocos-Caribbean convergence west of the triple junction leads to the development of an inner forearc thrust belt inboard of the colliding Cocos Ridge, while little deformation is evident inboard of Nazca-Caribbean convergence, east of the triple junction. This results in the lateral termination of the Fila Costeña Thrust Belt in the region of the forearc that projects over the Panama Fracture Zone, where four out of five mapped thrust faults tip out and are buried by lahars. Three new balanced cross-sections indicate a steep gradient in shortening from the center of the thrust belt to its southeastern termination. The short-term history of the inner forearc recorded in the landscape and topography of the Fila Costeña is consistent with the southeastward migration of the thrust belt and the Panama Triple Junction throughout the past ˜ 3 Ma, with evidence for the growth of a new topographic divide and reorganization of stream channel networks.

  19. Education Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaked, Haim

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several cities in Israel have labeled themselves "Education Cities," concentrating on education as their central theme. Employing qualitative techniques, this article aims to describe, define, and conceptualize this phenomenon as it is being realized in three such cities. Findings show that Education Cities differ from…

  20. Physical Activity of Male and Female Adolescents Living in a Town and a City in the Context of Public Health Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mynarski, Wladyslaw; Nawrocka, Agnieszka; Rozpara, Michal; Garbaciak, Wieslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the physical activity of male and female adolescents from Poland living in a town (Czechowice-Dziedzice) and in a city (Katowice). Material and methods: The research involved 431 high school students aged 16-18 years (249 from Czechowice-Dziedzice and 182 from Katowice). Physical activity was measured by the short form of the…

  1. Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDDs) in surface soils from coastal cities in North China: Correlation between diastereoisomer profiles and industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueqing; Li, Qifeng; Lu, Yonglong; Jones, Kevin; Sweetman, Andrew J

    2016-04-01

    Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is a brominated flame retardant with a wide range of industrial applications, although little is known about its patterns of spatial distribution in soils in relation to industrial emissions. This study has undertaken a large-scale investigation around an industrialized coastal area of China, exploring the concentrations, spatial distribution and diastereoisomer profiles of HBCDD in 188 surface soils from 21 coastal cities in North China. The detection frequency was 100% and concentrations of total HBCDD in the surface soils ranged from 0.123 to 363 ng g(-1) and averaged 7.20 ng g(-1), showing its ubiquitous existence at low levels. The spatial distribution of HBCDD exhibited a correlation with the location of known manufacturing facilities in Weifang, suggesting the production of HBCDD as major emission source. Diastereoisomer profiles varied in different cities. Diastereoisomer compositions in soils were compared with emissions from HBCDD industrial activities, and correlations were found between them, which has the potential for source identification. Although the contemporary concentrations of HBCDD in soils from the study were relatively low, HBCDD-containing products (expanded/extruded polystyrene insulation boards) would be a potential source after its service life, and attention needs to be paid to prioritizing large-scale waste management efforts. PMID:26841293

  2. Engaging youth in food activism in New York City: lessons learned from a youth organization, health department, and university partnership.

    PubMed

    Tsui, Emma; Bylander, Kim; Cho, Milyoung; Maybank, Aletha; Freudenberg, Nicholas

    2012-10-01

    Research indicates that insufficient emphasis on community collaboration and partnership can thwart innovative community-driven work on the social determinants of health by local health departments. Appreciating the importance of enhancing community participation, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) helped lead the development of the Health Equity Project (HEP), an intervention aimed at increasing the capacity of urban youth to identify and take action to reduce food-related health disparities. DOHMH partnered with the City University of New York School of Public Health and several local youth organizations to design and implement the intervention. HEP was conducted with 373 young people in 17 cohorts at 14 unique sites: six in Brooklyn, six in the Bronx, and two in Harlem. Partnered youth organizations hosted three stages of work: interactive workshops on neighborhood health disparities, food environments, and health outcomes; food-focused research projects conducted by youth; and small-scale action projects designed to change local food environments. Through these activities, HEP appears to have been successful in introducing youth to the social, economic, and political factors that shape food environments and to the influence of food on health outcomes. The intervention was also somewhat successful in providing youth with community-based participatory research skills and engaging them in documenting and then acting to change their neighborhood food environments. In the short term, we are unable to assess how successful HEP has been in building young leaders who will continue to engage in this kind of activism, but we suspect that more extended interactions would be needed to achieve this more ambitious goal. Experiences at these sites suggest that youth organizations with a demonstrated capacity to engage youth in community service or activism and a commitment to improving food or other health-promoting community resources make the

  3. The Relationship between Particulate Pollution Levels in Australian Cities, Meteorology, and Landscape Fire Activity Detected from MODIS Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Price, Owen F.; Williamson, Grant J.; Henderson, Sarah B.; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as “hotspots”), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data. PMID:23071788

  4. The relationship between particulate pollution levels in Australian cities, meteorology, and landscape fire activity detected from MODIS hotspots.

    PubMed

    Price, Owen F; Williamson, Grant J; Henderson, Sarah B; Johnston, Fay; Bowman, David M J S

    2012-01-01

    Smoke from bushfires is an emerging issue for fire managers because of increasing evidence for its public health effects. Development of forecasting models to predict future pollution levels based on the relationship between bushfire activity and current pollution levels would be a useful management tool. As a first step, we use daily thermal anomalies detected by the MODIS Active Fire Product (referred to as "hotspots"), pollution concentrations, and meteorological data for the years 2002 to 2008, to examine the statistical relationship between fire activity in the landscapes and pollution levels around Perth and Sydney, two large Australian cities. Resultant models were statistically significant, but differed in their goodness of fit and the distance at which the strength of the relationship was strongest. For Sydney, a univariate model for hotspot activity within 100 km explained 24% of variation in pollution levels, and the best model including atmospheric variables explained 56% of variation. For Perth, the best radius was 400 km, explaining only 7% of variation, while the model including atmospheric variables explained 31% of the variation. Pollution was higher when the atmosphere was more stable and in the presence of on-shore winds, whereas there was no effect of wind blowing from the fires toward the pollution monitors. Our analysis shows there is a good prospect for developing region-specific forecasting tools combining hotspot fire activity with meteorological data. PMID:23071788

  5. Assessment of active play, inactivity and perceived barriers in an inner city neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Kottyan, Gregg; Kottyan, Leah; Edwards, Nicholas M; Unaka, Ndidi I

    2014-06-01

    Avondale, a disadvantaged neighborhood in Cincinnati, lags behind on a number of indicators of child well-being. Childhood obesity has become increasingly prevalent, as one-third of Avondale's kindergarteners are obese or overweight. The study objective was to determine perceptions of the quantity of and obstacles to childhood physical activity in the Avondale community. Caregivers of children from two elementary schools were surveyed to assess their child's physical activity and barriers to being active. Three hundred and forty surveys were returned out of 1,047 for a response rate of 32%. On school days, 41% of caregivers reported that their children spent more than 2 h watching television, playing video games, or spending time on the computer. While over half of respondents reported that their children get more than 2 h of physical activity on school days, 14% of children were reported to be physically active less than 1 h per day. Caregivers identified violence, cost of extracurricular activities, and lack of organized activities as barriers to their child's physical activity. The overwhelming majority of caregivers expressed interest in a program to make local playgrounds safer. In conclusion, children in Avondale are not participating in enough physical activity and are exposed to more screen time than is recommended by the AAP. Safety concerns were identified as a critical barrier to address in future advocacy efforts in this community. This project represents an important step toward increasing the physical activity of children in Avondale and engaging the local community. PMID:24306236

  6. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed. PMID:26496170

  7. Level of Physical Activity of Physicians Among Residency Training Program At Prince Sultan Military Medical City, Riyadh, KSA 2014

    PubMed Central

    AL Reshidi, Fayez Saud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Physical exercise is a crucial component in maintaining a healthy life. Unfortunately, the prevalence of adequate physical activity among young physicians is low. Additionally, there was a few research estimating lifestyle habits and other preventive health measurements especially during their residency-training program despite the importance of this topic. Objectives The aim of this research is to determine the level of physical activity and the main barriers of being physically active among physicians at Prince Sultan Military Medical City (PSMMC). Methods An analytical cross-sectional study was adopted targeting the physicians of residency training program in different specialties at PSMMC, Riyadh, KSA. Data was collected using of short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Results The study showed that 68.4% of the participants had low level of physical activity (≤600-MET min/week). High physical activity level was more reported among male physicians compared to female physicians (4.3% versus 1.3%). The most frequent barriers of practicing physical activities among males were limited exercise facilities at home (71.7%), not suitable weather (69%) and the first priority is not for exercise (67.2%) whereas among females were no enough time to exercise (69.3%), lack of suitable places to exercise nearby (68%), the first priority is not for exercise (66.7%) Conclusion Most of the physicians especially female residents reported low level of physical exercise due to many barriers. Overcoming these barriers may contribute to a further increase in the level of physical activity among them. PMID:27004056

  8. Dissertations Concerning Social Change and Development in Central America and Panama (1960-1974): An Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, E. Leonard; Snarr, D. Neil

    1975-01-01

    Composed of Ph.D. dissertations accepted in U.S. universities since 1960, this annotated bibliography contains approximately 140 citations on social change and/or development in Central America and Panama. (JC)

  9. 75 FR 34687 - Notice of Decision to Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh False Coriander From Panama Into...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-18

    ... published a notice\\1\\ in the Federal Register on February 9, 2010 (75 FR 6345-6346, Docket No. APHIS-2009... noxious weeds via the importation of fresh false coriander from Panama. EFFECTIVE DATE: June 18, 2010....

  10. The Gatun Structure: A Petrographic and Geochemical Investigation into a Possible Tertiary Impact Structure near Gamboa, Republic de Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tornabene, L. T.; Ryan, J. G.; Stewart, R. H.

    2002-03-01

    The occurrence of breccias that include both glass fragments, spherules, and phases with indicators of flow and plastic deformation, have been found within a circular feature near the Panama Canal -- the Gatun structure.

  11. Using Qualitative Methods to Understand Physical Activity and Weight Management Among Bangladeshis in New York City, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Lindsey; Mili, Saima; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Asians experience high rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, coupled with low rates of reported physical activity. We report findings from a qualitative sub-study that was conducted in 2013 among Bangladeshi immigrants in New York City to understand factors that affect physical activity practices and weight management in this community. Methods Qualitative study participants were recruited from community-based settings. Sex-specific focus groups were conducted by trained community health workers. Proceedings were audio-recorded for translation and transcription and coded using a constant comparative approach. Data were coded using Atlas.ti software. Results Six focus groups were completed with a final sample of 67 participants (63% male, 37% female). Mean participant age was 42 years; mean years of residence in the United States was 12. Key themes that emerged were beliefs about modesty and sex-separated facilities that may prevent women from engaging in physical activity. Distinctions were made between men and women about what constitutes exercise versus physical activity; religious prayer was considered to be health-promoting because of the movement involved. Other important themes that emerged were cultural dietary practices and evolving conceptions of healthy weight. Conclusion Tailored interventions that take into account the cultural context of this growing community are needed. Findings may also provide insight into barriers to health promotion experienced by other US Muslim communities, which are growing rapidly. PMID:27390073

  12. Work activities and the onset of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters.

    PubMed

    Nuwayhid, I A; Stewart, W; Johnson, J V

    1993-03-01

    In a prospective study of first-time low back pain among New York City fire fighters, a total of 115 cases and 109 randomly selected controls were interviewed by telephone between December 1988 and July 1989 to examine the role of recent work activities in the onset of first-time low back pain. After adjusting for known risk factors and off-duty activities, statistically significant high-risk work activities included operating a charged hose inside a building (odds ratio (OR) = 3.26), climbing ladders (OR = 3.18), breaking windows (OR = 4.45), cutting structures (OR = 6.47), looking for hidden fires (OR = 4.32), and lifting objects > or = 18 kg (OR = 3.07). Low-risk activities included connecting hydrants to pumpers (OR = 0.36), pulling booster hose (OR = 0.19), and participating in drills (OR = 0.09) or physical training (OR = 0.16). When further adjusted for exposure to smoke (OR = 13.59), a surrogate for severity of alarms, the ORs associated with high-risk activities were no longer significant. This, however, does not diminish the role of activities in the onset of low back pain. Instead, it suggests an inseparable role for activities and environmental hazards. To examine this, the risk of low back pain was measured within five work zones sequential in time relative to location and distance from a structural fire. The risk gradually increased as the fire fighter moved away from the firehouse (OR = 0.10) and closer to the site of fire (OR = 3.91). PMID:8465805

  13. Challenges in Offering Inner-City After-School Physical Activity Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maljak, Kimberly; Garn, Alex; McCaughtry, Nate; Kulik, Noel; Martin, Jeffrey; Shen, Bo; Whalen, Laurel; Fahlman, Mariane

    2014-01-01

    Background: Offering physical activity clubs (PACs) for students in urban high schools can provide avenues for increased physical activity (PA); however, little is known about why some clubs are not successful. Purpose: The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine leaders' and students' perspectives on the challenges faced when…

  14. Influences of offshore activity. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Panama Canal/Outer Continental Shelf, of the House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session on offshore oil and gas activity and its socio-economic and environmental influences, October 12, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    A field hearing in Humble, Texas heard testimony on the socio-economic and environmental effects of Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas activity in the Gulf of Mexico. These activities influence the commercial and recreational climate of the area as well as municipal services. The 20 witnesses included representatives of the petroleum, shipping, fishing, and other industries, environmental groups, and both organizations and agencies concerned with coastal management. Additional material and communications supplied for the record follows the testimony.

  15. Activity of Imipenem with Relebactam against Gram-Negative Pathogens from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Lapuebla, Amabel; Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2015-01-01

    Imipenem with relebactam was active against Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp., including K. pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing isolates. Loss of OmpK36 in KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates affected the susceptibility of this combination. Enhanced activity was evident against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, including isolates with depressed oprD and increased ampC expression. However, the addition of relebactam to imipenem did not provide added benefit against Acinetobacter baumannii. The combination of imipenem with relebactam demonstrated activity against KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae and multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa. PMID:26014931

  16. Application of activated sludge to purify urban soils of Baku city from oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaev, M. P.; Nadzhafova, S. I.; Ibragimov, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    A biopreparation inducing oil destruction and increasing the biological activity of soils was developed on the basis of activated sludge. Its oxidative activity towards hydrocarbons was studied. The application of this biopreparation to oil-contaminated soil increased the population density of microorganisms, including destroyers of hydrocarbons, and accelerated oil decomposition. The degree of destruction of oil and oil products in the case of a single treatment of the soil with this biopreparation comprised 30 to 50% within 60 days. The presence of cellulose-decomposing microorganisms in this biopreparation also favored an accelerated decomposition of plant substances, including plant litter and sawdust applied to the urban soils as an adsorbent.

  17. Were Holocene large slumps in Lake Geneva off the city of Lausanne caused by fault activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia Demand, Jehanne; Marillier, François; Kremer, Katrina; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    Lake Geneva is set in an area where glacier advances and retreats have carved Tertiary Molasse rocks in front of the Alpine units. Glacial and lacustrine sediments have accumulated in the lake on top of the Molasse. Within Holocene sedimentary layers, seismic studies in the central part of Lake Geneva ("Grand-Lac") have shown the presence of several mass transport deposits (MTD). A large one, MTD A, is observed off the city of Lausanne. The depth of the associated failure scars (100 m water depth), its volume (~ 0.13 km3), and the occurrence of other smaller MTDs that were possibly co-deposited with MTD A point to the occurrence of a major slide event in the lake, most likely associated with an earthquake. Based on 14C dating, the sediment age model for MTD A gives an age interval of 1865-1608 BC (Kremer et al. 2014). To resolve the details of the MTDs off Lausanne, and to better understand its geological context different seismic systems were used. These were a 3.5 KHz pinger with a theoretical vertical resolution of 0.15 m and a multichannel system with water-gun or air-gun seismic sources with vertical resolution of 0.6 m and 1.1 m, respectively. After a first pass processing, the multi-channel data were reprocessed in order to take into account the shape of the streamer in the water and to enhance the results of migration. In addition to typical seismic images of MTDs observed in other alpine lakes such as chaotic or transparent seismic character between well-organized reflections, two intriguing positive water-bottom topographic features associated with apparent sub-vertical offsets are revealed by the seismic data. They are located in the near vicinity of the depot centers of the MTDs and conspicuously located near faults in the Tertiary Molasse. These are thrust faults that are offset by small strike-slip faults, and we suggest that the positive topographic features are linked to a compressive component within the sediments due to displacements along these

  18. Age and origin of earliest adakitic-like magmatism in Panama: Implications for the tectonic evolution of the Panamanian magmatic arc system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whattam, Scott A.; Montes, Camilo; McFadden, Rory R.; Cardona, Agustin; Ramirez, Diego; Valencia, Victor

    2012-06-01

    40-20 Ma marks a fundamental interval in the evolution of the 70-0 Ma Panamanian magmatic arc system. During this period, there is no evidence of Panamanian magmatic arc activity to the east of the Panama Canal Basin while to the west and in localized regions to the east of the Panama Canal Basin a phase of intrusive-only activity is recorded. Fundamentally, geochemical and geochronological evidence presented herein indicate that this intrusive activity was predominantly 'adakitic-like' and becomes younger from west to east along an approximately W-E striking lineament. Granodiorites of the Petaquilla batholith, western Panama yield LAM-ICP-MS 206Pb/238U zircon ages of 29.0 + 0.7, - 0.6 Ma, 28.5 + 0.7, - 0.5 Ma, 28.3 + 0.5, - 0.4 Ma and 26.2 + 0.5, - 0.9 Ma. To the east of the Panama Canal Basin zircons from a hypabyssal diorite of the mainly intermediate Majé subvolcanic suite, cedes a mean 206Pb/238U age of 18.9 + 0.4 Ma. Relative to other 70-5 Ma Panamanian magmatic arc lavas and intrusives, Majé and Petaquilla intrusives yield adakitic-like major and trace element abundances (e.g., > 15 wt.% Al2O3, generally > 3.5 wt.% Na2O, > 400 ppm Sr, < 1.9 ppm Yb, < 18 ppm Y, Sr/Y that ranges to > 120) and strongly fractionated HREE patterns. These 30-26 Ma (Petaquilla) and 19 Ma (Majé) suites are also compositionally similar to a subvolcanic suite of rare, circa 25 Ma adakitic-like, andesitic intrusives which occur within the Panama Canal Basin midway between Petaquilla and Majé and at the same approximate latitude as Petaquilla and Majé. Collectively, the geochemical and geochronological data for the adakitic-like intrusives arc consistent with formation via partial melting of lowermost, mafic crust above a sub-horizontal slab tear that propagated from the west (Petaquilla) to the east (Majé) between 30 and 19 Ma. Our new tectonic model postulates that collision between the Panamanian magmatic arc system and an 'indentor' (e.g., a tract of thickened buoyant

  19. A new species and a new record of Diatrypaceae from Panama.

    PubMed

    Chacón, Santiago; Dörge, Dorian; Weisenborn, Jascha; Piepenbring, Meike

    2013-01-01

    Based on opportunistic collections of fungi in Panama, two species of Diatrypaceae (Xylariales) are described and illustrated. One of them, Eutypella semicircularis, found twice on branches probably belonging to Alnus acuminata, is new to science. It differs from known species of Eutypella and Peroneutypa with strongly allantoid or semicircular ascospores, such as E. crustata and P. curvispora, in having larger ascospores that sometimes almost form a circle and broader stromata, among other differences. Molecular data of the ITS rDNA region show that the new species is a sister taxon of Eutypella cerviculata, the type species of the genus Eutypella. Diatrype bermudensis on stems of Guadua angustifolia is reported from Panama for the first time, being known up to now apparently only from Bermuda. PMID:23360976

  20. The Genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae): First Record for Panama

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, David Ezequiel; Marin, Margarita; Santos Murgas, Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Cerambycidae are one of the largest beetle families. Cerambycid beetles are found on all continents, but the tropics are extremely rich in this species. The genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) includes 13 species in the Neotropical Region, two of which occur in Central America. Panama has a high biodiversity, yet a small number of sites have been extensively studied. In this contribution, new distributional data are given for C. cinereum (Olivier, 1795) and C. tuberculatum Gahan, 1892. New information Two species of the genus Criodion (Audinet-Serville, 1833) are recorded for first time in Panama, Criodion cinereum (Olivier, 1795) and Criodion tuberculatum Gahan, 1892. Relevant details are presented for each species. PMID:27099560

  1. Active seismic and passive microtremor HVSR for assessing site effects in Jammu city, NW Himalaya, India—A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahajan, A. K.; Mundepi, A. K.; Chauhan, Neetu; Jasrotia, A. S.; Rai, Nitesh; Gachhayat, Tapas Kumar

    2012-02-01

    1-D shear wave velocity structure is important for site effect studies and geotechnical engineering, but it is quite difficult and expensive to derive from the conventional geophysical techniques. Active (MASW) and passive (microtremors, HVSR) methods were conducted at 30 sites in the frontal part of the Himalaya which is characterized by soft sediments and strong seismological effects. Shear wave velocity ( Vs) in the range of ~ 238 m/s to ~ 450 m/s has been obtained from 30 m thick layer of quaternary sediments overlying Lower Miocene bed rock (Upper Siwalik Conglomerate) in Jammu city, NW Himalaya. The shear wave velocity ( Vs) along with seismic input motion of Chamoli earthquake (mb 6.8) has been used to obtain site response spectrum. The response spectrum suggests five to seven times increase in peak ground acceleration for single or two storey buildings and by eight to twelve times increase in amplification ratio with respect to input ground motion. The amplification spectrum shows peak amplification of ~ 2 Hz-~ 3 Hz in the central part and ~ 1.75 Hz-2 Hz in the northern, southwestern and southeastern parts of the city. The advantage of microtremor HVSR is that it yields direct estimate of the fundamental frequency which is found to vary from ~ 1 Hz to ~ 3 Hz for same sites. Further, the 1-D velocity models obtained from ModelHVSR Matlab routine have been compared with the soil models prepared by derived using MASW. The comparison shows correlation between soil models for sites having high shallow impedance contrast between the overlying sediments and very stiff material (bedrock) underneath as than sites having less impedance contrast.

  2. Impacts of public transit improvements on ridership, and implications for physical activity, in a low-density Canadian city.

    PubMed

    Collins, Patricia A; Agarwal, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Public transit ridership offers valuable opportunities for modest amounts of daily physical activity (PA). Transit is a more feasible option for most Canadian commuters who live too far from work to walk or cycle, yet public transit usage in midsized Canadian cities has historically remained low due to inefficient transit service. The objectives of this longitudinal study were threefold: to assess whether the introduction of express transit service in the low-density city of Kingston, Ontario, has translated to greater transit use among a targeted employee group; to document the characteristics of those employees that have shifted to transit; and to examine the PA levels of employees using transit compared to other commute modes. An online survey was administered in October 2013 and October 2014 to all non-student employees at Queen's University. 1356 employees completed the survey in 2013, and 1123 in 2014; 656 of these employees completed the survey both years, constituting our longitudinal sample. Year-round transit ridership increased from 5.5% in 2013 to 8.5% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Employees who shifted to transit had fewer household-level opportunities to drive to work and more positive attitudes toward transit. Transit commuters accrued an average of 80 minutes/week of commute-related PA, and 50 minutes/week more total PA than those that commuted entirely passively. Kingston Transit's express service has stimulated an increase in transit ridership among one of their target employers, Queen's University. The findings from this study suggest that shifting to transit from entirely passive commuting can generate higher overall PA levels. PMID:26844163

  3. Impacts of public transit improvements on ridership, and implications for physical activity, in a low-density Canadian city

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Patricia A.; Agarwal, Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Public transit ridership offers valuable opportunities for modest amounts of daily physical activity (PA). Transit is a more feasible option for most Canadian commuters who live too far from work to walk or cycle, yet public transit usage in midsized Canadian cities has historically remained low due to inefficient transit service. The objectives of this longitudinal study were threefold: to assess whether the introduction of express transit service in the low-density city of Kingston, Ontario, has translated to greater transit use among a targeted employee group; to document the characteristics of those employees that have shifted to transit; and to examine the PA levels of employees using transit compared to other commute modes. An online survey was administered in October 2013 and October 2014 to all non-student employees at Queen's University. 1356 employees completed the survey in 2013, and 1123 in 2014; 656 of these employees completed the survey both years, constituting our longitudinal sample. Year-round transit ridership increased from 5.5% in 2013 to 8.5% in 2014 (p < 0.001). Employees who shifted to transit had fewer household-level opportunities to drive to work and more positive attitudes toward transit. Transit commuters accrued an average of 80 minutes/week of commute-related PA, and 50 minutes/week more total PA than those that commuted entirely passively. Kingston Transit's express service has stimulated an increase in transit ridership among one of their target employers, Queen's University. The findings from this study suggest that shifting to transit from entirely passive commuting can generate higher overall PA levels. PMID:26844163

  4. Self-Reported Sitting Time in New York City Adults, The Physical Activity and Transit Survey, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Katherine F.; Firestone, Melanie J.; Lee, Karen K.; Eisenhower, Donna L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent studies have demonstrated the negative health consequences associated with extended sitting time, including metabolic disturbances and decreased life expectancy. The objectives of this study were to characterize sitting time in an urban adult population and assess the validity of a 2-question method of self-reported sitting time. Methods The New York City Health Department conducted the 2010–2011 Physical Activity and Transit Survey (N = 3,597); a subset of participants wore accelerometers for 1 week (n = 667). Self-reported sitting time was assessed from 2 questions on time spent sitting (daytime and evening hours). Sedentary time was defined as accelerometer minutes with less than 100 counts on valid days. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate the prevalence of sitting time by demographic characteristics. Validity of sitting time with accelerometer-measured sedentary time was assessed using Spearman’s correlation and Bland-Altman techniques. All data were weighted to be representative of the New York City adult population based on the 2006–2008 American Community Survey. Results Mean daily self-reported sitting time was 423 minutes; mean accelerometer-measured sedentary time was 490 minutes per day (r = 0.32, P < .001). The mean difference was 49 minutes per day (limits of agreement: −441 to 343). Sitting time was higher in respondents at lower poverty and higher education levels and lower in Hispanics and people who were foreign-born. Conclusion Participants of higher socioeconomic status, who are not typically the focus of health disparities–related research, had the highest sitting times; Hispanics had the lowest levels. Sitting time may be accurately assessed by self-report with the 2-question method for population surveillance but may be limited in accurately characterizing individual-level behavior. PMID:26020549

  5. Beyond ‘MSM’: Sexual Desire Among Bisexually-Active Latino Men in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Laboy, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Latino male bisexuality has been studied for the most part with a focus on men who have sex with men (MSM) and with little attention to sexual desire. The goal of this article is to present a comprehensive understanding of how sexual desire is organized, enacted through sexual activity, and interpreted in the sexual lives of bisexually-active Latino men. To achieve this aim, an analysis was made of 18 sexual histories of bisexually active Latino men who participated in a two-year ethnographic study. Four configurations of sexual desire were constructed to reflect what was found in this population of bisexually-active Latino men: (a) lifetime homoerotic desire and casual sex with women; (b) lifetime heteroerotic desire, but commercial sex with men; (c) lifetime heteroerotic/transgender desire; (d) lifetime sexual desire for women and men. These configurations are explored in detail in this article. The analysis presented here is intended to offer insights into the overall study of Latino male bisexuality and into the foundations for the design of HIV and STI prevention programs directed toward bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. PMID:26412977

  6. Phylogenetic Diversity of Sponge-Associated Fungi from the Caribbean and the Pacific of Panama and Their In Vitro Effect on Angiotensin and Endothelin Receptors.

    PubMed

    Bolaños, Jessica; De León, Luis Fernando; Ochoa, Edgardo; Darias, José; Raja, Huzefa A; Shearer, Carol A; Miller, Andrew N; Vanderheyden, Patrick; Porras-Alfaro, Andrea; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2015-10-01

    Fungi occupy an important ecological niche in the marine environment, and marine fungi possess an immense biotechnological potential. This study documents the fungal diversity associated with 39 species of sponges and determines their potential to produce secondary metabolites capable of interacting with mammalian G-protein-coupled receptors involved in blood pressure regulation. Total genomic DNA was extracted from 563 representative fungal strains obtained from marine sponges collected by SCUBA from the Caribbean and the Pacific regions of Panama. A total of 194 operational taxonomic units were found with 58% represented by singletons based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and partial large subunit (LSU) rDNA regions. Marine sponges were highly dominated by Ascomycota fungi (95.6%) and represented by two major classes, Sordariomycetes and Dothideomycetes. Rarefaction curves showed no saturation, indicating that further efforts are needed to reveal the entire diversity at this site. Several unique clades were found during phylogenetic analysis with the highest diversity of unique clades in the order Pleosporales. From the 65 cultures tested to determine their in vitro effect on angiotensin and endothelin receptors, the extracts of Fusarium sp. and Phoma sp. blocked the activation of these receptors by more than 50% of the control and seven others inhibited between 30 and 45%. Our results indicate that marine sponges from Panama are a "hot spot" of fungal diversity as well as a rich resource for capturing, cataloguing, and assessing the pharmacological potential of substances present in previously undiscovered fungi associated with marine sponges. PMID:26026948

  7. Kilowatts and crisis among the Kuna, Choco, and Colonos: national and regional consequences of the Bayano hydroelectric complex in eastern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Wali, A.

