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Sample records for activity patterns related

  1. Relative humidity and activity patterns of Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berger, K.A.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Gonzalez, L.; Mather, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory studies have shown clear relationships between relative humidity (RH) and the activity and survival of Ixodes scapularis Say (blacklegged tick). However, field studies have produced conflicting results. We examined this relationship using weekly tick count totals and hourly RH observations at three field sites, stratified by latitude, within the state of Rhode Island. Records of nymphal tick abundance were compared with several RH-related variables (e.g., RH at time of sampling and mean weekly daytime RH). In total, 825 nymphs were sampled in 2009, a year of greater precipitation, with a weighted average leaf litter RH recorded at time of sampling of 85.22%. Alternatively, 649 nymphs were collected in 2010, a year of relatively low precipitation, and a weighted average RH recorded at time of sampling was 75.51%. Negative binomial regression analysis of tick count totals identified cumulative hours <82% RH threshold as a significant factor observed in both years (2009: P = 0.0037; 2010: P < 0.0001). Mean weekly daytime RH did not significantly predict tick activity in either year. However, mean weekly daytime RH recorded with 1-wk lag before sample date was a significant variable (P = 0.0016) in 2010. These results suggest a lag effect between moisture availability and patterns of tick activity and abundance. Differences in the relative importance of each RH variable between years may have been due to abnormally wet summer conditions in 2009.

  2. [Mammals' camera-trapping in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico: relative abundance and activity patterns].

    PubMed

    Monroy-Vilchis, Octavio; Zarco-González, Martha M; Rodríguez-Soto, Clarita; Soria-Díaz, Leroy; Urios, Vicente

    2011-03-01

    Species conservation and their management depend on the availability of their population behavior and changes in time. This way, population studies include aspects such as species abundance and activity pattern, among others, with the advantage that nowadays new technologies can be applied, in addition to common methods. In this study, we used camera-traps to obtain the index of relative abundance and to establish activity pattern of medium and large mammals in Sierra Nanchititla, Mexico. The study was conducted from December 2003 to May 2006, with a total sampling effort of 4 305 trap-days. We obtained 897 photographs of 19 different species. Nasua narica, Sylvilagus floridanus and Urocyon cinereoargenteus were the most abundant, in agreement with the relative abundance index (RAI, number of independent records/100 trap-days), and according to previous studies with indirect methods in the area. The activity patterns of the species showed that 67% of them are nocturnal, except Odocoileus virginianus, Nasua narica and others. Some species showed differences with previously reported patterns, which are related with seasonality, resources availability, organism sex, principally. The applied method contributed with reliable data about relative abundance and activity patterns.

  3. Dietary and physical activity patterns in French children are related to overweight and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Lioret, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Lafay, Lionel; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Maire, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SED) has already been identified as a risk factor of childhood overweight (OW) but less is known about the dietary patterns related to adiposity. Our objective was to investigate if lifestyle patterns combining overall diet and physical activity were associated with childhood OW and if they were involved in the reverse association between socioeconomic status (SES) and OW. Dietary intake was assessed using a 7-d food record in 748 French children aged 3-11 y from the 1998-1999 cross-sectional French Enquête Individuelle et Nationale sur les Consommations Alimentaires national food consumption survey. Weight and height, leisure time physical activity, SED (television viewing), and SES were reported by parents or children by answering questionnaires. Scores for lifestyle patterns were assessed with factor analysis and their relationship with OW was explored by logistic regression analysis. Two similar lifestyle patterns were identified in children aged 3-6 y and 7-11 y: "snacking and sedentary" and "varied food and physically active." The snacking and sedentary pattern was positively associated with OW in the youngest children (P-trend = 0.0161) and partly mediated the negative association of SES to OW. The varied food and physically active pattern was inversely correlated with OW in the eldest children only (P-trend = 0.0401). A third pattern called "big eaters at main meals" was derived in children aged 7-11 y and was positively correlated with OW (P-trend = 0.0165). From a public health perspective, the combinations of identifiable dietary and physical activity behaviors may be useful as a basis for recommendations on preventing OW.

  4. Relation between abnormal patterns of muscle activation and response to common peroneal nerve stimulation in hemiplegia

    PubMed Central

    Burridge, J; McLellan, D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the relation between response to common peroneal nerve stimulation, timed to the swing phase of walking, and abnormal ankle movement and muscle activation patterns.
METHOD—Eighteen patients who took part had a drop foot and had had a stroke at least 6 months before the study Twelve age matched normal subjects were also studied. Response to stimulation was measured by changes in the speed and effort of walking when the stimulator was used. Speed was measured over 10 m and effort by the physiological cost index. Abnormal ankle movement and muscle activation were measured in a rig by ability to follow a tracking signal moving sinusoidally at either 1 or 2 Hz, resistance to passive movement, and EMG activity during both passive and active movements. Indices were derived to define EMG response to passive stretch, coactivation, and ability to activate muscles appropriately during active movement
RESULTS—Different mechanisms underlying the drop foot were seen. Results showed that patients who had poor control of ankle movement and spasticity, demonstrated by stretch reflex and coactivation, were more likely to respond well to stimulation. Those with mechanical resistance to passive movement and with normal muscle activation responded less well.
CONCLUSIONS—The results support the hypothesis that stimulation of the common peroneal nerve to elicit a contraction of the anterior tibial muscles also inhibits the antagonist calf muscles. The technique used may be useful in directing physiotherapy by indicating the underlying cause of the drop foot.

 PMID:10945810

  5. Spatiotemporal relations of primary sensorimotor and secondary motor activation patterns mapped by NIR imaging

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Chand, Pankaj; Alexandrakis, George

    2011-01-01

    Functional near infrared (fNIR) imaging was used to identify spatiotemporal relations between spatially distinct cortical regions activated during various hand and arm motion protocols. Imaging was performed over a field of view (FOV, 12 x 8.4 cm) including the secondary motor, primary sensorimotor, and the posterior parietal cortices over a single brain hemisphere. This is a more extended FOV than typically used in current fNIR studies. Three subjects performed four motor tasks that induced activation over this extended FOV. The tasks included card flipping (pronation and supination) that, to our knowledge, has not been performed in previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or fNIR studies. An earlier rise and a longer duration of the hemodynamic activation response were found in tasks requiring increased physical or mental effort. Additionally, analysis of activation images by cluster component analysis (CCA) demonstrated that cortical regions can be grouped into clusters, which can be adjacent or distant from each other, that have similar temporal activation patterns depending on whether the performed motor task is guided by visual or tactile feedback. These analyses highlight the future potential of fNIR imaging to tackle clinically relevant questions regarding the spatiotemporal relations between different sensorimotor cortex regions, e.g. ones involved in the rehabilitation response to motor impairments. PMID:22162826

  6. Immune activation- and regulation-related patterns in stable hand transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Dorota; Kościelska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Krajewska, Magdalena; Chełmoński, Adam; Jabłecki, Jerzy; Żabińska, Marcelina; Myszka, Marta; Banasik, Mirosław; Boratyńska, Maria; Gomółkiewicz, Agnieszka; Dzięgiel, Piotr; Klinger, Marian

    2017-02-01

    We assessed cell subsets and expression of a set of genes related to the T-cell populations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells to elucidate whether immune status of stable hand transplant recipients (HTx) differs from stable kidney transplant recipients (KTx). The study was conducted on five HTx 4.8 ± 1.7 years after transplantation and 30 stable KTx 7.9 ± 2.4 years after transplantation as well as 18 healthy volunteers. The research involved PBMC gene expression analysis of CD4, CD8, CTLA4, GZMB, FOXP3, IL10, IL4, ILR2A, NOTCH, PDCD1, PRF1, TGF-B, and TNF-A genes on a custom-designed low-density array (TaqMan) as well as flow cytometry assessment of lymphocyte subpopulations. HTx presented significantly increased expression of immunomodulatory genes (TNF, IL10, GITR, and PDCD1) compared to KTx and controls. HTx revealed a proinflammatory molecular pattern with higher expression of NOTCH and CD8 compared to KTx and controls. KTx showed a reduced level of regulatory T cells compared to controls and HTx. Both HTx and KTx presented an increased number of CD8(+) and CD8(+) CD28(-) T cells compared to controls. Stable hand transplant recipients exhibit persistent immune activation with rejection-related gene expression pattern counterbalanced by secondary induction of regulatory mechanisms.

  7. Sensory Cortical Activity Is Related to the Selection of a Rhythmic Motor Action Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jennifer X.; Maier, Joost X.; Reid, Emily E.

    2016-01-01

    Rats produce robust, highly distinctive orofacial rhythms in response to taste stimuli—responses that aid in the consumption of palatable tastes and the ejection of aversive tastes, and that are sourced in a multifunctional brainstem central pattern generator. Several pieces of indirect evidence suggest that primary gustatory cortex (GC) may be a part of a distributed forebrain circuit involved in the selection of particular consumption-related rhythms, although not in the production of individual mouth movements per se. Here, we performed a series of tests of this hypothesis. We first examined the temporal relationship between GC activity and orofacial behaviors by performing paired single-neuron and electromyographic recordings in awake rats. Using a trial-by-trial analysis, we found that a subset of GC neurons shows a burst of activity beginning before the transition between nondistinct and taste-specific (i.e., consumption-related) orofacial rhythms. We further showed that shifting the latency of consumption-related behavior by selective cueing has an analogous impact on the timing of GC activity. Finally, we showed the complementary result, demonstrating that optogenetic perturbation of GC activity has a modest but significant impact on the probability that a specific rhythm will be produced in response to a strongly aversive taste. GC appears to be a part of a distributed circuit that governs the selection of taste-induced orofacial rhythms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In many well studied (typically invertebrate) sensorimotor systems, top-down modulation helps motor-control regions “select” movement patterns. Here, we provide evidence that gustatory cortex (GC) may be part of the forebrain circuit that performs this function in relation to oral behaviors (“gapes”) whereby a substance in the mouth is rejected as unpalatable. We show that GC palatability coding is well timed to play this role, and that the latency of these codes changes as the latency of

  8. Alcohol-Related Facebook Activity Predicts Alcohol Use Patterns in College Students.

    PubMed

    Marczinski, Cecile A; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F; Stamates, Amy L; O'Connor, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use.

  9. Alcohol-Related Facebook Activity Predicts Alcohol Use Patterns in College Students

    PubMed Central

    Marczinski, Cecile A.; Hertzenberg, Heather; Goddard, Perilou; Maloney, Sarah F.; Stamates, Amy L.; O’Connor, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a brief 10-item alcohol-related Facebook® activity (ARFA) questionnaire would predict alcohol use patterns in college students (N = 146). During a single laboratory session, participants first privately logged on to their Facebook® profiles while they completed the ARFA measure, which queries past 30 day postings related to alcohol use and intoxication. Participants were then asked to complete five additional questionnaires: three measures of alcohol use (the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test [AUDIT], the Timeline Follow-Back [TLFB], and the Personal Drinking Habits Questionnaire [PDHQ]), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (MC-SDS). Regression analyses revealed that total ARFA scores were significant predictors of recent drinking behaviors, as assessed by the AUDIT, TLFB, and PDHQ measures. Moreover, impulsivity (BIS-11) and social desirability (MC-SDS) did not predict recent drinking behaviors when ARFA total scores were included in the regressions. The findings suggest that social media activity measured via the ARFA scale may be useful as a research tool for identifying risky alcohol use. PMID:28138317

  10. Contrasting activity patterns of two related octopus species, Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Meisel, Daniela V; Byrne, Ruth A; Kuba, Michael; Mather, Jennifer; Ploberger, Werner; Reschenhofer, Erhard

    2006-08-01

    Octopus macropus and Octopus vulgaris have overlapping habitats and are exposed to similar temporal changes. Whereas the former species is described as nocturnal in the field, there are conflicting reports about the activity time of the latter one. To compare activity patterns, the authors tested both species in the laboratory. Octopuses were exposed to a light-dark cycle and held under constant dim light for 7 days each. O. macropus showed nocturnal and light-cued activity. According to casual observations, O. vulgaris started out nocturnal but had switched to mostly diurnal when the experiment began. Individual variation of its activity was found. The different activity patterns of O. macropus and O. vulgaris might reflect their lifestyles, the latter species being more generalist.

  11. Diurnal Patterns of Physical Activity in Relation to Activity Induced Energy Expenditure in 52 to 83 Years-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Alberto G.; Westerterp, Klaas R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ageing is associated with a declining physical activity level (PAL) and changes in the diurnal activity pattern. Changes in the activity pattern might help explaining the age-associated reduction of physical activity. Objective The aims were to investigate diurnal activity patterns within groups of older adults classified by PAL, to investigate diurnal activity patterns within age-groups and to investigate the association between the drop in activity and aerobic fitness. Methods Thirty-one healthy subjects aged between 52 and 83y were recruited for the study. Subjects were divided in sedentary (PAL<1.75), moderately active (1.75active (1.90activity patterns were based on activity counts from an accelerometer during wake time and then divided in four quarters of equal time length. Additionally, aerobic fitness was measured as maximal oxygen uptake. Results Subjects had a PAL between 1.43 and 2.34 and an aerobic fitness between 18 and 49 ml/kg/min. Overall, activity patterns showed a peak in the first quarter of wake time (around 10AM) followed by a gradual decline of, on average, 5% per hour. Active subjects reached their peak in the first quarter and remained active until after the third quarter (11% drop each quarter on average). Moderately active and sedentary subjects reached their peak during the second quarter with a decrease during the third quarter (respectively 29% and 17% drop each quarter on average). The drop in physical activity between the first and the second half of the wake time was negatively associated with aerobic fitness (r = -0.39, p<0.05). Conclusion Active older adults maintained a larger amount of body movement for longer during their wake time. Diurnal physical activity declined more in adults ≥66 years old with lower aerobic fitness. PMID:27936145

  12. Patterns of Literacy and Numeracy Activities in Preschool and Their Relation to Structural Characteristics and Children's Home Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrl, Simone; Smidt, Wilfried; Grosse, Christiane; Richter, David

    2014-01-01

    Early literacy and numeracy activities in family and preschool are considered important for promoting children's early literacy and numeracy skills. However, little research exists, especially in Germany, on the frequency of such activities in different contexts. The current study identified patterns of literacy and numeracy activities in…

  13. Differential neural activity patterns for spatial relations in humans: a MEG study.

    PubMed

    Scott, Nicole M; Leuthold, Arthur; Sera, Maria D; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2016-02-01

    Children learn the words for above-below relations earlier than for left-right relations, despite treating these equally well in a simple visual categorization task. Even as adults--conflicts in congruency, such as when a stimulus is depicted in a spatially incongruent manner with respect to salient global cues--can be challenging. Here we investigated the neural correlates of encoding and maintaining in working memory above-below and left-right relational planes in 12 adults using magnetoencephalography in order to discover whether above-below relations are represented by the brain differently than left-right relations. Adults performed perfectly on the task behaviorally, so any differences in neural activity were attributed to the stimuli's cognitive attributes. In comparing above-below to left-right relations during stimulus encoding, we found the greatest differences in neural activity in areas associated with space and movement. In comparing congruent to incongruent trials, we found the greatest differential activity in premotor areas. For both contrasts, brain areas involved in the encoding phase were also involved in the maintenance phase, which provides evidence that those brain areas are particularly important in representing the relational planes or congruency types throughout the trial. When comparing neural activity associated with the relational planes during working memory, additional right posterior areas were implicated, whereas the congruent-incongruent contrast implicated additional bilateral frontal and temporal areas. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis left-right relations are represented differently than above-below relations.

  14. Activity Pattern Profiles: Relationship With Affect, Daily Functioning, Impairment, and Variables Related to Life Goals.

    PubMed

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruíz-Párraga, Gema T; González-Gómez, Henar; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2017-01-04

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to identify subgroups of patients on the basis of their activity patterns and to investigate their relationship with life goals, optimism, affect, and functioning. The sample was comprised of 276 patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the activity pattern variables and the resulting clusters were compared using 1-way analysis of variance. The 4-cluster was the optimal solution. The 4 clusters comprised: 1) avoiders: patients with high levels of avoidance and low levels of persistence, who use pacing to reduce pain, 2) doers: patients with high levels of persistence and low levels of pacing and avoidance, 3) extreme cyclers: patients with high levels of avoidance and persistence and low levels of pacing, and 4) medium cyclers: patients with moderately high levels of avoidance and persistence and high levels of pacing. Comparison of the clusters showed that doers had the most adaptive profile, whereas avoiders, followed by extreme cyclers, had unhealthy profiles. Doers showed a high level of optimism and a good balance between goal value, expectancy, and conflict.

  15. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants’ medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Results Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28–2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07–2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64–8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80–3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. Conclusion The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a

  16. Pattern of brain activation during social cognitive tasks is related to social competence in siblings discordant for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Mirta F; Drucaroff, Lucas J; Goldschmidt, Micaela G; de Achával, Delfina; Costanzo, Elsa Y; Castro, Mariana N; Ladrón-de-Guevara, M Soledad; Busatto Filho, Geraldo; Nemeroff, Charles B; Guinjoan, Salvador M

    2014-09-01

    Measures of social competence are closely related to actual community functioning in patients with schizophrenia. However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying competence in schizophrenia are not fully understood. We hypothesized that social deficits in schizophrenia are explained, at least in part, by abnormally lateralized patterns of brain activation in response to tasks engaging social cognition, as compared to healthy individuals. We predicted such patterns would be partly heritable, and therefore affected in patients' nonpsychotic siblings as well. We used a functional magnetic resonance image paradigm to characterize brain activation induced by theory of mind tasks, and two tests of social competence, the Test of Adaptive Behavior in Schizophrenia (TABS), and the Social Skills Performance Assessment (SSPA) in siblings discordant for schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls (n = 14 per group). Healthy individuals showed the strongest correlation between social competence and activation of right hemisphere structures involved in social cognitive processing, whereas in patients, the correlation pattern was lateralized to left hemisphere areas. Unaffected siblings of patients exhibited a pattern intermediate between the other groups. These results support the hypothesis that schizophrenia may be characterized by an abnormal functioning of nondominant hemisphere structures involved in the processing of socially salient information.

  17. Different patterns of metabolism determine the relative anabolic activity of 19-norandrogens.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, K; Kumar, N; Monder, C; Bardin, C W

    1995-06-01

    Testosterone, the principal androgen secreted by Leydig cells, exerts a wide range of actions including growth of the male reproductive tract (androgenic effects) and growth of non-reproductive tissues such as muscle, kidney, liver, and salivary gland (anabolic effects). As androgenic steroids were discovered some were found to have relatively more anabolic than androgenic activity. The results reviewed in this report suggest that these differences result, in part, from the differential metabolism of the steroids in individual tissues and the varied activities of the individual metabolites. In the accessory sex organs (e.g. the prostate) testosterone is 5 alpha-reduced to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) which, due to its higher affinity for androgen receptors (AR), amplifies the action of testosterone. In contrast, when 19-nortestosterone (NT) is 5 alpha-reduced, its affinity for AR decreases, resulting in a decrease in its androgenic potency. However, their anabolic potency remains unchanged since significant 5 alpha-reduction of the steroids does not occur in the muscle. 7 alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone (MENT) does not get 5 alpha-reduced due to steric hindrance from the 7 alpha-methyl group. Therefore, the androgenic potency of MENT is not amplified as happens with testosterone. These metabolic differences are responsible for the increased anabolic activity of NT and MENT compared to testosterone. Part of the biological effects of testosterone are mediated by its aromatization to estrogens. The fact that MENT is also aromatized to 7 alpha-methyl estradiol, a potent estrogen, in vitro by human placental and rat ovarian aromatase suggests that some of the anabolic actions of MENT may be mediated by this estrogen.

  18. Patterns of Field Learning Activities and Their Relation to Learning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mingun; Fortune, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Field practicum is an active learning process. This study explores the different learning stages or processes students experience during their field practicum. First-year master's of social work students in field practica were asked how much they had engaged in educational learning activities such as observation, working independently, process…

  19. Mosaic activity patterns and their relation to perceptual similarity: open discussions on the molecular basis and circuitry of odor recognition.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Fernando F; Rela, Lorena

    2014-12-01

    Enormous advances have been made in the recent years in regard to the mechanisms and neural circuits by which odors are sensed and perceived. Part of this understanding has been gained from parallel studies in insects and rodents that show striking similarity in the mechanisms they use to sense, encode, and perceive odors. In this review, we provide a short introduction to the functioning of olfactory systems from transduction of odorant stimuli into electrical signals in sensory neurons to the anatomical and functional organization of the networks involved in neural representation of odors in the central nervous system. We make emphasis on the functional and anatomical architecture of the first synaptic relay of the olfactory circuit, the olfactory bulb in vertebrates and the antennal lobe in insects. We discuss how the exquisite and conserved architecture of this structure is established and how different odors are encoded in mosaic activity patterns. Finally, we discuss the validity of methods used to compare activation patterns in relation to perceptual similarity.

  20. Patterns in Active Nematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeomans, Julia M.

    Active systems, from bacterial suspensions to cellular monolayers, are continuously driven out of equilibrium by local injection of energy from their constituent elements and exhibit turbulent-like, chaotic patterns. We describe how active systems can be stabilised by tuning a physical feature of the system, friction. We demonstrate how the crossover between wet active systems, whose behaviour is dominated by hydrodynamics, and dry active matter where any flow is screened, can be achieved by using friction as a control parameter and demonstrate vortex ordering at the wet-dry crossover. We show that the self organisation of vortices into lattices is accompanied by the spatial ordering of topological defects leading to active crystal-like structures. The emergence of vortex lattices which leads to the positional ordering of topological defects may be a useful step towards the design and control of active materials.

  1. [Relative abundance, population structure, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Tapirus bairdii (Perissodactyla: Tapiridae), in Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Lira-Torres, Iván; Briones-Salas, Miguel; Sánchez-Rojas, Gerardo

    2014-12-01

    Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) is endangered primarily because of habitat loss and fragmentation, and overhunting throughout its distribution range. One of the priority land areas for the conservation of this species is the Northern part of its range in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca. The aim of this research was to determine the relative abundance, population struc- ture, habitat preferences and activity patterns of Baird's tapir (Tapirus bairdii) in the Chimalapas forest, Oaxaca, Mexico, through the non-invasive technique of camera-trap sampling. A total of five sampling sessions were undertaken among 2009-2013, and used a total of 30 camera-traps in each period. The determinant factor of the sampling design was the hunting between two study areas. A total sampling effort of 9000 trap-days allowed to estimate an index of relative abundance (IRA) of 6.77 tapir photographs/1,000 trap-days (n = 61). IRA varied significantly between sampling stations (Mann-Whitney, p < 0.01). The frequency of Baird's tapir photos was higher in the dry season in tropical rain forest without hunting (χ2, p < 0.5). In the rainy season, the tropical rain forest and secondary vegetation habitats showed higher photo frequency than expected from random (χ2, p < 0.5). Considering population structure, a 95.08% of adult animals was obtained in photographic records (n = 58). Three types of activity pattern were observed, with more nocturnal records (88.33%; Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05). The Chimalapas forest appears to be the second most important terrestrial priority ecoregion, just after the Mayan Forest (Campeche, Chiapas, Quintana Roo), for the conservation of tapir populations, not only for Mexico but also for Central America.

  2. Glomerular Activity Patterns Evoked by Natural Odor Objects in the Rat Olfactory Bulb Are Related to Patterns Evoked by Major Odorant Components

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Ong, Joan; Leon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    To determine how responses evoked by natural odorant mixtures compare to responses evoked by individual odorant chemicals, we mapped 2-deoxyglucose uptake during exposures to vapors arising from a variety of odor objects that may be important to rodents in the wild. We studied 21 distinct natural odor stimuli ranging from possible food sources such as fruits, vegetables, and meats to environmental odor objects such as grass, herbs, and tree leaves. The natural odor objects evoked robust and surprisingly focal patterns of 2-deoxyglucose uptake involving clusters of neighboring glomeruli, thereby resembling patterns evoked by pure chemicals. Overall, the patterns were significantly related to patterns evoked by monomolecular odorant components that had been studied previously. Object patterns also were significantly related to the molecular features present in the mixture components. Despite these overall relationships, there were individual examples of object patterns that were simpler than might have been predicted given the multiplicity of components present in the vapors. In these cases, the object patterns lacked certain responses evoked by their major odorant mixture components. These data suggest the possibility of mixture response interactions and provide a foundation for understanding the neural coding of natural odor stimuli. PMID:20187145

  3. Brain activation patterns in major depressive disorder and work stress-related long-term sick leave among Swedish females.

    PubMed

    Sandström, Agneta; Säll, Roland; Peterson, Jonas; Salami, Alireza; Larsson, Anne; Olsson, Tommy; Nyberg, Lars

    2012-09-01

    Deficits in executive functioning and working memory associated with frontal lobe dysfunction are prominent in depression and work-related long-term sick leave (LTSL). This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate potential differences in brain activation patterns in these conditions. In addition, the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was examined and compared between groups. Since there is a clear overrepresentation of women in these diagnostic groups, and to ensure a more homogenous sample population, only women were included. To examine the neural correlates of relevant cognitive processes in patients on sick leave >90 days due to work-related LTSL, recently diagnosed patients with major depression Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV criteria, untreated), and healthy controls (n = 10, each group), a 2-back working memory task and a visual long-term memory task were administered during fMRI scanning. HPA axis functioning was investigated using a diurnal curve of saliva cortisol and a dexamethasone suppression test. Task performance was comparable among the three groups. Multivariate image analysis revealed that both memory tasks engaged a similar brain network in all three groups, including the prefrontal and parietal cortex. During the 2-back task, LTSL patients had significant frontal hypoactivation compared to controls and patients with depression. Saliva cortisol measurements showed a flattening of the diurnal rythmicity in LTSL patients compared to patients with depression and healthy contols. Taken together, these findings indicate that work stress-related LTSL and major depression are dissociable in terms of frontal activation and diurnal cortisol rhythmicity.

  4. Lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) distribution, activity patterns and relative abundance in the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert; Ayala, Guido; Viscarra, Maria

    2012-12-01

    Lowland tapir distribution is described in northwestern Bolivia and southeastern Peru within the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape, a priority Tapir Conservation Unit, using 1255 distribution points derived from camera trapping efforts, field research and interviews with park guards from 5 national protected areas and hunters from 19 local communities. A total of 392 independent camera trapping events from 14 camera trap surveys at 11 sites demonstrated the nocturnal and crepuscular activity patterns (86%) of the lowland tapir and provide 3 indices of relative abundance for spatial and temporal comparison. Capture rates for lowland tapirs were not significantly different between camera trapping stations placed on river beaches versus those placed in the forest. Lowland tapir capture rates were significantly higher in the national protected areas of the region versus indigenous territories and unprotected portions of the landscape. Capture rates through time suggested that lowland tapir populations are recovering within the Tuichi Valley, an area currently dedicated towards ecotourism activities, following the creation (1995) and subsequent implementation (1997) of the Madidi National Park in Bolivia. Based on our distributional data and published conservative estimates of population density, we calculated that this transboundary landscape holds an overall lowland tapir population of between 14 540 and 36 351 individuals, of which at least 24.3% are under protection from national and municipal parks. As such, the Greater Madidi-Tambopata Landscape should be considered a lowland tapir population stronghold and priority conservation efforts are discussed in order to maintain this population.

  5. NLRP7 and related inflammasome activating pattern recognition receptors and their function in host defense and disease.

    PubMed

    Radian, Alexander D; de Almeida, Lucia; Dorfleutner, Andrea; Stehlik, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Host defense requires the maturation and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 and the induction of pyroptotic cell death, which depends on the activation of inflammatory Caspases within inflammasomes by innate immune cells. Several cytosolic pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) have been implicated in this process in response to infectious and sterile agonists. Here we summarize the current knowledge on inflammasome-organizing PRRs, emphasizing the recently described NLRP7, and their implications in human disease.

  6. Late evening brain activation patterns and their relation to the internal biological time, melatonin, and homeostatic sleep debt.

    PubMed

    Gorfine, Tali; Zisapel, Nava

    2009-02-01

    Sleep propensity increases sharply at night. Some evidence implicates the pineal hormone melatonin in this process. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, brain activation during a visual search task was examined at 22:00 h (when endogenous melatonin levels normally increase). The relationships between brain activation, endogenous melatonin (measured in saliva), and self-reported fatigue were assessed. Finally, the effects of exogenous melatonin administered at 22:00 h were studied in a double blind, placebo-controlled crossover manner. We show that brain activation patterns as well as the response to exogenous melatonin significantly differ at night from those seen in afternoon hours. Thus, activation in the rostro-medial and lateral aspects of the occipital cortex and the thalamus diminished at 22:00 h. Activation in the right parietal cortex increased at night and correlated with individual fatigue levels, whereas exogenous melatonin given at 22:00 h reduced activation in this area. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an area considered to reflect homeostatic sleep debt, demonstrated increased activation at 22:00 h. Surprisingly, this increase correlated with endogenous melatonin. These results demonstrate and partially differentiate circadian effects (whether mediated by melatonin or not) and homeostatic sleep debt modulation of human brain activity associated with everyday fatigue at night.

  7. Patterns of Occurrence and Marine Mammal Acoustic Behavior in Relation to Navy Sonar Activity Off Jacksonville, Florida.

    PubMed

    Oswald, Julie N; Norris, Thomas F; Yack, Tina M; Ferguson, Elizabeth L; Kumar, Anurag; Nissen, Jene; Bell, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Passive acoustic data collected from marine autonomous recording units deployed off Jacksonville, FL (from 13 September to 8 October 2009 and 3 December 2009 to 8 January 2010), were analyzed for detection of cetaceans and Navy sonar. Cetaceans detected included Balaenoptera acutorostrata, Eubalaena glacialis, B. borealis, Physeter macrocephalus, blackfish, and delphinids. E. glacialis were detected at shallow and, somewhat unexpectedly, deep sites. P. macrocephalus were characterized by a strong diel pattern. B. acutorostrata showed the strongest relationship between sonar activity and vocal behavior. These results provide a preliminary assessment of cetacean occurrence off Jacksonville and new insights on vocal responses to sonar.

  8. Skeletal and dento-alveolar changes as a result of headgear activator therapy related to different vertical growth patterns.

    PubMed

    Dermaut, L R; van den Eynde, F; de Pauw, G

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dental and skeletal effect of the headgear activator according to Van Beek (1981). Special emphasis is put on the changes in vertical position of the incisors after treatment. The material for this study consists of pre- and post-treatment cephalograms of 43 girls and 35 boys with severe Class II malocclusions. Changes due to treatment were compared with two control groups: the series of Riolo et al. (1984), and 50 Austrian children with Class II malocclusions who did not receive treatment during the observation period. The headgear activator was found to be an effective treatment tool in the correction of Class II division 1 malocclusions. The observed skeletal changes were limited to minor growth stimulation of the mandible, while an orthopaedic effect on the maxilla could not be established. The dento-alveolar changes due to headgear activator treatment were most obvious in the upper incisor area resulting in an intrusion and a retroclination of these teeth. Moreover, vertical control of the lower anterior facial height in open bite growth patterns was observed in the sample investigated.

  9. Pattern of stylet penetration activity by Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) adults in relation to environmental temperature and light conditions.

    PubMed

    Son, Youngsoo; Backus, Elaine A; Groves, Russell L; Johnson, Marshall W

    2012-10-01

    Effects of ambient spring air temperature and light intensity on stylet penetration activities of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar), were studied under field conditions by using an electrical penetration graph. Electrical penetration graph waveforms representing salivary sheath formation and searching (pathway phase), xylem contact (X waves), and ingestion of xylem fluid (waveform C) were analyzed. Previous research supported the concept that acquisition of Xylella fastidiosa, the Pierce's disease bacterium, occurs during ingestion, whereas inoculation occurs during xylem contact periods (X waves). Diel patterns of H. vitripennis stylet activity showed that, regardless of light condition, xylem ingestion occurred for the longest duration when temperature remained above the feeding threshold (10°C), and only occurred at temperatures below the threshold when ingestion was continued from a preceding, warmer time. Regression analysis indicated that mean waveform durations per insect (WDI) for combined stylet activities (pathway and ingestion) as well as X wave frequencies were significantly influenced by temperature, but there was no significant impact of light intensity or interaction between temperature and light intensity. The relationship between temperature and stylet activities in terms of WDI and X wave frequency was described using linear and nonlinear models. Validation of the nonlinear models indicated that they well predicted the WDIs for both ingestion and combined stylet activities, using temperature only as a single input. Overall, findings clearly demonstrate that temperature is an important factor that influences the H. vitripennis feeding behaviors responsible for transmission (acquisition and inoculation) of the Pierce's disease bacterium, with implications for vector ecology and management, as well as disease epidemiology.

  10. Dynamic Patterns in Active Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jülicher, Frank

    2012-02-01

    Biological matter is inherently dynamic and exhibits active properties. A key example is the force generation by molecular motors in the cell cytoskeleton. Such active processes give rise to the generation of active mechanical stresses and spontaneous flows in gel-like cytoskeletal networks. Active material behaviors play a key role for the dynamics of cellular processes such as cell locomotion and cell division. We will discuss intracellular flow patterns that are created by active processes in the cell cortex. By combining theory with quantitative experiments we show that observed flow patterns result from profiles of active stress generation in the system. We will also consider the situation where active stress is regulated by a diffusing molecular species. In this case, spatial concentration patterns are generated by the interplay of stress regulation and self-generated flow fields.

  11. Age-Related Changes in BOLD Activation Pattern in Phonemic Fluency Paradigm: An Investigation of Activation, Functional Connectivity and Psychophysiological Interactions

    PubMed Central

    La, Christian; Garcia-Ramos, Camille; Nair, Veena A.; Meier, Timothy B.; Farrar-Edwards, Dorothy; Birn, Rasmus; Meyerand, Mary E.; Prabhakaran, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging is associated with decline of cognitive functions. However, even before those declines become noticeable, the neural architecture underlying those mechanisms has undergone considerable restructuring and reorganization. During performance of a cognitive task, not only have the task-relevant networks demonstrated reorganization with aging, which occurs primarily by recruitment of additional areas to preserve performance, but the task-irrelevant network of the “default-mode” network (DMN), which is normally deactivated during task performance, has also consistently shown reduction of this deactivation with aging. Here, we revisited those age-related changes in task-relevant (i.e., language system) and task-irrelevant (i.e., DMN) systems with a language production paradigm in terms of task-induced activation/deactivation, functional connectivity, and context-dependent correlations between the two systems. Our task fMRI data demonstrated a late increase in cortical recruitment in terms of extent of activation, only observable in our older healthy adult group, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, with recruitment of the contralateral hemisphere, but also other regions from the network previously underutilized. Our middle-aged individuals, when compared to the younger healthy adult group, presented lower levels of activation intensity and connectivity strength, with no recruitment of additional regions, possibly reflecting an initial, uncompensated, network decline. In contrast, the DMN presented a gradual decrease in deactivation intensity and deactivation extent (i.e., low in the middle-aged, and lower in the old) and similar gradual reduction of functional connectivity within the network, with no compensation. The patterns of age-related changes in the task-relevant system and DMN are incongruent with the previously suggested notion of anti-correlation of the two systems. The context-dependent correlation by psycho

  12. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a “Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind” that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call “Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind.” While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation. PMID:26236228

  13. Pattern activation/recognition theory of mind.

    PubMed

    du Castel, Bertrand

    2015-01-01

    In his 2012 book How to Create a Mind, Ray Kurzweil defines a "Pattern Recognition Theory of Mind" that states that the brain uses millions of pattern recognizers, plus modules to check, organize, and augment them. In this article, I further the theory to go beyond pattern recognition and include also pattern activation, thus encompassing both sensory and motor functions. In addition, I treat checking, organizing, and augmentation as patterns of patterns instead of separate modules, therefore handling them the same as patterns in general. Henceforth I put forward a unified theory I call "Pattern Activation/Recognition Theory of Mind." While the original theory was based on hierarchical hidden Markov models, this evolution is based on their precursor: stochastic grammars. I demonstrate that a class of self-describing stochastic grammars allows for unifying pattern activation, recognition, organization, consistency checking, metaphor, and learning, into a single theory that expresses patterns throughout. I have implemented the model as a probabilistic programming language specialized in activation/recognition grammatical and neural operations. I use this prototype to compute and present diagrams for each stochastic grammar and corresponding neural circuit. I then discuss the theory as it relates to artificial network developments, common coding, neural reuse, and unity of mind, concluding by proposing potential paths to validation.

  14. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Its Relation to Student Physical Activity Patterns at a Large U.S. Southern State University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen D.; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Centeio, Erin; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Ramirez, Tere; Chen, Li

    2010-01-01

    This study examined student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge and its relationship to physical activity (PA). The participants were undergraduate students from a large U.S. state university. HRF knowledge was assessed using a test consisting of 150 multiple choice items. Differences in HRF knowledge scores by sex, ethnicity, and years in…

  15. Persistent differences in patterns of brain activation after sports-related concussion: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, Annegret; Murugavel, Murali; Putukian, Margot; Cubon, Valerie; Furtado, John; Osherson, Daniel

    2014-01-15

    Avoiding recurrent injury in sports-related concussion (SRC) requires understanding the neural mechanisms involved during the time of recovery after injury. The decision for return-to-play is one of the most difficult responsibilities facing the physician, and so far this decision has been based primarily on neurological examination, symptom checklists, and neuropsychological (NP) testing. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) may be an additional, more objective tool to assess the severity and recovery of function after concussion. The purpose of this study was to define neural correlates of SRC during the 2 months after injury in varsity contact sport athletes who suffered a SRC. All athletes were scanned as they performed an n-back task, for n=1, 2, 3. Subjects were scanned within 72 hours (session one), at 2 weeks (session two), and 2 months (session three) post-injury. Compared with age and sex matched normal controls, concussed subjects demonstrated persistent, significantly increased activation for the 2 minus 1 n-back contrast in bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in all three sessions and in the inferior parietal lobe in session one and two (α≤0.01 corrected). Measures of task performance revealed no significant differences between concussed versus control groups at any of the three time points with respect to any of the three n-back tasks. These findings suggest that functional brain activation differences persist at 2 months after injury in concussed athletes, despite the fact that their performance on a standard working memory task is comparable to normal controls and normalization of clinical and NP test results. These results might indicate a delay between neural and behaviorally assessed recovery after SRC.

  16. The relative importance of respiratory water loss in scorpions is correlated with species habitat type and activity pattern.

    PubMed

    Gefen, Eran

    2011-01-01

    Scorpions exhibit some of the lowest recorded water loss rates compared with those of other terrestrial arthropods of similar body size. Evaporative water loss (EWL) includes cuticular transpiration and respiratory water loss (RWL) from gas exchange surfaces, that is, book lung lamellae. Estimated fractions of cuticular and respiratory losses currently available from the literature show considerable variation, at least partly as a result of differences in methodology. This study reports RWL rates and their relative importance in scorpions from two families (Buthidae and Scorpionidae), including both xeric and mesic species (or subspecies). Two of the included Buthidae were surface-dwelling species, and another inhabits empty burrows of other terrestrial arthropods. This experimental design enabled correlating RWL importance with scorpion phylogeny, habitat type, and/or homing behavior. Buthidae species exhibited significantly lower EWL rates compared with those of Scorpionidae, whereas effects of habitat type and homing behavior were not significant. Resting RWL rates were not significantly affected by scorpion phylogeny, but rates for the xeric species (totaling ~10% of EWL rates at 30°C) were significantly lower compared with those of mesic species. These lower RWL values were correlated with significantly lower H(2)O/CO(2) emission rates in xeric species. The experimental setup and ~24-h duration of each individual recording allowed estimating the effect of interspecific variation in activity on RWL proportions. The high respiratory losses in active hydrated Scorpio maurus fuscus, totaling 30% of EWL, suggest that behavioral discretion in this species is a more likely mechanism for body water conservation under stressful conditions when compared with the responses of other studied species.

  17. Pattern of stylet penetration activity by Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) adults in relation to environmental temperature and light conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of ambient spring air temperature and light intensity on stylet penetration activities of the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) were studied outdoors, at ambient light and temperatures, using an electrical penetration graph (EPG). EPG waveforms representing saliva...

  18. Intrinsic Patterns of Human Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Kun; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Chen, Zhi; Hilton, Michael; Stanley, H. Eugene; Shea, Steven

    2003-03-01

    Activity is one of the defining features of life. Control of human activity is complex, being influenced by many factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body. The most obvious extrinsic factors that affect activity are the daily schedule of planned events, such as work and recreation, as well as reactions to unforeseen or random events. These extrinsic factors may account for the apparently random fluctuations in human motion observed over short time scales. The most obvious intrinsic factors are the body clocks including the circadian pacemaker that influences our sleep/wake cycle and ultradian oscillators with shorter time scales [2, 3]. These intrinsic rhythms may account for the underlying regularity in average activity level over longer periods of up to 24 h. Here we ask if the known extrinsic and intrinsic factors fully account for all complex features observed in recordings of human activity. To this end, we measure activity over two weeks from forearm motion in subjects undergoing their regular daily routine. Utilizing concepts from statistical physics, we demonstrate that during wakefulness human activity possesses previously unrecognized complex dynamic patterns. These patterns of activity are characterized by robust fractal and nonlinear dynamics including a universal probability distribution and long-range power-law correlations that are stable over a wide range of time scales (from minutes to hours). Surprisingly, we find that these dynamic patterns are unaffected by changes in the average activity level that occur within individual subjects throughout the day and on different days of the week, and between subjects. Moreover, we find that these patterns persist when the same subjects undergo time-isolation laboratory experiments designed to account for the phase of the circadian pacemaker, and control the known extrinsic factors by restricting behaviors and manipulating scheduled events including the sleep/wake cycle. We attribute these newly

  19. Sexual activity patterns in rams.

    PubMed Central

    Bernon, D E; Shrestha, J N

    1984-01-01

    Behaviour was measured in reproductively experienced rams from three crossbred strains and two pure breeds (Suffolk and Finnish Landrace) in an attempt to develop a method for rapid screening of sexually aggressive rams and to measure breed differences in sexual activity. A set sequential pattern of activity need not occur in sexually experienced rams, and components of their sexual behaviour may be influenced by the estrual status of the ewe. The data indicate that the number of attempted mounts is an acceptable selection tool, with a mount following a short period of investigation most likely to be followed by coitus. Two sequential ten minute periods are sufficient for rapid screening of rams for short-term sexual activity levels. PMID:6713255

  20. Innate Visual Learning through Spontaneous Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Mark V.; Schnabel, Adam; Field, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Patterns of spontaneous activity in the developing retina, LGN, and cortex are necessary for the proper development of visual cortex. With these patterns intact, the primary visual cortices of many newborn animals develop properties similar to those of the adult cortex but without the training benefit of visual experience. Previous models have demonstrated how V1 responses can be initialized through mechanisms specific to development and prior to visual experience, such as using axonal guidance cues or relying on simple, pairwise correlations on spontaneous activity with additional developmental constraints. We argue that these spontaneous patterns may be better understood as part of an “innate learning” strategy, which learns similarly on activity both before and during visual experience. With an abstraction of spontaneous activity models, we show how the visual system may be able to bootstrap an efficient code for its natural environment prior to external visual experience, and we continue the same refinement strategy upon natural experience. The patterns are generated through simple, local interactions and contain the same relevant statistical properties of retinal waves and hypothesized waves in the LGN and V1. An efficient encoding of these patterns resembles a sparse coding of natural images by producing neurons with localized, oriented, bandpass structure—the same code found in early visual cortical cells. We address the relevance of higher-order statistical properties of spontaneous activity, how this relates to a system that may adapt similarly on activity prior to and during natural experience, and how these concepts ultimately relate to an efficient coding of our natural world. PMID:18670593

  1. [Diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Cortés-Marcial, Malinalli; Briones-Salas, Miguel

    2014-12-01

    The use of camera traps and mammal track search are complementary methods to monitoring species of which is not well documented their natural history, as in the case of medium and large mammals. To ensure its conservation and good management, it is necessary to generate information about the structure of the community and their populations. The objective of the present study was to estimate the diversity, relative abundance and activity patterns of medium and large mammals in a tropical deciduous forest located in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico. Samplings were conducted in three month intervals, from September 2011 to May 2013. We used photographic-sampling and track search, two complementary sampling methods. For photographic-sampling, 12 camera traps were placed covering an area of 60 km2, while for the tracks search a monthly tour of four line-transect surveys of three kilometers length each was undertaken. We obtained a total of 344 pictures with 5292 trap-days total sampling effort; in addition, 187 track records in a total of 144 km. With both methods we registered 21 species of mammals, in 13 families and seven orders, and five species resulted in new records to the area. The diversity index of Shannon-Wiener obtained with the method of tracks was H' = 2.41, while the most abundant species were Urocyon cinereoargen- teus (IAR = 0.23) and Pecari tajacu (IAR = 0.20). By the method of trap the most abundant species were P. tajacu (IAR = 2.62) and Nasua narica (IAR = 1.28). In terms of patterns of activity P. tajacu, N. narica and Odocoileus virginianus were primarily diurnal species; Canis latrans and Leopardus pardalis did not show preference for any schedule in particular, and Didelphis virginiana and Dasypus novemcinctus preferred to have nocturnal activity. This information can be of help to the creation of programs of management and conservation of mam- mals of medium and large in the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, México.

  2. Relational thinking and relational reasoning: harnessing the power of patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, Patricia A.

    2016-05-01

    This article offers an overview of the nature and role of relational thinking and relational reasoning in human learning and performance, both of which pertain to the discernment of meaningful patterns within any informational stream. Distinctions between thinking and reasoning relationally are summarized, along with specific forms of patterning that might be discerned. Next, the article summarizes what is presently known about relational reasoning, and then moves to explore future directions in educational research and in instructional practice that warrant attention based on the empirical literature.

  3. Parent-Reported Eating and Leisure-Time Activity Selection Patterns Related to Energy Balance in Preschool- and School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raynor, Hollie A.; Jelalian, Elissa; Vivier, Patrick M.; Hart, Chantelle N.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare parent-reported preschool- and school-aged children's eating and leisure-time activity patterns that are proposed to influence energy balance. Design: Cross-sectional investigation of children, 2 to 12 years, attending a well visit. Setting: Pediatric private practice/ambulatory pediatric clinic. Participants: One hundred…

  4. Spreading dynamics following bursty human activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byungjoon; Goh, K.-I.; Vazquez, Alexei

    2011-03-01

    We study the susceptible-infected model with power-law waiting time distributions P(τ)~τ-α, as a model of spreading dynamics under heterogeneous human activity patterns. We found that the average number of new infections n(t) at time t decays as a power law in the long-time limit, n(t)~t-β, leading to extremely slow prevalence decay. We also found that the exponent in the spreading dynamics β is related to that in the waiting time distribution α in a way depending on the interactions between agents but insensitive to the network topology. These observations are well supported by both the theoretical predictions and the long prevalence decay time in real social spreading phenomena. Our results unify individual activity patterns with macroscopic collective dynamics at the network level.

  5. Intergenerational Relations and Testamentary Patterns: An Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler-Bowles, Carol A.; Kart, Cary S.

    1983-01-01

    Examines inheritance practices reflecting changes in family relationships in a largely rural area from 1820 to 1967. A stratified sample of 60 probated wills was content analyzed. A familistic inheritance pattern dominated, indicating the strong influences of testator obligation to family with highest priority to conjugal relations. (Author/JAC)

  6. Patterns in Safety-Related Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Mike; Hunter, Charles

    Within Logica UK, safety-related projects are run in a variety of ways depending on the constraints imposed and how the risks and mitigations are owned and handled. A total of eight different types of project development patterns have been identified and this paper discusses each type. A simple decision tool has been developed based on the patterns which is used as an aid in deciding how to bid a safety project, allowing tradeoffs between risk ownership, development methods and cost to be assessed.

  7. Pattern Activity Clustering and Evaluation (PACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasch, Erik; Banas, Christopher; Paul, Michael; Bussjager, Becky; Seetharaman, Guna

    2012-06-01

    With the vast amount of network information available on activities of people (i.e. motions, transportation routes, and site visits) there is a need to explore the salient properties of data that detect and discriminate the behavior of individuals. Recent machine learning approaches include methods of data mining, statistical analysis, clustering, and estimation that support activity-based intelligence. We seek to explore contemporary methods in activity analysis using machine learning techniques that discover and characterize behaviors that enable grouping, anomaly detection, and adversarial intent prediction. To evaluate these methods, we describe the mathematics and potential information theory metrics to characterize behavior. A scenario is presented to demonstrate the concept and metrics that could be useful for layered sensing behavior pattern learning and analysis. We leverage work on group tracking, learning and clustering approaches; as well as utilize information theoretical metrics for classification, behavioral and event pattern recognition, and activity and entity analysis. The performance evaluation of activity analysis supports high-level information fusion of user alerts, data queries and sensor management for data extraction, relations discovery, and situation analysis of existing data.

  8. Visual Templates in Pattern Generalization Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, F. D.

    2010-01-01

    In this research article, I present evidence of the existence of visual templates in pattern generalization activity. Such templates initially emerged from a 3-week design-driven classroom teaching experiment on pattern generalization involving linear figural patterns and were assessed for existence in a clinical interview that was conducted four…

  9. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  10. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system. PMID:27273339

  11. Pattern Formation on Networks: from Localised Activity to Turing Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCullen, Nick; Wagenknecht, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Networks of interactions between competing species are used to model many complex systems, such as in genetics, evolutionary biology or sociology and knowledge of the patterns of activity they can exhibit is important for understanding their behaviour. The emergence of patterns on complex networks with reaction-diffusion dynamics is studied here, where node dynamics interact via diffusion via the network edges. Through the application of a generalisation of dynamical systems analysis this work reveals a fundamental connection between small-scale modes of activity on networks and localised pattern formation seen throughout science, such as solitons, breathers and localised buckling. The connection between solutions with a single and small numbers of activated nodes and the fully developed system-scale patterns are investigated computationally using numerical continuation methods. These techniques are also used to help reveal a much larger portion of of the full number of solutions that exist in the system at different parameter values. The importance of network structure is also highlighted, with a key role being played by nodes with a certain so-called optimal degree, on which the interaction between the reaction kinetics and the network structure organise the behaviour of the system.

  12. Insights in public health: Is the gap growing? Patterns in poverty-related disparities in nutrition and physical activity in Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Buchthal, Vanessa

    2014-10-01

    A recent Harvard study on national dietary trends found that the gap in healthy dietary behaviors between low-income and middle/upper-income Americans widened between 2000 and 2010. Hawai'i Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2001-2009 on differences in obesity-related behaviors between moderate-high income, low-income, and poverty-level Hawai'i residents were examined to explore whether Hawai'i data on obesity-related behaviors reflected this national trend. While most differences between groups were not statistically significant, a consistent pattern was seen across all measures that suggested a growing gap between low-income and moderate/high income Hawai'i residents. Data from community studies on pedestrian injury, park use, transportation, and healthy food access were examined. This data suggests that individuals residing in low-income neighborhoods in Hawai'i experience higher barriers to the adoption of healthier behaviors. Further data is needed to document poverty-related gaps in the adoption of health behaviors among youth and within Hawai'i's ethnic groups, communities and geographic areas.

  13. Optic foramen morphology and activity pattern in birds.

    PubMed

    Hall, Margaret I; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristián

    2009-11-01

    The optic nerve is the sole output of visual information from the ganglion cell layer of the retina to the brain in vertebrates. The size of the optic nerve is predicted to be closely associated with activity pattern, and, in many birds, the size of the optic foramen approximates the size of the optic nerve. Specifically, nocturnal species should have relatively smaller optic foramina than diurnal species because of differences in retinal pooling between activity patterns. If optic foramen morphology varies predictably with activity pattern in birds, this variable may be useful for interpreting activity pattern for birds that do not have soft tissue available for study, specifically for fossils. Across 177 families (from 27 orders), we describe four different optic foramen morphologies, only one of which corresponds well with the size of the optic nerve and is therefore appropriate for activity pattern analyses. Here, we test our hypothesis that nocturnal species will have relatively smaller optic foramina than diurnal species, across all species that we measured that have a discrete optic foramen. Regression analyses using species as independent data points and using comparative methods yielded significant differences in optic foramen size between nocturnal and diurnal species relative to three variables: head length, orbit depth, and sclerotic ring inner diameter. Nocturnal species consistently exhibit significantly smaller relative optic foramen diameters than diurnal species. Our results indicate that optic foramen diameter, in combination with either the sclerotic ring or the orbit diameter, can be used to predict activity pattern.

  14. Young School Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia M.; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David N.; Gentry, Chris

    2015-01-01

    This study examined physical activity (PA) variables related to recess PA patterns of kindergarten, first and second grade children, and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA. Data collected (N = 147) used the System of Observing Children's Activity and Relationships during Play (SOCARP) instrument. Children were interviewed.…

  15. Patterns of thermal constraint on ectotherm activity.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Alex R; Leal, Manuel

    2015-05-01

    Thermal activity constraints play a major role in many aspects of ectotherm ecology, including vulnerability to climate change. Therefore, there is strong interest in developing general models of the temperature dependence of activity. Several models have been put forth (explicitly or implicitly) to describe such constraints; nonetheless, tests of the predictive abilities of these models are lacking. In addition, most models consider activity as a threshold trait instead of considering continuous changes in the vigor of activity among individuals. Using field data for a tropical lizard (Anolis cristatellus) and simulations parameterized by our observations, we determine how well various threshold and continuous-activity models match observed activity patterns. No models accurately predicted activity under all of the thermal conditions that we considered. In addition, simulations showed that the performance of threshold models decreased as temperatures increased, which is a troubling finding given the threat of global climate change. We also find that activity rates are more sensitive to temperature than are the physiological traits often used as a proxy for fitness. We present a model of thermal constraint on activity that integrates aspects of both the threshold model and the continuous-activity model, the general features of which are supported by activity data from other species. Overall, our results demonstrate that greater attention should be given to fine-scale patterns of thermal constraint on activity.

  16. Children's Recess Physical Activity: Movement Patterns and Preferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Graber, Kim C.; Daum, David Newman

    2012-01-01

    The benefits of recess can be reaped by all students regardless of socioeconomic status, race, or gender and at relatively little cost. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity (PA) variables related to the recess PA patterns of third and fourth grade children and the social preferences and individuals influencing their PA…

  17. Motor patterns during active electrosensory acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Volker; Geurten, Bart R. H.; Sanguinetti-Scheck, Juan I.; Gómez-Sena, Leonel; Engelmann, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Motor patterns displayed during active electrosensory acquisition of information seem to be an essential part of a sensory strategy by which weakly electric fish actively generate and shape sensory flow. These active sensing strategies are expected to adaptively optimize ongoing behavior with respect to either motor efficiency or sensory information gained. The tight link between the motor domain and sensory perception in active electrolocation make weakly electric fish like Gnathonemus petersii an ideal system for studying sensory-motor interactions in the form of active sensing strategies. Analyzing the movements and electric signals of solitary fish during unrestrained exploration of objects in the dark, we here present the first formal quantification of motor patterns used by fish during electrolocation. Based on a cluster analysis of the kinematic values we categorized the basic units of motion. These were then analyzed for their associative grouping to identify and extract short coherent chains of behavior. This enabled the description of sensory behavior on different levels of complexity: from single movements, over short behaviors to more complex behavioral sequences during which the kinematics alter between different behaviors. We present detailed data for three classified patterns and provide evidence that these can be considered as motor components of active sensing strategies. In accordance with the idea of active sensing strategies, we found categorical motor patterns to be modified by the sensory context. In addition these motor patterns were linked with changes in the temporal sampling in form of differing electric organ discharge frequencies and differing spatial distributions. The ability to detect such strategies quantitatively will allow future research to investigate the impact of such behaviors on sensing. PMID:24904337

  18. Cerebral activation pattern in primary writing tremor

    PubMed Central

    Berg, D; Preibisch, C; Hofmann, E; Naumann, M

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To compare the cerebral activation pattern during writing of patients with writing tremor with healthy controls using functional MRI
METHODS—Three patients with writing tremor and 10 healthy controls were examined using a 1.5 Tesla scanner. All subjects performed a paradigm of alternating 30 second periods of rest or writing. For functional imaging 60 EPI multislice data sets were acquired. All images were analyzed using SPM96 software. Data were analyzed for the group of patients with writing tremor and compared with those of the control group.
RESULTS—Both patients with writing tremor and controls showed a significant activation of the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex, SMA, and area 44. By contrast, motor cortex activation in writing tremor also included the contralateral premotor area (area 6) and ipsilateral prefrontal area (inferior frontal gyrus; areas 10, 44, and 47). Only patients with writing tremor showed a bilateral activation of the parietal lobule (area 40) with a more pronounced activation on the contralateral side. Furthermore, there was a bilateral activation of the cerebellum with a more pronounced area of activation on the ipsilateral side.
CONCLUSIONS—Brain areas activated in writing tremor included activation patterns otherwise typical for both essential tremor and writer's cramp. Therefore a distinct category for writing tremor integrating hallmarks of essential tremor and writer's cramp is proposed.

 PMID:11080231

  19. The Relations Between Patterning, Executive Function, and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Schmerold, Katrina; Bock, Allison; Peterson, Matthew; Leaf, Britney; Vennergrund, Katherine; Pasnak, Robert

    2017-02-17

    Patterning, or the ability to understand patterns, is a skill commonly taught to young children as part of school mathematics curricula. It seems likely that some aspects of executive function, such as cognitive flexibility, inhibition, and working memory, may be expressed in the patterning abilities of children. The primary objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between patterning and executive functioning for first grade children. In addition, the relations between patterning, executive functioning, mathematics, and reading were examined. The results showed that patterning was significantly related to cognitive flexibility and working memory, but not to inhibition. Patterning, cognitive flexibility, and working memory were significantly related to mathematical skills. Only patterning and working memory were significantly related to reading. Regression analyses and structural equation modeling both showed that patterning had effects on both reading and mathematics measures, and that the effects of cognitive flexibility were entirely mediated by patterning. Working memory had independent effects on reading and mathematics, and also effects moderated by patterning. In sum, these findings suggest that cognitive flexibility and working memory are related to patterning and express their effects on reading and mathematics in whole or in part through patterning.

