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Sample records for activity physical fitness

  1. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  2. Physical activity and fitness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, N P; Knip, M; Paavilainen, T

    1986-01-01

    Daily physical activity and physical fitness were studied in 31 obese and 31 normal-weight children matched for age and sex. The ages of the children ranged from 5.7 to 16.1 years. The history of their physical activity was examined using a questionnaire completed by the child and the parents. Physical fitness was measured using a two-stage exercise test on a bicycle ergometer. There were no significant differences in daily activities between the obese and the non-obese children, while the sports grades at school were lower and participation in the training teams of sports clubs was less frequent among obese than normal-weight subjects. The obese children were physically less fit than the normal-weight subjects as judged from the pedalling time in exercise test (P less than 0.05) and from the maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) related to lean body mass (LBM) (P less than 0.001). Twenty-seven children participated for 1 year in a weight-reduction programme which comprised individual nutrition counselling, guidance on physical activities and supportive therapy. The reduction in weight was successful in 25 out of 27 children and VO2 max increased on average from 44.2 to 47.1 ml/min/kg of LBM (P less than 0.025). There was no change in the time used for physical activities during the weight reduction period although the children's participation in the training teams of sports clubs increased. It was concluded that obese children are less fit than their non-obese counterparts. Weight reduction results, however, in an improvement of the maximum oxygen consumption towards normal.

  3. Regulatory fit messages and physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Ines

    2013-04-01

    Targeted communication about health behaviors seems to be more effective than mass communication in which undifferentiated audiences receive identical messages. Regulatory focus is psychological variable that can be used to build two target groups: promotion-focused or prevention-focused people. It is hypothesized that targeting messages to an individual's regulatory focus creates regulatory fit and is more successful to promote a physically active lifestyle than nonfit messages. Two different print messages promoting a physically active lifestyle derived from regulatory focus theory (promotion message vs. prevention message) were randomly assigned to N = 98 participants after measuring their regulatory focus. It was examined whether regulatory fit between the regulatory focus and the assigned print message would lead to more positive evaluations in the dependent variables inclination toward the message (preference for the message), intention to perform the behavior, prospective and retrospective feelings associated with the behavior (positive and negative), and perceived value of the behavior directly after reading the message. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that regulatory fit led to stronger intentions in the prevention-message condition and more prospective positive and retrospective positive feelings associated with the behavior in the promotion-message condition in contrast to the nonfit conditions. Prospective positive feelings associated with the behavior mediated the effect of regulatory fit on intention. The results partly provided support for the regulatory fit concept. Matching print messages to the regulatory focus of individuals seems to be a useful approach to enhance physical activity motivation. Future studies should include an objective measure of physical activity behavior.

  4. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6-months to 1-year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  5. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume.

  6. Health and Fitness Through Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    A synthesis of research findings in exercise and physical fitness is presented to provide the general public with insights into establishing an individualized exercise program. The material is divided into seven subtopics: (1) a general overview of the need for exercise and fitness and how it is an integral part of preventive medicine programs;…

  7. Definitions: Health, Fitness, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Pangrazi, Robert P.; Franks, B. Don

    2000-01-01

    This paper defines a variety of fitness components, using a simple multidimensional hierarchical model that is consistent with recent definitions in the literature. It groups the definitions into two broad categories: product and process. Products refer to states of being such as physical fitness, health, and wellness. They are commonly referred…

  8. Students' Motivation, Physical Activity Levels, & Health-Related Physical Fitness in Middle School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Newton, Maria; Carson, Russell L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the predictive utility of students' motivation (self-efficacy and task values) to their physical activity levels and health-related physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength/endurance) in middle school fitness activity classes. Participants (N = 305) responded to questionnaires assessing their self-efficacy…

  9. Physical Activity and Fitness for Persons with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaman, Janet A.; Corbin, Chuck, Ed.; Pangrazi, Bob

    1999-01-01

    Historically, the approach to physical activity for people with disabilities has been couched in medical rationale and focused on rehabilitation. This does not account for physical activity for the joy of it as in play, exercise to improve or maintain fitness, or activity required in employment. The new paradigm of healthy, active lifestyles for…

  10. Physical Activity and Fitness for Health and Longevity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paffenbarger, Ralph S., Jr.; Lee, I-Min

    1996-01-01

    Presents data from recent studies on exercise and fitness as they influence the risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Results show that individuals who have or adopt higher physical activity and fitness levels lower the risk of CVD, live longer, and improve their quality of life. (SM)

  11. Age, Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, Body Composition, and Incidence of Orthopedic Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Effects of age, physical activity, physical fitness, and body mass index (BMI) on the occurrence of orthopedic problems were examined. For men, physical fitness, BMI, and physical activity were associated with orthopedic problems; for women, physical activity was the main predictor. Age was not a factor for either gender. (JD)

  12. Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Physical Fitness among Adolescents: Varying Definitions Yield Differing Results in Fitness Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerner, Matthew S.

    2005-01-01

    The aims of the study were (1) to assess the relationships among leisure-time physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and measures of health-related and performance-related physical fitness, and (2) to determine the primary predictors of performance-related physical fitness from the variables investigated. This study updates the literature with…

  13. Effectiveness of the Sport Education Fitness Model on Fitness Levels, Knowledge, and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hansen, Andrew; Scarboro, Shot; Melnic, Irina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in fitness levels, content knowledge, physical activity levels, and participants' perceptions following the implementation of the sport education fitness model (SEFM) at a high school. Thirty-two high school students participated in 20 lessons using the SEFM. Aerobic capacity, muscular…

  14. Less Sitting, More Physical Activity, or Higher Fitness?

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Claude; Blair, Steven N; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2015-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have found that time spent in sedentary behaviors, levels of physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness are all associated with mortality rates. They are also related to the risks of obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, aging-associated frailty, and cancer. The evidence is such that the National Institutes of Health recently launched a new Common Fund initiative aimed at identifying the molecular transducers of adaptation to physical activity in various tissues and organs. It has been estimated that 9.4% of all 57 million deaths in the world in 2008 could be attributed to physical inactivity, which translates into more than 5 million deaths worldwide. Physical inactivity has a deleterious effect that is comparable to smoking and obesity. Importantly, this global estimate relates to levels of physical activity and does not take into account sedentary behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness. Currently, there are national and international guidelines for physical activity level that are highly concordant. The weekly recommendations include 150 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, 75 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity, or some combination of moderate and vigorous activity with 2 days of resistance exercise. However, these guidelines offer no recommendations regarding sedentary time or goals for cardiorespiratory fitness levels. It will be increasingly important for disease prevention, successful aging, and reduction of premature mortality to broaden the focus of the public health message to include not only more physical activity but also less sitting and higher cardiorespiratory fitness. We briefly review the evidence and discuss key issues to be addressed to make this approach a reality. PMID:26422244

  15. Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borremans, Erwin; Rintala, Pauli; McCubbin, Jeffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals' fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were…

  16. Elementary Physical Education Teachers' Content Knowledge of Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Jose A.; Disch, James G.; Morales, Julio

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine elementary physical education teachers' content knowledge of physical activity and health-related fitness. Sixty-four female and 24 male teachers completed the Appropriate Physical Activity and Health-Related Fitness test. Descriptive statistics results indicated that the mean percentage score for the test…

  17. Importance of Health-Related Fitness Knowledge to Increasing Physical Activity and Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferkel, Rick C.; Judge, Lawrence W.; Stodden, David F.; Griffin, Kent

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is expanding across all ages in the United States. Research has documented a deficiency in health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) among elementary- through college-aged students. The need for a credible and reliable resource that provides research-based information regarding the importance of HRFK is significant. The purpose…

  18. Fitness Testing in Physical Education--A Misdirected Effort in Promoting Healthy Lifestyles and Physical Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo

    2009-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness testing is commonplace within schools and the physical education (PE) curriculum, with advocates claiming one of the key purposes of testing to be the promotion of healthy lifestyles and physical activity. Despite this, much controversy has surrounded the fitness testing of young people. Purpose: This paper draws on…

  19. Daily physical activity and physical fitness from adolescence to adulthood: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Johan; Philippaerts, Renaat M.; Delvaux, Katrien; Thomis, Martine; Vanreusel, Bart; Eynde, Bavo Vanden; Claessens, Albrecht L.; Lysens, Roeland; Renson, Roland; Beunen, Gaston

    2000-07-01

    The stability of physical fitness and physical activity in Flemish males from 18 to 40 years of age was investigated. In addition, effects of a consistently low-activity or high-activity level during the same age period on physical fitness were studied. The sample consisted of males who were followed longitudinally from age 13 to age 18 years, and were remeasured at the ages of 30, 35, and 40 years. Complete data about physical fitness and physical activity between 13 and 40 years were available for 130 subjects. Stability was measured using Pearson autocorrelations and simplex models. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) for repeated measurements was used to look for the effects of activity level on physical fitness. Simplex models showed higher stability coefficients than Pearson correlations, and stability of physical fitness was higher than stability of physical activity. Physical fitness showed the highest stability in flexibility (r = 0.91 between 18 and 30 years, r = 0.96 for both the 30-35 and 35-40 ages intervals), while physical activity showed the highest stability during work (r between 0.70 and 0.98 for the 5-year intervals). Results from MANOVA indicated that for some fitness characteristics the high-active subjects were more fit than their low-active peers. Stability of physical activity was higher than assumed and, therefore, it is a useful and independent indicator for further research. Although possible confounding factors are present (e.g., heredity), a higher level of physical activity during work and leisure time on a regular basis benefits physical fitness considerably. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:487-497, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:11534040

  20. Tracking of physical activity and fitness during the early years.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, Hilary A T; Proudfoot, Nicole A; King-Dowling, Sara; Di Cristofaro, Natascja A; Cairney, John; Timmons, Brian W

    2016-05-01

    The early years are characterized by rapid physical growth and the development of behaviours such as physical activity. The objectives of this study were to assess the 12-month changes in and the tracking of physical activity and fitness in 400 preschoolers (201 boys, 4.5 ± 0.9 years of age). Physical activity data, expressed as minutes per day and as the percentage of time spent at various intensities while wearing an accelerometer, were collected in 3-s epochs for 7 days. Short-term muscle power, assessed with a 10-s modified Wingate Anaerobic Test, was expressed as absolute (W) and relative (W/kg) peak power (PP) and mean power (MP). Aerobic fitness, assessed with the Bruce Protocol progressive treadmill test, was expressed as maximal treadmill time and heart rate recovery (HRR). Light physical activity decreased by 3.2 min/day (p < 0.05), whereas vigorous physical activity increased by 3.7 min/day (p < 0.001), from year 1 to year 2. Physical activity exhibited moderate tracking on the basis of Spearman correlations (r = 0.45-0.59, p < 0.001) and fair tracking on the basis of κ statistics (κ = 0.26-0.38). PP and MP increased from year 1 (PP, 94.1 ± 37.3 W; MP, 84.1 ± 30.9 W) to year 2 (PP, 125.6 ± 36.2 W; MP, 112.3 ± 32.2 W) (p < 0.001) and tracked moderately to substantially (PP, r = 0.89, κ = 0.61; MP, r = 0.86, κ = 0.56). Time to exhaustion on the treadmill increased from 9.4 ± 2.3 min to 11.8 ± 2.3 min (p < 0.001) and tracked strongly (r = 0.82, κ = 0.56). HRR was unchanged at 65 ± 14 beats/min (p = 0.297) and tracked fairly (r = 0.52, κ = 0.23). The findings indicate that fitness tracks better than physical activity over a 12-month period during the early years. PMID:27045869

  1. Parent influences on physical activity participation and physical fitness of deaf children.

    PubMed

    Ellis, M Kathleen; Lieberman, Lauren J; Dummer, Gail M

    2014-04-01

    Research has consistently demonstrated that parents' values toward physical activity and fitness have strongly influenced the physical activity habits of hearing children (Welk, G. J., Wood, K., & Morss, G. [2003]. Parental influences on physical activity in children: An exploration of potential mechanisms. Pediatric Exercise Science, 15, 19-33). The primary purpose of this study was to determine whether similar findings are obtained for deaf (1) children. The influence of parents' hearing status and parents' involvement in Deaf sport (2) was assessed in addition to their values toward sports participation and physical fitness for their deaf children. Deaf children's physical activity habits were determined by the number of activities participated per week, and fitness levels by the number of scores within the Healthy Fitness Zone from the Fitnessgram test. Parents demonstrated positive values toward physical fitness regardless of hearing status; this finding was strongest among deaf parents of deaf children. Significant positive relationships were found among parents' values toward physical fitness and sport participation and children's physical activity and fitness levels, as well as between Deaf sport involvement by deaf parents and children's physical activity levels.

  2. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels. PMID:23419502

  3. [Physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in children and adolescents: evidence from epidemiologic studies].

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Castillo, Manuel J

    2013-10-01

    Physical activity and fitness play a significant role in prevention of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. Current understanding and evidence from epidemiologic studies provide useful insights to better understand how they relate to each other and how to develop future intervention strategies. This paper summarizes the most relevant information from cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on the relationships between physical activity, physical fitness, and overweight in early life. According to current scientific evidence: (i) High levels of physical activity during childhood and adolescence, particularly vigorous physical activity, are associated to lower total and central adiposity at this age and later in life; (ii) the level of physical fitness, especially aerobic fitness, is inversely related to current and future adiposity levels; (iii) overweight children and adolescents with a high fitness level have a healthier cardiovascular profile than their overweight, low fit peers and a similar profile to their normal weight, low fit peers. This suggests that high fitness levels may counteract the negative consequences attributed to body fat. These findings suggest that increasing physical fitness in overweight children and adolescents may have many positive effects on health, including lower body fat levels.

  4. Physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Kristin

    2012-09-01

    Arthritis in childhood can be associated with low levels of physical activity and poor physical fitness. Children with arthritis may have decreased aerobic and anaerobic fitness, muscle weakness, low bone mass, and low bone strength. Suboptimal physical activity and exercise capacity may contribute to further deconditioning and disability, placing children with arthritis at risk for poor health outcomes. Recent studies suggest that exercise therapy is safe and does not worsen arthritis. Exercise therapy may improve function, quality of life, and physical fitness. However, little is known about the exercise prescription that is most effective to improve clinical outcomes in children with arthritis. This article reviews the current literature on physical activity, physical fitness, and exercise therapy in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

  5. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health. C.H. McCloy Research Lecture: 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Steven N.

    1993-01-01

    Examines recent evidence on the relations between physical activity, physical fitness, and health, noting the possible causal nature of the associations. The article evaluates the public health burden of sedentary lifestyles in the United States and provides suggestions for increasing participation in physical activity. (SM)

  6. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    PubMed

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  7. Impact of antipsychotic medication on physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Daenen, Anne; Damme, Tine Van; De Hert, Marc; Rosenbaum, Simon; Bruyninckx, David

    2016-08-30

    Antipsychotics are used increasingly in adolescents for a range of psychiatric disorders. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether physical activity levels and physical fitness of adolescent inpatients treated with antipsychotic medication, differs from either (i) antipsychotic naïve adolescents with mental health problems and, (ii) healthy controls. All participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents, the Positive-and-Negative-Affect-Schedule and performed the Eurofit test battery. Adolescents with mental health problems (irrespective of antipsychotic medication) were significantly (P<0.05) less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance, running speed and cardiovascular endurance compared to healthy controls (n=15, 8♂, 15.9±1.3 years). Adolescents treated with antipsychotic medication (n=15, 8♂, 15.5±1.3 years) were less physically active and had an impaired whole body balance compared with antipsychotic naïve adolescents (n=15, 8♂, 15.7±1.4 years). Given the overwhelming deleterious impact of physical inactivity and low physical fitness on physical and mental health outcomes, interventions specifically targeting physical activity and physical fitness among adolescents experiencing mental illness, both treated with, and not treated with antipsychotic medication are warranted as a priority. Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a risk factor for physical inactivity and poor physical fitness. PMID:27288738

  8. Increasing Student Physical Fitness through Increased Choice of Fitness Activities and Student Designed Fitness Activities for Ninth through Twelfth Graders in Physical Education Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Margo A.