    1984-01-01

    The dissertation analyzes the sociopolitical consequences of a hydroelectric project (from 1972-1980) on the Bayano Region of Eastern Panama, in order to gauge the national implications of macrodevelopment programs, and determine the local-level impact. Specifically, the study demonstrates that the government's decision to construct the dam, motivated by historical and economic forces, had detrimental consequences for the affected people through changes in patterns of land tenure, economic productivity, and social stratification. Simultaneously, the goal of diversification of the canal-dominated economic structure has not been achieved. Forced resettlement deeply affected the regional population (Kuna and Choco - Amerindians, and Colonos - migrants from Western Panama). Agricultural productivity declined dramatically leading to an upsurge in other economic activities (wage labor, lumbering, and entrepreneurship). The Kuna, having lost 80% of their original reserve, strengthened their leadership institutions in order to negotiate a new reserve. The Choco were forced to settle in a village, contrary to tradition, leading to increased disputes. The Colonos experienced an increased polarization of wealth due to differential access to resources. The Kuna and Choco espoused an ethnic strategy to maintain territorial sovereignity leading to increased intergroup conflict.

  8. Electrical power systems (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, Panama and Peru)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This 12-part set of reports contains market information on the following countries and topics: Brazil - potentiometers, steam turbines, gas turbines, electric generators; Chile - power systems; Colombia - electric generators; Dominican Republic - electric generators; Guatemala - power generation and distribution equipment, non-current carriers, electric generators, and turbines; Jamaica - power systems; Panama - power generation and control equipment; and Peru - power generation equipment. These reports have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov., a new alpheid shrimp from Panama and Venezuela (Decapoda: Caridea).

    PubMed

    Anker, Arthur; Caripe, Jonathan Vera

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the infaunal alpheid shrimp genus Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 is described based on material from three localities on the Caribbean coast of Panama and Isla Chimana Grande, Venezuela. Leptalpheus pereirai sp. nov. belongs to a group of species characterised by the presence of well-developed adhesive disks on the major chela and appears to dwell in burrows of the large callianassid ghost shrimp, Glypturus acanthochirus Stimpson 1866. PMID:27395620

  10. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama.

    PubMed

    Condit, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country. PMID:26214182

  11. Extracting Environmental Benefits from a New Canal in Nicaragua: Lessons from Panama

    PubMed Central

    Condit, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Biologists have raised objections to a new canal in Nicaragua, but in this Essay I argue that dire predictions of environmental catastrophe are exaggerated. I present an alternative view based on my research experience in Panama, where Canal operations foster forest conservation. Currently in Nicaragua, the rate of forest loss is so rapid that the canal cannot make it worse. Rather, I contend, adoption of international standards in canal construction could lead to net environmental and social benefits for the country. PMID:26214182

  12. Active Monitoring of Travelers Arriving from Ebola-Affected Countries - New York City, October 2014-April 2015.

    PubMed

    Millman, Alexander J; Chamany, Shadi; Guthartz, Seth; Thihalolipavan, Sayone; Porter, Michael; Schroeder, Andrew; Vora, Neil M; Varma, Jay K; Starr, David

    2016-01-01

    The Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa has claimed approximately 11,300 lives (1), and the magnitude and course of the epidemic prompted many nonaffected countries to prepare for Ebola cases imported from affected countries. In October 2014, CDC and the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) implemented enhanced entry risk assessment and management at five U.S. airports: John F. Kennedy (JFK) International Airport in New York City (NYC), O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey, Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport in Atlanta, and Dulles International Airport in Virginia (2). Enhanced entry risk assessment began at JFK on October 11, 2014, and at the remaining airports on October 16 (3). On October 21, DHS exercised its authority to direct all travelers flying into the United States from an Ebola-affected country to arrive at one of the five participating airports. At the time, the Ebola-affected countries included Guinea, Liberia, Mali, and Sierra Leone. On October 27, CDC issued updated guidance for monitoring persons with potential Ebola virus exposure (4), including recommending daily monitoring of such persons to ascertain the presence of fever or symptoms for a period of 21 days (the maximum incubation period of Ebola virus) after the last potential exposure; this was termed "active monitoring." CDC also recommended "direct active monitoring" of persons with a higher risk for Ebola virus exposure, including health care workers who had provided direct patient care in Ebola-affected countries. Direct active monitoring required direct observation of the person being monitored by the local health authority at least once daily (5). This report describes the operational structure of the NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene's (DOHMH) active monitoring program during its first 6 months (October 2014-April 2015) of operation. Data collected on persons who required direct active monitoring

  13. Characterization of acaricide resistance in Rhipicephalus sanguineus (latreille) (Acari: Ixodidae) collected from the Corozal Army Veterinary Quarantine Center, Panama.

    PubMed

    Miller, R J; George, J E; Guerrero, F; Carpenter, L; Welch, J B

    2001-03-01

    Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) were collected from the Corozal Army Veterinary Quarantine Center in Panama and characterized for resistance to five classes of acaricides. These ticks were highly resistant to permethrin, DDT, and coumaphos; moderately resistant to amitraz; and not resistant to fipronil when compared with susceptible strains. Resistance to both permethrin and DDT may result from a mutation of the sodium channel. However, synergist studies indicate that enzyme activity is involved. The LC50 estimate for permethrin was lowered further in the Panamanian strain then in susceptible strains with the addition of triphenylphosphate (TPP), but not with the addition ofpiperonyl butoxide (PBO). This suggests that esterases and not oxidases are responsible for at least some pyrethroid resistance. Elevated esterase activity and its inhibition by TPP were confirmed by native gel electrophoresis. The LC50 estimate obtained for coumaphos in the Panamanian strain was not lowered further than what was observed for susceptible strains by the addition of TPP or PBO. This indicates that enzyme activity might not be involved in coumaphos resistance. Resistance to amitraz was measured through a modification of the Food and Agriculture Organization Larval Packet Test. All tick strains were found to be susceptible to fipronil. PMID:11296838

  14. Use of the Youth Risk Behavior Survey to Monitor Trends for Nutrition and Physical Activity in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Magel, Rhonda

    2007-01-01

    Background: The Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) was used by a city school district (approximately 11,000 students) in the upper Midwest to monitor trends for nutrition and physical activity (PA) behaviors both within and between years and to compare with national 2003 data. Methods: Independent random samples were obtained in 1999 (387 middle…

  15. Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Methods: Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior…

  16. Community Effects on Teacher Involvement in School Development Activity: A Study of Teachers in Cities, Smaller Towns and Rural Areas in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midthassel, Unni Vere; Manger, Terje; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of community type on teacher involvement in school development activity (SDA). Data on urban, small town, and rural teachers indicated that teachers in smaller towns were more involved in SDA than those in rural areas, while the differences between cities and smaller towns were not statistically significant. The impact of…

  17. Effect on Physical Activity of a Randomized Afterschool Intervention for Inner City Children in 3rd to 5th Grade

    PubMed Central

    Crouter, Scott E.; de Ferranti, Sarah D.; Whiteley, Jessica; Steltz, Sarah K.; Osganian, Stavroula K.; Feldman, Henry A.; Hayman, Laura L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Less than 45% of U.S. children meet the 60 min.d-1 physical activity (PA) guideline. Structured after-school PA programing is one approach to help increase activity levels. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and short-term impact of a supervised after-school PA and nutrition education program on activity levels. Methods Forty-two 3rd-5th graders from an inner-city school in Boston, MA were randomly assigned to a 10-wk after-school program of either: 1) weekly nutrition education, or 2) weekly nutrition education plus supervised PA 3 d.wk-1 at a community-based center. At baseline and follow-up, PA was measured using accelerometry and fitness (VO2max) was estimated using the PACER 15-m shuttle run. Additional measures obtained were non-fasting finger stick total cholesterol (TC) and glucose levels, waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), percent body fat (%BF), and blood pressure (BP). Values are presented as mean±SE, unless noted otherwise. Results Thirty-six participants completed the study (mean±SD; age 9.7±0.9 years). Participants attended >80% of the sessions. After adjusting for accelerometer wear time and other design factors, light and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) increased in the nutrition+PA group (+21.5±14.5 and +8.6±8.0 min.d-1, respectively) and decreased in the nutrition only group (-35.2±16.3 and -16.0±9.0 min.d-1, respectively); mean difference between groups of 56.8±21.7 min.d-1 (light PA, p = 0.01) and 24.5±12.0 min.d-1 (MVPA, p = 0.04). Time spent in sedentary behaviors declined in the nutrition+PA group (-14.8±20.7 min.d-1) and increased in the nutrition only group (+55.4±23.2 min.d-1); mean difference between groups of -70.2±30.9 min.d-1 (p = 0.02). Neither group showed changes in TC, BP, WC, %BF, BMI percentile, or fitness (p>0.05). Conclusions The supervised afterschool community-based nutrition and PA program was well accepted and had high attendance. The changes in light PA and MVPA has potential

  18. Successful public health response to four cases of imported measles in Panama.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Nestor; Guerra, Ilka; Abrego, Leyda; Cisneros, Julio; Castillo, Juan; Nieto-Guevara, Javier; Gálvez, Carlos; Moltó, Yadira; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-08-01

    In Panama, the last endemic cases of measles occurred in 1995. In this paper, we report four cases of imported measles in three girls and one boy after they returned from a trip to Poland and Israel between 28 April and 11 May 2011. The etiologic diagnosis of the four cases was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies against measles virus and positive polymerase chain reaction using measles-specific primers. All cases had genotype D4 with close genetic similarity to virus reported from Poland. Public health interventions included isolation of the cases in their homes and an extensive search for and vaccination of contacts of the four cases, regardless of their vaccination status. A nationwide vaccination campaign was also implemented after the first case was identified. A total of 70,950 measles vaccine doses were administered in Panama in the two months following the identification of these cases. In addition, 94,179 persons were confirmed to have their immunization schedule up-to-date and did not receive the vaccine. No secondary cases were detected in Panama in the following six months. PMID:22910566

  19. Economics of selected energy applications of peat in Panama and Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, G.R.; Ramirez E., O.; Ramirez, A.

    1989-01-01

    Studies were performed to determine the economic competitiveness of peat in Costa Rica and Panama. The cases examined were (1) electrical production in Panama, and (2) industrial boilers and cement plants in Costa Rica. Based on estimates of peat mining costs and the end-use costs we calculated for each application, the price of coal and oil at which the levelized life cycle cost of energy using peat was the same as that when coal or oil was used. We found that a peat-fueled power plant in Panama would be economic if the price of fuel oil was above $0.10 per liter and the cost of coal was above $40.00 per metric ton delivered. In Costa Rica, peat was competitive with fuel oil for large boilers (34,000 kg of steam per hour) when the cost of oil was above $0.10 per liter. For smaller boilers (5,000 kg of steam per hour) peat was cheaper than fuel oil when oil was above $0.08 per liter. Peat would be competitive in a cement plant when fuel oil prices were above $0.075 per liter. 5 figs.

  20. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.

    1999-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates of neotropical birds have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses of a multispecies assemblage from Panama by Karr et al. (1990) provided a counterexample to that view. One criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses indicate that these models are indeed useful in modelling the data from Panama. Nonetheless, there is considerable interspecific variation and overall estimates of annual survival rates for understorey birds in Panama remain lower than those from other studies in the Neotropics and well below the rates long assumed for tropical birds (i.e. > 0.80). Therefore, tropical birds may not have systematically higher survival rates than temperate-zone species. Variation in survival rates among tropical species suggests that theory based on a simple tradeoff between clutch size and longevity is inadequate. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to some combination of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding these processes is the challenge for future work.

  1. A new species of Andinobates (Amphibia: Anura: Dendrobatidae) from west central Panama.

    PubMed

    Batista, Abel; Jaramillo, César A; Ponce, Marcos; Crawford, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Dendrobatid frogs are among the best known anurans in the world, mainly due to their toxicity and associated bright colors. A recently described dendrobatid genus, Andinobates, comprises frogs distributed among the Colombian Andes and Panama. During field work in the Distrito de Donoso, Colón province, Panama, we found a poison frog that we here describe as a new species. The new species belongs to the A. minutus species group and is described herein as Andinobates geminisae sp. nov. This new species differs from all other members of the group by having uniformly orange smooth skin over the entire body and a distinctive male advertisement call. The new species is smaller than other colorful dendrobatids present in the area, such as Oophaga pumilio and O. vicentei. We also provide molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA sequences of dendrobatids and summarize genetic distances among Andinobates species. Andinobates geminisae occurs in Caribbean versant rainforest on the westernmost edge of the known distribution of A. minutus, and represents the fourth species within this genus in Panama. This is vulnerable to habitat loss and excessive harvesting and requires immediate conservation plans to preserve this species with a restricted geographic range. PMID:25283663

  2. Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic Basin framework and petroleum potential of Panama and Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P. ); Kolarsky, R. )

    1993-02-01

    Despite its location between major petroleum provinces in northwestern South America and northern Central America, there is a widespread negative perception of the petroleum potential of Panama and Costa Rica in southern Central America. Several factors may contribute to this perception: (1) the on and offshore geology of many areas has only be studied in a reconnaissance fashion; (2) sandstone reservoirs and source rocks are likely to be of poor quality because Upper Cretaceous-Cenozoic sandstones are eroded from island arc or oceanic basement rocks and because oil-prone source rocks are likely to be scarce in near-arc basins; and (3) structural traps are likely to be small and fragmented because of complex late Cenozoic thrust and strike-slip tectonics. On the other hand, onshore oil and gas seeps, shows and small production in wildcat wells, and source rocks with TOC values up to 26% suggest the possibility of future discoveries. In this talk, we present the results of a regional study using 3100 km of offshore seismic lines kindly provided by industry. Age and stratigraphic control of offshore lines is constrained by limited well data and detailed field studies of basin outcrops in coastal areas. We describe the major structures, stratigraphy, and tectonic history of the following areas: Gulf of Panama and Gulf of Chiriqui of Panama and the Pacific and Caribbean margins of Costa Rica.

  3. Acculturation and activity behaviors in Chinese American immigrants in New York City.

    PubMed

    Yi, Stella S; Beasley, Jeannette M; Kwon, Simona C; Huang, Keng-Yen; Trinh-Shevrin, Chau; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2016-12-01

    Asian Americans have lower levels of physical activity (PA) compared to other racial/ethnic groups; however, there is little understanding of the social and cultural determinants of PA in this population. Few analyses describe specific PA domains (occupation-, transportation-, recreation-related), focus on one Asian subgroup, or use validated scales. The study objective was to assess the association between acculturation and activity behaviors (meeting 2008 PA guidelines, activity minutes by PA domain, sitting time) in a cross-sectional sample of urban-dwelling, Chinese American immigrants. Data were from the Chinese American Cardiovascular Health Assessment (CHA CHA) 2010-11 among participants with valid reports of PA minutes, assessed by the WHO Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (n = 1772). Acculturation was assessed using the Stephenson Multigroup Acculturation Scale, a 32-item instrument which characterizes two acculturative dimensions: ethnic society (Chinese) immersion and dominant society (American) immersion (maximum possible scores = 4). Multivariable models regressing activity behaviors on acculturation were run, adjusting for age, sex, household income, education, and age at immigration. Ethnic society immersion was high (mean = 3.64) while dominant society immersion was moderate (mean = 2.23). Higher ethnic society immersion was associated with less recreation-related PA (- 40.7 min/week); higher dominant society immersion was associated with a higher odds of meeting PA guidelines (OR: 1.66 (1.25, 2.20), p < 0.001) and more recreation-related PA (+ 36.5 min/week). Given low PA levels in Chinese adults in China, results suggest that PA for leisure may increase and become a more normative behavior among Chinese American immigrants with acculturation. Understanding acculturation level may inform strategies to increase PA in Chinese Americans. PMID:27570733

  4. Cenozoic tectonic evolution leading to the Choco-South America collision (Panama-Colombia), from seismic profiles interpretations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barat, F.; Maurin, T.; Auxietre, J.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Salmon, P.; Sosson, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Choco Block is located in eastern Panama and western Colombia, at the western boundary of the Caribbean Plate (CP), and is mainly characterized by a Late Cretaceous-Paleogene volcanic arc overlying the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). This block was accreted to South American plate (SAP) during Middle to Late Miocene. Geological, chronological and structural data are scarce in the Choco Block. Our study aims at reconstructing the evolution at a local scale, to provide new constraints to the regional scale tectonic processes that have occurred since the Paleogene. In that perspective, we have interpreted offshore seismic reflection profiles. This interpretation was supported by biostratigraphic data from two wells. We focused our studies in the Uraba Gulf area, a triple junction between the Choco Block, the SAP and the Caribbean oceanic plateau. This poorly understood zone offers rare observation of two accretionary wedges, the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), and the Sinu Belt, located at the margins of the Choco Block and the SAP, respectively. They are the results of two opposite convergent zones, and collide along the active Uramita strike-slip Fault Zone (UFZ), a suture zone between the Choco Block and the SAP. This area may provide information on the ages of both accretionary wedges, on the tectonic processes responsible for the disappearance of the CP, and on the late formation of the Choco Block. Our results evidence a northward propagating deformation along the Choco Block, miocene or older in the South of the Uraba Gulf, pliocene in the North of the Uraba Gulf, and active along the northern margin of Panama. This deformation is the result of the progressive accretion of Choco Block along the SAP. At the Uraba triple junction, a thick sedimentary sequence was deposited since late Miocene. North verging progradations suggest that sediments came from the drainage of the western cordillera of Colombia by a Paleo-Sinu river and actual Atrato river

  5. Relationship between Sociodemographics, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity with Gestational Weight Gain among Pregnant Women in Rafsanjan City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Mun, Chan Yoke; Nazari, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.0001) with GWG. All pregnant women should be counselled on achieving the reccomended GWG to prevent adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes. Pre-pregnancy and gestational nutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care. PMID:25995733

  6. Secular Trends in Habitual Physical Activities of Mozambican Children and Adolescents from Maputo City

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Damasceno, Albertino; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Social and economic changes occurring in the last two decades in Mozambique may have induced lifestyle changes among youth. This study aimed to document secular changes in habitual physical activities of Mozambican youth between 1992, 1999 and 2012. A total of 3393 youth (eight–15 years), were measured in three different time periods (1992, 1999, 2012). Habitual physical activity (PA) was estimated with a questionnaire, including items related to household chores, sport participation, traditional games and walking activities. Biological maturation was assessed. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare mean differences in PA across the years. Significant decreases between 1992–1999 and 1992–2012 were observed for boys in household chores, games and walking, and a significant decline between 1999 and 2012 was found in sport participation.Among girls, a significant and consistent decline (1992 > 1999 > 2012) was observed for household chores, a decline between 1992–1999 and 1992–2012 for games and walking, and a significant increase between 1992 and 1999 in sport participation. In general, a negative secular trend was found in habitual PA among Mozambican youth. Interventions aimed at increasing PA represent important educational and public health opportunities. PMID:25337941

  7. The complexities of measuring access to parks and physical activity sites in New York City: a quantitative and qualitative approach

    PubMed Central

    Maroko, Andrew R; Maantay, Juliana A; Sohler, Nancy L; Grady, Kristen L; Arno, Peter S

    2009-01-01

    Background Proximity to parks and physical activity sites has been linked to an increase in active behaviors, and positive impacts on health outcomes such as lower rates of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity. Since populations with a low socio-economic status as well as racial and ethnic minorities tend to experience worse health outcomes in the USA, access to parks and physical activity sites may be an environmental justice issue. Geographic Information systems were used to conduct quantitative and qualitative analyses of park accessibility in New York City, which included kernel density estimation, ordinary least squares (global) regression, geographically weighted (local) regression, and longitudinal case studies, consisting of field work and archival research. Accessibility was measured by both density of park acreage and density of physical activity sites. Independent variables included percent non-Hispanic black, percent Hispanic, percent below poverty, percent of adults without high school diploma, percent with limited English-speaking ability, and population density. Results The ordinary least squares linear regression found weak relationships in both the park acreage density and the physical activity site density models (Ra2 = .11 and .23, respectively; AIC = 7162 and 3529, respectively). Geographically weighted regression, however, suggested spatial non-stationarity in both models, indicating disparities in accessibility that vary over space with respect to magnitude and directionality of the relationships (AIC = 2014 and -1241, respectively). The qualitative analysis supported the findings of the local regression, confirming that although there is a geographically inequitable distribution of park space and physical activity sites, it is not globally predicted by race, ethnicity, or socio-economic status. Conclusion The combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses demonstrated the complexity of the issues around racial and ethnic

  8. The Organization, Administration and Presentation of Symphony Orchestra Youth Concert Activities for Music Educational Purposes in Selected Cities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Thomas H.; Thompson, Helen M.

    This report on symphony orchestra concerts for students in 20 American cities provides information on (1) the history and development of youth concerts, and the artistic, cultural, and educational philosophies upon which they are based; (2) operating procedures and financing for youth concerts in each city; (3) utilization of the concerts by…

  9. [Preference for behavior conducive to physical activity and physical activity levels of children from a southern Brazil city].

    PubMed

    Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Xavier, Mariana Otero; Gigante, Denise Petrucci

    2014-07-01

    This article aims to describe preferences for behavior conducive to physical activity (PA) and to evaluate the influence of these preferences on physical activity of children from Pelotas in the state of Rio Grande do Sul. It involved a cross-sectional study with children aged 4 to 11. Behavior conducive to PA was evaluated using the Netherlands Physical Activity Questionnaire (NPAQ). Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was measured by accelerometry. Variance analysis and linear regression were performed to evaluate associations between questions from the NPAQ and independent variables and between each form of behavior and time spent in MVPA, respectively. Children in the higher economic bracket liked to draw more and preferred less vigorous games and playing outside than poorer children. Older children were less extrovert and liked to draw less than younger children. Enjoying sports, disliking drawing and liking to play outside were positively associated with daily time spent in MVPA. Some characteristics studied were associated with behavior conducive to PA, and economic status proved to be the most important influence. Preferences like enjoying sports positively influenced the time spent in MVPA. PMID:25014307

  10. Prokaryotic diversity of an active mud volcano in the Usu City of Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Mei; Lou, Kai; Sun, Jian; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Xiao-Long

    2012-02-01

    The Usu mud volcanoes are the largest group of terrestrial mud volcanoes in China. The volcanoes are located in a typical arid and semi-arid region, and the group consists of 36 erupting active mud volcanoes. In this study, the prokaryotic diversity and community structure in the sediment of an active mud volcano were investigated by constructing bacterial and archaeal clone libraries of the 16S rRNA gene. A total of 100 bacterial and 100 archaeal clones were analysed and found to comprise 11 and 7 distinct phylotypes, respectively. The bacterial phylotypes were classified into three phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria). Of these, Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial group, with Deltaproteobacteria dominating the sediment community, and these were affiliated with the order Desulfuromonadales. The archaeal phylotypes were all closely related to uncultivated species, and the majority of the members were related to the orders Methanosarcinales and Halobacteriales of the Euryarchaeota originating from methane hydrate bearing or alkaline sediments. The rest of the archaeal phylotypes belonged to the phylum Crenarchaeota, with representatives from similar habitats. These results suggested that a large number of novel microbial groups and potential methanogenesis may exist in this unique ecosystem. PMID:21656823

  11. Rotavirus activity and meteorological variations in an Asian subtropical city, Hong Kong, 1995-2009.

    PubMed

    Chan, Martin C W; Mok, H Y; Lee, T C; Nelson, E Anthony S; Leung, Ting F; Tam, Wilson W S; Chan, Paul K S

    2013-11-01

    Rotavirus is a leading cause of severe infectious diarrhea in infants and young children aged <5 years. Rotavirus infections have minimal to strong seasonality depending on geographical locations. In this study, a comprehensive retrospective analysis was performed to evaluate the association between rotavirus admission and multiple key meteorological variables, including air temperature, relative humidity, atmospheric pressure, and solar radiation over a 15-year period from 1995 to 2009 in Hong Kong. Rotavirus infections were found to show a distinct cyclical pattern with an annual peak in cold season. The weekly number of cases showed the strongest correlation with average air temperature of the previous 7 days (rho=-0.69; P<0.0001), followed by atmospheric pressure (rho=+0.67; P<0.0001); whereas only weak correlation with relative humidity (rho=-0.252; P<0.0001) and solar radiation (rho=-0.312; P<0.0001) was observed. Curve fitting regression analysis suggested that the correlation was nonlinear in nature in which the effect was more profound towards lower air temperature and higher atmospheric pressure conditions. In binary logistic regression analysis, a final model that included air temperature (≤ 20°C) and atmospheric pressure (≥ 1,013 hPa) predicted correctly 85.3% and 82.6% of weeks with rotavirus activity above and below the baseline level, respectively. In multivariate Poisson model, air temperature and solar radiation were independent factors associated with the weekly number of rotavirus cases, adjusted for seasonal variation. In summary, the current study provides evidence suggesting that local seasonal activity of rotavirus correlated strongly with air temperature, followed by atmospheric pressure but only minimally with relative humidity in pre-vaccine era. PMID:23852875

  12. Quantifying Hydrological Ecosystem Services of Various Land Covers and Uses on Small Experimental Catchments within the Panama Canal Watershed: The Agua Salud Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.; Agua Salud Project

    2011-12-01

    As a part of the Agua Salud Project, a baseline characterization of hydrologic processes on the small catchment scale (~0.24 to 2.0 km2) is assessed across different land uses and covers typical to rural Panama. The land covers being monitored include a mature secondary forest, a disturbed catchment with a mosaic of various aged secondary growth and agricultural use, an active pasture and a monoculture invasive grass site as experimental controls, and two treated catchments that were recently abandoned pastures converted to teak and native species timber plantations. The catchments are found within Panama's protected Soberania National Park and the adjacent headwaters of the Agua Salud and Mendoza Rivers, all part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Using hydrological data from the first two and a half years of the project, three main ecosystem services are observed. The forested area exhibited lower storm event peaks, decreased flashiness, and greater stream flow during the dry season compared to the disturbed mosaic site. Lower hydrograph peaks and flashiness mitigate the risk of substantial flood damage during the major flood events generally seen in Panama between October and December. The mature forest (1.35 km2) catchment has shown lower average flood peaks in comparison to the disturbed site. For storm peaks less than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are on average 51% lower. For storm peaks greater than 6 mm/hr, flood peaks are approximately 40% lower. In 1998, draft restrictions were imposed in the Panama Canal because of a deficit of dry season water after an El Niño-Southern Oscillation resulted in decreased wet season rainfall. The water that is available during the end of the dry season has the potential to insure the full operation of the Canal during El Niño drought years. Toward the end of the dry season (March through May) our data shows that roughly 34% more water was available during a relatively dry year with respect to antecedent wet season rainfall

  13. Gravity modeling constraints on the Gatun-Chagres Basin and tectonic evolution of north-central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mynhier, Kelci

    The Oligocene-Miocene collision between Panama and South America significantly influenced ocean currents, global climate, and species diversification. Intraplate deformation of the Panama Block also played an important role in the evolution of this tectonic system, but is not well understood. A high-resolution gravity survey, coupled with geologic observations, was conducted in north-central Panama to better constrain the processes responsible for the Isthmus' modern configuration. Approximately 110 gravity stations were collected from Colon to Nombre de Dios, Panama and merged with existing data. Subsequently, four 2.5-D gravity models were produced to constrain the geometry of the Gatun-Chagres Basin using different sedimentary densities (1.8, 2.0, and 2.2 g/cm 3) to produce a realistic range of basin thicknesses. Overall, models with an average basin density of 2.0 g/cm3 are most consistent with offshore seismic profiles and field evidence, suggesting basin thickness is ~3.0--3.5 km. Previous seismic reflection data and geochemical analyses of Miocene arc volcanic rocks delineate a zone of extension in the Panama Canal Region, and gravity analysis from this study supports this hypothesis. Field evidence of multiple NW-facing normal faults suggests that they separate the basin from uplifted arc basement rocks east of the Canal, resulting in a 60 mGal gravity gradient. Beneath the basin, gravity models indicate ~5--10 km of crustal thinning. 3-D reconstruction of the 2.5-D models show a northward thickening basin and two depocenters that correspond to the Rio Indio and Toro facies of the Chagres Formation. This analysis suggests two directional extension of the Gatun-Chagres Basin; an east-west direction corresponding to the initial formation of the basin, and a modern northwest-southeast direction. To the northeast, gravity modeling indicates that there is a ~150 m-thick, Cretaceous-Holocene sedimentary basin present from Portobelo to Nombre de Dios. Sedimentary

  14. Effect of Wildfire on Hydrological Processes in a Monoculture Invasive Grass Catchment within the Panama Canal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regina, J. A.; Ogden, F. L.

    2014-12-01

    Hydrological processes in the humid tropics are poorly understood and an important topic when it comes to watershed management in the seasonal tropics. The Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama Canal Watershed Experiment, Agua Salud Project, seeks to understand these processes and quantify the long-term effects of different land cover and uses across the Panama Canal Watershed. One question posed by this project concerns the hydrologic role of fire in tropical environments. Within the Panama Canal Watershed, fire has seen widespread use among agriculturalists. This study focused on a monoculture invasive grass (Saccharum spontaneum) catchment. Specifically, the effects of significant wildfire events on hydrological processes in the catchment were analyzed. The catchment is within Panama's protected Soberania National Park, which is part of the greater Panama Canal Watershed. Installed instrumentation includes a rain gauge cluster, a two-stage v-notch weir, atmometer and an assortment of meteorological and automated geochemical sampling systems. Spatial, rainfall, runoff and ET data across the catchment is available from 2009-2013. Various hydrologic characteristics, such as runoff ratio, peak flow per unit area, time to peak, runoff duration, and leaf area index, from before and after the events were compared. These characteristics are related to rates of ground water recharge and the occurrence of flash floods. This study provides a baseline from which the potential impacts of fire on hydrological processes in tropical environments can be analyzed.