  20. Muscle Activation Patterns During Different Squat Techniques.

    PubMed

    Slater, Lindsay V; Hart, Joseph M

    2017-03-01

    Slater, LV, and Hart, JM. Muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. J Strength Cond Res 31(3): 667-676, 2017-Bilateral squats are frequently used exercises in sport performance programs. Lower extremity muscle activation may change based on knee alignment during the performance of the exercise. The purpose of this study was to compare lower extremity muscle activation patterns during different squat techniques. Twenty-eight healthy, uninjured subjects (19 women, 9 men, 21.5 ± 3 years, 170 ± 8.4 cm, 65.7 ± 11.8 kg) volunteered. Electromyography (EMG) electrodes were placed on the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and the gastrocnemius of the dominant leg. Participants completed 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee anteriorly (AP malaligned), 5 squats while purposefully displacing the knee medially (ML malaligned) and 5 squats with control alignment (control). Normalized EMG data (MVIC) were reduced to 100 points and represented as percentage of squat cycle with 50% representing peak knee flexion and 0 and 99% representing fully extended. Vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased in the medio-lateral (ML) malaligned squat compared with the control squat. In the antero-posterior (AP) malaligned squat, the vastus lateralis, medialis, and rectus femoris activity decreased during initial descent and final ascent; however, vastus lateralis and rectus femoris activation increased during initial ascent compared with the control squat. The biceps femoris and gastrocnemius displayed increased activation during both malaligned squats compared with the control squat. In conclusion, participants had altered muscle activation patterns during squats with intentional frontal and sagittal malalignment as demonstrated by changes in quadriceps, biceps femoris, and gastrocnemius activation during the squat cycle.

  1. Patterns of seismic activity preceding large earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Bruce E.; Carlson, J. M.; Langer, J. S.

    1992-01-01

    A mechanical model of seismic faults is employed to investigate the seismic activities that occur prior to major events. The block-and-spring model dynamically generates a statistical distribution of smaller slipping events that precede large events, and the results satisfy the Gutenberg-Richter law. The scaling behavior during a loading cycle suggests small but systematic variations in space and time with maximum activity acceleration near the future epicenter. Activity patterns inferred from data on seismicity in California demonstrate a regional aspect; increased activity in certain areas are found to precede major earthquake events. One example is given regarding the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 which is located near a fault section associated with increased activity levels.

  2. Patterns of helicity in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Canfield, Richard C.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    Using 46 vector magnetograms from the Stokes Polarimeter of Mees Solar Observatory (MSO), we studied patterns of local helicity in three diverse solar active regions. From these magnetograms we computed maps of the local helicity parameter alpha = J(sub z)/B(sub z). Although such maps are noisy, we found patterns at the level approximately 2 to 3 sigma(sub J(sub z)), which repeat in successive magnetograms for up to several days. Typically, the alpha maps of any given active region contain identifiable patches with both positive and negative values of alpha. Even within a single sunspot complex, several such alpha patches can often be seen. We followed 68 alpha patches that could be identified on at least two successive alpha maps. We found that the persistence fraction of such patches decrease exponentially, with a characteristic time approximately 27 hr.

  3. Relating European emigration and marriage patterns.

    PubMed

    Sinke, S M

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses a number of the ways in which marriage and migration interacted in European sending areas for migration in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It also speculates as to some of the ramifications of those changes in marriage and migration patterns. In particular, it uses sources from the Netherlands in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century to illustrate a few patterns, some quantitative ones already well known to scholars of demography and some qualitative ones which have received less attention, and poses some hypotheses which other researchers can pursue for other emigration regions and periods. Unlike international migrants from many sending regions, where single men dominated the migration of this period, those from the Netherlands at the turn of the century tended more often to move in family units. In discussing these issues, this article demonstrates the degree to which marriage in the sending country was affected by migration, offering a variety of insights into the way in which these changes were of a gendered nature.

  4. Enzymatic activities and stable isotope patterns of ectomycorrhizal fungi in relation to phylogeny and exploration types in an afrotropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Tedersoo, Leho; Naadel, Triin; Bahram, Mohammad; Pritsch, Karin; Buegger, Franz; Leal, Miguel; Kõljalg, Urmas; Põldmaa, Kadri

    2012-09-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi obtain both mineral and simple organic nutrients from soil and transport these to plant roots. Natural abundance of stable isotopes (¹⁵N and ¹³C) in fruit bodies and potential enzymatic activities of ECM root tips provide insights into mineral nutrition of these mutualistic partners. By combining rDNA sequence analysis with enzymatic and stable isotope assays of root tips, we hypothesized that phylogenetic affinities of ECM fungi are more important than ECM exploration type, soil horizon and host plant in explaining the differences in mineral nutrition of trees in an African lowland rainforest. Ectomycorrhizal fungal species belonging to extraradical mycelium-rich morphotypes generally displayed the strongest potential activities of degradation enzymes, except for laccase. The signature of ¹⁵N was determined by the ECM fungal lineage, but not by the exploration type. Potential enzymatic activities of root tips were unrelated to ¹⁵N signature of ECM root tip. The lack of correlation suggests that these methods address different aspects in plant nutrient uptake. Stable isotope analysis of root tips could provide an additional indirect assessment of fungal and plant nutrition that enables enhancement of taxonomic coverage and control for soil depth and internal nitrogen cycling in fungal tissues.

  5. Pattern formation in Active Polar Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopinath, Arvind; Hagan, Michael; Baskaran, Aparna

    2011-03-01

    Systems such as bacterial suspensions or cytoskeletal filaments and motility assays can be described within the paradigm of active polar fluids. These systems have been shown to exhibit pattern formation raging from asters and vortices to traveling stripes. A coarse-grained description of such a fluid is given by a scalar density field and a vector polarization field. We study such a macroscopic description of the system using weakly nonlinear analysis and numerical simulations to map out the emergent pattern formation as a function of the hydrodynamic parameters in the context of two specific microscopic models - a quasi-2D suspension of cytoskeletal filaments and motor proteins and a system of self propelled hard rods that interact through excluded volume interactions. The authors thank the Brandeis MRSEC center for financial support.

  6. Circulation patterns in active lava lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redmond, T. C.; Lev, E.

    2014-12-01

    Active lava lakes provide a unique window into magmatic conduit processes. We investigated circulation patterns of 4 active lava lakes: Kilauea's Halemaumau crater, Mount Erebus, Erta Ale and Nyiragongo, and in an artificial "lava lake" constructed at the Syracuse University Lava Lab. We employed visual and thermal video recordings collected at these volcanoes and use computer vision techniques to extract time-dependent, two-dimensional surface velocity maps. The large amount of data available from Halemaumau enabled us to identify several characteristic circulation patterns. One such pattern is a rapid acceleration followed by rapid deceleration, often to a level lower than the pre-acceleration level, and then a slow recovery. Another pattern is periodic asymmetric peaks of gradual acceleration and rapid deceleration, or vice versa, previously explained by gas pistoning. Using spectral analysis, we find that the dominant period of circulation cycles at approximately 30 minutes, 3 times longer than the dominant period identified previously for Mount Erebus. Measuring a complete surface velocity field allowed us to map and follow locations of divergence and convergence, therefore upwelling and downwelling, thus connecting the surface flow with that at depth. At Nyiragongo, the location of main upwelling shifts gradually, yet is usually at the interior of the lake, for Erebus it is usually along the perimeter yet often there is catastrophic downwelling at the interior; For Halemaumau upwelling/downwelling position is almost always on the perimeter. In addition to velocity fields, we developed an automated tool for counting crustal plates at the surface of the lava lakes, and found a correlation, and a lag time, between changes if circulation vigor and the average size of crustal plates. Circulation in the artificial basaltic lava "lake" was limited by its size and degree of foaming, yet we measured surface velocities and identify patterns. Maximum surface velocity

  7. Thinking Patterns, Brain Activity and Strategy Choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Kazuo; Okada, Akira; Inagawa, Michiyo; Tobinaga, Yoshikazu

    2012-03-01

    In this study we analyzed the relationship between thinking patterns, behavior and associated brain activity. Subjects completed a self-report assessing whether they could voluntarily stop thinking or not, and were then divided into two groups: those with the ability to stop thinking and those without. We measured subjects' brain activity using magnetoencephalography while giving them a series of tasks intended to encourage or discourage spontaneous thinking. Our findings revealed differences between the two groups in terms of which portions of the brain were active during the two types of task. A second questionnaire confirmed a relationship between the ability to stop thinking and strategy choices in a dilemma game. We found that subjects without the ability to stop thinking had a tendency to choose cooperative behavior.

  8. Dynamic patterns of academic forum activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhi-Dan; Gao, Ya-Chun; Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao

    2016-11-01

    A mass of traces of human activities show rich dynamic patterns. In this article, we comprehensively investigate the dynamic patterns of 50 thousands of researchers' activities in Sciencenet, the largest multi-disciplinary academic community in China. Through statistical analyses, we found that (i) there exists a power-law scaling between the frequency of visits to an academic forum and the number of corresponding visitors, with the exponent being about 1.33; (ii) the expansion process of academic forums obeys the Heaps' law, namely the number of distinct visited forums to the number of visits grows in a power-law form with exponent being about 0.54; (iii) the probability distributions of time intervals and the number of visits taken to revisit the same academic forum both follow power-laws, indicating the existence of memory effect in academic forum activities. On the basis of these empirical results, we propose a dynamic model that incorporates the exploration, preferential return with memory effect, which can well reproduce the observed scaling laws.

  9. Expression pattern of receptor activator of NFκB (RANK) in a series of primary solid tumors and related bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Santini, Daniele; Perrone, Giuseppe; Roato, Ilaria; Godio, Laura; Pantano, Francesco; Grasso, Donatella; Russo, Antonio; Vincenzi, Bruno; Fratto, Maria Elisabetta; Sabbatini, Roberto; Della Pepa, Chiara; Porta, Camillo; Del Conte, Alessandro; Schiavon, Gaia; Berruti, Alfredo; Tomasino, Rosa Maria; Papotti, Mauro; Papapietro, Nicola; Onetti Muda, Andrea; Denaro, Vincenzo; Tonini, Giuseppe

    2011-03-01

    Receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL), RANK, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) represent the key regulators of bone metabolism both in normal and pathological conditions, including bone metastases. To our knowledge, no previous studies investigated and compared RANK expression in primary tumors and in bone metastases from the same patient. We retrospectively examined RANK expression by immunohistochemistry in 74 bone metastases tissues from solid tumors, mostly breast, colorectal, renal, lung, and prostate cancer. For 40 cases, tissue from the corresponding primary tumor was also analyzed. Sixty-six (89%) of the 74 bone metastases were RANK-positive and, among these, 40 (59.5%) showed more than 50% of positive tumor cells. The median percentage of RANK-positive cells was 60% in primary tumors and metastases, without any statistically significant difference between the two groups (P=0.194). The same percentage was obtained by considering only cases with availability of samples both from primary and metastasis. Our study shows that RANK is expressed by solid tumors, with high concordance between bone metastasis and corresponding primary tumor. These data highlight the central role of RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway as potential therapeutic target not only in bone metastasis management, but also in the adjuvant setting.

  10. Appraisal patterns of envy and related emotions.

    PubMed

    van de Ven, Niels; Zeelenberg, Marcel; Pieters, Rik

    2012-06-01

    Envy is a frustrating emotion that arises from upward social comparison. Two studies investigated the appraisals that distinguish benign envy (aimed at improving one's own situation) from malicious envy (aimed at pulling down the superior other). Study 1 found that appraisals of deservingness and control potential differentiated both types of envy. We manipulated these appraisals in Study 2 and found that while both did not influence the intensity of envy, they did determine the type of envy that resulted. The more a situation was appraised as undeserved, the more participants experienced malicious envy. Benign envy was experienced more when the situation was not undeserved, and the most when the situation was appraised as both deserved and controllable. The current research also clarifies how the types of envy differ from the related emotions admiration and resentment.

  11. Implementing Graph Pattern Queries on a Relational Database

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, I L; Abdulla, G M; Brugger, S T; Kohn, S R

    2007-12-26

    When a graph database is implemented on top of a relational database, queries in the graph query language are translated into relational SQL queries. Graph pattern queries are an important feature of a graph query language. Translating graph pattern queries into single SQL statements results in very poor query performance. By taking into account the pattern query structure and generating multiple SQL statements, pattern query performance can be dramatically improved. The performance problems encountered with the single SQL statements generated for pattern queries reflects a problem in the SQL query planner and optimizer. Addressing this problem would allow relational databases to better support semantic graph databases. Relational database systems that provide good support for graph databases may also be more flexible platforms for data warehouses.

  12. CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE IN THE BED NUCLEUS OF THE STRIA TERMINALIS PRODUCES AN ANXIETY-LIKE PATTERN OF BEHAVIOR AND INCREASES NEURAL ACTIVATION IN ANXIETY-RELATED STRUCTURES

    PubMed Central

    Sink, KS; Walker, DL; Yang, Y; Davis, M

    2011-01-01

    Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) evokes anxiety-like responses when infused into the lateral ventricle of rats. Because the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) lies immediately adjacent to the lateral ventricle, is rich in CGRP receptors, and has itself been implicated in anxiety, we evaluated the hypothesis that these effects are attributable to stimulation of CGRP receptors within the BNST itself. Bilateral intra-BNST, but not dorsal, CGRP infusions (0, 200, 400, 800 ng/side) dose-dependently enhanced startle amplitude, and produced an anxiety-like response on the elevated plus maze. Intra-BNST infusion of the CGRP antagonist, αCGRP8-37, blocked the effect of CGRP on startle, and also blocked startle potentiation produced by exposure to trimethylthiazoline (TMT – a component of fox feces that induces anxiety-like behavior in rats). Intra-BNST, but not dorsal, CGRP infusions also increased c-Fos immunoreactivity in a number of anxiety-related brain areas (central nucleus of the amygdala, locus coeruleus, ventrolateral septal nucleus, paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamus, lateral parabrachial nucleus, dorsal raphe nucleus, and nucleus accumbens shell), all of which receive direct projections from the BNST. Together, the results indicate that the activation of BNST CGRP receptors is both necessary and sufficient for some anxiety responses and that these effects may be mediated by activation of a wider network of BNST efferent structures. If so, inhibition of CGRP receptors may be a clinically useful strategy for anxiety reduction. PMID:21289190

  13. Patterns of muscle activity for digital coarticulation

    PubMed Central

    Winges, Sara A.; Furuya, Shinichi; Faber, Nathaniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Although piano playing is a highly skilled task, basic features of motor pattern generation may be shared across tasks involving fine movements, such as handling coins, fingering food, or using a touch screen. The scripted and sequential nature of piano playing offered the opportunity to quantify the neuromuscular basis of coarticulation, i.e., the manner in which the muscle activation for one sequential element is altered to facilitate production of the preceding and subsequent elements. Ten pianists were asked to play selected pieces with the right hand at a uniform tempo. Key-press times were recorded along with the electromyographic (EMG) activity from seven channels: thumb flexor and abductor muscles, a flexor for each finger, and the four-finger extensor muscle. For the thumb and index finger, principal components of EMG waveforms revealed highly consistent variations in the shape of the flexor bursts, depending on the type of sequence in which a particular central key press was embedded. For all digits, the duration of the central EMG burst scaled, along with slight variations across subjects in the duration of the interkeystroke intervals. Even within a narrow time frame (about 100 ms) centered on the central EMG burst, the exact balance of EMG amplitudes across multiple muscles depended on the nature of the preceding and subsequent key presses. This fails to support the idea of fixed burst patterns executed in sequential phases and instead provides evidence for neuromuscular coarticulation throughout the time course of a hand movement sequence. PMID:23596338

  14. Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic activities frequently result in both rapidly changing environments and translocation of species from their native ranges (i.e., biological invasions). Empirical studies suggest that many factors associated with these changes can lead to complex genetic patterns, par...

  15. Preschooler Sleep Patterns Related to Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe-Cooperman, Kathleen; Brady-Amoon, Peggy

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Preschoolers' sleep patterns were examined related to cognitive and adaptive functioning. The sample consisted of 874 typically developing preschool children with a mean age of 40.01 months. Parent/caregiver reports of children's sleep pattern factors, Stanford-Binet 5 intelligence scale scores, and Behavior Assessment System…

  16. Cortical Activity Patterns in ADHD during Arousal, Activation and Sustained Attention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Hale, T. Sigi; Macion, James; Hanada, Grant; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James T.; Smalley, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The goal of the present study is to test whether there are Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-related differences in brain electrical activity patterns across arousal, activation and vigilance states. Method: The sample consists of 80 adults (38 with ADHD and 42 non-ADHD controls) who were recruited for a family study on…

  17. Metatarsophalangeal Hyperextension Movement Pattern Related to Diabetic Forefoot Deformity

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, Mary K.; Mueller, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) hyperextension deformity is common in people with diabetic neuropathy and a known risk factor for ulceration and amputation. An MTPJ hyperextension movement pattern may contribute to the development of this acquired deformity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine, in people with diabetes mellitus and peripheral neuropathy (DM+PN), the ankle and MTPJ ranges of motion that characterize an MTPJ hyperextension movement pattern and its relationship to MTPJ deformity severity. It was hypothesized that severity of MTPJ deformity would be related to limitations in maximum ankle dorsiflexion and increased MTPJ extension during active ankle dorsiflexion movement tasks. Design A cross-sectional study design was used that included 34 people with DM+PN (mean age=59 years, SD=9). Methods Computed tomography and 3-dimensional motion capture analysis were used to measure resting MTPJ angle and intersegmental foot motion during the tasks of ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion with the knee extended and flexed to 90 degrees, walking, and sit-to/from-stand. Results The MTPJ extension movement pattern during all tasks was directly correlated with severity of MTPJ deformity: maximum ankle dorsiflexion with knee extended (r=.35; 95% confidence interval [CI]=.02, .62), with knee flexed (r=.35; 95% CI=0.01, 0.61), during the swing phase of gait (r=.47; 95% CI=0.16, 0.70), during standing up (r=.48; 95% CI=0.17, 0.71), and during sitting down (r=.38; 95% CI=0.05, 0.64). All correlations were statistically significant. Limitations This study was cross-sectional, and causal relationships cannot be made. Conclusions A hyperextension MTPJ movement pattern associated with limited ankle dorsiflexion has been characterized in people with diabetic neuropathy. Increased MTPJ extension during movement and functional tasks was correlated with severity of resting MTPJ alignment. Repetition of this movement pattern could be an important

  18. Autogenic training alters cerebral activation patterns in fMRI.

    PubMed

    Schlamann, Marc; Naglatzki, Ryan; de Greiff, Armin; Forsting, Michael; Gizewski, Elke R

    2010-10-01

    Cerebral activation patterns during the first three auto-suggestive phases of autogenic training (AT) were investigated in relation to perceived experiences. Nineteen volunteers trained in AT and 19 controls were studied with fMRI during the first steps of autogenic training. FMRI revealed activation of the left postcentral areas during AT in those with experience in AT, which also correlated with the level of AT experience. Activation of prefrontal and insular cortex was significantly higher in the group with experience in AT while insular activation was correlated with number years of simple relaxation exercises. Specific activation in subjects experienced in AT may represent a training effect. Furthermore, the correlation of insular activation suggests that these subjects are different from untrained subjects in emotional processing or self-awareness.

  19. Marine Biology Activities. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauls, John

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  20. Patterns of Physical Activity Outside of School Time among Japanese Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Li; Ishii, Kaori; Shibata, Ai; Adachi, Minoru; Nonoue, Keiko; Oka, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Background: Physical activity is beneficial for adolescent health. The physical activity patterns of Japanese adolescents are relatively unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the current patterns of physical activity and to identify sex and grade differences among them. Methods: The participants comprised 714 Japanese adolescents aged…

  1. Understanding human activity patterns based on space-time-semantics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Songnian

    2016-11-01

    Understanding human activity patterns plays a key role in various applications in an urban environment, such as transportation planning and traffic forecasting, urban planning, public health and safety, and emergency response. Most existing studies in modeling human activity patterns mainly focus on spatiotemporal dimensions, which lacks consideration of underlying semantic context. In fact, what people do and discuss at some places, inferring what is happening at the places, cannot be simple neglected because it is the root of human mobility patterns. We believe that the geo-tagged semantic context, representing what individuals do and discuss at a place and a specific time, drives a formation of specific human activity pattern. In this paper, we aim to model human activity patterns not only based on space and time but also with consideration of associated semantics, and attempt to prove a hypothesis that similar mobility patterns may have different motivations. We develop a spatiotemporal-semantic model to quantitatively express human activity patterns based on topic models, leading to an analysis of space, time and semantics. A case study is conducted using Twitter data in Toronto based on our model. Through computing the similarities between users in terms of spatiotemporal pattern, semantic pattern and spatiotemporal-semantic pattern, we find that only a small number of users (2.72%) have very similar activity patterns, while the majority (87.14%) show different activity patterns (i.e., similar spatiotemporal patterns and different semantic patterns, similar semantic patterns and different spatiotemporal patterns, or different in both). The population of users that has very similar activity patterns is decreased by 56.41% after incorporating semantic information in the corresponding spatiotemporal patterns, which can quantitatively prove the hypothesis.

  2. Beaches. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  3. Whales. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  4. Tides. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrett, Andrea

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  5. Air pollution exposure: An activity pattern approach for active transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Matthew D.; Yiannakoulias, Nikolaos; Kanaroglou, Pavlos S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the calculation of personal air pollution exposure during trips made by active transportation using activity patterns without personal monitors. We calculate exposure as the inhaled dose of particulate matter 2.5 μg or smaller. Two modes of active transportation are compared, and they include cycling and walking. Ambient conditions are calculated by combining mobile and stationary monitoring data in an artificial neural network space-time model. The model uses a land use regression framework and has a prediction accuracy of R2 = 0.78. Exposure is calculated at 10 m or shorter intervals during the trips using inhalation rates associated with both modes. The trips are children's routes between home and school. The average dose during morning cycling trips was 2.17 μg, during morning walking trips was 3.19 μg, during afternoon cycling trips was 2.19 μg and during afternoon walking trips was 3.23 μg. The cycling trip dose was significantly lower than the walking trip dose. The air pollution exposure during walking or cycling trips could not be strongly predicted by either the school or household ambient conditions, either individually or in combination. Multiple linear regression models regressing both the household and school ambient conditions against the dose were only able to account for, at most, six percent of the variance in the exposure. This paper demonstrates that incorporating activity patterns when calculating exposure can improve the estimate of exposure compared to its calculation from ambient conditions.

  6. The ontogeny of relational memory and pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Chi T; Newcombe, Nora S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2017-03-02

    Episodic memory relies on memory for the relations among multiple elements of an event and the ability to discriminate among similar elements of episodes. The latter phenomenon, termed pattern separation, has been studied mainly in young and older adults with relatively little research on children. Building on prior work with young children, we created an engaging computer-administered relational memory task assessing what-where relations. We also modified the Mnemonic Similarity Task used to assess pattern discrimination in young and older adults for use with preschool children. Results showed that 4-year-olds performed significantly worse than 6-year-olds and adults on both tasks, whereas 6-year-olds and adults performed comparably, even though there were no ceiling effects. However, performance on the two tasks did not correlate, suggesting that two distinct mnemonic processes with different developmental trajectories may contribute to age-related changes in episodic memory.

  7. a Multidisciplinary Analytical Framework for Studying Active Mobility Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orellana, D.; Hermida, C.; Osorio, P.

    2016-06-01

    Intermediate cities are urged to change and adapt their mobility systems from a high energy-demanding motorized model to a sustainable low-motorized model. In order to accomplish such a model, city administrations need to better understand active mobility patterns and their links to socio-demographic and cultural aspects of the population. During the last decade, researchers have demonstrated the potential of geo-location technologies and mobile devices to gather massive amounts of data for mobility studies. However, the analysis and interpretation of this data has been carried out by specialized research groups with relatively narrow approaches from different disciplines. Consequently, broader questions remain less explored, mainly those relating to spatial behaviour of individuals and populations with their geographic environment and the motivations and perceptions shaping such behaviour. Understanding sustainable mobility and exploring new research paths require an interdisciplinary approach given the complex nature of mobility systems and their social, economic and environmental impacts. Here, we introduce the elements for a multidisciplinary analytical framework for studying active mobility patterns comprised of three components: a) Methodological, b) Behavioural, and c) Perceptual. We demonstrate the applicability of the framework by analysing mobility patterns of cyclists and pedestrians in an intermediate city integrating a range of techniques, including: GPS tracking, spatial analysis, auto-ethnography, and perceptual mapping. The results demonstrated the existence of non-evident spatial behaviours and how perceptual features affect mobility. This knowledge is useful for developing policies and practices for sustainable mobility planning.

  8. Oscillatory Dynamics Related to the Unagreement Pattern in Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Alejandro; Molinaro, Nicola; Mancini, Simona; Barraza, Paulo; Carreiras, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Unagreement patterns consist in a person feature mismatch between subject and verb that is nonetheless grammatical in Spanish. The processing of this type of construction gives new insights into the understanding of agreement processes during language comprehension. Here, we contrasted oscillatory brain activity triggered by Unagreement in…

  9. EEG Patterns Related to Cognitive Tasks of Varying Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Denise A.; And Others

    A study was conducted that attempted to show changes in electroencephalographic (EEG) patterns (identified using topographic EEG mapping) when children were required to perform the relatively simple task of button pressing during an eyes-open baseline session of low cognitive demand and a complex reaction time (RT) task of high cognitive demand.…

  10. Relational Reasoning in Medical Education: Patterns in Discourse and Diagnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Denis; Alexander, Patricia A.; Baker, Lisa M.; Jablansky, Sophie; Dunbar, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Relational reasoning, which has been defined as the ability to discern meaningful patterns within any informational stream, is a foundational cognitive ability associated with education, including in scientific domains. This study entailed the analysis of instructional conversations in which an attending clinical neurologist and his team of…

  11. Neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, C. S.; McDonald, P. V.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts adopt a variety of neuromuscular control strategies during space flight that are appropriate for locomoting in that unique environment, but are less than optimal upon return to Earth. We report here the first systematic investigation of potential adaptations in neuromuscular activity patterns associated with postflight locomotion. Astronaut-subjects were tasked with walking on a treadmill at 6.4 km/h while fixating a visual target 30 cm away from their eyes after space flights of 8-15 days. Surface electromyography was collected from selected lower limb muscles and normalized with regard to mean amplitude and temporal relation to heel strike. In general, high correlations (more than 0.80) were found between preflight and postflight activation waveforms for each muscle and each subject: however relative activation amplitude around heel strike and toe off was changed as a result of flight. The level of muscle cocontraction and activation variability, and the relationship between the phasic characteristics of the ankle musculature in preparation for toe off also were altered by space flight. Subjects also reported oscillopsia during treadmill walking after flight. These findings indicate that, after space flight, the sensory-motor system can generate neuromuscular-activation strategies that permit treadmill walking, but subtle changes in lower-limb neuromuscular activation are present that may contribute to increased lower limb kinematic variability and oscillopsia also present during postflight walking.

  12. PATTERNS OF ACTIVITY IN A GLOBAL MODEL OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Viall, N. M. E-mail: Nicholeen.M.Viall@nasa.gov

    2016-04-10

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  13. Relation between isotopic composition of precipitation and atmospheric circulation patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenčič, Mihael; Kononova, Nina K.; Vreča, Polona

    2015-10-01

    Precipitation generating processes depend on atmospheric circulation patterns and consequently it is expected that its water stable isotopic composition of hydrogen and oxygen is related to them. Precipitation generated at similar atmospheric circulation patterns should have similar empirical distribution of δ2H and δ18O values. Mathematical model based on the linear combination of δ2H and δ18O values and on precipitation amount weighted average related to elementary air circulation mechanisms - ECM is proposed. The model enables estimation of average δ2H and δ18O values and their standard deviation for the precipitation generated at distinctive atmospheric circulation patterns. Approach in which atmospheric circulation patterns were classified as ECM based on the Dzerdzeevskii classification was applied. Application of the model is illustrated on the long term precipitation record from Ljubljana GNIP station Slovenia. Estimated values of the parameters for empirical distributions of δ2H and δ18O of each ECM subtype have shown that calculated estimates are reasonable. Further applications of the proposed model enable new insight into the understanding of isotopes spatial and temporal distribution in precipitation important also for better understanding of climate proxies.

  14. The occ1 gene is preferentially expressed in the primary visual cortex in an activity-dependent manner: a pattern of gene expression related to the cytoarchitectonic area in adult macaque neocortex.

    PubMed

    Tochitani, S; Liang, F; Watakabe, A; Hashikawa, T; Yamamori, T

    2001-01-01

    Marker molecules to visualize specific subsets of neurons are useful for studying the functional organization of the neocortex. One approach to identify such molecular markers is to examine the differences in molecular properties among morphologically and physiologically distinct neuronal cell types. We used differential display to compare mRNA expression in the anatomically and functionally distinct areas of the adult macaque neocortex. We found that a gene, designated occ1, was preferentially transcribed in the posterior region of the neocortex, especially in area 17. Complete sequence analysis revealed that occ1 encodes a macaque homolog of a secretable protein, TSC-36/follistatin-related protein (FRP). In situ hybridization histochemistry confirmed the characteristic neocortical expression pattern of occ1 and showed that occ1 transcription is high in layers II, III, IVA and IVC of area 17. In addition, occ1 transcription was observed selectively in cells of the magnocellular layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Dual labeling immunohistochemistry showed that the occ1-positive neurons in area 17 include both gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-positive aspiny inhibitory cells and the alpha-subunit of type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII alpha)-positive spiny excitatory cells. With brief periods of monocular deprivation, the occ1 mRNA level decreased markedly in deprived ocular dominance columns of area 17. From this we conclude that the expression of occ1 mRNA is present in a subset of neurons that are preferentially localized in particular laminae of area 17 and consist of various morphological and physiological neuronal types, and, furthermore, occ1 transcription is subject to visually driven activity-dependent regulation.

  15. Rogue-wave pattern transition induced by relative frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li-Chen; Xin, Guo-Guo; Yang, Zhan-Ying

    2014-08-01

    We revisit a rogue wave in a two-mode nonlinear fiber whose dynamics is described by two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The relative frequency between two modes can induce different rogue wave patterns transition. In particular, we find a four-petaled flower structure rogue wave can exist in the two-mode coupled system, which possesses an asymmetric spectrum distribution. Furthermore, spectrum analysis is performed on these different type rogue waves, and the spectrum relations between them are discussed. We demonstrate qualitatively that different modulation instability gain distribution can induce different rogue wave excitation patterns. These results would deepen our understanding of rogue wave dynamics in complex systems.

  16. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2011-12-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  17. Accident patterns for construction-related workers: a cluster analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Chia-Wen; Tyan, Yaw-Yauan

    2012-01-01

    The construction industry has been identified as one of the most hazardous industries. The risk of constructionrelated workers is far greater than that in a manufacturing based industry. However, some steps can be taken to reduce worker risk through effective injury prevention strategies. In this article, k-means clustering methodology is employed in specifying the factors related to different worker types and in identifying the patterns of industrial occupational accidents. Accident reports during the period 1998 to 2008 are extracted from case reports of the Northern Region Inspection Office of the Council of Labor Affairs of Taiwan. The results show that the cluster analysis can indicate some patterns of occupational injuries in the construction industry. Inspection plans should be proposed according to the type of construction-related workers. The findings provide a direction for more effective inspection strategies and injury prevention programs.

  18. Rogue-wave pattern transition induced by relative frequency.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Chen; Xin, Guo-Guo; Yang, Zhan-Ying

    2014-08-01

    We revisit a rogue wave in a two-mode nonlinear fiber whose dynamics is described by two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The relative frequency between two modes can induce different rogue wave patterns transition. In particular, we find a four-petaled flower structure rogue wave can exist in the two-mode coupled system, which possesses an asymmetric spectrum distribution. Furthermore, spectrum analysis is performed on these different type rogue waves, and the spectrum relations between them are discussed. We demonstrate qualitatively that different modulation instability gain distribution can induce different rogue wave excitation patterns. These results would deepen our understanding of rogue wave dynamics in complex systems.

  19. Complex genetic patterns in closely related colonizing invasive species

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Aibin; Darling, John A; Bock, Dan G; Lacoursière-Roussel, Anaïs; MacIsaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic activities frequently result in both rapidly changing environments and translocation of species from their native ranges (i.e., biological invasions). Empirical studies suggest that many factors associated with these changes can lead to complex genetic patterns, particularly among invasive populations. However, genetic complexities and factors responsible for them remain uncharacterized in many cases. Here, we explore these issues in the vase tunicate Ciona intestinalis (Ascidiacea: Enterogona: Cionidae), a model species complex, of which spA and spB are rapidly spreading worldwide. We intensively sampled 26 sites (N = 873) from both coasts of North America, and performed phylogenetic and population genetics analyses based on one mitochondrial fragment (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3–NADH dehydrogenase subunit I, COX3-ND1) and eight nuclear microsatellites. Our analyses revealed extremely complex genetic patterns in both species on both coasts. We detected a contrasting pattern based on the mitochondrial marker: two major genetic groups in C. intestinalis spA on the west coast versus no significant geographic structure in C. intestinalis spB on the east coast. For both species, geo-graphically distant populations often showed high microsatellite-based genetic affinities whereas neighboring ones often did not. In addition, mitochondrial and nuclear markers provided largely inconsistent genetic patterns. Multiple factors, including random genetic drift associated with demographic changes, rapid selection due to strong local adaptation, and varying propensity for human-mediated propagule dispersal could be responsible for the observed genetic complexities. PMID:22957143

  20. Temporal patterns of deer-vehicle collisions consistent with deer activity pattern and density increase but not general accident risk.

    PubMed

    Hothorn, Torsten; Müller, Jörg; Held, Leonhard; Möst, Lisa; Mysterud, Atle

    2015-08-01

    The increasing number of deer-vehicle collisions (DVCs) across Europe during recent decades poses a serious threat to human health and animal welfare and increasing costs for society. DVCs are triggered by both a human-related and a deer-related component. Mitigation requires an understanding of the processes driving temporal and spatial collision patterns. Separating human-related from deer-related processes is important for identifying potentially effective countermeasures, but this has rarely been done. We analysed two time series of 341,655 DVCs involving roe deer and 854,659 non-deer-related accidents (non-DVCs) documented between 2002 and 2011. Nonparametric smoothing and temporal parametric modelling were used to estimate annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal patterns in DVCs, non-DVCs and adjusted DVCs. As we had access to data on both DVCs and non-DVCs, we were able to disentangle the relative role of human-related and deer-related processes contributing to the overall temporal DVC pattern. We found clear evidence that variation in DVCs was mostly driven by deer-related and not human-related activity on annual, seasonal, weekly and diurnal scales. A very clear crepuscular activity pattern with high activity after sunset and around sunrise throughout the year was identified. Early spring and the mating season between mid-July and mid-August are typically periods of high roe deer activity, and as expected we found a high number of DVC during these periods, although these patterns differed tremendously during different phases of a day. The role of human activity was mainly reflected in fewer DVCs on weekends than on weekdays. Over the ten-year study period, we estimated that DVCs increased by 25%, whereas the number of non-DVCs decreased by 10%. Increasing deer densities are the most likely driver behind this rise in DVCs. Precise estimates of DVC patterns and their relationship to deer and human activity patterns allow implementation of specific mitigation

  1. Patterns of activity expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs.

    PubMed

    Dubofsky, E A; Simpson, S D; Chabot, Christopher C; Watson, Winsor H

    2013-09-01

    Adult American horseshoe crabs, Limulus polyphemus, possess endogenous circadian and circatidal clocks controlling visual sensitivity and locomotion, respectively. The goal of this study was to determine the types of activity rhythms expressed by juvenile horseshoe crabs (n = 24) when exposed to a 14:10 light/dark cycle (LD) for 10 days, followed by 10 days of constant darkness (DD). Horseshoe crab activity was recorded with a digital time-lapse video system that used an infrared-sensitive camera so animals could be monitored at night. In LD, 15 animals expressed daily patterns of activity, 6 displayed a circatidal pattern, and the remaining 3 were arrhythmic. Of the 15 animals with daily patterns of locomotion, 7 had a significant preference (P < 0.05) for diurnal activity and 3 for nocturnal activity; the remainder did not express a significant preference for day or night activity. In DD, 13 horseshoe crabs expressed circatidal rhythms and 8 maintained a pattern of about 24 h. Although these results suggest the presence of a circadian clock influencing circatidal patterns of locomotion, these apparent circadian rhythms may actually represent the expression of just one of the two bouts of activity driven by the putative circalunidian clocks that control their tidal rhythms. Overall, these results indicate that, like adults, juvenile horseshoe crabs express both daily and tidal patterns of activity and that at least one, and maybe both, of these patterns is driven by endogenous clocks.

  2. The Influence of Epoch Length on Physical Activity Patterns Varies by Child's Activity Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettlefold, Lindsay; Naylor, P. J.; Warburton, Darren E. R.; Bredin, Shannon S. D.; Race, Douglas; McKay, Heather A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Patterns of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time, including volume of bouted activity, are important health indicators. However, the effect of accelerometer epoch length on measurement of these patterns and associations with health outcomes in children remain unknown. Method: We measured activity patterns in 308 children (52% girls,…

  3. Code-Switching Patterns in the Writing-Related Talk of Young Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gort, Mileidis

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined code-switching patterns in the writing-related talk of 6 emergent Spanish-English bilingual first-grade children. Audio recordings, field notes, and writing artifacts documenting participant activities and language use in Spanish and English writing workshops were gathered over the course of 6 months and analyzed…

  4. Cognitive Aging: Activity Patterns and Maintenance Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilhooly, K. J.; Gilhooly, M. L.; Phillips, L. H.; Harvey, D.; Murray, A.; Hanlon, P.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined relationships between cognitive functioning in older people and (1) levels of mental, physical and social activities, and (2) intentions regarding maintenance of cognitive functioning. Participants (N = 145) were 70-91 years of age, varied in health status and socio-economic backgrounds. Current cognitive functioning was…

  5. MUSCLE ACTIVATION PATTERNS DURING SUSPENSION TRAINING EXERCISES

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sean; Ruffin, Elise; Brewer, Wayne

    2017-01-01

    Background Suspension training (ST) has been utilized over exercises performed on a stable surface to train multiple muscle groups simultaneously to increase muscle activation and joint stability. Hypothesis/Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether ST augments muscle activation compared to similar exercises performed on a stable surface. Study Design Cross-sectional study Methods Twenty-five healthy adults (male: 16; women: 9; BMI: 23.50 ± 2.48 kg/m2) had 16 pre-amplified wireless surface EMG electrodes placed bilaterally on: the pectoralis major (PM), middle deltoid (MD), serratus anterior (SA), obliques (OB), rectus abdominis (RA), gluteus maximus (GM), erector spinae (ES), and middle trapezius/rhomboids (MT). Each participant performed reference isometric exercises (Sorensen test, push-up, sit-up, and inverted row) to establish a baseline muscle contraction. Muscle activation was assessed during the following exercises: ST bridge, ST push-up, ST inverted row, ST plank, floor bridge, floor push-up, floor row, and floor plank. The root mean square (RMS) of each side for every muscle was averaged for data analysis. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for each exercise with post-hoc comparisons were performed to compare muscle activation between each ST exercise and its stable surface counterpart. Results MANOVAs for all exercise comparisons showed statistically significant greater muscle activation in at least one muscle group during the ST condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in muscle activation for the following muscles during the plank: OB (p = 0.021); Push-up: PM (p = 0.002), RA (p<0.0001), OB (p = 0.019), MT (p<0.0001), and ES (p = 0.006); Row: MD (p = 0.016), RA (p = 0.059), and OB (p = 0.027); and Bridge: RA (p = 0.013) and ES (p<0.0001). Conclusions Performing ST exercises increases muscle activation of selected muscles when compared to exercises performed on a stable surface. Level of

  6. Dispersal patterns of red foxes relative to population density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Stephen H.; Sargeant, Alan B.

    1993-01-01

    Factors affecting red fox (Vulpes vulpes) dispersal patterns are poorly understood but warranted investigation because of the role of dispersal in rebuilding depleted populations and transmission of diseases. We examined dispersal patterns of red foxes in North Dakota based on recoveries of 363 of 854 foxes tagged as pups and relative to fox density. Foxes were recovered up to 8.6 years after tagging; 79% were trapped or shot. Straight-line distances between tagging and recovery locations ranged from 0 to 302 km. Mean recovery distances increased with age and were greater for males than females, but longest individual recovery distances were by females. Dispersal distances were not related to population density for males (P = 0.36) or females (P = 0.96). The proportion of males recovered that dispersed was inversely related to population density (r = -0.94; n = 5; P = 0.02), but not the proportion of females (r = -0.49; n = 5; P = 0.40). Dispersal directions were not uniform for either males (P = 0.003) or females (P = 0.006); littermates tended to disperse in similar directions (P = 0.09). A 4-lane interstate highway altered dispersal directions (P = 0.001). Dispersal is a strong innate behavior of red foxes (especially males) that results in many individuals of both sexes traveling far from natal areas. Because dispersal distance was unaffected by fox density, populations can be rebuilt and diseases transmitted long distances regardless of fox abundance.

  7. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department`s activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  8. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. If we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. The Department of Energy carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies-technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for the Department. This report is a brief description of the Department's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  9. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  10. Pattern recognition and active vision in chickens.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, M S; Woodington, A

    2000-02-10

    Recognition of objects or environmental landmarks is problematic because appearance can vary widely depending on illumination, viewing distance, angle of view and so on. Storing a separate image or 'template' for every possible view requires vast numbers to be stored and scanned, has a high probability of recognition error and appears not to be the solution adopted by primates. However, some invertebrate template matching systems can achieve recognition by 'active vision' in which the animal's own behaviour is used to achieve a fit between template and object, for example by repeatedly following a set path. Recognition is thus limited to views from the set path but achieved with a minimal number of templates. Here we report the first evidence of similar active vision in a bird, in the form of locomotion and individually distinct head movements that give the eyes a similar series of views on different occasions. The hens' ability to recognize objects is also found to decrease when their normal paths are altered.

  11. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The greenhouse'' process regulates the Earth's climate at a level to sustain life, making our planet unique. The term climate'' refers not only to temperature, but also to the entire system of precipitation, cloudiness, and winds, as well as to the distribution of these features in space and time. The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. It we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. Global climate change is a significant issue for the US Department of Energy (DOE) because greenhouse gases are emitted from the production and use of fossil fuels. Energy use and production now contribute more than half of the total manmade emissions on a global basis. DOE carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies -- technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for DOE. This report is a brief description of DOE's activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  12. Climate change and related activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The ``greenhouse`` process regulates the Earth`s climate at a level to sustain life, making our planet unique. The term ``climate`` refers not only to temperature, but also to the entire system of precipitation, cloudiness, and winds, as well as to the distribution of these features in space and time. The production and consumption of energy contributes to the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and is the focus of other environmental concerns as well. Yet the use of energy contributes to worldwide economic growth and development. It we are to achieve environmentally sound economic growth, we must develop and deploy energy technologies that contribute to global stewardship. Global climate change is a significant issue for the US Department of Energy (DOE) because greenhouse gases are emitted from the production and use of fossil fuels. Energy use and production now contribute more than half of the total manmade emissions on a global basis. DOE carries out an aggressive scientific research program to address some of the key uncertainties associated with the climate change issue. Of course, research simply to study the science of global climate change is not enough. At the heart of any regime of cost-effective actions to address the possibility of global climate change will be a panoply of new technologies -- technologies both to provide the services we demand and to use energy more efficiently than in the past. These, too, are important areas of responsibility for DOE. This report is a brief description of DOE`s activities in scientific research, technology development, policy studies, and international cooperation that are directly related to or have some bearing on the issue of global climate change.

  13. Mining continuous activity patterns from animal trajectory data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Y.; Luo, Ze; Baoping, Yan; Takekawa, John Y.; Prosser, Diann J.; Newman, Scott H.

    2014-01-01

    The increasing availability of animal tracking data brings us opportunities and challenges to intuitively understand the mechanisms of animal activities. In this paper, we aim to discover animal movement patterns from animal trajectory data. In particular, we propose a notion of continuous activity pattern as the concise representation of underlying similar spatio-temporal movements, and develop an extension and refinement framework to discover the patterns. We first preprocess the trajectories into significant semantic locations with time property. Then, we apply a projection-based approach to generate candidate patterns and refine them to generate true patterns. A sequence graph structure and a simple and effective processing strategy is further developed to reduce the computational overhead. The proposed approaches are extensively validated on both real GPS datasets and large synthetic datasets.

  14. Ground-squirrel mounds and related patterned ground along the San Andreas Fault in Central California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wallace, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Extensive areas of mound topography and related patterned ground, apparently derived from the mounds of the California Ground Squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi beecheyi), are in central California.  The relation of patterned ground to the San Andreas fault west of Bakersfield may provide insight into the timing of deformation along the fault as well as the history of ground squirrels.  Mound topography appears to have evolved through several stages from scattered mounds currently being constructed on newly deposited alluvial surfaces, to saturation of areas by mounds, followed by coalescence, elongation and lineation of the mounds.  Elongation, coalescence and modification of the mounds has been primarily by wind, but to a lesser extent by drainage and solifluction.  A time frame including ages of 4,000, 10,500, 29,000, and 73,000 years BP is derived by relating the patterns to slip on the San Andreas fault.  Further relating of the patterns to faulting, tilting, and warping may illuminate details of the rates and history of deformation.  Similarly, relating the patterns to the history of ground squirrel activity may help answer such problems as rates of dispersal and limits on population density.

  15. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  16. A Multiscale Survival Process for Modeling Human Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianyang; Cui, Peng; Song, Chaoming; Zhu, Wenwu; Yang, Shiqiang

    2016-01-01

    Human activity plays a central role in understanding large-scale social dynamics. It is well documented that individual activity pattern follows bursty dynamics characterized by heavy-tailed interevent time distributions. Here we study a large-scale online chatting dataset consisting of 5,549,570 users, finding that individual activity pattern varies with timescales whereas existing models only approximate empirical observations within a limited timescale. We propose a novel approach that models the intensity rate of an individual triggering an activity. We demonstrate that the model precisely captures corresponding human dynamics across multiple timescales over five orders of magnitudes. Our model also allows extracting the population heterogeneity of activity patterns, characterized by a set of individual-specific ingredients. Integrating our approach with social interactions leads to a wide range of implications. PMID:27023682

  17. Flow Pattern relative to the Substorm Current Wedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, X.; McPherron, R. L.; Hsu, T.

    2013-12-01

    Magnetospheric substorms play a key role in the coupling of the solar wind and the magnetosphere. The Substorm Current Wedge (SCW) is a key element in the present physical model of substorms. It is widely accepted that the SCW is created by earthward busty flows, but the generation mechanism is still unknown. Previous studies suggest pressure gradients and magnetic vortices are possible candidates. Due to the sparse coverage of satellites in space, these studies were strongly dependent on the assumption that the satellites were in the generation region of the field-aligned currents (FAC) forming the SCW. In this work, we take advantage of an inversion technique that determines the parameters describing the SCW and perform a statistical study on the plasma and magnetic field parameters of the flow pattern relative to the SCW. The inversion technique finds the location and the intensity of the SCW from midlatitude magnetic data. The technique has been validated using auroral observations, Equivalent Ionospheric Currents (EIC), SYM-H index from SuperMAG, and magnetic perturbations at geosynchronous orbit by the GOES satellite. A database of substorm events has been created using midlatitude positive bays, which are the ground signature of the SCW at lower latitudes. The inversion technique is applied to each event in the database to determine the location of the origin of the SCW. The inversion results are also used to find conjunction events with space observations from VAP (RBSP), THEMIS and GOES. The plasma and magnetic field parameters such as the pressure gradient and magnetic vorticity are then categorized as a function of their location relative to the origin of the SCW. How the distribution/pattern of the pressure gradient and vorticity are related to the properties of the SCW (locations and intensity of the FAC), and flows (entropy, velocity and density) will be determined.

  18. Autophagy and lysosomal related protein expression patterns in human glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Mitrakas, Achileas; Kalamida, Dimitra; Zois, Christos E; Haider, Syed; Piperidou, Charitomeni; Pappa, Aglaia; Gatter, Kevin C; Harris, Adrian L; Koukourakis, Michael I

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma cells are resistant to apoptotic stimuli with autophagic death prevailing under cytotoxic stress. Autophagy interfering agents may represent a new strategy to test in combination with chemo-radiation. We investigated the patterns of expression of autophagy related proteins (LC3A, LC3B, p62, Beclin 1, ULK1 and ULK2) in a series of patients treated with post-operative radiotherapy. Experiments with glioblastoma cell lines (T98 and U87) were also performed to assess autophagic response under conditions simulating the adverse intratumoral environment. Glioblastomas showed cytoplasmic overexpression of autophagic proteins in a varying extent, so that cases could be grouped into low and high expression groups. 10/23, 5/23, 13/23, 5/23, 8/23 and 9/23 cases examined showed extensive expression of LC3A, LC3B, Beclin 1, Ulk 1, Ulk 2 and p62, respectively. Lysosomal markers Cathepsin D and LAMP2a, as well as the lyososomal biogenesis transcription factor TFEB were frequently overexpressed in glioblastomas (10/23, 11/23, and 10/23 cases, respectively). TFEB was directly linked with PTEN, Cathepsin D, HIF1α, LC3B, Beclin 1 and p62 expression. PTEN was also significantly related with LC3B but not LC3A expression, in both immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis. Confocal microscopy in T98 and U87 cell lines showed distinct identity of LC3A and LC3B autophagosomes. The previously reported stone-like structure (SLS) pattern of LC3 expression was related with prognosis. SLS were inducible in glioblastoma cell lines under exposure to acidic conditions and 2DG mediated glucose antagonism. The present study provides the basis for autophagic characterization of human glioblastoma for further translational studies and targeted therapy trials.

  19. Fine-Scale Volcano-Tectonic Patterns Along the Hotspot and Non-Hotspot Influenced Fastest Spreading Parts of the East Pacific Rise, and Their Relation to Hydrothermal Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hey, R.; Baker, E.; Lupton, J.; Kleinrock, M.; Martinez, F.; Naar, D.; Bohnenstiehl, D.; Pardee, D.; Massoth, G.; Rodrigo, C.; Gegg, S.; Reed, T.; Andersson, A.

    2001-12-01

    A broad Easter mantle plume appears to be having a major long-term effect on the evolution of the giant duelling propagator system between the Easter and Juan Fernandez microplates. It is driving long-term propagation of the West ridge of this system toward the south, although there are occasional episodes of duelling propagation of the East ridge towards the north. The West ridge segment nearest the hotspot is the most highly inflated segment and contains several intense hydrothermal vent areas, although the East ridge segment farthest from the hotspot has a higher percentage of axis with active hydrothermal activity. DSL-120 sidescan sonar and bathymetry data collected along the EPR segment axes between the Easter and Juan Fernandez microplates have been compiled into a Quicktime movie. This presentation method provides a fast overview of an immense amount of data, and facilitates comparisons between the hotspot influenced and non-hotspot influenced segments, as well as correlations between the structural data and hydrothermal patterns, with implications for hydrothermal prospecting along mid-ocean ridges. For example, in addition to strong correlations with axial inflation and spreading rate, hydrothermal activity frequently correlates with areas of recent voluminous low-backscatter flows pouring out of axial fissures. Hydrothermal activity shows good correlation with presence of axial summit collapse structures, but not with the presence of an axial summit graben (sensu strictu). Although on a million year timescale the hotspot influence on the West ridge has a dominant effect on the tectonic evolution of this area, on the shorter timescales governing hydrothermal activity the hotspot influence is much less important than individual magmatic inflation events along individual ridge segments.

  20. Biological Processes Related to Serpentinization: Expected vs Observed Patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardace, D.

    2015-12-01

    Serpentinization is a water-rock reaction that drives the evolution of micro- to mega-scale habitability in ultramafic rocks, through the aqueous alteration of olivine and pyroxene in parent rocks, and the production of H2, CH4, and (possibly) biologically useful organic compounds. This process may pervade extensive areas of silicate planetary bodies, in geologic settings as diverse as cratered fracture zones and fault systems in ultramafic rocks, hydrothermal flow systems operating near crust/mantle interfaces, and deep subsurface groundwater flow systems. Serpentinization causes transformations in mineralogy, rock geochemistry, and co-occurring associated water chemistry that together control the feasibilities of prominent microbial metabolisms. Changing activities of aqueous H2, CH4, CO2, CO, organic acids, H+, and other redox-sensitive dissolved species shift the metabolic landscape in serpentinites in predictable ways, providing expected patterns in community metabolic strategies. I discuss emerging patterns in observations from terrestrial sites of serpentinization, marine and continent-hosted, and consider how they may allow testing of some pertinent hypotheses in geomicrobiology in terrestrial and extraterrestrial settings.

  1. An integrative framework of the skin receptors activation: mechanoreceptors activity patterns versus "labeled lines".

    PubMed

    Zeveke, Alexander V; Efes, Ekaterina D; Polevaya, Sofia A

    2013-03-01

    The paper presents a review of electrophysiological data which indicate the integrative mechanisms of information coded in the human and animal peripheral skin receptors. The activity of the skin sensory receptors was examined by applying various natural stimuli. It was revealed that numerous identical receptors respond to various stimuli (mechanical, temperature, and pain ones), but the spike patterns of these receptors were found to be specific for each stimulus. The description of characteristic structures of spike patterns in the cutaneous nerve fibers in response to five major modalities, namely: "touch", "pain", "vibration/breath", "cold", and "heat", is being presented. The recordings of the cutaneous physical state revealed a correlation between the patterns of spatiotemporal skin deformation and the receptors activity. A rheological state of the skin can be changed either in response to external temperature variation or by the sympathetic pilomotor activation. These results indicate that the skin sensory receptors activity may be considered as an integrative process. It depends not only on the receptors themselves, but also on the changes in the surrounding tissue and on the adaptive influence of the central nervous system. A new framework for the sensory channel system related to the skin is proposed on the basis of experimental results.

  2. Extreme precipitation events and related weather patterns over Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    raheem Al-nassar, Ali; Sangrà, Pablo; Alarcón, Marta

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the extreme precipitation events and the associated weather phenomena in the Middle East and particularly in Iraq. For this purpose we used Baghdad daily precipitation records from the Iraqi Meteorological and Seismology Organization combined with ECMWF (ERA-Interim) reanalysis data for the period from January 2002 to December 2013. Extreme events were found statistically at the 90% percentile of the recorded precipitation, and were highly correlated with hydrological flooding in some cities of Iraq. We identified fifteen extreme precipitation events. The analysis of the corresponding weather patterns (500 hPa and 250 hPa geopotential and velocity field distribution) indicated that 5 events were related with cut off low causing the highest precipitation (180 mm), 3 events related with rex block (158 mm), 3 events related with jet streak occurrence (130 mm) and 4 events related with troughs (107 mm). . Five of these events caused flash floods and in particular one of them related with a rex block was the most dramatic heavy rain event in Iraq in 30 years. We investigated for each case the convective instability and dynamical forcing together with humidity sources. For convective instability we explored the distribution of the K index and SWEAT index. For dynamical forcing we analyzed at several levels Q vector, divergence, potential and relative vorticity advection and omega vertical velocity. Source of humidity was investigated through humidity and convergence of specific humidity distribution. One triggering factor of all the events is the advection and convergence of humidity from the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Therefore a necessary condition for extreme precipitation in Iraq is the advection and convergence of humidity from the Red Sea and Persian Gulf. Our preliminary analysis also indicates that extreme precipitation events are primary dynamical forced playing convective instability a secondary role.

  3. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  4. Physical Activity Patterns of Youth with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Phil E.; MacDonald, Megan; Hornyak, Joseph E.; Ulrich, Dale A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of children with Down syndrome. A cross-sectional approach and accelerometry were used to measure the time children with Down syndrome (N = 104) spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results indicated that adolescents from ages 14 to 15 years…

  5. Patterns of Children's Participation in Unorganized Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Leanne C.; Garner, Rochelle E.; Kohen, Dafna E.

    2010-01-01

    Children's leisure-time or unorganized physical activity is associated with positive physical and mental health, yet there is little information available on tracking and predicting participation throughout the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of the current study was to explore patterns of unorganized physical activity participation of…

  6. fMRI activation patterns in an analytic reasoning task: consistency with EEG source localization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bian; Vasanta, Kalyana C.; O'Boyle, Michael; Baker, Mary C.; Nutter, Brian; Mitra, Sunanda

    2010-03-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is used to model brain activation patterns associated with various perceptual and cognitive processes as reflected by the hemodynamic (BOLD) response. While many sensory and motor tasks are associated with relatively simple activation patterns in localized regions, higher-order cognitive tasks may produce activity in many different brain areas involving complex neural circuitry. We applied a recently proposed probabilistic independent component analysis technique (PICA) to determine the true dimensionality of the fMRI data and used EEG localization to identify the common activated patterns (mapped as Brodmann areas) associated with a complex cognitive task like analytic reasoning. Our preliminary study suggests that a hybrid GLM/PICA analysis may reveal additional regions of activation (beyond simple GLM) that are consistent with electroencephalography (EEG) source localization patterns.

  7. Heart rate and physical activity patterns in persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities.

    PubMed

    Waninge, Aly; van der Putten, Annette A J; Stewart, Roy E; Steenbergen, Bert; van Wijck, Ruud; van der Schans, Cees P

    2013-11-01

    Because physical fitness and health are related to physical activity, it is important to gain an insight into the physical activity levels of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD). The purpose of this study was to examine heart rate patterns to measure the activity levels of persons with PIMD and to analyze these heart rate patterns according to participant characteristics, observed level of activity, days, and time of day. The heart rate patterns of 24 participants with PIMD were measured continuously using a heart rate monitor for 8 h · d for a period of 6 days. Physical activity levels were measured with questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multilevel analysis. The results indicate that the participants use only 32% of their heart rate reserve over 6 days. The intensity of heart rate reserve ranged from 1 to 62%. On a given day, wide ranges in heart rates between participants and within persons were observed. Between days, only small ranges in the heart rate were found. The participants could be grouped into 4 classes according to their heart rate. In addition, factors such as time of day, physical activity, and age are significantly related to heart rate patterns. In conclusion, this study is an important first step in exploring activity patterns based on heart rate patterns in persons with PIMD. The participants used relatively small fractions of their heart rate reserves. Time of day and age appear to have a considerable influence on heart rate patterns. The observed classes in heart rate patterns suggest that other probably more personal and psychosocial factors have significant influences on heart rate patterns, as well.