    2011-01-01

    This action research project report began when the teacher researcher determined that students exhibited physical fitness levels below that of the state and national norms, and also displayed negative attitudes about physical education. The purpose of this action research project was to increase physical fitness and fitness attitudes through…

  9. Sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity with physical fitness in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kidokoro, T; Tanaka, H; Naoi, K; Ueno, K; Yanaoka, T; Kashiwabara, K; Miyashita, M

    2016-11-01

    The present study examined the sex-specific associations of moderate and vigorous physical activity (VPA) with physical fitness in 300 Japanese adolescents aged 12-14 years. Participants were asked to wear an accelerometer to evaluate physical activity (PA) levels of various intensities (i.e. moderate PA (MPA), 3-5.9 metabolic equivalents (METs); VPA, ≥6 METs; moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), ≥3 METs). Eight fitness items were assessed (grip strength, bent-leg sit-up, sit-and-reach, side step, 50 m sprint, standing long jump, handball throw, and distance running) as part of the Japanese standardised fitness test. A fitness composite score was calculated using Japanese fitness norms, and participants were categorised according to their score from category A (most fit) to category E (least fit), with participants in categories D and E defined as having low fitness. It was found that for boys, accumulating more than 80.7 min/day of MVPA may reduce the probability of low fitness (odds ratio (ORs) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 0.17 [0.06-0.47], p = .001). For girls, accumulating only 8.4 min of VPA could reduce the likelihood of exhibiting low fitness (ORs [95% CI] = 0.23 [0.05-0.89], p = .032). These results reveal that there are sex-specific differences in the relationship between PA and physical fitness in adolescents, suggesting that sex-specific PA recommendation may be needed to improve physical fitness in adolescents.

  10. Relationships Among Goal Contents, Exercise Motivations, Physical Activity, and Aerobic Fitness in University Physical Education Courses.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Benjamin A; Bergman, Shawn M

    2016-04-01

    The current research examined the relationships among exercise goal contents, behavioral regulation, physical activity, and aerobic fitness within the context of eight-week university physical education courses. Participants were undergraduate students (M age = 20.2 year, SD = 2.3) enrolled in activity courses (N = 461) during the 2010 Fall semester. At pretest, participants completed a demographic survey, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire and the Goal Contents in Exercise Questionnaire. At eight-week posttest, participants completed the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adults and the PACER aerobic fitness test. Relative intrinsic goal content was found to predict physical activity indirectly and aerobic fitness via behavioral regulation. Specific goal contents related to health management and skill development were found to predict physical activity and aerobic fitness via a fully mediated path through identified and intrinsic regulation. Results supported the efficacy of goal contents and self-determination theory in describing physical activity behavior and fitness. Examining specific types of goal contents and behavioral regulations revealed relationships that were masked by the utilization of omnibus scoring protocols.

  11. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness in Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yi-Ching; Malina, Robert M

    2002-01-01

    The relationship between physical activity and health-related physical fitness was evaluated in 282 Taiwanese adolescents 12-14 years of age. The subjects were randomly selected from the 7th, 8th and 9th grades in two junior high schools in Taiwan. Physical activity was estimated as total daily energy expenditure and energy expenditure in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 24-hour activity records for three days, two week days and one weekend day. Health-related fitness was assessed as the one-mile run (cardiorespiratory endurance), timed sit-ups (abdominal strength and endurance), sit-and-reach (lower back flexibility), and subcutaneous fatness (sum of the triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds). Physical activity is significantly and positively correlated with one-mile run performance and the sit-and-reach, but not with sit-ups and subcutaneous fatness. Overall, the strength of the relationships between estimated energy expenditure and specific fitness items in the total sample vary from low to moderate, with only 1% to 12% of the variance in fitness variables being explained by estimated energy expenditure. Comparisons of active versus inactive, and fit versus unfit adolescents provide additional insights. The more active (highest quartile) are also more fit in cardiorespiratory endurance and in the sit-and-reach than the less active (lowest quartile), and the more fit in the one-mile run (better time, lowest quartile) and the sit-and-reach (highest quartile) are more active than the less fit in each item, respectively. PMID:11938605

  12. The Importance of Physical Fitness versus Physical Activity for Coronary Artery Disease Risk Factors: A Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Deborah Rohm; Steinhardt, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relationships among physical fitness, physical activity, and risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in male police officers. Data from screenings and physical fitness assessments indicated physical activity must be sufficient to influence fitness before obtaining statistically significant risk-reducing…

  13. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Adolescents: A Self-Organizing Maps Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-01-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The…

  14. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  15. Physical activity, physical fitness, gross motor coordination, and metabolic syndrome: focus of twin research in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, José António Ribeiro; Santos, Daniel; de Freitas, Duarte Luis; Thomis, Martine

    2013-02-01

    A very brief history of Portuguese twin research in sport and human movement sciences is presented. Recruitment procedures, zygosity determination, and phenotypes are given for twins and their parents from the mainland, and Azores and Madeira archipelagos. Preliminary findings are mostly related to physical activity, health-related physical fitness, gross motor coordination, neuromotor development, and metabolic syndrome traits.

  16. Physical Activity Enhances Metabolic Fitness Independently of Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Marathon Runners

    PubMed Central

    Laye, M. J.; Nielsen, M. B.; Hansen, L. S.; Knudsen, T.; Pedersen, B. K.

    2015-01-01

    High levels of cardiovascular fitness (CRF) and physical activity (PA) are associated with decreased mortality and risk to develop metabolic diseases. The independent contributions of CRF and PA to metabolic disease risk factors are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that runners who run consistently >50 km/wk and/or >2 marathons/yr for the last 5 years have superior metabolic fitness compared to matched sedentary subjects (CRF, age, gender, and BMI). Case-control recruitment of 31 pairs of runner-sedentary subjects identified 10 matched pairs with similar VO2max (mL/min/kg) (similar-VO2max). The similar-VO2max group was compared with a group of age, gender, and BMI matched pairs who had the largest difference in VO2max (different-VO2max). Primary outcomes that defined metabolic fitness including insulin response to an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting lipids, and fasting insulin were superior in runners versus sedentary controls despite similar VO2max. Furthermore, performance (velocity at VO2max, running economy), improved exercise metabolism (lactate threshold), and skeletal muscle levels of mitochondrial proteins were superior in runners versus sedentary controls with similar VO2max. In conclusion subjects with a high amount of PA have more positive metabolic health parameters independent of CRF. PA is thus a good marker against metabolic diseases. PMID:25821340

  17. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood pressure profile in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal C; Singh, S K

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine how physical activity level and physical fitness affects the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to help in developing preventive strategies for the local population as ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 Gujarati Indian adolescent boys and girls of age group 16-19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using Johnson Space Center/NASA Physical Activity Rating Scale and VO2 max was used to assess the physical fitness. Body composition was assessed in terms of Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Blood Pressure was measured by oscillometry. One-way ANOVA was used to study if any significant differences (P<0.05) existed in the blood pressure profile between the high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to assess the relationship between VO2 max and blood pressure profile. In girls, physical activity level was not found to have a significant effect on the blood pressure profile. In boys, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity Group as compared to Low Physical Activity Group. PVO2 max was found to have a significant negative correlationship with SBP, DBP and MAP in girls and a significant negative correlationship with SBP, PP and MAP in boys. It could thus be concluded that a better physical fitness rather than a higher physical activity level could keep the blood pressure in check in the Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  18. Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Are Beneficial for White Matter in Low-Fit Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Burzynska, Agnieszka Zofia; Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Voss, Michelle W.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; Knecht, Anya; Lewis, Andrew; Monti, Jim M.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Wojcicki, Thomas R.; Fanning, Jason; Chung, Hyondo David; Awick, Elisabeth; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) are associated with better cognitive function in late life, but the neural correlates for these relationships are unclear. To study these correlates, we examined the association of both PA and CRF with measures of white matter (WM) integrity in 88 healthy low-fit adults (age 60–78). Using accelerometry, we objectively measured sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA (MV-PA) over a week. We showed that greater MV-PA was related to lower volume of WM lesions. The association between PA and WM microstructural integrity (measured with diffusion tensor imaging) was region-specific: light PA was related to temporal WM, while sedentary behavior was associated with lower integrity in the parahippocampal WM. Our findings highlight that engaging in PA of various intensity in parallel with avoiding sedentariness are important in maintaining WM health in older age, supporting public health recommendations that emphasize the importance of active lifestyle. PMID:25229455

  19. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level.

    PubMed

    Bernatowicz, Dominik; Izdebski, Paweł; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał

    2015-06-27

    The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs) and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs). None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour - Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness.

  20. Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: a self-organizing maps approach.

    PubMed

    Pellicer-Chenoll, Maite; Garcia-Massó, Xavier; Morales, Jose; Serra-Añó, Pilar; Solana-Tramunt, Mònica; González, Luis-Millán; Toca-Herrera, José-Luis

    2015-06-01

    The relationship among physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents has been widely studied; however, controversy concerning this topic persists. The methods used thus far to analyse the relationship between these variables have included mostly traditional lineal analysis according to the available literature. The aim of this study was to perform a visual analysis of this relationship with self-organizing maps and to monitor the subject's evolution during the 4 years of secondary school. Four hundred and forty-four students participated in the study. The physical activity and physical fitness of the participants were measured, and the participants' grade point averages were obtained from the five participant institutions. Four main clusters representing two primary student profiles with few differences between boys and girls were observed. The clustering demonstrated that students with higher energy expenditure and better physical fitness exhibited lower body mass index (BMI) and higher academic performance, whereas those adolescents with lower energy expenditure exhibited worse physical fitness, higher BMI and lower academic performance. With respect to the evolution of the students during the 4 years, ∼25% of the students originally clustered in a negative profile moved to a positive profile, and there was no movement in the opposite direction. PMID:25953972

  1. Temperamental Traits Versus Individual Physical Fitness Components and a Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Bernatowicz, Dominik; Izdebski, Paweł; Boraczyński, Tomasz; Boraczyński, Michał

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the study was to examine whether relationships exist between particular temperamental traits within the concept of Regulative Theory of Temperament and components of physical fitness, that are most crucial for success in sport. The research involved 108 individuals including 63 men (age 21.1 ± 1.6 yrs) and 45 women (age 20.7 ± 1.3 yrs). None of the respondents were professionally engaged in sport. Components of physical fitness included: aerobic capacity, strength, agility, static-dynamic balance and reaction time. The respondents also completed two questionnaires: the Formal Characteristics of Behaviour – Temperament Inventory and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The results indicate that the temperamental traits had average to poor correlations with the components of physical fitness, whereas more statistically significant correlations were observed in women. Negative correlations were obtained between emotional reactivity and agility, which was a result confirmed by previous research. All temperamental traits related with the energetic aspects of behaviour correlated with simple reaction time in women. Physical activity and aerobic capacity did not correlate with any of the studied traits. The results do not allow for any general conclusions to be drawn, but can serve as a reference point for future research on temperamental traits as delineated by Regulative Theory of Temperament and their relationship with the components of physical fitness. PMID:26240664

  2. Physical activity and physical fitness in African-American girls with and without obesity.

    PubMed

    Ward, D S; Trost, S G; Felton, G; Saunders, R; Parsons, M A; Dowda, M; Pate, R R

    1997-11-01

    Lack of physical activity and low levels of physical fitness are thought to be contributing factors to the high prevalence of obesity in African-American girls. To examine this hypothesis, we compared habitual physical activity and physical fitness in 54 African-American girls with obesity and 96 African-American girls without obesity residing in rural South Carolina. Participation in vigorous (> or = 6 METs) (VPA) or moderate and vigorous physical activity (> or = 4 METs) (MVPA) was assessed on three consecutive days using the Previous Day Physical Activity Recall. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed using the PWC 170 cycle ergometer test. Upper body strength was determined at two sites via isometric cable tensiometer tests. Relative to their counterparts without obesity, girls with obesity reported significantly fewer 30-minute blocks of VPA (0.90 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.3 +/- 0.14) and MVPA (1.2 +/- 0.18 vs. 1.7 +/- 0.16) (p < 0.01). Within the entire sample, VPA and MVPA were inversely associated with body mass index (r = -0.17 and r = -0.19) and triceps skinfold thickness (r = -0.19 and r = -0.22) (p < 0.05). In the PWC 170 test and isometric strength tests, girls with obesity demonstrated absolute scores that were similar to, or greater than, those of girls without obesity; however, when scores were expressed relative to bodyweight, girls with obesity demonstrated significantly lower values (p < 0.05). The results support the hypothesis that lack of physical activity and low physical fitness are important contributing factors in the development and/or maintenance of obesity in African-American girls.

  3. The Associations of Youth Physical Activity and Screen Time with Fatness and Fitness: The 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yang; Chen, Senlin; Laurson, Kelly R; Kim, Youngwon; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the associations of youth physical activity and screen time with weight status and cardiorespiratory fitness in children and adolescents, separately, utilizing a nationally representative sample. A total of 1,113 participants (692 children aged 6-11 yrs; 422 adolescents aged 12-15 yrs) from the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey. Participants completed physical activity and screen time questionnaires, and their body mass index and cardiorespiratory fitness (adolescents only) were assessed. Adolescents completed additional physical activity questions to estimate daily MET minutes. Children not meeting the screen time guideline had 1.69 times the odds of being overweight/obese compared to those meeting the screen time guideline, after adjusting for physical activity and other control variables. Among adolescent, screen time was significantly associated with being overweight/obese (odds ratio = 1.82, 95% confidence interval: 1.06-3.15), but the association attenuated toward the borderline of being significant after controlling for physical activity. Being physically active was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, independent of screen time among adolescents. In joint association analysis, children who did not meet physical activity nor screen time guidelines had 2.52 times higher odds of being overweight/obese than children who met both guidelines. Adolescents who did not meet the screen time guideline had significantly higher odds ratio of being overweight/obese regardless of meeting the physical activity guideline. Meeting the physical activity guideline was also associated with cardiorespiratory fitness regardless of meeting the screen time guideline in adolescents. Screen time is a stronger factor than physical activity in predicting weight status in both children and adolescents, and only physical activity is strongly associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents. PMID:26820144

  4. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  5. Role Modeling Attitudes, Physical Activity and Fitness Promoting Behaviors of Prospective Physical Education Specialists and Non-Specialists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardinal, Bradley J.; Cardinal, Marita K.