  15. Cognitive Impairment, Depression, and Cooccurrence of Both among the Elderly in Panama: Differential Associations with Multimorbidity and Functional Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Alcibiades E.; Grajales, Shantal; Lopez, Lineth; Britton, Gabrielle B.; Initiative, Panama Aging Research

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and depression are common mental health problems among the elderly, although few studies have examined their cooccurrence in older adults in Latin America. The purpose of this study was to examine cognitive impairment, depression, and cooccurrence of the two conditions and associated factors in a sample of older adults in Panama. This study included 304 community-dwelling elderly (≥65 years) individuals. Participants underwent a clinical interview and assessments of cognitive function by the Minimental State Examination and depressive symptoms by the Geriatric Depression Scale. Limitations in basic (BADL) and instrumental (IADL) activities in daily living and the presence of chronic illnesses were recorded. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that cooccurrence of cognitive impairment and depressive symptoms was explained by increasing age (OR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.20, 8.30), low education (OR: 3.3, 95% CI: 1.33, 8.38), having four or more chronic conditions (OR: 11.5, 95% CI: 2.84, 46.63), and BADL limitations (OR: 5.0, 95% CI: 1.26, 19.68). Less education and limitations in BADL and IADL increased the odds of cognitive impairment alone, while less education and three or more chronic conditions increased the odds of depression alone. These findings underscore the relevance of assessing cognitive impairment in the elderly as part of a long-term approach to managing depression and vice versa. PMID:26798641

  16. Culture-free survey reveals diverse and distinctive fungal communities associated with developing figs (Ficus spp.) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Martinson, Ellen O; Herre, Edward Allen; Machado, Carlos A; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2012-11-01

    The ancient association of figs (Ficus spp.) and their pollinating wasps (fig wasps; Chalcidoidea, Hymenoptera) is one of the most interdependent plant-insect mutualisms known. In addition to pollinating wasps, a diverse community of organisms develops within the microcosm of the fig inflorescence and fruit. To better understand the multipartite context of the fig-fig wasp association, we used a culture-free approach to examine fungal communities associated with syconia of six species of Ficus and their pollinating wasps in lowland Panama. Diverse fungi were recovered from surface-sterilized flowers of all Ficus species, including gall- and seed flowers at four developmental stages. Fungal communities in syconia and on pollinating wasps were similar, dominated by diverse and previously unknown Saccharomycotina, and distinct from leaf- and stem endophyte communities in the same region. Before pollination, fungal communities were similar between gall- and seed flowers and among Ficus species. However, fungal communities differed significantly in flowers after pollination vs. before pollination, and between anciently diverged lineages of Ficus with active vs. passive pollination syndromes. Within groups of relatively closely related figs, there was little evidence for strict-sense host specificity between figs and particular fungal species. Instead, mixing of fungal communities among related figs, coupled with evidence for possible transfer by pollinating wasps, is consistent with recent suggestions of pollinator mixing within syconia. In turn, changes in fungal communities during fig development and ripening suggest an unexplored role of yeasts in the context of the fig-pollinator wasp mutualism. PMID:22729017

  17. Pathogen destruction and solids decomposition in composting latrines: study of fundamental mechanisms and user operation in rural Panama.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Jessica; Kaiser, Josephine; Hurtado, Daniel; Gibson, Daragh A; Izurieta, Ricardo; Mihelcic, James R

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between temperature, high pH, desiccation, decomposition, pathogen destruction, and user operation in active double vault urine diverting (DVUD) composting latrines located in the Bocas del Toro region of Panama was assessed. Latrine samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, % moisture, carbon-to-nitrogen (C/N) ratio, and presence of specific pathogens. Surveys and visual inspections were used to verify use and type of dry material desiccant added. Measurements supported findings that compost latrines do not reach temperatures sufficient to destroy all pathogens. pH measurements showed that many latrines were operating within the range for ideal aerobic decomposition, a pH of 7.5-8.5, but only 17% of latrines measured pH 9 or above. Almost 100% of composting latrine users added sawdust and wood ash, to lower moisture level and provide carbon for decomposition. However, the recommended amount of desiccant added was insufficient to reduce moisture to the suggested 25% for pathogen destruction and C/N ratios remained in the range of raw human faeces. Importantly, pathogens, mainly helminths, were still present in compost stored for the 6-month contact time. The latrines have conflicting goals of pathogen destruction and aerobic decomposition. Recommendations are made regarding operation of composting latrines and disposal of composted material. PMID:21301126

  18. Preliminary evaluation of thermal and nonthermal waters at selected sites in Panama, Central America. Evaluacion preliminar de aguas termales y no termales de sitios seleccionados en Panama, Centroamerica

    SciTech Connect

    Shevenell, L.

    1989-11-01

    Thirty-one thermal and nonthermal water samples were collected in Panama by the Instituto de Recursos Hidraulicos y Electrificacion and analyzed by the Earth and Space Sciences Division at Los Alamos National Laboratory to evaluate the geothermal potential of four different areas. Chemical and isotopic analyses were performed on each sample. Because samples from several areas were submitted, the chemistry of the samples is varied, with total dissolved solids of thermal fluids ranging from 900 to nearly 10,000 mg/{ell}. All water samples studied are meteoric in origin, and none of the thermal waters exhibit an {sup 18}O enrichment, which is characteristic of high-temperature isotopic, exchange between water and rock. At all four areas, calculated geothermometer temperatures within a reservoir of less than 160{degrees}C. 4 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Questing Amblyomma mixtum and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (Acari: Ixodidae) Infected with Candidatus “Rickettsia amblyommii” from the Natural Environment in Panama Canal Basin, Panama

    PubMed Central

    D., Angélica M. Castro; S., Gleidys G. García; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Aguilar, Ana; Castillo, Juan; Gabster, Amanda; Trejos, Diomedes; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Bermúdez C., Sergio E.

    2015-01-01

    This work emphasizes the detection of Candidatus “Rickettsia amblyommii” in questing Haemaphysalis juxtakochi and Amblyomma mixtum. From February 2009 to December 2012, questing ticks were collected from the vegetation and leaf-litter of four protected forests and two grassy areas around the Panama Canal basin. DNA was extracted from Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma pecarium, Amblyomma tapirellum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, and unidentified immature Amblyomma. Specific primers of citrate synthase gene gltA were used to detect and identify the rickettsiae. Amplicons with the expected band size were purified and sequenced. DNA of C. “R. amblyommii” was found in A. mixtum, H. juxtakochi and Amblyomma immatures. To our knowledge, these finding represent the first report of C. “R. amblyommii” in free-living ticks in the wilderness of Central America. PMID:26865823

  20. Questing Amblyomma mixtum and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi (Acari: Ixodidae) Infected with Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" from the Natural Environment in Panama Canal Basin, Panama.

    PubMed

    D, Angélica M Castro; S, Gleidys G García; Dzul-Rosado, Karla; Aguilar, Ana; Castillo, Juan; Gabster, Amanda; Trejos, Diomedes; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Bermúdez C, Sergio E

    2015-12-01

    This work emphasizes the detection of Candidatus "Rickettsia amblyommii" in questing Haemaphysalis juxtakochi and Amblyomma mixtum. From February 2009 to December 2012, questing ticks were collected from the vegetation and leaf-litter of four protected forests and two grassy areas around the Panama Canal basin. DNA was extracted from Amblyomma mixtum, Amblyomma naponense, Amblyomma oblongoguttatum, Amblyomma pecarium, Amblyomma tapirellum, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, and unidentified immature Amblyomma. Specific primers of citrate synthase gene gltA were used to detect and identify the rickettsiae. Amplicons with the expected band size were purified and sequenced. DNA of C. "R. amblyommii" was found in A. mixtum, H. juxtakochi and Amblyomma immatures. To our knowledge, these finding represent the first report of C. "R. amblyommii" in free-living ticks in the wilderness of Central America. PMID:26865823

  1. Fishery of the Green Jack Caranx caballus (Osteichytes: Carangidae) in Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Mair, James M; Cipriani, Roberto; Guzman, Hector M; Usan, David

    2012-09-01

    Green Jacks, Caranx caballus, are distributed along the Eastern Pacific coast. In Panama, C. caballus was heavily fished around Las Perlas Archipelago to sustain local markets until 2007, when the archipelago was declared a marine protected area. This first study in Panama, analyzed a sample of 4 990 individuals from Las Perlas, obtained monthly from June 2005 to June 2006, from landings at the central fish market. Average total length was 36.1 +/- 6.4cm and optimum length 38.9cm. Approximately 68% of fish lengths were within +/-10% of the optimal length but only six (15%) were considered mega-spawners. The von Bertalanffy parameters describe a long-lived and fast growing species, while mortality rates revealed that C. caballus is under high fishing pressure. Standard length at which half of the population is mature was 38.8cm, and the size at which individuals matured massively, 33cm. Only 10-13% of the fish were immature. C. caballus reproduces two to three times per year, with peaks in December, April, and probably September, and recruits to the population at least twice per year. Catch per unit effort (CPUE) was best predicted by minimum annual values of the Multivariate ENSO/LNSO Index (MEI) (R2=0.54). Results show that C. caballus in Pacific Panama is overfished. We recommend the raising of the minimum capture/landing size of this species in order to increase the proportion of mega-spawners in the population and guarantee the sustainability of this resource. PMID:23025097

  2. Evolution of the Ishtmus of Panama: biological, paleoceanographic, and paleoclimatological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The rise of the Isthmus of Panama has been the product of small-scale geological processes that, however, have had worldwide repercussions. Four major events have been linked to the rise of the Isthmus including 1) the onset of the Thermohaline circulation (TCH), 2) the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation, 3) the birth of the Caribbean Sea, and 4) the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). The available evidence indicates that there is a strong link between the closure of Central American Seaway (CAS) and the onset of Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (a precursor of THC), but at 10 Ma rather than at 3.5 Ma as it was assumed before. There are not evidences of a connection between the full emergence of the Isthmus at 3.5 Ma and the onset of the NHG. There are strong evidences that the full emergence of the Isthmus at 3.5 Ma changed the oceanography of the Caribbean Sea to its modern conditions, although the role of additional variables into Pleistocene Caribbean Sea conditions still need to be evaluated, including the changes in the climate of the Pleistocene and the cessation of the freshwater flow of several South American rivers into the Caribbean. GABI is more complex that often assumed and it seems that variables other than a continuous terrestrial Isthmus have controlled the direction, timing and speed of migrations. The building of Panamanian landscape can be summarized in four phases, 1) a late Eocene large island in central Panama and the Azuero Peninsula, 2) an early Miocene large scale generation of terrestrial landscapes in Central America that connected central Panama with North America, 3) a full closure of CAS at 10 Ma, interrupting the exchange of deep waters between Caribbean and Pacific, and generating most of the landscape across the Isthmus. Exchange of shallow waters continued until 3.5 Ma, albeit intermittently. 4) A continuous terrestrial landscape across the Isthmus over the past 3.5 Ma.

  3. High Blood Pressure in Panama: Prevalence, Sociodemographic and Biologic Profile, Treatment, and Control (STROBE)

    PubMed Central

    Mc Donald Posso, Anselmo J.; Motta Borrel, Jorge A.; Fontes, Flavia; Cruz Gonzalez, Clara E.; Pachón Burgos, Alvaro A.; Cumbrera Ortega, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence, treatment, and control of high blood pressure, hypertension (HBP) in Panama and assess its associations with sociodemographic and biologic factors. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in Panama by administering a survey on cardiovascular risk factors to 3590 adults and measuring their blood pressure 3 times. A single-stage, probabilistic, and randomized sampling strategy with a multivariate stratification was used. The average blood pressure, confidence intervals (CIs), odds ratio (OR), and a value of P ≤ 0.05 were used for the analysis. The estimated prevalence of HBP was 29.6% (95% CI, 28.0–31.1); it was more prevalent in men than in women, OR = 1.37 (95% CI, 1.17–1.61); it increased with age and was more frequent among Afro-Panamanians (33.8%). HBP was associated with a family history of HBP with being physically inactive and a body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m2 or a waist circumference >90 cm in men and >88 cm in women (P < 0.001). Of those found to have HBP, 65.6% were aware of having HBP and taking medications, and of these, 47.2% had achieved control (<140/90 mm ​​Hg). HBP is the most common cardiovascular risk factor among Panamanians and consequently an important public health problem in Panama. The health care system needs to give a high priority to HBP prevention programs and integrated care programs aimed at treating HBP, taking into consideration the changes in behavior that have been brought about by alterations in nutrition and sedentary lifestyles. PMID:25396327

  4. Extreme mitogenomic divergence between two syntopic specimens of Arremon aurantiirostris (Aves: Emberizidae) in central Panama suggests possible cryptic species.

    PubMed

    López, Krisangel; Angeli, Cody; Aguilar, Celestino; Loaiza, Jose R; De León, Luis Fernando; McMillan, W Owen; Miller, Matthew J

    2016-09-01

    We report the complete mitochondrial genome of two specimens of Orange-billed Sparrow Arremon aurantiirostris from Colón Province, in central Panama. The two specimens were collected on the same day, and at the same locality; however, they showed substantial divergence (6.3% average pairwise divergence among coding genes). A survey of ND2 sequence variation across Panama suggests that this divergence is the result of geographic differentiation and secondary contact. This high level of mitochondrial divergence among co-occurring individuals raises the possibility of multiple biological species in Orange-billed Sparrows. Our results are yet another demonstration that much remains to be discovered regarding avian biodiversity in Panama and throughout the Neotropics. PMID:26367084

  5. Mexico City

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-18

    ... Mexico City has one of the world's most serious air pollution problems. The city is located atop a high plain at an altitude of ... as the orange and red areas, and mountainous areas appear light blue and green. The position of the clouds within the 70-degree image are ...

  6. City Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dargan, Amanda; Zeitlin, Steve

    2000-01-01

    Today, fewer city blocks preserve the confidence of lifestyle and urban geography that sustain traditional games and outdoor play. Large groups of children choosing sides and organizing Red Rover games are no longer commonplace. Teachers must encourage free play; urban planners must build cities that are safe play havens. (MLH)

  7. Refined Assessment of Human PM2.5 Exposure in Chinese city by Incorporating Time-activity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Wang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Since urban residents tend to spend a majority of time indoors throughout a day, it has been widely discussed in recent years, whether fixed-site monitoring PM2.5 ambient concentration is feasible as a surrogate of human PM2.5 exposure. Comprehensive understanding of residents' daily time-activity patterns (TAP) and possible indoor behavior are urgently needed to perform a more accurate estimate of human PM2.5exposure, especially in China, where is experiencing rapid urbanization.Field surveys of TAP were carried out in a Chinese city of Suzhou from 2014 to 2015 to evaluate PM2.5 exposure in various micro-environments (ME, e.g., residence, outdoors and in-transit). We gathered and analyzed urban residents' seasonal time-activity data using 24h retrospective time-location diaries, as well as diversified exposure-related indoor information (e.g. ventilation, environment tobacco smoke and cooking). PM2.5exposure is calculated through the incorporation of ambient concentration data, modified indoor/outdoor empirical functions and TAP. The spatial distributions of TAP-based exposure and static-population based exposure are also compared.Residents in Suzhou urban area spend over 65% of time at home and 90% indoors. There are significant temporal (season, day type) and socioeconomic differences (gender, age, education, living alone, having children at home, employment status, etc.) of time-activity distributions, which makes the sum of PM2.5 ME exposure differs notably from static-population based ambient exposure. People prefer to spend more time at home both in winter (P<0.05) and on weekends (P<0.001), less time outdoors in winter but more on weekends (P<0.001). Gender, education and living alone are negative associated with time spent home, while age, children at home and employment status are positively related. On the other hand, due to lack of monitoring stations in unban Suzhou, the inverse distance squared weighting method is not ideally performed and may be less

  8. Prevalence and Correlates of HIV Testing among Sexually Active African American Adolescents in Four U.S. Cities

    PubMed Central

    Swenson, Rebecca R.; Rizzo, Christie J.; Brown, Larry K.; Payne, Nanetta; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Salazar, Laura F.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.; Valois, Robert F.; Romer, Daniel; Hennessy, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Routine HIV testing is recommended for all adolescents ages 13 years and older. This study aims to report the prevalence of HIV testing among African American adolescents, describe characteristics of adolescents who have been tested, and identify potentially modifiable factors associated with greater likelihood of testing across gender. Methods African American adolescents ages 13 to 18 were recruited from community-based outreach in four U.S. cities. Present analyses include sexually active participants (N = 990; 52.3% female). Results Twenty-nine percent of adolescents had ever been tested for HIV. In a multivariate logistic regression adjusted for significant demographics, the strongest predictor of HIV testing among girls was prior STI testing (OR = 88.39) followed by pregnancy (OR = 2.75), risk reduction self-efficacy (OR = 2.28), and STI knowledge (OR = 2.25). Among boys, having had an STI test (OR = 38.09), having talked about testing with partners (OR = 3.49), and less religiosity (OR = 2.07) were associated with HIV testing. Conclusions African Americans adolescents are disproportionately at risk for HIV/AIDS, yet less than one-third of participants reported being tested. Those receiving sexual or reproductive healthcare services were most likely to be tested, but many teens at risk for HIV do not seek available services and others may face barriers to accessing healthcare. Findings provide support for increasing school-based educational programs due to the low rates of STI/HIV knowledge among teens. Additionally, culturally-sensitive programs promoting HIV testing among teens should foster skill-building for preventive behaviors and increase partner communication about testing. PMID:19661840

  9. Outbreak of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, Los Santos, Panama, 1999–2000

    PubMed Central

    Bayard, Vicente; Barria, Eduardo O.; Ruedas, Luis A.; Tinnin, David S.; Muñoz, Carlos; de Mosca, Itza B.; Guerrero, Gladys; Kant, Rudick; Garcia, Arsenio; Caceres, Lorenzo; Gracia, Fernando G.; Quiroz, Evelia; de Castillo, Zoila; Armien, Blas; Libel, Marlo; Mills, James N.; Khan, Ali S.; Nichol, Stuart T.; Rollin, Pierre E.; Ksiazek, Thomas G.; Peters, Clarence J.

    2004-01-01

    An outbreak of hantavirus pulmonary syndrome occurred in the province of Los Santos, Panama, in late 1999 and early 2000. Eleven cases were identified; 9 were confirmed by serology. Three cases were fatal; however, no confirmed case-patient died. Case-neighborhood serologic surveys resulted in an overall hantavirus antibody prevalence of 13% among household and neighborhood members from the outbreak foci. Epidemiologic investigations did not suggest person-to-person transmission of hantavirus infection. By use of Sin Nombre virus antigen, hantavirus antibodies were detected in Oligoryzomys fulvescens and Zygodontomys brevicauda cherriei. This outbreak resulted in the first documented cases of human hantavirus infections in Central America. PMID:15498167

  10. Peat deposits in Panama: Their potential for use in energy applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, A.; Thayer, G.; Cohen, A.D.; Allen, A.

    1986-12-01

    A major peak bog has been discovered in the Changuinola area of Panama. The bog averages 8-m deep, is thought to be 82 km/sup 2/, in area and the peat has an ash content of about 4%. It is estimated that this size peat bog could support a 30-MW power plant for 360 years. Preliminary cost estimates for using the peat in an electrical power plant give an estimated cost of electricity of 0.09$US/kWh if wet mining is used and 0.079$US/kWh if milled peat is used. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Adaptation of the Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum to Panamanian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Baerg, D C

    1987-09-01

    The Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum, acquired at the second passage level in splenectomized Colombian owl monkeys, was adapted to owl monkeys of Panamanian origin. Patent infections were induced in 22 of 27 unaltered and 20 of 21 splenectomized recipients during 19 serial passages. The infections were significantly more virulent in splenectomized than normal Panamanian owl monkeys, however recrudescences in seven normal monkeys achieved peak parasitemias 48 times greater than in the primary attack. These results describe the first reproducible infections of indigenous falciparum malaria in Panamanian owl monkeys. PMID:3310680

  12. Influence of small scale topography on early spring activity in martian polar areas. An example study based on DEM of Inca City region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portyankina, G.; Pommerol, A.; Aye, K.-M.; Thomas, N.; Mattson, S.; Hansen, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    By using the newly generated HiRISE DEM of Inca City region with 1-meter spatial resolution we are able to estimate the solar energy distribution over the surface on the scale of topographical irregularities, such as the sides of araneiforms channels. In the present study this DEM serves as a model terrain to test the previously proposed hypothesis of early initialisation of CO2 activity by solar illumination of topography on the meter-scale [1].

  13. Feeding habits and trophic level of the Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an important bycatch species from the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez-Preciado, Jose A.; Amezcua-Martinez, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian J.; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-10-14

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the SE Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results show that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences were not found according to size, diet or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt have a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid.

  14. Feeding Habits and Trophic Level of the Panama Grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an Important Bycatch Species from the Shrimp Trawl Fishery in the Gulf of California

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Preciado, José A.; Amezcua, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the southeastern Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results indicate that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences among grunt were not found according to size, diet, or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt has a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa as crustaceans. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid. PMID:25379548

  15. Feeding habits and trophic level of the Panama grunt Pomadasys panamensis, an important bycatch species from the shrimp trawl fishery in the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Preciado, José A; Amezcua, Felipe; Bellgraph, Brian; Madrid-Vera, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The Panama grunt is an abundant and commercially important species in the southeastern Gulf of California, but the research undertaken on this species is scarce despite its ecological and economic importance. We studied the feeding habits of Panama grunt through stomach content analyses as a first step towards understanding the biology of this species in the study area. Our results indicate that the Panama grunt is a benthic predator throughout its life cycle and feeds mainly on infaunal crustaceans. Diet differences among grunt were not found according to size, diet, or season. Shannon diversity index results indicate that Panama grunt has a limited trophic niche breadth with a diet dominated by a limited number of taxa as crustaceans. The estimated trophic level of this species is 3.59. Overall, the Panama grunt is a carnivorous fish occupying the intermediate levels of the trophic pyramid. PMID:25379548

  16. Viruses isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama, Ecuador, and Argentina: establishment of the Gamboa serogroup.

    PubMed

    Calisher, C H; Lazuick, J S; Justines, G; Francy, D B; Monath, T P; Gutierrez, E; Sabattini, M S; Bowen, G S; Jakob, W L

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four virus strains were isolated from Aedeomyia squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Ecuador. One additional strain each was isolated from this species from Panama and ARgentina. All 26 isolates were shown to be related serologically to prototype Gamboa virus, originally isolated from Ad. squamipennis mosquitoes collected in Panama. Antigenic comparisons of eight strains, including prototype Gamboa virus, indicated the existence of four distinct viruses. Neutralization tests with sera from a variety of mammalian and avian species from Argentina provided further evidence that Gamboa serogroup viruses are transmitted between Ad. squamipennis and birds. PMID:6111232

  17. Human diffusion and city influence.

    PubMed

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J

    2015-08-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  18. Human diffusion and city influence

    PubMed Central

    Lenormand, Maxime; Gonçalves, Bruno; Tugores, Antònia; Ramasco, José J.

    2015-01-01

    Cities are characterized by concentrating population, economic activity and services. However, not all cities are equal and a natural hierarchy at local, regional or global scales spontaneously emerges. In this work, we introduce a method to quantify city influence using geolocated tweets to characterize human mobility. Rome and Paris appear consistently as the cities attracting most diverse visitors. The ratio between locals and non-local visitors turns out to be fundamental for a city to truly be global. Focusing only on urban residents' mobility flows, a city-to-city network can be constructed. This network allows us to analyse centrality measures at different scales. New York and London play a central role on the global scale, while urban rankings suffer substantial changes if the focus is set at a regional level. PMID:26179991

  19. Digital reconstruction on geographical environment of Neolithic human activities in the Lingjiatan site of Chaohu City, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li; Zhou, Kunshu; Mo, Duowen

    2010-11-01

    The Chaohu Lake Basin is an important area for ancient human activities in East China. The Lingjiatan site, which is located at the southeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province, and 35 km north to the Yangtze River and 5 km south to the Taihu Mountain, is the most representative Neolithic Age site with advanced jade-carving techniques in this area. The 14C date of Lingjiatan Site is about 5600~5300aBP, the same time as the Hongshan culture and earlier than the Liangzhu culture, which falls into the Mid-Holocene epoch. Based on mid-high resolution remote sensing images and former archaeological materials, combined with field investigations and sampling analysis of the archaeological site profile of Lingjiatan Site as well as core drillings in the Chaohu Lake, the paper reconstructs the climate environment of the Lingjiatan site and the environmental background of ancient human activities during Mid-Holocene. The research results show that: (1) The ancients in Lingjiatan lived in the Holocene Optimum, its culture development was during the interim phase when the climate transformed from warm and wet to cool and dry. (2) The ground surface deposited in the last phase of late Pleistocene epoch (OSL dating is 11.6 +/-1.0 ka BP) was the living ground for Lingjiatan ancient humans. The sedimentary discontinuous surface may be caused by strong fluvial erosion under the warm and humid climatic conditions of the Mid-Holocene. (3) Originally, paleo-geomorphic surface was a level shallow mesa foreside southern part of Taihu Mountain, but was cut by fluvial waters and the geomorphologic configuration formed "finger-like" features alternately with strip hillocks and rivers. These features can be seen on the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing image, especially the depression area. This depression is now cropland, and was interpreted as the palaeochannels. (4) Based on the remote sensing image interpretation, the site was in a "peninsula shape" environment which had rivers flowing around the

  20. Digital reconstruction on geographical environment of Neolithic human activities in the Lingjiatan site of Chaohu City, East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinyuan; Zhang, Jie; Wu, Li; Zhou, Kunshu; Mo, Duowen

    2009-09-01

    The Chaohu Lake Basin is an important area for ancient human activities in East China. The Lingjiatan site, which is located at the southeast of Chaohu City, Anhui Province, and 35 km north to the Yangtze River and 5 km south to the Taihu Mountain, is the most representative Neolithic Age site with advanced jade-carving techniques in this area. The 14C date of Lingjiatan Site is about 5600~5300aBP, the same time as the Hongshan culture and earlier than the Liangzhu culture, which falls into the Mid-Holocene epoch. Based on mid-high resolution remote sensing images and former archaeological materials, combined with field investigations and sampling analysis of the archaeological site profile of Lingjiatan Site as well as core drillings in the Chaohu Lake, the paper reconstructs the climate environment of the Lingjiatan site and the environmental background of ancient human activities during Mid-Holocene. The research results show that: (1) The ancients in Lingjiatan lived in the Holocene Optimum, its culture development was during the interim phase when the climate transformed from warm and wet to cool and dry. (2) The ground surface deposited in the last phase of late Pleistocene epoch (OSL dating is 11.6 +/-1.0 ka BP) was the living ground for Lingjiatan ancient humans. The sedimentary discontinuous surface may be caused by strong fluvial erosion under the warm and humid climatic conditions of the Mid-Holocene. (3) Originally, paleo-geomorphic surface was a level shallow mesa foreside southern part of Taihu Mountain, but was cut by fluvial waters and the geomorphologic configuration formed "finger-like" features alternately with strip hillocks and rivers. These features can be seen on the Landsat ETM+ remote sensing image, especially the depression area. This depression is now cropland, and was interpreted as the palaeochannels. (4) Based on the remote sensing image interpretation, the site was in a "peninsula shape" environment which had rivers flowing around the

  1. Demography and natural history of the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1991-01-01

    Bats were marked and monitored on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, to study seasonal and annual variation in distribution, abundance, and natural history from 1975 through 1980. Data gathered advances our knowledge about flocking; abundance; feeding strategies; social behavior; species richness; population structure and stability; age and sex ratios; life expectancy and longevity; nightly, seasonal, and annual movements; synchrony within and between species in reproductive activity; timing of reproductive cycles; survival and dispersal of recruits; intra-and inter-specific relationships; and day and night roost selection. Barro Colorado Island (BCI) harbors large populations of bats that feed on the fruit of canopy trees, especially figs. These trees are abundant, and the individual asynchrony of their fruiting rhythms results in a fairly uniform abundance of fruit. When figs are scarce, a variety of other fruits is available to replace them. This relatively dependable food supply attracts a remarkably rich guild of bats. Although we marked all bats caught, we tried to maximize the number of Artibeus jamaicensis netted, because it is abundant (2/3 of the total catch of bats on BCI), easily captured by conventional means (mist nets set at ground level), and responds well to handling and marking. An average Artibeus jamaicensis is a 45 g frugivore that eats roughly its weight in fruit every night. These bats prefer figs and often seek them out even when other types of fruit they might eat are far more abundant. They commute several hundred meters to feeding trees on the average, feeding on fruit from one to four trees each night, and returning to a single fruiting tree an average of four nights in succession. The bats tend to fly farther when fewer fig trees are bearing ripe fruit, and they feed from fewer trees, on the average, when the moon is nearly full. These bats, like their congeners, do not feed in the fruiting tree itself. Instead, they select a fruit and

  2. Noise in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beristain, Sergio

    2001-05-01

    Mexico City is known to be the largest city in the world, inhabited by some 20 percent of the national population, so noise pollution is not strange to it, particularly in view of the fact that industry is not concentrated, but rather spread throughout the city. The international airport also lies within the city limits, in the midst of residential areas. The heavy traffic during rush hours in the morning and in the evening and the activities of the populace, together with special events, produce a noise problem that is difficult to assess and to solve. Nevertheless, with educational programs begun several years ago and noise campaigns planned for the near future, in addition to existing regulations, the problem is not completely out of control. This paper presents a discussion of the general noise problem and describes how authorities and institutions are dealing with it.

  3. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  4. Characterising Active Fault Earthquake Sources Beneath the Coastal Environments of Christchurch and Wellington Cities, New Zealand, Using Seismic Reflection Profiles and Fault Displacement Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, P.; Nodder, S.; Gorman, A. R.; Woelz, S.; Orpin, A. R.