  8. Are muscle activation patterns altered during shod and barefoot running with a forefoot footfall pattern?

    PubMed

    Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Mochizuki, Luis; Figueira, Aylton; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-09-14

    This study aimed to investigate the activation of lower limb muscles during barefoot and shod running with forefoot or rearfoot footfall patterns. Nine habitually shod runners were asked to run straight for 20 m at self-selected speed. Ground reaction forces and thigh and shank muscle surface electromyographic (EMG) were recorded. EMG outcomes (EMG intensity [iEMG], latency between muscle activation and ground reaction force, latency between muscle pairs and co-activation index between muscle pairs) were compared across condition (shod and barefoot), running cycle epochs (pre-strike, strike, propulsion) and footfall (rearfoot and forefoot) by ANOVA. Condition affected iEMG at pre-strike epoch. Forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns induced different EMG activation time patterns affecting co-activation index for pairs of thigh and shank muscles. All these timing changes suggest that wearing shoes or not is less important for muscle activation than the way runners strike the foot on the ground. In conclusion, the guidance for changing external forces applied on lower limbs should be pointed to the question of rearfoot or forefoot footfall patterns.

  9. Connectivity, excitability and activity patterns in neuronal networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    le Feber, Joost; Stoyanova, Irina I.; Chiappalone, Michela

    2014-06-01

    Extremely synchronized firing patterns such as those observed in brain diseases like epilepsy may result from excessive network excitability. Although network excitability is closely related to (excitatory) connectivity, a direct measure for network excitability remains unavailable. Several methods currently exist for estimating network connectivity, most of which are related to cross-correlation. An example is the conditional firing probability (CFP) analysis which calculates the pairwise probability (CFPi,j) that electrode j records an action potential at time t = τ, given that electrode i recorded a spike at t = 0. However, electrode i often records multiple spikes within the analysis interval, and CFP values are biased by the on-going dynamic state of the network. Here we show that in a linear approximation this bias may be removed by deconvoluting CFPi,j with the autocorrelation of i (i.e. CFPi,i), to obtain the single pulse response (SPRi,j)—the average response at electrode j to a single spike at electrode i. Thus, in a linear system SPRs would be independent of the dynamic network state. Nonlinear components of synaptic transmission, such as facilitation and short term depression, will however still affect SPRs. Therefore SPRs provide a clean measure of network excitability. We used carbachol and ghrelin to moderately activate cultured cortical networks to affect their dynamic state. Both neuromodulators transformed the bursting firing patterns of the isolated networks into more dispersed firing. We show that the influence of the dynamic state on SPRs is much smaller than the effect on CFPs, but not zero. The remaining difference reflects the alteration in network excitability. We conclude that SPRs are less contaminated by the dynamic network state and that mild excitation may decrease network excitability, possibly through short term synaptic depression.

  10. Comae Berenicids and related activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koseki, Masahiro

    2011-12-01

    The Comae Berenicids have been considered as a winter shower but lower meteor activities continue the whole year round in this region. It might be called the meteors of Coma Sororum Medusae (CSM) instead of Comae Berenicids (COM). The CSM radiant passes the zenith twice in lower latitudes of the northern hemisphere and CSM activities vary with the altitude of the radiant. December Leonis Minorids (DLM) and September varepsilon-Perseids (SPE) are distinct from the CSM background meteors, but July Pegasids (JPE), delta-Aurigids (DAU) and nu-Aurigids (NAU) are buried in this complex. The conglomeration of DLM, COM and JCO (January Comae Berenicids) has caused confusion in meteor observations as to whether they are three distinct sources or should be considered as one. A simple model of meteor stream structure shows the clear profile of their activities. Although their radiant drifts are overlapping, they might have different parent objects.

  11. Plasticity of recurring spatiotemporal activity patterns in cortical networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, Radhika; Chao, Zenas C.; Potter, Steve M.

    2007-09-01

    How do neurons encode and store information for long periods of time? Recurring patterns of activity have been reported in various cortical structures and were suggested to play a role in information processing and memory. To study the potential role of bursts of action potentials in memory mechanisms, we investigated patterns of spontaneous multi-single-unit activity in dissociated rat cortical cultures in vitro. Spontaneous spikes were recorded from networks of approximately 50 000 neurons and glia cultured on a grid of 60 extracellular substrate- embedded electrodes (multi-electrode arrays). These networks expressed spontaneous culture- wide bursting from approximately one week in vitro. During bursts, a large portion of the active electrodes showed elevated levels of firing. Spatiotemporal activity patterns within spontaneous bursts were clustered using a correlation-based clustering algorithm, and the occurrences of these burst clusters were tracked over several hours. This analysis revealed spatiotemporally diverse bursts occurring in well-defined patterns, which remained stable for several hours. Activity evoked by strong local tetanic stimulation resulted in significant changes in the occurrences of spontaneous bursts belonging to different clusters, indicating that the dynamical flow of information in the neuronal network had been altered. The diversity of spatiotemporal structure and long-term stability of spontaneous bursts together with their plastic nature strongly suggests that such network patterns could be used as codes for information transfer and the expression of memories stored in cortical networks.

  12. Three-dimensional patterning methods and related devices

    DOEpatents

    Putnam, Morgan C.; Kelzenberg, Michael D.; Atwater, Harry A.; Boettcher, Shannon W.; Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.; Turner-Evans, Daniel B.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-12-27

    Three-dimensional patterning methods of a three-dimensional microstructure, such as a semiconductor wire array, are described, in conjunction with etching and/or deposition steps to pattern the three-dimensional microstructure.

  13. The Relation between Patterning, Executive Function, and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmerold, Katrina Lea

    2015-01-01

    Patterning, or the ability to understand patterns, is a skill commonly taught to young children as part of school mathematics curricula. While a number of studies have demonstrated that patterning is beneficial for young children acquiring mathematical skills, little research exists that examines the cognitive components of the skill. It seems…

  14. Patterns of diet related self-care in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Maclean, H M

    1991-01-01

    Our understanding of self-care actions can be enhanced by examining both the meanings attached to them and the context in which they take place. This article discusses patterns of diet-related self-care in a group of people with insulin-dependent diabetes. The study, based on a phenomenological perspective, consisted of 91 interviews with 34 people who discussed their everyday experience of living with diabetes. Individuals' response to the diabetes diet can be characterized on a continuum that includes strict adherence to diet to no adherence. Factors influencing how individuals responded to the diabetes diet can be grouped into three categories encompassing individual, diabetes-related and contextual influences. Many individuals sought an appropriate balance between health and well-being. When the pursuit of health did not compromise well-being adherence to diet was not a problem. When the pursuit of health conflicted with well-being individuals took liberties with the diet in order to minimize its impact. Implications for promoting self-care in people with diabetes are discussed.

  15. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Gutierrez, S.; Borondo, J.; Morales, A. J.; Losada, J. C.; Tarquis, A. M.; Benito, R. M.

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  16. Agricultural activity shapes the communication and migration patterns in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Martin-Gutierrez, S; Borondo, J; Morales, A J; Losada, J C; Tarquis, A M; Benito, R M

    2016-06-01

    The communication and migration patterns of a country are shaped by its socioeconomic processes. The economy of Senegal is predominantly rural, as agriculture employs over 70% of the labor force. In this paper, we use mobile phone records to explore the impact of agricultural activity on the communication and mobility patterns of the inhabitants of Senegal. We find two peaks of phone calls activity emerging during the growing season. Moreover, during the harvest period, we detect an increase in the migration flows throughout the country. However, religious holidays also shape the mobility patterns of the Senegalese people. Hence, in the light of our results, agricultural activity and religious holidays are the primary drivers of mobility inside the country.

  17. Comparing Activity Patterns, Biological, and Family Factors in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutum, Monique Natalie; Cordier, Reinie; Bundy, Anita

    2013-01-01

    The association between motor proficiency and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) suggests children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) may be susceptible to inactivity-related conditions such as cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to compare children with and without DCD on physical activity patterns, activity…

  18. Mechanisms underlying spontaneous patterned activity in developing neural circuits

    PubMed Central

    Blankenship, Aaron G.; Feller, Marla B.

    2010-01-01

    Patterned, spontaneous activity occurs in many developing neural circuits, including the retina, the cochlea, the spinal cord, the cerebellum and the hippocampus, where it provides signals that are important for the development of neurons and their connections. Despite differences in adult architecture and output across these various circuits, the patterns of spontaneous network activity and the mechanisms that generate it are remarkably similar and can include a depolarizing action of GABA, transient synaptic connections, extrasynaptic transmission, gap junction coupling and the presence of pacemaker-like neurons. Interestingly, spontaneous activity is robust; if one element of a circuit is disrupted another will generate similar activity. This research suggests that developing neural circuits exhibit transient and tunable features that maintain a source of correlated activity during critical stages of development. PMID:19953103

  19. Lifelong physical activity patterns of sedentary Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, Sandra L; Berg, Judith A

    2006-01-01

    Increasing physical activity, especially for high-risk groups, is a national priority; yet little is known about the lifelong patterns of physical activity of older Mexican American women. This article describes Mexican American women's current sedentary status by reviewing their physical activity history. Interventions aimed at promoting health in older adults require an understanding of the impact of prior experiences on current health behaviors. Thus, in-depth semistructured interviews were conducted with 71 Mexican American women (aged 50 years or older) recruited from local churches and senior centers. Household, occupational, and leisure activities from age 15 years to present time were reviewed. A lifelong pattern of low occupational and leisure activity and low to moderate household activity were found, with sedentary occupations and no leisure activities predominating. Most believed that current household, occupational and leisure activities provide enough physical activity, thus influencing participation in exercise programs or activities. Attempts to increase physical activity for this group need to begin by teaching them age-appropriate and culturally acceptable physical activities.

  20. A survey of daily asthmatic activity patterns in Cincinnati

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    A survey was undertaken in Cincinnati to obtain information on the activity patterns of asthmatics. Because studies have demonstrated symptomatic responses to elevated levels of SO[sub 2] only during outdoor exercise, information on the behavioral patterns of asthmatics is vital for the accurate estimation of risk due to air pollution exposures. In particular, data detailing the actual likelihood of asthmatics being engaged in strenuous outdoor activity at any given time of day is essential for an accurate appraisal of response probability. This, in turn, is necessary for an accurate estimate of risk. In the absence of such activity data, those concerned with the setting of short-term SO[sub 2] regulations are required to use purely subjective judgment to estimate how many asthmatics are engaged in strenuous outdoor exercise when SO[sub 2] levels are high enough to affect them. The activity pattern data give an indication of how much such an assumption would overestimate the true response and thus the true risk associated with SO[sub 2]. Lack of information on the activity patterns of asthmatics has thus been a critical gap in the SO[sub 2] risk assessment process. The primary purpose of this survey was to fill that gap.

  1. Spiral and never-settling patterns in active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.; Marenduzzo, D.; Marchetti, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    We present a combined numerical and analytical study of pattern formation in an active system where particles align, possess a density-dependent motility, and are subject to a logistic reaction. The model can describe suspensions of reproducing bacteria, as well as polymerizing actomyosin gels in vitro or in vivo. In the disordered phase, we find that motility suppression and growth compete to yield stable or blinking patterns, which, when dense enough, acquire internal orientational ordering to give asters or spirals. We predict these may be observed within chemotactic aggregates in bacterial fluids. In the ordered phase, the reaction term leads to previously unobserved never-settling patterns which can provide a simple framework to understand the formation of motile and spiral patterns in intracellular actin systems.

  2. Online Activity Levels Are Related to Caffeine Dependency.

    PubMed

    Phillips, James G; Landhuis, C Erik; Shepherd, Daniel; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-05-01

    Online activity could serve in the future as behavioral markers of emotional states for computer systems (i.e., affective computing). Hence, this study considered relationships between self-reported stimulant use and online study patterns. Sixty-two undergraduate psychology students estimated their daily caffeine use, and this was related to study patterns as tracked by their use of a Learning Management System (Blackboard). Caffeine dependency was associated with less time spent online, lower rates of file access, and fewer online activities completed. Reduced breadth or depth of processing during work/study could be used as a behavioral marker of stimulant use.

  3. Cerebral Activity Changes in Different Traditional Chinese Medicine Patterns of Psychogenic Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qi; Zhang, Peihai; Pan, Junjie; Li, Zhengjie; Liu, Jixin; Li, Guangsen; Qin, Wei; You, Yaodong; Yu, Xujun; Sun, Jinbo; Dong, Minghao; Gong, Qiyong; Guo, Jun; Chang, Degui

    2015-01-01

    Background. Pattern differentiation is the foundation of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED). This study aims to investigate the differences in cerebral activity in ED patients with different TCM patterns. Methods. 27 psychogenic ED patients and 27 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled in this study. Each participant underwent an fMRI scan in resting state. The fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) was used to detect the brain activity changes in ED patients with different patterns. Results. Compared to HS, ED patients showed an increased cerebral activity in bilateral cerebellum, insula, globus pallidus, parahippocampal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), and middle cingulate cortex (MCC). Compared to the patients with liver-qi stagnation and spleen deficiency pattern (LSSDP), the patients with kidney-yang deficiency pattern (KDP) showed an increased activity in bilateral brainstem, cerebellum, hippocampus, and the right insula, thalamus, MCC, and a decreased activity in bilateral putamen, medial frontal gyrus, temporal pole, and the right caudate nucleus, OFC, anterior cingulate cortex, and posterior cingulate cortex (P < 0.005). Conclusions. The ED patients with different TCM patterns showed different brain activities. The differences in cerebral activity between LSSDP and KDP were mainly in the emotion-related regions, including prefrontal cortex and cingulated cortex. PMID:26180534

  4. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system

    PubMed Central

    Ackman, James B.; Burbridge, Timothy J.; Crair, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The morphologic and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to demonstrate in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina, and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter- hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision. PMID:23060192

  5. Retinal waves coordinate patterned activity throughout the developing visual system.

    PubMed

    Ackman, James B; Burbridge, Timothy J; Crair, Michael C

    2012-10-11

    The morphological and functional development of the vertebrate nervous system is initially governed by genetic factors and subsequently refined by neuronal activity. However, fundamental features of the nervous system emerge before sensory experience is possible. Thus, activity-dependent development occurring before the onset of experience must be driven by spontaneous activity, but the origin and nature of activity in vivo remains largely untested. Here we use optical methods to show in live neonatal mice that waves of spontaneous retinal activity are present and propagate throughout the entire visual system before eye opening. This patterned activity encompassed the visual field, relied on cholinergic neurotransmission, preferentially initiated in the binocular retina and exhibited spatiotemporal correlations between the two hemispheres. Retinal waves were the primary source of activity in the midbrain and primary visual cortex, but only modulated ongoing activity in secondary visual areas. Thus, spontaneous retinal activity is transmitted through the entire visual system and carries patterned information capable of guiding the activity-dependent development of complex intra- and inter-hemispheric circuits before the onset of vision.

  6. Active Commuting Patterns at a Large, Midwestern College Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bopp, Melissa; Kaczynski, Andrew; Wittman, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand patterns and influences on active commuting (AC) behavior. Participants: Students and faculty/staff at a university campus. Methods: In April-May 2008, respondents answered an online survey about mode of travel to campus and influences on commuting decisions. Hierarchical regression analyses predicted variance in walking…

  7. Physical Activity Patterns among U.S. Adults with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Chung-Yi; An, Ruopeng

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize physical activity patterns among people with disabilities using data from a nationally representative health survey. Method: Individual-level data came from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2011 survey. Pearson's chi-squared tests were conducted to assess the difference in the proportion distribution of…

  8. Chewing pattern and muscular activation in open bite patients.

    PubMed

    Piancino, Maria Grazia; Isola, Gaetano; Merlo, Andrea; Dalessandri, Domenico; Debernardi, Cesare; Bracco, Pietro

    2012-04-01

    Different studies have indicated, in open bite patients, that masticatory muscles tend to generate a small maximum bite force and to show a reduced cross-sectional area with a lower EMG activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the kinematics parameters of the chewing cycles and the activation of masseters and anterior temporalis muscles of patients with anterior dental open bite malocclusion. There have been no previous reports evaluating both kinematic values and EMG activity of patients with anterior open bite during chewing. Fifty-two young patients (23 boys and 29 girls; mean age±SD 11.5±1.2 and 10.2±1.6years, respectively) with anterior open bite malocclusion and 21 subjects with normal occlusion were selected for the study. Kinematics parameters and surface electromyography (EMG) were simultaneously recorded during chewing a hard bolus with a kinesiograph K7-I Myotronics-Usa. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the open bite patients and the control group for a narrower chewing pattern, a shorter total and closing duration of the chewing pattern, a lower peak of both the anterior temporalis and the masseter of the bolus side. In this study, it has been observed that open bite patients, lacking the inputs from the anterior guidance, that are considered important information for establishing the motor scheme of the chewing pattern, show narrower chewing pattern, shorter lasting chewing cycles and lower muscular activation with respect to the control group.

  9. Judgments relative to patterns: how temporal sequence patterns affect judgments and memory.

    PubMed

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-12-01

    Six experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a first-run effect whereby people overestimated the frequency of a given category when that category was the first repeated category to occur in the sequence and (b) a dissociation between judgments and recall; respondents may judge 1 event more likely than the other and yet recall more instances of the latter. Specifically, the distribution of recalled items does not correspond to the frequency estimates for the event categories, indicating that participants do not make frequency judgments by sampling their memory for individual items as implied by other accounts such as the availability heuristic (Tversky & Kahneman, 1973) and the availability process model (Hastie & Park, 1986). We interpret these findings as reflecting the operation of a judgment heuristic sensitive to sequential patterns and offer an account for the relationship between memory and judged frequencies of sequentially encountered stimuli.

  10. WETRAX: WEather Patterns, Cyclone TRAcks and related precipitation EXtremes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofstätter, Michael; Beck, Christoph; Chimani, Barbara; Ganekind, Manfred; Homan, Markus; Jacobeit, Jucundus; Phillip, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Excessive large scale (LS) precipitation entails high risk of related flooding and is therefore of particular significance for subsequent infrastructural damage, financial loss or the direct threat of human life. The potential and importance of certain atmospheric cyclone tracks or circulation types for such precipitation events, is well known in the hydro-meteorological community, not least because of the flood events in August 2005 and August 2002 for example. However many important questions remain unanswered in this issue. For example, not enough findings are on hand assessing the relevance of certain circulation types or cyclone track types for large scale precipitation characteristics in Central Europe. In particular changes in the risk of LS extreme precipitation under future climate change conditions due to an altered atmospheric circulation, remain unknown in fact. In this collaborative study repetitive atmospheric patterns as large-scale circulation types and cyclone track types are investigated in terms of their relevance for non-convective extreme precipitation over Southern Germany and Austria. Two different Global Climate Models will be evaluated in their ability to simulate the important atmospheric characteristics under current climate conditions, in order to assess the changing probability of occurrence of extreme precipitation events under future climate conditions. The results of this study will give new insights in the nature of atmospheric cyclones and circulation types as the trigger of large scale precipitation in the study region, hence improving hydro-meteorological knowledge and providing basic essentials for the trans-national water resource management under the aspect of ongoing climate change.

  11. How networks communicate: propagation patterns in spontaneous brain activity.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Anish; Raichle, Marcus E

    2016-10-05

    Initially regarded as 'noise', spontaneous (intrinsic) activity accounts for a large portion of the brain's metabolic cost. Moreover, it is now widely known that infra-slow (less than 0.1 Hz) spontaneous activity, measured using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal, is correlated within functionally defined resting state networks (RSNs). However, despite these advances, the temporal organization of spontaneous BOLD fluctuations has remained elusive. By studying temporal lags in the resting state BOLD signal, we have recently shown that spontaneous BOLD fluctuations consist of remarkably reproducible patterns of whole brain propagation. Embedded in these propagation patterns are unidirectional 'motifs' which, in turn, give rise to RSNs. Additionally, propagation patterns are markedly altered as a function of state, whether physiological or pathological. Understanding such propagation patterns will likely yield deeper insights into the role of spontaneous activity in brain function in health and disease.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting blood oxygen level-dependent: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  12. Active Curved Polymers Form Vortex Patterns on Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denk, Jonas; Huber, Lorenz; Reithmann, Emanuel; Frey, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Recent in vitro experiments with FtsZ polymers show self-organization into different dynamic patterns, including structures reminiscent of the bacterial Z ring. We model FtsZ polymers as active particles moving along chiral, circular paths by Brownian dynamics simulations and a Boltzmann approach. Our two conceptually different methods point to a generic phase behavior. At intermediate particle densities, we find self-organization into vortex structures including closed rings. Moreover, we show that the dynamics at the onset of pattern formation is described by a generalized complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

  13. Active gels: dynamics of patterning and self-organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backouche, F.; Haviv, L.; Groswasser, D.; Bernheim-Groswasser, A.

    2006-12-01

    The actin cytoskeleton is an active gel which constantly remodels during cellular processes such as motility and division. Myosin II molecular motors are involved in this active remodeling process and therefore control the dynamic self-organization of cytoskeletal structures. Due to the complexity of in vivo systems, it is hard to investigate the role of myosin II in the reorganization process which determines the resulting cytoskeletal structures. Here we use an in vitro model system to show that myosin II actively reorganizes actin into a variety of mesoscopic patterns, but only in the presence of bundling proteins. We find that the nature of the reorganization process is complex, exhibiting patterns and dynamical phenomena not predicted by current theoretical models and not observed in corresponding passive systems (excluding motors). This system generates active networks, asters and even rings depending on motor and bundling protein concentrations. Furthermore, the motors generate the formation of the patterns, but above a critical concentration they can also disassemble them and even totally prevent the polymerization and bundling of actin filaments. These results may suggest that tuning the assembly and disassembly of cytoskeletal structures can be obtained by tuning the local myosin II concentration/activity.

  14. Blast-related fracture patterns: a forensic biomechanical approach

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Arul; Hill, Adam M.; Masouros, Spyros; Gibb, Iain; Bull, Anthony M. J.; Clasper, Jon C.

    2011-01-01

    Improved protective measures and medical care has increased the survivability from battlefield injuries. In an attempt to reduce the debilitating consequences of blast injury, understanding and mitigating the effects of explosion on the extremities is key. In this study, forensic biomechanical analyses have been applied to determine mechanisms of injury after the traumatic event. The aims of this study were (i) to determine which effects of the explosion are responsible for combat casualty extremity bone injury in two distinct environments, namely open, free-field (open group), and in vehicle or in cover (enclosed group), and (ii) to determine whether patterns of combat casualty bone injury differed between environments. Medical records of casualties admitted to a military hospital in Afghanistan were reviewed over a six-month period. Explosive injuries have been sub-divided traditionally into primary, secondary and tertiary effects. All radiographs were independently reviewed by a military radiologist, a team of military orthopaedic surgeons and a team of academic biomechanists, in order to determine ‘zones of injury’ (ZoIs), and their related mechanisms. Sixty-two combat casualties with 115 ZoIs were identified. Thirty-four casualties in the open group sustained 56 ZoIs; 28 casualties in the enclosed group sustained 59 ZoIs. There was no statistical difference in mean ZoIs per casualty between groups (p = 0.54). There was a higher proportion of lower limb injuries in the enclosed group compared with the open group (p < 0.05). Of the casualties in the open group, 1 ZoI was owing to the primary effects of blast, 10 owing to a combination of primary and secondary blast effects, 23 owing to secondary blast effects and 24 owing to tertiary blast effects. In contrast, tertiary blast effects predominated in the enclosed group, accounting for 96 per cent of ZoIs. These data clearly demonstrate two distinct injury groups based upon the casualties' environment. The

  15. Fluency Patterns in Narratives from Children with Localization Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Mara E.; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gaillard, William; Berl, Madison

    2013-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between fluency and language demand in children with epilepsy, a group known to demonstrate depressed language skills. Disfluency type and frequencies were analyzed in elicited narratives from 52 children. Half of these children had localization-related epilepsy (CWE), while the others were age- and gender-matched typically developing (TD) peers. CWE were found to be significantly more disfluent overall than their matched TD peers during narrative productions, and demonstrated a higher proportion of stutter-like disfluencies, particularly prolongations. The current study adds to an emerging literature that has found depressed language skills and listener perceptions of verbal ability in children with chronic seizure activity, and contributes to the small but growing literature that suggests that disfluency during spoken language tasks may be a subtle marker of expressive language impairment. PMID:23773671

  16. Validity of Energy Intake Reports in Relation to Dietary Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Shaneshin, Mahboubeh; Jessri, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    The role of under- and overreporting of energy intake in determining the dietary patterns is yet unclear, especially in the Middle Eastern countries. This study identifies the prevalence of misreporting among Tehranian women aged 18-45 years and to compare the dietary intake patterns of plausible and all energy reporters. Dietary intakes and anthropometric data were collected. FitMate™ metabolic analyzer and Goldberg equation were used in determining the under/overreporting of energy intake. Underreporters were more likely to be overweight and older compared to plausible reporters. Three dietary patterns emerged for all reporters, and two were identified for plausible reporters. Using only plausible reporters to determine dietary patterns was not similar to using all reporters. The proportion of underreporters was 59.3% in the mixture cluster, 30.4% in the unhealthy cluster, and 35.3% in the healthy cluster (p<0.05). Underreporting of energy intake is not uniformly distributed among dietary pattern clusters and tends to be less severe among subjects in the unhealthy cluster. Our data suggested that misreporting of energy intake might affect the dietary pattern analysis. PMID:24847591

  17. Physical activity patterns of youth with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Phil E; MacDonald, Megan; Hornyak, Joseph E; Ulrich, Dale A

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical activity patterns of children with Down syndrome. A cross-sectional approach and accelerometry were used to measure the time children with Down syndrome (N = 104) spent in sedentary, light, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results indicated that adolescents from ages 14 to 15 years were the most sedentary and spent the least amount of time in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. A general trend of decreasing physical activity as children increase in age was found. This trend is similar to that found among typically developing youth. Participants in this study were found to spend a majority of their day engaged in sedentary activities. Results indicate that most participants were not accumulating the recommended 60 minutes of moderate or vigorous physical activity.

  18. Activities in Science Related to Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    Contained are a collection of science activities based upon forty-six scientific concepts related to space science. These activities are designed for junior high school science, but a much wider grade level range of use is possible. The booklet is primarily intended for teacher use. Each series of concept-oriented activities is independent of the…

  19. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; Del Valle, Sara Y.; Hyman, James M.

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimization problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.

  20. Optimizing human activity patterns using global sensitivity analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Fairchild, Geoffrey; Hickmann, Kyle S.; Mniszewski, Susan M.; ...

    2013-12-10

    Implementing realistic activity patterns for a population is crucial for modeling, for example, disease spread, supply and demand, and disaster response. Using the dynamic activity simulation engine, DASim, we generate schedules for a population that capture regular (e.g., working, eating, and sleeping) and irregular activities (e.g., shopping or going to the doctor). We use the sample entropy (SampEn) statistic to quantify a schedule’s regularity for a population. We show how to tune an activity’s regularity by adjusting SampEn, thereby making it possible to realistically design activities when creating a schedule. The tuning process sets up a computationally intractable high-dimensional optimizationmore » problem. To reduce the computational demand, we use Bayesian Gaussian process regression to compute global sensitivity indices and identify the parameters that have the greatest effect on the variance of SampEn. Here we use the harmony search (HS) global optimization algorithm to locate global optima. Our results show that HS combined with global sensitivity analysis can efficiently tune the SampEn statistic with few search iterations. We demonstrate how global sensitivity analysis can guide statistical emulation and global optimization algorithms to efficiently tune activities and generate realistic activity patterns. Finally, though our tuning methods are applied to dynamic activity schedule generation, they are general and represent a significant step in the direction of automated tuning and optimization of high-dimensional computer simulations.« less

  1. Factors Associated with Evaluating Public Relations Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElreath, Mark P.

    More than 150 public relations practitioners responded to a survey designed to identify and clarify factors associated with evaluative research in public relations. Responses indicated that (1) no more than half the practitioners formally evaluate their public relations activities on a regular basis; (2) the majority of evaluation is done…

  2. Unraveling dynamics of human physical activity patterns in chronic pain conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, Anisoara; Buchser, Eric; Aminian, Kamiar

    2013-06-01

    Chronic pain is a complex disabling experience that negatively affects the cognitive, affective and physical functions as well as behavior. Although the interaction between chronic pain and physical functioning is a well-accepted paradigm in clinical research, the understanding of how pain affects individuals' daily life behavior remains a challenging task. Here we develop a methodological framework allowing to objectively document disruptive pain related interferences on real-life physical activity. The results reveal that meaningful information is contained in the temporal dynamics of activity patterns and an analytical model based on the theory of bivariate point processes can be used to describe physical activity behavior. The model parameters capture the dynamic interdependence between periods and events and determine a `signature' of activity pattern. The study is likely to contribute to the clinical understanding of complex pain/disease-related behaviors and establish a unified mathematical framework to quantify the complex dynamics of various human activities.

  3. Mesoscopic Patterns of Neural Activity Support Songbird Cortical Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Guitchounts, Grigori; Velho, Tarciso; Lois, Carlos; Gardner, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Time-locked sequences of neural activity can be found throughout the vertebrate forebrain in various species and behavioral contexts. From “time cells” in the hippocampus of rodents to cortical activity controlling movement, temporal sequence generation is integral to many forms of learned behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence generation are not well known. Here, we describe a spatial and temporal organization of the songbird premotor cortical microcircuit that supports sparse sequences of neural activity. Multi-channel electrophysiology and calcium imaging reveal that neural activity in premotor cortex is correlated with a length scale of 100 µm. Within this length scale, basal-ganglia–projecting excitatory neurons, on average, fire at a specific phase of a local 30 Hz network rhythm. These results show that premotor cortical activity is inhomogeneous in time and space, and that a mesoscopic dynamical pattern underlies the generation of the neural sequences controlling song. PMID:26039895

  4. Lower arm electromyography (EMG) activity detection using local binary patterns.

    PubMed

    McCool, Paul; Chatlani, Navin; Petropoulakis, Lykourgos; Soraghan, John J; Menon, Radhika; Lakany, Heba

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a new electromyography activity detection technique in which 1-D local binary pattern histograms are used to distinguish between periods of activity and inactivity in myoelectric signals. The algorithm is tested on forearm surface myoelectric signals occurring due to hand gestures. The novel features of the presented method are that: 1) activity detection is performed across multiple channels using few parameters and without the need for majority vote mechanisms, 2) there are no per-channel thresholds to be tuned, which makes the process of activity detection easier and simpler to implement and less prone to errors, 3) it is not necessary to measure the properties of the signal during a quiescent period before using the algorithm. The algorithm is compared to other offline single- and double-threshold activity detection methods and, for the data sets tested, it is shown to have a better overall performance with greater tolerance to the noise in the real data set used.

  5. Mesoscopic patterns of neural activity support songbird cortical sequences.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Jeffrey E; Liberti, William A; Guitchounts, Grigori; Velho, Tarciso; Lois, Carlos; Gardner, Timothy J

    2015-06-01

    Time-locked sequences of neural activity can be found throughout the vertebrate forebrain in various species and behavioral contexts. From "time cells" in the hippocampus of rodents to cortical activity controlling movement, temporal sequence generation is integral to many forms of learned behavior. However, the mechanisms underlying sequence generation are not well known. Here, we describe a spatial and temporal organization of the songbird premotor cortical microcircuit that supports sparse sequences of neural activity. Multi-channel electrophysiology and calcium imaging reveal that neural activity in premotor cortex is correlated with a length scale of 100 µm. Within this length scale, basal-ganglia-projecting excitatory neurons, on average, fire at a specific phase of a local 30 Hz network rhythm. These results show that premotor cortical activity is inhomogeneous in time and space, and that a mesoscopic dynamical pattern underlies the generation of the neural sequences controlling song.

  6. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Macho, Alberto P; Schwessinger, Benjamin; Ntoukakis, Vardis; Brutus, Alexandre; Segonzac, Cécile; Roy, Sonali; Kadota, Yasuhiro; Oh, Man-Ho; Sklenar, Jan; Derbyshire, Paul; Lozano-Durán, Rosa; Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Monaghan, Jacqueline; Menke, Frank L; Huber, Steven C; He, Sheng Yang; Zipfel, Cyril

    2014-03-28

    Innate immunity relies on the perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) located on the host cell's surface. Many plant PRRs are kinases. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EF-TU RECEPTOR (EFR), which perceives the elf18 peptide derived from bacterial elongation factor Tu, is activated upon ligand binding by phosphorylation on its tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation of a single tyrosine residue, Y836, is required for activation of EFR and downstream immunity to the phytopathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. A tyrosine phosphatase, HopAO1, secreted by P. syringae, reduces EFR phosphorylation and prevents subsequent immune responses. Thus, host and pathogen compete to take control of PRR tyrosine phosphorylation used to initiate antibacterial immunity.

  7. Reliable and Affordable Control Systems Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarty, Bob; Tomondi, Chris; McGinley, Ray

    2004-01-01

    Active, closed-loop control of combustor pattern factor is a cooperative effort between Honeywell (formerly AlliedSignal) Engines and Systems and the NASA Glenn Research Center to reduce emissions and turbine-stator vane temperature variations, thereby enhancing engine performance and life, and reducing direct operating costs. Total fuel flow supplied to the engine is established by the speed/power control, but the distribution to individual atomizers will be controlled by the Active Combustor Pattern Factor Control (ACPFC). This system consist of three major components: multiple, thin-film sensors located on the turbine-stator vanes; fuel-flow modulators for individual atomizers; and control logic and algorithms within the electronic control.

  8. Relating Segregation Patterns and Symmetries in Chaotic Granular Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisar, Stephen; Meier, Steven; Lueptow, Richard; Ottino, Julio

    2006-11-01

    Segregation patterns formed by time-periodic flow of polydisperse granular material (varying in particle size) in quasi-two-dimensional (quasi-2D) tumblers capture the symmetries of Poincar'e sections, stroboscopic maps of the underlying flow, derived from a continuum model. The similarities are striking despite the fact that the model contains no information about particle properties. We study this phenomenon experimentally by using mixtures of bidisperse granular material in which the concentration of small particles is varied in quasi-2D tumblers with square and pentagonal cross-sections. Experimental segregation patterns can be connected to the dynamics of the underlying flow by an analysis of periodic points. Patterns vary with small particle concentration based on the location of both elliptic points that characterize islands of regular flow and hyperbolic points that characterize regions of chaotic flow seen in Poincar'e sections. The calculation of the eigenvectors and unstable manifolds of hyperbolic points shows that lobes of segregated small particles stretch from hyperbolic points toward corners of the tumbler, demonstrating the connection between regions of chaotic flow and the shape of the segregation patterns. Furthermore, unstable manifolds map the shape of lobes of segregated particles. Funded by DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences and NSF.

  9. Adolescent Patterns of Communication about Sexually Related Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Sandra K.

    1989-01-01

    Examined familial patterns in amounts of information received about menstrual cycle, sex, and contraception among Black adolescent daughters, mothers, and grandmothers (N=179) representing 53 family units. Results indicated that mothers were most likely to be source of information. Found much information necessary for sexual health and informed…

  10. The activation patterns of embryonic chick motoneurones projecting to inappropriate muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-01-01

    Chick lumbosacral motoneurones were caused to innervate foreign muscles by surgically rotating or shifting the limb bud about the anterior-posterior axis in stage 17-18 embryos. The activation pattern of such wrongly projecting motoneurones was assessed at stages 35-38 by recording electromyographic activity from muscles in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation. Muscle activity was classed as flexor- or extensor-like according to the characteristics of the patterned sequence of bursts elicited by a single shock to the thoracic cord. Wrongly projecting motoneurones did not have their activation pattern altered to one appropriate for the muscle innervated; therefore in some cases a particular muscle was activated with a pattern similar to its original one, and in other cases in an opposite manner. Mixed flexor-extensor-like activation of a single muscle was, however, rare. The identity of motoneurones projecting to a muscle was determined by their cord location following retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. This allowed us to conclude that motoneurones could develop their normal pattern of activation even when projecting to foreign muscles. It is concluded that the cord circuits (presumably composed of local interneurones responsible for the activation of motoneurones in the isolated cord preparation are not altered by retrograde influences from the muscle. Wrongly projecting motoneurones, which were maintained throughout the normal cell death period, were activated during spontaneous embryonic movements, and in many cases were found to have a behaviourally inappropriate activation pattern. These observations are discussed in relation to proposed mechanisms by which developmental errors in connectivity are corrected. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6707957

  11. The activation patterns of embryonic chick motoneurones projecting to inappropriate muscles.

    PubMed

    Landmesser, L T; O'Donovan, M J

    1984-02-01

    Chick lumbosacral motoneurones were caused to innervate foreign muscles by surgically rotating or shifting the limb bud about the anterior-posterior axis in stage 17-18 embryos. The activation pattern of such wrongly projecting motoneurones was assessed at stages 35-38 by recording electromyographic activity from muscles in an isolated spinal cord/hind limb preparation. Muscle activity was classed as flexor- or extensor-like according to the characteristics of the patterned sequence of bursts elicited by a single shock to the thoracic cord. Wrongly projecting motoneurones did not have their activation pattern altered to one appropriate for the muscle innervated; therefore in some cases a particular muscle was activated with a pattern similar to its original one, and in other cases in an opposite manner. Mixed flexor-extensor-like activation of a single muscle was, however, rare. The identity of motoneurones projecting to a muscle was determined by their cord location following retrograde labelling with horseradish peroxidase. This allowed us to conclude that motoneurones could develop their normal pattern of activation even when projecting to foreign muscles. It is concluded that the cord circuits (presumably composed of local interneurones responsible for the activation of motoneurones in the isolated cord preparation are not altered by retrograde influences from the muscle. Wrongly projecting motoneurones, which were maintained throughout the normal cell death period, were activated during spontaneous embryonic movements, and in many cases were found to have a behaviourally inappropriate activation pattern. These observations are discussed in relation to proposed mechanisms by which developmental errors in connectivity are corrected.

  12. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  13. Temporal Links in Daily Activity Patterns between Coral Reef Predators and Their Prey

    PubMed Central

    Bosiger, Yoland J.; McCormick, Mark I.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have documented the activity patterns of both predators and their common prey over 24 h diel cycles. This study documents the temporal periodicity of two common resident predators of juvenile reef fishes, Cephalopholis cyanostigma (rockcod) and Pseudochromis fuscus (dottyback) and compares these to the activity and foraging pattern of a common prey species, juvenile Pomacentrus moluccensis (lemon damselfish). Detailed observations of activity in the field and using 24 h infrared video in the laboratory revealed that the two predators had very different activity patterns. C. cyanostigma was active over the whole 24 h period, with a peak in feeding strikes at dusk and increased activity at both dawn and dusk, while P. fuscus was not active at night and had its highest strike rates at midday. The activity and foraging pattern of P. moluccensis directly opposes that of C. cyanostigma with individuals reducing strike rate and intraspecific aggression at both dawn and dusk, and reducing distance from shelter and boldness at dusk only. Juveniles examined were just outside the size-selection window of P. fuscus. We suggest that the relatively predictable diel behaviour of coral reef predators results from physiological factors such as visual sensory abilities, circadian rhythmicity, variation in hunting profitability, and predation risk at different times of the day. Our study suggests that the diel periodicity of P. moluccensis behaviour may represent a response to increased predation risk at times when both the ability to efficiently capture food and visually detect predators is reduced. PMID:25354096

  14. Understanding women's anger: a description of relational patterns.

    PubMed

    Jack, D C

    2001-06-01

    Sixty women's narratives about their anger were coded for elements of anger expression. Their decisions regarding how and where to express anger are most strongly influenced by the anticipated reactions of others. Six patterns of bringing anger into relationships or keeping it out were identified. Women bring anger into relationship: (1) positively and directly, with the goal of removing barriers to relationship; (2) aggressively, with the goal of hurting another; and (3) indirectly, through disguising anger with the goal of remaining safe from interpersonal consequences, using strategies of (a) quiet sabotage, (b) hostile distance, (c) deflection, and (d) loss of control. Women keep anger out of relationship (1) consciously and constructively, choosing to express it in positive ways; (2) explosively expressing anger, but not in the presence of another; and (3) through self-silencing, which ranges from conscious to less-conscious awareness of anger and its suppression. Implications of differing patterns for women's health are discussed.

  15. Automatic Camera Calibration Using Active Displays of a Virtual Pattern.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Wang, Yaonan; Yu, Hongshan; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-03-27

    Camera calibration plays a critical role in 3D computer vision tasks. The most commonly used calibration method utilizes a planar checkerboard and can be done nearly fully automatically. However, it requires the user to move either the camera or the checkerboard during the capture step. This manual operation is time consuming and makes the calibration results unstable. In order to solve the above problems caused by manual operation, this paper presents a full-automatic camera calibration method using a virtual pattern instead of a physical one. The virtual pattern is actively transformed and displayed on a screen so that the control points of the pattern can be uniformly observed in the camera view. The proposed method estimates the camera parameters from point correspondences between 2D image points and the virtual pattern. The camera and the screen are fixed during the whole process; therefore, the proposed method does not require any manual operations. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated through experiments on both synthetic and real data. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve stable results and its accuracy is comparable to the standard method by Zhang.

  16. Activity pattern of selected ungulates at Krau Wildlife Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanusi, M. A. Mohd; Shukor, M. A.; Juliana, W. A. Wan; Traeholt, C.

    2013-11-01

    The study on ecology and feeding behaviour of selected wildlife species was carried out at the Krau Wildlife Reserve (KWR), Pahang. We aim to identify the wildlife species that present at KWR using camera traps, determine activity pattern ofungulates and study the feeding behaviour of selected herbivores including foraging time, method or behaviours and other individuals that are present during feeding. Camera trap data revealed a total of 19 wildlife species inhabiting the forest areas which include three species of ungulates namely Tapirus indicus, Sus scrofa and Muntiacus muntjak. The T. indicus was actively feeding between 2300 and 0500 hours, S. scrofa between 0600 and 1800 hours while M. muntjack 0600 and 1700 hours. Activity pattern of three ungulate species indicated that T. indicus is nocturnal, M. muntjak is diurnal and S. scrofais active both day and night. Each of the animal species inhabiting the study sites are able to compromise and did not compete among each other by foraging at different time and food resources.

  17. Extracellular stimulation with human "noisy" electromyographic patterns facilitates myotube activity.

    PubMed

    Sciancalepore, M; Coslovich, T; Lorenzon, P; Ziraldo, G; Taccola, G

    2015-10-01

    Electrical stimulation (ES) of skeletal muscle partially mimics the benefits of physical activity. However, the stimulation protocols applied clinically to date, often cause unpleasant symptoms and muscle fatigue. Here, we compared the efficiency of a "noisy" stimulus waveform derived from human electromyographic (EMG) muscle patterns, with stereotyped 45 and 1 Hz electrical stimulations applied to mouse myotubes in vitro. Human gastrocnemius medialis electromyograms recorded from volunteers during real locomotor activity were used as a template for a noisy stimulation, called EMGstim. The stimulus-induced electrical activity, intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics and mechanical twitches in the myotubes were assessed using whole-cell perforated patch-clamp, Ca(2+) imaging and optical visualization techniques. EMGstim was more efficient in inducing myotube cell firing, [Ca(2+)]i changes and contractions compared with more conventional electrical stimulation. Its stimulation strength was also much lower than the minimum required to induce contractions via stereotyped stimulation protocols. We conclude that muscle cells in vitro can be more efficiently depolarized using the "noisy" stochastic stimulation pattern, EMGstim, a finding that suggests a way to favor a higher level of electrical activity in a larger number of cells.

  18. Patterning of sympathetic nerve activity in response to vestibular stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerman, I. A.; McAllen, R. M.; Yates, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests a role for the vestibular system in regulation of autonomic outflow during postural adjustments. In the present paper we review evidence for the patterning of sympathetic nerve activity elicited by vestibular stimulation. In response to electrical activation of vestibular afferents, firing of sympathetic nerves located throughout the body is altered. However, activity of the renal nerve is most sensitive to vestibular inputs. In contrast, high-intensity simultaneous activation of cutaneous and muscle inputs elicits equivalent changes in firing of the renal, superior mesenteric and lumbar colonic nerves. Responses of muscle vasoconstrictor (MVC) efferents to vestibular stimulation are either inhibitory (Type I) or are comprised of a combination of excitation and inhibition (Type II). Interestingly, single MVC units located in the hindlimb exhibited predominantly Type I responses while those located in the forelimb and face exhibited Type II responses. Furthermore, brachial and femoral arterial blood flows were dissociated in response to vestibular stimulation, such that brachial vascular resistance increased while femoral resistance decreased. These studies demonstrate that vestibulosympathetic reflexes are patterned according to both the anatomical location and innervation target of a particular sympathetic nerve, and can lead to distinct changes in local blood flow.

  19. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen’s temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home. PMID:26007738

  20. User Activity Recognition in Smart Homes Using Pattern Clustering Applied to Temporal ANN Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Bourobou, Serge Thomas Mickala; Yoo, Younghwan

    2015-05-21

    This paper discusses the possibility of recognizing and predicting user activities in the IoT (Internet of Things) based smart environment. The activity recognition is usually done through two steps: activity pattern clustering and activity type decision. Although many related works have been suggested, they had some limited performance because they focused only on one part between the two steps. This paper tries to find the best combination of a pattern clustering method and an activity decision algorithm among various existing works. For the first step, in order to classify so varied and complex user activities, we use a relevant and efficient unsupervised learning method called the K-pattern clustering algorithm. In the second step, the training of smart environment for recognizing and predicting user activities inside his/her personal space is done by utilizing the artificial neural network based on the Allen's temporal relations. The experimental results show that our combined method provides the higher recognition accuracy for various activities, as compared with other data mining classification algorithms. Furthermore, it is more appropriate for a dynamic environment like an IoT based smart home.

  1. Patterns of Educational Activities: Discontinuities and Sequences. Report No. 222.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karweit, Nancy

    Using a retrospective life history sample (LHS), the educational activities of white and black men from age 14 to age 30 were determined. A lack of association of family background characteristics with resumption of schooling activities after labor force entry was found for both blacks and whites. Attainment level was related to the likelihood of…

  2. Prediction of Spatiotemporal Patterns of Neural Activity from Pairwise Correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Marre, O.; El Boustani, S.; Fregnac, Y.; Destexhe, A.

    2009-04-03

    We designed a model-based analysis to predict the occurrence of population patterns in distributed spiking activity. Using a maximum entropy principle with a Markovian assumption, we obtain a model that accounts for both spatial and temporal pairwise correlations among neurons. This model is tested on data generated with a Glauber spin-glass system and is shown to correctly predict the occurrence probabilities of spatiotemporal patterns significantly better than Ising models only based on spatial correlations. This increase of predictability was also observed on experimental data recorded in parietal cortex during slow-wave sleep. This approach can also be used to generate surrogates that reproduce the spatial and temporal correlations of a given data set.

  3. Patterns of frontoparietal activation as a marker for unsuccessful visuospatial processing in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Drag, Lauren L; Light, Sharee N; Langenecker, Scott A; Hazlett, Kathleen E; Wilde, Elisabeth A; Welsh, Robert; Steinberg, Brett A; Bieliauskas, Linas A

    2016-09-01

    Visuospatial abilities are sensitive to age-related decline, although the neural basis for this decline (and its everyday behavioral correlates) is as yet poorly understood. fMRI was employed to examine age-related differences in patterns of functional activation that underlie changes in visuospatial processing. All participants completed a brief neuropsychological battery and also a figure ground task (FGT) assessing visuospatial processing while fMRI was recorded. Participants included 16 healthy older adults (OA; aged 69-82 years) and 16 healthy younger adults (YA; aged 20-35 years). We examined age-related differences in behavioral performance on the FGT in relation to patterns of fMRI activation. OA demonstrated reduced performance on the FGT task and showed increased activation of supramarginal parietal cortex as well as increased activation of frontal and temporal regions compared to their younger counterparts. Performance on the FGT related to increased supramarginal gyrus activity and increased medial prefrontal activity in OAs, but not YAs. Our results are consistent with an anterior-posterior compensation model. Successful FGT performance requires the perception and integration of multiple stimuli and thus it is plausible that healthy aging may be accompanied by changes in visuospatial processing that mimic a subtle form of dorsal simultanagnosia. Overall, decreased visuospatial processing in OA relates to an altered frontoparietal neurobiological signature that may contribute to the general phenomenon of increasingly fragmented execution of behavior associated with normal aging.

  4. Quantification of free-living activity patterns using accelerometry in adults with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Justin J.; Roberts, James A.; Nguyen, Vinh T.; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity is disrupted in many psychiatric disorders. Advances in everyday technologies – such as accelerometers in smart phones – opens exciting possibilities for non-intrusive acquisition of activity data. Successful exploitation of this opportunity requires the validation of analytical methods that can capture the full movement spectrum. The study aim was to demonstrate an analytical approach to characterise accelerometer-derived activity patterns. Here, we use statistical methods to characterize accelerometer-derived activity patterns from a heterogeneous sample of 99 community-based adults with mental illnesses. Diagnoses were screened using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and participants wore accelerometers for one week. We studied the relative ability of simple (exponential), complex (heavy-tailed), and composite models to explain patterns of activity and inactivity. Activity during wakefulness was a composite of brief random (exponential) movements and complex (heavy-tailed) processes, whereas movement during sleep lacked the heavy-tailed component. In contrast, inactivity followed a heavy-tailed process, lacking the random component. Activity patterns differed in nature between those with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder and a primary psychotic disorder. These results show the potential of complex models to quantify the rich nature of human movement captured by accelerometry during wake and sleep, and the interaction with diagnosis and health. PMID:28266563

  5. Linking Plagioclase Zoning Patterns to Active Magma Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izbekov, P. E.; Nicolaysen, K. P.; Neill, O. K.; Shcherbakov, V.; Plechov, P.; Eichelberger, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    Plagioclase, one of the most common and abundant mineral phases in volcanic products, will vary in composition in response to changes in temperature, pressure, composition of the ambient silicate melt, and melt H2O concentration. Changes in these parameters may cause dissolution or growth of plagioclase crystals, forming characteristic textural and compositional variations (zoning patterns), the complete core-to-rim sequence of which describes events experienced by an individual crystal from its nucleation to the last moments of its growth. Plagioclase crystals in a typical volcanic rock may look drastically dissimilar despite their spatial proximity and the fact that they have erupted together. Although they shared last moments of their growth during magma ascent and eruption, their prior experiences could be very different, as plagioclase crystals often come from different domains of the same magma system. Distinguishing similar zoning patterns, correlating them across the entire population of plagioclase crystals, and linking these patterns to specific perturbations in the magmatic system may provide additional perspective on the variety, extent, and timing of magma processes at active volcanic systems. Examples of magma processes, which may be distinguished based on plagioclase zoning patterns, include (1) cooling due to heat loss, (2) heating and/or pressure build up due to an input of new magmatic material, (3) pressure drop in response to magma system depressurization, and (4) crystal transfer between different magma domains/bodies. This review will include contrasting examples of zoning patters from recent eruptions of Karymsky, Bezymianny, and Tolbachik Volcanoes in Kamchatka, Augustine and Cleveland Volcanoes in Alaska, as well as from the drilling into an active magma body at Krafla, Iceland.

  6. Patterns of Spontaneous Magnetoencephalographic Activity in Schizophrenic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Siekmeier, Peter J.; Stufflebeam, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) non-invasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head MEG activity in schizophrenic patients were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. While the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that MEG activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (4–8 Hz) and delta (1–4 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison to the EEG literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, MEG might be used to assist in diagnosis, or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology. PMID:20461010

  7. Patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalographic activity in patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Siekmeier, Peter J; Stufflebeam, Steven M

    2010-06-01

    Magnetoencephalography noninvasively measures the magnetic fields produced by the brain. Pertinent research articles from 1993 to 2009 that measured spontaneous, whole-head magnetoencephalography activity in patients with schizophrenia were reviewed. Data on localization of oscillatory activity and correlation of these findings with psychotic symptoms are summarized. Although the variety of measures used by different research groups makes a quantitative meta-analysis difficult, it appears that magnetoencephalography activity in patients may exhibit identifiable patterns, defined by topographic organization and frequency band. Specifically, 11 of the 12 studies showed increased theta (4-8 Hz) and delta (1-4 Hz) band oscillations in the temporal lobes of patients; of the 10 studies that examined the relationship between oscillatory activity and symptomatology, 8 found a positive correlation between temporal lobe theta activity and positive schizophrenic symptoms. Abnormally high frontal delta activity was not seen. These findings are analyzed in comparison with the electroencephalogram literature on schizophrenics, and possible confounds (e.g., medication effects) are discussed. In the future, magnetoencephalography might be used to assist in diagnosis or might be fruitfully used in conjunction with new neuroscience research approaches such as computational modeling, which may be able to link oscillatory activity and cellular-level pathology.

  8. Renal electrolyte circadian rhythms - Independence from feeding and activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore-Ede, M. C.; Herd, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on six unanesthetized chair-acclimatized adult male squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) weighing 600-900 g to determine whether internal synchronization is the result of simple passive dependence of renal excretory rhythms on endogenous rhythms of those variable that influence electrolyte excretion such as dietary intake and muscular activity. Independence of the urinary rhythms from diurnal variations in feeding, drinking, and activity was secured by depriving the animals of food, water, and training them to perform a two-hourly schedule of feeding, drinking, and activity throughout day and night. Results indicate that the internal synchronization which is normally observed between the behavioral and urinary rhythms cannot be explained by any direct dependence of renal function on behavioral patterns. The most probable mechanism for circadian internal synchronization is that the various behavioral and renal rhythms are controlled by potentially independent separate oscillators which are normally kept in synchrony with one another.

  9. The concentration of criminal victimization and patterns of routine activities.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Shih-Ya; Cuvelier, Steven J; Sheu, Chuen-Jim; Zhao, Jihong Solomon

    2012-06-01

    Although many repeat victimization studies have focused on describing the prevalence of the phenomenon, this study attempted to explain variations in the concentration of victimization by applying routine activities as a theoretical model. A multivariate analysis of repeat victimization based on the 2005 Taiwan criminal victimization data supported the general applicability of the routine activity model developed in Western culture for predicting repeat victimization. Findings that diverged from Western patterns included family income to assault, gender to robbery, and marital status, family income, and major activity to larceny incidents. These disparities illustrated the importance of considering the broader sociocultural context in the association between risk predictors and the concentration of criminal victimization. The contradictory results and nonsignificant variance also reflected untapped information on respondents' biological features and psychological tendencies. Future victimization research would do well to integrate measurements that are sensitive to salient sociocultural elements of the society being studied and individuals' biological and psychological traits.

  10. Activity patterns of serotonin neurons underlying cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Matias, Sara; Lottem, Eran; Dugué, Guillaume P; Mainen, Zachary F

    2017-03-21

    Serotonin is implicated in mood and affective disorders. However, growing evidence suggests that a core endogenous role is to promote flexible adaptation to changes in the causal structure of the environment, through behavioral inhibition and enhanced plasticity. We used long-term photometric recordings in mice to study a population of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons, whose activity we could link to normal reversal learning using pharmacogenetics. We found that these neurons are activated by both positive and negative prediction errors, and thus report signals similar to those proposed to promote learning in conditions of uncertainty. Furthermore, by comparing the cue responses of serotonin and dopamine neurons, we found differences in learning rates that could explain the importance of serotonin in inhibiting perseverative responding. Our findings show how the activity patterns of serotonin neurons support a role in cognitive flexibility, and suggest a revised model of dopamine-serotonin opponency with potential clinical implications.

  11. Muscle activation patterns are bilaterally linked during split-belt treadmill walking in humans

    PubMed Central

    Ivanenko, Y. P.; Massaad, F.; Bruijn, S. M.; Duysens, J.; Lacquaniti, F.

    2014-01-01

    There is growing evidence that human locomotion is controlled by flexibly combining a set of basic muscle activity patterns. To explore how these patterns are modified to cope with environmental constraints, 10 healthy young adults 1st walked on a split-belt treadmill at symmetric speeds of 4 and 6 km/h for 2 min. An asymmetric condition was then performed for 10 min in which treadmill speeds for the dominant (fast) and nondominant (slow) sides were 6 and 4 km/h, respectively. This was immediately followed by a symmetric speed condition of 4 km/h for 5 min. Gait kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded. Electromyography (EMG) was collected from 12 lower limb muscles on each side of the body. Nonnegative matrix factorization was applied to the EMG signals bilaterally and unilaterally to obtain basic activation patterns. A cross-correlation analysis was then used to quantify temporal changes in the activation patterns. During the early (1st 10 strides) and late (final 10 strides) phases of the asymmetric condition, the patterns related to ankle plantar flexor (push-off) of the fast limb and quadriceps muscle (contralateral heel contact) of the slow limb occurred earlier in the gait cycle compared with the symmetric conditions. Moreover, a bilateral temporal alignment of basic patterns between limbs was still maintained in the split-belt condition since a similar shift was observed in the unilateral patterns. The results suggest that the temporal structure of these locomotor patterns is shaped by sensory feedback and that the patterns are bilaterally linked. PMID:24478155

  12. Longitudinal Patterns of Active Leisure among South African Youth: Gender Differences and Associations with Health Risk Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Tibbits, Melissa K; Caldwell, Linda L; Smith, Edward A; Vergnani, Tania; Wegner, Lisa

    This study identified adolescents' patterns of active leisure participation over two years and five waves of data and how those patterns were related to substance use and sexual activity. Participants included 3581 primarily Colored (mixed race) South African adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to determine patterns of active leisure patterns and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between the patterns and substance use and sexual activity. Four patterns were identified: Non-Participants; Early Participants; Late Participants; and Consistent Participants. Most males were Consistent Participants, whereas most females were Non-participants. Female Consistent Participants had the lowest odds of tobacco use, marijuana use, and sexual activity by the tenth grade relative to the other patterns, whereas Early Participants had the highest odds. In contrast, male Consistent Participants were at moderate risk of engaging in health risk behaviors relative to the other patterns. These findings suggest the need for a cautious approach to developing active leisure-based interventions, taking into account the contextual factors that may influence participation and health risk behaviors.