    2002-01-01

    Compared the role modeling attitudes and physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors of undergraduate students majoring in physical education and in elementary education. Student teacher surveys indicated that physical education majors had more positive attitudes toward role modeling physical activity and fitness promoting behaviors and…

  6. The Contributions of Physical Activity and Fitness to Optimal Health and Wellness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohuruogu, Ben

    2016-01-01

    The paper examined the role of physical activity and fitness more especially in the area of disease prevention and control by looking at the major ways by which regular physical activity and fitness contributes to optimal health and wellness. The Surgeor General's Report (1996), stressed that physical inactivity is a national problem which…

  7. Intention to be Physically Active is Influenced by Physical Activity and Fitness, Sedentary Behaviours, and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Grao-Cruces, Alberto; Fernández-Martínez, Antonio; Nuviala, Alberto; Pérez-Turpin, José A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), sedentary lifestyle and life satisfaction with the intention to be physically active after secondary school graduation, in teenagers of both genders. A total of 1986 Spanish adolescents (12-16 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. PA, sedentary lifestyle, life satisfaction and intention to be physically active were assessed through validated questionnaires, and PF was evaluated objectively with the ALPHA battery tests. In both genders, adolescents who had significantly higher odds ratios (OR) of showing low intention to be physically active had low level of PA, cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular fitness in the lower body, and they were more sedentary in front of the computer. The girls that spent a lot of time watching TV and the boys with low life satisfaction also showed higher OR of having low intention to be physically active. PMID:26898051

  8. Physical fitness of primary school children in relation to overweight prevalence and physical activity habits.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, Rossella; Ceciliani, Andrea; Garulli, Andrea; Masotti, Andrea; Poletti, Giuseppe; Beltrami, Patrizia; Leoni, Erica

    2012-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyse, through a limited number of fitness tests, the main conditioning and coordinative abilities in children aged 8-9 years, and their relationship with gender, anthropometric variables and physical activity habits. The height and weight of 256 boys and 241 girls were measured and information about physical activity habits was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Physical performance was assessed by means of a few standardised tests: 'sit & reach', medicine-ball forward throw, standing long jump, 20 m running speed, and forward roll test. In both boys and girls, body weight and body mass index (BMI) were positively correlated with the medicine-ball throw performances and negatively correlated for the standing long jump and speed tests, while no association was found with tests measuring back flexibility and total body coordination. Daily physical activity and participation in sport were not significantly correlated with body weight and BMI, but were positively associated with children's motor performance. The standardised fitness tests selected in the current study have been found to be suitable to identify fitness levels of primary school children. Thanks to their limited number and ease of measurement, they can be used in any school context to classify children and for monitoring the effects of targeted interventions promoting physical activity.

  9. Family Activities for Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  10. Physical fitness and activity as separate heart disease risk factors: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Paul T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Public health policies for physical activity presume that the greatest health benefits are achieved by increasing physical activity among the least active. This presumption is based largely on studies of cardiorespiratory fitness. To assess whether studies of cardiorespiratory fitness are germane to physical activity guidelines, we compared the dose-response relationships between cardiovascular disease endpoints with leisure-time physical activity and fitness from published studies. Data Sources Twenty-three sex-specific cohorts of physical activity or fitness (representing 1,325,004 person-years of follow-up), cited in Tables 4-1 and 4-2 of the Surgeon General's Report. Data Synthesis Relative risks were plotted as a function of the cumulative percentages of the samples when ranked from least fit or active, to most fit or active. To combine study results, a weighted average of the relative risks over the 16 physical activity or seven fitness cohorts was computed at every 5th percentile between the 5% and 100%. The analyses show that the risks of coronary heart disease or cardiovascular disease decrease linearly in association with increasing percentiles of physical activity. In contrast, there is a precipitous drop in risk occurring before the 25th percentile of the fitness distribution. As a consequence of this drop, there is a significant difference in the risk reduction associated with being more physically active or physically fit (P ≤ 0.04). Conclusions Being unfit warrants consideration as a risk factor, distinctly from inactivity, and worthy of screening and intervention. Formulating physical activity recommendations on the basis of fitness studies may inappropriately demote the status of physical fitness as a risk factor while exaggerating the public health benefits of moderate amounts of physical activity. PMID:11323544

  11. Active relatives and health-related physical fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.

    PubMed

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Ortega, Francisco B; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Martínez-Gómez, David; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Marcos, Ascensión; Béghin, Laurent; Kafatos, Anthony; González-Gross, Marcela; Zaccaria, Maria; Molnár, Dénes; De Henauw, Stefaan; Sjöström, Michael; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J

    2012-01-01

    High physical fitness in childhood and adolescence is positively associated with favourable health-related outcomes. Our aim was to examine the relationship between relatives' (father, mother, brother, sister, and best friend) physical activity engagement and encouragement on adolescents' physical fitness. Adolescents were part of the HELENA study, a multi-centre study conducted in 10 cities from nine European countries in 2006-2008. Participants were 3288 adolescents (48% boys, 52% girls) aged 12.5-17.5 years with valid data on at least one of the three fitness variables studied: muscular strength (standing long jump), speed/agility (4×10 m shuttle run), and cardiorespiratory fitness (20 m shuttle run). The adolescents reported their relatives' physical activity engagement and encouragement. Analysis of covariance showed that relatives' physical activity engagement (father, mother, brother, and best friend) was positively related to cardiorespiratory fitness (P < 0.05); and mother's and sisters' physical activity engagement were positively associated with higher muscular strength in adolescents (P < 0.05). Furthermore, father's physical activity encouragement was positively linked to physical fitness (all fitness components) in adolescents (P < 0.05). Interventions aimed at improving physical fitness in young people might be more successful when family members, particularly mothers and fathers, are encouraged to engage in physical activity and support adolescents' physical activity.

  12. Chapter 6: Children's Environmental Access in Relation to Motor Competence, Physical Activity, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erwin, Heather E.; Woods, Amelia Mays; Woods, Martha K.; Castelli, Darla M.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activity engagement, motor competence, and physical fitness as related to child access to physical activity facilities in the home and school environments. The present investigation attempts to further efforts to examine the relationship between physical activity levels and access.…

  13. Perceptions of older Latino adults regarding physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise.

    PubMed

    Melillo, K D; Williamson, E; Houde, S C; Futrell, M; Read, C Y; Campasano, M

    2001-09-01

    Healthy People 2000 has identified the importance of physical activity for healthy aging, but little is known about what motivates older individuals, older Latino adults, in particular, to be physically active. The purpose of this research was to examine the perceptions of older Latino adults toward physical fitness, physical activity, and exercise. This study used a qualitative focus group design. The sample of Latino adults age 60 and older resided in Northeast Massachusetts and was recruited from community settings which serve older Latino adults. Three focus groups, consisting of four to eight individuals in each group, were conducted and audiotaped. Data analysis used a combination of open, axial, and selective coding procedures. Focus group participants viewed physical fitness as being able to do anything; the mind and body working together; and feeling "light," being healthy. Support was viewed as a motivator of physical activity and exercise and included community resources, group support, cultural unity, and health provider assistance Barriers of fear and a feeling of inappropriateness were identified by focus group participants. Although the study was exploratory and the sample size small, it provides useful cultural knowledge and information for community health and gerontological nurses. Knowledge about older Latino adults' perceptions of motivators and barriers to physical activity and exercise is a necessary first step for nurses to prescribe activities that will help improve functional independence and quality of life. Nurses can serve as links for older Latino adults in accessing community resources. Sociocultural factors that influence Latino adult perceptions must be assessed if health promotion program planning is to be tailored to meet individual and group needs.

  14. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women

    PubMed Central

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  15. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies. PMID:27537900

  16. Home and Work Physical Activity Environments: Associations with Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Physical Activity Level in French Women.

    PubMed

    Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Charreire, Hélène; Menai, Mehdi; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Brage, Soren; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Fagherazzi, Guy; Balkau, Beverley

    2016-08-15

    The influence of the physical activity environment in the home and at work on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objectively-measured physical activity has not been extensively studied. We recruited 147 women with a (mean ± SD) age of 54 ± 7 years and without evidence of chronic disease. The physical activity environment was assessed by self-report (Assessing Levels of PHysical Activity or ALPHA questionnaire), CRF using a submaximal step test, usual physical activity using combined heart rate and accelerometry, as well as by a validated questionnaire (Recent Physical Activity Questionnaire). Summary scores of the home environment and the work environment derived from the ALPHA questionnaire were positively correlated with CRF after adjustment for age (r = 0.18, p = 0.03 and r = 0.28, p < 0.01, respectively). Women owning a bicycle or having a garden (which may prompt physical activity) had higher CRF; those with a bicycle at home also had a higher physical activity energy expenditure. Similarly, women who had access to fitness equipment at work had higher CRF. In conclusion, these results provide new insights into potential environmental influences on physical capacity and physical activity that could inform the design of physical activity promotion strategies.

  17. A Comparison of the Fitness, Obesity, and Physical Activity Levels of High School Physical Education Students across Race and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kathryn L.; Wojcik, Janet R.; DeWaele, Christi S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Little is known about the physical fitness, obesity, and physical activity (PA) levels of high school students in physical education classes when comparing racial and gender groups. Purpose: To compare the fitness, obesity, and PA levels of female and male students of different racial groups in 6 high schools in the southeastern…

  18. Social Inequalities in Body Weight and Physical Activity: Exploring the Role of Fitness Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J.; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions of exclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this…

  19. The Impact of Postsecondary Fitness and Wellness Courses on Physical Activity Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Joshua Charles

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical activity contributes to decreasing health risk factors. With the intent of establishing long-term behavioral changes that attribute to overall physical wellbeing, many U.S. universities offer fitness and wellness courses. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of a postsecondary fitness and wellness course on physical…

  20. Long-Term Effects of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Physical Fitness and Executive Functions in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, J. W.; Hartman, E.; Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J.; Bosker, R. J.; Doolaard, S.; Visscher, C.

    2016-01-01

    Integrating physical activity into the curriculum has potential health and cognitive benefits in primary school children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of physically active academic lessons on cardiovascular fitness, muscular fitness and executive functions. In the current randomized controlled trial, 499 second and third…

  1. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    PubMed

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks.

  2. Testing the Youth Physical Activity Promotion Model: Fatness and Fitness as Enabling Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Welk, Gregory J.; Joens-Matre, Roxane R.

    2014-01-01

    As the prevalence of childhood obesity increases, it is important to examine possible differences in psychosocial correlates of physical activity between normal weight and overweight children. The study examined fatness (weight status) and (aerobic) fitness as Enabling factors related to youth physical activity within the Youth Physical Activity…

  3. Physical activity, physical fitness and the effect of exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vermaete, Nele; Wolter, Pascal; Verhoef, Gregor; Gosselink, Rik

    2013-08-01

    Fatigue is one of the most common and most distressing problems in lymphoma patients. A vicious circle is presumed between fatigue, physical activity and physical fitness. It is plausible that an exercise training program would be effective in reducing fatigue, by breaking this vicious circle. The purposes of this review are to provide an overview of the literature on physical activity and physical fitness in lymphoma patients before, during and after anticancer treatment, and to summarise the literature on exercise training interventions in lymphoma patients. We conducted a search for studies reporting on physical activity, physical fitness or the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients. A total of 13 articles were selected. Due to a small number of articles and methodological issues, it was not possible to make final conclusions. The results indicated that 21 % to 29 % of lymphoma survivors meet the American College of Sports Medicine public health guidelines for physical activity. Maximal exercise capacity was decreased before treatment, especially in patients with advanced disease, and was close to normal during and/or after treatment. Lower levels of physical activity as well as lower physical fitness seemed to be associated with more symptoms of fatigue. Aerobic exercise training interventions seemed to be feasible and safe and had positive effects on cardiorespiratory fitness, fatigue and self-reported physical functioning. Further research is needed to examine physical activity and physical fitness in a longitudinal, objective way in large samples and to examine the effect of exercise training in lymphoma patients.

  4. Health, fitness, physical activity, and morbidity of middle aged male factory workers. I.

    PubMed Central

    Tuxworth, W; Nevill, A M; White, C; Jenkins, C

    1986-01-01

    A description of the fitness, physical activity of lifestyle, and some aspects of health status and attitudes in a population of male factory workers aged 35-60 is presented as the first part of a report on a study of morbidity in this population. A total of 1394 subjects were included, undergoing medical examination, fitness testing by bicycle ergometry, assessment of body fat, and interview questionnaire. The inter-relation of fitness, body composition, habitual exertion, health risk factors, and attitudes to exercise are discussed. Fitness levels are compared with those reported in other studies and discussed in terms of capacity for walking and running and in relation to criteria for health benefit. In these two latter respects fitness appears to be inadequate among the great majority of those tested, although it is comparable with that reported by several other recent studies. Fitness is associated with physical activity of leisure but not that of work. Only relatively strenuous physical activity in leisure time appears to be related to fitness, and is only participated in by some 28% of the sample. Cycling has the strongest association with fitness of all the physical activity variables. Blood pressure and percentage body fat are also associated, inversely, with fitness, the latter not unexpectedly because of the weight related measure of fitness. PMID:3790455

  5. Physical Fitness Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Alice

    This document presents baseline data on physical fitness that provides an outline for assessing the physical fitness of students. It consists of 4 tasks and a 13-item questionnaire on fitness-related behaviors. The fitness test evaluates cardiorespiratory endurance by a steady state jog; muscular strength and endurance with a two-minute bent-knee…

  6. Surrogate measures of physical activity and physical fitness. Evidence for sedentary traits of resting tachycardia, obesity, and low vital capacity.

    PubMed

    Blair, S N; Kannel, W B; Kohl, H W; Goodyear, N; Wilson, P W

    1989-06-01

    Studies on physical activity, physical fitness, and health have been hampered because of invalid, unreliable, or impractical measures of physical activity. This report examines the validity of sedentary traits (resting tachycardia, obesity, and low vital capacity) as predictors of physical fitness as assessed by a maximal treadmill exercise test. Study participants were women (n = 3,943) and men (n = 15,627) with at least one visit to the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas. Association of the sedentary traits with physical fitness was examined by multiple regression analyses. Sedentary traits were associated with physical fitness in all age and sex groups, accounting for 12-40% of the variance in treadmill time. When smoking, a simple physical activity index, and sedentary traits were included in a model to predict physical fitness, R2 values ranged from 0.20 to 0.53 in women and 0.45 to 0.61 in men and were significant at p less than 0.0001. These models account for approximately twice as much variance in physical fitness as has been reported previously. The addition of sedentary traits measurements to a simple physical activity index provides a valid estimate of physical fitness in epidemiologic studies.

  7. Fundamental movement skills and physical fitness as predictors of physical activity: A 6-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, T; Yli-Piipari, S; Huotari, P; Watt, A; Liukkonen, J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which fundamental movement skills and physical fitness scores assessed in early adolescence predict self-reported physical activity assessed 6 years later. The sample comprised 333 (200 girls, 133 boys; M age = 12.41) students. The effects of previous physical activity, sex, and body mass index (BMI) were controlled in the main analyses. Adolescents' fundamental movement skills, physical fitness, self-report physical activity, and BMI were collected at baseline, and their self-report energy expenditure (metabolic equivalents: METs) and intensity of physical activity were collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire 6 years later. Results showed that fundamental movement skills predicted METs, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity levels, whereas fitness predicted METs, moderate, and vigorous physical activity levels. Hierarchical regression analyses also showed that after controlling for previous levels of physical activity, sex, and BMI, the size of the effect of fundamental movement skills and physical fitness on energy expenditure and physical activity intensity was moderate (R(2) change between 0.06 and 0.15), with the effect being stronger for high intensity physical activity. PMID:25644386

  8. Leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness of male adolescents in Oman.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Al-Shamli, Ali Khalifa

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and physical fitness (cardiovascular fitness, body fat percentage, flexibility, muscle strength, and endurance) of 10th-grade male students in Oman. Data were collected from 330 students. All participants completed a descriptive questionnaire, a 1 mile walk/run test; a skinfold analysis of the chest, abdomen, and thigh; a sit and reach test; a hand grip test; and a 1-minute sit-up test. Students spent an average of 19.20 ± 6.77 hours on sedentary activities, 3.46 ± 2.11 hours on sports activities, and 11.22 ± 9.24 hours working per week. The students had an average body fat percentage of 6.38% ± 4.67%, muscle strength 38.04 ± 7.55 kg, flexibility 38.01 ± 7.41 cm, abdominal muscle endurance 38.85 ± 8.15 times/min, and cardiovascular endurance 8.10 ± 1.65 minutes.