    2014-12-01

    The coastal cities of Christchurch and Wellington, New Zealand, lie in different tectonic settings within the obliquely convergent Pacific-Australian plate boundary zone. Both cities have experienced damaging earthquakes in the last three years, which highlight the importance of locating and characterising hidden active faults close to urban areas. The devastating and geologically complex Canterbury earthquake sequence of 2010-2012 developed on the periphery of the plate boundary, and reactivated several previously unidentified strike-slip and reverse faults. Major aftershocks initially beneath land, generally migrated eastward over time, and finally advanced offshore into Pegasus Bay. A study of active submarine faulting beneath the bay highlights the role of inherited crustal structure and inversion tectonics. Marine seismic reflection data reveals that faults have very low slip rate and negligible post-glacial (<15 ka) deformation, which is consistent with inferred long recurrence intervals between large magnitude (Mw>6) earthquakes. Wellington City is surrounded by numerous high-slip rate strike-slip faults overlying the Hikurangi subduction zone. A dense network of secondary basement structures previously recognised throughout the region, mainly from tectonic geomorphology, have, until recently, been considered mostly inactive and excluded from seismic hazard models. We used high-resolution geophysical, bathymetric and sediment-core data to determine the structure, earthquake history and earthquake potential of a newly discovered active reverse fault beneath the inner reaches of Wellington Harbour. The fault has a slip rate of ~0.6 ± 0.3 mm/y, and a vertical displacement history indicating at least two large magnitude (Mw 6.3-7.1), surface-rupturing earthquakes in the last 10 ka. We infer that the fault extends southwards onshore beneath the city and potentially into Cook Strait, and represents a significant previously unrecognised seismic hazard.

  5. Seasonal pattern of avian Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes and implications for parasite transmission in central Panama.

    PubMed

    Loaiza, Jose R; Miller, Matthew J

    2013-11-01

    Aedeomyia squamipennis and Culex (Melanoconion) ocossa, two ubiquitous Neotropical mosquito species, are likely involved in the transmission of several bird pathogens in Gamboa, central Panama. However, knowledge on their eco-epidemiological profiles is still incomplete. Our goal in this study was to investigate temporal trends of vector density and their relationship with avian plasmodia prevalence. This information is central to identifying the risk posed by each vector species to the avian community locally. We found that A. squamipennis maintains stable population size across climatic seasons and thus maybe a more efficient vector of avian malaria than C. ocossa. In contrast, C. ocossa, which undergoes considerable population expansion in the rainy season and contraction in the dry season, is likely only an important avian malaria vector during part of the year. This is consistent with the larger number of parasite isolations and Plasmodium cyt b lineages recovered from A. squamipennis than from C. ocossa and might be explained by marked differences in their seasonality and host-feeding preferences. More Plasmodium PCR testing in mosquito communities from other areas of Panama might reveal additional vectors of avian plasmodia. PMID:23974324

  6. Species Composition and Distribution of Adult Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Panama

    PubMed Central

    LOAIZA, J. R.; BERMINGHAM, E.; SCOTT, M. E.; ROVIRA, J. R.; CONN, J. E.

    2010-01-01

    Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) species composition and distribution were studied using human landing catch data over a 35-yr period in Panama. Mosquitoes were collected from 77 sites during 228 field trips carried out by members of the National Malaria Eradication Service. Fourteen Anopheles species were identified. The highest average human biting rates were recorded from Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus (Wiedemann) (9.8 bites/person/night) and Anopheles (Anopheles) punctimacula (Dyar and Knab) (6.2 bites/person/night). These two species were also the most common, present in 99.1 and 74.9%, respectively, of the sites. Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis (Curry) was encountered mostly in the indigenous Kuna Yala Comarca along the eastern Atlantic coast, where malaria case history and average human biting rate (9.3 bites/person/night) suggest a local role in malaria transmission. An. albimanus, An. punctimacula, and Anopheles (Anopheles) vestitipennis (Dyar and Knab) were more abundant during the rainy season (May–December), whereas An. aquasalis was more abundant in the dry season (January–April). Other vector species collected in this study were Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai (Howard, Dyar, and Knab) and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis s.l. (Theobald). High diversity of Anopheles species and six confirmed malaria vectors in endemic areas of Panama emphasize the need for more detailed studies to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. PMID:18826025

  7. Panama coal to methanol project. Phase I. Feasibility Study. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-11-01

    This Technical Progress Report contains the results of the investigations performed for the Panama Coal to Methanol Project: Technical efforts associated with the gasification technology evaluation; evaluation of other related process technologies; results of the venture analyses, including the efforts made for structuring the project; results of the ongoing financial analyses and cost projections, including potential and use applications of methanol in Japan primarily for combustion turbine-combined cycle steam/electric utilization. At this time, and for the next few years, the Panama-based methanol fuel is more expensive than oil. However, when measured in terms of KWH production cost in Japan, the use of methanol fuel in combustion turbine, combined-cycle operations appears to create less expensive electric power than that produced from conventional coal direct fired operations using imported coal. This cost advantage arises from significantly lower capital costs and enhanced performance efficiencies associated with combined cycle power generators as contrasted with conventional coal plants equipped with scrubbers. Environmental and social land-use benefits are also much greater for the methanol fuel plant. The cost of electricity from a methanol-fueled combined cycle plant is also expected to compare favorably in Japan with electrical costs from a future liquefied natural gas fired plant.

  8. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is Rhodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  9. The presence of coconut in southern Panama in pre-Columbian times: clearing up the confusion

    PubMed Central

    Baudouin, Luc; Gunn, Bee F.; Olsen, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-Columbian presence of coconut on the Pacific coast of Panama is attested by a number of independent written accounts. However, recent papers question their accuracy and conclude that coconut was introduced to the region by the Spaniards after their conquests. Scope In order to examine the value of such claims, an extensive search was conducted of the relevant historical accounts of coconut in America and in the Orient. Key Results The Spanish chronicler Oviedo (1478–1557) is found to have effectively used fruit and seed size to distinguish coconut from other palms. In addition, it is shown that he has been inaccurately faulted with incorrectly representing a cluster of coconuts. The original drawing, a cluster of a native Bactris, was in the marginalia and was only assigned to coconut after Oviedo's death. Finally, the location is identified of a coastal Panamanian site described by Pedro Mártir de Anglería and where tidal dispersal of coconuts was observed. Conclusions This previously overlooked evidence confirms the pre-historical presence of coconut in Panama. Genetic data indicate that it must have been brought there directly or indirectly from the Philippines. But when, where and by whom remains a subject of research. Further molecular marker studies, computer simulation of natural drift and archaeological research could contribute to this research. PMID:24227445

  10. Demography of forest birds in Panama: How do transients affect estimates of survival rates?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brawn, J.D.; Karr, J.R.; Nichols, J.D.; Robinson, W.D.

    1998-01-01

    Estimates of annual survival rates for a multispecies sample of neotropical birds from Panama have proven controversial. Traditionally, tropical birds were thought to have high survival rates for their size, but analyses by Kart et al. (1990. Am. Nat. 136:277-91) contradicted that view, suggesting tropical birds may not have systematically high survival rates. A persistent criticism of that study has been that the estimates were biased by transient birds captured only once as they passed through the area being sampled. New models that formally adjust for transient individuals have been developed since 1990. Preliminary analyses using these models indicate that, despite some variation among species, overall estimates of survival rates for understory birds in Panama are not strongly affected by adjustments for transients. We also compare estimates of survival rates based on mark-recapture models with observations of colour-marked birds. The demographic traits of birds in the tropics (and elsewhere) vary within and among species according to combinations of historical and ongoing ecological factors. Understanding sources of this variation is the challenge for future work.

  11. Epidemiological patterns of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Panama. III. Endemic persistence of the disease.

    PubMed

    Herrer, A; Christensen, H A

    1976-01-01

    Endemic persistence of cutaneous leishmaniasis is described in El Aguacate, a community established in the forest of central Panama about 75 years ago. Physiographic pecularities partially isolate El Aguacate from other villages in the region. Some of the original forest environment has been preserved and man-biting species of phlebotomine sandflies were abundant as was the two-toed sloth, Choloepus hoffmanni, the principal reservoir host of Leishmania braziliensis in Panama. The inhabitants, as well as their dogs, were examined for natural leishmaniasis in 1969 and 1973. Mammals and phlebotomine sandflies were collected from 1968 to 1973 in a search for reservoir hosts and potential vectors of the disease. Similar studies were undertaken in two nearby villages during 1968 and 1969. L. braziliensis has persisted for many years in El Aguacate, and infection is acquired during childhood. Dogs also were found naturally infected, and the two-toed sloth showed yearly infection rates up to 47.8%. Parasites were demonstrated from a night monkey, Aotus trivirgatus. PMID:816214

  12. Eco-epidemiological aspects of Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma rangeli and their vector (Rhodnius pallescens) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Ana Maria de; Samudio, Franklyn E; Saldaña, Azael; Paz, Hector M; Calzada, José E

    2004-01-01

    The eco-epidemiology of T. cruzi infection was investigated in the Eastern border of the Panama Canal in Central Panama. Between 1999 and 2000, 1110 triatomines were collected: 1050 triatomines (94.6%) from palm trees, 27 (2.4%) from periurban habitats and 33 (3.0%) inside houses. All specimens were identified as R. pallescens. There was no evidence of vector domiciliation. Salivary glands from 380 R. pallescens revealed a trypanosome natural infection rate of 7.6%, while rectal ampoule content from 373 triatomines was 45%. Isoenzyme profiles on isolated trypanosomes demonstrated that 85.4% (n = 88) were T. cruzi and 14.6% (n = 15) were T. rangeli. Blood meal analysis from 829 R. pallescens demonstrated a zoophilic vector behavior, with opossums as the preferential blood source. Seroprevalence in human samples from both study sites was less than 2%. Our results demonstrate that T. cruzi survives in the area in balanced association with R. pallescens, and with several different species of mammals in their natural niches. However, the area is an imminent risk of infection for its population, consequently it is important to implement a community educational program regarding disease knowledge and control measures. PMID:15361974

  13. Ark and Archive: Making a Place for Long-Term Research on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Raby, Megan

    2015-12-01

    Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, may be the most studied tropical forest in the world. A 1,560-hectare island created by the flooding of the Panama Canal, BCI became a nature reserve and biological research station in 1923. Contemporaries saw the island as an "ark" preserving a sample of primeval tropical nature for scientific study. BCI was not simply "set aside," however. The project of making it a place for science significantly reshaped the island through the twentieth century. This essay demonstrates that BCI was constructed specifically to allow long-term observation of tropical organisms--their complex behaviors, life histories, population dynamics, and changing species composition. An evolving system of monitoring and information technology transformed the island into a living scientific "archive," in which the landscape became both an object and a repository of scientific knowledge. As a research site, BCI enabled a long-term, place-based form of collective empiricism, focused on the study of the ecology of a single tropical island. This essay articulates tropical ecology as a "science of the archive" in order to examine the origins of practices of environmental surveillance that have become central to debates about global change and conservation. PMID:27024937

  14. Frequency analysis of the 7-8 December 2010 extreme precipitation in the Panama Canal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamir, Eylon; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.; Murphy, Michael J.

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThe 7-8 December 2010 rainfall event in Panama produced record rainfall and streamflow that are about twice as much as for the previously observed large event in record. In this study we ask whether before the occurrence of this rainfall event, a return period estimate using the historical record and the commonly used statistical asymptotic distributions of extreme values could have indicated that such an event is probable. We examined the daily and 24-h mean areal rainfall over the entire Panama Canal Watershed with the Generalized Extreme Value, Gumbel, and Generalized Pareto distributions using the maximum likelihood approach for the parameter and uncertainty bounds estimation. We found that the solutions that maximized the log likelihood for these three distributions yield return period estimates that are larger than 2000 years. These return periods imply that the 2010 rainfall event was practically unforeseen. It is only the careful implementation of these distributions with full uncertainty analysis to define confidence intervals that yields estimates of return periods with substantial probabilities for such an event to occur. The GEV was found to be the most adequate distribution for this analysis, and the commonly-used Gumbel distribution, although indicated a good fit to the annual maxima series, attributed an extremely low probability for the occurrence of this event.

  15. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is hodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985

  16. Stable isotope signatures of seasonal precipitation on the Pacific coast of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Kern, Zoltán; Harmon, Russell S; Fórizs, István

    2016-01-01

    As calculated from data archived in the IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation programme, the amount-weighted local meteoric water line for the Pacific coast of central Panama is: δ(2)H = 7.63(±0.08) × δ(18)O + 6.51(±0.49). Amount-weighted mean isotopic values were regressed against the sea surface temperature (SST) fields of the adjacent tropical oceans. A negative correlation of precipitation isotope composition with Caribbean SSTs is observed only for the early wet season (May-June), whilst the mid-summer dry period is characterized by positive correlation with eastern Pacific SSTs, similar to the late wet season (October-November). The negative response of May-June rainfall isotopic composition to Caribbean SSTs is explained by a SST-mediated change in stratiform rain fraction from organized convective systems proximal to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The positive correlation for the rest of the wet season, when the organized convective zone of ITCZ and its attached stratiform belt are distant from the Pacific coast of Panama, is interpreted as simple evaporative temperature effect on isotopic fractionation. PMID:25761056

  17. Insights and implications for health departments from the evaluation of New York City's regulations on nutrition, physical activity, and screen time in child care centers.

    PubMed

    Nonas, Cathy; Silver, Lynn D; Kettel Khan, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene, seeking to address the epidemic of childhood obesity, issued new regulations on beverages, physical activity, and screen time in group child care centers. An evaluation was conducted to identify characteristics of New York City child care centers that have implemented these regulations and to examine how varying degrees of implementation affected children's behaviors. This article discusses results of this evaluation and how findings can be useful for other public health agencies. Knowing the characteristics of centers that are more likely to comply can help other jurisdictions identify centers that may need additional support and training. Results indicated that compliance may improve when rules established by governing agencies, national standards, and local regulatory bodies are complementary or additive. Therefore, the establishment of clear standards for obesity prevention for child care providers can be a significant public health achievement. PMID:25321629

  18. Catalogo General de Universidades, 1970-1971: Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama (General Catalog of Universities, 1970-1971: Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federacion de Universidades Privadas de America Central y Panama, Guatemala City (Guatemala).

    This document contains the 1970-1971 catalogues of five universities belonging to the Federation of Private Universities of Central America and Panama (FUPAC). The catalogues provide information on university administrators and staff, historical background, admission requirements, degree programs, scholarships, and courses. The catalogues included…

  19. Effect of land cover and use on dry season river runoff, runoff efficiency, and peak storm runoff in the seasonal tropics of Central Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ogden, Fred L.; Crouch, Trey D.; Stallard, Robert F.; Hall, Jefferson S.

    2013-01-01

    A paired catchment methodology was used with more than 3 years of data to test whether forests increase base flow in the dry season, despite reduced annual runoff caused by evapotranspiration (the “sponge-effect hypothesis”), and whether forests reduce maximum runoff rates and totals during storms. The three study catchments were: a 142.3 ha old secondary forest, a 175.6 ha mosaic of mixed age forest, pasture, and subsistence agriculture, and a 35.9 ha actively grazed pasture subcatchment of the mosaic catchment. The two larger catchments are adjacent, with similar morphology, soils, underlying geology, and rainfall. Annual water balances, peak runoff rates, runoff efficiencies, and dry season recessions show significant differences. Dry season runoff from the forested catchment receded more slowly than from the mosaic and pasture catchments. The runoff rate from the forest catchment was 1–50% greater than that from the similarly sized mosaic catchment at the end of the dry season. This observation supports the sponge-effect hypothesis. The pasture and mosaic catchment median runoff efficiencies were 2.7 and 1.8 times that of the forest catchment, respectively, and increased with total storm rainfall. Peak runoff rates from the pasture and mosaic catchments were 1.7 and 1.4 times those of the forest catchment, respectively. The forest catchment produced 35% less total runoff and smaller peak runoff rates during the flood of record in the Panama Canal Watershed. Flood peak reduction and increased streamflows through dry periods are important benefits relevant to watershed management, payment for ecosystem services, water-quality management, reservoir sedimentation, and fresh water security in the Panama Canal watershed and similar tropical landscapes.

  20. 76 FR 35199 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially-Exclusive Patent License; Sound Metrics Corp.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... Panama City, 110 Vernon Ave., Code CDL, Panama City, FL 32407-7001. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. James Shepherd, Patent Counsel, Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City, 110 Vernon Ave., Panama...

  1. Activity of Meropenem Combined with RPX7009, a Novel β-Lactamase Inhibitor, against Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates in New York City.

    PubMed

    Lapuebla, Amabel; Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Quale, John; Landman, David

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic to hospitals in New York City and other regions. RPX7009 is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against serine carbapenemases. We tested the activity of meropenem plus RPX7009 against 4,500 recent Gram-negative clinical isolates from 11 New York City hospitals. The meropenem-RPX7009 combination was found to have excellent in vitro activity against Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp., including multidrug-resistant (MDR) KPC-producing strains. Overall, 131/133 (98.5%) KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were inhibited by meropenem (≤1 μg/ml) plus RPX7009 (8 μg/ml). In a limited number of strains, the combination appeared to have reduced activity against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates with diminished ompK35 and ompK36 expression. The addition of RPX7009 did not affect the activity of meropenem against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The meropenem-RPX7009 combination shows promise as a novel agent against KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae and deserves further study. Other approaches will be needed to address multidrug-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, which typically possess different mechanisms of carbapenem resistance. PMID:26033723

  2. Activity of Meropenem Combined with RPX7009, a Novel β-Lactamase Inhibitor, against Gram-Negative Clinical Isolates in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Lapuebla, Amabel; Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Quale, John

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing Enterobacteriaceae are endemic to hospitals in New York City and other regions. RPX7009 is a novel β-lactamase inhibitor with activity against serine carbapenemases. We tested the activity of meropenem plus RPX7009 against 4,500 recent Gram-negative clinical isolates from 11 New York City hospitals. The meropenem-RPX7009 combination was found to have excellent in vitro activity against Escherichia coli, K. pneumoniae, and Enterobacter spp., including multidrug-resistant (MDR) KPC-producing strains. Overall, 131/133 (98.5%) KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae strains were inhibited by meropenem (≤1 μg/ml) plus RPX7009 (8 μg/ml). In a limited number of strains, the combination appeared to have reduced activity against KPC-producing K. pneumoniae isolates with diminished ompK35 and ompK36 expression. The addition of RPX7009 did not affect the activity of meropenem against Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The meropenem-RPX7009 combination shows promise as a novel agent against KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae and deserves further study. Other approaches will be needed to address multidrug-resistant A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa, which typically possess different mechanisms of carbapenem resistance. PMID:26033723

  3. Case Report: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Cuban Immigrants to Texas who Traveled through the Darién Jungle, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Meagan A.; Koshelev, Misha V.; Sun, Grace S.; Grekin, Sarah J.; Stager, Charles E.; Diwan, A. Hafeez; Wasko, Carina A.; Murray, Kristy O.; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is rarely seen in the United States. Four Cuban immigrants traveled along the same route at different times from Cuba to Ecuador, then northward, including through the Darién Jungle in Panama. These patients had chronic ulcerative non-healing skin lesions and were given a diagnosis of leishmaniasis. PMID:24865687

  4. Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, K; Kistler, H C; Cigelnik, E; Ploetz, R C

    1998-03-01

    Panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Previous work has indicated that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. In this study we tested whether lineages of the Panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. DNA sequences were obtained for translation elongation factor 1alpha and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes for F. oxysporum strains from banana, pathogenic strains from other hosts and putatively nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum. Cladograms for the two genes were highly concordant and a partition-homogeneity test indicated the two datasets could be combined. The tree inferred from the combined dataset resolved five lineages corresponding to "F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense" with a large dichotomy between two taxa represented by strains most commonly isolated from bananas with Panama disease. The results also demonstrate that the latter two taxa have significantly different chromosome numbers. F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1alpha and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana. Taken together, these results indicate Panama disease of banana is caused by fungi with independent evolutionary origins. PMID:9482835

  5. 5 CFR 315.601 - Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appointment of former employees of the Canal Zone Merit System or Panama Canal Employment System. 315.601 Section 315.601 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment...

  6. 5 CFR 315.609 - Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appointment based on service in United States positions of the Panama Canal Commission. 315.609 Section 315.609 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Career or Career-Conditional Appointment Under...

  7. Nature's agents or agents of empire? Entomological workers and environmental change during the construction of the Panama Canal.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Paul S

    2007-12-01

    This essay examines the role that entomological workers played in U.S. public health efforts during the construction of the Panama Canal (1904-1914). Entomological workers were critical to mosquito control efforts aimed at the reduction of tropical fevers such as malaria. But in the process of studying vector mosquitoes, they discovered that many of the conditions that produced mosquitoes were not intrinsic to tropical nature per se but resulted from the human-caused environmental disturbances that accompanied canal building. This realization did not mesh well with an American ideology of tropical triumphalism premised on the notion that the Americans had conquered unalloyed tropical nature in Panama. The result, however, was not a coherent counternarrative but a set of intra-administrative tensions over what controlling nature meant in Panama. Ultimately, entomological workers were loyal not just to the U.S. imperial mission in Panama but also to a modernist culture of science and to the workings of mosquito ecology as they understood them. PMID:18314643

  8. Education Exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, San Francisco, California, 1915. Bulletin, 1916, No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, W. Carson, Jr.

    1916-01-01

    The purpose of this bulletin is to present, for the benefit of school officials and others interested in education, a brief description of the education exhibits at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, held in San Francisco during 1915. Exhibits described herein are almost entirely limited to those that are educational in the narrower…

  9. The Ritual "Play of the Congos" of North-Central Panama: Its Sociolinguistic Implications. Sociolinguistic Working Paper Number 85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joly, Luz Graciela

    An excerpt from the "Play of the Congos," given in Congo, Spanish, and English, exemplifies the sociolinguistic features of the combined play and ritual language used by the Afro-Hispanic population in the Caribbean region of the Costa Abajo in north-central Panama. The sociolinguistic norms are an important part of the "regulation of the play,"…

  10. 78 FR 37784 - Foreign-Trade Zone 65-Panama City, Florida; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... on June 18, 2013. FTZ 65 was approved by the FTZ Board on January 16, 1981 (Board Order 171, 46 FR 8072, 1/26/81), and expanded on March 3, 1987 (Board Order 343, 52 FR 7634, 3/12/87), and on September 25, 2009 (Board Order 1646, 74 FR 53216, 10/16/09). The current zone includes the following...

  11. 75 FR 3901 - Notice of Availability of Record of Decision for the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... areas W-151, W-155, and W-470 and St. Andrew Bay, collectively known as the NSWC PCD Study Area. The... within the NSWC PCD Study Area. In its decision, the Navy considered applicable laws, regulations and... under Executive Order (EO) 12114, Environmental Effects Abroad of Major Federal Actions. The...

  12. 75 FR 3395 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; U.S. Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... Federal Register on Thursday, April 30, 2009 (74 FR 20156). This information will not be reprinted here in... rule has not changed (74 FR 20156; April 30, 2009; pages 20156-20157). Description of the Specified... remains 7,443 hours per year, and is qualitatively described in the proposed rule (74 FR 20157; April...

  13. Geochemical evaluation of the land use and human activities at a Medieval harbor site, Masuda city, Shimane Prefecture, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalai, Banzragch; Ishiga, Hiroaki

    2014-05-01

    Large-scale harbor and settlement sites from the latter half of the eleventh through sixteenth centuries have recently been discovered in the northern part of Masuda City, Shimane Prefecture, Japan. The sites were constructed at the river mouth delta of the Takatsu and Masuda rivers, facing the Sea of Japan. In former time, the mouths of the two rivers are thought to have formed a shallow lagoon connecting with the Sea of Japan. The harbor was thus well located for ships sailing along the sea coast, especially for conducting trade with the China mainland and the Korean peninsula. Archaeological investigations have identified over 800 construction pits, blacksmith hearths, harbor structures and numerous fragments of ceramic porcelain originating both from within Japan and from Asia (China, Korea, Vietnam and Thailand). It seems that the maritime trade network operated from this Medieval harbor site by the Masuda Clan was on an East Asian scale. Consequently, the harbor site can be expected to have received a considerable amount of ancient anthropogenic matter. Concentrations of 22 elements in 66 soil samples from the Nakazu Higashihara site were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, in order to identify the land use and human impacts on soil chemistry at the harbor site. The results show that significant differences in geochemical compositional exist between the northern and southern parts of the site due to differences in lithology and land use practice. The south area was a production area of this harbor site. Three different activity areas were recognized within this area (fire pit and charcoal area, building pillars, and a blacksmith furnace area), based on geochemical and archaeological information. Cluster analysis shows a strong relationship exists between As, Pb, Cu, Br, TS, MnO and P2O5 in the fire pit and charcoal area. These charcoal materials were likely derived from fuel used in firing and heating. Close relationships occur between Cr, Sr, Sc

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of HIV-1 in Panama: Origin of Non-B Subtypes in Samples Collected from 2007 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Bello, Gonzalo; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A.; González, Claudia; García-Morales, Claudia; Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Pascale, Juan M.

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Americas is mainly dominated by HIV subtype B. However, countries of South America and the Caribbean have recently reported changes in their circulating HIV-1 genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of the HIV-1 epidemic in Panama by the analysis of 655 polymerase gene (pol) sequences that were obtained from HIV-infected Panamanians diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from recently infected, antiretroviral drug-naïve and treatment-experienced subjects since mid-2007 to 2013. Viral RNA from plasma was extracted and sequences of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase genes were obtained. Bootscanning and phylogenetic methods were used for HIV subtyping and to trace the putative origin of non-B subtype strains. Our results showed that HIV-1 infections in Panama are dominated by subtype B (98.9%). The remaining 1.1% is represented by a diverse collection of recombinant variants including: three URFs_BC, one CRF20_BG, and one CRF28/29_BF, in addition to one subtype F1 and one subtype C, none of which were previously reported in Panama. The non-B subtype variants detected in Panama were probably introduced from Brazil (subtype F1 and CRF28/29_BF), Cuba (CRF20_BG), Dominican Republic (URFs_BC) and India (subtype C). Panama is the geographical vertex that connects the North with South America and the Caribbean through trade and cultural relations, which may explain the observed introductions of non-B subtype HIV-1 variants from both the Caribbean and South America into this Central American country. PMID:24454808

  15. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in Panama: origin of non-B subtypes in samples collected from 2007 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, Yaxelis; Bello, Gonzalo; Castillo Mewa, Juan; Martínez, Alexander A; González, Claudia; García-Morales, Claudia; Avila-Ríos, Santiago; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo; Pascale, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Phylogenetic studies have suggested that the HIV-1 epidemic in the Americas is mainly dominated by HIV subtype B. However, countries of South America and the Caribbean have recently reported changes in their circulating HIV-1 genetic profiles. The aim of this study was to characterize the molecular profile of the HIV-1 epidemic in Panama by the analysis of 655 polymerase gene (pol) sequences that were obtained from HIV-infected Panamanians diagnosed between 1987 and 2013. Blood samples were collected from recently infected, antiretroviral drug-naïve and treatment-experienced subjects since mid-2007 to 2013. Viral RNA from plasma was extracted and sequences of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase genes were obtained. Bootscanning and phylogenetic methods were used for HIV subtyping and to trace the putative origin of non-B subtype strains. Our results showed that HIV-1 infections in Panama are dominated by subtype B (98.9%). The remaining 1.1% is represented by a diverse collection of recombinant variants including: three URFs_BC, one CRF20_BG, and one CRF28/29_BF, in addition to one subtype F1 and one subtype C, none of which were previously reported in Panama. The non-B subtype variants detected in Panama were probably introduced from Brazil (subtype F1 and CRF28/29_BF), Cuba (CRF20_BG), Dominican Republic (URFs_BC) and India (subtype C). Panama is the geographical vertex that connects the North with South America and the Caribbean through trade and cultural relations, which may explain the observed introductions of non-B subtype HIV-1 variants from both the Caribbean and South America into this Central American country. PMID:24454808

  16. The role of bank credit for cattle raising in financing tropical deforestation: An economic case study from Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Ledec, G.

    1992-01-01

    Panama's rapid deforestation for cattle pasture is causing serious environmental problems, as well as negative economic and social consequences. Bank credit encourages deforestation by making cattle pasture expansion more affordable, more profitable, or less risky. Two governmental banks in Panama supply most of the institutional credit provided to small- and medium-scale ranchers, through loans from the Inter-American Development Bank and World Bank. Panama's large-scale ranchers obtain credit mostly from private commercial banks at subsidized interest rates. This study estimates that at least 7-10 percent of Panama's annual deforestation is due to governmental bank cattle credit. Cattle credit is more important in the loss of remaining forest fragments in long-settled areas than in forest-to-pasture conversion in frontier areas. However, because of the high environmental value of these forest remnants, their credit-induced loss is a serious public policy problem. Other incentives for cattle pasture expansion include beef markets, securing land claims, land price speculation, tax advantages, and the prestige value of cattle ranching. With care, the findings from this study can be generalized to many other tropical Latin American countries. Options available for minimizing deforestation include prohibiting or reducing institutional credit to cattle ranchers, restricting cattle credit to areas where little or no potential exists for additional deforestation, and eliminating interest rate subsidies on cattle credit. Such credit policy reforms would also improve economic efficiency and income distribution. other policy variables also influence Panama's deforestation rate: road construction and improvement, establishment and enforcement of protected areas, land titling laws and procedures, taxes, commercial forestry policies, beef pricing and export policies, the siting of hydroelectric projects, and policies that promote alternative employment for forest settlers.