  13. Longitudinal Patterns of Active Leisure among South African Youth: Gender Differences and Associations with Health Risk Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Tibbits, Melissa K.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Smith, Edward A.; Vergnani, Tania; Wegner, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This study identified adolescents’ patterns of active leisure participation over two years and five waves of data and how those patterns were related to substance use and sexual activity. Participants included 3581 primarily Colored (mixed race) South African adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to determine patterns of active leisure patterns and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the relationships between the patterns and substance use and sexual activity. Four patterns were identified: Non-Participants; Early Participants; Late Participants; and Consistent Participants. Most males were Consistent Participants, whereas most females were Non-participants. Female Consistent Participants had the lowest odds of tobacco use, marijuana use, and sexual activity by the tenth grade relative to the other patterns, whereas Early Participants had the highest odds. In contrast, male Consistent Participants were at moderate risk of engaging in health risk behaviors relative to the other patterns. These findings suggest the need for a cautious approach to developing active leisure-based interventions, taking into account the contextual factors that may influence participation and health risk behaviors. PMID:27019655

  14. Active Ultrasound Pattern Injection System (AUSPIS) for Interventional Tool Guidance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaoyu; Kang, Hyun-Jae; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph; Boctor, Emad M.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate tool tracking is a crucial task that directly affects the safety and effectiveness of many interventional medical procedures. Compared to CT and MRI, ultrasound-based tool tracking has many advantages, including low cost, safety, mobility and ease of use. However, surgical tools are poorly visualized in conventional ultrasound images, thus preventing effective tool tracking and guidance. Existing tracking methods have not yet provided a solution that effectively solves the tool visualization and mid-plane localization accuracy problem and fully meets the clinical requirements. In this paper, we present an active ultrasound tracking and guiding system for interventional tools. The main principle of this system is to establish a bi-directional ultrasound communication between the interventional tool and US imaging machine within the tissue. This method enables the interventional tool to generate an active ultrasound field over the original imaging ultrasound signals. By controlling the timing and amplitude of the active ultrasound field, a virtual pattern can be directly injected into the US machine B mode display. In this work, we introduce the time and frequency modulation, mid-plane detection, and arbitrary pattern injection methods. The implementation of these methods further improves the target visualization and guiding accuracy, and expands the system application beyond simple tool tracking. We performed ex vitro and in vivo experiments, showing significant improvements of tool visualization and accurate localization using different US imaging platforms. An ultrasound image mid-plane detection accuracy of ±0.3 mm and a detectable tissue depth over 8.5 cm was achieved in the experiment. The system performance is tested under different configurations and system parameters. We also report the first experiment of arbitrary pattern injection to the B mode image and its application in accurate tool tracking. PMID:25337784

  15. Isolating weather effects from seasonal activity patterns of a temperate North American Colubrid.

    PubMed

    George, Andrew D; Thompson, Frank R; Faaborg, John

    2015-08-01

    Forecasting the effects of climate change on threatened ecosystems and species will require an understanding of how weather influences processes that drive population dynamics. We have evaluated weather effects on activity patterns of western ratsnakes, a widespread predator of birds and small mammals in eastern North America. From 2010-2013 we radio-tracked 53 ratsnakes in the fragmented region of central Missouri. We relocated each snake 4× per week and used movement frequency as an index of activity. We used generalized linear mixed models within an information-theoretic approach to evaluate temporal and weather variables as potential predictors of snake activity. While snakes were generally sedentary, activity showed a linear response to relative humidity and a quadratic response to air temperature, peaking near 30 °C. Seasonal activity patterns differed between sexes and among years, but snakes were generally least active in mid-summer, regardless of weather. Our findings provide strong evidence that air temperature and relative humidity differentially affect activity patterns of an important predator and are the mechanism explaining increased nest predation rates with warmer temperatures.

  16. Influence of environmental factors on activity patterns of Incisitermes minor (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in naturally infested logs.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Vernard R; Leighton, Shawn; Tabuchi, Robin; Baldwin, James A; Haverty, Michael I

    2013-02-01

    Acoustic emission (AE) activity patterns were measured from seven loquat [Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.] logs, five containing live western drywood termite [Incisitermes minor (Hagen)] infestations, and two without an active drywood termite infestation. AE activity, as well as temperature, were monitored every 3 min under unrestricted ambient conditions in a small wooden building, under unrestricted ambient conditions but in constant darkness, or in a temperature-controlled cabined under constant darkness. Logs with active drywood termite infestations displayed similar diurnal cycles of AE activity that closely followed temperature with a peak of AE activity late in the afternoon (1700-1800 hours). When light was excluded from the building, a circadian pattern continued and apparently was driven by temperature. When the seven logs were kept at a relatively constant temperature (approximately 23 +/- 0.9 degrees C) and constant darkness, the pattern of activity was closely correlated with temperature, even with minimal changes in temperature. Temperature is the primary driver of activity of these drywood termites, but the effects are different when temperature is increasing or decreasing. At constant temperature, AE activity was highly correlated with the number of termites in the logs. The possible implications of these findings on our understanding of drywood termite biology and how this information may affect inspections and posttreatment evaluations are discussed.

  17. Successful Remembering Elicits Event-Specific Activity Patterns in Lateral Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Marvin M.

    2014-01-01

    Remembering a past event involves reactivation of content-specific patterns of neural activity in high-level perceptual regions (e.g., ventral temporal cortex, VTC). In contrast, the subjective experience of vivid remembering is typically associated with increased activity in lateral parietal cortex (LPC)—“retrieval success effects” that are thought to generalize across content types. However, the functional significance of LPC activation during memory retrieval remains a subject of active debate. In particular, theories are divided with respect to whether LPC actively represents retrieved content or if LPC activity only scales with content reactivation elsewhere (e.g., VTC). Here, we report a human fMRI study of visual memory recall (faces vs scenes) in which complementary forms of multivoxel pattern analysis were used to test for and compare content reactivation within LPC and VTC. During recall of visual images, we observed robust reactivation of broad category information (face vs scene) in both VTC and LPC. Moreover, recall-related activity patterns in LPC, but not VTC, differentiated between individual events. Importantly, these content effects were particularly evident in areas of LPC (namely, angular gyrus) in which activity scaled with subjective reports of recall vividness. These findings provide striking evidence that LPC not only signals that memories have been successfully recalled, but actively represents what is being remembered. PMID:24899726

  18. Circadian Patterns of Wikipedia Editorial Activity: A Demographic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yasseri, Taha; Sumi, Robert; Kertész, János

    2012-01-01

    Wikipedia (WP) as a collaborative, dynamical system of humans is an appropriate subject of social studies. Each single action of the members of this society, i.e., editors, is well recorded and accessible. Using the cumulative data of 34 Wikipedias in different languages, we try to characterize and find the universalities and differences in temporal activity patterns of editors. Based on this data, we estimate the geographical distribution of editors for each WP in the globe. Furthermore we also clarify the differences among different groups of WPs, which originate in the variance of cultural and social features of the communities of editors. PMID:22272279

  19. Pattern matching based active optical sorting of colloids/cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, R. S.; Dasgupta, R.; Ahlawat, S.; Kumar, N.; Uppal, A.; Gupta, P. K.

    2013-08-01

    We report active optical sorting of colloids/cells by employing a cross correlation based pattern matching technique for selection of the desired objects and thereafter sorting using dynamically controllable holographic optical traps. The problem of possible collision between the different sets of objects during sorting was avoided by raising one set of particles to a different plane. We also present the results obtained on using this approach for some representative applications such as sorting of silica particles of two different sizes, of closely packed colloids and of white blood cells and red blood cells from a mixture of the two.

  20. Zinc supplementation affects the activity patterns of rural Guatemalan infants.

    PubMed

    Bentley, M E; Caulfield, L E; Ram, M; Santizo, M C; Hurtado, E; Rivera, J A; Ruel, M T; Brown, K H

    1997-07-01

    Zinc deficiency has been associated with growth deficits, reduced dietary intake and appetite, and has been hypothesized to result in reduced activity. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined whether 10 mg of oral zinc as zinc sulfate, given daily for up to 7 mo, affected activity patterns of 85 Guatemalan infants recruited at 6-9 mo of age. Infant activity was assessed by time sampling-observation method at 10-min intervals during a 12-h data collection period, at base line, 3 and 7 mo follow-up. Motor development and the percentage of time infants were observed in various positions (being carried, lying down, sitting, crawling, standing or walking) and engaged in various activities (eating, sleeping, resting, crying/whining or playing) were compared by treatment group. No differences in motor development were observed by treatment group. However, at follow-up 2 (after 7 mo of supplementation), zinc-supplemented infants were significantly more frequently observed sitting up compared with lying down, and were playing during 4.18 +/- 1.95% (P < 0.05) more observations than unsupplemented infants. They were also somewhat less likely to be observed crying or whining (P < 0.10) compared with those receiving the placebo. These effects are independent of other factors including infant age, motor development, sex, maternal education, family socioeconomic status and nutritional status at base line. Further research must be conducted to determine the long-term developmental importance of these differences in activity patterns associated with zinc supplementation in this setting.

  1. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States

    PubMed Central

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-01-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  2. Unsupervised classification of neocortical activity patterns in neonatal and pre-juvenile rodents

    PubMed Central

    Cichon, Nicole B.; Denker, Michael; Grün, Sonja; Hanganu-Opatz, Ileana L.

    2014-01-01

    Flexible communication within the brain, which relies on oscillatory activity, is not confined to adult neuronal networks. Experimental evidence has documented the presence of discontinuous patterns of oscillatory activity already during early development. Their highly variable spatial and time-frequency organization has been related to region specificity. However, it might be equally due to the absence of unitary criteria for classifying the early activity patterns, since they have been mainly characterized by visual inspection. Therefore, robust and unbiased methods for categorizing these discontinuous oscillations are needed for increasingly complex data sets from different labs. Here, we introduce an unsupervised detection and classification algorithm for the discontinuous activity patterns of rodents during early development. For this, in a first step time windows with discontinuous oscillations vs. epochs of network “silence” were identified. In a second step, the major features of detected events were identified and processed by principal component analysis for deciding on their contribution to the classification of different oscillatory patterns. Finally, these patterns were categorized using an unsupervised cluster algorithm. The results were validated on manually characterized neonatal spindle bursts (SB), which ubiquitously entrain neocortical areas of rats and mice, and prelimbic nested gamma spindle bursts (NG). Moreover, the algorithm led to satisfactory results for oscillatory events that, due to increased similarity of their features, were more difficult to classify, e.g., during the pre-juvenile developmental period. Based on a linear classification, the optimal number of features to consider increased with the difficulty of detection. This algorithm allows the comparison of neonatal and pre-juvenile oscillatory patterns in their spatial and temporal organization. It might represent a first step for the unbiased elucidation of activity patterns

  3. Prevalence and patterns of combat sport related maxillofacial injuries

    PubMed Central

    Shirani, Gholamreza; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hosein; Ashuri, Alireza; Eshkevari, Pooyan Sadr

    2010-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to assess the prevalence, distribution, and patterns of injury among athletes engaged in combat sports and compare the prevalence, pattern, and types of oral and maxillofacial trauma in these athletes. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 male athletes engaged in four combat sports (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) who had sustained bodily trauma were studied; 95 subjects with at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring treatment were referred to us by the physician team. The type of injury (facial laceration, facial fractures, jaw dislocation, etc.), site of facial injury (jaw, nose, malar bone, teeth, etc.), dental injuries (tooth fracture, displacement, luxation, and avulsion), causative sport (boxing, taekwondo, kickboxing, and Muay Thai) as well as demographic data were recorded. Injuries were examined clinically and radiographically, and treated accordingly by a specialist. Treatment data and demographics were recorded for each subject. Recorded data were assessed, and χ2, ANOVA, and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to statistically analyze and compare the data. Results: Of 120 subjects, 95 male subjects (79.2%), aged 18–25 years (avg. 20 years), had at least one traumatic injury to the face requiring medical treatment. These injuries included facial laceration, bone fractures (nose, mandible, and zygoma), dental injuries (displacement, luxation, fracture, and avulsion), and mandibular dislocation which were recorded in 83 (69.2%), 55 (45.1%), 53 (44.2%), and 8 (6.7%) cases respectively. Statistically significant differences were encountered among various injuries and the sports; kickboxing caused the most maxillofacial injuries and was identified as more injurious. Tooth fractures (59.7%) were the most common dental injuries, and the nose (84.7%) was the most frequently fractured facial bone. Lacerations were more common in Thai-boxers (93.3%). Injuries were significantly greater in professional rather

  4. Turing Patterns in Estuarine Sediments by Microbiological Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Morais Mendonca Teles, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    The use of Turing mechanisms and lattice Lotka-Volterra model (LLV), also by means of the non-extensive statistical mechanics, can mathematically describe well the phenomena of clustering and their associated boundaries with fractal dimensionality, which occurs in various natural situations, among them, biogeochemical processes via microorganisms in estuarine and marine sediments on the planet Earth. The author did an experimental analysis in field work which took into account the spatial and temporal behavior of Turing patterns, in the form of microbial activity within estuarine subsurface sediments. We show we can find the characteristics of clustering and fractallity which are present in the dynamical LLV model and Turing patterns mechanisms, and the non-extensive statistical mechanics could be used to find the q-entropy (Sq), and other non-equilibrium statistical parameters of the studied estuarine (Caraís lagoon) subsurface biogeochemical system. In this paper, the author suggests that such kinds of subsurface ecological systems are of interest to Astrobiology because if we find Turing-type clustered geomorphological patterns, below meter scale, on the near subsurface and inside rocks at the surface of planet Mars, and also find non-equilibrium statistical parameters (temperature, [F], [C], [S], etc.), displaying Turing-type mechanism, in the aquatic environments of the internal seas of planets Jupiter's moon Europa and the internal global ocean of Saturn's moon Enceladus, that could mean that possible hypothetical biogeochemical activities are present in such places. This could be a bio-indicator tool. And with further studies we could find the q-entropy Sq to establish better defined statistical mechanical parameters for such environments and to refine models for their evolution, as we do on planet Earth.

  5. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5 s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation.

  6. Temporal pattern of acoustic imaging noise asymmetrically modulates activation in the auditory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ranaweera, Ruwan D.; Kwon, Minseok; Hu, Shuowen; Tamer, Gregory G.; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the hemisphere-specific effects of the temporal pattern of imaging related acoustic noise on auditory cortex activation. Hemodynamic responses (HDRs) to five temporal patterns of imaging noise corresponding to noise generated by unique combinations of imaging volume and effective repetition time (TR), were obtained using a stroboscopic event-related paradigm with extra-long (≥27.5s) TR to minimize inter-acquisition effects. In addition to confirmation that fMRI responses in auditory cortex do not behave in a linear manner, temporal patterns of imaging noise were found to modulate both the shape and spatial extent of hemodynamic responses, with classically non-auditory areas exhibiting responses to longer duration noise conditions. Hemispheric analysis revealed the right primary auditory cortex to be more sensitive than the left to the presence of imaging related acoustic noise. Right primary auditory cortex responses were significantly larger during all the conditions. This asymmetry of response to imaging related acoustic noise could lead to different baseline activation levels during acquisition schemes using short TR, inducing an observed asymmetry in the responses to an intended acoustic stimulus through limitations of dynamic range, rather than due to differences in neuronal processing of the stimulus. These results emphasize the importance of accounting for the temporal pattern of the acoustic noise when comparing findings across different fMRI studies, especially those involving acoustic stimulation. PMID:26519093

  7. Age-Related Evolution Patterns in Online Handwriting

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing age from handwriting (HW) has important applications, as it is key to distinguishing normal HW evolution with age from abnormal HW change, potentially triggered by neurodegenerative decline. We propose, in this work, an original approach for online HW style characterization based on a two-level clustering scheme. The first level generates writer-independent word clusters from raw spatial-dynamic HW information. At the second level, each writer's words are converted into a Bag of Prototype Words that is augmented by an interword stability measure. This two-level HW style representation is input to an unsupervised learning technique, aiming at uncovering HW style categories and their correlation with age. To assess the effectiveness of our approach, we propose information theoretic measures to quantify the gain on age information from each clustering layer. We have carried out extensive experiments on a large public online HW database, augmented by HW samples acquired at Broca Hospital in Paris from people mostly between 60 and 85 years old. Unlike previous works claiming that there is only one pattern of HW change with age, our study reveals three major aging HW styles, one specific to aged people and the two others shared by other age groups. PMID:27752277

  8. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  9. Spatial Relative Risk Patterns of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakian, Amanda V.; Bilder, Deborah A.; Coon, Hilary; McMahon, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Heightened areas of spatial relative risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or ASD hotspots, in Utah were identified using adaptive kernel density functions. Children ages four, six, and eight with ASD from multiple birth cohorts were identified by the Utah Registry of Autism and Developmental Disabilities. Each ASD case was gender-matched to…

  10. Economic Restructuring and Emerging Patterns of Industrial Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleigh, Stephen R., Ed.

    This book contains nine papers presented during a year-long series of seminars and a conference that analyzed the relationship between economic restructuring and industrial relations involving the joint academics, union leaders, government officials, business executives, and graduate fellows. These analyses include case studies from Western…

  11. Adolescents: Differences in Friendship Patterns Related to Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mjaavatn, Per Egil; Frostad, Per; Pijl, Sip Jan

    2016-01-01

    Based on a survey of 123 Norwegian students aged 14-15 (grade 10) this article will discuss possible gender differences in peer relations, social position and friendship criteria. The students filled in a questionnaire that included sociometry and questions on friendship criteria, self-esteem and social support. We found significant gender…

  12. Physical Activity Patterns in the Elderly Kashan Population

    PubMed Central

    Sadrollahi, Ali; Hosseinian, Masoumeh; Masoudi Alavi, Negin; Khalili, Zahra; Esalatmanesh, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    Kashan. The pattern of physical activity in the elderly depends on their lifestyle. A promotion of active lifestyles should be a part of health care planning for the elderly. PMID:27621923

  13. [Comparison of Health-related Behavior Patterns of Boys and Girls in Germany: Results of the MoMo Study].

    PubMed

    Spengler, S; Mess, F; Woll, A

    2015-12-22

    Aim of the study: For optimal health promotion in adolescents, it is important to know their typical behavior patterns. The aims of this study were to identify and compare sex-specific health-related behavior patterns of adolescents in Germany. Methods: The KiGGS Survey and the MoMo Study assessed the health behavior of 832 boys and 811 girls by means of a questionnaire. The indices physical activity, diet quality and media use were included in cluster analyses for boys and girls separately. Results: For each sex, 4 clusters with similar characteristics on the three included indices were identified. However, cluster size, level of the characteristics and correlates were different in boys and girls: fewer girls showed high activity levels. Overall, physical activity and media use were less pronounced in the behavior pattern of girls. There was a stronger association of behavior patterns with socio-economic status in girls. In boys, behavior patterns were significantly associated with prevalence of overweight. Conclusions: The similar cluster solutions for boys and girls support the assumption that there are typical health-related behavior patterns among German adolescents. This finding might facilitate the precise definition of homogeneous target groups for health promotion programs. Furthermore, it seems that sex-specific foci should be set.

  14. The variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscles in human infant crawling.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qi L; Wu, Xiao Y; Nong Xiao; Zeng, Si Y; Zheng, Xiao L; Di Wu; Hou, Wen S

    2016-08-01

    Infant crawling is part of normal human gross motor development, and a 4-beat gait that involves rhythmical flexion and extension of limbs and the underlying muscle co-activation of antagonist muscle around the joint. However, detection the co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle are sparse due to the general difficulty of measuring locomotion in human infants. In this paper, sEMG of antagonist muscles and the corresponding kinematics data of limbs were collected when infants were crawling on hands and knees at their self-selected speed. The infant's gross motor developmental status was assessed by the global Gross Motor Function Measure Scale (GMFM-88) as well. The method based on EMG-EMG plots was used to quantify the variability of co-activation pattern of antagonist muscle. After that, we observed that antagonist muscles of upper limb (triceps brachii and biceps brachii) showed less variability of co-activation pattern of muscles than lower limb(quadriceps femoris and hamstrings) during crawling, and this variability was also varied in different crawling phases (stance and swing). Furthermore, we found some varied behaviors in the co-activation patterns of antagonist muscles when gross motor developmental level increased. The preliminary work suggests that such adaptive changes may be related to the adjustment of neuromuscular in the early stage of gross motor development.

  15. Cortical Activation Patterns of Bodily Attention triggered by Acupuncture Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Won-Mo; Lee, In-Seon; Wallraven, Christian; Ryu, Yeon-Hee; Park, Hi-Joon; Chae, Younbyoung

    2015-01-01

    We investigated commonalities and differences in brain responses to enhanced bodily attention around acupuncture points with and without stimulation. Fourteen participants received acupuncture needles at both PC6 and HT7 acupoints in the left hand. To enhance bodily attention to acupoints, participants responded to the locations of stimulations in a two-alternative forced choice task. Two fMRI scans were taken in a block design: session 1 labeled with manual stimulation (genuine stimulation) and session 2 labeled with electro-acupuncture (pseudo-stimulation). To compare cortical activation patterns, data were analyzed using the Freesurfer software package. Both genuine-and pseudo-stimulation resulted in brain activations in the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, secondary somatosensory cortex, superior parietal cortex, and brain deactivation in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and the parahippocampus. Genuine acupuncture stimulation exhibited greater brain activation in the posterior insula, posterior operculum and the caudal part of the anterior cingulate cortex, compared with pseudo-stimulation. We demonstrated that enhanced bodily attention triggered by genuine acupuncture stimulation can activate the salience network and deactivate the default mode network regardless of the type of stimulation. The component of enhanced attention to a certain part of the body is significant in the brain response to acupuncture stimulation. PMID:26211895

  16. A comparative study of event-related coupling patterns during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachiller, Alejandro; Poza, Jesús; Gómez, Carlos; Molina, Vicente; Suazo, Vanessa; Hornero, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    Objective. The aim of this research is to explore the coupling patterns of brain dynamics during an auditory oddball task in schizophrenia (SCH). Approach. Event-related electroencephalographic (ERP) activity was recorded from 20 SCH patients and 20 healthy controls. The coupling changes between auditory response and pre-stimulus baseline were calculated in conventional EEG frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma), using three coupling measures: coherence, phase-locking value and Euclidean distance. Main results. Our results showed a statistically significant increase from baseline to response in theta coupling and a statistically significant decrease in beta-2 coupling in controls. No statistically significant changes were observed in SCH patients. Significance. Our findings support the aberrant salience hypothesis, since SCH patients failed to change their coupling dynamics between stimulus response and baseline when performing an auditory cognitive task. This result may reflect an impaired communication among neural areas, which may be related to abnormal cognitive functions.

  17. Patterns of leisure time and non-leisure time physical activity of Korean immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jiwon; Wilbur, Joellen; Kim, Mi Ja

    2011-02-01

    Our purpose in this study was to examine the patterns of physical activity and demographic characteristics associated with those patterns in Korean immigrants in the United States. Participants were 197 women, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was utilized. The inactive pattern was the most frequent pattern in all domains of physical activity except household physical activity. There were differences among the patterns of physical activity that were associated with variations in demographic characteristics. Health care providers who serve immigrants should assess physical activity level and demographic characteristics of the immigrants to enhance their physical activity.

  18. Tools of Oceanography. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sands, Florence

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  19. Truncated seasonal activity patterns of the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus) in central and southern California.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Andrew J; Briggs, Cheryl J

    2016-02-01

    Patterns of seasonal activity and density of host-seeking western blacklegged ticks, Ixodes pacificus, were investigated in central and southern California. Weekly to monthly drag sampling was undertaken at two sites in Santa Barbara County and one site in Los Angeles County over multiple years. Adult I. pacificus became active in the winter (late November) and were rare or absent by late April to early May. Nymphal ticks became active in early to late February, were absent by early May to early June, and were rarely encountered using the drag method throughout their period of peak seasonal activity. Larval ticks became active earlier in the season, or at the same time as nymphs (early to late February) and were absent by early May. These results suggest a highly truncated period of I. pacificus seasonal questing activity, particularly apparent in the juvenile tick stages, in central and southern California relative to observed patterns in Lyme-endemic northwestern California. Notably, the highly truncated period of questing activity of the juvenile stages has important implications for pathogen transmission dynamics in that there exists only a brief window for horizontally transmitted pathogens to be acquired by one tick cohort and subsequently transmitted, through hosts, to the next tick cohort in this system. The broader patterns observed also suggest low human risk of tick-borne disease in central and southern California, and have implications for reduced tick-borne disease risk in the western US more generally under projected climate change.

  20. Nonlinear analysis of human physical activity patterns in health and disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraschiv-Ionescu, A.; Buchser, E.; Rutschmann, B.; Aminian, K.

    2008-02-01

    The reliable and objective assessment of chronic disease state has been and still is a very significant challenge in clinical medicine. An essential feature of human behavior related to the health status, the functional capacity, and the quality of life is the physical activity during daily life. A common way to assess physical activity is to measure the quantity of body movement. Since human activity is controlled by various factors both extrinsic and intrinsic to the body, quantitative parameters only provide a partial assessment and do not allow for a clear distinction between normal and abnormal activity. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the analysis of human activity pattern based on the definition of different physical activity time series with the appropriate analysis methods. The temporal pattern of postures, movements, and transitions between postures was quantified using fractal analysis and symbolic dynamics statistics. The derived nonlinear metrics were able to discriminate patterns of daily activity generated from healthy and chronic pain states.

  1. Western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) change their activity patterns in response to frugivory.

    PubMed

    Masi, Shelly; Cipolletta, Chloé; Robbins, Martha M

    2009-02-01

    The most important environmental factor explaining interspecies variation in ecology and sociality of the great apes is likely to be variation in resource availability. Relatively little is known about the activity patterns of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla), which inhabit a dramatically different environment from the well-studied mountain gorillas (G. beringei beringei). This study aims to provide a detailed quantification of western lowland gorillas' activity budgets using direct observations on one habituated group in Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. We examined how activity patterns of both sexes are shaped by seasonal frugivory. Activity was recorded with 5-min instantaneous sampling between December 2004 and December 2005. During the high-frugivory period the gorillas spent less time feeding and more time traveling than during the low-frugivory period. The silverback spent less time feeding but more time resting than both females and immatures, which likely results from a combination of social and physiological factors. When compared with mountain gorillas, western lowland gorillas spend more time feeding (67 vs. 55%) and traveling (12 vs. 6.5%), but less time resting (21 vs. 34%) and engaging in social/other activities (0.5 vs. 3.6%). This disparity in activity budgets of western lowland gorillas and mountain gorillas may be explained by the more frugivorous diet and the greater dispersion of food resources experienced by western lowland gorillas. Like other apes, western lowland gorillas change their activity patterns in response to changes in the diet.

  2. Modeling patterns in data using linear and related models

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-06-01

    This report considers the use of linear models for analyzing data related to reliability and safety issues of the type usually associated with nuclear power plants. The report discusses some of the general results of linear regression analysis, such as the model assumptions and properties of the estimators of the parameters. The results are motivated with examples of operational data. Results about the important case of a linear regression model with one covariate are covered in detail. This case includes analysis of time trends. The analysis is applied with two different sets of time trend data. Diagnostic procedures and tests for the adequacy of the model are discussed. Some related methods such as weighted regression and nonlinear models are also considered. A discussion of the general linear model is also included. Appendix A gives some basic SAS programs and outputs for some of the analyses discussed in the body of the report. Appendix B is a review of some of the matrix theoretic results which are useful in the development of linear models.

  3. Evaluation of drinking patterns and their impact on alcohol-related aggression: a national survey of adolescent behaviours

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although there have been a wide range of epidemiological studies examining the impact of patterns of alcohol consumption among adolescents, there remains considerable variability in both defining these patterns and the ability to comprehensively evaluate their relationship to behavioural patterns. This study explores a new procedure for defining and evaluating drinking patterns and integrating well-established indicators. The composite measure is then used to estimate the impact of these patterns on alcohol-related aggressive behaviour among Italian adolescents. Methods Data were collected as part of the 2011 European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs (ESPAD). A national sample of 14,199 students aged 15–19 years was collected using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire completed in a classroom setting. Drinking patterns were established using principal component analysis. Alcohol-related aggression was analysed as to its relationship to patterns of drinking, behaviour of friends towards alcohol use, substance use/abuse, school performance, family relationships and leisure activities. Results Several specific drinking patterns were identified: “Drinking to Excess” (DE), “Drinking with Intoxication” (DI) and “Drinking but Not to Excess” (DNE). A higher percentage of males were involved in alcohol-related aggression compared with females. In males, the DE and DI patterns significantly increased the likelihood of alcohol-related aggression, whereas the DNE pattern was negatively associated. Similar results were found in females, although the DI pattern was not significantly associated with alcohol-related aggression. Overall, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, truancy, limited parental monitoring, frequent evenings spent outside of the home and peer influence associated strongly with alcohol-related aggression. Conclusions Our findings suggest that drinking patterns, as uniquely monitored with an integrated metric

  4. Judgments Relative to Patterns: How Temporal Sequence Patterns Affect Judgments and Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusev, Petko; Ayton, Peter; van Schaik, Paul; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Stewart, Neil; Chater, Nick

    2011-01-01

    RESix experiments studied relative frequency judgment and recall of sequentially presented items drawn from 2 distinct categories (i.e., city and animal). The experiments show that judged frequencies of categories of sequentially encountered stimuli are affected by certain properties of the sequence configuration. We found (a) a "first-run…

  5. Activity patterns of serotonin neurons underlying cognitive flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Matias, Sara; Lottem, Eran; Dugué, Guillaume P; Mainen, Zachary F

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin is implicated in mood and affective disorders. However, growing evidence suggests that a core endogenous role is to promote flexible adaptation to changes in the causal structure of the environment, through behavioral inhibition and enhanced plasticity. We used long-term photometric recordings in mice to study a population of dorsal raphe serotonin neurons, whose activity we could link to normal reversal learning using pharmacogenetics. We found that these neurons are activated by both positive and negative prediction errors, and thus report signals similar to those proposed to promote learning in conditions of uncertainty. Furthermore, by comparing the cue responses of serotonin and dopamine neurons, we found differences in learning rates that could explain the importance of serotonin in inhibiting perseverative responding. Our findings show how the activity patterns of serotonin neurons support a role in cognitive flexibility, and suggest a revised model of dopamine–serotonin opponency with potential clinical implications. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20552.001 PMID:28322190

  6. Muscular activation patterns of the bow arm in recurve archery.

    PubMed

    Ertan, Hayri

    2009-05-01

    In archery shooting, the archer should hold the bow in place using only the pressure produced through drawing back the bowstring. Most coaches discourage the archer from gripping the bow as this is believed to produce a sideways deflecting torque on the bow and arrow during the release. The purpose of this study was to compare the bow hand forearm muscular activation patterns of elite archers with beginners to define the muscular contraction-relaxation strategies in the bow hand forearm muscles during archery shooting and investigate the effects of performance level on these strategies. Electromyographic activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum of 10 elite and 10 beginner archers were recorded together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap. Raw electromyographic records as 1s before and after the clicker pulse were rectified, integrated, and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for both groups of archers. The main difference between the elite and beginner archers was that the elite archers had a greater activation of the M. extensor digitorum, which indicates that they avoid gripping the bow-handle not only relaxing the flexor muscles, but also contracting the extensor muscle groups. This muscular contraction strategy secures the archer to not interfere with the forward movement of the bow, which is the forward acceleration of the bow caused by the pushing power of the bowstring.

  7. Active sensing in the categorization of visual patterns

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Scott Cheng-Hsin; Lengyel, Máté; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting visual scenes typically requires us to accumulate information from multiple locations in a scene. Using a novel gaze-contingent paradigm in a visual categorization task, we show that participants' scan paths follow an active sensing strategy that incorporates information already acquired about the scene and knowledge of the statistical structure of patterns. Intriguingly, categorization performance was markedly improved when locations were revealed to participants by an optimal Bayesian active sensor algorithm. By using a combination of a Bayesian ideal observer and the active sensor algorithm, we estimate that a major portion of this apparent suboptimality of fixation locations arises from prior biases, perceptual noise and inaccuracies in eye movements, and the central process of selecting fixation locations is around 70% efficient in our task. Our results suggest that participants select eye movements with the goal of maximizing information about abstract categories that require the integration of information from multiple locations. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12215.001 PMID:26880546

  8. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    PubMed

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion).

  9. Command of active matter by topological defects and patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Chenhui; Turiv, Taras; Guo, Yubing; Wei, Qi-Huo; Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2016-11-01

    Self-propelled bacteria are marvels of nature with a potential to power dynamic materials and microsystems of the future. The challenge lies in commanding their chaotic behavior. By dispersing swimming Bacillus subtilis in a liquid crystalline environment with spatially varying orientation of the anisotropy axis, we demonstrate control over the distribution of bacterial concentration, as well as the geometry and polarity of their trajectories. Bacteria recognize subtle differences in liquid crystal deformations, engaging in bipolar swimming in regions of pure splay and bend but switching to unipolar swimming in mixed splay-bend regions. They differentiate topological defects, heading toward defects of positive topological charge and avoiding negative charges. Sensitivity of bacteria to preimposed orientational patterns represents a previously unknown facet of the interplay between hydrodynamics and topology of active matter.

  10. Natural patterns of activity and long-term synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Ole; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is traditionally elicited by massively synchronous, high-frequency inputs, which rarely occur naturally. Recent in vitro experiments have revealed that both LTP and long-term depression (LTD) can arise by appropriately pairing weak synaptic inputs with action potentials in the postsynaptic cell. This discovery has generated new insights into the conditions under which synaptic modification may occur in pyramidal neurons in vivo. First, it has been shown that the temporal order of the synaptic input and the postsynaptic spike within a narrow temporal window determines whether LTP or LTD is elicited, according to a temporally asymmetric Hebbian learning rule. Second, backpropagating action potentials are able to serve as a global signal for synaptic plasticity in a neuron compared with local associative interactions between synaptic inputs on dendrites. Third, a specific temporal pattern of activity — postsynaptic bursting — accompanies synaptic potentiation in adults. PMID:10753798

  11. Visualization of Dietary Patterns and Their Associations With Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chung-Jung; Chang, Min-Lee; Li, Tricia; Gensler, Gary; Taylor, Allen

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to visualize the relationship of predominant dietary patterns and their associations with AMD. Methods A total of 8103 eyes from 4088 participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into three groups: control (n = 2739), early AMD (n = 4599), and advanced AMD (n = 765). Using principle component analysis, two major dietary patterns and eight minor dietary patterns were characterized. Applying logistic regression in our analysis, we related dietary patterns to the prevalence of AMD. Qualitative comparative analysis by operating Boolean algebra and drawing Venn diagrams was used to visualize our findings. Results In general, the eight minor patterns were subsets or extensions of either one of the two major dietary patterns (Oriental and Western patterns) and consisted of fewer characteristic foods than the two major dietary patterns. Unlike the two major patterns, which were more strongly associated with both early and advanced AMD, none of the eight minors were associated with early AMD and only four minor patterns, including the Steak pattern (odds ratio comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the pattern score = 1.73 [95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 2.41; Ptrend = 0.02]), the Breakfast pattern (0.60 [0.44 to 0.82]; Ptrend = 0.004]), the Caribbean pattern (0.64 [0.47 to 0.89; Ptrend = 0.009]), and the Peanut pattern (0.64 [0.46 to 0.89; Ptrend = 0.03]), were significantly associated with advanced AMD. Our data also suggested several potential beneficial (peanuts, pizza, coffee, and tea) and harmful (salad dressing) foods for AMD. Conclusions Our data indicate that a diet of various healthy foods may be optimal for reducing AMD risk. The effects of some specific foods in the context of overall diet warrant further study. PMID:28253403

  12. Anxiety and error-related brain activity.

    PubMed

    Hajcak, Greg; McDonald, Nicole; Simons, Robert F

    2003-10-01

    Error-related negativity (ERN/Ne) is a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP) associated with monitoring action and detecting errors. It is a sharp negative deflection that generally occurs from 50 to 150 ms following response execution and has been associated with anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) activity. An enhanced ERN has been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)--reflecting abnormal ACC activity hypothesized as part of the pathophysiology of OCD. We recently reported that the ERN is also enhanced in a group of college students with OC characteristics. The present study extended these findings by measuring the ERN in college undergraduates who scored high on either the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) or a combined version of the Snake (SNAQ) and Spider (SPQ) Questionnaires. Results indicate that, like OC subjects, subjects who score high on a measure of general anxiety and worry have enhanced error-related brain activity relative to both phobic and non-anxious control subjects. The enhanced ERN was found to generalize beyond OCD within the anxiety spectrum disorders but also shows some specificity within these disorders.

  13. A comparative Study of Circulation Patterns at Active Lava Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lev, Einat; Oppenheimer, Clive; Spampinato, Letizia; Hernandez, Pedro; Unglert, Kathi

    2016-04-01

    Lava lakes present a rare opportunity to study magma dynamics in a large scaled-up "crucible" and provide a unique natural laboratory to ground-truth dynamic models of magma circulation. The persistence of lava lakes allows for long-term observations of flow dynamics and of lava properties, especially compared to surface lava flows. There are currently five persistent lava lakes in the world: Halemaumau in Kilauea (Hawaii, USA), Erta Ale (Ethiopia), Nyiragongo (Congo), Erebus (Antarctica), and Villarica (Chile). Marum and Benbow craters of Ambrym volcano (Vanuatu) and Masaya (Nicaragua) have often hosted lava lakes as well. We use visible-light and thermal infrared time-lapse and video footage collected at all above lakes (except Villarica, where the lake is difficult to observe), and compare the circulation patterns recorded. We calculate lake surface motion from the footage using the optical flow method (Lev et al., 2012) to produce 2D velocity fields. We mined both the surface temperature field and the surface velocity field for patterns using machine learning techniques such as "self-organizing maps (SOMs)" and "principle component analysis (PCA)". We use automatic detection technique to study the configuration of crustal plates at the lakes' surface. We find striking differences among the lakes, in flow direction, flow speed, frequency of changes in flow direction and speed, location and consistency of upwelling and downwelling, and crustal plate configuration. We relate the differences to lake size, shallow conduit geometry, lava viscosity, crystal and gas content, and crust integrity.

  14. Mars - The north polar sand sea and related wind patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsoar, H.; Greeley, R.; Peterfreund, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    Viking Orbiter 2 images of the north polar region reveal an enormous sand sea (erg) covering an area of greater than 500,000 sq km around the perennial ice cap. All dunes are either transverse or barchan. The various dune morphologies and modifications of primary dune types reflect a wind regime having more than one wind direction. In the summer, two major wind directions prevail: (1) off-pole winds that become easterly due to coriolis forces and (2) on-pole winds that become westerly. During the winter and/or spring, only the on-pole winds exist. Strong winds greater than 75 m/s are required for sand accumulation to form the thick transverse dunes. The strongest winds in the north polar region are thought to exist during summer over the transverse dune field between 110 deg and 220 deg W; this area is a relatively warm belt (temperature greater than 230 K) between two ice zones (temperature less than 220 K). The lack of well-developed longitudinal dunes implies that the dune field is young. The relationship of the present dune field to the perennial ice indicates that the dunes began to form after the formation of the present ice cap.

  15. The pattern of exposure to static magnetic field of nurses involved in activities related to contrast administration into patients diagnosed in 1.5 T MRI scanners.

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-06-01

    Static magnetic fields (SMFs) and time-varying electromagnetic fields exposure is necessary to obtain the diagnostic information regarding the structure of patient's tissues, by the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners. A diagnostic procedure may also include the administration of pharmaceuticals called contrast, which are to be applied to a patient during the examination. The nurses involved in administering contrast into a patient during the pause in examination are approaching permanently active magnets of MRI scanners and are exposed to SMF. There were performed measurements of spatial distribution of SMF in the vicinity of MRI magnets and parameters of personal exposure of nurses (i.e. individual exposimetric profiles of variability in time of SMF affecting the nurse who is performing tasks in the vicinity of magnet, characterized by statistical parameters of recorded magnetic flux density affecting the nurse). The SMF exposure in the vicinity of various MRI magnets depends on both magnetic flux density of the main field B 0 (applicable to a patient) and the construction of the scanner, but the most important factor determining the workers' exposure is the work practice. In the course of a patient's routine examination in scanners of B₀ = 1.5 T, the nurses are present over ∼0.4-2.9 min in SMF exceeding 0.03% of B₀ (i.e. 0.5 mT), but only sometimes they are present in SMF exceeding 5% of B 0 (i.e. 75 mT). When patients need more attention because of their health status/condition, the nurses' exposure may be significantly longer--it may even exceed 10 min and 30% of B 0 (i.e. 500 mT). We have found that the level of exposure of nurses to SMF may vary from < 5% of the main field (a median value: 0.5-1.5%; inter-quartile range: 0.04-8.8%; max value: 1.3-12% of B₀) when a patient is moved from the magnets bore before contrast administration, up to the main field level (B₀) when a patient stays in the magnets bore and nurse is crawling into the

  16. Antischistosomal activities of mefloquine-related arylmethanols.

    PubMed

    Ingram, Katrin; Ellis, William; Keiser, Jennifer

    2012-06-01

    Interesting antischistosomal properties have been documented for the antimalarial mefloquine, a 4-quinolinemethanol. We evaluated the antischistosomal activities of nine mefloquine-related compounds belonging to the 4-pyridinemethanols, 9-phenanthrenmethanols, and 4-quinolinemethanols. Eight compounds revealed high activities against Schistosoma mansoni in vitro, with two drugs (the 4-quinolinemethanols WR7573 and WR7930) characterized by significantly lower half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) (2.7 and 3.5 μM, respectively) compared to mefloquine (11.4 μM). Mefloquine and WR7930 showed significantly decreased IC(50)s when incubated in the presence of hemoglobin. High worm burden reductions (WBR) were obtained with enpiroline (WBR, 82.7%; dosage, 200 mg/kg of body weight) and its threo isomers (+)-threo (WBR, 100%) and (-)-threo (WBR, 89%) and with WR7930 (WBR, 87%; dosage, 100 mg/kg) against adult S. mansoni in mice. Furthermore, excellent in vitro and in vivo antischistosomal activity was observed for two WR7930-related structures (WR29252 and WR7524). In addition, mefloquine (WBR, 81%), enpiroline (WBR, 77%), and WR7930 (WBR, 100%) showed high activities against S. haematobium harbored in mice following single oral doses of 200 mg/kg. These results provide a deeper insight into the structural features of the arylmethanols that rule antischistosomal activity. Further studies should be launched with enpiroline and WR7930.

  17. Everyday activity patterns and sensory functioning in old age.

    PubMed

    Marsiske, M; Klumb, P; Baltes, M M

    1997-09-01

    In the present study the authors investigated the relationship between visual and auditory acuity and everyday activity functioning. Participants were 516 older adults (70-103 years; equal numbers of men and women) who were members of the age-stratified Berlin Aging Study. Two categories of everyday activity functioning, perceived competence with basic activities of daily living (BaCo; basic competence) and amount of participation in discretionary social and leisure tasks (ExCo; expanded competence), were examined. The results revealed that sensory acuity, particularly vision, was a significant predictor of both BaCo and ExCo (rs ranging from .32 to .47). Indeed, hearing and vision could explain most of the age-related variance in everyday activities. At the same time, in the context of a broader model, evidence for the differential prediction of BaCo and ExCo was found, although there was also evidence for strong general age-related predictive variance that was common to both measures. Discussion focuses on the role of sensory acuity constructs as mediators of age-related variance in psychological and behavioral outcomes and the potential causal implications of this mediation.

  18. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M. Margarida

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level. PMID:28045988

  19. Differential DNA Methylation Patterns Are Related to Phellogen Origin and Quality of Quercus suber Cork.

    PubMed

    Inácio, Vera; Barros, Pedro M; Costa, Augusta; Roussado, Cristóvão; Gonçalves, Elsa; Costa, Rita; Graça, José; Oliveira, M Margarida; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor

    2017-01-01

    DNA methylation is thought to influence Quercus suber cork quality, which is the main constraint for its economic valorisation. However, a deep knowledge of the cytosine methylation patterns disclosing the epigenetic variability of trees with different cork quality types is totally missing. This study investigates the hypothesis that variations in DNA methylation contribute to differences in cork cellular characteristics directly related to original or traumatic phellogen activity. We used MSAPs (Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism) to assess DNA methylation patterns of cork and leaf tissues of Q. suber adult trees growing in three cork oak stands. The relationship between the detected polymorphisms and the diversity of cork quality traits was explored by a marker-trait analysis focusing on the most relevant quality characteristics. Populations differed widely in cork quality, but only slightly in degree of epigenetic differentiation. Four MSAP markers (1.3% of the total) were significantly associated with the most noteworthy quality traits: wood inclusions (nails) and porosity. This evidence supports the potential role of cytosine methylation in the modulation of differential phellogen activity either involved in localized cell death or in pore production, resulting in different cork qualities. Although, the underlying basis of the methylation polymorphism of loci affecting cork quality traits remain unclear, the disclosure of markers statistically associated with cork quality strengthens the potential role of DNA methylation in the regulation of these traits, namely at the phellogen level.

  20. 24-hour pattern of work-related injury risk of French firemen: nocturnal peak time.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Marc; Berrez, Stéphane; Pelisse, Didier; Brousse, Eric; Forget, Coralie; Marlot, Michel; Smolensky, Michael H; Touitou, Yvan; Reinberg, Alain

    2011-10-01

    The first aim of the study was to assess clock-time patterning of work-related injuries (WRIs) of firemen (FM) of Saône et Loire-71 (France) during the 4-yr span of 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2007. FM of this service are legally required to log every WRI and seek its evaluation by the medical service, whether the WRI was the result of worksite duties or exercise/sport activities at the station. WRI was defined specifically as a (nonexercise, nonsport, and nonemotional/stress) work-associated trauma, verified both by log book and medical records. For the corresponding years, the 24-h pattern of emergency calls (Calls) plus road traffic (Traffic) on the main roads of the service area was also assessed. Relative risk (R) of WRI was calculated as the quantity of WRIs/h divided by the quantity of Call responses/h × 1000, which takes into account the number of at-risk FM/unit time, since each dispatched emergency vehicle is staffed with 4 FM. Comparably trained regular (RFM) and volunteer (VFM) FM experienced a total of 187 WRIs. The 24-h WRI curve patterns of RFM and VFM were correlated (r = 0.4, p < .05), with no histogram difference (p > .05). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) validated comparable clock-time patterns in WRIs of RFM and VFM each year and each season (all p < .0001). Thus, time series of the RFM and VFM were pooled, revealing a statistical significant 24-h variation in WRIs (ANOVA, p > .0006; Cosinor analysis, p < .0001), with peak at 16:00 h and trough at 04:00 h. The 24-h pattern in Traffic, which mirrors that of human activity, with peak ∼18:00 h and trough ∼03:00 h, was also verified (ANOVA, p < .0001; Cosinor, p < .0001). Calls (n = 112,059) resulting in FM responses also exhibited statistically significant 24-h variation, with peak at ∼20:00 h and trough at ∼06:00 h. The 24-h pattern of R showed a nocturnal peak at 02:00 h (R = 2.87 ± 0.46; mean ± SEM) and diurnal trough 14

  1. State Legislation Related to Increasing Physical Activity: 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Eyler, Amy A.; Budd, Elizabeth; Camberos, Gabriela J.; Yan, Yan; Brownson, Ross C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Strategies to improve physical activity prevalence often include policy and environmental changes. State-level policies can be influential in supporting access and opportunities for physical activity in schools and communities. The purpose of this study was to explore the prevalence of state legislation related to physical activity and identify the correlates of enactment of this legislation. Methods An online legislative database was used to collect bills from 50 states in the U.S. from 2006-2012 for ten topics related to physical activity. Bills were coded for content and compiled into a database with state-level variables (e.g., obesity prevalence). With enactment status as the outcome, bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results Of the 1542 bills related to physical activity introduced, 30% (N=460) were enacted. Bills on public transportation and trails were more likely to be enacted than those without these topics. Primary sponsorship by the Republican Party, bipartisan sponsorship, and mention of specific funding amounts were also correlates of enactment. Conclusion Policy surveillance of bills and correlates of enactment are important for understanding patterns in legislative support for physical activity. This information can be used to prioritize advocacy efforts and identify ways for research to better inform policy. PMID:26104603

  2. Evolution of activity patterns and chromatic vision in primates: morphometrics, genetics and cladistics.

    PubMed

    Heesy, C P; Ross, C F

    2001-02-01

    Hypotheses for the adaptive origin of primates have reconstructed nocturnality as the primitive activity pattern for the entire order based on functional/adaptive interpretations of the relative size and orientation of the orbits, body size and dietary reconstruction. Based on comparative data from extant taxa this reconstruction implies that basal primates were also solitary, faunivorous, and arboreal. Recently, primates have been hypothesized to be primitively diurnal, based in part on the distribution of color-sensitive photoreceptor opsin genes and active trichromatic color vision in several extant strepsirrhines, as well as anthropoid primates (Tan & Li, 1999 Nature402, 36; Li, 2000 Am. J. phys. Anthrop. Supple.30, 318). If diurnality is primitive for all primates then the functional and adaptive significance of aspects of strepsirrhine retinal morphology and other adaptations of the primate visual system such as high acuity stereopsis, have been misinterpreted for decades. This hypothesis also implies that nocturnality evolved numerous times in primates. However, the hypothesis that primates are primitively diurnal has not been analyzed in a phylogenetic context, nor have the activity patterns of several fossil primates been considered. This study investigated the evolution of activity patterns and trichromacy in primates using a new method for reconstructing activity patterns in fragmentary fossils and by reconstructing visual system character evolution at key ancestral nodes of primate higher taxa. Results support previous studies that reconstruct omomyiform primates as nocturnal. The larger body sizes of adapiform primates confound inferences regarding activity pattern evolution in this group. The hypothesis of diurnality and trichromacy as primitive for primates is not supported by the phylogenetic data. On the contrary, nocturnality and dichromatic vision are not only primitive for all primates, but also for extant strepsirrhines. Diurnality, and

  3. Diel Patterns of Activity for Insect Pollinators of Two Oil Palm Species (Arecales : Arecaceae).

    PubMed

    Auffray, Thomas; Frérot, Brigitte; Poveda, Roberto; Louise, Claude; Beaudoin-Ollivier, Laurence

    2017-01-01

    The pollination of two oil palm species, Elaeis guineensis Jacquin and Elaeis oleifera Cortés (Arecales: Arecaceae), depends on a mutualistic relation with insects, which use male inflorescences as a brood site, and visits female inflorescences lured by the emitted odor, which is similar to that of males. Although the activity of visiting the inflorescences by these insects is critical for the adequate natural pollination of the host plant, their activity is poorly documented. In the present study, we determine the diel activity of two specialized pollinator weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on inflorescences of their respective host-palm: Elaeidobius kamerunicus Faust specialized on E. guineensis, and Grasidius hybridus O'Brien and Beserra specialized on E. oleifera. The average timing of activity was studied by using passive interception traps. Then the pattern and the duration were refined by using aspiration trapping within the active period for each insect species at the male and female inflorescences. All the experiments were conducted in an Ecuadorian oil palm plantation, located close to Amazonian forest. El. kamerunicus and G. hybridus were found to be the pollinators of E. guineensis and E. oleifera, respectively. The two species differed in their diel pattern of activity: E. kamerunicus was active in the morning and G. hybridus during a short period at dusk. For both palm species, insect visits were synchronous on both male and female inflorescences. The synchronicity is discussed as a strategy to maintain the relation mutualistic between partners. These findings increase our understanding of the oil palm pollination system.

  4. Acute caffeine administration effect on brain activation patterns in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Haller, Sven; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Moser, Dominik; Toma, Simona; Hofmeister, Jeremy; Sinanaj, Indrit; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies showed that acute caffeine administration enhances task-related brain activation in elderly individuals with preserved cognition. To explore the effects of this widely used agent on cognition and brain activation in early phases of cognitive decline, we performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during an n-back working memory task in 17 individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to 17 age-matched healthy controls (HC). All individuals were regular caffeine consumers with an overnight abstinence and given 200 mg caffeine versus placebo tablets 30 minutes before testing. Analyses included assessment of task-related activation (general linear model), functional connectivity (tensorial-independent component analysis, TICA), baseline perfusion (arterial spin labeling, ASL), grey matter density (voxel-based morphometry, VBM), and white matter microstructure (tract-based spatial statistics, TBSS). Acute caffeine administration induced a focal activation of the prefrontal areas in HC with a more diffuse and posteromedial activation pattern in MCI individuals. In MCI, TICA documented a significant caffeine-related enhancement in the prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, ventral premotor and parietal cortex as well as the basal ganglia and cerebellum. The absence of significant group differences in baseline ASL perfusion patterns supports a neuronal rather than a purely vascular origin of these differences. The VBM and TBSS analyses excluded potentially confounding differences in grey matter density and white matter microstructure between MCI and HC. The present findings suggest a posterior displacement of working memory-related brain activation patterns after caffeine administration in MCI that may represent a compensatory mechanism to counterbalance a frontal lobe dysfunction.

  5. Extracting extensor digitorum communis activation patterns using high-density surface electromyography

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xiaogang; Suresh, Nina L.; Xue, Cindy; Rymer, William Z.

    2015-01-01

    The extensor digitorum communis muscle plays an important role in hand dexterity during object manipulations. This multi-tendinous muscle is believed to be controlled through separate motoneuron pools, thereby forming different compartments that control individual digits. However, due to the complex anatomical variations across individuals and the flexibility of neural control strategies, the spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis compartments during individual finger extension have not been fully tracked under different task conditions. The objective of this study was to quantify the global spatial activation patterns of the extensor digitorum communis using high-density (7 × 9) surface electromyogram (EMG) recordings. The muscle activation map (based on the root mean square of the EMG) was constructed when subjects performed individual four finger extensions at the metacarpophalangeal joint, at different effort levels and under different finger constraints (static and dynamic). Our results revealed distinct activation patterns during individual finger extensions, especially between index and middle finger extensions, although the activation between ring and little finger extensions showed strong covariance. The activation map was relatively consistent at different muscle contraction levels and for different finger constraint conditions. We also found that distinct activation patterns were more discernible in the proximal–distal direction than in the radial–ulnar direction. The global spatial activation map utilizing surface grid EMG of the extensor digitorum communis muscle provides information for localizing individual compartments of the extensor muscle during finger extensions. This is of potential value for identifying more selective control input for assistive devices. Such information can also provide a basis for understanding hand impairment in individuals with neural disorders. PMID:26500558

  6. Diel patterns in sea urchin activity and predation on sea urchins on the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. A. L.; Bellwood, D. R.

    2011-09-01

    Understanding diel patterns in sea urchin activity is important when assessing sea urchin populations and when interpreting their interactions with predators. Here we employ a combination of surveys and a non-invasive tethering technique to examine these patterns in an intact coral reef system on the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We also assess local scale variation in relative diurnal predation pressure. Surveys revealed that sea urchins were active and exposed at night. Echinometra mathaei and Echinothrix calamaris were the most abundant species with significantly higher night densities (0.21 and 0.03 ind. m-2, respectively), than daytime densities (0.05 and 0.001, respectively). Bioassays revealed that exposed adult E. mathaei (the most abundant sea urchin species) were 30.8 times more likely to be eaten during the day than at night when controlling for sites. This observation concurs with widely held assumptions that nocturnal activity is a risk-related adaptive response to diurnal predation pressure. Despite relatively intact predator communities on the GBR, potential predation pressure on diurnally exposed E. mathaei assays was variable at a local scale and the biomass of potential fish predators at each site was a poor predictive measure of this variation. Patterns in predation appear to be more complex and variable than we may have assumed.

  7. A consistent but non-coincident visual pattern facilitates the learning of spatial relations among locations.

    PubMed

    Katz, Scott S; Brown, Michael F; Sturz, Bradley R

    2014-02-01

    Human participants searched in a dynamic three-dimensional computer-generated virtual-environment open-field search task for four hidden goal locations arranged in a diamond configuration located in a 5 × 5 matrix of raised bins. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: visual pattern or visual random. All participants experienced 30 trials in which four goal locations maintained the same spatial relations to each other (i.e., a diamond pattern), but this diamond pattern moved to random locations within the 5 × 5 matrix from trial to trial. For participants in the visual pattern group, four locations were marked in a distinct color and arranged in a diamond pattern that moved to a random location independent of the hidden spatial pattern from trial to trial throughout the experimental session. For participants in the visual random group, four random locations were marked with a distinct color and moved to random locations independent from the hidden spatial pattern from trial to trial throughout the experimental session. As a result, the visual cues for the visual pattern group were consistent but not coincident with the hidden spatial pattern, whereas the visual cues for the visual random group were neither consistent nor coincident with the hidden spatial pattern. Results indicated that participants in both groups learned the spatial configuration of goal locations and that the presence of consistent but noncoincident visual cues facilitated the learning of spatial relations among locations.

  8. Role of the lid hydrophobicity pattern in pancreatic lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Annick; Allouche, Maya; Basyn, Frédéric; Brasseur, Robert; Kerfelec, Brigitte

    2005-12-02

    Pancreatic lipase is a soluble globular protein that must undergo structural modifications before it can hydrolyze oil droplets coated with bile salts. The binding of colipase and movement of the lipase lid open access to the active site. Mechanisms triggering lid mobility are unclear. The *KNILSQIVDIDGI* fragment of the lid of the human pancreatic lipase is predicted by molecular modeling to be a tilted peptide. Tilted peptides are hydrophobicity motifs involved in membrane fusion and more globally in perturbations of hydrophobic/hydrophilic interfaces. Analysis of this lid fragment predicts no clear consensus of secondary structure that suggests that its structure is not strongly sequence determined and could vary with environment. Point mutations were designed to modify the hydrophobicity profile of the [240-252] fragment and their consequences on the lipase-mediated catalysis were tested. Two mutants, in which the tilted peptide motif was lost, also have poor activity on bile salt-coated oil droplets and cannot be reactivated by colipase. Conversely, one mutant in which a different tilted peptide is created retains colipase dependence. These results suggest that the tilted hydrophobicity pattern of the [240-252] fragment is neither important for colipase binding to lipase, nor for interfacial binding but is important to trigger the maximal catalytic efficiency of lipase in the presence of bile salt.

  9. Assessing risk based on uncertain avalanche activity patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeidler, Antonia; Fromm, Reinhard

    2015-04-01

    Avalanches may affect critical infrastructure and may cause great economic losses. The planning horizon of infrastructures, e.g. hydropower generation facilities, reaches well into the future. Based on the results of previous studies on the effect of changing meteorological parameters (precipitation, temperature) and the effect on avalanche activity we assume that there will be a change of the risk pattern in future. The decision makers need to understand what the future might bring to best formulate their mitigation strategies. Therefore, we explore a commercial risk software to calculate risk for the coming years that might help in decision processes. The software @risk, is known to many larger companies, and therefore we explore its capabilities to include avalanche risk simulations in order to guarantee a comparability of different risks. In a first step, we develop a model for a hydropower generation facility that reflects the problem of changing avalanche activity patterns in future by selecting relevant input parameters and assigning likely probability distributions. The uncertain input variables include the probability of avalanches affecting an object, the vulnerability of an object, the expected costs for repairing the object and the expected cost due to interruption. The crux is to find the distribution that best represents the input variables under changing meteorological conditions. Our focus is on including the uncertain probability of avalanches based on the analysis of past avalanche data and expert knowledge. In order to explore different likely outcomes we base the analysis on three different climate scenarios (likely, worst case, baseline). For some variables, it is possible to fit a distribution to historical data, whereas in cases where the past dataset is insufficient or not available the software allows to select from over 30 different distribution types. The Monte Carlo simulation uses the probability distribution of uncertain variables

  10. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  11. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast.