  9. Minority Youth, Physical Activity, and Fitness Levels: Targeted Interventions Needed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahlman, Mariane; Hall, Heather L.; Gutuskey, Lila

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a clear disparity in health in the United States such that African Americans and Hispanics are more likely to suffer from morbidity and mortality related to chronic disease than their Caucasian counterparts. Purpose: We will determine whether fourth- and fifth-grade students' measures of health-related fitness and physical…

  10. Influence of a health-related physical fitness model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment.

    PubMed

    Fu, You; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James; Shultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Sibthorp, Jim

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of a health-related physical fitness physical education model on students' physical activity, perceived competence, and enjoyment. 61 students (25 boys, 36 girls; M age = 12.6 yr., SD = 0.6) were assigned to two groups (health-related physical fitness physical education group, and traditional physical education group), and participated in one 50-min. weekly basketball class for 6 wk. Students' in-class physical activity was assessed using NL-1000 pedometers. The physical subscale of the Perceived Competence Scale for Children was employed to assess perceived competence, and children's enjoyment was measured using the Sport Enjoyment Scale. The findings suggest that students in the intervention group increased their perceived competence, enjoyment, and physical activity over a 6-wk. intervention, while the comparison group simply increased physical activity over time. Children in the intervention group had significantly greater enjoyment.

  11. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  12. Self-Control Is Associated with Physical Activity and Fitness among Young Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Marja Ilona; Suihko, Johanna; Hankonen, Nelli; Absetz, Pilvikki; Jallinoja, Piia

    2012-01-01

    The personality trait self-control has been associated with various adaptive outcomes. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to explore whether self-control is associated with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA), Body Mass Index (BMI), muscle-fitness and aerobic fitness among young men. Participants (482 male conscripts;…

  13. Using Social Cognitive Theory to Predict Physical Activity and Fitness in Underserved Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-01-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using…

  14. The meaning of "physical fitness".

    PubMed

    Hopkins, W G; Walker, N P

    1988-11-01

    The understanding of the term "physical fitness" was determined for a randomly selected sample (n = 94) of a population using a self-administered mailed questionnaire. Subjects were asked to state and give a reason for their perceived level of physical fitness, to state their perceived performance level in a number of physical fitness tests (muscular strength, daily physical work capacity, fatness, level of regular physical exercise, exercise speed, and body flexibility), and to rate how well these tests measure physical fitness. The reason most frequently stated for perceived level of physical fitness was the level of habitual physical activity (43%); significantly less frequently (P less than 0.01-0.0001) cited were reasons related to health (23%), physical performance (12%), and obesity (3%). The variation in perceived level of physical fitness was best explained by the variation in imagined regular exercise and fatness (r2 = 0.66, P less than 0.0001) with no significant additional contribution from imagined performance in remaining fitness tests. The measurement of regular exercise was most favored as a test of physical fitness. These results, taken together with evidence of the physical and psychological health benefits of regular exercise, imply that the most appropriate measure of physical fitness for the average person is an assessment of the habitual physical activity level.

  15. Novel Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Disease and Their Associations Between Obesity, Physical Activity And Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Duncan S.; Thomas, Non E.; Baker, Julien S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increasing around the globe and is the leading cause of death around the world. Though once thought of as an adult problem, it is now recognised that the early manifestations of disease may occur during childhood. Numerous risk factors have been linked to CVD with much of the research focusing on understanding the prevalence and relationship of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, psychosocial stress, poor diet, physical inactivity and alcohol consumption to the early etiology of disease. While this line of investigation has greatly enhanced our understanding of the relationship between these risk factors and disease, they do not fully explain all cardiovascular events. To enhance our understanding and help with the management of CVD, investigations that involve the measurement of traditional as well as novel risk factors may be necessary. Public health strategies that aim to reduce the prevalence of obesity and overweight encourage youth to increase their physical activity levels as a means of protecting against poor cardiometabolic profiles. Interventions that increase physical activity levels and improve cardiorespiratory fitness cause a reduction in certain CVD risk factors but the lack of agreement between findings makes it impossible to give precise recommendations that will ensure CVD risk reduction. Yet it is important that research continues in order to establish the most appropriate means of improving the health and well-being of those at most risk of future CVD. PMID:25170447

  16. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jana A; James, Peter; Robinson, Jamaica R M; Eastman, Kyler M; Conley, Kevin D; Evenson, Kelly R; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales.

  17. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; James, Peter; Robinson, Jamaica R. M.; Eastman, Kyler M.; Conley, Kevin D.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales. PMID:24653982

  18. Impact of physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise training on markers of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Lavie, Carl J; Church, Timothy S; Milani, Richard V; Earnest, Conrad P

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity and exercise training (ET) enhance overall cardiorespiratory fitness (ie, fitness), thus producing many benefits in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Substantial evidence also indicates that acute and chronic inflammation is involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis and major cardiovascular events. The most commonly utilized marker of inflammation is C-reactive protein (CRP). In this review, we discuss the importance of inflammation, especially CRP, as a cardiovascular risk marker by reviewing an abundant cross-sectional and clinical intervention literature providing evidence that physical activity, enhanced fitness, and ET are inversely associated with CRP and that being overweight or obese is directly related with inflammation/CRP. Although we discuss the controversy regarding whether or not ET reduces CRP independent of weight loss, clearly physical activity, improved fitness, and ET are associated with reductions in inflammation and overall cardiovascular risk in both primary and secondary prevention.

  19. Sedentary time and vigorous physical activity are independently associated with cardiorespiratory fitness in middle school youth.

    PubMed

    Moore, Justin B; Beets, Michael W; Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; Evenson, Kelly R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a diverse sample of youth. Participants were recruited from three middle schools and completed assessments of height, weight, cardiorespiratory fitness, and wore an accelerometer for a minimum of four days. Hierarchical general linear models controlling for age, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and sex were used to evaluate the association of time (minutes per day) spent sedentary, and in moderate physical activity and vigorous physical activity with cardiorespiratory fitness (i.e., heart rate response [beats per minute], dependent variable). Results indicated age (β = -0.16, P < 0.05), BMI percentile (β = 0.33, P <0.05), being male (β = 0.17, P < 0.05), sedentary time (β = 0.11, P <0.05), moderate (β = -0.03, P > 0.05) and vigorous (β = -0.22, P < 0.05) physical activity explained 29% of the variance in cardiorespiratory fitness. Evaluation of fitness among high sedentary/high vigorous, high sedentary/low vigorous, low sedentary/low vigorous, and low sedentary/high vigorous groups (defined by the median split) showed that high levels of vigorous activity removed the detrimental effect of high levels of sedentary time on cardiorespiratory fitness. These analyses suggest that the negative impact of sedentary time can be mitigated by engaging in vigorous activity.

  20. A self-assessment tool to measure older adults' perceptions regarding physical fitness and exercise activity.

    PubMed

    Devereaux Melillo, K; Williamson, E; Futrell, M; Chamberlain, C

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to qualitatively generate and psychometrically assess an instrument which assesses the self-perceived physical fitness and exercise activity levels of community-dwelling older adults and examines perceived factors which enhance or impede their exercise activity level. This research was carried out in two stages: qualitative and quantitative. Items for the instrument were generated through qualitative interviews with 23 community-dwelling older adults, 9 males and 14 females, with an age range of 63 to 82 years. From this qualitative study, 50 items were generated, representing nine categories of elements which enhance or impede physical activity. The 50 items were incorporated into a 4-point, forced-choice, Likert format instrument which was pilot tested for clarity and ease of administration with a convenience sample of community-dwelling older adults. Following the pilot testing, 41 items were retained. The 41-item instrument, entitled Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale, was categorized into the following subscales: Physical Fitness, Barriers, Motivators, and Exercise Frequency. Initial testing of the Physical Fitness and Exercise Activity Levels of Older Adults Scale seems to indicate adequate validity and reliability. Correlation coefficients for the total instrument, as well as the subscales, were significantly positive for both stability and internal consistency. Results with respect to predictive validity were mixed. The Physical Fitness and Motivators subscales were significant predictors of Exercise Frequency. Although the correlation between the Barriers subscale and Exercise Frequency was negative, it was non-significant.

  1. Be a Fit Kid: nutrition and physical activity for the fourth grade.

    PubMed

    Slawta, Jennifer N; DeNeui, Daniel

    2010-07-01

    This article describes the inclusion of Be a Fit Kid in the fourth-grade curriculum. Be a Fit Kid is a fitness-emphasized physical activity and heart-healthy nutrition education program for elementary school children. Five parent-education lessons were offered and nutrition workbooks were distributed to parents. Following the 10-week intervention, significant improvements in fitness, body fat, nutrition knowledge, dietary habits, and levels of lipids and lipoproteins were observed in the intervention group compared with baseline levels. Changes in fitness, body fat, and nutrition knowledge were significant compared with the control group. These findings suggest that comprehensive physical activity and nutrition programs included in the school curriculum may be effective for improving cardiovascular health and reducing future risk for lifestyle-related diseases.

  2. Correlation between physical activity, fitness, and musculoskeletal injuries in police officers.

    PubMed

    Nabeel, Ismail; Baker, Beth A; McGrail, Michael P; Flottemesch, Thomas J

    2007-09-01

    In order to explore the correlation between physical activity, fitness, and injury among police officers, a cross section of active-duty members of the Minneapolis Police Department were surveyed about their level of fitness, physical activity, and prevalence of injury and chronic pain within the past year. In the study, officers with the highest self-reported fitness levels were less likely to experience sprains (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.88), back pain (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.09-0.88), and chronic pain (OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.06-0.73) than those who considered themselves less fit. Officers who were the most physically active were about a third as likely to report back pain (OR 0.37, 95% CI 0.10-0.73) and less than half as likely to report chronic pain (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.19-0.91) as those who engaged in less activity. And officers with a BMI greater than 35 were 3 times more likely to report back pain (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.17-9.66) than those whose BMI fell in the normal range (18-25). Thus, officers who engage in higher levels of physical activity and are more physically fit have a lower prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries and chronic pain.

  3. Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Physical Activity of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Angela; Hannon, James C.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge is related to self-reported physical activity (PA) of high school students. Students (N=165) enrolled in physical education from two schools in the Southwestern U.S participated. A 100-point HRF knowledge test was assembled, focusing on the HRF concepts of…

  4. Physical activity, fitness and fatness: relations to mortality, morbidity and disease risk factors. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, M

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this systematic review was to study the relative health risks of poor cardio-respiratory fitness (or physical inactivity) in normal-weight people vs. obesity in individuals with good cardio-respiratory fitness (or high physical activity). The core inclusion criteria were: publication year 1990 or later; adult participants; design prospective follow-up, case-control or cross-sectional; data on cardio-respiratory fitness and/or physical activity; data on BMI (body mass index), waist circumference or body composition; outcome data on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease mortality, cardiovascular disease incidence, type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk factors. Thirty-six publications filled the criteria for inclusion. The data indicate that the risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality was lower in individuals with high BMI and good aerobic fitness, compared with individuals with normal BMI and poor fitness. In contrast, having high BMI even with high physical activity was a greater risk for the incidence of type 2 diabetes and the prevalence of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, compared with normal BMI with low physical activity. The conclusions of the present review may not be applicable to individuals with BMI > 35.

  5. Physical Fitness and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmkamp, Jill M.

    Human beings are a delicate balance of mind, body, and spirit, so an imbalance in one domain affects all others. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects that physical fitness may have on such human characteristics as personality and behavior. A review of the literature reveals that physical fitness is related to, and can affect,…

  6. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age.

    PubMed

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Linek, Pawel; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-06-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = -0.581), Psychological Domain (r = -0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = -0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = -0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = -0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  7. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    PubMed Central

    Saulicz, Mariola; Saulicz, Edward; Knapik, Andrzej; Rottermund, Jerzy; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia) in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581), Psychological Domain (r = –0.451), and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577). Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434) has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598) has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507). Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity. PMID:27582685

  8. Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castelli, Darla M.; Valley, Julia A.

    2007-01-01

    According to social cognitive theory, self-efficacy influences individual behaviors, such as physical activity engagement patterns, and as a result influences the physical and cognitive benefits that are outcomes from engagement. Children with higher self-efficacy are more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower…

  9. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H

    2014-05-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  10. Methods of the NSW Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey, 1997.

    PubMed

    Booth, M L; Macaskill, P; Phongsavan, P; McLellan, L; Okely, T

    1998-06-01

    Physical fitness, participation in physical activity, fundamental motor skills and body composition are important contributors to the health and the development of a healthy lifestyle among children and youth. The New South Wales Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey, 1997, was conducted to fill some of the gaps in our knowledge of these aspects of the lives of young people in New South Wales. The survey was conducted in February and March, 1997 and collected data on a randomly-selected sample of students (n = 5518) in Years 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10. Measures were taken on body composition (height and weight, waist and hip girths, skinfolds), health-related fitness (aerobic capacity, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility), fundamental motor skills (run, vertical jump, catch, overhand throw, forehand strike and kick), self-reported physical activity, time spent in sedentary recreation, and physical education (PE) classes. The methods are described to assist in the development of surveys of other populations and to provoke debate relevant to the development and dissemination of standard approaches to monitoring the fitness, physical activity habits and body composition of Australian children and youth. Finally, we offer comments on some of the strengths and limitations of the methods employed.

  11. Exercise Prescription for Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Michael L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines current guidelines for physical fitness, noting issues that may influence the updating of the American College of Sports Medicine exercise statement. Differences between exercise prescription for fitness and physical activity for health are discussed, noting the importance of designing individualized programs with appropriate levels of…

  12. Age-related decrease in physical activity and functional fitness among elderly men and women

    PubMed Central

    Milanović, Zoran; Pantelić, Saša; Trajković, Nebojša; Sporiš, Goran; Kostić, Radmila; James, Nic

    2013-01-01

    Aim To determine differences in physical activity level and functional fitness between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80 years) people with the hypothesis that an age-related decline would be found. Methods A total of 1288 participants’ level of physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: 594 were male (mean ± standard deviation: body height 175.62 ± 9.78 cm; body weight 82.26 ± 31.33 kg) and 694 female (mean ± standard deviation: body height 165.17 ± 23.12 cm; body weight 69.74 ± 12.44 kg). Functional fitness was also estimated using the Senior Fitness Test: back scratch, chair sit and reach, 8-foot up and go, chair stand up for 30 seconds, arm curl, and 2-minute step test. Results Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found for all Senior Fitness tests between young elderly (60–69 years) and old elderly (70–80) men. Similar results were found for the women, except no significant differences were found for the chair sit and reach and the 2-minute step test. From the viewpoint of energy consumption estimated by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire, moderate physical activity is dominant. In addition, with aging, among men and women older than 60 years, the value of the Metabolic Equivalent of Task in total physical activity significantly reduces (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study found that the reduction in physical activity level and functional fitness was equal for both men and women and was due to the aging process. These differences between young and old elderly people were due to the reduction of muscle strength in both upper and lower limbs and changes in body-fat percentage, flexibility, agility, and endurance. PMID:23723694

  13. Health-related fitness, physical activity, and history of back pain.

    PubMed

    Payne, N; Gledhill, N; Katzmarzyk, P T; Jamnik, V

    2000-08-01

    The relationship between history of back pain and measurements of both health-related fitness and physical activity participation was examined in 233 males and 287 females aged 15-69 years. Participants were divided by gender into those reporting no history (NH) or a history (H) of recurring back pain. Analysis of variance indicated that trunk flexion, back extensor endurance, and physical activity participation were significantly higher for NH and waist girth significantly lower for NH in both genders. In females, mean abdominal muscular endurance was significantly higher in NH. Forward stepwise discriminant function analyses indicated that the best discriminators between NH and H were back extensor endurance and physical activity participation in both genders and waist girth in females. These findings support using measurements of trunk flexion, abdominal muscular endurance, back extensor endurance, physical activity participation, and waist girth as indicators of back fitness in the evaluation of back health.