  17. Lower Miocene Stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and Its Bearing on the Central American Peninsula

    PubMed Central

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2008-01-01

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1–2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83–19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19–14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24–20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the “La Boca Formation” (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a

  18. Overexposure of radiation therapy patients in Panama: problem recognition and follow-up measures.

    PubMed

    Borrás, Cari

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes and analyzes the responses of various organizations that provided assistance to the National Oncology Institute (Instituto Oncológico Nacional, ION) of Panama following the overexposure of 28 radiation therapy patients at the ION in late 2000 and early 2001. The report also looks at the long-term measures that were adopted at the ION in response to the overexposure incident, as well as implications that the incident has for other cancer treatment centers worldwide. In March 2001, the director of the ION was notified of serious overreactions in patients undergoing radiation therapy for cancer treatment. Of the 478 patients treated for pelvic cancers between August 2000 and March 2001, 3 of them had died, possibly from an overdose of radiation. In response, the Government of Panama invited international experts to carry out a full investigation of the situation. Medical physicists from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were among those invited. They ascertained that 56 patients treated with partially blocked teletherapy fields for cancers of the uterine cervix, endometrium, prostate, or rectum, had had their treatment times calculated using a computerized treatment planning system. PAHO's medical physicists calculated the absorbed doses received by the patients and found that, of these 56 patients, only 11 had been treated with acceptable errors of +/-5%. The doses received by 28 of the 56 patients had errors ranging from +10 to +105%. These are the patients identified by ION physicists as overexposed. Twenty-three of the 28 overexposed patients had died by September 2005, with at least 18 of the deaths being from radiation effects, mostly rectal complications. The clinical, psychological, and legal consequences of the overexposures crippled cancer treatments in Panama and prompted PAHO to assess radiation oncology practices in the countries of Latin American and the Caribbean. ION clinicians evaluated the outcome of 125 non

  19. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, A.G.; Aubry, M.-P.; Berggren, W.A.; Collins, Luke S.; Kunk, M.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5-18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidities. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  20. Multiple voluminous sector collapses at Volcán Barú, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, J. A.; Rose, W. I.

    2010-12-01

    Our recent work on Volcán Barú, an andesitic dome complex in Western Panama, has revealed a significant hazard from debris avalanches. Field observations of volcanic debris avalanche deposits and study of aerial photo data have revealed two avalanche units from Barú, the Barriles and the Caisán Deposits, both attributed to sector collapse of the western flank. Sherrod and others, 2007, also recognized this as one of the potential volcanic hazards of Panama's youngest volcanic center. The Barriles Deposit yielded two radiocarbon ages: 8590 ±50 ybp and 8000 ±30 ybp. The Caisán Deposit was also dated and is beyond the radiocarbon range (>43,000 ybp). From satellite imagery and field observations of distal hummocks, the total runout length of the Caisán deposit was ˜50 km covering 1180-km2. The Barriles Deposit extended to about 43 km. Despite heavy vegetation of the field area, 576-km2 were analyzed and over 4000 individual hummocks were digitized from aerial photography. Statistical analysis of hummock locations and geometries depict flow patterns over the entire debris fan and reflect the effects of underlying topography. The Barriles avalanche deposit has an estimated volume of 39 km3 to 61 km3 while the Caisán Deposit is slightly larger: 57 km3 to 64 km3. We conclude that debris avalanches of Volcán Barú are rare examples of unconfined volcanic debris avalanche deposits that rank among the world's most voluminous such as ancestral Mount Shasta, USA; Socompa, Chile/Argentina; and Shiveluch, Russia. Supported by the NSF Partnerships in International Research and Education Grant [0530109] this work is part of an on-going collaboration between the Michigan Tech Geology Department and Peace Corps. Reference: Sherrod, D.R., Vallance, J.W., Tapia Espinosa, A., and McGeehin, J.P., 2007, Volcán Barú eruptive history and volcano-hazards assessment, Open-File Report 2007-1401: Reston, VA, The U.S. Geological Survey, p. 33. A view East into the crater of Volc

  1. Lower Miocene stratigraphy along the Panama Canal and its bearing on the Central American Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Michael Xavier; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-01-01

    Before the formation of the Central American Isthmus, there was a Central American Peninsula. Here we show that southern Central America existed as a peninsula as early as 19 Ma, based on new lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and strontium chemostratigraphic analyses of the formations exposed along the Gaillard Cut of the Panama Canal. Land mammals found in the Miocene Cucaracha Formation have similar body sizes to conspecific taxa in North America, indicating that there existed a terrestrial connection with North America that allowed gene flow between populations during this time. How long did this peninsula last? The answer hinges on the outcome of a stratigraphic dispute: To wit, is the terrestrial Cucaracha Formation older or younger than the marine La Boca Formation? Previous stratigraphic studies of the Panama Canal Basin have suggested that the Cucaracha Formation lies stratigraphically between the shallow-marine Culebra Formation and the shallow-to-upper-bathyal La Boca Formation, the latter containing the Emperador Limestone. If the La Boca Formation is younger than the Cucaracha Formation, as many think, then the peninsula was short-lived (1-2 m.y.), having been submerged in part by the transgression represented by the overlying La Boca Formation. On the other hand, our data support the view that the La Boca Formation is older than the Cucaracha Formation. Strontium dating shows that the La Boca Formation is older (23.07 to 20.62 Ma) than both the Culebra (19.83-19.12 Ma) and Cucaracha (Hemingfordian to Barstovian North American Land Mammal Ages; 19-14 Ma) formations. The Emperador Limestone is also older (21.24-20.99 Ma) than the Culebra and Cucaracha formations. What has been called the "La Boca Formation" (with the Emperador Limestone), is re-interpreted here as being the lower part of the Culebra Formation. Our new data sets demonstrate that the main axis of the volcanic arc in southern Central America more than likely existed as a peninsula

  2. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    Easson, Cole G; Matterson, Kenan O; Freeman, Christopher J; Archer, Stephanie K; Thacker, Robert W

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson's diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study

  3. Variation in species diversity and functional traits of sponge communities near human populations in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    PubMed Central

    Matterson, Kenan O.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Archer, Stephanie K.; Thacker, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have renewed interest in sponge ecology by emphasizing the functional importance of sponges in a broad array of ecosystem services. Many critically important habitats occupied by sponges face chronic stressors that might lead to alterations in their diversity, relatedness, and functional attributes. We addressed whether proximity to human activity might be a significant factor in structuring sponge community composition, as well as potential functional roles, by monitoring sponge diversity and abundance at two structurally similar sites that vary in distance to areas of high coastal development in Bocas Del Toro, Panama. We surveyed sponge communities at each site using belt transects and differences between two sites were compared using the following variables: (1) sponge species richness, Shannon diversity, and inverse Simpson’s diversity; (2) phylogenetic diversity; (3) taxonomic and phylogenetic beta diversity; (4) trait diversity and dissimilarity; and (5) phylogenetic and trait patterns in community structure. We observed significantly higher sponge diversity at Punta Caracol, the site most distant from human development (∼5 km). Although phylogenetic diversity was lower at Saigon Bay, the site adjacent to a large village including many houses, businesses, and an airport, the sites did not exhibit significantly different patterns of phylogenetic relatedness in species composition. However, each site had a distinct taxonomic and phylogenetic composition (beta diversity). In addition, the sponge community at Saigon included a higher relative abundance of sponges with high microbial abundance and high chlorophyll a concentration, whereas the community at Punta Caracol had a more even distribution of these traits, yielding a significant difference in functional trait diversity between sites. These results suggest that lower diversity and potentially altered community function might be associated with proximity to human populations. This study

  4. Variation in deformation of the South Panama Accretionary Prism: Response to oblique subduction and trench sediment variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Mary E.; Moore, Gregory F.

    1990-08-01

    Migrated single-channel seismic lines and Sea-MARC II side scan and bathymetry data document an active accretionary prism along the obliquely convergent margin of south Panama, a region previously believed to be a transform margin. The eastern flank of the Coiba Ridge is being subducted in this region, creating the requisite geometry for along-strike variation in trench sediment thickness and type. The regional east dip of the downgoing plate causes the depth of the oceanic crust along the trench to drop approximately 1800 m from west to east. In the western region of the study area the incoming sedimentary section consists of approximately 600 m of pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. A wedge of trench turbidites that overlies the incoming hemipelagic sediments thickens from less than 100 m in the western region to more than 900 m in the eastern region of the study area. The eastward increase in sediment thickness correlates with the following changes in the accretionary prism: (1) decrease in initial surface slope; (2) broadening of the inner trench slope; (3) increase in thrust spacing; (4) steepening of frontal thrusts; and (5) fold development. Each of the responses reflects, in varying degrees, the increase in volume and changing physical properties of the accreted material, as well as the changing shear strength of the décollement. The increase in overburden pressure and compaction in the deeper sediments, together with the change in lithology from oceanic to trenchfill sediments, should produce an eastward increase in sediment shear strength both within the wedge and along its base. Because the décollement will tend to form where the pore fluid pressure-overburden ratio is at a maximum, the shear strength within the wedge should increase relative to basal shear strength. Decreased surface slopes will result from the increasing contrast in shear strength between the wedge and its base.

  5. City Planning Unit: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, William Edward

    Described is a project designed to make government lessons and economics more appealing to sixth-grade students by having them set up and run a model city. General preparation procedures and set-up of the project, specific lesson plans, additional activities, and project evaluation are examined. An actual 3-dimensional model city was set up on…

  6. City Kids Go Green.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tricia

    1993-01-01

    Describes Outward Bound Urban Resources Initiative, a six-week summer course whose goal is to work with urban youth to develop solutions for local environmental problems. Among the activities described include converting city lots into parks, neighborhood cleanup, and tree planting. (MDH)

  7. City Forms, Country Forms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guadadiello, Anthony S.

    1983-01-01

    The program for artistically talented in the Jersey City Public Schools primarily serves a disadvantaged population. Among its activities are field trips to the countryside and to local neighborhoods. Students get new visual experiences which they can compare to familiar ones and are encouraged to use in their artwork. (CS)

  8. Physical activity patterns and its influencing factors among high school students of Izeh city: Application of some constructs of health belief model

    PubMed Central

    Salahshuri, Arash; Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Mostafavi, Firoozeh

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study has been conducted to identify the roles of self-efficacy, benefits of and barriers to physical activity, and its relationship with physical activity in male and female high school students in the city of Izeh, Iran. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive analytical study, 500 students (200 boys and 300 girls) from high schools of Izeh city during the period 2011-2012 were chosen using the multistage random sampling method. The data for this study was acquired through a multisectional questionnaire that included sections as follows: Demographic characteristics, self-efficacy, and perceived benefits and barriers. The gathered data was then studied and analyzed. Statistical tests such as independent t-tests, Spearman's correlation, Pearson's correlation coefficient and linear regression were used to interpret and analyze the data. Results: Data analysis showed that the mean age of male participants was 15.67 ± 0.95 years and females 15.86 ± 1.16 years. The average weekly time of physical activity in male students was 424.74 ± 158.48 min and in females 186.63 ± 90.59 min. The mean scores for self-efficacy and perceived benefits of physical activity were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. There was a positive and significant correlation between the mean scores for perceived self-efficacy and the weekly time in male students spent on physical activity as well as the mean scores for perceived benefits and the weekly time spent on physical activity in both genders. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that many factors influence students’ physical activity; however, the role of these factors is not identical in the two genders. An understanding of these factors helps educationalists and other health experts design appropriate interventions. PMID:24741665

  9. Spread of epidemic Clostridium difficile NAP1/027 in Latin America: case reports in Panama.

    PubMed

    López-Ureña, Diana; Quesada-Gómez, Carlos; Miranda, Erick; Fonseca, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Cavallini, Evelyn

    2014-02-01

    The rate and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have been linked to the emergence and spread of the hypervirulent toxigenic strain NAP1/027. This strain has been responsible for large outbreaks in healthcare facilities in North America and Europe and most recently in Latin America. This is the first report of the NAP1 strain in Panama. It suggests that the spread of C. difficile NAP1 throughout Latin America could be a possibility as evidenced in the following case reports. Five isolates typed as NAP1 had tcdA, tcdB, binary toxin gene cdtB and tcdC deletion. All isolates were resistant to clindamycin, fluoroquinolones and rifampicin. Under this scenario, surveillance programmes for CDI should be implemented in public health facilities in Latin America and diagnosis of CDI should be considered, especially in patients with predisposing factors. PMID:24287669

  10. Anthropogenic mortality on coral reefs in Caribbean Panama predates coral disease and bleaching.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Katie L; Jackson, Jeremy B C; Angioletti, Christopher V; Leonard-Pingel, Jill; Guilderson, Thomas P

    2012-06-01

    Caribbean reef corals have declined precipitously since the 1980s due to regional episodes of bleaching, disease and algal overgrowth, but the extent of earlier degradation due to localised historical disturbances such as land clearing and overfishing remains unresolved. We analysed coral and molluscan fossil assemblages from reefs near Bocas del Toro, Panama to construct a timeline of ecological change from the 19th century-present. We report large changes before 1960 in coastal lagoons coincident with extensive deforestation, and after 1960 on offshore reefs. Striking changes include the demise of previously dominant staghorn coral Acropora cervicornis and oyster Dendrostrea frons that lives attached to gorgonians and staghorn corals. Reductions in bivalve size and simplification of gastropod trophic structure further implicate increasing environmental stress on reefs. Our paleoecological data strongly support the hypothesis, from extensive qualitative data, that Caribbean reef degradation predates coral bleaching and disease outbreaks linked to anthropogenic climate change. PMID:22462739

  11. Evolving protected-area impacts in Panama: impact shifts show that plans require anticipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haruna, Akiko; Pfaff, Alexander; van den Ende, Sander; Joppa, Lucas

    2014-03-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are the leading forest conservation policy, so accurate evaluation of future PA impact is critical in conservation planning. Yet by necessity impact evaluations use past data. Here we argue that forward-looking plans should blend such evaluations with anticipation of shifts in threats. Applying improved methods to evaluate past impact, we provide rigorous support for that conceptual approach by showing that PAs’ impacts on deforestation shifted with land use. We study the Republic of Panama, where species-dense tropical forest faces real pressure. Facing variation in deforestation pressure, the PAs’ impacts varied across space and time. Thus, if shifts in pressure levels and patterns could be anticipated, that could raise impact.

  12. Acanthodasys caribbeanensis sp. n., a new species of Thaumastodermatidae (Gastrotricha, Macrodasyida) from Belize and Panama

    PubMed Central

    Hochberg, Rick; Atherton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We describe one new species of Acanthodasys (Gastrotricha, Macrodasyida, Thaumastodermatidae) collected from sublittoral sites around Carrie Bow Cay, Belize and Isla Colón in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, Panama. Though eight species of Acanthodasys are currently recognized, no species has yet been reported from the Caribbean. Acanthodasys caribbeanensis sp. n. is characterized by the lack of lateral adhesive tubes, the presence of ventrolateral adhesive tubes, and with cuticular armature in the form of both spineless and spined scales. The spineless scales are not elliptical as in other species of Acanthodasys, but are instead variable in shape and closely resemble the spineless scales of species of Diplodasys. Spined scales bear uniancres up to 50 µm long and are the largest reported in the genus. Uniancres are arranged dorsally around the mouth rim and distributed in five distinguishable columns. Adult size varies from 325–625 µm long. PMID:21594012

  13. Acanthodasys caribbeanensis sp. n., a new species of Thaumastodermatidae (Gastrotricha, Macrodasyida) from Belize and Panama.

    PubMed

    Hochberg, Rick; Atherton, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    We describe one new species of Acanthodasys (Gastrotricha, Macrodasyida, Thaumastodermatidae) collected from sublittoral sites around Carrie Bow Cay, Belize and Isla Colón in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, Panama. Though eight species of Acanthodasys are currently recognized, no species has yet been reported from the Caribbean. Acanthodasys caribbeanensissp. n. is characterized by the lack of lateral adhesive tubes, the presence of ventrolateral adhesive tubes, and with cuticular armature in the form of both spineless and spined scales. The spineless scales are not elliptical as in other species of Acanthodasys, but are instead variable in shape and closely resemble the spineless scales of species of Diplodasys. Spined scales bear uniancres up to 50 µm long and are the largest reported in the genus. Uniancres are arranged dorsally around the mouth rim and distributed in five distinguishable columns. Adult size varies from 325-625 µm long. PMID:21594012

  14. An introduced pentastomid parasite (Raillietiella frenata) infects native cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Panama.

    PubMed

    Kelehear, Crystal; Saltonstall, Kristin; Torchin, Mark E

    2015-04-01

    The pentastomid parasite, Raillietiella frenata, is native to Asia where it infects the Asian House gecko, Hemidactylus frenatus. This gecko has been widely introduced and recently R. frenata was found in introduced populations of cane toads (Rhinella marina) in Australia, indicating a host-switch from introduced geckos to toads. Here we report non-native adult R. frenata infecting the lungs of native cane toads in Panama. Eight of 64 toads were infected (median = 2.5, range = 1-80 pentastomids/toad) and pentastomid prevalence was positively associated with the number of buildings at a site, though further sampling is needed to confirm this pattern. We postulate that this pattern is likely due to a host shift of this parasite from an urban-associated introduced gecko. This is the first record of this parasite infecting cane toads in their native range, and the first instance of this parasite occurring in Central America. PMID:25394910

  15. Low Frequency Radar Sensor Observations of Tropical Forests in the Panama Canal Area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imhoff, M. L.; Lawrence, W.; Condit, R.; Wright, J.; Johnson, P.; Hyer, J.; May, L.; Carson, S.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A synthetic aperture radar sensor operating in 5 bands between 80 and 120 MHz was flown over forested areas in the canal zone of the Republic of Panama in an experiment to measure biomass in heavy tropical forests. The sensor is a pulse coherent SAR flown on a small aircraft and oriented straight down. The doppler history is processed to collect data on the ground in rectangular cells of varying size over a range of incidence angles fore and aft of nadir (+45 to - 45 degrees). Sensor data consists of 5 frequency bands with 20 incidence angles per band. Sensor data for over 12+ sites were collected with forest stands having biomass densities ranging from 50 to 300 tons/ha dry above ground biomass. Results are shown exploring the biomass saturation thresholds using these frequencies, the system design is explained, and preliminary attempts at data visualization using this unique sensor design are described.

  16. A new species of Lophostoma d'Orbigny, 1836 (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) from Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Velazco, Paúl M.; Gardner, Alfred L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of a new species of Lophostoma from Panama, which we name L. kalkoae. This new species resembles L. carrikeri and L. yasuni in possessing a white venter, but is distinguishable from both by external and cranial characteristics. The new species is similar in size to L. carrikeri and L. schulzi. Lophostoma sp. nov. can be most easily recognized by its combination of white venter, postauricular patches connected by a thin line of pale hair to the white fur on the chest, elongated clitoris and swollen labia, less strongly developed lateral projection of mastoid processes, well-marked indentation on the lingual cingulum of the upper canine, well-developed P3, well-developed posterior lingual cusp on the cingulum of P4, and parastyle absent on M1 and M2. We present a dichotomous key for the genus Lophostoma and a map showing all the localities where white-bellied Lophostoma have been recorded.

  17. Radar signal return from near-shore surface and shallow subsurface features, Darien Province, Panama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, B. C.; Dellwig, L. F.

    1973-01-01

    The AN/APQ-97 radar imagery over eastern Panama is analyzed. The imagery was directed toward extraction of geologic and engineering data and the establishment of operational parameters. Subsequent investigations emphasized landform identification and vegetation distribution. The parameters affecting the observed return signal strength from such features are considered. Near-shore ocean phenomena were analyzed. Tidal zone features such as mud flats and reefs were identified in the near range, but were not detectable in the far range. Surface roughness dictated the nature of reflected energy (specular or diffuse). In surf zones, changes in wave train orientation relative to look direction, the slope of the surface, and the physical character of the wave must be considered. It is concluded that the establishment of the areal extent of the tidal flats, distributary channels, and reefs is practical only in the near to intermediate range under minimal low tide conditions.

  18. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and east Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time

    SciTech Connect

    Keigwin, L.

    1982-07-23

    Comparisons of carbon isotopic data on benthic foraminifera from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 502 (western Caribbean) and 503 (eastern Pacific) indicate that the difference between the Atlantic and the Pacific in the per mil enrichment in carbon-13 of total dissolved carbon dioxide increased about 6 million years ago and again 3 million years ago, when the difference reached the modern level (1 per mil). Comparisons of planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic data for the Caribbean and the Pacific suggest that the salinity of Caribbean surface waters began increasing 4 million years ago, possibly in response to shoaling of the Panama isthmus. These results suggest that modern circulation patterns in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific developed by 3 million years ago in concert with changing tectonic, climatic, and biogeographic patterns.

  19. City 2020+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  20. Assessment of the dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus (Perciformes: Coryphaenidae) fishery in Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Héctor M; Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Vega, Angel J; Robles, Yolany A

    2015-09-01

    The dolphinfish (Coryphaena hippunis) is a highly migratory pelagic species commercially exploited by industrial, artisanal and recreational fisheries in tropical and subtropical areas of the world's oceans. Herein, we evaluated the dolphinfish industrial fishery in Pacific Panama for the first time generating a growth model and examining fluctuations in annual total catch and in catch per unit effort (CPUE) over a four-year period (2006-2009). Annual and monthly catch values and biological parameters of 14913 individuals were obtained onboard industrial vessels, landing sites and records from processing plants. Size frequency for industrial vessels showed a normal distribution between 353 and 1,715 mm (average, 1010.85 mm; n = 10,459). Fish weight averaged 4.94 kg (SD). Sex ratio was slightly biased toward females. More than 90% of the analyzed fish were sexually mature. The length-weight relationship was positive and significant, reflecting allometric growth. Growth parameters using the von Bertalanffy equation revealed a growth efficiency of θ = 4.61, which is within the reported range for Coryphaena hippurus (3.95-4.70). The largest fish were between age classes 2 and 3 (700 - 1400 mm). Total catch per year and catch per unit effort (CPUE) per year fluctuated, with the highest values recorded between 2008 and 2009. Catch values reported herein are preliminary and appear to be below those recorded elsewhere in the region and cautiously may represent an indicator of sustainable use of this marine resource even considering the absence of management actions in Panama. PMID:26666127

  1. Late Tertiary/Quaternary volcanics of southern Costa Rica and northern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Roy, A.; Byerly, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The recent tectonic evolution of the Isthmus of Panama is marked by a complexity imparted by a subduction zone - magmatic arc, a transform plate boundary, and the attempted subduction of an aseismic ridge. In northern Panama andesites form the morphologically young Chiriqui stratovolcano, while in southern Costa Rica they are found interbedded with thick lahars. Two groups of andesites occur in the region. One is low in Si and K (Group I); the other high in Si and K (Group II). The Panamanian andesites belong to both the groups, while Costa Rican andesites are restricted to Group II. Group I andesites are glassy, plagioclase-phyric (An45 rims), and contain abundant augite (Wo46En46Fs8) and magnetite. Rare, resorbed olivine (Fo82) and amphibole are occasionally observed. The Group II andesites have similar mineralogy but also contain abundant pargasitic hornblende and minor orthopyroxene or pigeonite. Xenoliths are common in the Group II andesites of Chiriqui Volcano. Two types of xenoliths are recognized. Cumulate-textured, hornblende gabbro xenoliths vary from nearly pure plagioclase to nearly pure amphibole. These gabbroic xenoliths contain plagioclase (An90 cores to An53 rims), augite, and pargasitic hornblende often displaying the same reaction products as found in the andesites. These xenoliths are interpreted as cognate. These andesites are all characterized by high alkalis and alkali earths; Group II have over 1500 ppm Ba and 1000 ppm Sr. They are apparently produced by partial melting of a highly metasomatised mantle followed by high-pressure fractionation dominated by hornblende.

  2. Ancient Nursery Area for the Extinct Giant Shark Megalodon from the Miocene of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Pimiento, Catalina; Ehret, Dana J.; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Hubbell, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    Background As we know from modern species, nursery areas are essential shark habitats for vulnerable young. Nurseries are typically highly productive, shallow-water habitats that are characterized by the presence of juveniles and neonates. It has been suggested that in these areas, sharks can find ample food resources and protection from predators. Based on the fossil record, we know that the extinct Carcharocles megalodon was the biggest shark that ever lived. Previous proposed paleo-nursery areas for this species were based on the anecdotal presence of juvenile fossil teeth accompanied by fossil marine mammals. We now present the first definitive evidence of ancient nurseries for C. megalodon from the late Miocene of Panama, about 10 million years ago. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected and measured fossil shark teeth of C. megalodon, within the highly productive, shallow marine Gatun Formation from the Miocene of Panama. Surprisingly, and in contrast to other fossil accumulations, the majority of the teeth from Gatun are very small. Here we compare the tooth sizes from the Gatun with specimens from different, but analogous localities. In addition we calculate the total length of the individuals found in Gatun. These comparisons and estimates suggest that the small size of Gatun's C. megalodon is neither related to a small population of this species nor the tooth position within the jaw. Thus, the individuals from Gatun were mostly juveniles and neonates, with estimated body lengths between 2 and 10.5 meters. Conclusions/Significance We propose that the Miocene Gatun Formation represents the first documented paleo-nursery area for C. megalodon from the Neotropics, and one of the few recorded in the fossil record for an extinct selachian. We therefore show that sharks have used nursery areas at least for 10 millions of years as an adaptive strategy during their life histories. PMID:20479893

  3. Soil nutrient-landscape relationships in a lowland tropical rainforest in Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barthold, F.K.; Stallard, R.F.; Elsenbeer, H.

    2008-01-01

    Soils play a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles as spatially distributed sources and sinks of nutrients. Any spatial patterns depend on soil forming processes, our understanding of which is still limited, especially in regards to tropical rainforests. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of landscape properties, with an emphasis on the geometry of the land surface, on the spatial heterogeneity of soil chemical properties, and to test the suitability of soil-landscape modeling as an appropriate technique to predict the spatial variability of exchangeable K and Mg in a humid tropical forest in Panama. We used a design-based, stratified sampling scheme to collect soil samples at 108 sites on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Stratifying variables are lithology, vegetation and topography. Topographic variables were generated from high-resolution digital elevation models with a grid size of 5 m. We took samples from five depths down to 1 m, and analyzed for total and exchangeable K and Mg. We used simple explorative data analysis techniques to elucidate the importance of lithology for soil total and exchangeable K and Mg. Classification and Regression Trees (CART) were adopted to investigate importance of topography, lithology and vegetation for the spatial distribution of exchangeable K and Mg and with the intention to develop models that regionalize the point observations using digital terrain data as explanatory variables. Our results suggest that topography and vegetation do not control the spatial distribution of the selected soil chemical properties at a landscape scale and lithology is important to some degree. Exchangeable K is distributed equally across the study area indicating that other than landscape processes, e.g. biogeochemical processes, are responsible for its spatial distribution. Lithology contributes to the spatial variation of exchangeable Mg but controlling variables could not be detected. The spatial variation of soil total K

  4. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M T; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range. PMID:26863538

  5. Low Predictability of Colour Polymorphism in Introduced Guppy (Poecilia reticulata) Populations in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Celestino; Chavarría, Carmen; Sharpe, Diana M. T.; De León, Luis Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Colour polymorphism is a recurrent feature of natural populations, and its maintenance has been studied in a range of taxa in their native ranges. However, less is known about whether (and how) colour polymorphism is maintained when populations are removed from their native environments, as in the case of introduced species. We here address this issue by analyzing variation in colour patterns in recently-discovered introduced populations of the guppy (Poecilia reticulata) in Panama. Specifically, we use classic colour analysis to estimate variation in the number and the relative area of different colour spots across low predation sites in the introduced Panamanian range of the species. We then compare this variation to that found in the native range of the species under low- and high predation regimes. We found aspects of the colour pattern that were both consistent and inconsistent with the classical paradigm of colour evolution in guppies. On one hand, the same colours that dominated in native populations (orange, iridescent and black) were also the most dominant in the introduced populations in Panama. On the other, there were no clear differences between either introduced-low and native low- and high predation populations. Our results are therefore only partially consistent with the traditional role of female preference in the absence of predators, and suggest that additional factors could influence colour patterns when populations are removed from their native environments. Future research on the interaction between female preference and environmental variability (e.g. multifarious selection), could help understand adaptive variation in this widely-introduced species, and the contexts under which variation in adaptive traits parallels (or not) variation in the native range. PMID:26863538

  6. Phylogeography of the Lutzomyia gomezi (Diptera: Phlebotominae) on the Panama Isthmus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lutzomyia gomezi (Nitzulescu, 1931) is one of the main Leishmania (Vianna) panamensis vectors in Panama, and despite its medical significance, there are no population genetic studies regarding this species. In this study, we used the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b/start of NADH1 and the nuclear elongation gene α-1 in order to analyze genetic variation and phylogeographic structure of the Lu. gomezi populations. Methods A total of 86 Lu. gomezi individuals were captured in 38 locations where cutaneous leishmaniasis occurred. DNA was extracted with phenol/chloroform methods and amplification of genes was performed using PCR primers for mitochondrial and nuclear markers. Results We found a total of 37 and 26 haplotypes of mitochondrial and nuclear genes, high haplotype diversity (h) for all three populations were detected with both molecular markers. Nucleotide diversity (π) was estimated to be high for all three populations with the mitochondrial marker, which was opposite to the estimate with the nuclear marker. In the AMOVA Φst recorded moderate (mitochondrial) and small (nuclear) population structure with statistical significance among populations. The analysis of the fixation index (Fst) used to measure the differentiation of populations showed that with the exception of the population located in the region of Bocas del Toro, the other populations presented with minor genetic differentiation. The median-Joining network of the mitochondrial marker reveled three clusters and recorded four haplotypes exclusively of localities sampled from Western Panama, demonstrating strong divergence. We found demographic population expansion with Fu´s Fs neutrality test. In the analysis mismatch distribution was observed as a bimodal curve. Conclusion Lu. gomezi is a species with higher genetic pool or variability and mild population structure, due to possible capacity migration and local adaptation to environmental changes or colonization

  7. Mössbauer study of contaminated soils by industrial activity in Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamante, Angel; Fabián, Julio; De Los Santos, Luis; Barnes, C. H. W.; Majima, Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    In this work we characterize soils from the Paramonga city, Region Lima Provinces in Peru, which are contaminated by residual chemicals (Br, As and Sr) from sugar and paper industry in the city. Four samples were collected, labelled as S1, S2, S3 and S4 and analized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) and Mössbauer spectroscopy. For all the samples, the chemical analysis by EDXRF revealed the presence of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, K, Br, Sr. The XRD detected the presence of quartz as principal phase and copper sulfide and potassium magnesium as secondary phases. The Mössbauer spectra at room temperature (RT) for all the samples exhibit sextets which reveal the presence of an iron oxide or hydroxide. The fitting Mössbauer for both samples S1 and S4 have three doublets corresponding to iron in paramagnetic phases and a magnetic component of around 35.50 T corresponding to goethite, α-FeOOH. Sample S2 have two magnetic phases with internal fields of 37 T and 34.6 T which correspond to the goethite and other incorporated element in the structure. The sample S3 have three magnetic fields of H1 = 36.8 T, H2 = 33.6 T and H3 = 34.8 T which correspond to hydroxide iron, pyrrhotite and goethite respectively.