    PubMed

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region.

  12. Spatial patterns of correlated scale size and scale color in relation to color pattern elements in butterfly wings.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Masaki; Otaki, Joji M

    2016-02-01

    Complex butterfly wing color patterns are coordinated throughout a wing by unknown mechanisms that provide undifferentiated immature scale cells with positional information for scale color. Because there is a reasonable level of correspondence between the color pattern element and scale size at least in Junonia orithya and Junonia oenone, a single morphogenic signal may contain positional information for both color and size. However, this color-size relationship has not been demonstrated in other species of the family Nymphalidae. Here, we investigated the distribution patterns of scale size in relation to color pattern elements on the hindwings of the peacock pansy butterfly Junonia almana, together with other nymphalid butterflies, Vanessa indica and Danaus chrysippus. In these species, we observed a general decrease in scale size from the basal to the distal areas, although the size gradient was small in D. chrysippus. Scales of dark color in color pattern elements, including eyespot black rings, parafocal elements, and submarginal bands, were larger than those of their surroundings. Within an eyespot, the largest scales were found at the focal white area, although there were exceptional cases. Similarly, ectopic eyespots that were induced by physical damage on the J. almana background area had larger scales than in the surrounding area. These results are consistent with the previous finding that scale color and size coordinate to form color pattern elements. We propose a ploidy hypothesis to explain the color-size relationship in which the putative morphogenic signal induces the polyploidization (genome amplification) of immature scale cells and that the degrees of ploidy (gene dosage) determine scale color and scale size simultaneously in butterfly wings.

  13. Weather pattern climatology of the Great Plains and the related wind regime

    SciTech Connect

    Barchet, W.R.

    1982-11-01

    The meteorology of the Great Plains can be described as a constant progression of air masses, fronts and cyclonic storm systems. Each of these meteorological conditions can be characterized by identifiable isobaric and related weather parameter patterns. Nine such patterns have been defined to type the weather patterns in the Great Plains. Time series of weather pattern types were produced for 62 stations on the Great Plains. Statistical analyses of these time series produced annual and seasonal frequencies of occurrence of the weather pattern types. Maps of the annual and seasonal frequency of occurrence of weather pattern type are presented for the Great Plains. Persistence and alternation frequencies match what is expected for traveling temperate latitude cyclones, anticyclones and fronts. The wind regime for stations at which the anemometer height and location was constant (and known) for a minimum of three consecutive years was stratified by weather pattern type. Statistical analyses were made to show the response of the wind to the large-scale distribution of air pressure associated with a weather pattern type. The response of the wind to the weather pattern is a site-specific result of the interaction of the large-scale meteorology with local terrain, surface roughness and atmospheric stability. Mean wind speed discriminates between pairs of weather pattern types with better than 75% confidence for more than two-thirds of the possible pairs of weather pattern types.

  14. Drug Usage and Related Patterns of Behavior in University Students: 1. General Survey and Marihuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anker, Jeffrey L.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    A survey was undertaken to determine current patterns of drug usage and related patterns of behavior among college and graduate students. The fact that one quarter to one third of university students find drug usage appealing or important would indicate combined psychological, epidemiological, sociological, and pharmacological study of the…

  15. The Influence of Relational Knowledge and Executive Function on Preschoolers' Repeating Pattern Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Children's knowledge of repeating patterns (e.g., ABBABB) is a central component of early mathematics, but the developmental mechanisms underlying this knowledge are currently unknown. We sought clarity on the importance of relational knowledge and executive function (EF) to preschoolers' understanding of repeating patterns. One hundred…

  16. Relations between Fathers’ and Mothers’ Infant Engagement Patterns in Dual-Earner Families and Toddler Competence

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Sarah N.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.; Kotila, Letitia E.; Feng, Xin; Dush, Claire M. Kamp; Johnson, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the trajectories of time new fathers and mothers in dual-earner families (N = 178) reported spending in developmentally appropriate positive engagement activities over the first 9 months of their child's life on both work and non-workdays. We also explored how paternal and maternal engagement patterns in infancy were associated with children's later social-emotional competence during toddlerhood (M = 25 months). Utilizing latent growth models, we found that, compared with mothers, fathers spent significantly less time engaging with their infants; however, both parents increased their engagement over time at relatively the same rate. Fathers’ rate of increase over time and mothers’ initial starting point of engagement on non-workdays were associated with toddlers’ attention and mastery motivation. Findings are discussed with regards to what they mean for dual-earner couples and fathers’ investment in their offspring, highlighting what they may imply about the second demographic transition and family functioning. PMID:26257454

  17. Predicting brain activation patterns associated with individual lexical concepts based on five sensory-motor attributes

    PubMed Central

    Fernandino, Leonardo; Humphries, Colin J.; Seidenberg, Mark S.; Gross, William L.; Conant, Lisa L.; Binder, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    While major advances have been made in uncovering the neural processes underlying perceptual representations, our grasp of how the brain gives rise to conceptual knowledge remains relatively poor. Recent work has provided strong evidence that concepts rely, at least in part, on the same sensory and motor neural systems through which they were acquired, but it is still unclear whether the neural code for concept representation uses information about sensory-motor features to discriminate between concepts. In the present study, we investigate this question by asking whether an encoding model based on five semantic attributes directly related to sensory-motor experience – sound, color, visual motion, shape, and manipulation – can successfully predict patterns of brain activation elicited by individual lexical concepts. We collected ratings on the relevance of these five attributes to the meaning of 820 words, and used these ratings as predictors in a multiple regression model of the fMRI signal associated with the words in a separate group of participants. The five resulting activation maps were then combined by linear summation to predict the distributed activation pattern elicited by a novel set of 80 test words. The encoding model predicted the activation patterns elicited by the test words significantly better than chance. As expected, prediction was successful for concrete but not for abstract concepts. Comparisons between encoding models based on different combinations of attributes indicate that all five attributes contribute to the representation of concrete concepts. Consistent with embodied theories of semantics, these results show, for the first time, that the distributed activation pattern associated with a concept combines information about different sensory-motor attributes according to their respective relevance. Future research should investigate how additional features of phenomenal experience contribute to the neural representation of conceptual

  18. Nonuniform spatial patterns of respiratory activity within biofilms during disinfection.

    PubMed Central

    Huang, C T; Yu, F P; McFeters, G A; Stewart, P S

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent stains in conjunction with cryoembedding and image analysis were applied to demonstrate spatial gradients in respiratory activity within bacterial biofilms during disinfection with monochloramine. Biofilms of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown together on stainless steel surfaces in continuous-flow annular reactors were treated with 2 mg of monochloramine per liter (influent concentration) for 2 h. Relatively little biofilm removal occurred as evidenced by total cell direct counts. Plate counts (of both species summed) indicated an average 1.3-log decrease after exposure to 2 mg of monochloramine per liter. The fluorogenic redox indicator 5-cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) and the DNA stain 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) were used to differentiate respiring and nonrespiring cells in biofilms. Epifluorescence micrographs of frozen biofilm cross sections clearly revealed gradients of respiratory activity within biofilms in response to monochloramine treatment. These gradients in specific respiratory activity were quantified by calculating the ratio of CTC and DAPI intensities measured by image analysis. Cells near the biofilm-bulk fluid interface lost respiratory activity first. After 2 h of biocide treatment, greater respiratory activity persisted deep in the biofilm than near the biofilm-bulk fluid interface. PMID:7793945

  19. INTERDISCIPLINARY PHYSICS AND RELATED AREAS OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: Superlattice Patterns in Coupled Turing Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fu-Cheng; He, Ya-Feng; Pan, Yu-Yang

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, superlattice patterns have been investigated by using a two linearly coupled Brusselator model. It is found that superlattice patterns can only be induced in the sub-system with the short wavelength. Three different coupling methods have been used in order to investigate the mode interaction between the two Turing modes. It is proved in the simulations that interaction between activators in the two sub-systems leads to spontaneous formation of black eye pattern and/or white eye patterns while interaction between inhibitors leads to spontaneous formation of super-hexagonal pattern. It is also demonstrated that the same symmetries of the two modes and suitable wavelength ratio of the two modes should also be satisfied to form superlattice patterns.

  20. Patterns of functional enzyme activity in fungus farming ambrosia beetles

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction In wood-dwelling fungus-farming weevils, the so-called ambrosia beetles (Curculionidae: Scolytinae and Platypodinae), wood in the excavated tunnels is used as a medium for cultivating fungi by the combined action of digging larvae (which create more space for the fungi to grow) and of adults sowing and pruning the fungus. The beetles are obligately dependent on the fungus that provides essential vitamins, amino acids and sterols. However, to what extent microbial enzymes support fungus farming in ambrosia beetles is unknown. Here we measure (i) 13 plant cell-wall degrading enzymes in the fungus garden microbial consortium of the ambrosia beetle Xyleborinus saxesenii, including its primary fungal symbionts, in three compartments of laboratory maintained nests, at different time points after gallery foundation and (ii) four specific enzymes that may be either insect or microbially derived in X. saxesenii adult and larval individuals. Results We discovered that the activity of cellulases in ambrosia fungus gardens is relatively small compared to the activities of other cellulolytic enzymes. Enzyme activity in all compartments of the garden was mainly directed towards hemicellulose carbohydrates such as xylan, glucomannan and callose. Hemicellulolytic enzyme activity within the brood chamber increased with gallery age, whereas irrespective of the age of the gallery, the highest overall enzyme activity were detected in the gallery dump material expelled by the beetles. Interestingly endo-β-1,3(4)-glucanase activity capable of callose degradation was identified in whole-body extracts of both larvae and adult X. saxesenii, whereas endo-β-1,4-xylanase activity was exclusively detected in larvae. Conclusion Similar to closely related fungi associated with bark beetles in phloem, the microbial symbionts of ambrosia beetles hardly degrade cellulose. Instead, their enzyme activity is directed mainly towards comparatively more easily accessible hemicellulose

  1. Why the leopard got its spots: relating pattern development to ecology in felids

    PubMed Central

    Allen, William L.; Cuthill, Innes C.; Scott-Samuel, Nicholas E.; Baddeley, Roland

    2011-01-01

    A complete explanation of the diversity of animal colour patterns requires an understanding of both the developmental mechanisms generating them and their adaptive value. However, only two previous studies, which involved computer-generated evolving prey, have attempted to make this link. This study examines variation in the camouflage patterns displayed on the flanks of many felids. After controlling for the effects of shared ancestry using a fully resolved molecular phylogeny, this study shows how phenotypes from plausible felid coat pattern generation mechanisms relate to ecology. We found that likelihood of patterning and pattern attributes, such as complexity and irregularity, were related to felids' habitats, arboreality and nocturnality. Our analysis also indicates that disruptive selection is a likely explanation for the prevalence of melanistic forms in Felidae. Furthermore, we show that there is little phylogenetic signal in the visual appearance of felid patterning, indicating that camouflage adapts to ecology over relatively short time scales. Our method could be applied to any taxon with colour patterns that can reasonably be matched to reaction–diffusion and similar models, where the kinetics of the reaction between two or more initially randomly dispersed morphogens determines the outcome of pattern development. PMID:20961899

  2. Mother-Child Attachment Patterns and Different Types of Anxiety Symptoms: Is There Specificity of Relations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumariu, Laura E.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Manassis' proposal (Child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders, 255-272, 2001) that attachment patterns (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized) may relate to different types of anxiety symptoms, and that behavioral inhibition may moderate these relations. Using a story stem interview to…

  3. Effects of Individual Health Topic Familiarity on Activity Patterns During Health Information Searches

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Koichi; Fukui, Ken–ichi; Numao, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-medical professionals (consumers) are increasingly using the Internet to support their health information needs. However, the cognitive effort required to perform health information searches is affected by the consumer’s familiarity with health topics. Consumers may have different levels of familiarity with individual health topics. This variation in familiarity may cause misunderstandings because the information presented by search engines may not be understood correctly by the consumers. Objective As a first step toward the improvement of the health information search process, we aimed to examine the effects of health topic familiarity on health information search behaviors by identifying the common search activity patterns exhibited by groups of consumers with different levels of familiarity. Methods Each participant completed a health terminology familiarity questionnaire and health information search tasks. The responses to the familiarity questionnaire were used to grade the familiarity of participants with predefined health topics. The search task data were transcribed into a sequence of search activities using a coding scheme. A computational model was constructed from the sequence data using a Markov chain model to identify the common search patterns in each familiarity group. Results Forty participants were classified into L1 (not familiar), L2 (somewhat familiar), and L3 (familiar) groups based on their questionnaire responses. They had different levels of familiarity with four health topics. The video data obtained from all of the participants were transcribed into 4595 search activities (mean 28.7, SD 23.27 per session). The most frequent search activities and transitions in all the familiarity groups were related to evaluations of the relevancy of selected web pages in the retrieval results. However, the next most frequent transitions differed in each group and a chi-squared test confirmed this finding (P<.001). Next, according to the

  4. Similarity breeds proximity: Pattern similarity within and across contexts is related to later mnemonic judgments of temporal proximity

    PubMed Central

    Ezzyat, Youssef; Davachi, Lila

    2014-01-01

    Summary Experiences unfold over time, but little is known about the mechanisms that support the formation of coherent episodic memories for temporally-extended events. Recent work in animals has provided evidence for signals in hippocampus that could link events across temporal gaps, however it is unknown whether and how such signals might be related to later memory for temporal information in humans. We measured patterns of fMRI BOLD activity as people encoded items that were separated in time and manipulated the presence of shared or distinct context across items. We found that hippocampal pattern similarity in the BOLD response across trials predicted later temporal memory decisions when context changed. By contrast, pattern similarity in lateral occipital cortex was related to memory only when context remained stable. These data provide the first evidence in humans that representational stability in hippocampus across time may be a mechanism for temporal memory organization. PMID:24607235

  5. Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Disease-Related Risks in Chinese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas; Shen, Shuying

    2013-01-01

    Studies of Western populations demonstrate a relationship between dietary patterns and cardiovascular-related risk factors. Similar research regarding Chinese populations is limited. This study explored the dietary patterns of Chinese older adults and their association with cardiovascular-related risk factors, including hypertension, obesity, and metabolic syndrome. Data were collected using a 34-item Chinese food frequency questionnaire from 750 randomly selected older adults aged 50–88 who participated in the study in 2012. Factor analysis revealed four dietary patterns: a “traditional food pattern,” consisting of vegetable, fruit, rice, pork, and fish; a “fast and processed food pattern” consisting of fast or processed food products, sugar, and confectionery; a “soybean, grain, and flour food pattern”; and a “dairy, animal liver, and other animal food pattern.” These patterns explained 17.48, 9.52, 5.51, and 4.80% of the variances in food intake, respectively. This study suggests that specific dietary patterns are evident in Chinese older adults. Moderate intake of “traditional Chinese food” is associated with decreased blood pressure and cholesterol level. A dietary pattern rich in soybeans, grains, potatoes, and flour is associated with reduced metabolic factors including reduced triglycerides, fasting glucose, waist circumference, and waist–hip ratio, and a high level of dairy, animal liver, and other animal intake food pattern is associated with increased level of Body Mass Index. In conclusion, this study revealed identifiable dietary patterns among Chinese older adults that are significantly related to blood pressure and metabolic biomarkers. Further study using prospective cohort or intervention study should be used to confirm the association between dietary patterns and blood pressure and metabolic factors. PMID:24350217

  6. Breakfast Dietary Patterns among Mexican Children Are Related to Total-Day Diet Quality.

    PubMed

    Afeiche, Myriam C; Taillie, Lindsey Smith; Hopkins, Sinead; Eldridge, Alison L; Popkin, Barry M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Mexico has experienced shifts in food availability and consumption patterns over the past few decades from traditional diets to those containing more high-energy density foods, resulting in the development of unhealthful dietary patterns among children and adults. However, to our knowledge it is not known whether breakfast consumption patterns contribute to the overall daily diet of Mexican children.Objective: We examined total-day diet among breakfast consumers compared with breakfast skippers, identified and investigated breakfast dietary patterns in relation to energy and nutrient intakes at breakfast and across the day, and examined these patterns in relation to sociodemographic characteristics.Methods: With the use of nationally representative dietary data (one 24-h recall) from the 2012 Mexican National Health and Nutrition Survey, 3760 children aged 4-13 y were categorized into mutually exclusive breakfast patterns with the use of cluster analysis. The association between breakfast patterns and breakfast skippers with dietary intake at breakfast and for the total day was investigated with the use of multivariate linear regression.Results: Most children (83%) consumed breakfast. Six breakfast dietary patterns were identified (milk and sweetened breads, tortillas and beans, sweetened beverages, sandwiches and quesadillas, eggs, and cereal and milk) and reflected both traditional and more Westernized dietary patterns. Sugar-sweetened beverages were consumed across all patterns. Compared with all breakfast dietary patterns, breakfast skippers had the lowest intake of several nutrients of public health concern. Nutrients to limit that were high at breakfast tended to be high for the total day and vice versa for nutrients to encourage.Conclusions: There was not a single pattern that complied perfectly with the Mexican School Breakfast Guidelines, but changes such as increasing dietary fiber by encouraging more whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and

  7. Muscle activation patterns and motor anatomy of Anna's hummingbirds Calypte anna and zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Edward R; Keeney, Brooke K; Kung, Eric; Makan, Sirish; Wild, J Martin; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Flying animals exhibit profound transformations in anatomy, physiology, and neural architecture. Although much is known about adaptations in the avian skeleton and musculature, less is known about neuroanatomy and motor unit integration for bird flight. Hummingbirds are among the most maneuverable and specialized of vertebrate fliers, and two unusual neuromuscular features have been previously reported: (1) the pectoralis major has a unique distribution pattern of motor end plates (MEPs) compared with all other birds and (2) electromyograms (EMGs) from the hummingbird's pectoral muscles, the pectoralis major and the supracoracoideus, show activation bursts composed of one or a few spikes that appear to have a very consistent pattern. Here, we place these findings in a broader context by comparing the MEPs, EMGs, and organization of the spinal motor neuron pools of flight muscles of Anna's hummingbird Calypte anna, zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata, and, for MEPs, several other species. The previously shown MEP pattern of the hummingbird pectoralis major is not shared with its closest taxonomic relative, the swift, and appears to be unique to hummingbirds. MEP arrangements in previously undocumented wing muscles show patterns that differ somewhat from other avian muscles. In the parallel-fibered strap muscles of the shoulder, MEP patterns appear to relate to muscle length, with the smallest muscles having fibers that span the entire muscle. MEP patterns in pennate distal wing muscles were the same regardless of size, with tightly clustered bands in the middle portion of the muscle, not evenly distributed bands over the muscle's entire length. Muscle activations were examined during slow forward flight in both species, during hovering in hummingbirds, and during slow ascents in zebra finches. The EMG bursts of a wing muscle, the pronator superficialis, were highly variable in peak number, size, and distribution across wingbeats for both species. In the pectoralis

  8. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Physical Activity in Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.; O'Neill, Jennifer R.; Brown, William H.; McIver, Kerry L.; Howie, Erin K.; Dowda, Marsha

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to highlight important research needs related to physical activity in 3-to 5-year-old children. We identified research needs in 3 major categories: health effects, patterns of physical activity, and interventions and policies. The top research needs include identifying the health effects of physical activity, the…

  9. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  10. Early patterns of sexual activity: age cohort differences in Australia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Frances M; Dunne, Michael P; Purdie, David M; Najman, Jake M; Cook, Michele D

    2003-11-01

    Patterns of first sexual activity among Australians born between the 1940s and 1980s were analysed using data from a national telephone survey of 1784 adults (876 males; 908 females). Sixty-one percent of those randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll and contactable by telephone responded. Many trends, including earlier first intercourse--from 20 to 18 years (females) and 18.8 to 17.8 years (males)--were established with the 40-49 year cohort, whose sexual debut was in the late 1960s-70s. Significant age-cohort effects saw women in the contemporary (18-29 year) cohort draw level with males for age at first intercourse and first sex before age 16 and before leaving school. First intercourse contraceptive use climbed from 30% to 80%. Condom use quadrupled to 70%. Australian age-cohort effects are remarkably consistent with those in similar western cultures: gender convergence in sexual experience and increasing avoidance of sexually transmitted disease and pregnancy. If such trends continue, positive long-term outcomes for health and social wellbeing should result.

  11. Diverse patterns of neuroendocrine activity in maltreated children.

    PubMed

    Cicchetti, D; Rogosch, F A

    2001-01-01

    Cortisol regulation was investigated in a sample of school-aged maltreated (n = 175) and demographically comparable low-income nonmaltreated (n = 209) children in the context of a day camp research program. Overall group differences between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were not found for average morning or average afternoon cortisol levels. However, significant variations were found that were based on the subtypes of maltreatment that the children had experienced. Maltreated children who had been both physically and sexually abused (as well as neglected or emotionally maltreated) exhibited substantial elevations in morning cortisol levels; children who had high (>1 SD) cortisol levels in both the morning and afternoon were also overrepresented in the multiple abuse group. Developmental timing of maltreatment did not account for these group differences, whereas the severity of sexual abuse was implicated. In contrast to the multiple abuse group, a subgroup of physically abused children showed evidence of a trend toward lower morning cortisol relative to nonmaltreated children with a significantly smaller decrease in cortisol levels from morning to afternoon. The findings are discussed in terms of the diversity of atypical cortisol regulation patterns that are exhibited among maltreated children.

  12. Time-budgets and activity patterns of captive Sunda pangolins (Manis javanica).

    PubMed

    Challender, Daniel W S; Thai, Nguyen Van; Jones, Martin; May, Les

    2012-01-01

    This is the first assessment of Manis javanica behavior in captivity. The aim of the investigation was to assess behavior in order to suggest ways of improving captive care and management of the species. This was undertaken by constructing time-budgets and activity patterns and identifying any abnormal repetitive behavior (ARB) exhibited. Scan and focal animal sampling were implemented in observations of seven subjects. Analyses detailed idiosyncrasies in how subjects partitioned their active time. Peak activity occurred between 18:00 and 21:00 hr. Two ARBs, clawing and pacing, were identified and the cessation of clawing in one subject was possible by modifying its enclosure. Stress-related behavior, understood to be related to several factors, means maintaining this species in captivity remains problematic. Recommendations are made pertaining to husbandry, captive management, and future research.

  13. Patterns of Walkability, Transit, and Recreation Environment for Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Todd, Michael; Kurka, Jonathan; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Sallis, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Diverse combinations of built environment (BE) features for physical activity (PA) are understudied. This study explored whether patterns of GIS-derived BE features explained objective and self-reported PA, sedentary behavior, and BMI. Methods Neighborhood Quality of Life Study participants (N=2,199, aged 20–65 years, 48.2% female, 26% ethnic minority) were sampled in 2001–2005 from Seattle/King County, WA and Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC regions. Their addresses were geocoded to compute net residential density, land use mix, retail floor area ratio, intersection density, public transit, and public park and private recreation facility densities using a 1-km network buffer. Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were estimated from these variables. Multilevel regression models compared profiles on accelerometer-measured moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and self-reported PA, adjusting for covariates and clustering. Analyses were conducted in 2013–2014. Results Seattle region LPAs yielded four profiles, including low walkable/transit/recreation (L-L-L), mean walkability/transit/recreation (M-M-M), moderately high walkability/transit/recreation (MH-MH-MH), and high walkability/transit/recreation (H-H-H). All measures were higher in the H-H-H than the L-L-L profile (difference of 17.1 minutes/day for MVPA, 146.5 minutes/week for walking for transportation, 58.2 minutes/week for leisure-time PA, and 2.2 BMI points; all p<0.05). Baltimore region LPAs yielded four profiles, including L-L-L, M-M-M, high land use mix, transit, and recreation (HLU-HT-HRA), and high intersection density, high retail floor area ratio (HID-HRFAR). HLU-HT-HRA and L-L-L differed by 12.3 MVPA minutes/day; HID-HRFAR and L-L-L differed by 157.4 minutes/week for walking for transportation (all p<0.05). Conclusions Patterns of environmental features explain greater differences in adults’ PA than the four-component walkability index. PMID:26232902

  14. Modular organization of the multipartite central pattern generator for turtle rostral scratch: knee-related interneurons during deletions.

    PubMed

    Stein, Paul S G; Daniels-McQueen, Susan; Lai, Jessica; Liu, Z; Corman, Tanya S

    2016-06-01

    Central pattern generators (CPGs) are neuronal networks in the spinal cord that generate rhythmic patterns of motor activity in the absence of movement-related sensory feedback. For many vertebrate rhythmic behaviors, CPGs generate normal patterns of motor neuron activities as well as variations of the normal patterns, termed deletions, in which bursts in one or more motor nerves are absent from one or more cycles of the rhythm. Prior work with hip-extensor deletions during turtle rostral scratch supports hypotheses of hip-extensor interneurons in a hip-extensor module and of hip-flexor interneurons in a hip-flexor module. We present here single-unit interneuronal recording data that support hypotheses of knee-extensor interneurons in a knee-extensor module and of knee-flexor interneurons in a knee-flexor module. Members of knee-related modules are not members of hip-related modules and vice versa. These results in turtle provide experimental support at the single-unit interneuronal level for the organizational concept that the rostral-scratch CPG for the turtle hindlimb is multipartite, that is, composed of more than two modules. This work, when combined with experimental and computational work in other vertebrates, does not support the classical view that the vertebrate limb CPG is bipartite with only two modules, one controlling all the flexors of the limb and the other controlling all the extensors of the limb. Instead, these results support the general principle that spinal CPGs are multipartite.

  15. A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by surface-localised pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key component of plant innate immunity. Most known plant PRRs are receptor kinases and initiation of PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI) signalling requires phosphorylation of the PR...

  16. Differences in the Efficiency of Pattern Encoding in Relation to Autistic-Like Traits: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takahashi, Junichi; Yasunaga, Daichi; Gyoba, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of complexity on the efficiency of pattern encoding in the general population differing on autism-spectrum quotient (AQ) scores. We compared brain activity (electroencephalography) during a same-different task for High and Low AQ groups. The task was composed of identical comparison and categorical comparison (CC)…

  17. Documenting Western Burrowing Owl Reproduction and Activity Patterns Using Motion-Activated Cameras

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Derek B.; Greger, Paul D.

    2014-08-01

    We used motion-activated cameras to monitor the reproduction and patterns of activity of the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) above ground at 45 burrows in south-central Nevada during the breeding seasons of 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2005. The 37 broods, encompassing 180 young, raised over the four years represented an average of 4.9 young per successful breeding pair. Young and adult owls were detected at the burrow entrance at all times of the day and night, but adults were detected more frequently during afternoon/early evening than were young. Motion-activated cameras require less effort to implement than other techniques. Limitations include photographing only a small percentage of owl activity at the burrow; not detecting the actual number of eggs, young, or number fledged; and not being able to track individual owls over time. Further work is also necessary to compare the accuracy of productivity estimates generated from motion-activated cameras with other techniques.

  18. Evaluation of fundus autofluorescence patterns in age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, Pradeep; Sagar, Pradeep; Chawla, Rohan; Gogia, Varun; Vohra, Rajpal; Sharma, Yog Raj

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the various morphological patterns of fundus autofluorescence (FAF) images in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in Indian population. METHODS Totally 179 eyes of 104 patients with clinical diagnosis of AMD were recruited into the study. Autofluorescence images were captured using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope and the patterns of FAF were classified. RESULTS Of 179 eyes, 27 (15.08%) were early AMD, 58 (32.41%) were intermediate AMD, 94 eyes (52.51%) were late AMD. Of 94 eyes with late AMD, 79 (84.04%) were neovascular AMD and 15 (15.96%) were central geographic atrophy. In eyes with early and intermediate AMD, 9 patterns of FAF were noted. Six patterns (normal, minimal change, focal increased, patchy increased, linear, reticular) were similar to that in the published classification. Two patterns (lacelike and speckled) described in the published classification were not found. Three new patterns (focal hypo-fluorescence, patchy hypo-fluorescence, mixed focal hypo-fluorescence and hyper-fluorescence) were detected. In eyes with neovascular AMD, 6 morphological patterns of FAF were noted. Two patterns (mixed hypo-fluorescence and hyper-fluorescence, central hypo-fluorescence with hyper-fluorescent rim) were similar to that in published classification. Two patterns (normal, near normal or normal background fluorescence in the centre of hypo-fluorescent area) described in the published classification were not found. Four new patterns (minimal change, hypo-fluorescent patch, central hypo-fluorescence with surrounding reticular, bull's eye) were recognized. In eye with central geographic atrophy 5 morphological patterns were noted and these were similar to that in published classification. CONCLUSION Phenotypic differences in the pattern of FAF exist in the study population compared to existing classification systems. PMID:28003979

  19. Groundwater flow pattern and related environmental phenomena in complex geologic setting based on integrated model construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tóth, Ádám; Havril, Tímea; Simon, Szilvia; Galsa, Attila; Monteiro Santos, Fernando A.; Müller, Imre; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit

    2016-08-01

    Groundwater flow, driven, controlled and determined by topography, geology and climate, is responsible for several natural surface manifestations and affected by anthropogenic processes. Therefore, flowing groundwater can be regarded as an environmental agent. Numerical simulation of groundwater flow could reveal the flow pattern and explain the observed features. In complex geologic framework, where the geologic-hydrogeologic knowledge is limited, the groundwater flow model could not be constructed based solely on borehole data, but geophysical information could aid the model building. The integrated model construction was presented via the case study of the Tihany Peninsula, Hungary, with the aims of understanding the background and occurrence of groundwater-related environmental phenomena, such as wetlands, surface water-groundwater interaction, slope instability, and revealing the potential effect of anthropogenic activity and climate change. The hydrogeologic model was prepared on the basis of the compiled archive geophysical database and the results of recently performed geophysical measurements complemented with geologic-hydrogeologic data. Derivation of different electrostratigraphic units, revealing fracturing and detecting tectonic elements was achieved by systematically combined electromagnetic geophysical methods. The deduced information can be used as model input for groundwater flow simulation concerning hydrostratigraphy, geometry and boundary conditions. The results of numerical modelling were interpreted on the basis of gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept and validated by field mapping of groundwater-related phenomena. The 3D model clarified the hydraulic behaviour of the formations, revealed the subsurface hydraulic connection between groundwater and wetlands and displayed the groundwater discharge pattern, as well. The position of wetlands, their vegetation type, discharge features and induced landslides were explained as

  20. Evolution of muscle activity patterns driving motions of the jaw and hyoid during chewing in Gnathostomes.

    PubMed

    Konow, Nicolai; Herrel, Anthony; Ross, Callum F; Williams, Susan H; German, Rebecca Z; Sanford, Christopher P J; Gintof, Chris

    2011-08-01

    Although chewing has been suggested to be a basal gnathostome trait retained in most major vertebrate lineages, it has not been studied broadly and comparatively across vertebrates. To redress this imbalance, we recorded EMG from muscles powering anteroposterior movement of the hyoid, and dorsoventral movement of the mandibular jaw during chewing. We compared muscle activity patterns (MAP) during chewing in jawed vertebrate taxa belonging to unrelated groups of basal bony fishes and artiodactyl mammals. Our aim was to outline the evolution of coordination in MAP. Comparisons of activity in muscles of the jaw and hyoid that power chewing in closely related artiodactyls using cross-correlation analyses identified reorganizations of jaw and hyoid MAP between herbivores and omnivores. EMG data from basal bony fishes revealed a tighter coordination of jaw and hyoid MAP during chewing than seen in artiodactyls. Across this broad phylogenetic range, there have been major structural reorganizations, including a reduction of the bony hyoid suspension, which is robust in fishes, to the acquisition in a mammalian ancestor of a muscle sling suspending the hyoid. These changes appear to be reflected in a shift in chewing MAP that occurred in an unidentified anamniote stem-lineage. This shift matches observations that, when compared with fishes, the pattern of hyoid motion in tetrapods is reversed and also time-shifted relative to the pattern of jaw movement.

  1. Emergence of long-range correlations and bursty activity patterns in online communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panzarasa, Pietro; Bonaventura, Moreno

    2015-12-01

    Research has suggested that the activity occurring in a variety of social, economic, and technological systems exhibits long-range fluctuations in time. Pronounced levels of rapidly occurring events are typically observed over short periods of time, followed by long periods of inactivity. Relatively few studies, however, have shed light on the degree to which inhomogeneous temporal processes can be detected at, and emerge from, different levels of analysis. Here we investigate patterns of human activity within an online forum in which communication can be assessed at three intertwined levels: the micro level of the individual users; the meso level of discussion groups and continuous sessions; and the macro level of the whole system. To uncover the relation between different levels, we conduct a number of numerical simulations of a zero-crossing model in which users' behavior is constrained by progressively richer and more realistic rules of social interaction. Results indicate that, when users are solipsistic, their bursty behavior is not sufficient for generating heavy-tailed interevent time distributions at a higher level. However, when users are socially interdependent, the power spectra and interevent time distributions of the simulated and real forums are remarkably similar at all levels of analysis. Social interaction is responsible for the aggregation of multiple bursty activities at the micro level into an emergent bursty activity pattern at a higher level. We discuss the implications of the findings for an emergentist account of burstiness in complex systems.

  2. Active region helicity evolution and related coronal mass ejection activity.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L.; Mandrini, C.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Demoulin, P.

    The computation of magnetic helicity has become increasingly important in the studies of solar activity. Observations of helical structures in the solar atmosphere, and their subsequent ejection into the interplanetary medium, have resulted in considerable interest to find the link between the amount of helicity in the coronal magnetic field and the origin of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). This is reinforced by theory which shows magnetic helicity to be a well preserved quantity (Berger, 1984), and so with a continued injection into the corona an endless accumulation will occur. CMEs therefore provide a natural method to remove helicity from the corona. Recent works (DeVore, 2000, Chae, 2001, Chae et al., 2001, Demoulin et al., 2002, Green et al., 2002) have endeavoured to find the source of helicity in the corona to explain the observed CME activity in specific cases. The main candidates being differential rotation, shear motions or a transfer of helicity from below the photosphere into the corona. In order to establish a confident relation between CMEs and helicity, these works needs to be expanded to include CME source regions with different characteristics. A study of a very different active region will be presented and the relationship between helicity content and CME activity will be discussed in the framework of the previous studies.

  3. Geometry and relative age of large patterned fractures in southern Acidalia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borrello, Murray C.

    1987-01-01

    Extraordinary patterned fractures occur in Elysium, Utopia, and Acidalia Planitiae of Mars. Theories as to their origin range from permafrost patterning to tectonic fracturing. Recent studies indicate the patterned fractures may be a surface reflection of rough, buried terrane in which fracturing occurs as a result of differential compaction. The patterned terrane in the southern portion of the Acidalia region (MC4-SE, MC4-SC) is being studied to determine its age relative to other terranes and events, and to constrain models for the origin of the fractures. Fracturing in this area occurs between 5 and 25 degrees west longitude and 37 and 50 degrees north latitude. Many fracture patterns are roughly polygonal, with polygons ranging in size from approximately 11 to 32 km in diameter. Fracture traces range from the limit of resolution (10's of meters) to 35 km in length.

  4. Cat hindlimb motoneurons during locomotion. II. Normal activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Hoffer, J A; Sugano, N; Loeb, G E; Marks, W B; O'Donovan, M J; Pratt, C A

    1987-02-01

    Activity patterns were recorded from 51 motoneurons in the fifth lumbar ventral root of cats walking on a motorized treadmill at a range of speeds between 0.1 and 1.3 m/s. The muscle of destination of recorded motoneurons was identified by spike-triggered averaging of EMG recordings from each of the anterior thigh muscles. Forty-three motoneurons projected to one of the quadriceps (vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, or rectus femoris) or sartorius (anterior or medial) muscles of the anterior thigh. Anterior thigh motoneurons always discharged a single burst of action potentials per step cycle, even in multifunctional muscles (e.g., sartorius anterior) that exhibited more than one burst of EMG activity per step cycle. The instantaneous firing rates of most motoneurons were lowest upon recruitment and increased progressively during a burst, as long as the EMG was still increasing. Firing rates peaked midway through each burst and tended to decline toward the end of the burst. The initial, mean, and peak firing rates of single motoneurons typically increased for faster walking speeds. At any given walking speed, early recruited motoneurons typically reached higher firing rates than late recruited motoneurons. In contrast to decerebrated cats, initial doublets at the beginning of bursts were seen only rarely. In the 4/51 motoneurons that showed initial doublets, both the instantaneous frequency of the doublet and the probability of starting a burst with a doublet decreased for faster walking speeds. The modulations in firing rate of every motoneuron were found to be closely correlated to the smoothed electromyogram of its target muscle. For 32 identified motoneurons, the unit's instantaneous frequencygram was scaled linearly by computer to the rectified smoothed EMG recorded from each of the anterior thigh muscles. The covariance between unitary frequencygram and muscle EMG was computed for each muscle. Typically, the EMG profile of the target

  5. [Work-related behaviour and experience patterns and mental health: a study in psychotherapy trainees].

    PubMed

    Grundmann, Johanna; Sude, Kerstin; Löwe, Bernd; Wingenfeld, Katja

    2013-03-01

    In view of the fact that many reports have been published that emphasize the difficult conditions of the German psychotherapy training, the aim of this study was to investigate psychotherapy trainees´ work stress as well as work-related psychosocial risks and resources. Variables of interest were work-related behaviour and experience patterns (AVEM), effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and health-related quality of life. 321 participants completed an online survey. The distribution of work-related behaviour and experience patterns as well as the results regarding work overload and mental health are evidence of psychotherapy trainees' strain. AVEM-risk patterns are associated with effort-reward-imbalance, chronic stress and reduced mental health. These results clearly support claims for a modification of the psychotherapy training in Germany.

  6. Reproductive and menstrual factors in relation to mammographic parenchymal patterns among perimenopausal women.

    PubMed Central

    Gram, I. T.; Funkhouser, E.; Tabar, L.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between mammographic patterns and reproductive and menstrual factors was examined in 3640 Norwegian women, aged 40-56 years, participating in the Third Tromsö study conducted in 1986-87. Epidemiological data were obtained from questionnaires. The mammograms were categorised into five groups. This categorisation is based on anatomic-mammographic correlations, following three-dimensional (thick slice technique) histopathologic-mammographic comparisons, rather than simple pattern reading. Patterns 1-3 were combined into a low-risk group and patterns 4 and 5 into a high-risk group for analysis. Women who had more than four children were 90% less likely to have a high-risk pattern than nulliparous women (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.04-0.16) controlling for age, weight, height and menopausal status. Furthermore, those who first gave birth over 34 years of age were more than twice as likely to have a high-risk pattern than those giving birth in their teens (OR = 2.37, 95% CI 1.23-4.56) adjusting for parity. Among post-menopausal women, age at menarche was negatively (P for trend = 0.015) and late age at menopause positively (P for trend = 0.072) related to high-risk patterns. Among premenopausal women, age at menarche was positively related to high-risk patterns (P for trend = 0.001). Also, menopausal status rather than age was associated with high-risk patterns. These findings support the opinion that reproductive and menstrual factors are involved in determining the mammographic parenchymal pattern among perimenopausal women. PMID:7880753

  7. Major Dietary Patterns in Relation to General and Central Obesity among Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Canqing; Shi, Zumin; Lv, Jun; Du, Huaidong; Qi, Lu; Guo, Yu; Bian, Zheng; Chang, Liang; Tang, Xuefeng; Jiang, Qilian; Mu, Huaiyi; Pan, Dongxia; Chen, Junshi; Chen, Zhengming; Li, Liming

    2015-01-01

    Limited evidence exists for the association between diet pattern and obesity phenotypes among Chinese adults. In the present study, we analyzed the cross-sectional data from 474,192 adults aged 30–79 years from the China Kadoorie Biobank baseline survey. Food consumption was collected by an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Three dietary patterns were extracted by factor analysis combined with cluster analysis. After being adjusted for potential confounders, individuals following a traditional southern dietary pattern had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC); the Western/new affluence dietary pattern had the highest BMI; and the traditional northern dietary pattern had the highest WC. Compared to the traditional southern dietary pattern in multivariable adjusted logistic models, individuals following a Western/new affluence dietary pattern had a significantly increased risk of general obesity (prevalence ratio (PR): 1.06, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03–1.08) and central obesity (PR: 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06–1.08). The corresponding risks for the traditional northern dietary pattern were 1.05 (1.02–1.09) and 1.17 (1.25–1.18), respectively. In addition, the associations were modified by lifestyle behaviors, and the combined effects with alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and physical activity were analyzed. Further prospective studies are needed to elucidate the diet-obesity relationships. PMID:26184308

  8. Geographic Variation in Daily Temporal Activity Patterns of a Neotropical Marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis).

    PubMed

    Vieira, Emerson M; de Camargo, Nícholas F; Colas, Paul F; Ribeiro, Juliana F; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P

    2017-01-01

    The temporal activity of animals is an outcome of both biotic and abiotic factors, which may vary along the geographic range of the species. Therefore, studies conducted with a species in different localities with distinct features could elucidate how animals deal with such factors. In this study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to investigate the temporal activity patterns of the didelphid Gracilinanus agilis in two dry-woodland areas of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). These areas were located about 660 km apart, one in Central Brazil and the other in Southeastern Brazil. We compared such patterns considering both reproductive and non-reproductive periods, and how it varies as a function of temperature on a seasonal basis. In Central Brazil, we found a constant, and temperature-independent activity during the night in both reproductive and non-reproductive periods. On the other hand, in Southeastern Brazil, we detected a constant activity during the reproductive period, but in the non-reproductive period G. agilis presented a peak of activity between two and four hours after sunset. Moreover, in this latter we found a relation between temporal activity and temperature during the autumn and spring. These differences in temporal activity between areas, observed during the non-reproductive period, might be associated with the higher seasonal variability in temperature, and lower mean temperatures in the Southeastern site in comparison to the Central one. In Southeastern Brazil, the decrease in temperature during the non-reproductive season possibly forced G. agilis to be active only at certain hours of the night. However, likely due to the reproductive activities (intensive foraging and searching for mates) this marsupial showed constant, temperature-independent activity during the night in the reproductive period at both sites.

  9. Geographic Variation in Daily Temporal Activity Patterns of a Neotropical Marsupial (Gracilinanus agilis)

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Emerson M.; de Camargo, Nícholas F.; Colas, Paul F.; Ribeiro, Juliana F.; Cruz-Neto, Ariovaldo P.

    2017-01-01

    The temporal activity of animals is an outcome of both biotic and abiotic factors, which may vary along the geographic range of the species. Therefore, studies conducted with a species in different localities with distinct features could elucidate how animals deal with such factors. In this study, we used live traps equipped with timing devices to investigate the temporal activity patterns of the didelphid Gracilinanus agilis in two dry-woodland areas of the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado). These areas were located about 660 km apart, one in Central Brazil and the other in Southeastern Brazil. We compared such patterns considering both reproductive and non-reproductive periods, and how it varies as a function of temperature on a seasonal basis. In Central Brazil, we found a constant, and temperature-independent activity during the night in both reproductive and non-reproductive periods. On the other hand, in Southeastern Brazil, we detected a constant activity during the reproductive period, but in the non-reproductive period G. agilis presented a peak of activity between two and four hours after sunset. Moreover, in this latter we found a relation between temporal activity and temperature during the autumn and spring. These differences in temporal activity between areas, observed during the non-reproductive period, might be associated with the higher seasonal variability in temperature, and lower mean temperatures in the Southeastern site in comparison to the Central one. In Southeastern Brazil, the decrease in temperature during the non-reproductive season possibly forced G. agilis to be active only at certain hours of the night. However, likely due to the reproductive activities (intensive foraging and searching for mates) this marsupial showed constant, temperature-independent activity during the night in the reproductive period at both sites. PMID:28052077

  10. Patterns of Spontaneous Local Network Activity in Developing Cerebral Cortex: Relationship to Adult Cognitive Function.

    PubMed

    Peinado, Alejandro; Abrams, Charles K

    2015-01-01

    Detecting neurodevelopμental disorders of cognition at the earliest possible stages could assist in understanding them mechanistically and ultimately in treating them. Finding early physiological predictors that could be visualized with functional neuroimaging would represent an important advance in this regard. We hypothesized that one potential source of physiological predictors is the spontaneous local network activity prominent during specific periods in development. To test this we used calcium imaging in brain slices and analyzed variations in the frequency and intensity of this early activity in one area, the entorhinal cortex (EC), in order to correlate early activity with level of cognitive function later in life. We focused on EC because of its known role in different types of cognitive processes and because it is an area where spontaneous activity is prominent during early postnatal development in rodent models of cortical development. Using rat strains (Long-Evans, Wistar, Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro) known to differ in cognitive performance in adulthood we asked whether neonatal animals exhibit corresponding strain-related differences in EC spontaneous activity. Our results show significant differences in this activity between strains: compared to a high cognitive-performing strain, we consistently found an increase in frequency and decrease in intensity in neonates from three lower performing strains. Activity was most different in one strain considered a model of schizophrenia-like psychopathology. While we cannot necessarily infer a causal relationship between early activity and adult cognition our findings suggest that the pattern of spontaneous activity in development could be an early predictor of a developmental trajectory advancing toward sub-optimal cognitive performance in adulthood. Our results further suggest that the strength of dopaminergic signaling, by setting the balance between excitation and inhibition, is a potential underlying

  11. The relationship of major American dietary patterns to age-related macular degeneration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We hypothesized that major American dietary patterns are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk. This was a cross-sectional study with 8,103 eyes from 4,088 eligible participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into control (n=2,739), early ...

  12. Human speech- and reading-related genes display partially overlapping expression patterns in the marmoset brain.

    PubMed

    Kato, Masaki; Okanoya, Kazuo; Koike, Taku; Sasaki, Erika; Okano, Hideyuki; Watanabe, Shigeru; Iriki, Atsushi

    2014-06-01

    Language is a characteristic feature of human communication. Several familial language impairments have been identified, and candidate genes for language impairments already isolated. Studies comparing expression patterns of these genes in human brain are necessary to further understanding of these genes. However, it is difficult to examine gene expression in human brain. In this study, we used a non-human primate (common marmoset; Callithrix jacchus) as a biological model of the human brain to investigate expression patterns of human speech- and reading-related genes. Expression patterns of speech disorder- (FoxP2, FoxP1, CNTNAP2, and CMIP) and dyslexia- (ROBO1, DCDC2, and KIAA0319) related genes were analyzed. We found the genes displayed overlapping expression patterns in the ocular, auditory, and motor systems. Our results enhance understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying language impairments.

  13. Relation between heart beat fluctuations and cyclic alternating pattern during sleep in insomnia patients.

    PubMed

    de Leon-Lomeli, R; Murguia, J S; Chouvarda, I; Mendez, M O; Gonzalez-Galvan, E; Alba, A; Milioli, G; Grassi, A; Terzano, M G; Parrino, L

    2014-01-01

    Insomnia is a condition that affects the nervous and muscular system. Thirty percent of the population between 18 and 60 years suffers from insomnia. The effects of this disorder involve problems such as poor school or job performance and traffic accidents. In addition, patients with insomnia present changes in the cardiac function during sleep. Furthermore, the structure of electroencephalographic A-phases, which builds up the Cyclic Alternating Pattern during sleep, is related to the insomnia events. Therefore, the relationship between these brain activations (A-phases) and the autonomic nervous system would be of interest, revealing the interplay of central and autonomic activity during insomnia. With this goal, a study of the relationship between A-phases and heart rate fluctuations is presented. Polysomnography recording of five healthy subjects, five sleep misperception patients and five patients with psychophysiological insomnia were used in the study. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) was used in order to evaluate the heart rate dynamics and this was correlated with the number of A-phases. The results suggest that pathological patients present changes in the dynamics of the heart rate. This is reflected in the modification of A-phases dynamics, which seems to modify of heart rate dynamics.

  14. The relationship between the lizard eye and associated bony features: a cautionary note for interpreting fossil activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Hall, Margaret I

    2009-06-01

    Activity pattern, the time of day when an animal is active, is associated with ecology. There are two major activity patterns: diurnal (awake during the day in a photopic environment) and nocturnal (awake at night in a scotopic environment). Lizards exhibit characteristic eye shapes associated with activity pattern, with scotopic-adapted lizard eyes optimized for visual sensitivity with large corneal diameters relative to their eye axial lengths, and photopic-adapted lizards optimized for visual acuity, with larger axial lengths of the eye relative to their corneal diameters. This study: (1) quantifies the relationship between the lizard eye and its associated bony anatomy (the orbit, sclerotic ring, and associated skull widths); (2) investigates how activity pattern is reflected in that bony anatomy; and (3) determines if it is possible to reliably interpret activity pattern for a lizard that does not have the soft tissue available for study, specifically, for a fossil. Knowledge of extinct lizards' activity patterns would be useful in making paleoecological interpretations. Here, 96 scotopic- and photopic-adapted lizard species are analyzed in a phylogenetic context. Although there is a close relationship between the lepidosaur eye and associated bony anatomy, based on these data activity pattern cannot be reliably interpreted for bony-only specimens, such as a fossil, possibly because of the limited ossification of the lepidosaur skull. Caution should be exercised when utilizing lizard bony anatomy to interpret light-level adaptation, either for a fossil lizard or as part of an extant phylogenetic bracket to interpret other extinct animals with sclerotic rings, such as dinosaurs.

  15. Disruption of dopamine neuron activity pattern regulation through selective expression of a human KCNN3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Soden, Marta E; Jones, Graham L; Sanford, Christina A; Chung, Amanda S; Güler, Ali D; Chavkin, Charles; Luján, Rafael; Zweifel, Larry S

    2013-11-20

    The calcium-activated small conductance potassium channel SK3 plays an essential role in the regulation of dopamine neuron activity patterns. Here we demonstrate that expression of a human disease-related SK3 mutation (hSK3Δ) in dopamine neurons of mice disrupts the balance between tonic and phasic dopamine neuron activity. Expression of hSK3Δ suppressed endogenous SK currents, reducing coupling between SK channels and NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and increasing permissiveness for burst firing. Consistent with enhanced excitability of dopamine neurons, hSK3Δ increased evoked calcium signals in dopamine neurons in vivo and potentiated evoked dopamine release. Specific expression of hSK3Δ led to deficits in attention and sensory gating and heightened sensitivity to a psychomimetic drug. Sensory-motor alterations and psychomimetic sensitivity were recapitulated in a mouse model of transient, reversible dopamine neuron activation. These results demonstrate the cell-autonomous effects of a human ion channel mutation on dopamine neuron physiology and the impact of activity pattern disruption on behavior.

  16. Spatiotemporal patterns of mountain pine beetle activity in the southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Teresa B; Veblen, Thomas T; Schoennagel, Tania

    2012-10-01

    The current mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreak in the southern Rocky Mountains has impacted approximately 750 000 ha of forest. Weather and habitat heterogeneity influence forest insect population dynamics at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Comparison of forest insect population dynamics in two principal host species may elucidate the relative contribution of weather and landscape factors in initiating and driving extensive outbreaks. To investigate potential drivers of the current MPB outbreak, we compared broadscale spatiotemporal patterns of MPB activity in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) from 1996 to 2010 in Colorado and southern Wyoming with regional weather fluctuations, and then tracked the annual meso-scale progression of the epidemic in lodgepole pine with respect to weather, topographic, previous MPB activity, and forest stand attributes. MPB activity in lodgepole pine compared to ponderosa pine showed higher magnitude and extent of spatial synchrony. Warm temperatures and low annual precipitation favorable to beetle populations showed high regional synchrony across areas of both pine species, suggesting that habitat interacts with weather in synchronizing MPB populations. Cluster analysis of time series patterns identified multiple, disjunct locations of incipient MPB activity (epicenters) in lodgepole pine, which overlapped an earlier 1980s MPB outbreak, and suggests a regional trigger (drought) across this homogenous forest type. Negative departures from mean annual precipitation played a key role in subsequent spread of MPB outbreak. Development of the outbreak was also associated with lower elevations, greater dominance by lodgepole pine, stands of larger tree size, and stands with higher percentage canopy cover. After epidemic levels of MPB activity were attained, MPB activity was less strongly associated with stand and weather variables. These results emphasize the importance of

  17. Time Use Patterns between Maintenance, Subsistence and Leisure Activities: A Case Study in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hui-fen, Zhou; Zhen-shan, Li; Dong-qian, Xue; Yang, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese government conducted its first time use survey of the activities of Chinese individuals in 2008. Activities were classified into three broad types, maintenance activities, subsistence activities and leisure activities. Time use patterns were defined by an individuals' time spent on maintenance, subsistence and leisure activities each…

  18. Contrasting activity patterns of sympatric and allopatric black and grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, C.C.; Cain, S.L.; Podruzny, S.; Cherry, S.; Frattaroli, L.

    2010-01-01

    The distribution of grizzly (Ursus arctos) and American black bears (U. americanus) overlaps in western North America. Few studies have detailed activity patterns where the species are sympatric and no studies contrasted patterns where populations are both sympatric and allopatric. We contrasted activity patterns for sympatric black and grizzly bears and for black bears allopatric to grizzly bears, how human influences altered patterns, and rates of grizzlyblack bear predation. Activity patterns differed between black bear populations, with those sympatric to grizzly bears more day-active. Activity patterns of black bears allopatric with grizzly bears were similar to those of female grizzly bears; both were crepuscular and day-active. Male grizzly bears were crepuscular and night-active. Both species were more night-active and less day-active when ???1 km from roads or developments. In our sympatric study area, 2 of 4 black bear mortalities were due to grizzly bear predation. Our results suggested patterns of activity that allowed for intra- and inter-species avoidance. National park management often results in convergence of locally high human densities in quality bear habitat. Our data provide additional understanding into how bears alter their activity patterns in response to other bears and humans and should help park managers minimize undesirable bearhuman encounters when considering needs for temporal and spatial management of humans and human developments in bear habitats. ?? 2010 The Wildlife Society.

  19. Senemorphism: a novel perspective on aging patterns and its implication for diet-related biology.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Lucas Siqueira; Balduino, Alex; Aigaki, Toshiro; Heddle, Jonathan G

    2012-08-01

    Aging can be described as the accumulation of changes in organisms over time. Aging in organisms undergoing caloric restriction (CR) is widely considered as a slowed version of aging under ad libitum (AL) conditions. However, here we argue that aging under optimized CR is fundamentally different from aging under AL based on the following facts: (1) Comparing the two dietary groups, several age-related changes run in the opposite direction over time; (2) Switching from an AL to a CR diet clearly reverts (not only delays) several "normal" accumulated changes; (3) major causes of death are as different between both groups as they are between species. These observations support the idea that CR and AL initially modulate different metabolic and physiological programs, which exclusively over time generate two biologically different organisms. Such distinct diet-related senescence is analogous to the divergent aging processes and causes of death observed between castes of social insects, such as queens versus workers ("caste-related-senescence") and also between breeding versus non-breeding semelparous animals ("reproduction-related-senescence"). All these aging phenotypes are different not because they accumulate changes at a different rate, but because they accumulate different changes over time. Thus, the environment does not simply affect the individual aging rate through stochastic effects (e.g. U.V.) but also modulates the activation of a particular program/strategy that influences lifespan (e.g. caste, calorie intake). We refer to the environment-dependent aging patterns encoded by the genome as "senemorphism". Based on this idea we propose experimental schemes for aging, evolution and biomedical research.

  20. Dopamine receptors set the pattern of activity generated in subthalamic neurons.

    PubMed

    Baufreton, J; Zhu, Z-T; Garret, M; Bioulac, B; Johnson, S W; Taupignon, A I

    2005-11-01

    Information processing in the brain requires adequate background neuronal activity. As Parkinson's disease progresses, patients typically become akinetic; the death of dopaminergic neurons leads to a dopamine-depleted state, which disrupts information processing related to movement in a brain area called the basal ganglia. Using agonists of dopamine receptors in the D1 and D2 families on rat brain slices, we show that dopamine receptors in these two families govern the firing pattern of neurons in the subthalamic nucleus, a crucial part of the basal ganglia. We propose a conceptual frame, based on specific properties of dopamine receptors, to account for the dominance of different background firing patterns in normal and dopamine-depleted states.

  1. Cultural ecology of dietary change accompanying changing activity patterns among the Shipibo

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, C.A.

    1986-12-01

    Shipibo Indians, who formed a village to establish a school and health clinic, are gradually depleting local fish and game resources. Men, recently adopting rice as a cash crop, tend to fish and hunt less than other men working only their subsistence gardens. Sale of fish and game in the village is becoming common, and pigs, once raised exclusively for sale to non-Shipibo, are now more regularly eaten and used for attracting agricultural labor. Other research has indicated that cash cropping often competes for workers' time in subsistence and so dietary change usually accompanies changing activity patterns. This paper explores the latter possibility by examining the relationship between cash cropping, wild meat procurement, and diet among the Shipibo. Time allocation and food consumption data are analyzed statistically to test a mathematical theory and model which relates indigenous work patterns to diet.

  2. Dietary patterns of adolescents in Germany - Associations with nutrient intake and other health related lifestyle characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns among a representative sample of German adolescents and their associations with energy and nutrient intake, socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics, and overweight status. Methods In the analysis, data from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were used. The survey included a comprehensive dietary history interview conducted among 1272 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Dietary patterns were determined with principal component analysis (PCA) based on 48 food groups, for boys and girls separately. Results Three dietary patterns among boys and two among girls were identified. Among boys, high adherence to the 'western' pattern was associated with higher age, lower socioeconomic status (SES), and lower physical activity level (PA). High adherence to the 'healthy' pattern among boys, but not among girls, was associated with higher SES, and higher PA. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was associated with higher age. Among girls, high adherence to the 'traditional and western' pattern was associated with lower age, lower SES and more hours watching TV per day. The nutrient density of several vitamins and minerals, particularly of B-vitamins and calcium, increased with increasing scores of the 'healthy' pattern among both sexes. Conversely, with increasing scores of the 'western' pattern among boys, most nutrient densities decreased, particularly of fibre, beta-carotene, vitamin D, biotin and calcium. Among girls with higher scores of the 'traditional and western' pattern, nutrient densities of vitamin A, C, E, K and folate decreased. Among boys, high adherence to the 'traditional' pattern was correlated with higher densities of vitamin B12 and vitamin D and lower densities of fibre, magnesium and iron. No significant associations between dietary patterns and overweight were found. Conclusions Higher scores for dietary patterns characterized

  3. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals

    PubMed Central

    Gerkema, Menno P.; Davies, Wayne I. L.; Foster, Russell G.; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a ‘nocturnal bottleneck’ in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail. PMID:23825205

  4. The nocturnal bottleneck and the evolution of activity patterns in mammals.

    PubMed

    Gerkema, Menno P; Davies, Wayne I L; Foster, Russell G; Menaker, Michael; Hut, Roelof A

    2013-08-22

    In 1942, Walls described the concept of a 'nocturnal bottleneck' in placental mammals, where these species could survive only by avoiding daytime activity during times in which dinosaurs were the dominant taxon. Walls based this concept of a longer episode of nocturnality in early eutherian mammals by comparing the visual systems of reptiles, birds and all three extant taxa of the mammalian lineage, namely the monotremes, marsupials (now included in the metatherians) and placentals (included in the eutherians). This review describes the status of what has become known as the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis, giving an overview of the chronobiological patterns of activity. We review the ecological plausibility that the activity patterns of (early) eutherian mammals were restricted to the night, based on arguments relating to endothermia, energy balance, foraging and predation, taking into account recent palaeontological information. We also assess genes, relating to light detection (visual and non-visual systems) and the photolyase DNA protection system that were lost in the eutherian mammalian lineage. Our conclusion presently is that arguments in favour of the nocturnal bottleneck hypothesis in eutherians prevail.