  14. Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Proximity to Commercial Physical Activity Facilities Among 12th Grade Girls

    PubMed Central

    Dowda, Marsha; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Lobelo, Felipe; Porter, Dwayne E.; Pate, Russell R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the relationship between proximity to commercial physical activity facilities and cardiorespiratory fitness of 12th grade girls. Methods Adolescent girls (N=786, 60% African American, mean age=17.6 ± 0.6 years) performed a submaximal fitness test (PWC170). Commercial physical activity facilities were mapped and counted within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer around girls’ homes using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Sedentary activities and vigorous physical activity (VPA, greater or equal to 6 METs) were determined by the average number of 30-minute blocks reported per day on the 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR). Mixed model regressions were calculated using school as a random variable. Results Girls had higher weight-relative PWC170 scores if there was a commercial physical activity facility (n=186, 12.4±4.2 kg·m/min/kg) within 0.75-mile street-network buffer of home as compared to girls without a nearby facility (n=600, 11.2±3.6 kg·m/min/kg). After adjusting for demographic variables, sports participation, sedentary behaviors and VPA, having one or more commercial physical activity facilities within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of homes was significantly related to cardiorespiratory fitness. Conclusions Both with and without adjustment for covariates, the presence of a commercial physical activity facility within a 0.75-mile street-network buffer of a girl’s home was associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:22525114

  15. Leisure-time physical activity and aerobic fitness in African-American young adults.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E; Berry, C B; Schnyder, V N; Vickers, S R

    1992-11-01

    This cross-sectional study identified the leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and aerobic fitness levels of 189 African-American young adult college freshmen. LTPA was measured with the Lipid Research Clinics (LRC), Godin Leisure-Time Exercise, and the College Alumnus physical activity questionnaires. The Physical Activity Index (PAI), an index of walking, stair climbing, and recreational sports participation, was obtained from the College Alumnus questionnaire. Aerobic fitness was measured indirectly with the Cooper 12-Minute Walking/Running Test. More women (82%) than men (53%) were classified as inactive (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and much less active than peers) or low active (strenuous exercise or labor < 3 days/week and as active or more active than peers) on the LRC Questionnaire. The PAI scores were moderately low in men (1,521 +/- 1,634 kcal.week-1) and very low in women (706 +/- 868 kcal.week-1). The majority of men (71%) and women (82%) were classified as 'very poor' in aerobic fitness levels. Body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fatness, was classified as 'overweight' or 'obese' for 39% of men and 37% of women (BMI = 25.9 +/- 5.7 kg/m2), reflecting inactive LTPA habits. These findings are consistent with studies showing low LTPA in middle-age African-American adults. School and community-level interventions are recommended to increase LTPA and aerobic fitness in adolescent and young adult African-Americans.

  16. [Relationship between overweight, physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged boys in Bogotá Colombia].

    PubMed

    Tovar, Gustavo; Poveda, Javier Gutiérrez; Pinilla, Milciades Ibáñez; Lobelo, Felipe

    2008-09-01

    The objective was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity, and its association with physical activity and fitness among boys attending a private school in Bogotá, Colombia. 655 boys between 7 and 18 years self-reported their physical activity habits and underwent anthropometric (weight, height, fat percentage by bioelectrical impedance), and physical fitness measurements (PACER, sit and reach, curl-ups, push-ups and hand dynamometry). The association between weight status and physical activity and fitness were assessed by logistic regression models. The outcome was that 38% of the boys were overweight according to the BMI of the Colombian population (WHO criteria), 17,7% according to international BMI cut-offs and 16.9% showed values of % fat over 25 (Fitnessgram criteria). A relation was found between being overweight and having poor performance in the aerobic fitness test (adjusted OR: 3.7, IC 95%: 1.6-8.3) and reported not walking or riding a bicycle for at least 30 minutes, 5 times a week (OR adjusted 3.6, IC 95%: 1-13.0). These results did not change when different criteria to define overweight was applied. The best level of agreement for overweight classification was found between fat per centage and the international BMI cut-offs (kappa=0.616, p<0.001). Overweight was not associated to TV watching time, video games or use of Internet. The final conclusion was that the prevalence of overweight was high in this population of school-aged boys. There was a significant relationship between poor physical fitness, low levels of physical activity, and overweight. It is important to encourage and monitor children's levels of physical activity as well as the results of fitness test for the prevention of overweight and related cardio-metabolic complications.

  17. Effects of a recreational physical activity summer camp on body composition, metabolic syndrome and physical fitness in obese children.

    PubMed

    Roriz DE Oliveira, Mafalda S; Teixeira Seabra, André F; Ribeiro Maia, José A

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to examine the effects of a recreational physical activity summer camp on body composition, metabolic syndrome, and physical fitness in obese children. Forty-eight children (8-10 years; Body Mass Index ≥85th percentile) completed 4-weeks of a structured recreational physical activity program summer camp (5 hours/day, 5 days/week). Over the 4-weeks, significant reductions (P<0.05) in weight, waist circumference, Body Mass Index, percentage of body fat, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed. Additionally, a significant increase was observed in HDL-cholesterol, handgrip, trunk lift, and shuttle run (P<0.05). These findings suggest that a 4-week recreational physical activity summer camp yields several body-composition, metabolic-syndrome, and physical fitness benefits in obese children and should represent an effective support for their health development.

  18. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  19. Weight Status, Physical Activity, and Fitness among Third-Grade Rural Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Lenka H.; Harrist, Amanda W.; Hubbs-Tait, Laura; Topham, Glade; Page, Melanie; Barrett, Aimee

    2011-01-01

    Background: Rural children are at a particular high risk for obesity. Given the importance of exercise in obesity and chronic disease prevention, this study evaluated the level and relationship between physical activity and fitness in a sample of rural third graders. The second purpose of the study was to determine potential differences in…

  20. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-06-08

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3-12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness.

  1. What Is the Relationship between Outdoor Time and Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviour, and Physical Fitness in Children? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Casey; Gibbons, Rebecca; Larouche, Richard; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Bienenstock, Adam; Brussoni, Mariana; Chabot, Guylaine; Herrington, Susan; Janssen, Ian; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Stanger, Nick; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to examine the relationship between outdoor time and: (1) physical activity, (2) cardiorespiratory fitness, (3) musculoskeletal fitness, (4) sedentary behaviour; or (5) motor skill development in children aged 3–12 years. We identified 28 relevant studies that were assessed for quality using the GRADE framework. The systematic review revealed overall positive effects of outdoor time on physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and cardiorespiratory fitness, although causality could not be assumed due to a lack of RCTs. Motor skill development was unrelated to outdoor time; however, this relationship was only examined in a single study of preschool children. No studies were found that examined associations between outdoor time and musculoskeletal fitness. PMID:26062039

  2. Status of the year 2000 health goals for physical activity and fitness.

    PubMed

    Francis, K T

    1999-04-01

    In Healthy People 2000, the national strategy for improving the health of the American people by the year 2000, lifestyle factors such as physical inactivity are major determinants of chronic disease and disability. Despite the documented benefits of exercise in enhancing health and reducing the risk of premature death, only 1 of the 13 physical activity and fitness objectives of Healthy People 2000 has been met or exceeded. Although progress toward 5 objectives for the year 2000 has been made, 3 objectives are actually farther from attainment. Coronary heart disease death rates (Objective 1.1) have declined, and the prevalence of overweight people (Objective 1.2) has increased. Overall physical activity in adults (Objectives 1.3 and 1.4) and strengthening and stretching activities in children (Objective 1.6) have increased, but reduction in the percentage of sedentary persons (Objective 1.5) has showed no change. The proportion of the population adopting sound dietary practices combined with regular physical activity to attain appropriate body weight (Objective 1.7) has declined. Even though participation in daily school physical education (Objective 1.8) has shown a decline during the past several years, students who are enrolled in physical education classes are spending more time performing physical activities (Objective 1.9). The proportion of work sites offering employer-sponsored physical activity and fitness programs (Objective 1.10) has increased substantially, surpassing the year 2000 goal. Data to update progress for increasing physical activity levels of children (Objectives 1.3-1.5), community exercise facilities (Objective 1.11), clinician counseling about physical activity (Objective 1.12), and improvement in personal self-care activities (Objective 1.13) are not yet available.

  3. Physical Activity and Fitness Knowledge Learning in Physical Education: Seeking a Common Ground

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Senlin; Chen, Ang; Sun, Haichun; Zhu, Xihe

    2013-01-01

    Motivation to learn is a disposition developed through exposure to learning opportunities. Guided by the expectancy-value theory of Eccles and Wigfield (1995), this study examined the extent to which expectancy belief and task value influenced elementary school students' physical activity and knowledge learning in physical education (PE).…

  4. Using social cognitive theory to predict physical activity and fitness in underserved middle school children.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; McCaughtry, Nate; Flory, Sara; Murphy, Anne; Wisdom, Kimberlydawn

    2011-06-01

    Few researchers have used social cognitive theory and environment-based constructs to predict physical activity (PA) and fitness in underserved middle-school children. Hence, we evaluated social cognitive variables and perceptions of the school environment to predict PA and fitness in middle school children (N = 506, ages 10-14 years). Using multiple regression analyses we accounted for 12% of the variance in PA and 13-21% of the variance in fitness. The best predictors of PA were barrier self-efficacy, classmate social support, and gender; whereas, only gender predicted fitness. The results affirmed the importance of barrier self-efficacy and gender differences. Our findings regarding classmate social support are some of the first to illuminate the importance of school-specific peers in promoting PA.

  5. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity as risk predictors of future atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Kurl, Sudhir; Salonen, Jukka T

    2002-11-01

    Physical fitness and activity status are well-documented risk predictors of cardiovascular and total mortality. The purpose of this article is to show how cardiorespiratory fitness predicts atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. Measurement of maximum oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), defined with or without ventilatory gas analysis during exercise testing, can provide a good estimate for cardiorespiratory fitness, which is an independent marker of the early disease. Low VO(2max) has been shown to be comparable with elevated systolic blood pressure, smoking, obesity, and diabetes in importance as a risk factor for mortality, as well as a predictor of coronary artery disease and the progression of atherosclerosis. Cardiorespiratory fitness represents one of the strongest predictors of mortality, emphasizing the importance of exercise testing in everyday clinical practice. In the future, well-defined, disease-specific training programs for exercise prescriptions in different risk groups are needed as a clinical tool.

  6. Leisure-time physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness and feelings of hopelessness in men

    PubMed Central

    Valtonen, Maarit; Laaksonen, David E; Laukkanen, Jari; Tolmunen, Tommi; Rauramaa, Rainer; Viinamäki, Heimo; Kauhanen, Jussi; Lakka, Timo; Niskanen, Leo

    2009-01-01

    Background Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness contribute to mental health. Hopelessness has been linked to impaired mental health, cardiovascular events and mortality. Previous studies have focused on physical exercise and depression. We examined the associations of LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness with feelings of hopelessness. Methods In this cross-sectional study leisure-time physical activity, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), hopelessness and cardiovascular risk factors were assessed in a population-based cohort of 2428 men aged 42 – 60 years old at baseline. Results Men feeling more hopeless about their future and reaching goals were less physically active, less fit and had a higher prevalence of many cardiovascular risk factors than men with lower levels of hopelessness. In a logistic regression model adjusted for age, smoking, alcohol consumption, cardiovascular disease and socioeconomic status, men engaging in less than 60 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous LTPA were 37% (95% CI 11 – 67%) more likely to feel hopeless than those engaging in at least 2.5 h/wk of LTPA. After further adjusting for elevated depressive symptoms the association of LTPA and hopelessness remained significant. VO2max was also associated with hopelessness, but not after adjustment for depressive symptoms. Conclusion Moderate and vigorous LTPA and cardiorespiratory fitness were inversely associated with hopelessness in these middle-aged men. These findings suggest that physical inactivity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an important associate of hopelessness, a distinct element of low subjective well-being. PMID:19555509

  7. Social inequalities in body weight and physical activity: exploring the role of fitness centers.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Rock, Melanie J; McElgunn, Jamie

    2012-03-01

    Fitness centers are a viable option for physical activity, particularly in climates with significant weather variation. Due to variation in economic and social expressions ofexclusivity, fitness centers may have some relation to social inequalities in physical inactivity and related health outcomes; thus, our objective was to explore this relation. Using publicly available data and guided by Bourdieu's theory of habitus, we classified fitness centers in Calgary, Canada, on three dimensions of exclusivity (economic, social, and appearance). We found that, although some highly exclusive centers exist, most demonstrated low exclusivity based on our dimensions. An overall contribution of centers to inequalities appears to be limited; however, caution is warranted in light of cutbacks to municipal budgets that can have an impact on publicly funded facilities.

  8. Effects of a physical education program on physical activity, fitness, and health in children: the JuvenTUM project.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, M; Lammel, C; Haller, B; Christle, J; Halle, M

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a school-based prevention program on physical activity, fitness, and obesity. We performed a prospective study in eight Bavarian primary schools (n = 724 children, 8.4 ± 0.7 years) randomized one to one to either an intervention school (IS, n = 427) or a control school (CS, n = 297). Children in IS attended 10 health-related lessons at school over a period of 1 year. Parents and teachers attended two and three educational health-related lessons, respectively, and also received 10 newsletters on health issues. Daily physical activity (≥ 60 min/day), physical fitness (six-item test battery), and anthropometric data were obtained at baseline and after 1 year. Physical activity and physical fitness increased in IS, but it failed to reach significant intervention effects. Nevertheless, a reduction in waist circumference was observed for all children [mean change 1.7 cm; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.3; P < 0.001). This effect was more pronounced in overweight children (> 90th percentile, n = 99, mean change 3.2 cm; 95% CI 1.5-4.8; P < 0.001). This easily administered preventative program involving children, parents, and teachers revealed that a generalized approach increasing physical activity will even be favorable in a subgroup of obese children.

  9. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r2 = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r2 = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  10. Weekly Physical Activity Levels of Older Adults Regularly Using a Fitness Facility.