  8. Biomonitoring of detoxifying activity as measured by CYP1A1 induction in Yangtze and Jialing Rivers in Chongqing City in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhihong; Liu, Jingyi; Li, Peng; Cao, Bo; Luo, Caihong; Cao, Jia

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the potential toxicities of organic pollutants in the river water of Chongqing City (China), chemicals were extracted from surface water of the Yangtze River and Jialing River between August 2004 and January 2005. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis showed that the main compounds detected were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and phthalate acid esters (PAE). The ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) test showed that the toxic equivalency (TEQ) values of the samples ranged from 0.9 to 13.3 x 10(-4) pg 2,3,7,8-TCDD/L river water. Incubation of H4IIE cells with organic extracts produced a time-dependent induction of cytochrome P-450 1A1 (CYP1A1) mRNA expression as determined by (1) reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), (2) positive binding to aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and (3) activation of xenobiotic response element (XRE) by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Data indicated that organic extracts from the river water of Chongqing City induced CYP1A1 activity in hepatocytes in vitro. A possible mechanism underlying toxicity might involve the AhR signal pathway, but further studies are necessary. PMID:19492243

  9. The Solar America Cities Awards

    SciTech Connect

    R. Nahan

    2009-03-01

    This publication is an ongoing effort to support outreach activities through the Solar America Cities program. The two-page fact sheet offers an overview of the SAC program and lists specific resources for more information on developing solar programs.

  10. Parent Management Training-Oregon Model (PMTO™) in Mexico City: Integrating Cultural Adaptation Activities in an Implementation Model

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Ana A.; Domenech Rodríguez, Melanie M.; Amador, Nancy G.; Forgatch, Marion S.; Parra-Cardona, J. Rubén

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the process of cultural adaptation at the start of the implementation of the Parent Management Training intervention-Oregon model (PMTO) in Mexico City. The implementation process was guided by the model, and the cultural adaptation of PMTO was theoretically guided by the cultural adaptation process (CAP) model. During the process of the adaptation, we uncovered the potential for the CAP to be embedded in the implementation process, taking into account broader training and economic challenges and opportunities. We discuss how cultural adaptation and implementation processes are inextricably linked and iterative and how maintaining a collaborative relationship with the treatment developer has guided our work and has helped expand our research efforts, and how building human capital to implement PMTO in Mexico supported the implementation efforts of PMTO in other places in the United States. PMID:26052184

  11. Terrestrial LIDAR investigation of the December 2003 and January 2007 activations of the Northridge Bluff landslide, Daly City, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, Brian D.; Kayen, Robert; Reiss, Thomas; Sitar, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    On December 20, 2003 and again on January 1, 2007, landslides occurred along the coastal bluff that forms the west boundary of Daly City, California sending debris as far as 290 meters downhill and 90 meters into the ocean. This area is known for large landslide events where 150-meter tall coastal bluffs extend southward along the west boundary of San Francisco and San Mateo Counties (Fig. 1). The 2003 and 2007 landslide events occurred west of Northridge Drive in Daly City and just south of Avalon Canyon, which bisects the bluffs in this area (Fig. 2). Residential development, utility lines and roads occupy the land immediately east of this location. As part of a comprehensive project to investigate the failure mechanisms of coastal bluff landslides in weakly lithified sediments along the west coast of the United States, members of the U.S. Geologic Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Program performed reconnaissance mapping of these landslide events including collection of high-resolution topographic data using CMG's terrestrial LIDAR laser scanning system. This report provides a brief background on each landslide event and presents topographic datasets collected following each event. Downloadable contour data, images, and FGDC-compliant metadata of the surfaces generated from the LIDAR data are also provided. LIDAR data collection and processing techniques used to generate the datasets are outlined. Geometric and volumetric measurements are also presented along with high-resolution cross-sections through various areas of the slide masses and discussion concerning the slides present (2007) configuration is provided.

  12. Estimating national landfill methane emissions: an application of the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Waste Model in Panama.

    PubMed

    Weitz, Melissa; Coburn, Jeffrey B; Salinas, Edgar

    2008-05-01

    This paper estimates national methane emissions from solid waste disposal sites in Panama over the time period 1990-2020 using both the 2006 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Waste Model spreadsheet and the default emissions estimate approach presented in the 1996 IPCC Good Practice Guidelines. The IPCC Waste Model has the ability to calculate emissions from a variety of solid waste disposal site types, taking into account country- or region-specific waste composition and climate information, and can be used with a limited amount of data. Countries with detailed data can also run the model with country-specific values. The paper discusses methane emissions from solid waste disposal; explains the differences between the two methodologies in terms of data needs, assumptions, and results; describes solid waste disposal circumstances in Panama; and presents the results of this analysis. It also demonstrates the Waste Model's ability to incorporate landfill gas recovery data and to make projections. The former default method methane emissions estimates are 25 Gg in 1994, and range from 23.1 Gg in 1990 to a projected 37.5 Gg in 2020. The Waste Model estimates are 26.7 Gg in 1994, ranging from 24.6 Gg in 1990 to 41.6 Gg in 2020. Emissions estimates for Panama produced by the new model were, on average, 8% higher than estimates produced by the former default methodology. The increased estimate can be attributed to the inclusion of all solid waste disposal in Panama (as opposed to only disposal in managed landfills), but the increase was offset somewhat by the different default factors and regional waste values between the 1996 and 2006 IPCC guidelines, and the use of the first-order decay model with a time delay for waste degradation in the IPCC Waste Model. PMID:18512440

  13. The identity of the Brachyplatys species recently introduced to Panama, with a review of bionomics (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae).

    PubMed

    Rédei, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    A recent report of a population of Brachyplatys vahlii (Fabricius, 1787) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Plataspidae) introduced to Panama is considered as misidentification, the species in concern is recognized as B. subaeneus (Westwood, 1837). Syntypes of B. subaeneus and diagnostic characters of the species are illustrated, published information on its distribution, bionomics and economic importance is reviewed. Syntypes of B. vahlii are illustrated, taxonomic problems in connection with the species are highlighted. PMID:27395708

  14. Domestication of the neotropical tree Chrysophyllum cainito from a geographically limited yet genetically diverse gene pool in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Jennifer J; Parker, Ingrid M; Potter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Species in the early stages of domestication, in which wild and cultivated forms co-occur, provide important opportunities to develop and test hypotheses about the origins of crop species. Chrysophyllum cainito (Sapotaceae), the star apple or caimito, is a semidomesticated tree widely cultivated for its edible fruits; it is known to be native to the neotropics, but its precise geographic origins have not been firmly established. Here, we report results of microsatellite marker analyses supporting the hypothesis that the center of domestication for caimito was the Isthmus of Panama, a region in which few crop species are believed to have originated, despite its importance as a crossroads for the dispersal of domesticated plants between North and South America. Our data suggest that caimito was domesticated in a geographically restricted area while incorporating a diverse gene pool. These results refute the generally accepted Antillean origin of caimito, as well as alternative hypotheses that the species was domesticated independently in the two areas or over a broad geographic range including both. Human-mediated dispersal from Panama to the north and east was accompanied by strong reductions in both genotypic and phenotypic diversity. Within Panama, cultivated and wild trees show little neutral genetic divergence, in contrast to striking phenotypic differentiation in fruit and seed traits. In addition to providing a rare example of data that support the hypothesis of a narrow geographic origin on the Isthmus of Panama for a now widespread cultivated plant species, this study is one of the first investigations of the origins of an edible species of the large pantropical family Sapotaceae. PMID:25035796

  15. Maximizing children's physical activity: an evaluability assessment to plan a community-based, multi-strategy approach in an ethno-racially and socio-economically diverse city.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, John J M; Hansen, Barbara; Barrera, Maru; Allison, Kenneth; Ceolin-Celestini, Sandra; Koenig, Dan; Young, Deborah; Good, Margaret; Rees, Tim

    2003-09-01

    An evaluability assessment was conducted to plan a community-based, multi-strategy approach to physical activity promotion (MSAPAP) to maximize young children's physical activity in an ethno-racially and socio-economically diverse city. This assessment involved consultation with various stakeholders to develop a program logic model to diagrammatically describe the MSAPAP. First, published literature regarding physical activity was reviewed to describe interventions designed to increase children's physical activity and to identify factors that contributed to program effectiveness. Secondly, key informants from mainstream service organizations and smaller community-based agencies were interviewed to determine their views on how to increase physical activity among children and families. A workgroup developed a draft logic model based on the results of the literature review and community needs assessment results. Thirdly, stakeholders were consulted about the draft model. This consisted of 12 focus groups with members of school boards (two sessions), members of community organizations (three sessions), lay home visitors who provide support to mothers of young children in ethno-racially diverse communities (one session), and parents from six cultural groups (six sessions). The logic model was revised based on the findings from this consultation. The final logic model shows children aged 3-8 years as the main target group, and parents and various community members who influence children as intermediate target groups. The MSAPAP is depicted as six strategies, which are clusters of program activities that are conceptually similar: community engagement, community assessment, accessibility, promotion, education and skill development, and inclusive programming. The logic model shows the 'cause and effect' relationships among program activities, shorter-term outcome objectives (e.g. to reduce user fees for physical activity programs) and longer-term outcome objectives (e.g. to

  16. Holocene ITCZ and ENSO-driven climate variability from the Panama isthmus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, D. H.; Aronson, R. B.; Bush, M. B.

    2009-12-01

    Holocene climate has previously been considered relatively stable compared to Pleistocene fluctuations. Recent paleoclimatic reconstructions have shown, however, that Holocene climatic variability is large and that the key to understanding and predicting responses to current climate change could lie in Holocene climatic history. In tropical regions, one of the most important oceanic-atmospheric systems regulating present and past interannual climatic fluctuations is the InterTropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Several hypotheses have been postulated to explain Holocene climate oscillations and their impacts in Northern South America. One of these hypotheses is that reduced precipitation during the mid-Holocene in the Caribbean and off the coast of Venezuela resulted from a southward migration of the ITCZ’s mean annual position (1, 2). In turn, this southward movement was associated with changes in the location of warm pools and insolation maxima regions in the tropical Atlantic. However, oscillations in Pacific warm pools should be expected to influence the annual ITCZ cycle as well. The latitudinal positions of these warm pools in the Pacific are directly influenced by ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation), and are predicted to move south during El Niño (warm-ENSO) years. A mid-Holocene increase in the frequency of warm ENSO events is reported in the eastern Pacific after 6 ka (3, 4), and although this change occurred more than a thousand years earlier than the southward migrations of the ITCZ reconstructed from tropical Atlantic systems, we hypothesize that there must be a link between these two apparently separate events. Reconciling the roles of Atlantic versus Pacific ocean-atmosphere interactions, and the effect of Pacific phenomena like ENSO on the annual position of the ITCZ are therefore crucial to understand climatic variability in tropical America. Lago La Yeguada is located in the Isthmus of Panama and its climate is determined mainly by the ITCZ, ENSO

  17. Feeding sources and trypanosome infection index of Rhodnius pallescens in a Chagas disease endemic area of Amador County, Panama.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Vanessa; Montalvo, Edilma; Alvarez, Dayra; Santamaría, Ana María; Calzada, Jose Eduardo; Saldaña, Azael

    2008-01-01

    The sylvatic triatomine Rhodnius pallescens is considered to be the most important and widespread vector of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in Panama. However, its behavior and biological characteristics have only been partially investigated. Thus, to achieve sustainable and efficient control over Chagas disease in Panama, a better understanding of the ecology and biology of R. pallescens is essential. In this study we evaluated R. pallescens host feeding sources using a dot-blot assay, and the trypanosome infection index by PCR analysis in a Chagas disease endemic area of central Panama. It was found that in peridomestic palm trees, 20.3% of the examined bugs had fed on opossums (Didelphis marsupialis). However, we observed an increased anthropophagy (25.4%) for those bugs collected inside houses. Considering the domestic and peridomestic habitats as a whole, the proportion of collected R. pallescens infected with trypanosomes was 87.4%. In the two habitats the predominant infection was with T. cruzi (80-90%). Between 47-51% of the analyzed triatomines were infected with T. rangeli. Mixed infections (40-51%) were also detected. These findings provide a better basis for the implementation of a rational control and surveillance program for Chagas disease in regions where R. pallescens is endemic. PMID:18488091

  18. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J.; Cooke, Richard G.

    2007-01-01

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800–7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400–5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  19. Exhumation of the Panama basement complex and basins: Implications for the closure of the Central American seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, Diego A.; Foster, David A.; Min, Kyoungwon; Montes, Camilo; Cardona, Agustín.; Sadove, Gephen

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of the Central American isthmus occurred episodically from Eocene to Pliocene time and was caused by a series of tectonic and volcanic processes. Results from zircon U-Pb geochronology, zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) and apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology, and zircon Lu-Hf isotopic data from sedimentary (sandstones and recent river sands) and plutonic rocks from the Azuero Peninsula and Central Panama document the exhumation and uplift history of the Panamanian basement complex. Our data support previous paleobotanical and thermochronological studies that suggest that by middle Eocene time some areas of Central Panama and Azuero Peninsula were exposed above sea level as a series of islands surrounded by shallow open marine waters. The Gatuncillo, Cobachón and Tonosí formations were deposited during this partial emergence. Transtension in the Oligocene-early Miocene produced various pull-apart basins (e.g., the Canal Basin) and local uplift that exhumed the Eocene strata (Gatuncillo and Cobachón formations). This event probably reduced circulation between the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. The Tonosí Formation records late Miocene to Pleistocene cooling and exhumation, which may be related to uplift above the subducting Coiba Ridge. These results suggest that the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama followed a series of diachronous events that led to the final closure of the Central American seaway.

  20. Early Miocene chondrichthyans from the Culebra Formation, Panama: A window into marine vertebrate faunas before closure the Central American Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimiento, Catalina; Gonzalez-Barba, Gerardo; Hendy, Austin J. W.; Jaramillo, Carlos; MacFadden, Bruce J.; Montes, Camilo; Suarez, Sandra C.; Shippritt, Monica

    2013-03-01

    The newly described chondrichthyan fauna of the early Miocene Culebra Formation of Panama provides insight into the marine vertebrates occupying shallow seas adjacent to the Central American Seaway, prior to the rise of the Isthmus of Panama. This study takes advantage of a time-limited and unique opportunity to recover fossil from renewed excavations of the Panama Canal. The chondrichthyan fauna of the Culebra Formation is composed of teeth and vertebral centra representing 12 taxa. The species found possessed a cosmopolitan tropical and warm-temperate distribution during the early Neogene and are similar to other assemblages of the tropical eastern Pacific and southern Caribbean. The taxa described suggest a neritic environment, and is in contrast with other interpretations that proposed bathyal water depths for the upper member of the Culebra Formation. The wide depth range of the most common species, Carcharocles chubutensis, and the habitat preference of Pristis sp., suggests varied marine environments, from deep, to shallow waters, close to emerged areas of the evolving isthmus.

  1. Starch grain evidence for the preceramic dispersals of maize and root crops into tropical dry and humid forests of Panama.

    PubMed

    Dickau, Ruth; Ranere, Anthony J; Cooke, Richard G

    2007-02-27

    The Central American isthmus was a major dispersal route for plant taxa originally brought under cultivation in the domestication centers of southern Mexico and northern South America. Recently developed methodologies in the archaeological and biological sciences are providing increasing amounts of data regarding the timing and nature of these dispersals and the associated transition to food production in various regions. One of these methodologies, starch grain analysis, recovers identifiable microfossils of economic plants directly off the stone tools used to process them. We report on new starch grain evidence from Panama demonstrating the early spread of three important New World cultigens: maize (Zea mays), manioc (Manihot esculenta), and arrowroot (Maranta arundinacea). Maize starch recovered from stone tools at a site located in the Pacific lowlands of central Panama confirms previous archaeobotanical evidence for the use of maize there by 7800-7000 cal BP. Starch evidence from preceramic sites in the less seasonal, humid premontane forests of Chiriquí province, western Panama, shows that maize and root crops were present by 7400-5600 cal BP, several millennia earlier than previously documented. Several local starchy resources, including Zamia and Dioscorea spp., were also used. The data from both regions suggest that crop dispersals took place via diffusion or exchange of plant germplasm rather than movement of human populations practicing agriculture. PMID:17360697

  2. The Isthmus of Panama: a major physical barrier to gene flow in a highly mobile pantropical seabird.

    PubMed

    Steeves, T E; Anderson, D J; Friesen, V L

    2005-07-01

    To further test the hypothesis that the Isthmus of Panama is a major barrier to gene flow in pantropical seabirds, we applied phylogeographic methods to mitochondrial control sequence variation in masked booby (Sula dactylatra) populations on either side of the Isthmus of Panama and the southern tip of Africa. In accord with Steeves et al. (2003), we found that all Caribbean masked boobies with the 'secondary contact' cytochrome b haplotype (m-B) shared a control region haplotype (Sd_100), which grouped with Indian-Pacific haplotypes and not Caribbean-Atlantic haplotypes. In addition, Sd_100 was more closely related to control region haplotypes in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific. We also found that the 'secondary contact' birds diverged more recently from extant populations in the Indian Ocean than in the Pacific. Thus, it appears that these masked boobies did not breach the Isthmus of Panama. Rather, birds likely dispersed around the southern tip of Africa during favourable oceanographic conditions in the Pleistocene. PMID:16033573

  3. Not Just a Walk in the Park: Methodological Improvements for Determining Environmental Justice Implications of Park Access in New York City for the Promotion of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Keith K.; Maroko, Andrew R.; Grady, Kristen L.; Maantay, Juliana A.; Arno, Peter S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that access to parks in New York City is not equitable across racial and ethnic categories. It builds on previous research that has linked access to parks and open space with increased physical activity, which in turn may reduce the risk for adverse health outcomes related to obesity. Systematic patterns of uneven access to parks might help to explain disparities in these health outcomes across sociodemographic populations that are not fully explained by individual-level risk factors and health behaviors, and therefore access to parks becomes an environmental justice issue. This study is designed to shed light on the “unpatterned inequities” of park distributions identified in previous studies of New York City park access. It uses a combination of network analysis and a cadastral-based expert dasymetric system (CEDS) to estimate the racial/ethnic composition of populations within a reasonable walking distance of 400m from parks. The distance to the closest park, number of parks within walking distance, amount of accessible park space, and number of physical activity sites are then evaluated across racial/ethnic categories, and are compared to the citywide populations using odds ratios. The odds ratios revealed patterns that at first glance appear to contradict the notion of distributional inequities. However, discussion of the results points to the need for reassessing what is meant by “access” to more thoroughly consider the aspects of parks that are most likely to contribute to physical activity and positive health outcomes. PMID:21874148

  4. Clean Cities Annual Metrics Report 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Bergeron, P.; Putsche, V.

    2007-07-01

    Report summarizes Clean Cities coalition accomplishments, including membership, funding, sales of alternative fuel blends, deployment of AFVs and HEVs, idle reduction initiatives, and fuel economy activities.

  5. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Johanns, Casey K.; McNellan, Claire R.; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44–2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18–1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24–1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21–1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04–1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05–1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02–1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care

  6. Benthic foraminiferal response to the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama and coincident paleoceanographic changes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, K.

    1996-01-01

    Late Cenozoic benthic foraminiferal faunas from the Caribbean Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Site 502 (3052 m) and East Pacific DSDP Site 503 (3572 m) were analyzed to interpret bottom-water masses and paleoceanographic changes occurring as the Isthmus of Panama emerged. Major changes during the past 7 Myr occur at 6.7-6.2, 3.4, 2.0, and 1.1 Ma in the Caribbean and 6.7-6.4, 4.0-3.2, 2.1, 1.4, and 0.7 Ma in the Pacific. Prior to 6.7 Ma, benthic foraminiferal faunas at both sites indicate the presence of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW). After 6.7 Ma benthic foraminiferal faunas indicate a shift to warmer water masses: North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) in the Caribbean and Pacific Deep Water (PDW) in the Pacific. Flow of NADW may have continued across the rising sill between the Caribbean and Pacific until 5.6 Ma when the Pacific benthic foraminiferal faunas suggest a decrease in bottom-water temperatures. After 5.6 Ma deep-water to intermediate-water flow across the sill appears to have stopped as the bottom-water masses on either side of the sill diverge. The second change recorded by benthic foraminiferal faunas occurs at 3.4 Ma in the Caribbean and 4.0-3.2 Ma in the Pacific. At this time the Caribbean is flooded with cold AABW, which is either gradually warmed or is replaced by Glacial Bottom Water (GBW) at 2.0 Ma and by NADW at 1.1 Ma. These changes are related to global climatic events and to the depth of the sill between the Caribbean and Atlantic rather than the rising Isthmus of Panama. Benthic foraminiferal faunas at East Pacific Site 503 indicate a gradual change from cold PDW to warmer PDW between 4.0 and 3.2 Ma. The PDW is replaced by the warmer, poorly oxygenated PIW at 2.1 Ma. Although the PDW affects the faunas during colder intervals between 1.4 and 0.7 Ma, the PIW remains the principal bottom- water mass in the Guatemala Basin of the East Pacific.

  7. Institutional Delivery and Satisfaction among Indigenous and Poor Women in Guatemala, Mexico, and Panama.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Bryant, Miranda F; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Johanns, Casey K; McNellan, Claire R; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-01-01

    Indigenous women in Mesoamerica experience disproportionately high maternal mortality rates and are less likely to have institutional deliveries. Identifying correlates of institutional delivery, and satisfaction with institutional deliveries, may help improve facility utilization and health outcomes in this population. We used baseline surveys from the Salud Mesoamérica Initiative to analyze data from 10,895 indigenous and non-indigenous women in Guatemala and Mexico (Chiapas State) and indigenous women in Panama. We created multivariable Poisson regression models for indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico, Panama) and non-indigenous (Guatemala, Mexico) women to identify correlates of institutional delivery and satisfaction. Compared to their non-indigenous peers, indigenous women were substantially less likely to have an institutional delivery (15.2% vs. 41.5% in Guatemala (P<0.001), 29.1% vs. 73.9% in Mexico (P<0.001), and 70.3% among indigenous Panamanian women). Indigenous women who had at least one antenatal care visit were more than 90% more likely to have an institutional delivery (adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.94, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.44-2.61), compared to those who had no visits. Indigenous women who were advised to give birth in a health facility (aRR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.18-1.81), primiparous (aRR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.24-1.68), informed that she should have a Caesarean section (aRR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.21-1.63), and had a secondary or higher level of education (aRR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.04-1.79) also had substantially higher likelihoods of institutional delivery. Satisfaction among indigenous women was associated with being able to be accompanied by a community health worker (aRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.26) and facility staff speaking an indigenous language (aRR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02-1.19). Additional effort should be exerted to increase utilization of birthing facilities by indigenous and poor women in the region. Improving access to antenatal care and

  8. Climate Change Impact Uncertainties for Maize in Panama: Farm Information, Climate Projections, and Yield Sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex C.; Cecil, L. Dewayne; Horton, Radley M.; Gordon, Roman; McCollum, Raymond (Brown, Douglas); Brown, Douglas; Killough, Brian; Goldberg, Richard; Greeley, Adam P.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    We present results from a pilot project to characterize and bound multi-disciplinary uncertainties around the assessment of maize (Zea mays) production impacts using the CERES-Maize crop model in a climate-sensitive region with a variety of farming systems (Panama). Segunda coa (autumn) maize yield in Panama currently suffers occasionally from high water stress at the end of the growing season, however under future climate conditions warmer temperatures accelerate crop maturation and elevated CO (sub 2) concentrations improve water retention. This combination reduces end-of-season water stresses and eventually leads to small mean yield gains according to median projections, although accelerated maturation reduces yields in seasons with low water stresses. Calibrations of cultivar traits, soil profile, and fertilizer amounts are most important for representing baseline yields, however sensitivity to all management factors is reduced in an assessment of future yield changes (most dramatically for fertilizers), suggesting that yield changes may be more generalizable than absolute yields. Uncertainty around General Circulation Model (GCM)s' projected changes in rainfall gain in importance throughout the century, with yield changes strongly correlated with growing season rainfall totals. Climate changes are expected to be obscured by the large inter-annual variations in Panamanian climate that will continue to be the dominant influence on seasonal maize yield into the coming decades. The relatively high (A2) and low (B1) emissions scenarios show little difference in their impact on future maize yields until the end of the century. Uncertainties related to the sensitivity of CERES-Maize to carbon dioxide concentrations have a substantial influence on projected changes, and remain a significant obstacle to climate change impacts assessment. Finally, an investigation into the potential of simple statistical yield emulators based upon key climate variables characterizes the

  9. Simulating the value of El Niño forecasts for the Panama Canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Nicholas E.; Georgakakos, Konstantine P.; Vargas, Carlos; Echevers, Modesto

    2006-11-01

    The Panama Canal relies on rain-fed streamflow into Gatun Lake, the canal's primary storage facility, for operations—principally ship passage and hydropower generation. Precipitation in much of Panama has a strong negative relationship with eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) and this relationship is reflected in Gatun Lake inflows. For example, the correlation coefficient between wet season (July-December) inflow and NINO3 SST is -0.53 over the period 1914-1997. Operational capabilities to predict tropical Pacific SSTs have been demonstrated by several forecast systems during the past decade, and (as we show) such SST forecasts can be used to reduce the uncertainty of estimates of future inflows (compared with climatological expectations). Because substantial reductions in lake inflow negatively impact canal operations, we wondered whether these forecasts of future inflows, coupled with a method for translating that information into effective operational policy, might result in more efficient canal management. A combined simulation/optimization/assessment "virtual" canal system was implemented and exercised using operational El Niño forecasts over the period 1981-1998. The results show the following main points: At current demand levels, the canal system is relatively robust (insensitive to flow forecasts) unless flows are substantially reduced (i.e., during El Niño episodes) or forecasts are extremely accurate. The inclusion of accurately specified levels of forecast uncertainty is critical in developing economically beneficial policies. The situations in which imperfect forecast information can be useful lie between those where storage and future inflows are relatively high, and those where storage and inflows are relatively low. In the former case, demands can be met without the benefit of forecast information, and in the latter case even perfect forecast information cannot prevent operational curtailments. For a nominally configured

  10. Smart cities of the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batty, M.; Axhausen, K. W.; Giannotti, F.; Pozdnoukhov, A.; Bazzani, A.; Wachowicz, M.; Ouzounis, G.; Portugali, Y.

    2012-11-01

    , Mobility and Travel Behaviour, Modelling Urban Land Use, Transport and Economic Interactions, Modelling Urban Transactional Activities in Labour and Housing Markets, Decision Support as Urban Intelligence, Participatory Governance and Planning Structures for the Smart City. Finally we anticipate the paradigm shifts that will occur in this research and define a series of key demonstrators which we believe are important to progressing a science of smart cities.