  5. Healthy and Unhealthy Dietary Patterns Are Related to Depression: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Nejati, Somayeh; Darabi, Samaneh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Sorayani, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder is the leading cause of disability around the world. The relationship between depression and dietary patterns has been reported in a few studies but with controversial results. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in an Iranian population. Methods In our study, 330 depressed patients (cases) and healthy people (controls) (1:2) were individually matched according to age, sex and area of residence. New cases of depression were recruited from two psychiatric clinics in Tehran. Interviewers went to each patient's residential area, and invited qualified individuals to participate in the study as controls. Food intake over the past year was collected using a validated semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Dietary patterns were determined by the principal components method. Binary logistic regression was used to test the effect of dietary patterns on depression. Results We identified two major dietary patterns by using factor analysis: the healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns. We categorized the scores of these patterns to quartiles. After adjusting for non-depression drug use, job, marital status, children number, and body mass index, the relations of depression and quartiles of two dietary patterns are significant (p=0.04 & p=0.01, respectively). Compared with participants in the lowest quartile, those in the highest quartile had significantly lower odds ratio (OR) for depression in healthy dietary pattern, and higher OR for depression in unhealthy dietary pattern. Conclusion This study indicates that healthy and unhealthy dietary patterns may be associated with the risk of depression. The results can be used for developing interventions that aim to promote healthy eating for the prevention of depression. PMID:26508953

  6. Estimating muscle activation patterns using a surrogate model of facial biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tim; Martens, Harald; Hunter, Peter; Mithraratne, Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Analyzing the muscle activities that drive the expressive facial gestures can be a useful tool in assessing one's emotional state of mind. Since the skin motion is much easier to measure in comparison to the actual electrical excitation signal of facial muscles, a biomechanical model of the human face driven by these muscles can be a useful tool in relating the geometric information to the muscle activity. However, long computational time often hinders its practicality. The objective of this study was to replace the precise but computationally demanding biomechanical model by a much faster multivariate meta-model (surrogate model), such that a significant speedup (real-time interactive speed) can be achieved and data from the biomechanical model can be practically exploited. Using the proposed surrogate, muscle activation patterns of six key facial expressions were estimated in the iterative fit from the structured-light scanned geometric information.

  7. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  8. Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liebchen, Benno; Marenduzzo, Davide; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Cates, Michael E.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate that migration away from self-produced chemicals (chemorepulsion) generates a generic route to clustering and pattern formation among self-propelled colloids. The clustering instability can be caused either by anisotropic chemical production, or by a delayed orientational response to changes of the chemical environment. In each case, chemorepulsion creates clusters of a self-limiting area which grows linearly with self-propulsion speed. This agrees with recent observations of dynamic clusters in Janus colloids (albeit not yet known to be chemorepulsive). More generally, our results could inform design principles for the self-assembly of chemorepulsive synthetic swimmers and/or bacteria into nonequilibrium patterns.

  9. Influence of human activity patterns on epidemiology of plague in Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Hubeau, Marianne; Gulinck, Hubert; Kimaro, Didas N; Hieronimo, Proches; Meliyo, Joel

    2014-07-01

    Human plague has been a recurring public health threat in some villages in the Western Usambara Mountains, Tanzania, in the period between 1980 and 2004. Despite intensive past biological and medical research, the reasons for the plague outbreaks in the same set of villages remain unknown. Plague research needs to broaden its scope and formulate new hypotheses. This study was carried out to establish relationships between the nature and the spatial extent of selected human activities on one hand, and the reported plague cases on the other hand. Three outdoor activities namely, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market, were selected. Through enquiries the activity patterns related to these activities were mapped in 14 villages. Standard deviation ellipses represent the extent of action spaces. Over 130 activity types were identified and listed. Of these, fetching water, collecting firewood and going to the market were used for further analysis. The results indicate a significant correlation between the plague frequency and the size of these action spaces. Different characteristics of land use and related human activities were correlated with the plague frequency at village and hamlet levels. Significant relationships were found between plague frequency and specific sources of firewood and water, and specific market places.

  10. Seasonal and Daily Activity Patterns of Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) Vectors of Pathogens in Northeastern Italy.

    PubMed

    Montarsi, Fabrizio; Mazzon, Luca; Cazzin, Stefania; Ciocchetta, Silvia; Capelli, Gioia

    2015-01-01

    The seasonal and daily activity of mosquito vectors of pathogens affecting animals and humans were studied in northeastern Italy at a site within the Po River Delta Park. A CDC-CO2 trap and a gravid trap were operated at 2-h intervals for 24 h every 15 d from May to October 2010. Overall, 5,788 mosquitoes comprising six species were collected, namely Culex pipiens L. (75.1% of total), Aedes caspius (Pallas) (15.2%), Aedes vexans (Meigen) (6.9%), Anopheles maculipennis s.l. Meigen (2.6%), Culiseta annulata (Schrank) (0.2%), and Culex modestus Ficalbi (<0.1%). The relative abundance of these species increased from May until the beginning of July and then decreased, disappearing at the beginning of October. The diel host-seeking patterns and oviposition site-seeking patterns were species specific and were differentially affected by the ecological variables recorded at the day and hour of mosquito collection or two weeks before collection. Knowledge of the seasonal and daily host-seeking patterns of mosquitoes highlights the time periods of the day and the seasons of potential exposure for animals and humans to mosquito-borne pathogens, therefore delineating the best time for the application of preventive measures. Furthermore, knowledge of the oviposition site-seeking activity of the mosquitoes optimizes the capture of gravid females, thereby enhancing the likelihood of detecting pathogens.

  11. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  12. Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) during the maternity season in West Virginia (USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.B.; Edwards, J.W.; Ford, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) at diurnal roost trees remain largely uninvestigated. For example, the influence of reproductive status, weather, and roost tree and surrounding habitat characteristics on timing of emergence, intra-night activity, and entrance at their roost trees is poorly known. We examined nocturnal activity patterns of northern myotis maternity colonies during pregnancy and lactation at diurnal roost trees situated in areas that were and were not subjected to recent prescribed fires at the Fernow Experimental Forest, West Virginia from 2007 to 2009. According to exit counts and acoustic data, northern myotis colony sizes were similar between reproductive periods and roost tree settings. However, intra-night activity patterns differed slightly between reproductive periods and roost trees in burned and non-burned areas. Weather variables poorly explained variation in activity patterns during pregnancy, but precipitation and temperature were negatively associated with activity patterns during lactation. ?? Museum and Institute of Zoology PAS.

  13. Activity patterns in a panel of outdoor workers exposed to oxidant pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Shamoo, D.A.; Johnson, T.R.; Trim, S.C.; Little, D.E.; Linn, W.S.; Hackney, J.D. )

    1991-10-01

    We investigated summer activity patterns in a panel of volunteers drawn from a population segment with potentially high exposure to ambient oxidant pollution. The subjects were 15 men and 5 women aged 19-50, all of whom worked outdoors in the Los Angeles area at least 10 hr per week. The general approach was to (i) calibrate the relationship between ventilation rate (VR) and heart rate (HR) for each subject in controlled exercise; (ii) have subjects monitor their own normal activities with diaries and electronic HR recorders; (iii) estimate VR from HR recordings; and (iv) relate VR with diary descriptions of activities. Calibration data were fit to the equation log (VR) = (intercept) + (slope x HR), intercept and slope being determined separately for each individual to provide a specific equation to predict her/his VR from measured HR. Individuals' correlation coefficients relating log (VR) with HR ranged from 0.83 to 0.95. Subjects monitored themselves for three 24-hr periods during one week, including their most active work day and their most active non-work day. They wore Heart Watch(R) athletic training instruments which recorded HR once per minute; and recorded each change in their activity, location, or breathing rate in diaries. Breathing rates were classified as sleep, slow, medium, or fast. Diaries showed that sleep occupied about 33% of subject's time, slow activity 59%, medium 7%, and fast 1%. Fast activity was reported only at leisure, never at work. For the group, arithmetic means and standard deviations of predicted VR were 7 +/- 3 L/min for sleep, 12 +/- 7 for slow activity, 14 +/- 8 for medium, and 44 +/- 36 for fast. For the group and for most individuals, distributions of predicted VR within a given activity level (breathing rate) were approximately lognormal, with many values in a narrow range below the arithmetic mean and fewer values in a broader range above it.

  14. The Pattern of Electronic Game Use and Related Bodily Discomfort in Hong Kong Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lui, Donald P. Y.; Szeto, Grace P. Y.; Jones, Alice Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the usage pattern of electronic game devices among primary school children in Hong Kong. Commonly used types of games devices were grouped into three main categories: large-screen/TV-based games, small handheld game devices and active game devices. A survey was conducted among 476 students in a local primary school, with…

  15. Progress toward motor recovery with active neuromuscular stimulation: muscle activation pattern evidence after a stroke.

    PubMed

    Cauraugh, James H; Kim, Sangbum

    2003-03-15

    Chronic cerebrovascular accident individuals with partial paralysis in an upper extremity typically demonstrate difficulty in voluntarily controlling movement initiation. This study investigated patterns of electromyogram (EMG) activation levels while stroke subjects voluntarily initiated their impaired wrist and finger extensor muscles. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either a unilateral movement/stimulation group or a bilateral movement/stimulation group. Participants completed 4 days (6 h over 2 weeks) of active neuromuscular stimulation (i.e., 5 s/trial, 90 trials/day, biphasic waveform) on the wrist and finger extensors according to group assignments. The EMG activation levels were analyzed with a three-factor mixed design Motor recovery protocol x Session block x Trial block (2 x 2 x 3) ANOVA with repeated measures on the second and third factors. This robust analysis revealed higher EMG activation levels for the coupled bilateral movement/stimulation group than the unilateral movement/stimulation group. In addition, higher muscle activation levels were found for the second session block as well as trial blocks 2 and 3. Overall, these findings indicated improved motor capabilities of the impaired muscles as evidenced by the higher voluntary EMG activation levels.

  16. 29 CFR 779.207 - Related activities in retail operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Related activities in retail operations. 779.207 Section... Coverage Related Activities § 779.207 Related activities in retail operations. In the case of an enterprise which has one or more retail or service establishments, all of the activities which are performed...

  17. Tsunami related to solar and geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldi, Gabriele; Cataldi, Daniele; Straser, Valentino

    2016-04-01

    The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's geomagnetic activity. To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: 1) Japan M9 earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 at 05:46 UTC; 2) Japan M7.1 earthquake occurred on October 25, 2013 at 17:10 UTC; 3) Chile M8.2 earthquake occurred on April 1, 2014 at 23:46 UTC; 4) Chile M8.3 earthquake occurred on September 16, 2015 at 22:54 UTC. The data relating to the four earthquakes were provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: solar wind ion density variation detected by ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer) Satellite, in orbit near the L1 Lagrange point, at 1.5 million of km from Earth, in direction of the Sun. The instrument used to perform the measurement of the solar wind ion density is the Electron, Proton, and Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument, equipped on the ACE Satellite. To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: differential proton flux 1060-1900 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 761-1220 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV); differential proton flux 310-580 keV (p/cm^2-sec-ster-MeV). Geomagnetic activity data were provided by Tromsø Geomagnetic Observatory (TGO), Norway; by Scoresbysund Geomagnetic Observatory (SCO), Greenland, Denmark and by Space Weather Prediction Center of Pushkov Institute of terrestrial magnetism, ionosphere and radio wave propagation (IZMIRAN), Troitsk, Moscow Region. The results of the study, in agreement with what already

  18. Patterns of Soil and Streamwater Chemistry Relative to Atmospheric Deposition in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, H. A.; Weathers, K. C.; Hollister, C. C.; Steele, B.

    2006-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition is the source of many nutrients and pollutants to ecosystems, yet estimates of total deposition to complex landscapes are rare, thus limiting our understanding of the linkages between atmospheric deposition and ecosystem processes. Using a new model of atmospheric deposition to Acadia National Park, we have quantified deposition across elevational gradients and on a watershed basis, and here relate deposition to soil and streamwater chemistry. Soil samples collected across two elevational gradients varied three-fold in modeled deposition and four-fold in percent base saturation. Despite large variations in base saturation across sites and between surface and subsurface soil horizons, the relationship between deposition and Ca:Al ratios was weak. In the surface soil organic horizon, some trace metal concentrations (e.g., Pb) were strongly correlated with modeled deposition, but concentrations of other metals such as Cu and Zn were either unrelated or negatively correlated with modeled deposition. In general, the more biologically mobile trace metals were less well correlated with modeled deposition than those elements with lesser biological activity. At the watershed scale, deposition varied by a factor of two. Sulfate in streamwater was strongly correlated with modeled sulfur deposition to the watershed, suggesting that sulfur export may be strongly influenced by atmospheric inputs. Streamwater pH and ANC were variable among watersheds, however their patterns were weakly predicted by both deposition and landscape variables, suggesting that chemical and biological processing in the watershed may be more important than deposition in controlling these aspects of streamwater chemistry.

  19. Determination of Total Daily Energy Requirements and Activity Patterns of Service Women

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    conducted at Fort Bragg/Camp Mckall during a Combat Support Hospital training exercise , during the first year of the grant. Isotope and activity ...water, physical activity patterns energy expenditure, military nutrition, hydration status. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 16. PRICE CODE 17 SECURITY...Devices, Ft. Walton Beach, Fl.) will be employed to assess patterns of rest and activity , total physical activity and to estimate duration and

  20. The Effects of Simulated Stuttering and Prolonged Speech on the Neural Activation Patterns of Stuttering and Nonstuttering Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Nil, Luc F.; Beal, Deryk S.; Lafaille, Sophie J.; Kroll, Robert M.; Crawley, Adrian P.; Gracco, Vincent L.

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the neural correlates of passive listening, habitual speech and two modified speech patterns (simulated stuttering and prolonged speech) in stuttering and nonstuttering adults. Within-group comparisons revealed increased right hemisphere biased activation of speech-related regions…

  1. Transnational Islamic activism and radicalization : patterns, trends, and prognosticators.

    SciTech Connect

    Colbaugh, Richard; Engi, Dennis; LaViolette, Randall A.; Spomer, Judith E.

    2010-06-01

    The research described in this report developed the theoretical and conceptual framework for understanding, recognizing, and anticipating the origins, dynamic mechanisms, perceptions, and social structures of Islamic social reform movements in the Muslim homeland and in diaspora communities. This research has revealed valuable insights into the dynamic mechanisms associated with reform movements and, as such, offers the potential to provide indications and warnings of impending violence. This study produced the following significant findings: (1) A framework for understanding Islamic radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory was developed and implemented. This framework provides a causal structure for the interrelationships among the myriad features of a social movement. (2) The degree to which movement-related activity shows early diffusion across multiple social contexts is a powerful distinguisher of successful and unsuccessful social movements. Indeed, this measurable appears to have significantly more predictive power than volume of such activity and also more power than various system intrinsics. (3) Significant social movements can occur only if both the intra-context 'infectivity' of the movement exceeds a certain threshold and the inter-context interactions associated with the movement occur with a frequency that is larger than another threshold. Note that this is reminiscent of, and significantly extends, well-known results for epidemic thresholds in disease propagation models. (4) More in-depth content analysis of blogs through the lens of Argumentation Theory has the potential to reveal new insights into radicalization in the context of Social Movement Theory. This connection has the potential to be of value from two important perspectives - first, this connection has the potential to provide more in depth insights into the forces underlying the emergence of radical behavior and second, this connection may provide insights into how to use

  2. Searching for Contracting Patterns over Time: Do Prime Contractor and Subcontractor Relations Follow Similar Patterns for Professional Services Provision?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponomariov, Branco; Kingsley, Gordon; Boardman, Craig

    2011-01-01

    This paper compares over a 12-year period (1) patterns of contracting between a state transportation agency and its prime contractors providing engineering design services with (2) patterns between these prime contractors and their subcontractors. We find evidence of different contracting patterns at each level that emerge over time and coexist in…

  3. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures.

    PubMed

    Sohn, M Hongchul; Ting, Lena H

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  4. Suboptimal Muscle Synergy Activation Patterns Generalize their Motor Function across Postures

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, M. Hongchul; Ting, Lena H.

    2016-01-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model to investigate the possible biomechanical and neural bases of using consistent muscle synergy patterns to produce functional motor outputs across different biomechanical conditions, which we define as generalizability. Experimental studies in cats demonstrate that the same muscle synergies are used during reactive postural responses at widely varying configurations, producing similarly-oriented endpoint force vectors with respect to the limb axis. However, whether generalizability across postures arises due to similar biomechanical properties or to neural selection of a particular muscle activation pattern has not been explicitly tested. Here, we used a detailed cat hindlimb model to explore the set of feasible muscle activation patterns that produce experimental synergy force vectors at a target posture, and tested their generalizability by applying them to different test postures. We used three methods to select candidate muscle activation patterns: (1) randomly-selected feasible muscle activation patterns, (2) optimal muscle activation patterns minimizing muscle effort at a given posture, and (3) generalizable muscle activation patterns that explicitly minimized deviations from experimentally-identified synergy force vectors across all postures. Generalizability was measured by the deviation between the simulated force direction of the candidate muscle activation pattern and the experimental synergy force vectors at the test postures. Force angle deviations were the greatest for the randomly selected feasible muscle activation patterns (e.g., >100°), intermediate for effort-wise optimal muscle activation patterns (e.g., ~20°), and smallest for generalizable muscle activation patterns (e.g., <5°). Generalizable muscle activation patterns were suboptimal in terms of effort, often exceeding 50% of the maximum possible effort (cf. ~5% in minimum-effort muscle activation patterns). The feasible muscle activation ranges of individual

  5. Patterns of metabolic activity in the treatment of schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Brodie, J.D.; Christman, D.R.; Corona, J.F.; Fowler, J.S.; Gomez-Mont, F.; Jaeger, J.; Micheels, P.A.; Rotrosen, J.; Russell, J.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Wikler, A.

    1984-04-01

    Six patients with chronic schizophrenia were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) before and after neuroleptic treatment, using fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose. After treatment, the mean whole-slice glucose metabolic rate at the level of the basal ganglia showed a 25% increase. However, patterns of frontal hypometabolism observed with the schizophrenic patients were not altered by medication. Pattern analysis using the fast Fourier transform was applied to a set of 422 images from a mixed group of normal, depressed, and schizophrenic subjects. Reconstruction of the images with low-frequency coefficients was excellent, reducing considerably the number of variables needed to characterize each image. Hierarchical cluster analysis categorized the transformed images according to anatomical level and subject group (patient versus control). The results suggest the utility of this procedure for the classification and characterization of metabolic PET images from psychiatric patients. 8 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  6. Internet Abuse among Teenagers and Its Relations to Internet Usage Patterns and Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gencer, Suzan Lema; Koc, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on exploring Internet abuse among teenagers and its relations to some Internet usage patterns and demographic characteristics in a digitalizing country, Turkey. It was designed as a cross-sectional research on three types of school that differ in their academic performances. The data were collected from 1380 high school students…

  7. Novel expression patterns of carotenoid pathway-related gene in citrus leaves and maturing fruits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoids are abundant in citrus fruits and vary among cultivars and species. In the present study, HPLC and real-time PCR were used to investigate the expression patterns of 23 carotenoid biosynthesis gene family members and their possible relation with carotenoid accumulation in flavedo, juice s...

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns of Schistosomiasis-Related Deaths, Brazil, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Martins-Melo, Francisco Rogerlândio; Pinheiro, Marta Cristhiany Cunha; Ramos, Alberto Novaes; Alencar, Carlos Henrique; Bezerra, Fernando Schemelzer de Moraes; Heukelbach, Jorg

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed spatiotemporal patterns of 8,756 schistosomiasis-related deaths in Brazil during 2000-2011 and identified high-risk clusters of deaths, mainly in highly schistosomiasis-endemic areas along the coast of Brazil's Northeast Region. Schistosomiasis remains a neglected public health problem with a high number of deaths in disease-endemic and emerging focal areas.

  9. [Analysis of gingival crevicular fluid. Relation of isoelectric focusing protein patterns to clinical evaluation].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Y; Yoshinaga, E; Tamazawa, O

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the protein patterns in gingival crevicular fluid relation to the isoelectric focusing protein patterns of GCF and to clinical evaluations. GCF was collected with filter paper from 105 subjects. The probing depth, the gingival index (Löe & Silness) and the plaque index (Silness & Löe) as clinical evaluations The results follow: 1. The main isoelectric focusing protein patterns of GCF were between pH 5.5 and 7.5. In comparison, the GCF and the serum from the same patients showed patterns to similar serum albumin. 2. Between of GCF pH 5.5 and 7.5 the protein patterns that ranged over 60% was pI 5.65, 6.45, 6.55, 6.75 and 7.00. The frequencies of the ranges of protein patterns and clinical evaluation were compared by the X2 test. pI 5.65, 6.45, 6.55 and 6.75 and PD were significant different, as were pI 6.45, 6.55 and 6.75 and GI. But each pI and PIl. were not significantly different.

  10. Mother-child attachment patterns and different types of anxiety symptoms: is there specificity of relations?

    PubMed

    Brumariu, Laura E; Kerns, Kathryn A

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test Manassis' proposal (Child-parent relations: Attachment and anxiety disorders, 255-272, 2001) that attachment patterns (secure, ambivalent, avoidant, and disorganized) may relate to different types of anxiety symptoms, and that behavioral inhibition may moderate these relations. Using a story stem interview to assess attachment and children's reports of anxiety symptoms, we found some support for these hypotheses in a sample of 10-12 years olds. Security was related to lower levels of all types of anxieties, except separation anxiety. Ambivalence was positively related to separation anxiety, although this relation was stronger for boys. Although avoidance was not related to anxiety, disorganization was positively related to somatic symptoms, social phobia, and school phobia. Behavioral inhibition moderated the relations of security with social phobia, and of disorganization with school phobia. The findings suggest that it is important to consider specificity between attachment patterns and various types of anxiety symptoms and to recognize that these relations may be altered by other risk factors.

  11. Adults' Physical Activity Patterns across Life Domains: Cluster Analysis with Replication

    PubMed Central

    Rovniak, Liza S.; Sallis, James F.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Marshall, Simon J.; Norman, Gregory J.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Identifying adults' physical activity patterns across multiple life domains could inform the design of interventions and policies. Design Cluster analysis was conducted with adults in two US regions (Baltimore-Washington DC, n = 702; Seattle-King County, n = 987) to identify different physical activity patterns based on adults' reported physical activity across four life domains: leisure, occupation, transport, and home. Objectively measured physical activity, and psychosocial and built (physical) environment characteristics of activity patterns were examined. Main Outcome Measures Accelerometer-measured activity, reported domain-specific activity, psychosocial characteristics, built environment, body mass index (BMI). Results Three clusters replicated (kappa = .90-.93) across both regions: Low Activity, Active Leisure, and Active Job. The Low Activity and Active Leisure adults were demographically similar, but Active Leisure adults had the highest psychosocial and built environment support for activity, highest accelerometer-measured activity, and lowest BMI. Compared to the other clusters, the Active Job cluster had lower socioeconomic status and intermediate accelerometer-measured activity. Conclusion Adults can be clustered into groups based on their patterns of accumulating physical activity across life domains. Differences in psychosocial and built environment support between the identified clusters suggest that tailored interventions for different subgroups may be beneficial. PMID:20836604

  12. Spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity in an aged creosote-contaminated site

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shinjini; Juottonen, Heli; Siivonen, Pauli; Lloret Quesada, Cosme; Tuomi, Pirjo; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Yrjälä, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of polluted sites via in situ bioremediation relies heavily on the indigenous microbes and their activities. Spatial heterogeneity of microbial populations, contaminants and soil chemical parameters on such sites is a major hurdle in optimizing and implementing an appropriate bioremediation regime. We performed a grid-based sampling of an aged creosote-contaminated site followed by geostatistical modelling to illustrate the spatial patterns of microbial diversity and activity and to relate these patterns to the distribution of pollutants. Spatial distribution of bacterial groups unveiled patterns of niche differentiation regulated by patchy distribution of pollutants and an east-to-west pH gradient at the studied site. Proteobacteria clearly dominated in the hot spots of creosote pollution, whereas the abundance of Actinobacteria, TM7 and Planctomycetes was considerably reduced from the hot spots. The pH preferences of proteobacterial groups dominating in pollution could be recognized by examining the order and family-level responses. Acidobacterial classes came across as generalists in hydrocarbon pollution whose spatial distribution seemed to be regulated solely by the pH gradient. Although the community evenness decreased in the heavily polluted zones, basal respiration and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis rates were higher, indicating the adaptation of specific indigenous microbial populations to hydrocarbon pollution. Combining the information from the kriged maps of microbial and soil chemistry data provided a comprehensive understanding of the long-term impacts of creosote pollution on the subsurface microbial communities. This study also highlighted the prospect of interpreting taxa-specific spatial patterns and applying them as indicators or proxies for monitoring polluted sites. PMID:25105905

  13. Changes in pattern completion – a key mechanism to explain age-related recognition memory deficits?

    PubMed Central

    Vieweg, Paula; Stangl, Matthias; Howard, Lorelei R.; Wolbers, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accurate memory retrieval from partial or degraded input requires the reactivation of memory traces, a hippocampal mechanism termed pattern completion. Age-related changes in hippocampal integrity have been hypothesized to shift the balance of memory processes in favor of the retrieval of already stored information (pattern completion), to the detriment of encoding new events (pattern separation). Using a novel behavioral paradigm, we investigated the impact of cognitive aging (1) on recognition performance across different levels of stimulus completeness, and (2) on potential response biases. Participants were required to identify previously learned scenes among new ones. Additionally, all stimuli were presented in gradually masked versions to alter stimulus completeness. Both young and older adults performed increasingly poorly as the scenes became less complete, and this decline in performance was more pronounced in elderly participants indicative of a pattern completion deficit. Intriguingly, when novel scenes were shown, only the older adults showed an increased tendency to identify these as familiar scenes. In line with theoretical models, we argue that this reflects an age-related bias towards pattern completion. PMID:25597525

  14. The Wiring of Developing Sensory Circuits—From Patterned Spontaneous Activity to Synaptic Plasticity Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Leighton, Alexandra H.; Lohmann, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In order to accurately process incoming sensory stimuli, neurons must be organized into functional networks, with both genetic and environmental factors influencing the precise arrangement of connections between cells. Teasing apart the relative contributions of molecular guidance cues, spontaneous activity and visual experience during this maturation is on-going. During development of the sensory system, the first, rough organization of connections is created by molecular factors. These connections are then modulated by the intrinsically generated activity of neurons, even before the senses have become operational. Spontaneous waves of depolarizations sweep across the nervous system, placing them in a prime position to strengthen correct connections and weaken others, shaping synapses into a useful network. A large body of work now support the idea that, rather than being a mere side-effect of the system, spontaneous activity actually contains information which readies the nervous system so that, as soon as the senses become active, sensory information can be utilized by the animal. An example is the neonatal mouse. As soon as the eyelids first open, neurons in the cortex respond to visual information without the animal having previously encountered structured sensory input (Cang et al., 2005b; Rochefort et al., 2011; Zhang et al., 2012; Ko et al., 2013). In vivo imaging techniques have advanced considerably, allowing observation of the natural activity in the brain of living animals down to the level of the individual synapse. New (opto)genetic methods make it possible to subtly modulate the spatio-temporal properties of activity, aiding our understanding of how these characteristics relate to the function of spontaneous activity. Such experiments have had a huge impact on our knowledge by permitting direct testing of ideas about the plasticity mechanisms at play in the intact system, opening up a provocative range of fresh questions. Here, we intend to outline

  15. Bystanders' Behavior in Cyberbullying Episodes: Active and Passive Patterns in the Context of Personal-Socio-Emotional Factors.

    PubMed

    Olenik-Shemesh, Dorit; Heiman, Tali; Eden, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored bystanders' behavior in cyberbullying (CB) episodes among children and youth, focusing on active and passive behavior patterns. The study examined prevalence and characteristics of bystanders' behavior following CB episodes, and their active-passive intervention patterns in relation to personal (age, gender) and socio-emotional (self-efficacy, social support, sense of loneliness) factors. Of the 1,094 participants (ages 9-18), 497 (46.4%) reported they were bystanders to CB episodes. Of the bystanders, 55.4% were identified as having a passive pattern of behavior-they did not provide any help to cyber-victims, whereas 44.6% were identified as having an active pattern-helping the cyber-victim. In line with the "bystanders' effect," only 35.6% of the bystanders offered direct help to cyber-victims after witnessing CB. When studying the personal-socio-emotional differences between active and passive bystanders, it was found that the "active bystanders" are more often girls, older, have more social support from significant others, and have lower levels of emotional loneliness than bystanders in the passive group. Differences within the passive and active patterns were studied as well. A logistic regression revealed the unique contribution of each predictor to the probability of being an active bystander. It was found that gender and age predicted the probability of being an active bystander: Girls are more likely than boys, and older bystanders are more likely than younger ones, to choose an active pattern and provide help to cyber-victims. In addition, implications for CB prevention and intervention involvement programs to encourage bystanders to help cyber-victims are discussed.

  16. Nanoscale electrochemical patterning reveals the active sites for catechol oxidation at graphite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha N; McKelvey, Kim; Unwin, Patrick R

    2012-12-19

    Graphite-based electrodes (graphite, graphene, and nanotubes) are used widely in electrochemistry, and there is a long-standing view that graphite step edges are needed to catalyze many reactions, with the basal surface considered to be inert. In the present work, this model was tested directly for the first time using scanning electrochemical cell microscopy reactive patterning and shown to be incorrect. For the electro-oxidation of dopamine as a model process, the reaction rate was measured at high spatial resolution across a surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite. Oxidation products left behind in a pattern defined by the scanned electrochemical cell served as surface-site markers, allowing the electrochemical activity to be correlated directly with the graphite structure on the nanoscale. This process produced tens of thousands of electrochemical measurements at different locations across the basal surface, unambiguously revealing it to be highly electrochemically active, with step edges providing no enhanced activity. This new model of graphite electrodes has significant implications for the design of carbon-based biosensors, and the results are additionally important for understanding electrochemical processes on related sp(2)-hybridized materials such as pristine graphene and nanotubes.

  17. Basal ganglia activity patterns in parkinsonism and computational modeling of their downstream effects

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Jonathan E.; McIntyre, Cameron C.; Turner, Robert S.; Wichmann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The availability of suitable animal models and of the opportunity to record electrophysiologic data in movement disorder patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures has allowed researchers to investigate parkinsonism-related changes in neuronal firing patterns in the basal ganglia and associated areas of thalamus and cortex. These studies have shown that parkinsonism is associated with increased activity in the basal ganglia output nuclei, along with an increase in burst discharges, oscillatory firing, and synchronous firing patterns throughout the basal ganglia. Computational approaches have the potential to play an important role in the interpretation of these data. Such efforts can provide a formalized view of neuronal interactions in the network of connections between basal ganglia, thalamus and cortex, allow for the exploration of possible contributions of particular network components to parkinsonism, and potentially result in new conceptual frameworks and hypotheses that can be subjected to biological testing. It has proven very difficult, however, to integrate the wealth of the experimental findings into coherent models of the disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the abnormalities in neuronal activity that have been associated with parkinsonism. Subsequently, we discuss some particular efforts to model the pathophysiologic mechanisms that may link abnormal basal ganglia activity to the cardinal parkinsonian motor signs and may help explain the mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of deep brain stimulation for Parkinson’s disease. We emphasize the logical structure of these computational studies, making clear the assumptions from which they proceed and the consequences and predictions that follow from these assumptions. PMID:22805066

  18. Comparative patterns of adrenal activity in captive and wild Canada lynx (Lynx canadensis).

    PubMed

    Fanson, Kerry V; Wielebnowski, Nadja C; Shenk, Tanya M; Lucas, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Stress and animal well-being are often assessed using concentrations of glucocorticoids (GCs), a product of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, GC concentrations can also be modulated by predictable events, such as changes in season or life history stage. Understanding normative patterns of adrenal activity is critical for making valid conclusions about changes in GC concentrations. In this study, we validated an assay for monitoring fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGM) in Canada lynx. We then used this technique to assess patterns of adrenal activity in Canada lynx across several contexts. Our results show that captive lynx have higher FGM concentrations than wild lynx, which may be related to differences in stress levels, metabolic rate, diet, or body condition. We also found that FGM concentrations are correlated with reproductive status in females, but not in males. For males, seasonal increases in FGM expression coincide with the onset of the breeding season, whereas in females, FGM increase toward the end of the breeding season. This information provides a valuable foundation for making inferences about normative versus stress-induced changes in adrenal activity in Canada lynx.

  19. The predatory behavior of wintering Accipiter hawks: temporal patterns in activity of predators and prey.

    PubMed

    Roth, Timothy C; Lima, Steven L

    2007-05-01

    Studies focused on how prey trade-off predation and starvation risk are prevalent in behavioral ecology. However, our current understanding of these trade-offs is limited in one key respect: we know little about the behavior of predators. In this study, we provide some of the first detailed information on temporal patterns in the daily hunting behavior of bird-eating Accipiter hawks and relate that to their prey. During the winters of 1999-2004, twenty-one sharp-shinned hawks (A. striatus) and ten Cooper's hawks (A. cooperii) were intensively radio tracked in rural and urban habitats in western Indiana, USA. Cooper's hawks left roost before sunrise and usually returned to roost around sunset, while sharp-shinned hawks left roost at sunrise or later and returned to roost well before sunset. An overall measure of Cooper's-hawk-induced risk (a composite variable of attack rate and activity patterns) generally reflected the timing of prey activity, with peaks occurring around sunrise and sunset. In contrast, risk induced by the smaller sharp-shinned hawk did not strongly reflect the activity of their prey. Specifically, an early morning peak in prey activity did not correspond to a period with intense hawk activity. The lack of early morning hunting by sharp-shinned hawks may reflect the high risk of owl-induced predation experienced by these hawks. The net effect of this intraguild predation may be to "free" small birds from much hawk-induced predation risk prior to sunrise. This realization presents an alternative to energetics as an explanation for the early morning peak in small bird activity during the winter.

  20. Influence of sleep timing behavior on weight status and activity patterns in adults with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mikulovic, Jacques; Dieu, Olivier; Fardy, Paul S; Bui-Xuan, Gilles; Vanhelst, Jérémy

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to explore the relationship between sleep habits and overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behaviors in French adults with intellectual disabilities. This observational study was conducted on 570 French adults with intellectual deficiency. Sleep habits were analyzed and related to anthropometric measures, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants completed the questionnaire during an interview with the principal investigator. Sleep timing behavior was classified into 4 sleep patterns: Early-bed/Early-rise, Early-bed/Late-rise, Late-bed/Late-rise, and Late-bed/Early-rise. Of 570 eligible participants, 61 were excluded because of missing data on age, weight or height. The number of participants identified in each of the four sleep patterns was as follows: Early-bed/Early-rise, N = 119 (23%), Early-bed/Late-rise, N = 171 (34%), Late-bed/Early-rise, N = 100 (20%), Late-bed/Late-rise N = 119 (23%). Participants who wake up earlier are more active than those who rise late (p < 0.02). Participants who slept later spent more time in sedentary activities than those in the Early rise groups (p < 0.01). The number of obese/overweight participants was also higher in Late-bed/Late rise group. Sleep behavior was associated with overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults with intellectual deficiency, independently the sleep duration. Implementing intervention or promotion programs on sleep behaviors should be considered in order to meet the objectives of promoting health on anthropometric characteristics and increased physical activity among these disabled adults.

  1. Projections of Seasonal Patterns in Temperature- Related Deaths for Manhattan, New York

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2013-01-01

    Global average temperatures have been rising for the past half-century, and the warming trend has accelerated in recent decades. Further warming is expected over the next few decades, with significant regional variations. These warming trends will probably result in more frequent, intense and persistent periods of hot temperatures in summer, and generally higher temperatures in winter. Daily death counts in cities increase markedly when temperatures reach levels that are very high relative to what is normal in a given location. Relatively cold temperatures also seem to carry risk. Rising temperatures may result in more heat-related mortality but may also reduce cold-related mortality, and the net impact on annual mortality remains uncertain. Here we use 16 downscaled global climate models and two emissions scenarios to estimate present and future seasonal patterns in temperature-related mortality in Manhattan, New York. All 32 projections yielded warm-season increases and cold-season decreases in temperature-related mortality, with positive net annual temperature-related deaths in all cases. Monthly analyses showed that the largest percentage increases may occur in May and September. These results suggest that, over a range of models and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, increases in heat-related mortality could outweigh reductions in cold-related mortality, with shifting seasonal patterns.

  2. Projections of seasonal patterns in temperature- related deaths for Manhattan, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Kinney, Patrick L.

    2013-08-01

    Global average temperatures have been rising for the past half-century, and the warming trend has accelerated in recent decades. Further warming is expected over the next few decades, with significant regional variations. These warming trends will probably result in more frequent, intense and persistent periods of hot temperatures in summer, and generally higher temperatures in winter. Daily death counts in cities increase markedly when temperatures reach levels that are very high relative to what is normal in a given location. Relatively cold temperatures also seem to carry risk. Rising temperatures may result in more heat-related mortality but may also reduce cold-related mortality, and the net impact on annual mortality remains uncertain. Here we use 16 downscaled global climate models and two emissions scenarios to estimate present and future seasonal patterns in temperature-related mortality in Manhattan, New York. All 32 projections yielded warm-season increases and cold-season decreases in temperature-related mortality, with positive net annual temperature-related deaths in all cases. Monthly analyses showed that the largest percentage increases may occur in May and September. These results suggest that, over a range of models and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, increases in heat-related mortality could outweigh reductions in cold-related mortality, with shifting seasonal patterns.

  3. Future projections of seasonal patterns in temperature-related deaths for Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M; Kinney, Patrick

    2013-08-01

    Global average temperatures have been rising for the past half-century, and the warming trend has accelerated in recent decades(1). Further warming is expected over the next few decades, with significant regional variations. These warming trends will likely result in more frequent, intense and persistent periods of hot temperatures in summer, and generally higher temperatures in winter. Daily death counts in cities increase markedly when temperatures reach levels that are very high relative to what is normal in a given location(2-4). Relatively cold temperatures also appear to carry risk(2,4). Rising temperatures may result in more heat-related mortality but may also reduce cold-related mortality, and the net impact on annual mortality remains uncertain. Here we use 16 downscaled global climate models and two emissions scenarios to estimate current and future seasonal patterns in temperature-related mortality in Manhattan, New York. All 32 projections yielded warm season increases and cold season decreases in temperature-related mortality, with positive net annual temperature-related deaths in all cases. Monthly analyses showed that the largest percentage increases may occur in May and September. These results suggest that, over a range of models and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, increases in heat-related mortality could outweigh reductions in cold-related mortality, with shifting seasonal patterns.

  4. Future projections of seasonal patterns in temperature-related deaths for Manhattan

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tiantian; Horton, Radley M.; Kinney, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Global average temperatures have been rising for the past half-century, and the warming trend has accelerated in recent decades1. Further warming is expected over the next few decades, with significant regional variations. These warming trends will likely result in more frequent, intense and persistent periods of hot temperatures in summer, and generally higher temperatures in winter. Daily death counts in cities increase markedly when temperatures reach levels that are very high relative to what is normal in a given location2–4. Relatively cold temperatures also appear to carry risk2,4. Rising temperatures may result in more heat-related mortality but may also reduce cold-related mortality, and the net impact on annual mortality remains uncertain. Here we use 16 downscaled global climate models and two emissions scenarios to estimate current and future seasonal patterns in temperature-related mortality in Manhattan, New York. All 32 projections yielded warm season increases and cold season decreases in temperature-related mortality, with positive net annual temperature-related deaths in all cases. Monthly analyses showed that the largest percentage increases may occur in May and September. These results suggest that, over a range of models and scenarios of future greenhouse gas emissions, increases in heat-related mortality could outweigh reductions in cold-related mortality, with shifting seasonal patterns. PMID:24910717

  5. Motor sequence learning in the elderly: differential activity patterns as a function of hand modality.

    PubMed

    Eudave, Luis; Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Luis, Elkin O; Martínez, Martín; Fernández-Seara, María A; Pastor, María A

    2016-07-21

    Previous research on motor sequence learning (MSL) in the elderly has focused mainly on unilateral tasks, even though bilateral coordination might be impaired in this age group. In this fMRI study, 28 right-handed elderly subjects were recruited. The paradigm consisted of a Novel and a simple Control sequence executed with the right (R), left (L) and both hands (B). Behavioral performance (Accuracy[AC], Inter-tap Interval[ITI]) and associated brain activity were assessed during early learning. Behavioral performance in the Novel task was similar between unilateral conditions whereas in the bimanual condition more errors and slower motor execution were observed. Brain activity increases during learning showed differences between Conditions: R showed increased activity in pre-SMA, basal ganglia and left hippocampus while B showed activity increments mainly in posterior parietal cortex and cerebellum. L did not show any activity modulation during learning. Performance correlates for AC (related to spatial success) and ITI (related to accurate timing) shared a cortico-basal-cerebellar network. However, it was found that the ITI regressor presented additional significant correlations with activity in SMA and basal ganglia in R. The AC regressor showed additional significant correlations with activity in more extended thalamic and cerebellar areas in B. The present findings suggest that, behaviorally, the spatial and temporal components of MSL are impaired in elderly subjects when using both hands. Additionally, differential brain activity patterns were found across hand modalities. The results obtained reveal the existence of a highly specialized network in the dominant hand and identify areas specifically involved in bimanual coordination.

  6. Large-scale phytogeographical patterns in eastern Asia in relation to latitudinal and climatic gradients

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Qian, H.; Song, J.-S.; Krestov, P.; Guo, Q.; Wu, Z.; Shen, X.; Guo, X.

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at determining how different floristic elements (e.g. cosmopolitan, tropical, and temperate) change with latitude and major climate factors, and how latitude affects the floristic relationships between East Asia and the other parts of the world. The large-scale patterns of phytogeography in East Asia are strongly related to latitude, which covaries with several climatic variables such as temperature. Evolutionary processes such as the adaptation of plants to cold climates and current and past land connections are likely responsible for the observed latitudinal patterns.

  7. Disease activity patterns over time in patients with SLE: analysis of the Hopkins Lupus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Györi, Noémi; Giannakou, Ioanna; Chatzidionysiou, Katerina; Magder, Laurence; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F; Petri, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Objective To describe SLE disease activity patterns in the Hopkins Lupus Cohort. Methods Disease activity was studied in 1886 patients followed-up for 1–28 years. Disease activity patterns were defined using (1) Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and (2) modified SLE Disease Activity Index (M-SLEDAI) as follows: long quiescent (LQ), M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0 at all visits; relapsing-remitting (RR), periods of activity (M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0) interspersed with inactivity (M-SLEDAI=0/PGA=0); chronic active (CA), M-SLEDAI>0/PGA>0 at all visits. The pattern of first 3 consecutive follow-up years was determined in 916 patients as: persistent LQ (pLQ), persistent RR (pRR) and persistent CA (pCA), LQ, RR and CA pattern in each of the 3 years, respectively; mixed, at least two different pattern types were identified. Results The RR pattern accounted for the greatest proportion of follow-up time both by M-SLEDAI and PGA, representing 53.8% and 49.9% of total patient-years, respectively. The second most frequent pattern was LQ based on M-SLEDAI (30.7%) and CA based on PGA (40.4%). For the first 3-year intervals, the mixed pattern type was the most common (56.6%). The pRR was the second most frequent (M-SLEDAI 33.3%, PGA 26.5%), while pLQ (M-SLEDAI 6.4%, PGA 0.7%) and pCA were less frequent (M-SLEDAI 3.7%, PGA 16.3%). Conclusions The RR pattern was the most prevalent pattern. LQ was achieved in a subset of patients, using the M-SLEDAI. However, the PGA captured mild activity missed on the M-SLEDAI in these patients. Over a 3-year perspective, less than half of patients maintained their original pattern. PMID:28243457

  8. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4±2.3years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS. PMID:20615010

  9. Identification of abnormal motor cortex activation patterns in children with cerebral palsy by functional near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Bilal; Tian, Fenghua; Behbehani, Khosrow; Romero, Mario I.; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Clegg, Nancy J.; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Liu, Hanli; Alexandrakis, George

    2010-05-01

    We demonstrate the utility of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) as a tool for physicians to study cortical plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Motor cortex activation patterns were studied in five healthy children and five children with CP (8.4+/-2.3 years old in both groups) performing a finger-tapping protocol. Spatial (distance from center and area difference) and temporal (duration and time-to-peak) image metrics are proposed as potential biomarkers for differentiating abnormal cortical activation in children with CP from healthy pediatric controls. In addition, a similarity image-analysis concept is presented that unveils areas that have similar activation patterns as that of the maximum activation area, but are not discernible by visual inspection of standard activation images. Metrics derived from the images presenting areas of similarity are shown to be sensitive identifiers of abnormal activation patterns in children with CP. Importantly, the proposed similarity concept and related metrics may be applicable to other studies for the identification of cortical activation patterns by fNIRS.

  10. fMRI single trial discovery of spatio-temporal brain activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Allegra, Michele; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Pizzagalli, Fabrizio; Baftizadeh, Fahimeh; Maieron, Marta; Reverberi, Carlo; Laio, Alessandro; Amati, Daniele

    2017-03-01

    There is growing interest in the description of short-lived patterns in the spatiotemporal cortical activity monitored via neuroimaging. Most traditional analysis methods, designed to estimate relatively long-term brain dynamics, are not always appropriate to capture these patterns. Here we introduce a novel data-driven approach for detecting short-lived fMRI brain activity patterns. Exploiting Density Peak Clustering (Rodriguez and Laio [2014]), our approach reveals well localized clusters by identifying and grouping together voxels whose time-series are similar, irrespective of their brain location, even when very short time windows (∼10 volumes) are used. The method, which we call Coherence Density Peak Clustering (CDPC), is first tested on simulated data and compared with a standard unsupervised approach for fMRI analysis, independent component analysis (ICA). CDPC identifies activated voxels with essentially no false-positives and proves more reliable than ICA, which is troubled by a number of false positives comparable to that of true positives. The reliability of the method is demonstrated on real fMRI data from a simple motor task, containing brief iterations of the same movement. The clusters identified are found in regions expected to be involved in the task, and repeat synchronously with the paradigm. The methodology proposed is especially suitable for the study of short-time brain dynamics and single trial experiments, where the event or task of interest cannot be repeated for the same subject, as happens, for instance, in problem-solving, learning and decision-making. A GUI implementation of our method is available for download at https://github.com/micheleallegra/CDPC. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1421-1437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Activity Patterns in Latissimus Dorsi and Sternocleidomastoid in Classical Singers

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Alan H.D.; Williams, Caitlin; James, Buddug V.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the roles of the accessory respiratory muscles, latissimus dorsi (LD), and sternocleidomastoid, in classical singing. Methods Electromyography was used to record the activity of these muscles in six classically trained female singers carrying out a number of singing and nonsinging tasks. Movements of the chest and abdominal walls were monitored simultaneously using inductive plethysmography, and the sound of the phonations was recorded. Results In normal breathing, LD is active transiently during very deep inhalations and in inhalation against resistance. During exhalation it becomes active again as residual capacity is approached or when air is expelled with great force. Sternocleidomastoid (SCM) supports inhalation when lung volume nears 100% vital capacity or when this is very rapid. All singers engaged LD in supported singing where it was associated with maintaining an expanded thorax. In coloratura singing, pulses of activity of increasing amplitude were often seen in LD toward the end of the breath. These were synchronized with each note. During a short phrase typical of the end of an aria, which was sung at full volume with the projected voice, both LD and SCM were active simultaneously. Spectral analysis of muscle activity demonstrated that in some singers, activity in LD and more rarely SCM, fluctuated in phase with vibrato. Conclusions LD appears to play a significant role in maintaining chest expansion and the dynamic processes underlying vibrato and coloratura singing in classically trained singers. PMID:21724365

  12. Using a Single-Item Physical Activity Measure to Describe and Validate Parents' Physical Activity Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kyra; White, Katherine M.; Cuddihy, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of health-related physical activity (PA), often interpreted as either 150 min/week of at least moderate-intensity PA (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) or at least 30 min of at least moderate-intensity PA on 5 or more days per week (Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing [AGDHA], 2005;…

  13. Activities: Relating to Graphs in Introductory Algebra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Frances

    1994-01-01

    Presents activities designed to help students bridge the gap between the graphical representation of a function and a verbal description. Includes a number of nonstandard graphs and reproducible student worksheets. (MKR)

  14. Chemically-related Groups of Active Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many pesticide active ingredients affect pests in similar ways, and we re-evaluate them together as a group. Groups include carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethrins, and pyrethroids.

  15. Nanolithography and nanochemistry: probe-related patterning techniques and chemical modification for nanometer-sized devices.

    PubMed

    Wouters, Daan; Schubert, Ulrich S

    2004-05-03

    The size regime for devices produced by photolithographic techniques is limited. Therefore, other patterning techniques have been intensively studied to create smaller structures. Scanning-probe-based patterning techniques, such as dip-pen lithography, local force-induced patterning, and local-probe oxidation-based techniques are highly promising because of their relative ease and widespread availability. The latter of these is especially interesting because of the possibility of producing nanopatterns for a broad range of chemical and physical modification and functionalization processes; both the production of nanometer-sized electronic devices and the formation of devices involving (bio)molecular recognition and sensor applications is possible. This Review highlights the development of various scanning probe systems and the possibilities of local oxidation methods, as well as giving an overview of state-of-the-art nanometer-sized devices, and a view of future development.

  16. Assessing age-related patterns in strategy selection on a mathematical problem-solving task.

    PubMed

    Lamson, Nina; Rogers, Wendy A

    2008-05-01

    We examined age-related differences in strategy-choice behavior in 27 younger and 28 older adults. Participants solved 4 two-digit by two-digit multiplication problems. We expected them to initially calculate the answers but eventually switch to a retrieval strategy, recalling answers from memory. Three groups emerged: younger adults who met the criterion (20 consecutive, correct, retrieval trials selected and answered in time), older adults who met the criterion, and older adults who did not meet the criterion. Younger and older adults who met the criterion had similar performance patterns. Some older adults who did not meet the criterion were slower to learn, whereas others seemed to be averse to the retrieval strategy. Thus, older adult patterns in strategy choice are considerably more varied than younger adult patterns, suggesting different explanations for differences in memory performance.

  17. Optimization of a mathematical topological pattern for the prediction of antihistaminic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duart, M. J.; García-Domenech, R.; Antón-Fos, G. M.; Gálvez, J.

    2001-06-01

    Molecular topology was used to develop a mathematical model capable of classifying compounds according to antihistaminic activity. The equations used for this purpose were derived using multilinear regression and linear discriminant analysis. The topological pattern of activity obtained allows the reliable prediction of antihistaminic activity in drugs frequently used for other therapeutic purposes. Based on the results, the proposed pattern is seemingly only valid for drugs that interact with histamine through competitive inhibition with H1 receptors.

  18. Heart cycle-related effects on event-related potentials, spectral power changes, and connectivity patterns in the human ECoG.

    PubMed

    Kern, Markus; Aertsen, Ad; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Ball, Tonio

    2013-11-01

    The perception of one's own heartbeat is a fundamental interoceptive process that involves cortical and subcortical structures. Yet, the precise spatiotemporal neuronal activity patterns underlying the cortical information processing have remained largely elusive. Although the high temporal and spatial resolution of electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings is increasingly being exploited in functional neuroimaging, it has not been used to study heart cycle-related effects. Here, we addressed the capacity of ECoG to characterize neuronal signals within the cardiac cycle, as well as to disentangle them from heart cycle-related artifacts. Based on topographical distribution and latency, we identified a biphasic potential within the primary somatosensory cortex, which likely constitutes a heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) of neuronal origin. We also found two different types of artifacts: i) oscillatory potential changes with a frequency identical to the heart pulse rate, which probably represent pulsatility artifacts and ii) sharp potentials synchronized to the R-peak, corresponding to the onset of ventricular contraction and the cardiac field artifact (CFA) in EEG. Finally, we show that heart cycle-related effects induce pronounced phase-synchrony patterns in the ECoG and that this kind of correlation patterns, which may confound ECoG connectivity studies, can be reduced by a suitable correction algorithm. The present study is, to our knowledge, the first one to show a focally localized cortical HEP that could be clearly and consistently observed over subjects, suggesting a basic role of primary sensory cortex in processing of heart-related sensory inputs. We also conclude that taking into account and reducing heart cycle-related effects may be advantageous for many ECoG studies, and are of crucial importance, particularly for ECoG-based connectivity studies. Thus, in summary, although ECoG poses new challenges, it opens up new possibilities for the investigation of

  19. Mediterranean and western dietary patterns are related to markers of testicular function among healthy men

    PubMed Central

    Cutillas-Tolín, A.; Mínguez-Alarcón, L.; Mendiola, J.; López-Espín, J.J.; Jørgensen, N.; Navarrete-Muñoz, E.M.; Torres-Cantero, A.M.; Chavarro, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are there any associations of dietary patterns with semen quality, reproductive hormone levels, and testicular volume, as markers of testicular function? SUMMARY ANSWER These results suggest that traditional Mediterranean diets may have a positive impact on male reproductive potential. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY The Mediterranean diet has been related to lower risk of multiple chronic diseases, but its effects on reproduction potential are unclear. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Cross-sectional sample of 215 male university students recruited from October 2010 to November 2011 in Murcia Region (Spain). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Two hundred and nine healthy men aged 18–23 years were finally included in this analysis. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis. Linear regression was used to analyze the relation between diet patterns with semen quality parameters, reproductive hormone levels and testicular volume adjusting for potential confounders. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE We identified two dietary patterns: a Mediterranean (characterized by high intakes of vegetables, fruits and seafood) and a Western pattern (characterized by high intakes of processed meats, French fries and snacks). The Mediterranean pattern was positively associated with total sperm count (P, trend = 0.04). The Western pattern was positively related to the percentage of morphologically normal sperm (P, trend = 0.008). We found an inverse association between adherence to the Western pattern and sperm concentration among overweight or obese men (P, trend = 0.04). LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION As with all cross-sectional studies, causal inference is limited. However, participants were blinded to the study outcomes thus reducing the potential influenced their report of diet. Although we adjusted for a large number of known and suspected confounders, we cannot exclude the possibility

  20. Patterns of acoustical activity of bats prior to and following White-nose Syndrome occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ford, W. Mark; Britzke, Eric R.; Dobony, Christopher A.; Rodrigue, Jane L.; Johnson, Joshua B.

    2011-01-01

    White-nose Syndrome (WNS), a wildlife health concern that has decimated cave-hibernating bat populations in eastern North America since 2006, began affecting source-caves for summer bat populations at Fort Drum, a U.S. Army installation in New York in the winter of 2007–2008. As regional die-offs of bats became evident, and Fort Drum's known populations began showing declines, we examined whether WNS-induced change in abundance patterns and seasonal timing of bat activity could be quantified using acoustical surveys, 2003–2010, at structurally uncluttered riparian–water habitats (i.e., streams, ponds, and wet meadows). As predicted, we observed significant declines in overall summer activity between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for little brown bats Myotis lucifugus, northern bats M. septentrionalis, and Indiana bats M. sodalis. We did not observe any significant change in activity patterns between pre-WNS and post-WNS years for big brown bats Eptesicus fuscus, eastern red bats Lasiurus borealis, or the small number of tri-colored bats Perimyotis subflavus. Activity of silver-haired bats Lasionycteris noctivagans increased from pre-WNS to post-WNS years. Activity levels of hoary bats Lasiurus cinereus significantly declined between pre- and post-WNS years. As a nonhibernating, migratory species, hoary bat declines might be correlated with wind-energy development impacts occurring in the same time frame rather than WNS. Intraseason activity patterns also were affected by WNS, though the results were highly variable among species. Little brown bats showed an overall increase in activity from early to late summer pre-WNS, presumably due to detections of newly volant young added to the local population. However, the opposite occurred post-WNS, indicating that reproduction among surviving little brown bats may be declining. Our data suggest that acoustical monitoring during the summer season can provide insights into species' relative abundance on the

  1. Distributed dynamical computation in neural circuits with propagating coherent activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Gong, Pulin; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2009-12-01

    Activity in neural circuits is spatiotemporally organized. Its spatial organization consists of multiple, localized coherent patterns, or patchy clusters. These patterns propagate across the circuits over time. This type of collective behavior has ubiquitously been observed, both in spontaneous activity and evoked responses; its function, however, has remained unclear. We construct a spatially extended, spiking neural circuit that generates emergent spatiotemporal activity patterns, thereby capturing some of the complexities of the patterns observed empirically. We elucidate what kind of fundamental function these patterns can serve by showing how they process information. As self-sustained objects, localized coherent patterns can signal information by propagating across the neural circuit. Computational operations occur when these emergent patterns interact, or collide with each other. The ongoing behaviors of these patterns naturally embody both distributed, parallel computation and cascaded logical operations. Such distributed computations enable the system to work in an inherently flexible and efficient way. Our work leads us to propose that propagating coherent activity patterns are the underlying primitives with which neural circuits carry out distributed dynamical computation.