    PubMed

    Turner, Michael J; Schmitt, Emily E; Hubbard-Turner, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to determine if weekly physical activity levels were greater in an independent-living older adult population that was regularly participating in structured fitness activities. Also, lifetime exercise history and sex differences were investigated in an effort to understand how they relate to current weekly step activity. Total weekly step counts, measured with a pedometer, were assessed in two older adult groups; the first consisted of members of a local senior center who regularly used the fitness facility (74.5 ± 6.0 yrs; mean ± SD) while the second group consisted of members who did not use the fitness facility (74.8 ± 6.0 yrs). Participants also completed the Lifetime Physical Activity Questionnaire (LPAQ). No significant difference was found in the total number of weekly steps between groups (p = 0.88) or sexes (p = 0.27). The LPAQ suggested a significant decline in activity with aging (p = 0.01) but no difference between groups (p = 0.54) or sexes (p = 0.80). A relationship was observed between current step activity and MET expenditure over the past year (p = 0.008, r (2) = 0.153) and from ages 35 to 50 years (p = 0.037, r (2) = 0.097). The lack of difference in weekly physical activity level between our groups suggests that independent-living older adults will seek out and perform their desired activity, in either a scheduled exercise program or other leisure-time activities. Also, the best predictor of current physical activity level in independent-living older adults was the activity performed over the past year. PMID:27293890

  11. Comparison of Physical Activity Measures Using Mobile Phone-Based CalFit and Actigraph

    PubMed Central

    Donaire-Gonzalez, David; de Nazelle, Audrey; Seto, Edmund; Mendez, Michelle; Jerrett, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies on physical activity often lack inexpensive, objective, valid, and reproducible tools for measuring physical activity levels of participants. Novel sensing technologies built into smartphones offer the potential to fill this gap. Objective We sought to validate estimates of physical activity and determine the usability for large population-based studies of the smartphone-based CalFit software. Methods A sample of 36 participants from Barcelona, Spain, wore a smartphone with CalFit software and an Actigraph GT3X accelerometer for 5 days. The ease of use (usability) and physical activity measures from both devices were compared, including vertical axis counts (VT) and duration and energy expenditure predictions for light, moderate, and vigorous intensity from Freedson’s algorithm. Statistical analyses included (1) Kruskal-Wallis rank sum test for usability measures, (2) Spearman correlation and linear regression for VT counts, (3) concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), and (4) Bland-Altman plots for duration and energy expenditure measures. Results Approximately 64% (23/36) of participants were women. Mean age was 31 years (SD 8) and mean body mass index was 22 kg/m2 (SD 2). In total, 25/36 (69%) participants recorded at least 3 days with at least 10 recorded hours of physical activity using CalFit. The linear association and correlations for VT counts were high (adjusted R 2=0.85; correlation coefficient .932, 95% CI 0.931-0.933). CCCs showed high agreement for duration and energy expenditure measures (from 0.83 to 0.91). Conclusions The CalFit system had lower usability than the Actigraph GT3X because the application lacked a means to turn itself on each time the smartphone was powered on. The CalFit system may provide valid estimates to quantify and classify physical activity. CalFit may prove to be more cost-effective and easily deployed for large-scale population health studies than other specialized instruments because

  12. Physical Activity and Bone Health in Schoolchildren: The Mediating Role of Fitness and Body Fat

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Costoso, Ana; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Notario-Pacheco, Blanca; Arias-Palencia, Natalia; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between physical activity (PA) and bone health is well known, although the role of percent body fat (%BF) and fitness as confounders or mediators in this relationship remains uncertain. Objective To examine whether the association between PA and bone mineral content (BMC) is mediated by %BF and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Methods In this cross sectional study, BMC, total %BF (by DXA), vigorous PA (VPA), CRF, age and height were measured in 132 schoolchildren (62 boys, aged 8–11 years). ANCOVA was used to test differences in BMC by %BF, CRF and VPA, controlling for different sets of confounders. Simple mediation analyses and serial multiple mediation analyses were fitted to examine whether the relationship between PA and BMC is mediated by %BF and fitness. Results Children with high %BF had higher total body BMC than their peers after controlling for all sets of confounders. Children with good CRF or VPA had significantly less total body BMC after controlling for age and sex but in children with good CRF this inverse relation disappeared after adjusting by %BF. %BF and CRF both act as a full mediator in the association between VPA and BMC, after inclusion of the potential confounders in the models. Conclusion Fitness and %BF seem to have a mediator role on the relationship between physical activity and bone mass. PMID:25915941

  13. Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviours, and Cardiovascular Health: When Will Cardiorespiratory Fitness Become a Vital Sign?

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Although it is generally agreed upon that a physically active lifestyle and regular exercise are good for heart health, it is much less appreciated by the public that the prolonged hours of sedentary time resulting from sitting at work or screen time are also risk factors for cardiovascular outcomes and other cardiometabolic diseases. In this short narrative review, evidence is discussed and prudent recommendations are made in the context of the sedentary, affluent lifestyle that characterizes a large proportion of our population. It has become overwhelmingly clear that a sedentary lifestyle is a powerful risk factor for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. In addition, vigorous physical activity and exercise is also associated with metabolic and cardiovascular adaptations that are compatible with cardiovascular health. In that regard, cardiorespiratory fitness, a reliable metric to assess the ability of the cardiovascular system to sustain prolonged physical work, has been shown to be the most powerful predictor of mortality and morbidity, way beyond classical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors such as smoking, cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes. On the basis of the evidence available, it is proposed that both dimensions of overall physical activity level (reducing sedentary time and performing regular physical activity or endurance type exercise) should be targeted to reduce CVD risk. Finally, because of the robust evidence that poor cardiorespiratory fitness is an independent risk factor for CVD and related mortality, it is proposed that this simple physiological metric should be incorporated as a vital sign in CVD risk factor evaluation and management. PMID:26907579

  14. Self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness in middle school children: examination of a pedometer intervention program.

    PubMed

    Manley, Dana; Cowan, Patricia; Graff, Carolyn; Perlow, Michael; Rice, Pamela; Richey, Phyllis; Sanchez, Zoila

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity in children has been associated with a number of health benefits. Unfortunately, physical inactivity continues to increase. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy levels, physical activity, aerobic fitness, and body composition (relative body mass index [RBMI]) and to determine whether a school-based pedometer intervention program would improve those variables. The sample consisted of 116 rural 11- to 13-year-old students. Weakly positive correlations between self-efficacy, physical activity, and aerobic fitness and weakly correlated inverse relationships between self-efficacy, physical activity, aerobic fitness and RBMI were found. There was no statistical significance between the intervention and control group when analyzing outcome variables. These findings suggest that those with optimal RBMI levels have higher self-efficacy, physical activity and aerobic fitness levels. Although not statistically significant, the intervention group had greater improvements in mean self-efficacy scores, aerobic fitness levels, and RBMI.

  15. The association between work performance and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity.

    PubMed

    Pronk, Nicolaas P; Martinson, Brian; Kessler, Ronald C; Beck, Arne L; Simon, Gregory E; Wang, Philip

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the association between lifestyle-related modifiable health risks (physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity) and work performance. Data were obtained from 683 workers. Dependent variables included number of work loss days, quantity and quality of work performed, overall job performance, extra effort exerted, and interpersonal relationships. Results indicated that higher levels of physical activity related to reduced decrements in quality of work performed and overall job performance; higher cardiorespiratory fitness related to reduced decrements in quantity of work performed, and a reduction in extra effort exerted to perform the work; obesity related to more difficulty in getting along with coworkers; severe obesity related to a higher number of work loss days. It is concluded that lifestyle-related modifiable health risk factors significantly impact employee work performance.

  16. Obesity and physical fitness of pre-adolescent children during the academic year and the summer period: effects of organized physical activity.

    PubMed

    Christodoulos, Antonios D; Flouris, Andreas D; Tokmakidis, Savvas P

    2006-09-01

    This study examined obesity and parameters of physical fitness in 178 elementary schoolchildren during an academic year as well as after the summer holidays. Results showed significant physical fitness improvements during the school year, with little or no changes in the summer holidays. Children who reported less than 30 minutes of daily participation in physical activity demonstrated lower prevalence rates for overweight and obesity as well as superior fitness performance. The detrimental effect of the summer break on the progress of physical fitness was less in children who did participate in physical activity than in those who did not. Longitudinal modelling using generalized estimating equations demonstrated that physical activity is a major contributing factor for obesity over time, masking the singular effect of various fitness parameters. It is concluded that pre-adolescent children advance in physical fitness mainly during the school year, with physical activity being a beneficial countermeasure for the development of obesity.

  17. Field assessments for obesity prevention in children and adults: physical activity, fitness, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Anne R; Hongu, Nobuko; Spears, Karen; Idris, Rafida; Dyrek, Anthony; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-01-01

    Nutrition and health educators work in community settings implementing lifestyle programs focused on obesity prevention and chronic disease risk reduction. These programs typically focus on improving diet and physical activity (PA) behaviors. Many nutrition educators may not be confident in their ability to select, administer, and interpret PA assessments to effectively evaluate their PA or lifestyle programs. This report will assist educators in identifying and selecting appropriate field-based assessments for measurement of PA, physical fitness, and body composition for children and adults. Specific guidelines, references, and resources are given for selecting assessment methods and test within these 3 areas.

  18. Indirect and direct relations between aerobic fitness, physical activity, and academic achievement in elementary school students

    PubMed Central

    Lambourne, K.; Hansen, D.M.; Szabo, A.N.; Lee, J.; Herrmann, S.D.; Donnelly, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND There is evidence to suggest that increasing physical activity (PA) improves academic achievement (AA) in children and that aerobic fitness is associated with both cognitive function and AA. However, it is not known how these variables are interrelated and analyses with adequate control for socioeconomic variables are needed. It was hypothesized that PA would not directly affect AA but would have an indirect effect on AA through its effect on aerobic fitness. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesized mediation using path analysis. METHODS Cross-sectional data including AA, aerobic fitness, and daily PA assessed through accelerometry were collected from a large sample (N = 687) of 2nd and 3rd grade students. Demographic data were assessed via parent self-report. RESULTS A total of 401 students wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours on 3 days or more and were included in the final path analysis to evaluate potential relations among PA (predictor), aerobic fitness (mediator), and WIAT-III subtest standard scores (outcomes; i.e., reading, spelling, and mathematics). Findings showed a direct effect of PA on aerobic fitness (b = 0.009, p < 0.001) and an indirect effect (mediation) of PA via fitness on math achievement (b = 0.003, p < 0.01) after controlling for student’s grade, gender, body mass index, mother’s education level, and household income, as well as intraclass correlations among classes and schools. Neither PA nor aerobic fitness were correlated with WIAT-III reading or spelling scores. CONCLUSIONS Mediation analysis indicated that PA exerted an influence on math achievement through its effects on aerobic fitness but was not associated with reading or spelling achievement scores. PMID:25984236

  19. Physical Fitness Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    GRADES OR AGES: No mention. SUBJECT MATTER: Physical education. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: The guide is divided into several color-coded sections covering different aspects of the program. It is mimeographed and spiral-bound with a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES: Activities are listed under the qualities or parts of the body…

  20. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  1. Physical activity profiles and selected muscular fitness variables in English schoolchildren: A north-south divide?

    PubMed

    Ingle, Lee; Stephenson, Ashlie; Sandercock, Gavin R

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare and contrast habitual physical activity (PA) profiles and muscular fitness in schoolchildren from northern and southern regions of England. Data were collected from two secondary schools in the north east (NE) of England. The study procedures followed methods employed by the East of England Healthy Hearts Study in 10-16-year-old boys and girls based in the south east (SE) region of England and data were compared. Habitual physical activity (PAQ-A), vertical jump test, and hand-grip (HG) strength were assessed. We converted raw scores from all assessments to age- and sex-normalised z-scores. We recruited 597 children (58% boys) in the NE and compared findings to 597 age- and sex-matched boys and girls from the SE. Boys in the SE had significantly stronger HG scores, jumped higher, were more powerful (mean peak power: 2131 W vs. 1782 W; P < 0.0001), and reported being more physically active (mean PAQ-A: 2.9 vs. 2.5; P < 0.0001) than their male counterparts in the NE. In girls, the opposite trend was evident. Girls from the NE of England had a higher HG score, jumped higher, and were more powerful (mean peak power: 2114 W vs. 1839 W; P < .0001) than their peers from the SE. Regional variations in the habitual PA profiles and muscular fitness of schoolchildren from the SE and NE of England do exist. The systematic surveillance of children's PA and fitness profiles throughout England would help identify regional inequalities on a larger scale.

  2. Physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

    2014-07-16

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.

  3. Modifying the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time to Measure Teacher Practices Related to Physical Activity Promotion: SOFIT+

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Webster, Collin A.; Erwin, Heather; Beighle, Aaron; Beets, Michael W.; Choukroun, Hadrien; Kaysing, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is commonly used to measure variables related to physical activity during physical education (PE). However, SOFIT does not yield detailed information about teacher practices related to children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This study describes the modification of SOFIT…

  4. Relationships between Health-Related Fitness Knowledge, Perceived Competence, Self- Determination, and Physical Activity Behaviors of High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslem, Liz; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Christensen, William F.; Pennington, Todd

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to test a hypothesized model of motivation within the context of conceptual physical education (CPE), and (b) to explore the strength and directionality of perceived competence for physical activity as a possible mediator for health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity behaviors. High school…

  5. Physical activity, fitness and body composition of Finnish police officers: a 15-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, L; Smolander, J; Louhevaara, V; Korhonen, O; Oja, P

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated changes in the physical activity, fitness and body composition of 103 police officers during a 15-year follow-up. The absolute aerobic capacity was similar in 1981 and 1996, muscular performance had declined, and body weight had increased approximately 0.5 kg/year. More than half the subjects (53%) had increased their leisure-time physical activity in 1996. The correlation was significant between physical activity in 1981 and physical fitness in 1996, but weak between physical activity in 1996 and fitness in 1996. It was also significant between waist circumference and waist/hip ratio in 1996 and physical activity during the previous 5 and 15 years. No significant correlations were found between physical activity and work ability or perceived physical or mental job stress. The physical fitness of middle-aged police officers seems to be predicted strongly by physical activity in early adulthood. Therefore health and fitness promotion measures should start at that time. This, together with regular systematic training, should help to sustain work ability of middle-aged police officers.

  6. [Tobacco consumption and its relationship to the level of regular physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents from the region of Murcia (Spain)].

    PubMed

    García-Cantó, Eliseo; Rodríguez García, Pedro Luis; Pérez-Soto, Juan José; López Villalba, Francisco José; Rosa-Guillamón, Andrés

    2015-12-01

    This study looks at the relationship between tobacco consumption and the physical activity and fitness levels of adolescents. In a sample of 533 adolescents, both a questionnaire to obtain information regarding tobacco consumption and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for information on physical activity were implemented; a battery of tests to assess physical fitness were also applied. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in females (32.5%) than in males (25.7%). Levels of physical activity in both males and females were significantly associated with tobacco consumption (p<0.0005). Moreover, subjects who consumed tobacco showed lower overall averages in physical fitness tests than those who did not (4.26 vs. 5.77 in males and 4.54 vs. 6.71 in females). Tobacco consumption is therefore shown to be related to lower levels of physical activity and physical fitness in adolescents.

  7. Motivating Students in Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Carol; Hunter, Mike

    2008-01-01

    Physical educators have a responsibility to motivate students to develop personal fitness. This is a critical concept as physical education is the only part of the curriculum capable of meeting the health needs of students regarding physical activity. Current physical educators must promote fitness in ways that motivate students to engage in…

  8. Evidence-Based Referral: Effects of the Revised "Youth Fit 4 Life" Protocol on Physical Activity Outputs.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    The authors contrasted 2 physical activity/nutrition treatments on the basis of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory, and a comparison condition, on time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the 45-min/day physical activity segment of elementary after-school care. The Revised Youth Fit 4 Life protocol that sought to maximize participants' cardiovascular physical activity appeared to improve upon the Original Youth Fit For Life treatment on time in MVPA. Thus, pediatricians might have confidence in referring their patients to such evidence-based approaches. PMID:26057685

  9. Physical self-perceptions, aerobic capacity and physical activity in male and female members of a corporate health and fitness club.

    PubMed

    Daley, A J; Parfitt, G

    1996-12-01

    As physical activity and fitness are believed to influence esteem and self-perceptions positively, the purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among participation in physical activity, aerobic capacity, and physical self-perceptions in 40 men and 33 women, members of a British corporate health and fitness club. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated a significant linear relationship for men between scores on Physical Self-worth and composite scores on Participation in Physical Activity. Men's feelings regarding general physical self-worth may be an important determinant of their subsequent levels of physical exercise.

  10. Measurement of Physical Fitness and Physical Activity: Fifty Years of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mood, Dale P.; Jackson, Allen W.; Morrow, James R., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The tenth anniversary of "Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science" causes one to reflect on the major measurement issues impacting physical education and exercise science in the latter half of the 20th century. This anniversary causes us to contemplate how this history has brought us to where we are today and what it portends for…

  11. Influence of physical fitness and activity behavior on retinal vessel diameters in primary schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Imhof, K; Zahner, L; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Faude, O; Hanssen, H

    2016-07-01

    Retinal vessel alterations have been shown to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors and physical inactivity as early as childhood. In this context, the analysis of physical activity in children has solely been based on questionnaire assessments. The study aimed to examine the association of physical fitness performance and self-reported physical activity with retinal vessel diameters in young children. Three hundred ninety-one primary schoolchildren [7.3 years (SD 0.4)] were examined in this cross-sectional study. The primary outcome was endurance performance measured with the 20-m shuttle run. The additional tests consisted of a 20-m sprint, jumping sidewards and balancing backwards. Retinal microcirculation was assessed using a static retinal vessel analyzer. Parents completed questionnaires about physical and sedentary activities. Endurance performance was associated with narrower retinal venular diameters [-0.9 (95%CI: -1.8; -0.1) measuring units (mu)/ unit shuttle run, P = 0.04] and a higher arteriolar to venular ratio [0.003 (-0.001; 0.006)/unit shuttle run, P = 0.06]. The sprint performance was associated with narrower retinal arterioles [4.7 (0.8; 8.6) mu/unit sprint, P = 0.02]. Indoor playing activity correlated with narrower retinal venules [-0.04 (-0.07; -0.01) mu/per unit, P = 0.02]. Our data suggest that objectively measured endurance performance relates with better retinal vessel health in early childhood.