  11. Spatial-Temporal Distribution of Hantavirus Rodent-Borne Infection by Oligoryzomys fulvescens in the Agua Buena Region - Panama

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Publio; Cumbrera, Alberto; Rivero, Alina; Avila, Mario; Armién, Aníbal G.; Koster, Frederick; Glass, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Background Hotspot detection and characterization has played an increasing role in understanding the maintenance and transmission of zoonotic pathogens. Identifying the specific environmental factors (or their correlates) that influence reservoir host abundance help increase understanding of how pathogens are maintained in natural systems and are crucial to identifying disease risk. However, most recent studies are performed at macro-scale and describe broad temporal patterns of population abundances. Few have been conducted at a microscale over short time periods that better capture the dynamical patterns of key populations. These finer resolution studies may better define the likelihood of local pathogen persistence. This study characterizes the landscape distribution and spatio-temporal dynamics of Oligoryzomys fulvescens (O. fulvescens), an important mammalian reservoir in Central America. Methods Information collected in a longitudinal study of rodent populations in the community of Agua Buena in Tonosí, Panama, between April 2006 and December 2009 was analyzed using non-spatial analyses (box plots) and explicit spatial statistical tests (correlograms, SADIE and LISA). A 90 node grid was built (raster format) to design a base map. The area between the nodes was 0.09 km2 and the total study area was 6.43 km2 (2.39 x 2.69 km). The temporal assessment dataset was divided into four periods for each year studied: the dry season, rainy season, and two months-long transitions between seasons (the months of April and December). Results There were heterogeneous patterns in the population densities and degrees of dispersion of O. fulvescens that varied across seasons and among years. The species typically was locally absent during the late transitional months of the season, and re-established locally in subsequent years. These populations re-occurred in the same area during the first three years but subsequently re-established further south in the final year of the

  12. Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Bacon, Christine D.; Silvestro, Daniele; Jaramillo, Carlos; Smith, Brian Tilston; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The linking of North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama had major impacts on global climate, oceanic and atmospheric currents, and biodiversity, yet the timing of this critical event remains contentious. The Isthmus is traditionally understood to have fully closed by ca. 3.5 million years ago (Ma), and this date has been used as a benchmark for oceanographic, climatic, and evolutionary research, but recent evidence suggests a more complex geological formation. Here, we analyze both molecular and fossil data to evaluate the tempo of biotic exchange across the Americas in light of geological evidence. We demonstrate significant waves of dispersal of terrestrial organisms at approximately ca. 20 and 6 Ma and corresponding events separating marine organisms in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at ca. 23 and 7 Ma. The direction of dispersal and their rates were symmetrical until the last ca. 6 Ma, when northern migration of South American lineages increased significantly. Variability among taxa in their timing of dispersal or vicariance across the Isthmus is not explained by the ecological factors tested in these analyses, including biome type, dispersal ability, and elevation preference. Migration was therefore not generally regulated by intrinsic traits but more likely reflects the presence of emergent terrain several millions of years earlier than commonly assumed. These results indicate that the dramatic biotic turnover associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange was a long and complex process that began as early as the Oligocene–Miocene transition. PMID:25918375

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics and development of the Changuinola peat deposit of northwestern Panama

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.; Thayer, G.; Ramirez, A.

    1987-08-01

    A peat deposit occupying over 80 square kilometers, and averaging 8 meters in thickness, was discovered on the Caribbean coast of northwestern Panama near the town of Changuinola. This deposit occurs inland (behind) the present beach-barrier shoreline. It is thickest in the center and thins toward all edges (as if domed). The surface vegetation in the central regions consists primarily of ombrotrophic plants (especially sedges, grasses, Sphagnum, Sagittaria, and various scattered shrubs). Toward the edges, the deposit has a surface cover of more minerotrophic plants (such as swamp-forest trees, ferns, and palms). Petrographic/botanical analysis of the deposit with depth reveals the presence of five peat types (swamp-forest, sedge-grass-fern, Sagittaria et al., Nymphaea et al., and Rhizophora). Typically peats of the thick, central portions of the deposit are very low in ash and sulfur (less than 2% ash and 0.3% sulfur). Ash contents tend to increase abruptly at the base and more gradually toward the edges of the deposit and sulfur contents increasing gradually toward the ocean and bay. Vertical and lateral variations in botanical, chemical, and physical properties of this deposit can be related to factors that have controlled: (1) the surrounding rocks and water chemistry; (2) the source vegetation; and (3) the environments in which these source ingredients were deposited. 3 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Health care experiences of U.S. Retirees living in Mexico and Panama: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Retirement migration from northern countries to southern countries is increasing in both Europe and North America, and retiree experiences will impact future migration and health services utilization. We therefore sought to describe the healthcare experiences and perceptions of retired U.S. citizens currently living in Mexico and Panama. Methods 46 retired U.S. citizens (23 per country) who had been hospitalized (61%) or had a chronic health condition (78%) in two regions per country with large communities of retired U.S. citizens were identified. Detailed semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore experiences with, attitudes toward, and costs of healthcare. Interviews were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods. Results Respondents averaged 68–70 years old, were well educated, had few physical dependencies, and had moderate incomes. They praised physician services as more personalized than in the U.S. and home care as inexpensive and widely available, expressed favorable opinions regarding outpatient and dental care, gave mixed ratings on hospital services, and expressed concerns about emergency services. Numerous concerns about health insurance were expressed, including the unavailability of Medicare and reductions in Tricare. Payment concerns and lack of data on local health providers made deciding where to obtain services challenging. Conclusions Retirees living abroad report dilemmas regarding healthcare choices, insurance availability, and quality of care. As this population segment grows, pressure will increase for policy and business solutions to existing medical care challenges. PMID:24119332

  15. Molluscan subfossil assemblages reveal the long-term deterioration of coral reef environments in Caribbean Panama.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Katie L; Leonard-Pingel, Jill S; Rodríguez, Félix; Jackson, Jeremy B C

    2015-07-15

    Caribbean reef corals have declined sharply since the 1980s, but the lack of prior baseline data has hindered identification of drivers of change. To assess anthropogenic change in reef environments over the past century, we tracked the composition of subfossil assemblages of bivalve and gastropod mollusks excavated from pits below lagoonal and offshore reefs in Bocas del Toro, Panama. The higher prevalence of (a) infaunal suspension-feeding bivalves and herbivorous and omnivorous gastropods in lagoons and (b) epifaunal and suspension-feeding bivalves and carnivorous and suspension-feeding gastropods offshore reflected the greater influence of land-based nutrients/sediments within lagoons. Temporal changes indicated deteriorating environmental conditions pre-1960 in lagoons and post-1960 offshore, with offshore communities becoming more similar to lagoonal ones since 1960. Relative abundances of dominant bivalve species tracked those of their coral hosts, revealing broader ecosystem effects of coral community change. The nature and timing of changes implicate land-based runoff in reef deterioration. PMID:26031382

  16. Population genetic structure of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from Mexico to Panama: microsatellite DNA variation.

    PubMed

    Valles-Jimenez, R; Cruz, P; Perez-Enriquez, R

    2004-01-01

    Genetic variation and population structure of wild white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) from 4 geographic locations from Mexico to Panama were investigated using 5 microsatellite DNA loci. The genetic diversity between populations was indicated by the mean number of alleles per locus and mean observed heterozygosity, which ranged from 7.4 to 8.6 and from 0.241 to 0.388, respectively. Significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were found at most locations at each locus, with the exception Guatemala at Pvan0013, and were caused by high heterozygote deficiencies. Genetic differences between localities were detected by pairwise comparison based on allelic and genotypic frequencies, with the exception of locus Pvan1003. Significant pairwise F (ST) values between locations and total F (ST) showed that the white shrimp population is structured into subpopulations. However, population differentiation does not follow an isolation-by-distance model. Knowledge of the genetic diversity and structure of L.vannamei populations will be of interest for aquaculture and fisheries management to utilize and preserve aquatic biodiversity. PMID:15791491

  17. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Andrew J.; Lips, Karen R.; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-01-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

  18. Mapping benthic faunal communities in the shallow and deep sediments of Las Perlas Archipelago, Pacific Panama.

    PubMed

    Mair, James M; Cunningham, Sarah L; Sibaja-Cordero, Jeffrey A; Guzman, Hector M; Arroyo, Maria Fernanda; Merino, Daisi; Vargas, Rita

    2009-08-01

    Las Perlas Archipelago (LPA) is located off the Pacific Coast of Panama and was designated as a marine protected area (MPA) in 2007. This baseline study of the shallow and deeper sedimentary habitats of the islands partly informed the MPA designation. Ninety-two grab stations and twenty trawl stations were sampled. Sediment grab sample results were interpolated to produce a map that showed the area to be dominated by mud (1246 km2, 40%) and sand/shell sediments (780 km2, 25%). A total of 201 taxa were recorded and over 5800 individual specimens were processed, revealing that the sediments hold varying community compositions, with annelids being the dominant group (73%) followed by crustaceans (14%). Relationships were evident between community, feeding guilds, and sediment types, which give an indication of communities that can be expected in similar sediments in other areas of the Tropical Eastern Pacific. A study of this scale and level of detail is rare for this biogeographic region and provides a valuable, comprehensive appreciation of the LPA's benthos. PMID:19081116

  19. Epidemic disease decimates amphibian abundance, species diversity, and evolutionary history in the highlands of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Andrew J; Lips, Karen R; Bermingham, Eldredge

    2010-08-01

    Amphibian populations around the world are experiencing unprecedented declines attributed to a chytrid fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Despite the severity of the crisis, quantitative analyses of the effects of the epidemic on amphibian abundance and diversity have been unavailable as a result of the lack of equivalent data collected before and following disease outbreak. We present a community-level assessment combining long-term field surveys and DNA barcode data describing changes in abundance and evolutionary diversity within the amphibian community of El Copé, Panama, following a disease epidemic and mass-mortality event. The epidemic reduced taxonomic, lineage, and phylogenetic diversity similarly. We discovered that 30 species were lost, including five undescribed species, representing 41% of total amphibian lineage diversity in El Copé. These extirpations represented 33% of the evolutionary history of amphibians within the community, and variation in the degree of population loss and decline among species was random with respect to the community phylogeny. Our approach provides a fast, economical, and informative analysis of loss in a community whether measured by species or phylogenetic diversity. PMID:20643927

  20. Variation in mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovelock, C.E.; Feller, Ilka C.; McKee, K.L.; Thompson, R.

    2005-01-01

    Mangrove forest structure and sediment characteristics were examined in the extensive mangroves of Bocas del Toro, Republic of Panama. Forest structure was characterized to determine if spatial vegetation patterns were repeated over the Bocas del Toro landscape. Using a series of permanent plots and transects we found that the forests of Bocas del Toro were dominated by Rhizophora mangle with very few individuals of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa. Despite this low species diversity, there was large variation in forest structure and in edaphic conditions (salinity, concentration of available phosphorus, Eh and sulphide concentration). Aboveground biomass varied 20-fold, from 6.8 Mg ha-1 in dwarf forests to 194.3 Mg ha-1 in the forests fringing the land. But variation in forest structure was predictable across the intertidal zone. There was a strong tree height gradient from seaward fringe (mean tree height 3.9 m), decreasing in stature in the interior dwarf forests (mean tree height 0.7 m), and increasing in stature in forests adjacent to the terrestrial forest (mean tree height 4.1 m). The predictable variation in forest structure emerges due to the complex interactions among edaphic and plant factors. Identifying predictable patterns in forest structure will aid in scaling up the ecosystem services provided by mangrove forests in coastal landscapes. Copyright 2005 College of Arts and Sciences.

  1. Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Diversity in the Choco and Chibcha Amerinds of Panama

    PubMed Central

    Kolman, C. J.; Bermingham, E.

    1997-01-01

    Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA diversities were determined for two Choco-speaking Amerind populations, the Embera and Wounan, sampled widely across their geographic range in eastern Panama. These data were compared with mitochondrial and nuclear diversities determined here and previously for neighboring Chibcha-speaking Ngobe and Kuna populations. Chocoan groups exhibited mitochondrial diversity levels typical for Amerind populations while Chibchan groups revealed reduced mitochondrial diversity. A slight reduction in autosomal levels of heterozygosity was determined for the Chibcha while X and Y variation appeared equivalent in all populations. Genetic distinctiveness of the two linguistic groups contradicts the anthropological theory that Paleoindians migrated repeatedly through the isthmian region and, instead, supports the idea of cultural adaptation by endogenous populations. Reduced genetic diversity in Chibchan populations has been proposed to represent a population bottleneck dating to Chibchan ethnogenesis. The relative sensitivities of haplotype pairwise difference distributions and Tajima's D to detect demographic events such as population bottlenecks are examined. Also, the potential impact of substitution rate heterogeneity, population subdivision, and genetic selection on pairwise difference distributions are discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting that a larger effective population size may obscure the historical signal obtained from nuclear genes while the single mitochondrial locus may provide a moderately strong signal. PMID:9383071

  2. Changes in the coral reefs of San Blas, Caribbean Panama: 1983 to 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulman, M. J.; Robertson, D. R.

    1996-11-01

    Between 1983 1990 large changes in abundances of corals and macroalgae occurred on shallow (1 5m) lagoonal reefs in the San Blas Islands of Panama. In 1983 these reefs were dominated by the vertical plate forms of the coral genera Agaricia and Millepora. By 1990 we observed the following major changes: (1) loss of approximately one-half of the initial live coral cover, primarily during 1983 1986, and almost completely due to a decline in the abundance of Agaricia. Corals only occupied 12 26% of the reef area by 1990. (2) Macroalgae (mostly Dictyota and Halimeda) increased from ˜ 2% cover in 1983 to 28% cover in 1990. (3) Microalgal cover increased two to ten-fold between 1983 and 1986, then declined to 50% greater than the initial values by 1990. There are at least three contributors to these changes in the benthic community: (1) a coral bleaching event in 1983; which disproportionately affected Agaricia; (2) the mass mortality of Diadema antillarum in 1983, which led to decreases in grazing pressure on algae; and (3) possible increases in sediment and nutrient loads due to runoff from deforested mountainsides. Temporal patterns and observations of interactions suggest that the decrease in Diadema herbivory is a major factor in this shift in coral and algal populations.

  3. Indoor atmospheric corrosion of conventional weathering steels in the tropical atmosphere of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, Juan A.; Iglesias, Josefina; Adames, Olga

    2013-02-01

    One year indoor atmospheric corrosion examinations have been carried out on two conventional weathering steels for a year, at two test sites, Tocumen and Sherman Breakwater in Panama. They are environmentally classified by ISO 9223 as S1P0 τ 4 and S3P0 τ 5, respectively. In this humid-tropical marine climate corrosion rates are rather high, especially at Sherman Breakwater test site, mainly due to the high deposition of chloride, among other environmental conditions. Our results indicate that indoor corrosion is highly determined by the time of wetness and chloride ions. A-588 weathering steel corroded at a generally lower rate than COR-420 weathering steel. Rust characterization was performed by XRD, FTIR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Lepidocrocite, goethite, maghemite and akaganeite were found as corrosion products. Akaganeite is only detected when high chlorides deposition rates are obtained, and no washing effect occurs. This phase, together with maghemite, is obtained when there is greater aggressiveness in the environment.

  4. Indoor atmospheric corrosion of conventional weathering steels in the tropical atmosphere of Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaén, Juan A.; Iglesias, Josefina; Adames, Olga

    2014-01-01

    One year indoor atmospheric corrosion examinations have been carried out on two conventional weathering steels for a year, at two test sites, Tocumen and Sherman Breakwater in Panama. They are environmentally classified by ISO 9223 as S1P0 τ 4 and S3P0 τ 5, respectively. In this humid-tropical marine climate corrosion rates are rather high, especially at Sherman Breakwater test site, mainly due to the high deposition of chloride, among other environmental conditions. Our results indicate that indoor corrosion is highly determined by the time of wetness and chloride ions. A-588 weathering steel corroded at a generally lower rate than COR-420 weathering steel. Rust characterization was performed by XRD, FTIR, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Lepidocrocite, goethite, maghemite and akaganeite were found as corrosion products. Akaganeite is only detected when high chlorides deposition rates are obtained, and no washing effect occurs. This phase, together with maghemite, is obtained when there is greater aggressiveness in the environment.

  5. Sex and the city: Differences in disease- and disability-free life years, and active community participation of elderly men and women in 7 cities in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Angela MC; Hennis, Anselm J; Hambleton, Ian R

    2008-01-01

    Background The world's population is ageing, and four of the top 10 most rapidly ageing developing nations are from the region of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Although an ageing population heralds likely increases in chronic disease, disability-related dependence, and economic burden, the societal contribution of the chronically ill or those with disability is not often measured. Methods We calculated country-specific prevalences of 'disability' (difficulty with at least one activity of daily living), 'disease' and 'co-morbidity' (presence of at least one, and at least two, of seven chronic diseases/conditions, respectively), and 'active community engagement' (using five levels of community participation, from less than weekly community contact to voluntary or paid work) in seven LAC cities. We estimated remaining life expectancy (LE) with and without disability, disease and co-morbidity, and investigated age, sex, and regional variations in disability-free LE. Finally, we modeled the association of disease, co-morbidity and disability with active community participation using an ordinal regression model, adjusted for depression. Results Overall, 77% of the LAC elderly had at least one chronic disease/condition, 44% had co-morbidity and 19% had a disability. The proportion of disability-free LE declined between the youngest (60–64 years) and the eldest (90 years and over) age-groups for both men (from 85% to 55%) and women (from 75% to 45%). Disease-free and co-morbidity-free LE, however, remained at approximately 30% and 62%, respectively, for men (20% and 48% for women), until 80–84 years of age, then increased. Only Bridgetown's participants had statistically significantly longer disability-free LE than the regional average (IRR = 1.08; 95%CI 1.05–1.10; p < 0.001). Only Santiago's participants had disability-free LE which was shorter than the regional average (IRR = 0.94; 95%CI 0.92–0.97; p < 0.001). There was 75% active community participation

  6. The relationship between canopy structure, light dynamics and deciduousness in a seasonal tropical forest in Panama: A multiple scale study using remote sensing and allometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohlman, Stephanie Ann

    This dissertation uses two tools, remote sensing and allometry, to quantify canopy structure, phenology and light interception on stand to landscape levels in a semi-deciduous tropical forest in Panama. The remote sensing studies used a multiple scale approach. First relationships between spectral and physiological data were developed on a fine spatial scale. Then the interpretations were verified at a series of plots across the landscape. Finally, interpretation was applied to satellite images of the whole Panama Canal Zone. Using this approach, the applicability of the relationship between the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and fraction of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) was tested for the first time in a tropical forest. NDVI was more strongly related to changes in the FPAR of the upper canopy than FPAR of the whole canopy profile. Both NDVI and FPAR were driven by the contrast of deciduous and non-deciduous tree crowns in the dry season. On a landscape scale, spectral mixture analysis (SMA) of remotely-sensed images quantified the percent of deciduous tree crowns in the overstory very accurately. Using the map of deciduousness developed from a Landsat image, I found high fine scale variability in deciduousness, highly deciduous patches throughout the canal zone of 4--250 ha in size, and landscape trends related to rainfall and geologic formation. Allometric relationships between stem diameter, tree height and crown size were developed for 65 species on Barro Colorado Island. Tree height was asymptotic with stem diameter, but crown radius was not, continuing to grow at large diameters. Allometric relationships through ontongeny varied among different functional groups. Gap species are taller than shade species when both functional groups were below 10 cm dbh, but have smaller crowns than shade species above 10 cm dbh. Subcanopy species are shorter with larger canopies than tall species. A simple canopy model based on these

  7. [Study of the prevalence of disturbance of activity and attention and co-morbid psychiatric disorders in the sample of Kaunas city primary school pupils].

    PubMed

    Leskauskas, Darius; Kuzmickas, Kestutis; Baranauskiene, Birute; Daskeviciene, Jūrate

    2004-01-01

    Aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of disturbance of activity and attention and co-morbid psychiatric disorders among the primary school children in Kaunas city. Parents and teachers of all pupils of 12 randomly selected primary schools (N=2942) were asked to fill the scales on the presence of disturbance of activity and attention symptoms in their children. Disturbance of activity and attention was diagnosed if at least 6 symptoms of hyperactivity and/or 6 symptoms of inattention were present for at least 6 months according parents reports in DuPaul-IV scale and the result of teachers CAP scale exceeded the norms for age and gender. Both scales were obtained for 2298 pupils--1096 girls and 1202 boys 6-12 years of age. Disturbance of activity and attention was diagnosed for 5.2% of primary school pupils. It was 1.9 times more frequent among boys than among girls. Prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders was estimated individually interviewing suspected children and their parents using M.I.N.I. Kid questionnaire. Out of all disturbance of activity and attention diagnosed children, 52.5% were also diagnosed co-morbid psychiatric disorders, most frequently oppositional defiant disorder (31.3%) and different types of anxiety disorders (18.0%). Prevalent type of disturbance of activity and attention and co-morbid disorders was related with the age of the pupils. Symptoms of hyperactivity and co-morbid psychiatric disorders had influenced motivation of parents to seek treatment for their children. Forty percent of the parents of children, who were diagnosed disturbance of activity and attention, have applied to the mental health care professionals; most of them evaluated the help they received as partly useful (57.9%) or not useful at all (26.3%). PMID:15208484

  8. Behaviors and Knowledge of Healthcorps New York City High School Students: Nutrition, Mental Health, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heo, Moonseong; Irvin, Erica; Ostrovsky, Natania; Isasi, Carmen; Blank, Arthur E.; Lounsbury, David W.; Fredericks, Lynn; Yom, Tiana; Ginsberg, Mindy; Hayes, Shawn; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2016-01-01

    Background: HealthCorps provides school wellness programming using curricula to promote changes in nutrition, mental health, and physical activity behaviors. The research objective was to evaluate effects of implementing its curricula on nutrition, mental health, and physical activity knowledge and behavior. Methods: Pre- and postsurvey data were…

  9. Knowledge of mosquitos in relation to public and domestic control activities in the cities of Dar es Salaam and Tanga.

    PubMed Central

    Stephens, C.; Masamu, E. T.; Kiama, M. G.; Keto, A. J.; Kinenekejo, M.; Ichimori, K.; Lines, J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of community awareness of mosquitos and related subjects in the residential areas of two Tanzanian cities (Dar es Salaam and Tanga) showed that residents were well aware of mosquitos. Almost all claimed to use some form of domestic mosquito control product for their personal protection, and many spend a significant portion of the household income on this. The problems of nuisance-biting and malaria transmission are usually not separated and are considered to be the result of poor environmental hygiene, for which both residents and local authorities are responsible. Although Culex mosquitos are not a primary target of the Urban Malaria Control Project (UMCP), the persistence of nuisance-biting has made residents sceptical and dissatisfied with insecticide spraying. The residents' priorities are evidently not the same as those of the health authorities, yet mutual cooperation is essential. In order to maintain community support, campaigns aimed at malaria vectors should consider the need for additional measures to control Culex mosquitos, such as those now being tried by the UMCP. Mosquito breeding sites are non-specifically associated with rubbish and standing water of all kinds, and so the actions that the community considers necessary for mosquito source reduction tend to be poorly targeted. Residents do not recognize that some sources produce malaria mosquitos while others produce nuisance mosquitos. The environmental anti-mosquito measures currently promoted by health education and other forms of propaganda are also poorly targeted. While some of them are directed at important Culex breeding sites, others are aimed at sites of little importance for mosquitos of any kind.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7704932

  10. Association Between the Built Environment in School Neighborhoods With Physical Activity Among New York City Children, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Heewon Lee; Quinn, James; Rundle, Andrew G.; Contento, Isobel R.; Koch, Pamela A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of physical activity for health and well-being are well established, yet built environment characteristics in the school neighborhood may constrain students’ ability to engage in physical activity and contribute to the considerable variation in physical activity among students at different schools. Methods Baseline data from the Food, Health and Choices obesity prevention trial were used to create multilevel linear models of the relationship between fifth-grade students’ (n = 952) physical activity and related psychosocial factors and characteristics of the built environment of the school’s neighborhood (park access, public transportation density, total crime, and walkability), controlling for age and body mass index z scores. Results Total crime was inversely associated with boys’ light physical activity duration (β = −0.189; P = .02) and behavioral intention for physical activity (β = −0.178; P = .03). Boys’ habit strength for physical activity was positively associated with public transportation density (β = 0.375; P = .02) and negatively associated with total crime (β = −0.216; P = .01), explaining 67% of between-school variation. Girls’ frequency of light physical activity was positively associated with park access (β = 0.188; P = .04). Built environment characteristics explained 97% of the between-school variation in girls’ self-efficacy in walking for exercise. Conclusions Characteristics of the built environment surrounding schools were associated with and explain between-school variation in students’ physical activity and several theory-based psychosocial factors. Partnerships between public health practitioners, policy makers, and school administrators may be warranted to shape the school neighborhood, specifically to decrease crime rates and increase park access, to encourage physical activity in youth. PMID:27536902

  11. Building a City: A Spin Off Project. Part II of Students Discovering Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Adele

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "Students Discovering Cities" and related activities, explaining how the program evolved into a city planning project for fourth graders in West Jordan, Utah. Describes the final stage of the project in which students "built" their city inside the school gymnasium, complete with streets, lights, cardboard buildings, and green spaces.…

  12. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  13. Box City Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  14. Associations of neighborhood characteristics with active park use: an observational study in two cities in the USA and Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public parks can be an important setting for physical activity promotion, but to increase park use and the activity levels of park users, the crucial attributes related to active park use need to be defined. Not only user characteristics and structural park attributes, but also characteristics of the surrounding neighborhood are important to examine. Furthermore, internationally comparable studies are needed, to find out if similar intervention strategies might be effective worldwide. The main aim of this study was to examine whether the overall number of park visitors and their activity levels depend on study site, neighborhood walkability and neighborhood income. Methods Data were collected in 20 parks in Ghent, Belgium and San Diego, USA. Two trained observers systematically coded park characteristics using the Environmental Assessment of Public Recreation Spaces (EAPRS) tool, and park user characteristics using the System for Observing Play and recreation in Communities (SOPARC) tool. Multilevel multiple regression models were conducted in MLwiN 2.25. Results In San Diego parks, activity levels of park visitors and number of vigorously active visitors were higher than in Ghent, while the number of visitors walking and the overall number of park visitors were lower. Neighborhood walkability was positively associated with the overall number of visitors, the number of visitors walking, number of sedentary visitors and mean activity levels of visitors. Neighborhood income was positively associated with the overall number of visitors, but negatively with the number of visitors being vigorously active. Conclusions Neighborhood characteristics are important to explain park use. Neighborhood walkability-related attributes should be taken into account when promoting the use of existing parks or creating new parks. Because no strong differences were found between parks in high- and low-income neighborhoods, it seems that promoting park use might be a promising

  15. An ˜1500 year history of El Niño Southern Oscillation rainfall anomalies and land use for the Isthmus of Panama from speleothem calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lachniet, M. S.; Burns, S. J.; Piperno, D. R.; Asmerom, Y.; Polyak, V. P.

    2003-12-01

    The history of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the past two millennia remains poorly constrained. To document further the tropical paleoclimatic response to ENSO, we present a precisely-dated (180 B.C. to 1310 A.D.), high-resolution ( ˜3 yr / sample), cave calcite isotopic time series from the Isthmus of Panama, a region that experiences ENSO-forced rainfall anomalies. We show evidence for rapid and dramatic rainfall variation in southern Central America, as inferred from stalagmite δ 18O isotope stratigraphy. Isthmian convective rainfall from 550 A.D. to 1300 A.D. was both less intense and more variable than the period 180 B.C. to 550 A.D. Speleothem growth spanned the interval of the Classic Maya Collapse (750 - 950 A.D.), and provides additional evidence for dry anomalies at this time. Carbon isotopes document changing vegetation from native rainforest to grasslands and/or maize, a period of soil erosion associated with pre-Colombian agriculture, and final forest recovery. We suggest that ENSO-forced sea surface temperature anomalies in the eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean resulted in isthmian rainfall anomalies over much of the past two millennia. Our data suggest that El Niño events are associated with decreased isthmian rainfall, and that increased ENSO activity results in generally drier and more variable conditions.

  16. A Study of Thyroid 131I Activity of Five Human Subjects Exposed to a Radioactive Plume at Tamura City in Fukushima.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Koji; Miyashita, Masami; Sato, Hitoshi; Tanishima, Yoshinobu; Maeda, Shigenobu; Yoshikawa, Jun; Kimura, Shinzo

    2015-12-01

    Thyroid 131I activities were determined for five human subjects from a disaster medical assistance team of Fukui Prefectural Hospital. The team was dispatched to the Tamura City Sports Park, 40 km from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. They were exposed to a radioactive plume on 15 March 2011. In vivo measurements at Fukui Prefectural Hospital were conducted around 17 h after the team left the park. A thyroid counter equipped with a 51-mm-diameter × 51-mm-thick NaI(Tl) detector with a 20-mm-thick lead collimator was used. Mock iodine (133Ba and 137Cs) with a thyroid uptake neck phantom was used for calibration. On 16 March 2011, at 11:30, thyroid activity of a member of the team age 53 y, who was never administered stable iodine, was 268 ± 38 Bq. The remaining four men, aged 49, 35, 34, and 27 y, ingested two stable iodine pills (a total of 100 mg of potassium iodide) approximately 36 h before being exposed to the plume. Their thyroid activity values were 249 ± 86 Bq, 676 ± 107 Bq, 569 ± 96 Bq, and 1,082 ± 119 Bq, respectively. An inverse relationship between age and thyroid activity was observed among those who ingested potassium iodide before exposure, indicating that stable iodine administration may have a protective effect. Thyroid 131I activity was reduced by approximately 70% in the oldest person. This can be explained by the iodine metabolism in the thyroid of younger individuals being significantly faster than that of older individuals. PMID:26509625

  17. Urban Ecology: Exploring Wildlife in the City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcarne, Vanessa

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and examples of nature study activities using school yards, vacant lots, and city parks. Focusing on city wildlife, the interdisciplinary activities provide experiences in observing and investigating. Three duplicating masters (animals on ground, animals overhead, and tree study) are provided. (JN)

  18. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  19. Here Is What Interests Us! Students' Reconceived Physical Education Activity Offerings in an Inner-City Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, David

    2013-01-01

    Urban middle school physical education teachers undertook action research to understand activity preferences of their sixth and seventh graders (n = 701) as they sought to modify curriculum for enhancing student engagement. Students completed an anonymous survey of basic demographic characteristics and interest in participating in 24 physical…

  20. Public transit generates new physical activity: Evidence from individual GPS and accelerometer data before and after light rail construction in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

    PubMed

    Miller, Harvey J; Tribby, Calvin P; Brown, Barbara B; Smith, Ken R; Werner, Carol M; Wolf, Jean; Wilson, Laura; Oliveira, Marcelo G Simas

    2015-11-01

    Poor health outcomes from insufficient physical activity (PA) are a persistent public health issue. Public transit is often promoted for positive influence on PA. Although there is cross-sectional evidence that transit users have higher PA levels, this may be coincidental or shifted from activities such as recreational walking. We use a quasi-experimental design to test if light rail transit (LRT) generated new PA in a neighborhood of Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. Participants (n=536) wore Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers and accelerometers before (2012) and after (2013) LRT construction. We test within-person differences in individuals' PA time based on changes in transit usage pre- versus post-intervention. We map transit-related PA to detect spatial clustering of PA around the new transit stops. We analyze within-person differences in PA time based on daily transit use and estimate the effect of daily transit use on PA time controlling for socio-demographic variables. Results suggest that transit use directly generates new PA that is not shifted from other PA. This supports the public health benefits from new high quality public transit such as LRT. PMID:26340643

  1. Changes in rainfall interception along a secondary forest succession gradient in lowland Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, B.; Zimmermann, A.; Scheckenbach, H. L.; Schmid, T.; Hall, J. S.; van Breugel, M.