  2. Analysis of volcanic activity patterns using MODIS thermal alerts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothery, Dave A.; Coppola, Diego; Saunders, Charlotte

    2005-07-01

    We investigate eruptive activity by analysis of thermal-alert data from the MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) thermal infrared satellite instrument, detected by the MODVOLC (MODIS Volcano alert) algorithm. These data are openly available on the Internet, and easy to use. We show how such data can plug major gaps in the conventional monitoring record of volcanoes in an otherwise generally poorly documented region (Melanesia), including: characterising the mechanism of lava effusion at Pago; demonstrating an earlier-than-realised onset of lava effusion at Lopevi; extending the known period of lava lake activity at Ambrym; and confirming ongoing activity at Bagana, Langila and Tinakula. We also add to the record of activity even at some generally better-monitored volcanoes in Indonesia, but point out that care must be taken to recognise and exclude fires.

  3. Joint spatial modeling to identify shared patterns among chronic related potentially preventable hospitalizations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of Potentially Preventable Hospitalizations (PPH) are used to evaluate access of territorially delimited populations to high quality ambulatory care. A common geographic pattern of several PPH would reflect the performance of healthcare providers. This study is aimed at modeling jointly the geographical variation in six chronic PPH conditions in one Spanish Autonomous Community for describing common and discrepant patterns, and to assess the relative weight of the common pattern on each condition. Methods Data on the 39,970 PPH hospital admissions for diabetes short term complications, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure, dehydration, angina admission and adult asthma, between 2007 and 2009 were extracted from the Hospital Discharge Administrative Databases and assigned to one of the 240 Basic Health Zones. Rates and Standardized Hospitalization Ratios per geographic unit were estimated. The spatial analysis was carried out jointly for PPH conditions using Shared Component Models (SCM). Results The component shared by the six PPH conditions explained about the 36% of the variability of each PPH condition, ranging from the 25.9 for dehydration to 58.7 for COPD. The geographical pattern found in the latent common component identifies territorial clusters with particularly high risk. The specific risk pattern that each isolated PPH does not share with the common pattern for all six conditions show many non-significant areas for most PPH, but with some exceptions. Conclusions The geographical distribution of the risk of the PPH conditions is captured in a 36% by a unique latent pattern. The SCM modeling may be useful to evaluate healthcare system performance. PMID:24899214

  4. Activity Pattern of Urban Adult Students in an Eastern Mediterranean Society.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Issam; Hussein, Tareq

    2016-09-28

    Knowledge of human activity patterns is needed in air pollution exposure and health risk assessment. However, human activity patterns have never been evaluated in the Eastern Mediterranean societies. Therefore, we investigated the activity pattern of 285 subjects (17-63 years) in Amman, Jordan during October to November, 2015. The subjects spent >80% of their time indoors during weekend days and >85% on workdays. They spent ~4.8% and ~5.7% in transportation during weekend days and workdays, respectively. Males had a different activity pattern than females on weekend days, but both genders had similar activity patterns on workdays. On workdays, males spent less time indoors than females. The activity pattern found in this study is a bit different than that for North Americans and Europeans, who spend more time indoors and in transit. The activity pattern found in this study was very different than that observed for Koreans, who spent about 59% and 67% indoors on workdays and weekend, respectively. The main outcomes of this survey can be utilized in human exposure studies. This study and the upcoming future studies have been encouraged and supported by the regional WHO office in Amman.

  5. When the future becomes the past: Differences in brain activation patterns for episodic memory and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Julia A; Suchan, Boris; Daum, Irene

    2010-10-15

    Episodic memory and episodic future thinking activate a network of overlapping brain regions, but little is known about the mechanism with which the brain separates the two processes. It was recently suggested that differential activity for memory and future thinking may be linked to differences in the phenomenal properties (e.g., richness of detail). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and a novel experimental design, we investigated the networks involved in the imagery of future and the recall of past events for the same target occasion, i.e. the Christmas and New Year's holidays, thereby keeping temporal distance and content similar across conditions. Although ratings of phenomenal characteristics were comparable for future thoughts and memories, differential activation patterns emerged. The right posterior hippocampus exhibited stronger memory-related activity during early event recall, and stronger future thought-related activity during late event imagination. Other regions, e.g., the precuneus and lateral prefrontal cortex, showed the reverse activation pattern with early future-associated and late past-associated activation. Memories compared to future thoughts were further related to stronger activation in several visual processing regions, which accords with a reactivation of the original perceptual experience. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time unique neural signatures for both memory and future thinking even in the absence of differences in phenomenal properties and suggested different time courses of brain activation for episodic memory and future thinking.

  6. Relations between the development of patterns of sleeping heart rate and body temperature in infants.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S A; Pratt, C; Wailoo, M P

    2001-09-01

    Overnight patterns of rectal temperature and heart rate were recorded from 119 normal infants at weekly intervals from 7 to about 16 weeks of age. All data were collected in the infants' own homes. As previously reported, different infants developed an adult-like night time rectal temperature pattern abruptly at different ages. When heart rate data were collated by age, there was an apparently gradual fall in sleeping heart rate from 7 to about 14 weeks of age. This was, however, an artefact of data collation. Individual infants showed abrupt falls in heart rate at the time that the adult-like body temperature pattern appeared, but this occurred at different ages in different babies, so when data were collated cross sectionally, an apparently gradual fall resulted. The relation between the developmental changes in sleeping heart rate and rectal temperature was different in boys and girls, with girls showing a more abrupt and greater change in heart rate at the time of development of the adult-like body temperature pattern. Infants whose parents smoked had significantly lower heart rates once the adult-like body temperature pattern had appeared.

  7. Patterns of cortical activity during the observation of Public Service Announcements and commercial advertisings

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present research we were interested to study the cerebral activity of a group of healthy subjects during the observation a documentary intermingled by a series of TV advertisements. In particular, we desired to examine whether Public Service Announcements (PSAs) are able to elicit a different pattern of activity, when compared with a different class of commercials, and correlate it with the memorization of the showed stimuli, as resulted from a following subject’s verbal interview. Methods We recorded the EEG signals from a group of 15 healthy subjects and applied the High Resolution EEG techniques in order to estimate and map their Power Spectral Density (PSD) on a realistic cortical model. The single subjects’ activities have been z-score transformed and then grouped to define four different datasets, related to subjects who remembered and forgotten the PSAs and to subjects who remembered and forgotten cars commercials (CAR) respectively, which we contrasted to investigate cortical areas involved in this encoding process. Results The results we here present show that the cortical activity elicited during the observation of the TV commercials that were remembered (RMB) is higher and localized in the left frontal brain areas when compared to the activity elicited during the vision of the TV commercials that were forgotten (FRG) in theta and gamma bands for both categories of advertisements (PSAs and CAR). Moreover, the cortical maps associated with the PSAs also show an increase of activity in the alpha and beta band. Conclusions In conclusion, the TV advertisements that will be remembered by the experimental population have increased their cerebral activity, mainly in the left hemisphere. These results seem to be congruent with and well inserted in the already existing literature, on this topic, related to the HERA model. The different pattern of activity in different frequency bands elicited by the observation of PSAs may be justified by the

  8. The anatomical relationships between the avian eye, orbit and sclerotic ring: implications for inferring activity patterns in extinct birds.

    PubMed

    Hall, Margaret I

    2008-06-01

    Activity pattern, or the time of day when an animal is awake and active, is highly associated with that animal's ecology. There are two principal activity patterns: diurnal, or awake during the day in a photopic, or high light level, environment; and nocturnal, awake at night in scotopic, or low light level, conditions. Nocturnal and diurnal birds exhibit characteristic eye shapes associated with their activity pattern, with nocturnal bird eyes optimized for visual sensitivity with large corneal diameters relative to their eye axial lengths, and diurnal birds optimized for visual acuity, with larger axial lengths of the eye relative to their corneal diameters. The current study had three aims: (1) to quantify the nature of the relationship between the avian eye and its associated bony anatomy, the orbit and the sclerotic ring; (2) to investigate how activity pattern is reflected in that bony anatomy; and (3) to identify how much bony anatomy is required to interpret activity pattern reliably for a bird that does not have the soft tissue available for study, specifically, for a fossil. Knowledge of extinct avian activity patterns would be useful in making palaeoecological interpretations. Here eye, orbit and sclerotic ring morphologies of 140 nocturnal and diurnal bird species are analysed in a phylogenetic context. Although there is a close relationship between the avian eye and orbit, activity pattern can only be reliably interpreted for bony-only specimens, such as a fossil, that include both measurements of the sclerotic ring and orbit depth. Any missing data render the fossil analysis inaccurate, including fossil specimens that are flat and therefore do not have an orbit depth available. For example, activity pattern cannot be determined with confidence for Archaeopteryx lithographica, which has a complete sclerotic ring but no orbit depth measurement. Many of the bird fossils currently available that retain a good sclerotic ring tend to be flat specimens

  9. Holographic optogenetic stimulation of patterned neuronal activity for vision restoration.

    PubMed

    Reutsky-Gefen, Inna; Golan, Lior; Farah, Nairouz; Schejter, Adi; Tsur, Limor; Brosh, Inbar; Shoham, Shy

    2013-01-01

    When natural photoreception is disrupted, as in outer-retinal degenerative diseases, artificial stimulation of surviving nerve cells offers a potential strategy for bypassing compromised neural circuits. Recently, light-sensitive proteins that photosensitize quiescent neurons have generated unprecedented opportunities for optogenetic neuronal control, inspiring early development of optical retinal prostheses. Selectively exciting large neural populations are essential for eliciting meaningful perceptions in the brain. Here we provide the first demonstration of holographic photo-stimulation strategies for bionic vision restoration. In blind retinas, we demonstrate reliable holographically patterned optogenetic stimulation of retinal ganglion cells with millisecond temporal precision and cellular resolution. Holographic excitation strategies could enable flexible control over distributed neuronal circuits, potentially paving the way towards high-acuity vision restoration devices and additional medical and scientific neuro-photonics applications.

  10. The Application of a Contact Lens Sensor in Detecting 24-Hour Intraocular Pressure-Related Patterns

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is one of the leading causes of blindness worldwide. Recent studies suggest that intraocular pressure (IOP) fluctuations, peaks, and rhythm are important factors in disease advancement. Yet, current glaucoma management remains hinged on single IOP measurements during clinic hours. To overcome this limitation, 24-hour IOP monitoring devices have been employed and include self-tonometry, permanent IOP, and temporary IOP monitoring. This review discusses each IOP measuring strategy and focuses on the recently FDA-approved contact lens sensor (CLS). The CLS records IOP-related ocular patterns for 24 hours continuously. Using the CLS, IOP-related parameters have been found to be associated with the rate of visual field progression in primary open-angle glaucoma, disease progression in primary angle-closure glaucoma, and various clinical variables in ocular hypertension. The CLS has been used to quantify blink rate and limbal strain and measure the circadian rhythm in a variety of disease states including normal-tension glaucoma and thyroid eye disease. The effects of various IOP-lowering interventions were also characterized using the CLS. CLS provides a unique, safe, and well-tolerated way to study IOP-related patterns in a wide range of disease states. IOP-related patterns may help identify patients most at risk for disease progression and assist with the development of tailored treatments. PMID:27525110

  11. Biogeographical patterns and phenological changes in Lapiedra martinezii LAG. related to its alkaloid diversity.

    PubMed

    Ríos, Segundo; Berkov, Strahil; Martínez-Francés, Vanessa; Bastida, Jaume

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the alkaloid patterns of Lapiedra martinezii and their relation to biogeography and phenology focused in a phylogenetic comparison. Plants from 14 populations of L. martinezii, covering almost its entire distribution area, were subjected to morphological, ecological, and phytochemical analysis. Experiments for different alkaloid-type content are proposed as a new tool for analysis of plant distribution. Several plants were transplanted for weekly observation of their phenological changes, and alkaloids from different plant organs were extracted, listed, and compared. The alkaloid pattern of L. martinezii comprises 49 compounds of homolycorine, lycorine, tazettine, haemantamine, and narciclasine types. The populations located in the north and south margins of the distribution area displayed alkaloid patterns different from those of the central area. Changes in these patterns during their phenological cycle may be related to a better defence for plant reproduction. L. martinezii is an old relict plant, and it has maintained some of the more primitive morphological features and alkaloid profiles of the Mediterranean Amaryllidaceae. The variations in alkaloid content observed could be interpreted in a phylogenetic sense, and those found in their phenological changes, in an adaptive one.

  12. A New Method to Study Bat Activity Patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, T.C.; Menzel, M.A.; Chapman, B.R.; Miller, K.V.; Lee, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses development of a method to use data loggers that are independent of the receiving system to record data on environmental conditions (temperature, light intensity, and relative humidity) as well as multiple inputs from a radiotransmitter.

  13. Physical activity and sedentary activity patterns among children and adolescents: a latent class analysis approach

    PubMed Central

    Heitzler, Carrie; Lytle, Leslie; Erickson, Darin; Sirard, John; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Story, Marry

    2010-01-01

    Background While much is known about the overall levels of physical activity and sedentary activity among youth, few studies have attempted to define clusters of such behaviors. The purpose of this study was to identify and describe unique classes of youth based on their participation in a variety of physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Methods Latent class analysis was used to characterize segments of youth based on patterns of self-reported and accelerometer-measured participation in 12 behaviors. Children and adolescents (N=720) from 6th–11th grade were included in the analysis. Differences in class membership were examined using multinomial logistic regression. Results Three distinct classes emerged for boys and girls. Among boys, the three classes were characterized as: (1) “Active” (42.1%), (2) “Sedentary” (24.9%), and (3) “Low Media/Moderate Activity” (33.0%). For girls, classes were: (1) “Active” (18.7%), (2) “Sedentary” (47.6%), and (3) “Low Media/Functional Activity” (33.7%). Significant differences were found between the classes for a number of demographic indicators including the proportion in each class who were classified as overweight or obese. Conclusions The behavioral profiles of the classes identified in this study can be used to suggest possible audience segments for intervention and to tailor strategies appropriately. PMID:21597117

  14. Tuning the Biological Activity Profile of Antibacterial Polymers via Subunit Substitution Pattern

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Binary nylon-3 copolymers containing cationic and hydrophobic subunits can mimic the biological properties of host-defense peptides, but relationships between composition and activity are not yet well understood for these materials. Hydrophobic subunits in previously studied examples have been limited mostly to cycloalkane-derived structures, with cyclohexyl proving to be particularly promising. The present study evaluates alternative hydrophobic subunits that are isomeric or nearly isomeric with the cyclohexyl example; each has four sp3 carbons in the side chains. The results show that varying the substitution pattern of the hydrophobic subunit leads to relatively small changes in antibacterial activity but causes significant changes in hemolytic activity. We hypothesize that these differences in biological activity profile arise, at least in part, from variations among the conformational propensities of the hydrophobic subunits. The α,α,β,β-tetramethyl unit is optimal among the subunits we have examined, providing copolymers with potent antibacterial activity and excellent prokaryote vs eukaryote selectivity. Bacteria do not readily develop resistance to the new antibacterial nylon-3 copolymers. These findings suggest that variation in subunit conformational properties could be generally valuable in the development of synthetic polymers for biological applications. PMID:24601599

  15. On the abundance and activity pattern of zoobenthos inhabiting a tropical reef area, Cebu, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, A.

    1984-12-01

    A benthic faunal study was carried out in the tidal area of Mactan Island (Cebu, Philippines). The area was subdivided along a transect from the beach to the reef according to benthic assemblages. The sediments are largely composed of calcareous skeletal remains of the indigenous biota and surrounding calcareous rocks. The content of protein and carbohydrates of the sediment was estimated, providing an approximation of organic matter in terms of feeding efficiency. Total number of zoobenthos, both as regards the sediment samples and as to the epifaunal communities associated with seaweeds, is rather uniformly distributed justifying the 95% confidence level ( P>0.05). Distinct differences are apparent in abundance values of individual taxa. Although the study area showed the expected distribution pattern, with dominance of Nematoda (39%) living in sediment and Harpacticoida (36 66%) dwelling on Thalassia and algae, Polychaeta reveal a dominant attraction to both these habitats. The reasons for this phenomenon are discussed in relation to the absolute lack of macrofaunal predators The zoobenthos adjust their distribution and activity to fluctuating conditions of the environment. Light is mainly suggested as stimulating diel migration activities of the benthic fauna, moving upwards from the sediment to the algae and Thalassia during daytime. In a field experiment the zoobenthos was investigated for digestion activity over a diurnal cycle. The results reveal that feeding activity of zoobenthos follows a diel cycle showing maximum activity during the morning and evening obviously influenced by changes of light.

  16. Tuning the biological activity profile of antibacterial polymers via subunit substitution pattern.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Chakraborty, Saswata; Lemke, Justin J; Hayouka, Zvi; Chow, Clara; Welch, Rodney A; Weisblum, Bernard; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2014-03-19

    Binary nylon-3 copolymers containing cationic and hydrophobic subunits can mimic the biological properties of host-defense peptides, but relationships between composition and activity are not yet well understood for these materials. Hydrophobic subunits in previously studied examples have been limited mostly to cycloalkane-derived structures, with cyclohexyl proving to be particularly promising. The present study evaluates alternative hydrophobic subunits that are isomeric or nearly isomeric with the cyclohexyl example; each has four sp(3) carbons in the side chains. The results show that varying the substitution pattern of the hydrophobic subunit leads to relatively small changes in antibacterial activity but causes significant changes in hemolytic activity. We hypothesize that these differences in biological activity profile arise, at least in part, from variations among the conformational propensities of the hydrophobic subunits. The α,α,β,β-tetramethyl unit is optimal among the subunits we have examined, providing copolymers with potent antibacterial activity and excellent prokaryote vs eukaryote selectivity. Bacteria do not readily develop resistance to the new antibacterial nylon-3 copolymers. These findings suggest that variation in subunit conformational properties could be generally valuable in the development of synthetic polymers for biological applications.

  17. Activity patterns in the Sahara Desert: an interpretation based on cross-sectional geometric properties.

    PubMed

    Nikita, Efthymia; Siew, Yun Ysi; Stock, Jay; Mattingly, David; Lahr, Marta Mirazón

    2011-11-01

    The Garamantian civilization flourished in modern Fezzan, Libya, between 900 BC and 500 AD, during which the aridification of the Sahara was well established. Study of the archaeological remains suggests a population successful at coping with a harsh environment of high and fluctuating temperatures and reduced water and food resources. This study explores the activity patterns of the Garamantes by means of cross-sectional geometric properties. Long bone diaphyseal shape and rigidity are compared between the Garamantes and populations from Egypt and Sudan, namely from the sites of Kerma, el-Badari, and Jebel Moya, to determine whether the Garamantian daily activities were more strenuous than those of other North African populations. Moreover, sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry are assessed at an intra- and inter-population level. The inter-population comparisons showed the Garamantes not to be more robust than the comparative populations, suggesting that the daily Garamantian activities necessary for survival in the Sahara Desert did not generally impose greater loads than those of other North African populations. Sexual dimorphism and bilateral asymmetry in almost all geometric properties of the long limbs were comparatively low among the Garamantes. Only the lower limbs were significantly stronger among males than females, possibly due to higher levels of mobility associated with herding. The lack of systematic bilateral asymmetry in cross-sectional geometric properties may relate to the involvement of the population in bilaterally intensive activities or the lack of regular repetition of unilateral activities.

  18. Increasing ocean temperatures reduce activity patterns of a large commercially important coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Johansen, J L; Messmer, V; Coker, D J; Hoey, A S; Pratchett, M S

    2014-04-01

    Large-bodied fish are critical for sustaining coral reef fisheries, but little is known about the vulnerability of these fish to global warming. This study examined the effects of elevated temperatures on the movement and activity patterns of the common coral trout Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae), which is an important fishery species in tropical Australia and throughout the Indo West-Pacific. Adult fish were collected from two locations on Australia's Great Barrier Reef (23°S and 14°S) and maintained at one of four temperatures (24, 27, 30, 33 °C). Following >4 weeks acclimation, the spontaneous swimming speeds and activity patterns of individuals were recorded over a period of 12 days. At 24-27 °C, spontaneous swimming speeds of common coral trout were 0.43-0.45 body lengths per second (bls(-1)), but dropped sharply to 0.29 bls(-1) at 30 °C and 0.25 bls(-1) at 33 °C. Concurrently, individuals spent 9.3-10.6% of their time resting motionless on the bottom at 24-27 °C, but this behaviour increased to 14.0% at 30 °C and 20.0% of the time at 33 °C (mean ± SE). The impact of temperature was greatest for smaller individuals (<45 cm TL), showing significant changes to swimming speeds across every temperature tested, while medium (45-55 cm TL) and large individuals (>55 cm TL) were first affected by 30 °C and 33 °C, respectively. Importantly, there was some indication that populations can adapt to elevated temperature if presented with adequate time, as the high-latitude population decreased significantly in swimming speeds at both 30 °C and 33 °C, while the low-latitude population only showed significant reductions at 33 °C. Given that movement and activity patterns of large mobile species are directly related to prey encounter rates, ability to capture prey and avoid predators, any reductions in activity patterns are likely to reduce overall foraging and energy intake, limit the energy available for growth and reproduction, and affect the fitness and

  19. Effects of Age, Season, Gender and Urban-Rural Status on Time-Activity: Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2)

    PubMed Central

    Matz, Carlyn J.; Stieb, David M.; Davis, Karelyn; Egyed, Marika; Rose, Andreas; Chou, Benedito; Brion, Orly

    2014-01-01

    Estimation of population exposure is a main component of human health risk assessment for environmental contaminants. Population-level exposure assessments require time-activity pattern distributions in relation to microenvironments where people spend their time. Societal trends may have influenced time-activity patterns since previous Canadian data were collected 15 years ago. The Canadian Human Activity Pattern Survey 2 (CHAPS 2) was a national survey conducted in 2010–2011 to collect time-activity information from Canadians of all ages. Five urban and two rural locations were sampled using telephone surveys. Infants and children, key groups in risk assessment activities, were over-sampled. Survey participants (n = 5,011) provided time-activity information in 24-hour recall diaries and responded to supplemental questionnaires concerning potential exposures to specific pollutants, dwelling characteristics, and socio-economic factors. Results indicated that a majority of the time was spent indoors (88.9%), most of which was indoors at home, with limited time spent outdoors (5.8%) or in a vehicle (5.3%). Season, age, gender and rurality were significant predictors of time activity patterns. Compared to earlier data, adults reported spending more time indoors at home and adolescents reported spending less time outdoors, which could be indicative of broader societal trends. These findings have potentially important implications for assessment of exposure and risk. The CHAPS 2 data also provide much larger sample sizes to allow for improved precision and are more representative of infants, children and rural residents. PMID:24557523

  20. Age-related individual variability in memory performance is associated with amygdala-hippocampal circuit function and emotional pattern separation.

    PubMed

    Leal, Stephanie L; Noche, Jessica A; Murray, Elizabeth A; Yassa, Michael A

    2017-01-01

    While aging is generally associated with episodic memory decline, not all older adults exhibit memory loss. Furthermore, emotional memories are not subject to the same extent of forgetting and appear preserved in aging. We conducted high-resolution fMRI during a task involving pattern separation of emotional information in older adults with and without age-related memory impairment (characterized by performance on a word-list learning task: low performers: LP vs. high performers: HP). We found signals consistent with emotional pattern separation in hippocampal dentate (DG)/CA3 in HP but not in LP individuals, suggesting a deficit in emotional pattern separation. During false recognition, we found increased DG/CA3 activity in LP individuals, suggesting that hyperactivity may be associated with overgeneralization. We additionally observed a selective deficit in basolateral amygdala-lateral entorhinal cortex-DG/CA3 functional connectivity in LP individuals during pattern separation of negative information. During negative false recognition, LP individuals showed increased medial temporal lobe functional connectivity, consistent with overgeneralization. Overall, these results suggest a novel mechanistic account of individual differences in emotional memory alterations exhibited in aging.

  1. Activities, self-referent memory beliefs, and cognitive performance: evidence for direct and mediated relations.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela; Hertzog, Christopher

    2007-12-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the role of activities and self-referent memory beliefs for cognitive performance in a life-span sample. A factor analysis identified 8 activity factors, including Developmental Activities, Experiential Activities, Social Activities, Physical Activities, Technology Use, Watching Television, Games, and Crafts. A second-order general activity factor was significantly related to a general factor of cognitive function as defined by ability tests. Structural regression models suggested that prediction of cognition by activity level was partially mediated by memory beliefs, controlling for age, education, health, and depressive affect. Models adding paths from general and specific activities to aspects of crystallized intelligence suggested additional unique predictive effects for some activities. In alternative models, nonsignificant effects of beliefs on activities were detected when cognition predicted both variables, consistent with the hypothesis that beliefs derive from monitoring cognition and have no influence on activity patterns.

  2. Citizenship Related Activities in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulos, Pete

    1984-01-01

    A world history course is molded around broad instructional goals in which citizenship education can and should be included. Learning activities dealing with ancient Greece illustrate teaching strategies which can be used in high school world history courses to foster citizenship knowledge, skills, and attitudes. (RM)

  3. Examination of Children's Recess Physical Activity Patterns Using the Activities for Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP) Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stellino, Megan Babkes; Sinclair, Christina

    2014-01-01

    Thorough assessment of children's physical activity is essential to efficacious interventions to reduce childhood obesity prevalence. The purpose of this study was to examine children's recess physical activity (RPA) patterns of behavior using the Activities of Daily Living-Playground Participation (ADL-PP: Watkinson et al., 2001) instrument.…

  4. Activity Patterns in Response to Symptoms in Patients Being Treated for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: An Experience Sampling Methodology Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cognitive–behavioral models of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) propose that patients respond to symptoms with 2 predominant activity patterns—activity limitation and all-or-nothing behaviors—both of which may contribute to illness persistence. The current study investigated whether activity patterns occurred at the same time as, or followed on from, patient symptom experience and affect. Method: Twenty-three adults with CFS were recruited from U.K. CFS services. Experience sampling methodology (ESM) was used to assess fluctuations in patient symptom experience, affect, and activity management patterns over 10 assessments per day for a total of 6 days. Assessments were conducted within patients’ daily life and were delivered through an app on touchscreen Android mobile phones. Multilevel model analyses were conducted to examine the role of self-reported patient fatigue, pain, and affect as predictors of change in activity patterns at the same and subsequent assessment. Results: Current experience of fatigue-related symptoms and pain predicted higher patient activity limitation at the current and subsequent assessments whereas subjective wellness predicted higher all-or-nothing behavior at both times. Current pain predicted less all-or-nothing behavior at the subsequent assessment. In contrast to hypotheses, current positive affect was predictive of current activity limitation whereas current negative affect was predictive of current all-or-nothing behavior. Both activity patterns varied at the momentary level. Conclusions: Patient symptom experiences appear to be driving patient activity management patterns in line with the cognitive–behavioral model of CFS. ESM offers a useful method for examining multiple interacting variables within the context of patients’ daily life. PMID:27819461

  5. Math Activities Using LogoWriter--Patterns and Designs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flewelling, Gary

    This book is one in a series of teacher resource books developed to: (1) rescue students from the clutches of computers that drill and control; and (2) supply teachers with computer activities compatible with a mathematics program that emphasizes investigation, problem solving, creativity, and hypothesis making and testing. This is not a book…

  6. Activation patterns in forearm muscles during archery shooting.

    PubMed

    Ertan, H; Kentel, B; Tümer, S T; Korkusuz, F

    2003-02-01

    A contraction and relaxation strategy with regard to forearm muscles during the release of the bowstring has often been observed during archery, but has not well been described. The purpose of this study was to analyze this strategy in archers with different levels of expertise; elite, beginner and non-archers. Electromyography (EMG) activity of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis and the M. extensor digitorum were recorded at a sampling frequency of 500 Hz, together with a pulse synchronized with the clicker snap, for twelve shots by each subject. Raw EMG records, 1-s before and after the clicker pulse, were rectified, integrated and normalized. The data was then averaged for successive shots of each subject and later for each group. All subjects including non-archers developed an active contraction of the M. extensor digitorum and a gradual relaxation of the M. flexor digitorum superficialis with the fall of the clicker. In elite archers release started about 100 ms after the fall of the clicker, whereas in beginners and non-archers release started after about 200 and 300 ms, respectively. Non-archers displayed a preparation phase involving extensive extensor activity before the release of the bowstring, which was not observed in elite and beginner archers. In conclusion, archers released the bowstring by active contraction of the forearm extensors, whereas a clear relaxation of the forearm flexors affecting the release movement was not observed.

  7. A method to study global spatial patterns related to sensory perception in scalp EEG.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Yusely; Pockett, Susan; Freeman, Walter J; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Li, Guang

    2010-08-15

    Prior studies of multichannel ECoG from animals showed that beta and gamma oscillations carried perceptual information in both local and global spatial patterns of amplitude modulation, when the subjects were trained to discriminate conditioned stimuli (CS). Here the hypothesis was tested that similar patterns could be found in the scalp EEG human subjects trained to discriminate simultaneous visual-auditory CS. Signals were continuously recorded from 64 equispaced scalp electrodes and band-pass filtered. The Hilbert transform gave the analytic phase, which segmented the EEG into temporal frames, and the analytic amplitude, which expressed the pattern in each frame as a feature vector. Methods applied to the ECoG were adapted to the EEG for systematic search of the beta-gamma spectrum, the time period after CS onset, and the scalp surface to locate patterns that could be classified with respect to type of CS. Spatial patterns of EEG amplitude modulation were found from all subjects that could be classified with respect to stimulus combination type significantly above chance levels. The patterns were found in the beta range (15-22 Hz) but not in the gamma range. They occurred in three short bursts following CS onset. They were non-local, occupying the entire array. Our results suggest that the scalp EEG can yield information about the timing of episodically synchronized brain activity in higher cognitive function, so that future studies in brain-computer interfacing can be better focused. Our methods may be most valuable for analyzing data from dense arrays with very high spatial and temporal sampling rates.

  8. Group Learning as Relational Economic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss group learning in line with economic perspectives of embeddedness and integration emanating from the work of Karl Polanyi. Polanyi's work defines economy as a necessary interaction among human beings for survival; the economy is considered inextricably linked from broader society and social relations rather…

  9. Causality patterns and machine learning for the extraction of problem-action relations in discharge summaries.

    PubMed

    Seol, Jae-Wook; Yi, Wangjin; Choi, Jinwook; Lee, Kyung Soon

    2017-02-01

    Clinical narrative text includes information related to a patient's medical history such as chronological progression of medical problems and clinical treatments. A chronological view of a patient's history makes clinical audits easier and improves quality of care. In this paper, we propose a clinical Problem-Action relation extraction method, based on clinical semantic units and event causality patterns, to present a chronological view of a patient's problem and a doctor's action. Based on our observation that a clinical text describes a patient's medical problems and a doctor's treatments in chronological order, a clinical semantic unit is defined as a problem and/or an action relation. Since a clinical event is a basic unit of the problem and action relation, events are extracted from narrative texts, based on the external knowledge resources context features of the conditional random fields. A clinical semantic unit is extracted from each sentence based on time expressions and context structures of events. Then, a clinical semantic unit is classified into a problem and/or action relation based on the event causality patterns of the support vector machines. Experimental results on Korean discharge summaries show 78.8% performance in the F1-measure. This result shows that the proposed method is effectively classifies clinical Problem-Action relations.

  10. Movement preparation and execution: differential functional activation patterns after traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gooijers, Jolien; Beets, Iseult A M; Albouy, Genevieve; Beeckmans, Kurt; Michiels, Karla; Sunaert, Stefan; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2016-09-01

    Years following the insult, patients with traumatic brain injury often experience persistent motor control problems, including bimanual coordination deficits. Previous studies revealed that such deficits are related to brain structural white and grey matter abnormalities. Here, we assessed, for the first time, cerebral functional activation patterns during bimanual movement preparation and performance in patients with traumatic brain injury, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Eighteen patients with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (10 females; aged 26.3 years, standard deviation = 5.2; age range: 18.4-34.6 years) and 26 healthy young adults (15 females; aged 23.6 years, standard deviation = 3.8; age range: 19.5-33 years) performed a complex bimanual tracking task, divided into a preparation (2 s) and execution (9 s) phase, and executed either in the presence or absence of augmented visual feedback. Performance on the bimanual tracking task, expressed as the average target error, was impaired for patients as compared to controls (P < 0.001) and for trials in the absence as compared to the presence of augmented visual feedback (P < 0.001). At the cerebral level, movement preparation was characterized by reduced neural activation in the patient group relative to the control group in frontal (bilateral superior frontal gyrus, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex), parietal (left inferior parietal lobe) and occipital (right striate and extrastriate visual cortex) areas (P's < 0.05). During the execution phase, however, the opposite pattern emerged, i.e. traumatic brain injury patients showed enhanced activations compared with controls in frontal (left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left lateral anterior prefrontal cortex, and left orbitofrontal cortex), parietal (bilateral inferior parietal lobe, bilateral superior parietal lobe, right precuneus, right primary somatosensory cortex), occipital (right striate and extrastriate visual cortices), and

  11. The Influence of verbalization on the pattern of cortical activation during mental arithmetic

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study at 3 T was to investigate the influence of the verbal-visual cognitive style on cerebral activation patterns during mental arithmetic. In the domain of arithmetic, a visual style might for example mean to visualize numbers and (intermediate) results, and a verbal style might mean, that numbers and (intermediate) results are verbally repeated. In this study, we investigated, first, whether verbalizers show activations in areas for language processing, and whether visualizers show activations in areas for visual processing during mental arithmetic. Some researchers have proposed that the left and right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the left angular gyrus (AG), two areas involved in number processing, show some domain or modality specificity. That is, verbal for the left AG, and visual for the left and right IPS. We investigated, second, whether the activation in these areas implied in number processing depended on an individual's cognitive style. Methods 42 young healthy adults participated in the fMRI study. The study comprised two functional sessions. In the first session, subtraction and multiplication problems were presented in an event-related design, and in the second functional session, multiplications were presented in two formats, as Arabic numerals and as written number words, in an event-related design. The individual's habitual use of visualization and verbalization during mental arithmetic was assessed by a short self-report assessment. Results We observed in both functional sessions that the use of verbalization predicts activation in brain areas associated with language (supramarginal gyrus) and auditory processing (Heschl's gyrus, Rolandic operculum). However, we found no modulation of activation in the left AG as a function of verbalization. Conclusions Our results confirm that strong verbalizers use mental speech as a form of mental imagination more strongly than

  12. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children

    PubMed Central

    Jasińska, Kaja K.; Molfese, Peter J.; Kornilov, Sergey A.; Mencl, W. Einar; Frost, Stephen J.; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain’s functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children’s (age 6–10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading–related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes. PMID:27551971

  13. The BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Reading Ability and Patterns of Neural Activation in Children.

    PubMed

    Jasińska, Kaja K; Molfese, Peter J; Kornilov, Sergey A; Mencl, W Einar; Frost, Stephen J; Lee, Maria; Pugh, Kenneth R; Grigorenko, Elena L; Landi, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how genes impact the brain's functional activation for learning and cognition during development remains limited. We asked whether a common genetic variant in the BDNF gene (the Val66Met polymorphism) modulates neural activation in the young brain during a critical period for the emergence and maturation of the neural circuitry for reading. In animal models, the bdnf variation has been shown to be associated with the structure and function of the developing brain and in humans it has been associated with multiple aspects of cognition, particularly memory, which are relevant for the development of skilled reading. Yet, little is known about the impact of the Val66Met polymorphism on functional brain activation in development, either in animal models or in humans. Here, we examined whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism (dbSNP rs6265) is associated with children's (age 6-10) neural activation patterns during a reading task (n = 81) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), genotyping, and standardized behavioral assessments of cognitive and reading development. Children homozygous for the Val allele at the SNP rs6265 of the BDNF gene outperformed Met allele carriers on reading comprehension and phonological memory, tasks that have a strong memory component. Consistent with these behavioral findings, Met allele carriers showed greater activation in reading-related brain regions including the fusiform gyrus, the left inferior frontal gyrus and left superior temporal gyrus as well as greater activation in the hippocampus during a word and pseudoword reading task. Increased engagement of memory and spoken language regions for Met allele carriers relative to Val/Val homozygotes during reading suggests that Met carriers have to exert greater effort required to retrieve phonological codes.

  14. Geopolymers and Related Alkali-Activated Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provis, John L.; Bernal, Susan A.

    2014-07-01

    The development of new, sustainable, low-CO2 construction materials is essential if the global construction industry is to reduce the environmental footprint of its activities, which is incurred particularly through the production of Portland cement. One type of non-Portland cement that is attracting particular attention is based on alkali-aluminosilicate chemistry, including the class of binders that have become known as geopolymers. These materials offer technical properties comparable to those of Portland cement, but with a much lower CO2 footprint and with the potential for performance advantages over traditional cements in certain niche applications. This review discusses the synthesis of alkali-activated binders from blast furnace slag, calcined clay (metakaolin), and fly ash, including analysis of the chemical reaction mechanisms and binder phase assemblages that control the early-age and hardened properties of these materials, in particular initial setting and long-term durability. Perspectives for future research developments are also explored.

  15. Relational Patterns and the Development of the Alliance: A Systematic Comparison of two Cases.

    PubMed

    Schattner, Emanuel; Tishby, Orya; Wiseman, Hadas

    2016-05-17

    A systematic case study approach was taken to explore the impact of client and therapist relational patterns on the development of the therapeutic alliance and symptom reduction in two cases of psychodynamic psychotherapy treated by the same therapist. The cases were selected from a larger sample and represent two distinct trajectories of alliance development: improvement versus deterioration. The comparison was based on participants' ongoing narratives about each other and about significant others, using the Relationship Anecdote Paradigm (RAP) interview. The qualitative findings were triangulated with process and outcome measures assessed at four time points during the year of treatment. We hypothesized that different therapeutic processes, including different handling by the therapist of interpersonal difficulties as they arose in treatment, could explain the two distinct trajectories of alliance development and symptom change within the caseload of one therapist. Results indicate two linked elements that may explain a steady increase in alliance and decrease in symptoms in one case, compared with the second case that started with an increase in alliance and symptom improvement, but gradually reached an impasse and a setback in symptoms. One element was the extent to which client's and therapist's relational patterns clashed, impacting each other negatively. The second was the extent to which differences and disagreements were stated openly and negotiated so that the therapist could flexibly adapt to meet the client's relational patterns in one case versus inability to do so in the other. Implications for training and other psychotherapy orientations are discussed. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Relation between type A behavior pattern and the extent of coronary atherosclerosis in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Washio, Masakazu; Tokunaga, Shoji; Tanaka, Keitaro; Liu, Ying; Kodama, Hiroko; Arai, Hidekazu; Koyanagi, Samon; Hiyamuta, Koji; Doi, Yoshitaka; Kawano, Tomoki; Nakagaki, Osamu; Takada, Kazuyuki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Nii, Takanobu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Ideishi, Munehito; Arakawa, Kikuo; Mohri, Masahiro; Takeshita, Akira

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relation of Type A behavior pattern and its components to angiographically documented coronary atherosclerosis in 198 Japanese women. A questionnaire-based interview elicited psychosocial and other factors. Type A behavior pattern was measured by 12 questions. Significant coronary stenosis was defined when a 75% or greater luminal narrowing occurred at one or more major coronary arteries or 50% or greater narrowing occurred at the left main artery. Gensini's score also was calculated. Logistic regression analysis was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals with adjustment for traditional coronary risk factors and the presence of a job. Global Type A behavior pattern showed no material association with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis assessed by both Gensini's score and the presence of significant coronary stenosis. However, its subcomponents, enthusiasm and competitiveness, were positively related to the severity of coronary atherosclerosis, whereas self-confidence and perfectionism were negatively related. These findings suggest overall a null association between global Type A and coronary atherosclerosis as well as the presence of toxic or beneficial components of Type A behaviors in Japanese women.

  17. Seasonal variation of activity patterns in roe deer in a temperate forested area.

    PubMed

    Pagon, Nives; Grignolio, Stefano; Pipia, Anna; Bongi, Paolo; Bertolucci, Cristiano; Apollonio, Marco

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the activity patterns of a European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) population living in a forested Apennine area in central Italy, in order to shed light on the environmental and biological factors that were expected to account for the observed activity patterns on daily and yearly bases. Daily and seasonal activity patterns of 31 radio-collared roe deer were assessed through sessions of radio tracking for a total period of 18 consecutive months. Roe deer showed bimodal activity patterns throughout the year, with the two highest peaks of activity recorded at dawn and dusk. Activity patterns of males and females differed during the territorial period (from early spring to late summer), whereas they did not during the nonterritorial period. Most likely, behavioral thermoregulation can be held responsible for variation of daily activity patterns in different seasons. In winter, for instance, activity during the dawn period was significantly higher than in other seasons and daylight activity was significantly higher than at night. Nocturnal activity was highest in summer and lowest in winter. During the hunting season, moreover, roe deer showed lower activity levels than during the rest of the year. The prediction that roe deer would show lower activity levels during full moon nights, when the predation risk was assumed to be higher, was not confirmed by our data. Activity rhythms in roe deer were thus subjected to both endogenous and environmental factors, the latter working as exogenous synchronization cues. Accordingly, in changing environmental and ecological conditions, a circadian cycle of activity could be seen as the result of complex interactions among daily behavioral rhythm, digestive physiology, and external modifying factors.

  18. Circuits constructed from identified Aplysia neurons exhibit multiple patterns of persistent activity.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinfeld, D; Raccuia-Behling, F; Chiel, H J

    1990-01-01

    We have used identified neurons from the abdominal ganglion of the mollusc Aplysia to construct and analyze two circuits in vitro. Each of these circuits was capable of producing two patterns of persistent activity; that is, they had bistable output states. The output could be switched between the stable states by a brief, external input. One circuit consisted of cocultured L10 and left upper quadrant (LUQ) neurons that formed reciprocal, inhibitory connections. In one stable state L10 was active and the LUQ was quiescent, whereas in the other stable state L10 was quiescent and the LUQ was active. A second circuit consisted of co-cultured L7 and L12 neurons that formed reciprocal, excitatory connections. In this circuit, both cells were quiescent in one stable state and both cells fired continuously in the other state. Bistable output in both circuits resulted from the nonlinear firing characteristics of each neuron and the feedback between the two neurons. We explored how the stability of the neuronal output could be controlled by the background currents injected into each neuron. We observed a relatively well-defined range of currents for which bistability occurred, consistent with the values expected from the measured strengths of the connections and a simple model. Outside of the range, the output was stable in only a single state. These results suggest how stable patterns of output are produced by some in vivo circuits and how command neurons from higher neural centers may control the activity of these circuits. The criteria that guided us in forming our circuits in culture were derived from theoretical studies on the properties of certain neuronal network models (e.g., Hopfield, J. J. 1984. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 81:3088-3092). Our results show that circuits consisting of only two co-cultured neurons can exhibit bistable output states of the form hypothesized to occur in populations of neurons. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:2344460

  19. Emergent patterns from probabilistic generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kabla, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The combination of laterally activating and inhibiting feedbacks is well known to spontaneously generate spatial organization. It was introduced by Gierer and Meinhardt as an extension of Turing's great insight that two reacting and diffusing chemicals can spontaneously drive spatial morphogenesis per se. In this study, we develop an accessible nonlinear and discrete probabilistic model to study simple generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition. By doing so, we identify a range of modes of morphogenesis beyond the familiar Turing-type modes; notably, beyond stripes, hexagonal nets, pores and labyrinths, we identify labyrinthine highways, Kagome lattices, gyrating labyrinths and multi-colour travelling waves and spirals. The results are discussed within the context of Turing's original motivating interest: the mechanisms which underpin the morphogenesis of living organisms. PMID:27170648

  20. Replicating Physiological Patterns of Activity with Prosthetic Stimulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-01

    that ganglion cells, the output cells of the retina , can be activated directly and exclusively with short duration stimulus pulses[1-4]. However, the...example, the type with the lowest threshold in the human retina is most likely to have the strongest influence on clinical responses. If this is not...oriented to the optic disk side of the retina , but its exact location ranged almost the full 180° within that side). Because the electric field arising

  1. The cortical activation pattern during bilateral arm raising movements

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Seo, Jung Pyo; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Jin, Sang-Hyun; Yeo, Sang Seok

    2017-01-01

    Bilateral arm raising movements have been used in brain rehabilitation for a long time. However, no study has been reported on the effect of these movements on the cerebral cortex. In this study, using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we attempted to investigate cortical activation generated during bilateral arm raising movements. Ten normal subjects were recruited for this study. fNIRS was performed using an fNIRS system with 49 channels. Bilateral arm raising movements were performed in sitting position at the rate of 0.5 Hz. We measured values of oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin in five regions of interest: the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, prefrontal cortex, and posterior parietal cortex. During performance of bilateral arm raising movements, oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin values in the primary sensorimotor cortex, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, and prefrontal cortex were similar, but higher in these regions than those in the prefrontal cortex. We observed activation of the arm somatotopic areas of the primary sensorimotor cortex and premotor cortex in both hemispheres during bilateral arm raising movements. According to this result, bilateral arm raising movements appeared to induce large-scale neuronal activation and therefore arm raising movements would be good exercise for recovery of brain functions.

  2. Sociocultural patterning of neural activity during self-reflection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yina; Bang, Dan; Wang, Chenbo; Allen, Micah; Frith, Chris; Roepstorff, Andreas; Han, Shihui

    2014-01-01

    Western cultures encourage self-construals independent of social contexts, whereas East Asian cultures foster interdependent self-construals that rely on how others perceive the self. How are culturally specific self-construals mediated by the human brain? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we monitored neural responses from adults in East Asian (Chinese) and Western (Danish) cultural contexts during judgments of social, mental and physical attributes of themselves and public figures to assess cultural influences on self-referential processing of personal attributes in different dimensions. We found that judgments of self vs a public figure elicited greater activation in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in Danish than in Chinese participants regardless of attribute dimensions for judgments. However, self-judgments of social attributes induced greater activity in the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) in Chinese than in Danish participants. Moreover, the group difference in TPJ activity was mediated by a measure of a cultural value (i.e. interdependence of self-construal). Our findings suggest that individuals in different sociocultural contexts may learn and/or adopt distinct strategies for self-reflection by changing the weight of the mPFC and TPJ in the social brain network. PMID:22956678

  3. Different event-related patterns of gamma-band power in brain waves of fast- and slow-reacting subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Jokeit, H; Makeig, S

    1994-01-01

    Fast- and slow-reacting subjects exhibit different patterns of gamma-band electroencephalogram (EEG) activity when responding as quickly as possible to auditory stimuli. This result appears to confirm long-standing speculations of Wundt that fast- and slow-reacting subjects produce speeded reactions in different ways and demonstrates that analysis of event-related changes in the amplitude of EEG activity recorded from the human scalp can reveal information about event-related brain processes unavailable using event-related potential measures. Time-varying spectral power in a selected (35- to 43-Hz) gamma frequency band was averaged across trials in two experimental conditions: passive listening and speeded reacting to binaural clicks, forming 40-Hz event-related spectral responses. Factor analysis of between-subject event-related spectral response differences split subjects into two near-equal groups composed of faster- and slower-reacting subjects. In faster-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power peaked near 200 ms and 400 ms poststimulus in the react condition, whereas in slower-reacting subjects, 40-Hz power just before stimulus delivery was larger in the react condition. These group differences were preserved in separate averages of relatively long and short reaction-time epochs for each group. gamma-band (20-60 Hz)-filtered event-related potential response averages did not differ between the two groups or conditions. Because of this and because gamma-band power in the auditory event-related potential is small compared with the EEG, the observed event-related spectral response features must represent gamma-band EEG activity reliably induced by, but not phase-locked to, experimental stimuli or events. PMID:8022783

  4. Dietary patterns of school-age children in Scotland: association with socio-economic indicators, physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Craig, Leone C A; McNeill, Geraldine; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Masson, Lindsey F; Holmes, Bridget A

    2010-02-01

    The Survey of Sugar Intake among Children in Scotland was carried out in May to September 2006. The present study aimed to identify dietary patterns in school-aged children from the survey and investigate associations with socio-economic factors, obesity and physical activity. Habitual diet was assessed using the Scottish Collaborative Group FFQ. Height and weight were measured by trained fieldworkers. A total of 1233 FFQ were available for analysis. Dietary patterns were identified by age (5-11 and 12-17 years) and sex using principal components analysis. Associations between factor scores and socio-economic status, education level of the main food provider, physical activity levels and BMI category (based on UK 1990 charts) were examined. Three dietary patterns were identified in each age and sex group. 'Healthier' patterns loading highly for fruit and vegetables were significantly associated with higher socio-economic status and higher education levels of the main food provider whereas more 'unhealthy' patterns ('snacks' and 'puddings') were associated with lower socio-economic status and lower education levels of the main food provider. There was no consistent association between dietary patterns and BMI group or time spent in physical activity. However, inactivity (screen time) was inversely associated with 'healthier' patterns in all age and sex groups and positively associated with 'puddings' and 'snacks' in girls aged 5-11 years. Clear dietary patterns can be identified in school-age children in Scotland, which are consistently related to socio-economic factors and inactivity. This has implications for targeting health promotion at subgroups in terms of lifestyle changes required.

  5. Measuring the Actual Levels and Patterns of Physical Activity/Inactivity of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finlayson, Janet; Turner, Angela; Granat, Malcolm H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Lack of regular physical activity is a significant risk to health. The aim of this study was to objectively measure the levels and patterns of activity of adults with intellectual disabilities, to inform the design of studies aimed at increasing activity and health in this population. Materials and Methods: Interviews were conducted…

  6. Patterns of Brain Activation in Foster Children and Nonmaltreated Children During an Inhibitory Control Task

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Graham, Alice M.; Moore, William E.; Peake, Shannon J.; Mannering, Anne M.

    2012-01-01

    Children in foster care have often encountered a range of adverse experiences, including neglectful and/or abusive care and multiple caregiver transitions. Prior research findings suggest that such experiences negatively affect inhibitory control and the underlying neural circuitry. In the current study, event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was employed during a go/no go task that assesses inhibitory control to compare the behavioral performance and brain activation of foster children and nonmaltreated children. The sample included two groups of 9- to 12-year-old children: 11 maltreated foster children and 11 nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. There were no significant group differences on behavioral performance on the task. In contrast, patterns of brain activation differed by group. The nonmaltreated children demonstrated stronger activation than the foster children across several regions including the right anterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, and right lingual gyrus during correct no go trials, whereas the foster children displayed stronger activation than the nonmaltreated children in the left inferior parietal lobule and right superior occipital cortex including the lingual gyrus and cuneus during incorrect no go trials. These results provide preliminary evidence that the early adversity experienced by foster children impacts the neural substrates of inhibitory control. PMID:24229540

  7. Adaptation of neuromuscular activation patterns during treadmill walking after long-duration space flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Layne, C. S.; Lange, G. W.; Pruett, C. J.; McDonald, P. V.; Merkle, L. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Smith, S. L.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    The precise neuromuscular control needed for optimal locomotion, particularly around heel strike and toe off, is known to be compromised after short duration (8- to 15-day) space flight. We hypothesized here that longer exposure to weightlessness would result in maladaptive neuromuscular activation during postflight treadmill walking. We also hypothesized that space flight would affect the ability of the sensory-motor control system to generate adaptive neuromuscular activation patterns in response to changes in visual target distance during postflight treadmill walking. Seven crewmembers, who completed 3- to 6-month missions, walked on a motorized treadmill while visually fixating on a target placed 30 cm (NEAR) or 2 m (FAR) from the subject's eyes. Electronic foot switch data and surface electromyography were collected from selected muscles of the right lower limb. Results indicate that the phasic features of neuromuscular activation were moderately affected and the relative amplitude of activity in the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris around toe off changed after space flight. Changes also were evident after space flight in how these muscles adapted to the shift in visual target distance.

  8. Effects of providing a nutrition education program for teenagers: dietary and physical activity patterns.

    PubMed

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Yuen, Dorothy T W

    2009-06-01

    This study enhanced nutritional knowledge in an education program and encouraged healthy dietary habits and regular physical activity among teenagers. A total of 203 adolescents from a secondary school in Hong Kong took part in the study. Their Body Mass Index, dietary habits, and physical exercise pattern were recorded and examined before and after the health education program. The prevalence of overweight and obesity, together with the fat composition, were high among the participants before the nutrition education program. There was a marked gain in knowledge upon its completion. A follow-up action conducted 3 months later revealed positive outcomes in relation to the diet and physical activity level. The teenagers were able to take control of their health and requested the tuck shop to sell more healthy food and reduce the supply of unhealthy items. The educational initiatives in dietary habits and physical activities proved to be effective in encouraging the teenagers to eat more healthily and to adopt an active lifestyle.

  9. Subjective and objective wine quality in Central Mediterranean in relation to large scale climate patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, Marina; Dalu, John David; Dalla Marta, Anna; Orlandini, Simone; Maracchi, Gianpiero; Dalu, Giovannangelo; Grifoni, Daniele; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Subjective wine ranking is based on three factors: appearance (eye), smell (nose) and taste (palate); this kind of subjective ranking is often preferred over that based on technical objective means. Wine quality depends on its composition, which is a function of a number of factors: grapevine variety, soil type, cultivation techniques, and climate conditions. Between them, the soil is the main fixed factor; the positive trend is determined by a combination of improved cultural techniques and of warming related to climate change; while the climate variability is the main factor in determining the year-to-year wine quality variations. Therefore, the analysis of the grape composition before harvest is crucial for establishing the quality-climate correlations. In this work, 40 years of objective and subjective wine quality data collected in Italy are analyzed in relation to the climate conditions. Results show that the year-to-year quality variation of wines produced in North and Central Italy depends on the large scale climate variability, and that the wine quality improvement in the last four decades is partially due to an increase of temperature and to a decrease of the precipitations in West and Central Mediterranean Europe (WME; CME). In addition, wine quality is positively correlated with air temperature throughout the entire active period of the grapevine; weakly negatively correlated with precipitation in spring, and well negatively correlated in summer and fall. The month-to-month composites of the NAO anomaly show that, in years of good quality wine, this anomaly is negative in late spring, oscillates around zero in summer, and is positive in early fall; while, in years of bad quality wine, it is positive in late spring and summer, and negative in early fall; i.e. its polarity has an opposite sign in spring and fall in good versus bad years. The composite seasonal maps show that good wines are produced when the spring jet stream over Atlantic diverts most of

  10. Food Patterns According to Sociodemographics, Physical Activity, Sleeping and Obesity in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, Pedro; Santos, Susana; Padrão, Patrícia; Cordeiro, Tânia; Bessa, Mariana; Valente, Hugo; Barros, Renata; Teixeira, Vitor; Mitchell, Vanessa; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, André

    2010-01-01

    Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5−10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables. PMID:20617022

  11. The precise temporal pattern of prehearing spontaneous activity is necessary for tonotopic map refinement.

    PubMed

    Clause, Amanda; Kim, Gunsoo; Sonntag, Mandy; Weisz, Catherine J C; Vetter, Douglas E; Rűbsamen, Rudolf; Kandler, Karl

    2014-05-21

    Patterned spontaneous activity is a hallmark of developing sensory systems. In the auditory system, rhythmic bursts of spontaneous activity are generated in cochlear hair cells and propagated along central auditory pathways. The role of these activity patterns in the development of central auditory circuits has remained speculative. Here we demonstrate that blocking efferent cholinergic neurotransmission to developing hair cells in mice that lack the α9 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α9 KO mice) altered the temporal fine structure of spontaneous activity without changing activity levels. KO mice showed a severe impairment in the functional and structural sharpening of an inhibitory tonotopic map, as evidenced by deficits in synaptic strengthening and silencing of connections and an absence in axonal pruning. These results provide evidence that the precise temporal pattern of spontaneous activity before hearing onset is crucial for the establishment of precise tonotopy, the major organizing principle of central auditory pathways.

  12. Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

  13. The Afrocentric Paradigm in Health-Related Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittman, Beverly D.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the potential role of culture in health-related physical activity participation, discussing kinesiology and reporting results from a health-related physical activity study of women, some of whom had taken a culturally designed aerobics class. Participants demonstrated the positive impact of culture on physical activity participation.…

  14. Alternative Patterning Process for Realization of Large-Area, Full-Color, Active Quantum Dot Display.

    PubMed

    Park, Joon-Suh; Kyhm, Jihoon; Kim, Hong Hee; Jeong, Shinyoung; Kang, JoonHyun; Lee, Song-Ee; Lee, Kyu-Tae; Park, Kisun; Barange, Nilesh; Han, JiYeong; Song, Jin Dong; Choi, Won Kook; Han, Il Ki

    2016-11-09

    Although various colloidal quantum dot (QD) coating and patterning techniques have been developed to meet the demands in optoelectronic applications over the past years, each of the previously demonstrated methods has one or more limitations and trade-offs in forming multicolor, high-resolution, or large-area patterns of QDs. In this study, we present an alternative QD patterning technique using conventional photolithography combined with charge-assisted layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly to solve the trade-offs of the traditional patterning processes. From our demonstrations, we show repeatable QD patterning process that allows multicolor QD patterns in both large-area and microscale. Also, we show that the QD patterns are robust against additional photolithography processes and that the thickness of the QD patterns can be controlled at each position. To validate that this process can be applied to actual device applications as an active material, we have fabricated inverted, differently colored, active QD light-emitting device (QD-LED) on a pixelated substrate, which achieved maximum electroluminescence intensity of 23 770 cd/m(2), and discussed the results. From our findings, we believe that our process provides a solution to achieving both high-resolution and large-scale QD pattern applicable to not only display, but also to practical photonic device research and development.

  15. Fractal patterns of neural activity exist within the suprachiasmatic nucleus and require extrinsic network interactions.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kun; Meijer, Johanna H; Shea, Steven A; vanderLeest, Henk Tjebbe; Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Houben, Thijs; van Oosterhout, Floor; Deboer, Tom; Scheer, Frank A J L

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian central circadian pacemaker (the suprachiasmatic nucleus, SCN) contains thousands of neurons that are coupled through a complex network of interactions. In addition to the established role of the SCN in generating rhythms of ~24 hours in many physiological functions, the SCN was recently shown to be necessary for normal self-similar/fractal organization of motor activity and heart rate over a wide range of time scales--from minutes to 24 hours. To test whether the neural network within the SCN is sufficient to generate such fractal patterns, we studied multi-unit neural activity of in vivo and in vitro SCNs in rodents. In vivo SCN-neural activity exhibited fractal patterns that are virtually identical in mice and rats and are similar to those in motor activity at time scales from minutes up to 10 hours. In addition, these patterns remained unchanged when the main afferent signal to the SCN, namely light, was removed. However, the fractal patterns of SCN-neural activity are not autonomous within the SCN as these patterns completely broke down in the isolated in vitro SCN despite persistence of circadian rhythmicity. Thus, SCN-neural activity is fractal in the intact organism and these fractal patterns require network interactions between the SCN and extra-SCN nodes. Such a fractal control network could underlie the fractal regulation observed in many physiological functions that involve the SCN, including motor control and heart rate regulation.