  12. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ. PMID:27055817

  13. Effects of moderate and vigorous physical activity on fitness and body composition.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Prasad, Vivek K; Hand, Gregory A; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-08-01

    Current physical activity (PA) guidelines indicate that moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous intensity (VPA) PA provide similar benefits when total volume is equal. The present study examined the associations of MPA and VPA with body composition and cardiorespiratory fitness in free-living young adults. A total of 197 young adults (52.8 % male) were followed over a period of 15 months. Body composition was assessed via dual X-ray absorptiometry and time spent in various PA intensities was determined with a multi-sensor device every 3 months. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a graded exercise test at baseline and 15-months follow-up. Change in VPA was positively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness while MPA had beneficial associations with percent body fat. In overweight/obese participants the association with VO2peak was similar for MVPA bouts and VPA. Even though MPA and VPA have positive associations with overall health, their associations on key health parameters differ.

  14. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool.

  15. Cardiorespiratory fitness is a stronger indicator of cardiometabolic risk factors and risk prediction than self-reported physical activity levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Benjamin J; Stephens, Jeffrey W; Williams, Sally P; Davies, Christine A; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the relationships of self-reported physical activity levels and cardiorespiratory fitness in 81 males to assess which measurement is the greatest indicator of cardiometabolic risk. Physical activity levels were determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool and cardiorespiratory fitness assessed using the Chester Step Test. Cardiovascular disease risk was estimated using the QRISK2, Framingham Lipids, Framingham body mass index and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 equations, and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk calculated using QDiabetes, Leicester Risk Assessment, Finnish Diabetes Risk Score and Cambridge Risk Score models. Categorising employees by cardiorespiratory fitness categories ('Excellent/Good' vs 'Average/Below Average') identified more differences in cardiometabolic risk factor (body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, total cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein ratio, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, HbA(1c)) scores than physical activity (waist circumference only). Cardiorespiratory fitness levels also demonstrated differences in all four type 2 diabetes mellitus risk prediction models and both the QRISK2 and Joint British Societies' Guidelines-2 cardiovascular disease equations. Furthermore, significant negative correlations (p < 0.001) were observed between individual cardiorespiratory fitness values and estimated risk in all prediction models. In conclusion, from this preliminary observational study, cardiorespiratory fitness levels reveal a greater number of associations with markers of cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to physical activity determined by the General Practice Physical Activity Questionnaire tool. PMID:26361778

  16. The Relation between Aerobic Fitness, Muscular Fitness, and Obesity in Children from Three Countries at Different Stages of the Physical Activity Transition

    PubMed Central

    Héroux, M.; Onywera, V.; Tremblay, M. S.; Adamo, K. B.; Lopez Taylor, J.; Jáuregui Ulloa, E.; Janssen, I.

    2013-01-01

    Background. The physical activity transition is contributing to an increase in childhood obesity and a decrease in fitness worldwide. This study compared body composition and fitness measures in children from three countries and examined intercountry differences in the relationship between these variables. Methods. Participants consisted of 736 Canadian, 193 Mexican, and 179 Kenyan children aged 9–13 years. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfolds, aerobic fitness, and muscular fitness were measured. Linear regression was used to examine associations between variables. Results. The prevalence of obesity was the highest in Mexican children (9.2% boys, 8.4% girls) and the lowest in Kenyan children (0.9% boys, 2.8% girls). Aerobic fitness (VO2max in mL/kg/min) was the highest in Kenyan children (50.2 boys, 46.7 girls) and the lowest in Canadian children (41.3 boys, 38.3 girls). Aerobic fitness was negatively associated with body composition measures irrespective of country and sex. Mexican children with low aerobic fitness had higher body composition measures than Canadian and Kenyan children. Muscular fitness was not associated with the body composition measures in Kenyan children but was a weak positive correlate of BMI and waist circumference in Canadian and Mexican children. Conclusion. The current study provides some evidence to support the physical activity transition hypothesis. PMID:24533216

  17. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: Teen Choice: Food and Fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, 408 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavio...

  18. FUNdamental Integrative Training (FIT) for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bukowsky, Michael; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Myer, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing need for physical education teachers to integrate different types of fitness activities into their lessons in order to provide opportunities for all students to learn and practice a variety of movement skills that will enhance their physical fitness and support free-time physical activity. An increased focus on age-appropriate…

  19. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Stodden, David; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether perceived motor competence and components of health-related physical fitness mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in 8- to 9-year-old Iranian girls. A convenience sample of 352 girls (mean age = 8.7, SD = 0.3 years) participated in the study. Actual motor competence, perceived motor competence and children's physical activity were assessed using the Test of Gross Motor Development-2, the physical ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire and Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children, respectively. Body mass index, the 600 yard run/walk, curl-ups, push-ups, and back-saver sit and reach tests assessed health-related physical fitness. Preacher & Hayes (2004) bootstrap method was used to assess the potential mediating effects of fitness and perceived competence on the direct relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity. Regression analyses revealed that aerobic fitness (b = .28, 95% CI = [.21, .39]), as the only fitness measure, and perceived competence (b = .16, 95% CI = [.12, .32]) were measures that mediated the relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity with the models. Development of strategies targeting motor skill acquisition, children's self-perceptions of competence and cardiorespiratory fitness should be targeted to promote girls' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

  20. Physical activity, fitness and the energy cost of activities: implications for obesity in children and adolescents in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Xiao Chuan; Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    The tropics cover a large section of the world in which both developed and developing countries are situated. Rapid socioeconomic development, modernization, urbanization, and globalization have affected both the food market and physical activity (PA), which in turn have propelled the obesity epidemic in the tropics. There is growing concern that overweight and obesity are emerging as major health problems among children and adolescents in the tropics, despite the fact that undernutrition still exists in many of these countries. Physical inactivity, a low metabolic rate, and lack of physical fitness (PF) have been linked to overweight and obesity. Moreover, PF in several tropical countries is declining, and these changes may be a threat to future health, as low PA and PF levels are important risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Previous studies have reported that the relationships among PA, PF, overweight, and obesity are inconsistent and inconclusive. There is no indication that variances in the energy cost of physical activities lead to obesity. Despite a lack of definite evidence to prove a causal relationship, there is enough certainty that physical inactivity and low fitness levels are linked to overweight and obesity. Hence, people living in tropical countries need to be encouraged to lead a healthier lifestyle by increasing their PA levels and reducing sedentary behaviors to prevent overweight or obesity. PMID:23722094

  1. Physical activity, fitness and the energy cost of activities: implications for obesity in children and adolescents in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Xiao Chuan; Chong, Kar Hau; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohd Noor

    2013-01-01

    The tropics cover a large section of the world in which both developed and developing countries are situated. Rapid socioeconomic development, modernization, urbanization, and globalization have affected both the food market and physical activity (PA), which in turn have propelled the obesity epidemic in the tropics. There is growing concern that overweight and obesity are emerging as major health problems among children and adolescents in the tropics, despite the fact that undernutrition still exists in many of these countries. Physical inactivity, a low metabolic rate, and lack of physical fitness (PF) have been linked to overweight and obesity. Moreover, PF in several tropical countries is declining, and these changes may be a threat to future health, as low PA and PF levels are important risk factors for noncommunicable chronic diseases. Previous studies have reported that the relationships among PA, PF, overweight, and obesity are inconsistent and inconclusive. There is no indication that variances in the energy cost of physical activities lead to obesity. Despite a lack of definite evidence to prove a causal relationship, there is enough certainty that physical inactivity and low fitness levels are linked to overweight and obesity. Hence, people living in tropical countries need to be encouraged to lead a healthier lifestyle by increasing their PA levels and reducing sedentary behaviors to prevent overweight or obesity.

  2. The combined relationship of occupational and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, accounting for physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark; De Bacquer, Dirk; Van Herck, Koen; De Backer, Guy; Kittel, France; de Smet, Patrick; Holtermann, Andreas

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the combined relationship of occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity with all-cause mortality among men, while accounting for physical fitness. The prospective Belgian Physical Fitness Study included 1,456 male workers aged 40-55 years who were free of coronary heart disease at baseline. Baseline data were collected through questionnaires and clinical examinations from 1976 to 1978. To estimate physical fitness, a submaximal graded exercise test was performed on a bicycle ergometer. Total mortality was registered during a mean follow-up period of 16.9 years. Main results were obtained through Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. A total of 145 deaths were registered during follow-up. After adjustment for confounders, a significantly increased mortality rate was observed in workers who had low levels of both physical activity types (hazard ratio = 2.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 4.19) but also in workers combining high occupational physical activity and low leisure-time physical activity (hazard ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 3.91); the latter finding was particularly pronounced among workers with a low physical fitness level. The present results confirm the existence of a complex interplay among different physical activity settings and fitness levels in predicting mortality.

  3. Physical Training of School Children with Spastic Cerebral Palsy: Effects on Daily Activity, Fat Mass and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Den Berg-Emons, R. J.; Van Baak, M. A.; Speth, L.; Saris, W. H.

    1998-01-01

    Effects of two 9-month sports programs (four or two sessions per week) on daily physical activity (PA), fat mass (FM), and physical fitness were assessed in 20 Dutch children (ages 7-13) with spastic cerebral palsy. Four sessions per week tended to increase PA ratio and held FM constant. (Author/CR)

  4. Evidence of the Role of Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in the Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Arthur S.; Norstrom, Jane

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents epidemiologic evidence on the contributions of physical inactivity and reduced cardiorespiratory fitness to risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). The types and dose of physical activity to reduce risk of CHD and plausible biologic mechanisms for the partial protective effect are reviewed. (Author/SM)

  5. Pilates and Physical Education: A Natural Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloubec, June; Banks, Aaron L.

    2004-01-01

    In a time period characterized by the continual decline of fitness and physical activity among American youths, Pilates can provide physical educators a unique activity that will improve fitness and stimulate the cognitive domain of today's students. Because the Pilates method of exercise encourages the development of strong and flexible muscles…

  6. Physical Fitness of University Faculty Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, H. N.; Barksdale, J. M.

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare physical activity, aerobic fitness, and selected coronary heart disease risk factors in 27 male and 21 female university faculty members. Results of t-tests indicate that the males had significantly greater values for physical activity index, systolic blood pressure, aerobic fitness (V02 max), and…

  7. Comparison and Comparability: Fitness Tracking between Youths with Different Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Wenhao; Nichols, Randall A.; Zillifro, Traci D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared a three-year tracking of health-related physical fitness between two comparable samples of six graders that enrolled either in a PE4life middle school ("n"?=?154) or another school with a traditional PE program ("n?"=?93) in the United States. For the cohort, the FITNESSGRAM[TM] (Cooper Institute for…

  8. Promotion of physical activity and fitness in sedentary patients with Parkinson’s disease: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    van Nimwegen, Marlies; Speelman, Arlène D; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P; Smulders, Katrijn; Dontje, Manon L; Borm, George F; Backx, Frank J G; Munneke, Marten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether a multifaceted behavioural change programme increases physical activities in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Design Multicentre randomised controlled trial. Setting 32 community hospitals in the Netherlands, collaborating in a nationwide network (ParkinsonNet). Participants 586 sedentary patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease aged between 40 and 75 years with mild to moderate disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage ≤3). Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to the ParkFit programme or a matched general physiotherapy intervention. ParkFit is a multifaceted behavioural change programme, designed specifically to achieve an enduring increase in the level of physical activity (coaches using motivational strategies; ambulatory feedback). Main outcome measures The primary endpoint was the level of physical activity, measured every six months with a standardised seven day recall (LASA physical activity questionnaire—LAPAQ). Secondary endpoints included two other measures of physical activity (activity diary and ambulatory activity monitor), quality of life (Parkinson’s disease questionnaire—PDQ-39), and fitness (six minute walk test). Results 540 (92.2%) patients completed the primary outcome. During follow-up, overall time spent on physical activities (LAPAQ) was comparable between the groups (adjusted group difference 7%, 95% confidence interval −3 to 17%; P=0.19). Analyses of three secondary outcomes indicated increased physical activity in ParkFit patients, as suggested by the activity diary (difference 30%; P<0.001), the activity monitor (difference 12%; P<0.001), and the six minute walk test (difference 4.8 m; P=0.05). PDQ-39 did not differ between ParkFit patients and controls (difference −0.9 points; P=0.14). The number of fallers was comparable between ParkFit patients (184/299; 62%) and controls (191/287; 67%). Conclusions The ParkFit behavioural change programme did not increase overall physical

  9. Physical activity and fitness in 8-year-old overweight and normal weight children and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Karppanen, Anna-Kaisa; Ahonen, Sanna-Mari; Tammelin, Tuija; Vanhala, Marja; Korpelainen, Raija

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare the physical fitness and physical activity of 8-year-old overweight children (n =53) to normal weight children (n=65), and to determine whether a significant relationship exists between physical activity of parents and their children. Study design A cross-sectional study. Methods A total of 119 children from Northern Finland were recruited for the study. Waist circumference, height, weight and BMI were measured. Physical activity of the children and their parents was determined with self-administered 7-day recall questionnaires (PAQ-C). Physical fitness of the children was evaluated with 7 items of the EUROFIT-test battery (flamingo balance test, plate tapping, sit-and-reach test, sit-ups, bent arm hang and 10×5 shuttle run). Aerobic capacity of the children was tested with 6-minute walking test. Results Overweigh was related to impaired performance in tests requiring muscle endurance, balance, explosive power of lower extremities, upper body strength and endurance, speed and agility in both genders and aerobic capacity in boys. Physical activity levels of overweight boys (2.41 SD 0.72) were lower than their lean counterparts (2.91 SD 0.64, p=0.004); no such difference was observed in girls (2.53 SD 0.64 vs. 2.59 SD 0.68, p=0.741). Physical activity was significantly associated with better performance in several physical fitness tests in boys, but not in girls. Mothers’ physical activity was associated with children's physical activity (r=0.363, p<0.001), but no such association was found between fathers and children (r=0.019, p=0.864). Conclusion This study shows an inverse relationship between excess bodyweight and physical fitness in children. Mother-child relationship of physical activity appeared to be stronger than father-child relationship. Improving physical fitness in children through physical activity might require interventions that are responsive to the ability and needs of overweight children and their families and focus on

  10. Exercise and Physical Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... Increase your chances of living longer Fitting regular exercise into your daily schedule may seem difficult at ... fine. The key is to find the right exercise for you. It should be fun and should ...

  11. Physical Activity, Cardio-Respiratory Fitness, and Metabolic Traits in Rural Mexican Tarahumara

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Dirk Lund; Alcalá-Sánchez, Imelda; Leal-Berumen, Irene; Conchas-Ramirez, Miguel; Brage, Soren

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To study the association between physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) with key metabolic traits and anthropometric measures in the Tarahumara of Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in five rural communities in Chihuahua, México including 64 adult Tarahumara, mean (SD) age 40.7 (12.9) years. Using a combined accelerometer and heart rate sensor, PAEE was measured over three consecutive days and nights and a sub-maximal step test was carried out in order to (1) calibrate heart rate at the individual level and (2) to estimate CRF. Random blood glucose level and resting blood pressure (BP) were measured with standard anthropometrics. Results Mean (SD) PAEE was 71.2 (30.3) kJ kg−1 day−1 and CRF was 36.6 (6.5) mlO2 min−1 kg−1. Mean (SD) glucose was 127.9 (32.4) mg/dl, with 3.3% having diabetes. Mean (SD) systolic and diastolic BP was 122 (20.8) and 82 (14.8) mm Hg, respectively, with 28.1% having hypertension. Mean body mass index was 27.5 (4.2) kg m−2, with 71.9% being overweight. Following adjustment for age and sex, weak inverse associations were observed between PAEE and systolic BP (β = −0.20, P = 0.27) and diastolic BP (β = −0.16, P = 0.23); and between CRF and systolic BP (β = −0.51, P = 0.14) and diastolic BP (β = −0.53, P = 0.06). The inverse associations with glucose were also weak and not statistically significant for neither PAEE (β = −0.01, P = 0.63) nor CRF (β = −0.05, P = 0.27). Conclusions This study suggests high levels of overweight and hypertension in the Tarahumara, and points to fitness and physical activity as potential intervention targets although findings should be confirmed in larger samples. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22308165

  12. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition.