    2013-11-01

    Secondary forests are rapidly expanding in tropical regions. Yet, despite the importance of understanding the hydrological consequences of land-cover dynamics, the relationship between forest succession and canopy interception is poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is unfortunate because rainfall interception plays an important role in regional water cycles and needs to be quantified for many modeling purposes. To help close this knowledge gap, we designed a throughfall monitoring study along a secondary succession gradient in a tropical forest region of Panama. The investigated gradient comprised 20 forest patches 3 to 130 yr old. We sampled each patch with a minimum of 20 funnel-type throughfall collectors over a continuous 2-month period that had nearly 900 mm of rain. During the same period, we acquired forest inventory data and derived several forest structural attributes. We then applied simple and multiple regression models (Bayesian model averaging, BMA) and identified those vegetation parameters that had the strongest influence on the variation of canopy interception. Our analyses yielded three main findings. First, canopy interception changed rapidly during forest succession. After only a decade, throughfall volumes approached levels that are typical for mature forests. Second, a parsimonious (simple linear regression) model based on the ratio of the basal area of small stems to the total basal area outperformed more complex multivariate models (BMA approach). Third, based on complementary forest inventory data, we show that the influence of young secondary forests on interception in real-world fragmented landscapes might be detectable only in regions with a substantial fraction of young forests. Our results suggest that where entire catchments undergo forest regrowth, initial stages of succession may be associated with a substantial decrease of streamflow generation. Our results further highlight the need to study hydrological processes in all

  2. Decadal increase in seagrass biomass and temperature at the CARICOMP site in Bocas del Toro, Panama.

    PubMed

    López-Calderón, Jorge M; Guzmán, Hector M; Jácome, Gabriel E; Barnes, Penélope A G

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean Coastal Marine Productivity Program (CARICOMP) was launched in 1993 to study regional long-term interactions between land and sea, taking standardized measurements of productivity and biomass of mangroves, coral reefs and seagrasses. Since 1999 continuous measurements of seagrass (Thalassia testudinum) parameters as well as environmental data have been recorded in Caribbean Panama. Replicate stations were selected near the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute in Bocas del Toro. Sediment cores and quadrants were placed there to estimate biomass and productivity, respectively. Mean values for productivity, standing crop, turnover rate, total dry biomass, and Leaf Area Index were 1.74 gDW/m2/d, 66.6 gDW/m2, 2.62%/d, 1481 gDW/m2, and 4.65, respectively. Total dry biomass (shoots, rhizomes and roots) and LAI of T. testudinum increased significantly during the study period. Mean values for total rainfall, Secchi disk depth, sea surface temperature, and salinity were 3498 mm, 8.24 m, 28.79 degrees C, and 32.26 psu, respectively. Sea surface temperature was the only environmental variable with a statistically significant change, increasing from 1999 to 2010. Correlation between sea surface temperature and 7 testudinum parameters (total biomass and LAI) were both positive and significant. Human population has increased dramatically over the last ten years in Bocas del Toro region, increasing pressure (deforestation, runoff, wastewater) over coastal ecosystems (seagrasses, mangroves, coral reefs). Change in the abundance of 7 testudinum may be linked to ocean warming, as a consequence to satisfy plant's metabolic requirements, although other local factors need to be analyzed (reduced grazing and increased eutrophication). A further warming of the ocean could have a negative effect on T. testudinum population, increasing respiratory demands and microbial metabolism. PMID:24432536

  3. Controls over aboveground forest carbon density on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaro, J.; Asner, G. P.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; van Breugel, M.; Hall, J.; Dahlin, K.

    2011-06-01

    Despite the importance of tropical forests to the global carbon cycle, ecological controls over landscape-level variation in live aboveground carbon density (ACD) in tropical forests are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a spatially comprehensive analysis of ACD variation for a continental tropical forest - Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) - and tested site factors that may control such variation. We mapped ACD over 1256 ha of BCI using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which was well-correlated with ground-based measurements of ACD in Panamanian forests of various ages (r2 = 0.84, RMSE = 17 Mg C ha-1, P < 0.0001). We used multiple regression to examine controls over LiDAR-derived ACD, including slope angle, forest age, bedrock, and soil texture. Collectively, these variables explained 14 % of the variation in ACD at 30-m resolution, and explained 33 % at 100-m resolution. At all resolutions, slope (linked to underlying bedrock variation) was the strongest driving factor; standing carbon stocks were generally higher on steeper slopes. This result suggests that physiography may be more important in controlling ACD variation in Neotropical forests than currently thought. Although BCI has been largely undisturbed by humans for a century, past land-use over approximately half of the island still influences ACD variation, with younger forests (80-130 years old) averaging ~15 % less carbon storage than old-growth forests (>400 years old). If other regions of relatively old tropical secondary forests also store less carbon aboveground than primary forests, the effects on the global carbon cycle could be substantial and difficult to detect with traditional satellite monitoring.

  4. Controls over aboveground forest carbon density on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascaro, J.; Asner, G. P.; Muller-Landau, H. C.; van Breugel, M.; Hall, J.; Dahlin, K.

    2010-12-01

    Despite the importance of tropical forests to the global carbon cycle, ecological controls over landscape-level variation in live aboveground carbon density (ACD) in tropical forests are poorly understood. Here, we conducted a spatially comprehensive analysis of ACD variation for a mainland tropical forest - Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) - and tested site factors that may control such variation. We mapped ACD over 98% of BCI (~1500 ha) using airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), which was well-correlated with ground-based measurements of ACD in Panamanian forests of various ages (r2 = 0.77, RMSE = 29 Mg C ha-1, P < 0.0001). We used multiple regression to examine controls over LiDAR-derived ACD, including slope angle, bedrock, soil texture, and forest age. Collectively, these variables explained 14% of the variation in ACD at 30-m resolution, and explained 33% at 100-m resolution. At all resolutions, slope (linked to underlying bedrock variation) was the strongest driving factor; standing carbon stocks were generally higher on steeper slopes, where erosion rates tend to exceed weathering rates, compared to gentle slopes, where weathering in place produces deep, oxic soils. This result suggests that physiography may be more important in controlling ACD variation in Neotropical forests than currently thought. Although BCI has been largely undisturbed by humans for a century, past land-use over approximately half of the island still influences ACD variation, with younger forests (80-130 years old) averaging ~15% less carbon storage than old-growth forests (>400 years old). If other regions of relatively old tropical secondary forests also store less carbon aboveground than primary forests, the effects on the global carbon cycle could be substantial and difficult to detect with satellite monitoring.

  5. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s.

    PubMed

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923-1943) and a recent (1993-2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923-2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  6. Predispersal home range shift of an ocelot Leopardus pardalis (Carnivora: Felidae) on Barro Colorado Island, Panama.

    PubMed

    Mares, Rafael; Moreno, Ricardo S; Kays, Roland W; Wikelski, Martin

    2008-06-01

    Home range shifts prior to natal dispersal have been rarely documented, yet the events that lead a subadult to abandon a portion of its home range and venture into unfamiliar territories, before eventually setting off to look for a site to reproduce, are probably related to the causes of dispersal itself. Here, we used a combination of manual radio-tracking and an Automated Radio Telemetry System to continuously study the movements of a subadult male ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), a solitary carnivore with sex-biased dispersal, on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, for 18 months from May 2003 through October 2004. The subadult ocelot's parents were also radio-tracked to record possible parent-offspring interactions within their home ranges. At the age of ca. 21 months the subadult gradually began to shift its natal home range, establishing a new one used until the end of the study, in an area that had previously been used by another dispersing subadult male. Only three parent-offspring interactions were recorded during the four months around the time the range-shift occurred. The apparent peaceful nature of these encounters, along with the slow transition out of a portion of his natal home range, suggest the subadult was not evicted from his natal area by his parents. The timing of the shift, along with the subadult's increase in weight into the weight range of adult ocelots four months after establishing the new territory, suggests that predispersal home range shifts could act as a low risk and opportunistic strategy for reaching adult size, while minimizing competition with parents and siblings, in preparation for an eventual dispersal into a new breeding territory. PMID:19256443

  7. Comparative genetic structure of two mangrove species in Caribbean and Pacific estuaries of Panama

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mangroves are ecologically important and highly threatened forest communities. Observational and genetic evidence has confirmed the long distance dispersal capacity of water-dispersed mangrove seeds, but less is known about the relative importance of pollen vs. seed gene flow in connecting populations. We analyzed 980 Avicennia germinans for 11 microsatellite loci and 940 Rhizophora mangle for six microsatellite loci and subsampled two non-coding cpDNA regions in order to understand population structure, and gene flow within and among four major estuaries on the Caribbean and Pacific coasts of Panama. Results Both species showed similar rates of outcrossing (t= 0.7 in A. germinans and 0.8 in R. mangle) and strong patterns of spatial genetic structure within estuaries, although A. germinans had greater genetic structure in nuclear and cpDNA markers (7 demes > 4 demes and Sp= 0.02 > 0.002), and much greater cpDNA diversity (Hd= 0.8 > 0.2) than R. mangle. The Central American Isthmus serves as an exceptionally strong barrier to gene flow, with high levels nuclear (FST= 0.3-0.5) and plastid (FST= 0.5-0.8) genetic differentiation observed within each species between coasts and no shared cpDNA haplotypes between species on each coast. Finally, evidence of low ratios of pollen to seed dispersal (r = −0.6 in A. germinans and 7.7 in R. mangle), coupled with the strong observed structure in nuclear and plastid DNA among most estuaries, suggests low levels of gene flow in these mangrove species. Conclusions We conclude that gene dispersal in mangroves is usually limited within estuaries and that coastal geomorphology and rare long distance dispersal events could also influence levels of structure. PMID:23078287

  8. When depth is no refuge: cumulative thermal stress increases with depth in Bocas del Toro, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, B. P.; Condit, C.; Liu, G.; dos Santos, S.; Kahru, M.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kline, D. I.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are increasingly affected by high-temperature stress events and associated bleaching. Monitoring and predicting these events have largely utilized sea surface temperature data, due to the convenience of using large-scale remotely sensed satellite measurements. However, coral bleaching has been observed to vary in severity throughout the water column, and variations in coral thermal stress across depths have not yet been well investigated. In this study, in situ water temperature data from 1999 to 2011 from three depths were used to calculate thermal stress on a coral reef in Bahia Almirante, Bocas del Toro, Panama, which was compared to satellite surface temperature data and thermal stress calculations for the same area and time period from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coral Reef Watch Satellite Bleaching Alert system. The results show similar total cumulative annual thermal stress for both the surface and depth-stratified data, but with a striking difference in the distribution of that stress among the depth strata during different high-temperature events, with the greatest thermal stress unusually recorded at the deepest measured depth during the most severe bleaching event in 2005. Temperature records indicate that a strong density-driven temperature inversion may have formed in this location in that year, contributing to the persistence and intensity of bleaching disturbance at depth. These results indicate that depth may not provide a stress refuge from high water temperature events in some situations, and in this case, the water properties at depth appear to have contributed to greater coral bleaching at depth compared to near-surface locations. This case study demonstrates the importance of incorporating depth-stratified temperature monitoring and small-scale oceanographic and hydrologic data for understanding and predicting local reef responses to elevated water temperature events.

  9. Overland Flow Generation and Soil Hydraulic Properties in Two Catchments in Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godsey, S.; Elsenbeer, H.; Stallard, R.

    2003-12-01

    Land management decisions in the Panama Canal watershed directly impact the hydrological functioning of the canal itself. Knowledge of the hydrological conditions in the forested portions of the watershed provides a baseline comparison for future land use changes. We chose to work on two streams on Barro Colorado Island that are representative of large regions of the watershed. These two streams respond differently to the same storm events: Conrad Trail Stream exhibits a fairly subdued and delayed response and Lutz Creek stream is flashier. In order to understand these differences, we investigated the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) of the two catchments and studied the frequency of overland flow generation. The Ks measurements in dominant geologies in Lutz Creek as well as in Conrad Trail Stream are great enough at shallow depths (median Ks = 29.7, 65.6 and 38.3 mm/hr) that Hortonian overland flow is rare, but a marked decrease in Ks in Lutz Creek catchment at 30 cm (to 1.4 and 5.8 mm/hr) indicates that a perched water table leading to saturated overland flow is the likely runoff mechanism in Lutz Creek. In Conrad, Ks does not decrease as markedly with soil depth, and a perched water table would form at about 60 cm below the surface (median Ks = 0.7 mm/hr). Therefore, more water is able to infiltrate into the soil in Conrad Trail Stream and saturated overland flow is less common. Overland flow was generated much more frequently in Lutz Creek than in Conrad Trail Stream, with lower thresholds of storm magnitude, duration, antecedent wetness and intensity required to generate overland flow. We also quantified the importance of microtopographic features such as concentrated flow lines and the results have implications for experimental design at other field sites. The Lutz Creek and Conrad Trail stream information will provide a useful baseline for land management decisions.

  10. The Butterflies of Barro Colorado Island, Panama: Local Extinction since the 1930s

    PubMed Central

    Basset, Yves; Barrios, Héctor; Segar, Simon; Srygley, Robert B.; Aiello, Annette; Warren, Andrew D.; Delgado, Francisco; Coronado, James; Lezcano, Jorge; Arizala, Stephany; Rivera, Marleny; Perez, Filonila; Bobadilla, Ricardo; Lopez, Yacksecari; Ramirez, José Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Few data are available about the regional or local extinction of tropical butterfly species. When confirmed, local extinction was often due to the loss of host-plant species. We used published lists and recent monitoring programs to evaluate changes in butterfly composition on Barro Colorado Island (BCI, Panama) between an old (1923–1943) and a recent (1993–2013) period. Although 601 butterfly species have been recorded from BCI during the 1923–2013 period, we estimate that 390 species are currently breeding on the island, including 34 cryptic species, currently only known by their DNA Barcode Index Number. Twenty-three butterfly species that were considered abundant during the old period could not be collected during the recent period, despite a much higher sampling effort in recent times. We consider these species locally extinct from BCI and they conservatively represent 6% of the estimated local pool of resident species. Extinct species represent distant phylogenetic branches and several families. The butterfly traits most likely to influence the probability of extinction were host growth form, wing size and host specificity, independently of the phylogenetic relationships among butterfly species. On BCI, most likely candidates for extinction were small hesperiids feeding on herbs (35% of extinct species). However, contrary to our working hypothesis, extinction of these species on BCI cannot be attributed to loss of host plants. In most cases these host plants remain extant, but they probably subsist at lower or more fragmented densities. Coupled with low dispersal power, this reduced availability of host plants has probably caused the local extinction of some butterfly species. Many more bird than butterfly species have been lost from BCI recently, confirming that small preserves may be far more effective at conserving invertebrates than vertebrates and, therefore, should not necessarily be neglected from a conservation viewpoint. PMID:26305111

  11. Trends of grain sizes on gravel bars in the Rio Chagres, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rengers, Francis; Wohl, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    We examined the trends of grain sizes along the upper 414 km 2 of the mountainous Rio Chagres drainage basin in Panama. Gravel bars were sampled along 40 km of the Rio Chagres and five major tributary streams using a transect pebble count of median diameter, lithology, and clast rounding. Although previous investigators have found that downstream fining can be obscured by inputs of colluvial sediment and other local controls in mountain drainages, we decided to examine the trends of grain sizes along a tropical mountain river where rapid weathering and high capability of transport might be capable of overriding the input effects of colluvium. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that downstream fining would be present as a result of selective sorting, and that weak felsic particles would decrease in size preferentially to strong mafic particles because of abrasion. Statistical analyses reveal a weak downstream decrease of sediment size on gravel bars along the study reach of the Rio Chagres, with a Sternberg diminution coefficient ( α) for felsic and mafic grains of - 0.013 and - 0.017, respectively. Felsic clasts have thicker weathering rinds and become rounded downstream faster than mafic particles, but tumbling-mill tests of abrasion show no significant differences in rate of mass loss in relation to lithology, and downstream decreases in grain size are similar between lithologies. Dividing the study reach into six sub-reaches bounded by major tributary junctions, we further tested the hypothesis that downstream trends in fining might be obscured at the basin scale by sediment input from tributaries, but that trends in grain sizes might be more visible at the reach scale between tributaries. We did not find any consistent trends in grain size between tributaries. Stream width appears to assert a local control on grain size; coarse particles are associated with narrow channel reaches, whereas smaller particles are associated with wide channel reaches.

  12. How Much Neighborhood Parks Contribute to Local Residents’ Physical Activity in the City of Los Angeles: a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Deborah A.; Derose, Kathryn Pitkin; Marsh, Terry; Williamson, Stephanie; Raaen, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the contribution of neighborhood parks to population-level, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Method We studied park use in 83 neighborhood parks in Los Angeles between 2003 and 2014 using systematic observation and surveys of park users and local residents. We observed park use at least 3–4 times per day over 4–7 clement days. We conducted a meta-analysis to estimate total, age group and gender-specific park use and total MVPA time in parks. Results An average park measuring 10 acres and with 40,000 local residents in a one-mile radius accrued 5,301 hours of use (SE=1,083) during one week, with 35% (1,850 hours) spent in MVPA and 12% (635 hours) spent in vigorous physical activity (VPA). As much as a 10.7-fold difference in weekly MVPA hours was estimated across study parks. Parks’ main contribution to population-level MVPA is for males, teenagers, and residents living within a half mile. Conclusion Neighborhood parks contribute substantially to population MVPA. The contribution may depend less on size and facilities than on “demand goods” – programming and activities--that draw users to a park. PMID:25199733

  13. Systematics of the Rhinellamargaritifera complex (Anura, Bufonidae) from western Ecuador and Panama with insights in the biogeography of Rhinellaalata.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Sueny P; Ibáñez, Roberto; Ron, Santiago R

    2015-01-01

    The Rhinellamargaritifera species group consists of 17 species of toads distributed in tropical and subtropical South America and eastern Central America. The identity of some of its species is poorly understood and there are numerous undescribed cryptic species. Among them, the status of Rhinellamargaritifera is one of the most problematic. Its range includes lowland rainforests separated by the Andes, the Chocoan rainforest to the west and the Amazonian rainforest to the east. This distribution is puzzling because the Andes are an old and formidable barrier to gene flow and therefore should generate vicariant speciation between disjunct lowland populations. Herein we clarify the taxonomy of populations of the Rhinellamargaritifera complex from Central America and the Chocó region of South America. The morphological and genetic variation of Rhinellamargaritifera was examined from 39 populations from Chocó, 24 from the upper Amazon region of Ecuador, and 37 from Panama, including the holotype of the Panamanian Rhinellaalata. Phylogenetic analyses were performed based on mitochondrial genes 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, and cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) and the nuclear gene Tyrosinase (Tyr). The genetic and morphological data show that Panamanian and Chocoan populations are conspecific. In the phylogeny, populations from Chocó and Panama form a well-supported clade. The morphology of the holotype of Rhinellaalata falls within the variation range of Panamanian and Chocoan populations. Based on all this evidence, we assign the populations from western Ecuador and Panama to Rhinellaalata and demonstrate that the unusual distribution pattern of "Rhinellamargaritifera" on both sides of the Andes was an artifact of incorrectly defined species boundaries. PMID:25987881

  14. Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandrajith, Rohana; Chaturangani, Dinusha; Abeykoon, Sumith; Barth, Johannes A. C.; van Geldern, Robert; Edirisinghe, Viraj; Dissanayake, Chandra B.

    2014-05-01

    The Panama coastal aquifer system is an important water resource in the southeast coast of Sri Lanka that provides adequate supplies of water for agriculture and domestic uses. One of the biggest threats to these fragile aquifers is seawater intrusion. In this study [1], recharging mechanism and geochemical evaluation of groundwater in the coastal sandy aquifer of Panama were evaluated using chemical and stable isotope techniques. Thirty groundwater samples were collected and analyzed for their major ion concentrations and stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δ2H). All samples showed a decreasing order of concentrations for major anions in the order Cl- > HCO3- > SO42- > N-NO3- while cation concentrations decreased with Na+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > K+. Dominant hydrogeochemical characterizations of the groundwater were Na-Cl and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl types of water. Results of saturation index calculations indicate that the investigated groundwater body was mostly saturated with respect to calcite, dolomite and gypsum. In addition, stable isotope and geochemical data suggest that fresh groundwater in the aquifer is recharged mainly by local precipitation with only slight modification from evaporation and saline water intrusions. The communities in the study area depend almost exclusively on groundwater a better understanding of the hydrogeochemical characteristics of the aquifer system becomes increasingly important in the future for better local water resource management. References [1] Chandrajith, R., Chaturangani, D., Abeykoon, S., Barth, J.C., van Geldern, R., Edirisinghe, E.A.N.V. and Dissanayake, C.B. (in press): Quantification of groundwater-seawater interaction in a coastal sandy aquifer system: a study from Panama, Sri Lanka. - Environmental Earth Sciences, [doi:10.1007/s12665-013-3010-y].

  15. Cenozoic History of Paleo-Currents through the Central American Seaway: Insights from Deep Sea Sediments and Outcrops in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, A. J.; Martin, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    Paleontologic, oceanographic, and ecologic studies suggest gradual shoaling of the Central American Seaway between ~15 to 2 Ma that caused a stepwise shutdown of deep, intermediate, and shallow water exchange between the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea. This diminishing communication has been further associated with changes in surface and deep ocean currents, atmospheric flow, and ultimately regional and global climate. Recent studies of the Isthmus of Panama's exhumation history, palm phylogenies, and fossil/molecularly derived migration rates, however, suggest that the isthmus may have risen much earlier. An earlier rise scenario would call into question many accepted consequences of this gateway event under the 'Panama Hypothesis,' including strengthened thermohaline circulation, North Atlantic Deep Water production, the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation, and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Despite considerable research on the Neogene, few paleoceanographic studies have directly examined long-term changes in the adjacent oceans over the Cenozoic to evaluate the potential for earlier events in the closure history of the seaway. In this study, we extend records of bottom water circulation reconstructed from the Nd-isotopes of fish teeth from several Caribbean International Ocean Discovery Program sediment cores (ODP Sites 998, 999, 1000). These reconstructions clearly depict an increase in Pacific volcanism throughout the Cenozoic and sustained transport of Pacific waters into the Caribbean basin from ~50 to 9 Ma, although there appear to be interesting complexities within the Caribbean basin itself. We also present preliminary investigations into the potential of Nd-isotopic analyses on fossil fish teeth recovered from outcrops and exposures of marine strata across Panama to further elucidate the regional dynamics and shoaling history of the Central American Seaway.

  16. Barucynips panamensis , a new genus and species of oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae, Cynipini) from Panama, and description of one new species of  Coffeikokkos.

    PubMed

    Medianero, Enrique; Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Barucynips panamensis Medianero & Nieves-Aldrey, a new genus and species of oak gallwasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini), is described from adults reared from galls on Quercus bumelioides in Panama. The new genus is taxonomically close to the recently described Coffeikokkos from Costa Rica, but differs from it and all of the described genera of Cynipini, by the shape and setation of the projecting part of the ventral spine of the hypopygium and by the sculpture of the propodeum. A new species of Coffeikokkos is also described from the same area, the Volcán Barú in Panama. Diagnostic characters, gall description, distribution, and biological data of the new genus and the two new species are given. The new genus is the first genus of oak gallwasps of the tribe Cynipini described in Panama. PMID:23794822

  17. The Panama Canal and the transoceanic dispersal of marine invertebrates: evaluation of the introduced amphipod Paracaprella pusilla Mayer, 1890 in the Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ros, Macarena; Ashton, Gail V; Lacerda, Mariana B; Carlton, James T; Vázquez-Luis, Maite; Guerra-García, José M; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2014-08-01

    Although the Panama Canal is one of the major corridors for shipping and potential dispersal of marine invaders in the tropics, little is known about the effect that the Canal has had on the distribution of marine biota. In this study, we (a) document the existence of established populations of the Western Atlantic caprellid amphipod Paracaprella pusilla, Mayer, 1890 for the first time at the Pacific entrance to the Canal, (b) review its distribution in the Pacific Ocean, and (c) evaluate possible mechanisms of introduction. The confirmed distribution of P. pusilla in the Pacific Ocean is limited to Australia, Hawaii, and Panama, despite earlier published reports from Chile and China. Laboratory experiments demonstrated intolerance of P. pusilla to freshwater, causing 100% mortality, and suggest invasion of the Pacific coast of Panama occurred through the Canal via ships' ballast water or by secondary spread via ships (ballast water or hull fouling) from another Pacific region. PMID:25060067

  18. The Hydrologic Response of Forestry Plantations and Secondary Succession in Comparison to Tropical Mature Forest and Pasture in the Panama Canal Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litt, G.; Briceno, J. C.; Crouch, T. D.; Ogden, F. L.

    2012-12-01

    Land use change in the Panama Canal Watershed may have far reaching effects on water quality and water quantity. Dry season water quantity is of particular interest for sustaining and expanding canal operations, therefore an increased understanding of tropical hydrological processes and their relationship to land use may improve management practices by the Panama Canal Authority. The long term Agua Salud Project in the Panama Canal Watershed monitors a number of hydrological factors across various tropical land use types. We hypothesize that the plantations and the secondary succession plot more closely resemble the mature forest's runoff characteristics. In this study we investigate the differences in runoff ratios between the following experimental plots: a teak (tectona grandis) plantation, a native-species plantation and a native secondary succession plot. Results are compared to past analyses on mature forest and pasture control plots while utilizing three years of continuously monitored hydrologic data.

  19. Considerations of erosion and storage of carbon, focusing on tropical landscapes in Puerto Rico and Panama (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stallard, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Humid tropical regions are particularly good settings to examine the terrestrial carbon and nutrient cycles because the high average temperatures combined with abundant water and frequent intense storms promote rapid biological activity, weathering, and physical erosion. In studying the human-modified carbon or nutrient cycles on particular landscapes, assessments of the impact of human activities must be compared to prior states of those landscapes with regard to (1) biogeochemical reservoir sizes on the landscape, (2) rates of transport through and out of the landscape, and (3) ultimate fate of the material exported. Ongoing studies in small catchments and larger adjacent watersheds in Puerto Rico (PR) and Panama (PTY) assess which biological, hydrologic, and geomorphic mechanisms have been affected by human activities. The catchments are on older volcanic rocks (6, 2 in PR), granitic rocks (3, all in PR), and one in PTY on limey sediments. Three of the volcanic catchments and one granitic catchment are agricultural. In all these landscapes, landslides, rather than surficial erosion, appear to be the largest regional sediment source, and the biggest landslide-producing storms occur once every few decades. Both landslide-related and surficial erosion are greater in agricultural catchments compared to forested catchments on the same lithology, and granitic landscapes are eroding far more rapidly than volcanic landscapes. Physical erosion on the granitic landscapes appears to be greatly in excess of reasonable equilibrium rates based on mass balances and estimates based on Be-10. The particulate-organic-carbon (POC) yields exceed combined dissolved organic (DOC) and inorganic (DIC) carbon yields in the granitic watersheds, but they are considerably less than the DOC+DIC yields in the volcanic watersheds. Annual yields of DIC and DOC relate linearly to annual runoff, whereas POC has a steep exponential-style increase with increasing runoff, indicating a strong

  20. Tectonic and Sedimentary Interactions on the Initiation and the Architecture of the Accretionary Wedges in the Southwestern Edge of the Caribbean, off Panama and Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercier De Lepinay, B. F.; Maurin, T.; Barat, F.; Auxietre, J.

    2013-12-01

    The structurally and stratigraphically complex area of North Panama deformed belt, Sinu-Uraba accretionary prism and south Caribbean deformed belt holds the key to understand the plate tectonic evolution of the southwestern margins of the Caribbean Sea. New geological fieldworks, sedimentary and structural analysis, detailed offshore and onshore seismic interpretation provide insights into the regional structural and stratigraphic evolution of those margins. Detailed results constraint the geodynamic history of these complex wedge architecture which registered successive changes of sedimentary supplies and gravity collapses. During the Paleocene and Eocene time, the southeastward subduction of the Caribbean plate below the northwestern edge of South America is characterized by the development of an accretionary wedge off the Caribbean margin of Colombia, due to the accumulation of a large amount of sediments provided by the Magdalena and the Sinu rivers. The Atrato river, at that time, was providing sediments to the basins restricted within the Panama Isthmus. During the Middle Miocene, the Panama Isthmus began to collide against South America, inducing the uplift of the San Jacinto/Sinu Belt in Colombia. As a consequence, the Magdalena river was deviated northward. The Sinu river was also deviated to the North and started to load the back of the the Sinu accretionary wedge which then began to collapse as convergence has ceased. In the same way, the uplift of the Darien Shear Zone, east of the Atrato basin, has deflected the sedimentary supply from the Chucunaque/Tuira basins to the northern margin of the isthmus, allowing the development of a sedimentary basin and the initiation of the North Panama Deformed Belt. Thus, on one hand, the structure of the Colombian Wedge, the Sinu Wedge and the North Panama Deformed belt, was controlled by the tectonic forces, a consequence of the convergence and progressive accretion of the Central American isthmus against the