  16. Osteological evidence for the evolution of activity pattern and visual acuity in primates.

    PubMed

    Kay, R F; Kirk, E C

    2000-10-01

    Examination of orbit size and optic foramen size in living primates reveals two adaptive phenomena. First, as noted by many authors, orbit size is strongly correlated with activity pattern. Comparisons of large samples of extant primates consistently reveal that nocturnal species exhibit proportionately larger orbits than diurnal species. Furthermore, nocturnal haplorhines (Tarsius and Aotus) have considerably larger orbits than similar-sized nocturnal strepsirrhines. Orbital hypertrophy in Tarsius and Aotus accommodates the enormously enlarged eyes of these taxa. This extreme ocular hypertrophy seen in extant nocturnal haplorhines is an adaptation for both enhanced visual acuity and sensitivity in conditions of low light intensity. Second, the relative size of the optic foramen is highly correlated with the degree of retinal summation and inferred visual acuity. Diurnal haplorhines exhibit proportionately larger optic foramina, less central retinal summation, and much higher visual acuity than do all other primates. Diurnal strepsirrhines exhibit a more subtle but significant parallel enlargement of the optic foramen and a decrease in retinal summation relative to the condition seen in nocturnal primates. These twin osteological variables of orbit size and optic foramen size may be used to draw inferences regarding the activity pattern, retinal anatomy, and visual acuity of fossil primates. Our measurements demonstrate that the omomyiforms Microchoerus, Necrolemur, Shoshonius, and Tetonius, adapiform Pronycticebus, and the possible lorisiform Plesiopithecus were likely nocturnal on the basis of orbit diameter. The adapiforms Leptadapis, Adapis, and Notharctus, the phylogenetically enigmatic Rooneyia, the early anthropoids Proteopithecus, Catopithecus, and Aegyptopithecus, and early platyrrhine Dolichocebus were likely diurnal. The activity pattern of the platyrrhine Tremacebus is obscure. Plesiopithecus, Pronycticebus, Microchoerus, and Necrolemur probably had

  17. Relative Influences: Patterns of HPA Axis Concordance During Triadic Family Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Margolin, Gayla; Shapiro, Lauren Spies; Ramos, Michelle; Rodriguez, Aubrey; Iturralde, Esti

    2015-01-01

    Objective Within-family concordance in physiology may have implications for family system functioning and for individual health outcomes. Here, we examine patterns of association in cortisol within family triads. Methods A total of 103 adolescents and their parents sampled saliva at multiple timepoints before and after a conflict discussion task. We explored whether within-family associations existed and were moderated by stepparent presence and youth gender, and whether within-family patterns of influence correlated with individuals’ aggregate cortisol. Results Across the laboratory visit, the cortisol levels of fathers, mothers, and youth were positively associated. In time-lagged models, mothers’ cortisol predicted fathers’ cortisol levels sampled at the following timepoint, whereas fathers’ predicted youths’ and youths’ predicted mothers’ cortisol. These patterns appeared stronger in families not including stepparents. Youth gender moderated some associations: in the aggregate, youth were more strongly linked with their same-gender parent. In time-lagged models, girls were more closely linked to their mothers than boys, and both parents were more linked to girls. Youth showed higher aggregate cortisol output if they were more linked with their mothers, and lower output if more linked with their fathers; parents had higher output if they were more linked with their spouses and lower output if more linked with their children. Conclusions These results suggest that family members’ physiological activation may be linked during shared interaction, and that these patterns may be affected by family role and by youth gender. Our findings identify specific patterns of physiological influence within families that may inform family systems theories. PMID:23914815

  18. A novel pattern mining approach for identifying cognitive activity in EEG based functional brain networks.

    PubMed

    Thilaga, M; Vijayalakshmi, R; Nadarajan, R; Nandagopal, D

    2016-06-01

    The complex nature of neuronal interactions of the human brain has posed many challenges to the research community. To explore the underlying mechanisms of neuronal activity of cohesive brain regions during different cognitive activities, many innovative mathematical and computational models are required. This paper presents a novel Common Functional Pattern Mining approach to demonstrate the similar patterns of interactions due to common behavior of certain brain regions. The electrode sites of EEG-based functional brain network are modeled as a set of transactions and node-based complex network measures as itemsets. These itemsets are transformed into a graph data structure called Functional Pattern Graph. By mining this Functional Pattern Graph, the common functional patterns due to specific brain functioning can be identified. The empirical analyses show the efficiency of the proposed approach in identifying the extent to which the electrode sites (transactions) are similar during various cognitive load states.

  19. Age-related changes in the use of regular patterns for auditory scene analysis.

    PubMed

    Rimmele, Johanna; Schröger, Erich; Bendixen, Alexandra

    2012-07-01

    A recent approach to auditory processing suggests a close relationship of regularity processing in auditory sensory memory (ASM) and stream segregation, such that within-stream regularities can be used to stabilize stream segregation. The present study investigates age-related changes in how regular patterns are used for auditory scene analysis (ASA), when the stream containing the regularity is attended or unattended. In order to accomplish an intensity level deviant detection task, participants had to segregate the task-relevant pure tone sequence from an irrelevant distractor pure tone sequence, which randomly varied in level. In three conditions a simple spectro-temporal regularity ("Isochronous"), a more complex spectro-temporal regularity ("Rhythmic"), or no regularity ("Random") was embedded in either the attended target sequence (Experiment 1), or the unattended distractor sequence (Experiment 2). When the sequence containing the regularity was attended, older participants showed a similar increase of performance to younger adults in the conditions with regular patterns ("Isochronous" and "Rhythmic") compared to the "Random" condition. In contrast, when the sequence containing the regularity was unattended, older adults showed a specific performance decline compared to younger adults in the "Isochronous" condition. Results suggest a link between impaired automatic processing of regularities in ASM, and age-related deficits in the use of regular patterns for ASA.

  20. Bird activity levels related to weather

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Ralph, C. John; Scott, J. Michael

    1981-01-01

    The Breeding Bird Survey data bank serves as a primary source for studying effects of sky cover, wind speed, and temperature on bird census results. Other standardized methods, such as spot-mapping (Breeding Bird Census), point counts, banding, and the Winter Bird Survey, provide additional, but limited, means of assessing effects of weather. Numbers of songbirds detected are generally inversely correlated with wind speed, but hawks often are seen in larger numbers on windy days. Rain greatly reduces the numbers of birds detected. Cloud cover has relatively little influence on early morning bird counts during the peak of the breeding season. Fog selectively favors auditory detections of some species. Counts of many species are correlated with temperature, but effects are minor unless temperatures are extreme. Under marginal weather conditions, total species observed may be nearly normal, whereas number of individuals observed is reduced, as is the opportunity to record simultaneous registrations

  1. Patterns of fire activity over Indonesia and Malaysia from polar and geostationary satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyer, Edward J.; Reid, Jeffrey S.; Prins, Elaine M.; Hoffman, Jay P.; Schmidt, Christopher C.; Miettinen, Jukka I.; Giglio, Louis

    2013-03-01

    Biomass burning patterns over the Maritime Continent of Southeast Asia are examined using a new active fire detection product based on application of the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) to data from the imagers on the MTSAT geostationary satellites operated by the Japanese space agency JAXA. Data from MTSAT-1R and MTSAT-2 covering 34 months from September 2008 to July 2011 are examined for a study region consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and nearby environs. The spatial and temporal distributions of fires detected in the MTSAT WF_ABBA product are described and compared with active fire observations from MODIS MOD14 data. Land cover distributions for the two instruments are examined using a new 250 m land cover product from the National University of Singapore. The two products show broadly similar patterns of fire activity, land cover distribution of fires, and pixel fire radiative power (FRP). However, the MTSAT WF_ABBA data differ from MOD14 in important ways. Relative to MODIS, the MTSAT WF_ABBA product has lower overall detection efficiency, but more fires detected due to more frequent looks, a greater relative fraction of fires in forest and a lower relative fraction of fires in open areas, and significantly higher single-pixel retrieved FRP. The differences in land cover distribution and FRP between the MTSAT and MODIS products are shown to be qualitatively consistent with expectations based on pixel size and diurnal sampling. The MTSAT WF_ABBA data are used to calculate coverage-corrected diurnal cycles of fire for different regions within the study area. These diurnal cycles are preliminary but demonstrate that the fraction of diurnal fire activity sampled by the two MODIS sensors varies significantly by region and vegetation type. Based on the results from comparison of the two fire products, a series of steps is outlined to account for some of the systematic biases in each of these satellite products in order to produce a

  2. Importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating patterned layer in a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do-Kyung; Kwon, Hyeok Bin; Park, Hongsik; Choe, Eunji; Bae, Jin-Hyuk; Park, Jaehoon; Song, Seong-Ho

    2016-03-01

    We report the importance of the inherent and the relative surface energies in generating a patterned organic semiconductor layer through a solution process. The inherent and the relative surface energies of the substrate can be effectively controlled using polydimethylsiloxane in combination with an UV/ozone treatment. The controlled inherent surface energy in each region, as well as the high-order difference of relative surface energy, plays a significant role in generating the patterned layer. In addition, the patterned metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure shows a lower lateral current than the non-patterned MSM structure because the current path is limited.

  3. Genetic and cytological evidence that heterocyst patterning is regulated by inhibitor gradients that promote activator decay.

    PubMed

    Risser, Douglas D; Callahan, Sean M

    2009-11-24

    The formation of a pattern of differentiated cells from a group of seemingly equivalent, undifferentiated cells is a central paradigm of developmental biology. Several species of filamentous cyanobacteria differentiate nitrogen-fixing heterocysts at regular intervals along unbranched filaments to form a periodic pattern of two distinct cell types. This patterning has been used to exemplify application of the activator-inhibitor model to periodic patterns in biology. The activator-inhibitor model proposes that activators and inhibitors of differentiation diffuse from source cells to form concentration gradients that in turn mediate patterning, but direct visualization of concentration gradients of activators and inhibitors has been difficult. Here we show that the periodic pattern of heterocysts produced by cyanobacteria relies on two inhibitors of heterocyst differentiation, PatS and HetN, in a manner consistent with the predictions of the activator-inhibitor model. Concentration gradients of the activator, HetR, were observed adjacent to heterocysts, the natural source of PatS and HetN, as well as adjacent to vegetative cells that were manipulated to overexpress a gene encoding either of the inhibitors. Gradients of HetR relied on posttranslational decay of HetR. Deletion of both patS and hetN genes prevented the formation of gradients of HetR, and a derivative of the inhibitors was shown to promote decay of HetR in a concentration-dependent manner. Our results provide strong support for application of the activator-inhibitor model to heterocyst patterning and, more generally, the formation of periodic patterns in biological systems.

  4. Geomechanical Simulations Related to UCG Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobiev, O; Morris, J; Antoun, T; Friedmann, S J

    2008-07-11

    This paper presents results from a recent investigation into a range of geomechanical processes induced by UCG activities. The mechanical response of the coal and host rock mass plays a role in every stage of UCG operations. For example, cavity collapse during the burn has significant effect upon the rate of the burn itself. In the vicinity of the cavity, collapse and fracturing may result in enhanced hydraulic conductivity of the rock matrix above the burn chamber. Even far from the cavity, stresses due to subsidence may be sufficient to induce new fractures linking previously isolated aquifers. These mechanical processes are very important in understanding the risk of unacceptable subsidence and the potential for groundwater contamination. The mechanical processes are inherently non-linear, involving significant inelastic response, especially in the region closest to the cavity. in addition, the response of the rock mass involves both continuum and discrete mechanical behavior. To better understand these effects, they have applied a suite of highly non-linear computational tools in both two and three dimensions to a series of UCG scenarios. The calculations include combinations of continuum and discrete mechanical responses by employing fully coupled finite element and discrete element capabilities.

  5. Mesoscale damage patterns of Hurricane Frederic in relation to enhanced SMS imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Wakimoto, R. M.; Stiegler, D. J.

    1980-01-01

    An F-scale analysis of Hurricane Frederic (September 12 and 13, 1979) was performed in order to determine the structural damage patterns attributed to the storm. Enhanced SMS imagery revealed patterns of mesoscale features as well as features related to the shielding effects of trees and the grouping effect of structures. The scatter in estimating the damage scale was + or - 1 F-scale. It is shown that discrepancies in recorded wind speed and the estimated wind-speed from the F-scale are the result of different damage mechanisms of hurricane and tornado winds. Radar echoes revealed that the structure of Hurricane Frederic changed from an axisymmetric center to an instantaneous center of rotation. Finally, it is suggested that major hurricane wind and water damage be investigated in greater detail by aerial photography, damage vector mapping, and ground surveys.

  6. Dual function of suppressor of fused in Hh pathway activation and mouse spinal cord patterning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinling; Heydeck, Westley; Zeng, Huiqing; Liu, Aimin

    2012-02-15

    The morphogen Sonic hedgehog, one of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins, plays a key role in patterning the mammalian spinal cord along its dorsoventral (D/V) axis through the activation of Glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) family of transcription factors. Suppressor of Fused (Sufu), a Gli-interacting protein, modulates the D/V patterning of the spinal cord by antagonizing Hh signaling. The molecular mechanisms underlying the function of Sufu in Hh pathway activation and spinal cord D/V patterning remain controversial, particularly in light of recent findings that Sufu protects Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from proteasomal degradation. In the current study, we show that Hh pathway activation and dorsal expansion of ventral spinal cord cell types in the absence of Sufu depend on the activator activities of all three Gli family proteins. We also show that Sufu plays a positive role in the maximal activation of Hh signaling that defines the ventral-most cell fate in the mammalian spinal cord, likely through protecting Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from degradation. Finally, by altering the level of Gli3 repressor on a background of reduced Gli activator activities, we reveal an important contribution of Gli3 repressor activity to the Hh pathway activation and the D/V patterning of the spinal cord.

  7. Spatial and temporal patterns in macrofaunal diversity components relative to sea floor landscape structure.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Roman N; Vozarik, Joseph M; Gibbons, Brittney R

    2013-01-01

    We examined temporal changes in macrofaunal α- and β-diversity over several spatial scales (within patches, among patches, across landscapes and across regions) in Long Island Sound on the northeast USA coast. Regional ε-diversity was estimated at 144 taxa, however γ-diversity fluctuated over time as did α- and β-diversity components. Based on additive partitioning, patch- and region-scale β-diversity components generally had the highest contributions to γ-diversity; lower percentages were found at within-patch and landscape scales. Multiplicative diversity partitioning indicated highest species turnover at within- and among patch scales. For all partition results, within-patch and patch-scale β-diversity increased sharply when hypoxia impacted benthic communities. Spatial variation in diversity components can be attributed to the collection of different patch types at varying spatial scales and their associated habitats across the benthic landscapes, as well as gradients in depth and other estuarine-scale characteristics. Temporal variation in diversity components across spatial scales may be related to seasonal changes in habitat heterogeneity, species population dynamics, and seasonal disturbances. Rare species were significant and temporally consistent components of macrofaunal diversity patterns over different spatial scales. Our findings agree with other marine and terrestrial studies that show diversity components vary significantly over different spatial scales and the importance of habitat/landscape heterogeneity in supporting diversity. However, our results indicate that the relative contributions of scale-specific β-diversity components can also change significantly over time. Thus, studies of diversity patterns across patches and landscapes based on data collected at one time, or assembled into a single data set from different times, may not capture the full suite of diversity patterns that occur over varying spatial scales and any time

  8. Bioptic Telescope Use and Driving Patterns of Drivers with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Alex R.; Sheldon, Sarah S.; DeCarlo, Dawn K.; Peli, Eli

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the telescope use and driving patterns of bioptic drivers with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A questionnaire addressing telescope use and driving patterns was administered by telephone interview to three groups of bioptic drivers: AMD (n = 31; median 76 years); non-AMD first licensed with a bioptic (n = 38; 53 years); and non-AMD first licensed without a bioptic (n = 47; 37 years). Driving patterns of bioptic AMD drivers were also compared with those of normal vision (NV) drivers (n = 36; 74 years) and nonbioptic AMD drivers (n = 34; 79 years). Results Bioptic usage patterns of AMD drivers did not differ from those of the younger bioptic drivers and greater visual difficulty without the bioptic was strongly correlated with greater bioptic helpfulness. Bioptic AMD drivers were more likely to report avoidance of night driving than the age-similar NV drivers (P = 0.06). However, they reported less difficulty than the nonbioptic AMD drivers in all driving situations (P ≤ 0.02). Weekly mileages of bioptic AMD drivers were lower than those of the younger bioptic drivers (P < 0.001), but not the NV group (P = 0.54), and were higher than those of the nonbioptic AMD group (P < 0.001). Conclusions Our results suggest that bioptic telescopes met the visual demands of drivers with AMD and that those drivers had relatively unrestricted driving habits. Translational Relevance Licensure with a bioptic telescope may prolong driving of older adults with AMD; however, objective measures of bioptic use, driving performance, and safety are needed. PMID:27642541

  9. Pleiotropic patterning response to activation of Shh signaling in the limb apical ectodermal ridge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Kuang Leo; Tsugane, Mizuyo H; Scranton, Victoria; Kosher, Robert A; Pierro, Louis J; Upholt, William B; Dealy, Caroline N

    2011-05-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the limb plays a central role in coordination of limb patterning and outgrowth. Shh expression in the limb is limited to the cells of the zone of polarizing activity (ZPA), located in posterior limb bud mesoderm. Shh is not expressed by limb ectoderm or apical ectodermal ridge (AER), but recent studies suggest a role for AER-Shh signaling in limb patterning. Here, we have examined the effects of activation of Shh signaling in the AER. We find that targeted expression of Shh in the AER activates constitutive Shh signaling throughout the AER and subjacent limb mesoderm, and causes a range of limb patterning defects with progressive severity from mild polydactyly, to polysyndactyly with proximal defects, to severe oligodactyly with phocomelia and partial limb ventralization. Our studies emphasize the importance of control of the timing, level and location of Shh pathway signaling for limb anterior-posterior, proximal-distal, and dorsal-ventral patterning.

  10. Periodic patterning of the Drosophila eye is stabilized by the diffusible activator Scabrous

    PubMed Central

    Gavish, Avishai; Shwartz, Arkadi; Weizman, Abraham; Schejter, Eyal; Shilo, Ben-Zion; Barkai, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Generation of periodic patterns is fundamental to the differentiation of multiple tissues during development. How such patterns form robustly is still unclear. The Drosophila eye comprises ∼750 units, whose crystalline order is set during differentiation of the eye imaginal disc: an activation wave sweeping across the disc is coupled to lateral inhibition, sequentially selecting pro-neural cells. Using mathematical modelling, here we show that this template-based lateral inhibition is highly sensitive to spatial variations in biochemical parameters and cell sizes. We reveal the basis of this sensitivity, and suggest that it can be overcome by assuming a short-range diffusible activator. Clonal experiments identify Scabrous, a previously implicated inhibitor, as the predicted activator. Our results reveal the mechanism by which periodic patterning in the fly eye is stabilized against spatial variations, highlighting how the need to maintain robustness shapes the design of patterning circuits. PMID:26876750

  11. Pleiotropic patterning response to activation of Shh signaling in the limb Apical Ectodermal Ridge

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Kuang Leo; Tsugane, Mizuyo H.; Scranton, Victoria; Kosher, Robert A.; Pierro, Louis J.; Upholt, William B.; Dealy, Caroline N.

    2012-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling in the limb plays a central role in coordination of limb patterning and outgrowth. Shh expression in the limb is limited to the cells of the Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA), located in posterior limb bud mesoderm. Shh is not expressed by limb ectoderm or AER, but recent studies suggest a role for AER-Shh signaling in limb patterning. Here, we have examined the effects of activation of Shh signaling in the AER. We find that targeted expression of Shh in the AER activates constitutive Shh signaling throughout the AER and subjacent limb mesoderm, and causes a range of limb patterning defects with progressive severity from mild polydactyly, to polysyndactyly with proximal defects, to severe oligodactyly with phocomelia and partial limb ventralization. Our studies emphasize the importance of control of the timing, level and location of Shh pathway signaling for limb AP, PD and DV patterning. PMID:21465622

  12. Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and glucose metabolic brain patterns identified with PCASL-MRI and FDG-PET imaging

    PubMed Central

    Teune, Laura K.; Renken, Remco J.; de Jong, Bauke M.; Willemsen, Antoon T.; van Osch, Matthias J.; Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Under normal conditions, the spatial distribution of resting cerebral blood flow and cerebral metabolic rate of glucose are closely related. A relatively new magnetic resonance (MR) technique, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL), can be used to measure regional brain perfusion. We identified a Parkinson's disease (PD)-related perfusion and metabolic covariance pattern in the same patients using PCASL and FDG-PET imaging and assessed (dis)similarities in the disease-related pattern between perfusion and metabolism in PD patients. Methods Nineteen PD patients and seventeen healthy controls underwent [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging. Of 14 PD patients and all healthy controls PCASL-MRI could be obtained. Data were analyzed using scaled subprofile model/principal component analysis (SSM/PCA). Results Unique Parkinson's disease-related perfusion and metabolic covariance patterns were identified using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients. The PD-related metabolic covariance brain pattern is in high accordance with previously reports. Also our disease-related perfusion pattern is comparable to the earlier described perfusion pattern. The most marked difference between our perfusion and metabolic patterns is the larger perfusion decrease in cortical regions including the insula. Conclusion We identified PD-related perfusion and metabolic brain patterns using PCASL and FDG-PET in the same patients which were comparable with results of existing research. In this respect, PCASL appears to be a promising addition in the early diagnosis of individual parkinsonian patients. PMID:25068113

  13. Complex activity patterns in arterial wall: results from a model of calcium dynamics.

    PubMed

    Buchner, Teodor; Pietkun, Jakub; Kuklik, Paweł

    2012-03-01

    Using a dynamical model of smooth muscle cells in an arterial wall, defined as a system of coupled five-dimensional nonlinear oscillators, on a grid with cylindrical symmetry, we compare the admissible activity patterns with those known from the heart tissue. We postulate on numerical basis the possibility to induce a stable spiral wave in the arterial wall. Such a spiral wave can inhibit the propagation of the axial calcium wave and effectively stop the vasomotion. We also discuss the dynamics of the circumferential calcium wave in comparison to rotors in venous ostia that are a common source of supraventricular ectopy. We show that the velocity and in consequence the frequency range of the circumferential calcium wave is by orders of magnitude too small compared to that of the rotors. The mechanism of the rotor is not likely to involve the calcium-related dynamics of the smooth muscle cells. The calcium-related dynamics which is voltage-independent and hard to be reset seems to actually protect the blood vessels against the electric activity of the atria. We also discuss the microreentry phenomenon, which was found in numerical experiments in the studied model.

  14. Patterns of brain activity in response to respiratory stimulation in patients with idiopathic hyperventilation (IHV).

    PubMed

    Jack, S; Kemp, G J; Bimson, W E; Calverley, P M A; Corfield, D R

    2010-01-01

    Dyspnoea, usually defined as an uncomfortable awareness of breathing, is one of the most frequent and distressing symptoms experienced by patients with lung disease. Idiopathic hyperventilation (IHV) has unknown aetiology and little is known about the mechanisms that cause the characteristic sustained hypocapnia and chronic dyspnoea. We have shown in IHV and other chronic respiratory disorders that air hunger is the dominant sensation during exercise, while resting breathlessness is characterised by an affective component. The increased drive to breathe in IHV, and indeed dyspnoea in all chronic respiratory disorders, might be better understood if the central mechanisms of dyspnoea were known. The aim of the present study was to characterise the cortical processing of respiratory-related sensory inputs in patients with IHV. Four patients with IHV were studied with ethical approval. Respiratory stimulation was produced using transient occlusion of inspiration (TIO) during spontaneous breathing (delivered in early inspiration with duration c. 300 ms; this is well tolerated) while BOLD fMRI was performed on a 3 Tesla Siemens Trio. TIO was associated with significant activation in sensorimotor and pre-motor cortical areas and the cerebellum, notably the anterior insula, an area previously associated with breathlessness in healthy volunteers. These preliminary observations on the pattern of brain activity in response to respiratory stimulation support the hypothesis that breathlessness in IHV may reflect inappropriate cortical processing of respiratory-related sensory inputs.

  15. Activity Patterns of Preschool-Aged Children at Risk for Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Senso, Meghan M.; Trost, Stewart G.; Crain, A. Lauren; Seburg, Elisabeth M.; Anderson, Julie D.; Sherwood, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although the prevalence of obesity in young children highlights the importance of early interventions to promote physical activity (PA), there are limited data on activity patterns in this age group. The purpose of this study is to describe activity patterns in preschool-aged children and explore differences by weight status. Methods Analyses use baseline data from Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids- Preschool, a pilot obesity prevention trial of preschool-aged children overweight or at risk for overweight. A modified parent-reported version of the previous-day PA recall was used to summarize types of activity. Accelerometry was used to summarize daily and hourly activity patterns. Results “Playing with toys” accounted for the largest proportion of a child’s previous day, followed by “meals and snacks”, and “chores”. Accelerometry-measured daily time spent in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) was 412, 247, and 69 minutes, respectively. Percent of hourly time spent in MVPA ranged from 3% to 13%, peaking in the late morning and evening hours. There were no statistically significant MVPA differences by weight status. Conclusions This study extends our understanding of activity types, amounts, and patterns in preschool-age children and warrants further exploration of differences in physical activity patterns by weight status. PMID:25133750

  16. Muscle activation patterns when passively stretching spastic lower limb muscles of children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Bar-On, Lynn; Aertbeliën, Erwin; Molenaers, Guy; Desloovere, Kaat

    2014-01-01

    The definition of spasticity as a velocity-dependent activation of the tonic stretch reflex during a stretch to a passive muscle is the most widely accepted. However, other mechanisms are also thought to contribute to pathological muscle activity and, in patients post-stroke and spinal cord injury can result in different activation patterns. In the lower-limbs of children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) these distinct activation patterns have not yet been thoroughly explored. The aim of the study was to apply an instrumented assessment to quantify different muscle activation patterns in four lower-limb muscles of children with CP. Fifty-four children with CP were included (males/females n = 35/19; 10.8 ± 3.8 yrs; bilateral/unilateral involvement n =  32/22; Gross Motor Functional Classification Score I-IV) of whom ten were retested to evaluate intra-rater reliability. With the subject relaxed, single-joint, sagittal-plane movements of the hip, knee, and ankle were performed to stretch the lower-limb muscles at three increasing velocities. Muscle activity and joint motion were synchronously recorded using inertial sensors and electromyography (EMG) from the adductors, medial hamstrings, rectus femoris, and gastrocnemius. Muscles were visually categorised into activation patterns using average, normalized root mean square EMG (RMS-EMG) compared across increasing position zones and velocities. Based on the visual categorisation, quantitative parameters were defined using stretch-reflex thresholds and normalized RMS-EMG. These parameters were compared between muscles with different activation patterns. All patterns were dominated by high velocity-dependent muscle activation, but in more than half, low velocity-dependent activation was also observed. Muscle activation patterns were found to be both muscle- and subject-specific (p<0.01). The intra-rater reliability of all quantitative parameters was moderate to good. Comparing RMS-EMG between incremental position

  17. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32.

  18. Physical Activity Patterns and Psychological Correlates of Physical Activity among Singaporean Primary, Secondary, and Junior College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. K. John; Koh, K. T.; Biddle, Stuart J. H.; Liu, W. C.; Chye, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine physical activity patterns and psychological correlates of physical activity among primary, secondary, and junior college students in Singapore. A sample of 3,333 school students aged 10 to 18 years took part in the study. Results showed that the younger students had significantly higher physical…

  19. Spatiotemporal patterns of acoustic emission (AE) activity in salt mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maghsoudi, S.; Cesca, S.; Hainzl, S.; Kaiser, D.; Dahm, T.

    2012-04-01

    Assessing the magnitude of completeness (Mc) is essential for the correct interpretation of earthquake catalogs. Knowledge on the spatiotemporal variation of Mc allows the mapping of other seismicity parameters, such as b-values. Spatial and temporal variations of b-values can indicate structural heterogeneities, stress perturbations and time-dependent fracturing processes. In order to precisely estimate Mc in strongly heterogeneous media, we propose a 3D development of the probabilistic magnitude of completeness (PMC) method, which relies on the analysis of network detection capabilities, to study spatial distribution of the Mc and b-value estimations for mining networks. We used a large dataset including more than 1 million acoustic emissions (AE), recorded at the Morsleben salt mine, Germany. Our study shows that the PMC estimations strongly depend on the source-receiver direction, and cannot be correctly accounted using a standard approach. The comparison between Mc using the 3D PMC method and Gutenberg-Richter methods show agreements for two reference depth ranges. Following our approach, we estimate Mc ranging between 1.25 (AE ,relative acoustic magnitude), at the center of the network, and 3.5, at further distances outside the network. Our method provides small-scale details about the capability of sensors to detect an AE event, and spatial distributions of Mc and b-value, which can be linked to the presence of structural heterogeneities or cavities in specific directions. Effects of heterogeneities on detection analysis are confirmed by synthetic tests using waveform modeling in heterogeneous media. This work has been funded by the German BMBF "Geotechnologien" project MINE (BMBF03G0737A).

  20. NASA's UAS [Unmanned Aircraft Systems] Related Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    NASA continues to operate all sizes of UAS in all classes of airspace both domestically and internationally. Missions range from highly complex operations in coordination with piloted aircraft, ground, and space systems in support of science objectives to single aircraft operations in support of aeronautics research. One such example is a scaled commercial transport aircraft being used to study recovery techniques due to large upsets. NASA's efforts to support routine UAS operations continued on several fronts last year. At the national level in the United States (U.S.), NASA continued its support of the UAS Executive Committee (ExCom) comprised of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Defense (DoD), Department of Homeland Security (DHS), and NASA. The committee was formed in recognition of the need of UAS operated by these agencies to access to the National Airspace System (NAS) to support operational, training, development and research requirements. Recommendations were received on how to operate both manned and unmanned aircraft in class D airspace and plans are being developed to validate and implement those recommendations. In addition the UAS ExCom has begun developing recommendations for how to achieve routine operations in remote areas as well as for small UAS operations in class G airspace. As well as supporting the UAS ExCom, NASA is a participant in the recently formed Aviation Rule Making Committee for UAS. This committee, established by the FAA, is intended to propose regulatory guidance which would enable routine civil UAS operations. As that effort matures NASA stands ready to supply the necessary technical expertise to help that committee achieve its objectives. By supporting both the UAS ExCom and UAS ARC, NASA is positioned to provide its technical expertise across the full spectrum of UAS airspace access related topic areas. The UAS NAS Access Project got underway this past year under the leadership of NASA s Aeronautics

  1. Occurrence of menstrual cycle related seizure patterns among epileptic women attending the tertiary neurology clinics of the National Hospital of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Kariyawasam, S H; Mannapperuma, U; Jayasuriya, W J A B N; Weerathunga, J; Munasinghe, K

    2009-04-01

    Female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone have effects on seizure activity. Patterns of seizure exacerbations associated with the menstrual cycle have been described as catamenial epilepsy. This study was done to investigate the menstrual cycle related seizure occurrence among female epileptics using seizure-menstrual calendars and sex hormonal assays. Frequency and the patterns of seizure occurrence within the menstrual cycles were determined analyzing seizure-menstrual calendars. Luteal phase serum estradiol and progesterone were determined in those with menstrual cycle related seizure patterns to be compared with that of healthy women. Out of 349 epileptics, 6% showed occurrence of perimenstrual, periovulatory or perimenstrual+periovulatory seizure patterns on analysis of seizure-menstrual calendars. These women showed significantly higher luteal serum estradiol concentrations in comparison to age-matched healthy volunteers. There was no significant difference in the luteal serum progesterone concentrations. This study showed menstrual cycle related patterns of seizure occurrence in a minority of Sri Lankan epileptic women, similar to catamenial epilepsy patterns described by previous studies. These seizure patterns may be due to altered hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis function playing a role in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. We suggest the importance of maintaining seizure-menstrual calendars and hormonal studies in all epileptic women to establish the role of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis in epilepsy and to achieve efficient control of epilepsy in women of childbearing age.

  2. Classification of multi muscle activation patterns of osteoarthritis patients during level walking.

    PubMed

    von Tscharner, Vinzenz; Valderrabano, Victor

    2010-08-01

    The study compares the timing and frequency changes of surface EMGs recorded from osteoarthritis patients with previous traumatic ankle injury and normal subjects during level walking. EMG intensity (power) was obtained by a wavelet analysis. There were intensity values for each frequency characterized by the wavelets for every time point. The intensities were compounded into Multi Muscle Patterns (MMP) simultaneously showing the time and spectral aspects of the lower leg muscle activity. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the differences between the group of the MMPs from the affected leg (AFL) and the not affected leg (NAL) allow detecting whether a newly measured MMP results from an AFL or NAL. This hypothesis was tested by a spherical classification procedure yielding the correctly classified MMPs thus indicating the significance of the differences between the MMPs of the AFL and NAL. The hypothesis was supported (not falsified) by the results. Thus there were common features of muscle activity in the AFL of most osteoarthritis patients that allowed detecting whether the MMP of a new patient was of the kind seen in most other osteoarthritis patients. The spectral, timing and intensity factors in the MMP that allowed this classification were visualized in the mean MMPs of the patients and the control group. The comparison revealed where on average the relative timing and spectral differences of the muscle activation of osteoarthritis patients and control subjects occurred.

  3. Dispersal Patterns, Active Behaviour, and Flow Environment during Early Life History of Coastal Cold Water Fishes

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Ryan; Snelgrove, Paul V. R.; deYoung, Brad; Gregory, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    During the pelagic larval phase, fish dispersal may be influenced passively by surface currents or actively determined by swimming behaviour. In situ observations of larval swimming are few given the constraints of field sampling. Active behaviour is therefore often inferred from spatial patterns in the field, laboratory studies, or hydrodynamic theory, but rarely are these approaches considered in concert. Ichthyoplankton survey data collected during 2004 and 2006 from coastal Newfoundland show that changes in spatial heterogeneity for multiple species do not conform to predictions based on passive transport. We evaluated the interaction of individual larvae with their environment by calculating Reynolds number as a function of ontogeny. Typically, larvae hatch into a viscous environment in which swimming is inefficient, and later grow into more efficient intermediate and inertial swimming environments. Swimming is therefore closely related to length, not only because of swimming capacity but also in how larvae experience viscosity. Six of eight species sampled demonstrated consistent changes in spatial patchiness and concomitant increases in spatial heterogeneity as they transitioned into more favourable hydrodynamic swimming environments, suggesting an active behavioural element to dispersal. We propose the tandem assessment of spatial heterogeneity and hydrodynamic environment as a potential approach to understand and predict the onset of ecologically significant swimming behaviour of larval fishes in the field. PMID:23029455

  4. Generation, Language, Body Mass Index, and Activity Patterns in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Taverno, Sharon E.; Rollins, Brandi Y.; Francis, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children’s relative weight and activity patterns. Purpose The association between generation and language was investigated with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Methods Participants included 2,012 Hispanic children aged 6–11 years from the cross-sectional, 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (1st, 2nd or 3rd), and the primary language spoken in the home (English vs non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Results Compared to 3rd generation, English speakers, 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were over two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, 1st generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to 2nd and 3rd generation, English speakers. Overall, all non–English speaking groups reported less screen time compared to 3rd generation, English speakers. Conclusions The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. PMID:20117570

  5. Adjustments of Motor Pattern for Load Compensation Via Modulated Activations of Muscle Synergies During Natural Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Vincent C. K.; d'Avella, Andrea; Bizzi, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the motor system may circumvent the difficulty of controlling many degrees of freedom in the musculoskeletal apparatus by generating motor outputs through a combination of discrete muscle synergies. How a discretely organized motor system compensates for diverse perturbations has remained elusive. Here, we investigate whether motor responses observed after an inertial-load perturbation can be generated by altering the recruitment of synergies normally used for constructing unperturbed movements. Electromyographic (EMG, 13 muscles) data were collected from the bullfrog hindlimb during natural behaviors before, during, and after the same limb was loaded by a weight attached to the calf. Kinematic analysis reveals the absence of aftereffect on load removal, suggesting that load-related EMG changes were results of immediate motor pattern adjustments. We then extracted synergies from EMGs using the nonnegative matrix factorization algorithm and developed a procedure for assessing the extent of synergy sharing across different loading conditions. Most synergies extracted were found to be activated in all loaded and unloaded conditions. However, for certain synergies, the amplitude, duration, and/or onset time of their activation bursts were up- or down-modulated during loading. Behavioral parameterizations reveal that load-related modulation of synergy activations depended on the behavioral variety (e.g., kick direction and amplitude) and the movement phase performed. Our results suggest that muscle synergies are robust across different dynamic conditions and immediate motor adjustments can be accomplished by modulating synergy activations. An appendix describes the novel procedure we developed, useful for discovering shared and specific features from multiple data sets. PMID:19091930

  6. The relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ami N; Kim, Giyeon

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relation between acculturation and alcohol consumption patterns among older Asian and Hispanic immigrants in the state of California. Data were obtained from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey and included Asian (n = 1264) and Hispanic (n = 571) adults aged 60 and older who were born outside of the US. Outcome variables included presence of past year alcohol consumption, past year binge drinking, and number of binge drinking days. Acculturation was measured with items pertaining to English use and proficiency. Hierarchical multiple or logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each racial/ethnic group and each dependent variable. Alcohol consumption was found in less than half of the sample for both Asians (43.2%) and Hispanics (39.2%). Binge drinking was found in 3.1% of Asians and 8.4% of Hispanics. Acculturation was significantly related to past year alcohol consumption for Hispanics, past year binge drinking for Asians, and binge drinking days for Asians, such that higher level of acculturation predicted a greater likelihood of alcohol consumption but decreased likelihood of binge drinking and fewer binge drinking days. The results indicate that acculturation may be related to alcohol consumption patterns for older immigrants. This suggests future needs to develop an in-depth understanding of the health behaviors of these immigrant elderly groups.

  7. Reactivation of Reward-Related Patterns from Single Past Episodes Supports Memory-Based Decision Making.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, G Elliott; Büchel, Christian

    2016-03-09

    Rewarding experiences exert a strong influence on later decision making. While decades of neuroscience research have shown how reinforcement gradually shapes preferences, decisions are often influenced by single past experiences. Surprisingly, relatively little is known about the influence of single learning episodes. Although recent work has proposed a role for episodes in decision making, it is largely unknown whether and how episodic experiences contribute to value-based decision making and how the values of single episodes are represented in the brain. In multiple behavioral experiments and an fMRI experiment, we tested whether and how rewarding episodes could support later decision making. Participants experienced episodes of high reward or low reward in conjunction with incidental, trial-unique neutral pictures. In a surprise test phase, we found that participants could indeed remember the associated level of reward, as evidenced by accurate source memory for value and preferences to re-engage with rewarded objects. Further, in a separate experiment, we found that high-reward objects shown as primes before a gambling task increased financial risk taking. Neurally, re-exposure to objects in the test phase led to significant reactivation of reward-related patterns. Importantly, individual variability in the strength of reactivation predicted value memory performance. Our results provide a novel demonstration that affect-related neural patterns are reactivated during later experience. Reactivation of value information represents a mechanism by which memory can guide decision making.

  8. Relative humidity patterns and fog water precipitation in the Atacama Desert and biological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CáCeres, Luis; Gómez-Silva, Benito; Garró, Ximena; RodríGuez, Violeta; Monardes, Vinka; McKay, Christopher P.

    2007-12-01

    Fog is the most important source of water for native plants and biological soil crusts in the Atacama Desert. Since fog depends upon available moisture, an understanding of climatic patterns is essential to interpret its present-day occurrence and distribution. In this work, temperature and humidity of ambient air and collected fog water in selected sites were studied across a transect from the coast to inland of the Atacama Desert, by using automated outdoor sensors for temperature and relative humidity, and also fog collectors equipped with automated rain gauges to measure collected fog water flow rates. Field measurements were organized to determine fog and collected fog water patterns at three selected sites, namely, Coloso, Inacesa and Yungay in addition to the relative humidity and temperature variation with altitude at Coloso Mountain located within Coloso site. The results show a decreasing trend in the collected fog water flow rates from the coast toward inland locations. Daily thermal oscillations at each site are closely related to fog water collection. At Coloso Mountain, an adiabatic cooling-like effect of the wind ascending its slope was observed preferentially during nighttime. At daytime, occasional distortions observed in the temperature profiles are probably produced by a thermal driven-air convection process along the Coloso Mountain slope heated by solar radiation. The reduction in available water from fog from the coast to the inland site is consistent with the reduction in colonization rate for hypolithic cyanobacteria along this same transect.

  9. Sulfation of fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus: Different patterns in the chemical structure and their effects on anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Román Ochoa, Yony; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    A fucogalactan from Agaricus bisporus was sulfated by two methodologies based on an optimized sulfation method. The direct action of chlorosulfonic acid and SO3-pyridine complex over the sulfation reaction and its effects on anticoagulant activity were evaluated. The products of chemical sulfations were two sulfated fucogalactans named E100 and ESL respectively. Clotting assays (APTT, PT and TT) showed that both sulfated polysaccharides have anticoagulant activity, and that ESL was more potent compared to E100. The FXa, T and FXIIa activities in the presence of the sulfated polysaccharides were determined. The better anticoagulant activity of ESL could be related to anti-FXIIa activity and also probably to its higher bioavailability. The HPSEC analysis showed similar Mw of 1.08×10(4)gmol(-1) and 1.00×10(4)gmol(-1) for E100 and ESL respectively. NMR and methylation analyses indicated a heterogeneous sulfation pattern for E100, whereas ESL showed conserved unsulfated (1→6)-linked α-d-Galp residues in the main-chain and a more homogeneous sulfation pattern. The DS values of ESL and E100 were 1.0 and 2.8 respectively, indicating that the sulfation pattern is more important for the anticoagulant activity than the amount of sulfate.

  10. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  11. The Imaging Diagnosis of Less Advanced Cases of Cardiac Amyloidosis: The Relative Apical Sparing Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Koya; Ishimaru, Go; Hayashi, Miho; Bae, Yuan; Ito, Takashi; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Murata, Ken

    2017-01-01

    An early diagnosis is important for improving the prognosis of cardiac amyloidosis (CA). We herein describe the utility of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2-D STE) in diagnosing CA at a less advanced stage. A 63-year-old woman with exertional dyspnea was suspected of having CA based on her echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings. A myocardial biopsy was negative for amyloid deposits, while the relative apical sparing pattern was detected on 2-D STE, which was highly suggestive of CA. Chemotherapy was initiated as a treatment for CA, and the patient's symptoms were immediately relieved. Thereafter, amyloid deposits were detected in a skin biopsy specimen. PMID:28154276

  12. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men.

    PubMed

    Casey, Erin A; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A; Morrison, Diane M; Hoppe, Marilyn J

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk-related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners.

  13. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Risk Behavior among Young Heterosexually Active Men

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Erin A.; Querna, Katherine; Masters, N. Tatiana; Beadnell, Blair; Wells, Elizabeth A.; Morrison, Diane M.; Hoppe, Marilyn J.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is linked to sexual risk exposure among women. However, less is known about the intersection of IPV perpetration and sexual risk behavior among men. This study used data from a diverse, community sample of 334 heterosexually active young men, aged 18 to 25, across the United States to examine whether and how men with distinct IPV-related behavior patterns differed in sexual risk–related behavior and attitudes. Participants were recruited and surveyed online, and grouped conceptually based on the types of IPV perpetration behavior(s) used in a current or recent romantic relationship. Groups were then compared on relevant sexual risk variables. Men reporting both physical abuse and sexual coercion against intimate partners reported significantly higher numbers of lifetime partners, higher rates of nonmonogamy, greater endorsement of nonmonogamy, and less frequent condom use relative to nonabusive men or those reporting controlling behavior only. This group also had higher sexually transmitted infection (STI) exposure compared to men who used controlling behavior only and men who used sexual coercion only. Findings suggest that interventions with men who use physical and sexual violence need to account for not only the physical and psychological harm of this behavior but also the sexual risk to which men may expose their partners. PMID:26158212

  14. Seasonal variation in American black bear Ursus americanus activity patterns: Quantification via remote photography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bridges, A.S.; Vaughan, M.R.; Klenzendorf, S.

    2004-01-01

    Activity pattern plasticity may serve as an evolutionary adaptation to optimize fitness in an inconstant environment, however, quantifying patterns and demonstrating variation can be problematic. For American black bears Ursus americanus, wariness and habitat inaccessibility further complicate quantification. Radio telemetry has been the primary technique used to examine activity, however, interpretation error and limitation on numbers of animals available to monitor prevent extrapolation to unmarked or untransmittered members of the population. We used remote cameras to quantify black bear activity patterns and examined differences by season, sex and reproductive class in the Alleghany Mountains of western Virginia, USA. We used 1,533 pictures of black bears taken during 1998-2002 for our analyses. Black bears generally were diurnal in summer and nocturnal in autumn with a vespertine activity peak during both seasons. Bear-hound training seasons occurred during September and may offer explanation for the observed shift towards nocturnal behaviour. We found no substantial differences in activity patterns between sex and reproductive classes. Use of remote cameras allowed us to efficiently sample larger numbers of individual animals and likely offered a better approximation of population-level activity patterns than individual-level, telemetry-based methodologies.

  15. Acute and chronic psychostimulant treatment modulates the diurnal rhythm activity pattern of WKY female adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Jones, Cathleen G; Yang, Pamela B; Wilcox, Victor T; Burau, Keith D; Dafny, Nachum

    2014-05-01

    The psychostimulants considered the gold standard in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, one of the most common childhood disorders, are also finding their way into the hands of healthy young adults as brain augmentation to improve cognitive performance. The possible long-term effects of psychostimulant exposure in adolescence are considered controversial, and thus, the objective of this study was to investigate whether the chronic exposure to the psychostimulant amphetamine affects the behavioral diurnal rhythm activity patterns of female adolescent Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat. The hypothesis of this study is that change in diurnal rhythm activity pattern is an indicator for the long-term effect of the treatment. Twenty-four rats were divided into two groups, control (N = 12) and experimental (N = 12), and kept in a 12:12-h light/dark cycle in an open-field cage. After 5-7 days of acclimation, 11 days of consecutive non-stop behavioral recordings began. On experimental day 1 (ED1), all groups were given an injection of saline. On ED2 to ED7, the experimental group was injected with 0.6 mg/kg amphetamine followed by 3 days of washout from ED8 to ED10, and amphetamine re-challenge on ED11 similar to ED2. The locomotor movements were counted by the computerized animal activity monitoring system, and the cosinor statistical test analysis was used to fit a 24-h curve of the control recording to the activity pattern after treatment. The horizontal activity, total distance, number of stereotypy, vertical activity, and stereotypical movements were analyzed to find out whether the diurnal rhythm activity patterns were altered. Data obtained using these locomotor indices of diurnal rhythm activity pattern suggest that amphetamine treatment significantly modulates the locomotor diurnal rhythm activity pattern of female WKY adolescent rats.

  16. Far-field diffraction patterns of circular sectors and related apertures.

    PubMed

    Urcid, Gonzalo; Padilla, Alfonso

    2005-12-20

    In studies of scalar diffraction theory and experimental practice, the basic geometric shape of a circle is widely used as an aperture. Its Fraunhofer diffraction pattern has a simple mathematical expression easily determined by use of the Fourier-Bessel transform. However, it may require considerable mathematical effort to determine the far-field diffraction patterns of aperture shapes related to the circular geometry. From a computational point of view, the mathematical difficulties posed by other aperture geometries as well as more-general apertures with irregular shapes can be surpassed by means of optical setups or fast numerical algorithms. Unfortunately, no additional insight or information can be obtained from their exclusive application, as would be the case if mathematical formulas were available. The research presented here describes the far-field diffraction patterns of single-sector apertures as well as their extension to double symmetrical sectors and to sector wheels formed by interleaved transparent sectors of equal angular size; in each case, full or annular sectors are considered. The analytic solutions of their far-field amplitude distribution are given here in terms of a series of Bessel functions, some interesting properties are deduced from these solutions, and several examples are provided to illustrate graphically the results obtained from approximate numerical computations. Our results have been verified numerically with the fast-Fourier-transform algorithm and experimentally by means of a spherical wavefront-single-lens Fourier-transform architecture.

  17. The role of public relations activities in hospital choice.

    PubMed

    Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F

    2007-01-01

    Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.

  18. Color patterns of closely related bird species are more divergent at intermediate levels of breeding-range sympatry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Paul R; Montgomerie, Robert; Lougheed, Stephen C

    2015-04-01

    Closely related species of birds often differ markedly in their color patterns. Here we examine the influence of breeding-range overlap (breeding sympatry) on the evolution of color pattern differences in a sample of closely related bird species. We used a sister-lineage method to analyze 73 phylogenetically independent comparisons among 246 species and 39 families of birds worldwide. We found that divergence of color patterns among closely related species was greater between sympatric than between allopatric lineages, but only at intermediate levels of sympatry (50%-80% breeding-range overlap). This pattern suggests that closely related species incur costs at intermediate levels of sympatry if they exhibit similar color patterns-costs that could include hybridization, interspecific aggression, competition for signaling space, or ecological interactions that secondarily influence color patterns. The decline in color pattern divergence with further increase in sympatry suggests either the relaxation of divergent selection, increased impediment of gene flow, or an increased role for counteracting selection at higher levels of sympatry. We also found that the differences in color pattern between sympatric and allopatric sister species were greatest at lower latitudes. The global scale and broad taxonomic coverage in our study suggest that the divergence of color patterns between sympatrically breeding closely related species is widespread in birds.

  19. Parental Monitoring and Family Relations: Associations with Drinking Patterns among Male and Female Mexican Students

    PubMed Central

    Strunin, Lee; Díaz-Martínez, L. Rosa; Díaz-Martínez, Alejandro; Heeren, Timothy; Winter, Michael; Kuranz, Seth; Hernández-Ávila, Carlos A.; Fernández-Varela, Héctor; Solís-Torres, Cuauhtémoc

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Parental monitoring and family relations are recognized as protective factors for youth alcohol use. The purpose of this study was to investigate perceived parental monitoring and family relations among subgroups of Mexican youths with different patterns of drinking behaviors and consequences. Methods A Latent Profile Analysis (LPA) identified profiles of drinking behavior in a cross-sectional survey of entering first year university students. Multinomial regression examined associations between parental monitoring, family relations and drinking profiles among 22,224 students. Results Both lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were associated with heavier drinking profiles among males and females, but more strongly associated with female than male heavier drinking profiles. Being older, having parents with lower education, and not living with parents were also associated with lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations. There was a general trend of lower parental monitoring and weaker family relations as the profiles increased from Non/Infrequent-No Consequences to Excessive-Many Consequences drinkers. Lower perceived parental monitoring and weaker perceived family relations were more strongly associated with drinking profiles among females than among males. Both the parental monitoring and family relations scales had similar associations with drinking profiles. Conclusions Findings suggest drinking norms and values may contribute to any protective influences of parental monitoring and family relations on Mexican youths’ drinking. Research about changes in drinking norms, contextual factors, and youth-parent trust would inform the utility of parental monitoring or family relations as protective strategies against alcohol misuse among Mexican and Mexican American youths and also youths from other backgrounds. PMID:26256470

  20. Sex-biased dispersal and volcanic activities shaped phylogeographic patterns of extant Orangutans (genus: Pongo).

    PubMed

    Nater, Alexander; Nietlisbach, Pirmin; Arora, Natasha; van Schaik, Carel P; van Noordwijk, Maria A; Willems, Erik P; Singleton, Ian; Wich, Serge A; Goossens, Benoit; Warren, Kristin S; Verschoor, Ernst J; Perwitasari-Farajallah, Dyah; Pamungkas, Joko; Krützen, Michael

    2011-08-01

    The Southeast Asian Sunda archipelago harbors a rich biodiversity with a substantial proportion of endemic species. The evolutionary history of these species has been drastically influenced by environmental forces, such as fluctuating sea levels, climatic changes, and severe volcanic activities. Orangutans (genus: Pongo), the only Asian great apes, are well suited to study the relative impact of these forces due to their well-documented behavioral ecology, strict habitat requirements, and exceptionally slow life history. We investigated the phylogeographic patterns and evolutionary history of orangutans in the light of the complex geological and climatic history of the Sunda archipelago. Our study is based on the most extensive genetic sampling to date, covering the entire range of extant orangutan populations. Using data from three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genes from 112 wild orangutans, we show that Sumatran orangutans, Pongo abelii, are paraphyletic with respect to Bornean orangutans (P. pygmaeus), the only other currently recognized species within this genus. The deepest split in the mtDNA phylogeny of orangutans occurs across the Toba caldera in northern Sumatra and, not as expected, between both islands. Until the recent past, the Toba region has experienced extensive volcanic activity, which has shaped the current phylogeographic patterns. Like their Bornean counterparts, Sumatran orangutans exhibit a strong, yet previously undocumented structuring into four geographical clusters. However, with 3.50 Ma, the Sumatran haplotypes have a much older coalescence than their Bornean counterparts (178 kya). In sharp contrast to the mtDNA data, 18 Y-chromosomal polymorphisms show a much more recent coalescence within Sumatra compared with Borneo. Moreover, the deep geographic structure evident in mtDNA is not reflected in the male population history, strongly suggesting male-biased dispersal. We conclude that volcanic activities have played an important role in the

  1. Patterns Of Intraseasonal Temperature Variability And Their Relations With Enhanced Local Predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, G.; Vargas, W. M.

    2009-12-01

    The knowledge of patterns that represent variability at the intraseasonal scale is one of the keys to understand the processes involved in this time scale. Current weather predictions indicate that predictability is relatively good for three weeks (Simmons and Hollingsworth 2002), however some spatial and temporal structures can be predicted beyond this period. Detecting these structures is difficult because unpredictable patterns that govern the physical effects exist superimposed on the predictable ones (Del Sole and Tippet, 2007). However, some persistent components can be predictable beyond three weeks and can also explain the variability of the monthly means, even if these processes explain little of the daily variability (Shukla 1981a). In this light, Lorenz (1969) and Shukla (1981b) explain that large-scale dynamical processes tend to be more persistent and hence more predictable than small-scale processes. To detect the thermal structures that produce persistent phenomena a wavelet spectral analysis was performed over the daily maximum and minimum temperatures. The stations or reference series used in the analysis must have long records of high quality measurements, and must represent different or specific climatic regions of southern South America. This analysis aims to detect the main spectral features at the intraseasonal scale, where non-linear effects tend to produce quasi-periodicities over the daily temperature in the region. A major feature is the 30-60 days quasi-periodicities in daily temperatures that seem to appear over the entire region. In general these periodicities can persist from 30 to 100 days. This means that the transitions between cold and hot events (a 30-60 days pattern) can persist over an entire season. Moreover, the occurrence of these periodicities has a markedly seasonal behavior with a maximum during winter which is highly related with the extreme cold air outbreaks. An interannual analysis shows that the intraseasonal

  2. Patterns of intraseasonal temperature variability and their relations with enhanced local predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumann, Gustavo; Vargas, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of patterns that represent variability at the intraseasonal scale is one of the keys to understand the processes involved in this time scale. Current weather predictions indicate that predictability is relatively good for three weeks (Simmons and Hollingsworth 2002), however some spatial and temporal structures can be predicted beyond this period. Detecting these structures is difficult because unpredictable patterns that govern the physical effects exist superimposed on the predictable ones (Del Sole and Tippet, 2007). However, some persistent components can be predictable beyond three weeks and can also explain the variability of the monthly means, even if these processes explain little of the daily variability (Shukla 1981a). In this light, Lorenz (1969) and Shukla (1981b) explain that large-scale dynamical processes tend to be more persistent and hence more predictable than small-scale processes. To detect the thermal structures that produce persistent phenomena a wavelet spectral analysis was performed over the daily maximum and minimum temperatures. The stations or reference series used in the analysis must have long records of high quality measurements, and must represent different or specific climatic regions of southern South America. This analysis aims to detect the main spectral features at the intraseasonal scale, where non-linear effects tend to produce quasi-periodicities over the daily temperature in the region. A major feature is the 30-60 days quasi-periodicities in daily temperatures that seem to appear over the entire region. In general these periodicities can persist from 30 to 100 days. This means that the transitions between cold and hot events (a 30-60 days pattern) can persist over an entire season. Moreover, the occurrence of these periodicities has a markedly seasonal behavior with a maximum during winter which is highly related with the extreme cold air outbreaks. An interannual analysis shows that the intraseasonal

  3. The Developing, Aging Neocortex: How Genetics and Epigenetics Influence Early Developmental Patterning and Age-Related Change

    PubMed Central

    Huffman, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    A hallmark of mammalian development is the generation of functional subdivisions within the nervous system. In humans, this regionalization creates a complex system that regulates behavior, cognition, memory, and emotion. During development, specification of neocortical tissue that leads to functional sensory and motor regions results from an interplay between cortically intrinsic, molecular processes, such as gene expression, and extrinsic processes regulated by sensory input. Cortical specification in mice occurs pre- and perinatally, when gene expression is robust and various anatomical distinctions are observed alongside an emergence of physiological function. After patterning, gene expression continues to shift and axonal connections mature into an adult form. The function of adult cortical gene expression may be to maintain neocortical subdivisions that were established during early patterning. As some changes in neocortical gene expression have been observed past early development into late adulthood, gene expression may also play a role in the altered neocortical function observed in age-related cognitive decline and brain dysfunction. This review provides a discussion of how neocortical gene expression and specific patterns of neocortical sensori-motor axonal connections develop and change throughout the lifespan of the animal. We posit that a role of neocortical gene expression in neocortex is to regulate plasticity mechanisms that impact critical periods for sensory and motor plasticity in aging. We describe results from several studies in aging brain that detail changes in gene expression that may relate to microstructural changes observed in brain anatomy. We discuss the role of altered glucocorticoid signaling in age-related cognitive and functional decline, as well as how aging in the brain may result from immune system activation. We describe how caloric restriction or reduction of oxidative stress may ameliorate effects of aging on the brain. PMID

  4. Motives for Using Facebook, Patterns of Facebook Activities, and Late Adolescents' Social Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Chia-chen; Brown, B. Bradford

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have confirmed that Facebook, the leading social networking site among young people, facilitates social connections among col