  13. Influence of cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors during menopause transition: A MONET study.

    PubMed

    Abdulnour, Joseph; Razmjou, Sahar; Doucet, Éric; Boulay, Pierre; Brochu, Martin; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Prud'homme, Denis

    2016-12-01

    To determine the influence of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter "fitness") and physical activity levels on cardiometabolic risk factors in premenopausal women going through the menopause transition. An ancillary study including 66 premenopausal women who participated to a 5-year observational, longitudinal study (2004 to 2009 in Ottawa) on the effects of menopause transition on body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors. Women underwent a graded exercise test on treadmill to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) at year 1 and 5 and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometers. Cardiometabolic risk factors included: waist circumference, fasting plasma lipids, glucose and insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, c-reactive protein, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Change in fitness was not associated with changes in cardiometabolic risk factors. The changes in total physical activity levels on the other hand showed a significant negative association with apoB levels. Three-way linear mixed model repeated measures, showed lower values of waist circumference, fasting triglycerides, insulin levels, HOMA-IR score, apoB and diastolic blood pressure in women with a fitness ≥ 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) compared to women with a fitness < 30.0 mlO2 kg(- 1) min(- 1) (P < 0.05). However, only fasting triglycerides was lower in women with physical activity levels ≥ 770.0 Kcal/day (P < 0.05). Between fitness and physical activity levels, fitness was associated with more favorable values of cardiometabolic risk factors in women followed for 5 years during the menopause transition. PMID:27453812

  14. Physical Activity and Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Hay, John; Cairney, John; Klentrou, Panagiota; Liu, Jian; Faught, Brent E.

    2011-01-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is a neurodevelopmental condition characterized by poor motor proficiency that interferes with a child's activities of daily living. Activities that most young children engage in such as running, walking, and jumping are important for the proper development of fitness and overall health. However, children…

  15. Fitness, Fun and Friends through Participation in Preferred Physical Activities: Achievable for Children with Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Astrid; Moser, Thomas; Jahnsen, Reidun

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the preferences for actual participation in and enjoyment of physical out-of-school activities in children with physical disabilities, including what particular activities they are actually participating in, how often, with whom, where, and how enjoyable they find these activities. The data are based on structured…

  16. The Effects of Physical Activity and Physical Fitness on Children's Achievement and Cognitive Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fedewa, Alicia L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2011-01-01

    It is common knowledge that physical activity leads to numerous health and psychological benefits. However, the relationship between children's physical activity and academic achievement has been debated in the literature. Some studies have found strong, positive relationships between physical activity and cognitive outcomes, while other studies…

  17. Manual for physical fitness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, A. E.

    1981-01-01

    Training manual used for preflight conditioning of NASA astronauts is written for audience with diverse backgrounds and interests. It suggests programs for various levels of fitness, including sample starter programs, safe progression schedules, and stretching exercises. Related information on equipment needs, environmental coonsiderations, and precautions can help readers design safe and effective running programs.

  18. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

    2014-12-01

    This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram(®) ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n = 19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n = 14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.1 ± 1.7 to 8.5 ± 1.9 h; p = 0.002) and weekend (6.3 ± 2.6 to 8.4 ± 2.5 h; p = 0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.3 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.05. Weekend activity: 7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.3 ± 2.3 h; p = 0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes. PMID:25307141

  19. The World Transplant Games: an incentive to improve physical fitness and habitual activity in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Deliva, Robin D; Patterson, Catherine; So, Stephanie; Pellow, Vanessa; Miske, Stephanie; McLister, Carol; Manlhiot, Cedric; Pollock-BarZiv, Stacey; Drabble, Alison; Dipchand, Anne I

    2014-12-01

    This prospective, interventional study examined the impact of training for the WTG on levels of health-related physical fitness and habitual activity in a cohort of pediatric SOT recipients. Physical fitness (FitnessGram(®) ) and habitual activity (HAES) measures were performed on participants (n = 19) in the WTG and compared to non-participant controls (n = 14) prior to and following the WTG. Pre-WTG exercise training was provided to participants. Participants demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in their habitual weekday (6.1 ± 1.7 to 8.5 ± 1.9 h; p = 0.002) and weekend (6.3 ± 2.6 to 8.4 ± 2.5 h; p = 0.01) activity over the training period, while controls improved weekday activity only (6.3 ± 2.0 to 8.3 ± 2.1 h; p = 0.05. Weekend activity: 7.7 ± 2.7 to 8.3 ± 2.3 h; p = 0.68). Participants demonstrated a non-statistical improvement in select physical fitness parameters; however, a greater number of participants achieved healthy criterion standards for cardiovascular fitness (2 vs. 1), abdominal strength (5 vs. 3), and upper body strength (7 vs. 3) following training and participating in the WTG. The WTG can provide a positive incentive for greater levels of physical activity and promote improvements in physical fitness levels. Further study is needed to examine long-term impact on lifestyle changes and health outcomes.

  20. Cohort profile: the Motorik-Modul Longitudinal Study: physical fitness and physical activity as determinants of health development in German children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Matthias O; Bös, Klaus; Jekauc, Darko; Karger, Claudia; Mewes, Nadine; Oberger, Jennifer; Reimers, Anne K; Schlenker, Lars; Worth, Annette; Woll, Alexander

    2014-10-01

    The Motorik-Modul (MoMo) Longitudinal Study aims to contribute to long-term improvement in the health of German children and adolescents by focusing on: (i) the development of physical fitness and physical activity (including period effects); (ii) the individual and physical/social environmental determinants of the development of physical fitness and physical activity; and (iii) the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the development of physical and mental health. The MoMo Longitudinal Study began with a nationwide representative sample of 4529 children and adolescents who ranged in age from 4-17 years at the study baseline (2003-2006). The first survey wave of the MoMo Longitudinal Study was conducted between 2009 and 2012, with two subsequent survey waves to be conducted between 2014 and 2016 and 2018 and 2020, respectively. The MoMo Longitudinal Study includes a physical fitness test profile, a physical activity questionnaire, and subjective and objective measures of health from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (KiGGS). Data access is provided on request (alexander.woll@kit.edu). For further information, including a complete list of publications please visit www.motorik-modul.de.

  1. Student Fitness: The Physical Educator's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, David; Staub, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    The physical educator has an important role to play in developing student fitness. A "blueprint" for success in physical education suggests that instructors: offer a highly active program; provide quality testing; promote fitness education; and provide for individualized record keeping and analysis. (DF)

  2. Are Physical Education Majors Models for Fitness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamla, James; Snyder, Ben; Tanner, Lori; Wash, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) (2002) has taken a firm stance on the importance of adequate fitness levels of physical education teachers stating that they have the responsibility to model an active lifestyle and to promote fitness behaviors. Since the NASPE declaration, national initiatives like Let's Move…

  3. Excerpts from "Position Statement on Physical Fitness and Activity in the Context of Leisure Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruskin, Hilleil

    2002-01-01

    Presents a position statement designed to inform governments, non-governmental organizations, and education institutions about the significance and benefits of physical activity for all and establish a clear relationship between physical activity and leisure education. The statement includes specific recommendations for leisure education and…

  4. Top 10 research questions related to growth and maturation of relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness.

    PubMed

    Malina, Robert M

    2014-06-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can influence activity, performance, and fitness. Allowing for these potential interactions, 10 questions on growth and maturation that have relevance to physical activity, performance, and fitness are presented. The questions are not mutually exclusive and address several broadly defined topical areas: exercise and growth, body weight status (body mass index, adiposity rebound, "unhealthy weight gain"), movement proficiency (hypothesized barrier, role in obesity), individual differences, tracking, maturity-associated variation in performance, and corresponding variation in physical activity. Central to the discussion of each is the need for a biocultural approach recognizing the interactions of biology and behavior as potential influences on the variables of interest.

  5. The effect of a physical activity education programme on physical activity, fitness, quality of life and attitudes to exercise in obese females.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Alison; Doody, Catherine; O'Shea, Donal

    2008-09-01

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Decline in physical activity has occurred simultaneously or before the increase in obesity. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of a physical activity group-based education programme delivered by a Physiotherapist on weight, physical activity, cardiovascular fitness, quality of life and attitudes to exercise in obese females. A sample of 18 obese Irish females (mean age 37.6 years, mean weight 117.9kg), took part in this study. The participants attended four physical activity education sessions in groups of 6-8, 1 month apart. Outcome measures were Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) measured by the Incremental Shuttle Walk test (ISWT) International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form (IPAQ-Short) Impact of Weight on Quality of Life Questionnaire-Short Form (IWQOL-Lite), and a questionnaire adapted from the EU survey on Consumer Attitudes to Physical Activity. There were no significant decreases in participants' weight (p=0.444) and there were no significant improvements in IPAQ (p=0.496) and IWQOL-Lite scores (p=0.337). There were significant improvements in CRF (p<0.0002). Attitudes towards exercise improved as shown by decreased barriers to exercise, i.e. decreased shyness (17%) and increased energy (22%) and increased enjoyment (22%). A group education programme focusing on physical activity alone demonstrated a significant increase in CRF (ISWT) and had a positive influence on attitudes to exercise. Longer duration interventions may allow participants to make the necessary lifestyle changes to achieve weight loss.

  6. Effect of a 6-month school-based physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness in lean and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of school-based physical activity interventions on anthropometric characteristics concomitantly with aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a 6-month physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness among primary schoolchildren. Four hundred fifty-seven children aged 6 to 10 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (229 children) or observational group (228 children). Participants' height and weight were assessed, and obesity was determined using French reference curves for BMI. The sum of the four skinfolds and fat-free mass were determined. Ground tests were used to assess aerobic (20-m shuttle run test) and anaerobic (cycling peak power) fitness before and after a 6-month physical activity intervention. The anthropometric modifications obtained over the 6 months cannot be attributed to the intervention as the ANOVA revealed no group effect (intervention vs. group). However, anaerobic and aerobic fitness were significantly improved, thanks to the program in both lean and obese children. A 6-month school-based physical activity intervention in 6- to 10-year-old children did not yield positive anthropometric improvements, but appears effective in terms of aerobic and anaerobic physical fitness. Two physical activity sessions per week in addition to standard physical education classes in primary schoolchildren bring effective results for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID:21475968

  7. Effect of a 6-month school-based physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness in lean and obese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Thivel, David; Isacco, Laurie; Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Doré, Eric; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2011-11-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of school-based physical activity interventions on anthropometric characteristics concomitantly with aerobic and anaerobic capacities in young children. The present study aimed to assess the effect of a 6-month physical activity program on body composition and physical fitness among primary schoolchildren. Four hundred fifty-seven children aged 6 to 10 years were randomly assigned to the intervention group (229 children) or observational group (228 children). Participants' height and weight were assessed, and obesity was determined using French reference curves for BMI. The sum of the four skinfolds and fat-free mass were determined. Ground tests were used to assess aerobic (20-m shuttle run test) and anaerobic (cycling peak power) fitness before and after a 6-month physical activity intervention. The anthropometric modifications obtained over the 6 months cannot be attributed to the intervention as the ANOVA revealed no group effect (intervention vs. group). However, anaerobic and aerobic fitness were significantly improved, thanks to the program in both lean and obese children. A 6-month school-based physical activity intervention in 6- to 10-year-old children did not yield positive anthropometric improvements, but appears effective in terms of aerobic and anaerobic physical fitness. Two physical activity sessions per week in addition to standard physical education classes in primary schoolchildren bring effective results for the prevention of childhood obesity.

  8. Just Be It! Healthy and Fit Increases Fifth Graders' Fruit and Vegetable Intake, Physical Activity, and Nutrition Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DelCampo, Diana; Baca, Jacqueline S.; Jimenez, Desaree; Sanchez, Paula Roybal; DelCampo, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Just Be It! Healthy and Fit reduces the risk factors for childhood obesity for fifth graders using hands-on field trips, in-class lessons, and parent outreach efforts. Pre-test and post-test scores from the year-long classroom instruction showed a statistically significant increase in fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, and nutrition…

  9. Physical Activity, Nutrition, and Self-Perception Changes Related to a University "Lifetime Fitness for Health" Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woekel, Erica; Ebbeck, Vicki; Concepcion, Rebecca Y.; Readdy, Tucker; Li, Kin-Kit; Lee, Hyo; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2013-01-01

    Undergraduate college students are at a crucial point in the development of significant health behaviors, most notably related to physical activity and dietary intake. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively determine whether participation in a Lifetime Fitness for Health (LFH) curriculum in college had short-term and long-term benefits…

  10. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended.

  11. Effect of Personalized System of Instruction on Health-Related Fitness Knowledge and Class Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prewitt, Steven L.; Hannon, James C.; Colquitt, Gavin; Brusseau, Timothy A.; Newton, Maria; Shaw, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, researchers have identified a general low level of health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge among secondary students that can effect levels of physical activity (PA). An instructional strategy that may increase HRF knowledge without decreasing PA is the personalized system of instruction (PSI). Two classes from a private urban…

  12. Participation in Physical Activity, Fitness, and Risk for Obesity in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Cross-cultural Study.

    PubMed

    Cermak, S A; Katz, N; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Raz-Silbiger, S; Munoz, M; Lifshitz, N

    2015-12-01

    Decreased physical activity has been linked to poor fitness and obesity, resulting in increased risk for health concerns. The objective is to study the relationships between children's motor coordination and their physical activity, sedentary behaviour, fitness and weight status in a cross-cultural study in the United States and Israel. Participants included 118 children 6-11 years of age: 53 children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and 65 typical children. The US sample included 31 DCD children and 44 typical children. The Israeli sample included 22 DCD children and 21 typical children. Participants were assessed on Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2, strength test of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency 2 and Six-minute Walk Test and wore an accelerometer. Parents completed physical activity questionnaires and demographic information. Body mass index was calculated based on height and weight. Testing took place in two sessions. Findings are that in both Israel and the United States, children with DCD demonstrated significantly reduced physical activity, increased sedentary behaviour, poorer fitness and increased overweight compared with typical children. No significant differences were found for country. With relevance to clinical practice, fitness and obesity are major concerns for children with DCD in both countries. Inclusion of occupational therapy in health promotion for this population is critical. Additional studies with testers blind to group, larger samples and other countries are recommended. PMID:26123622

  13. Constructing Cardiovascular Fitness Knowledge in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Tan; Chen, Ang; Chen, Senlin; Hong, Deockki; Loflin, Jerry; Ennis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    In physical education, it has become necessary for children to learn kinesiological knowledge for understanding the benefits of physical activity and developing a physically active lifestyle. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which cognitive assignments about healthful living and fitness contributed to knowledge growth on…

  14. Correlates of Heart Rate Measures with Incidental Physical Activity and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight Female Workers

    PubMed Central

    Tonello, Laís; Reichert, Felipe F.; Oliveira-Silva, Iransé; Del Rosso, Sebastián; Leicht, Anthony S.; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that physical activity (PA) levels and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) impact on the autonomic control of heart rate (HR). However, previous studies evaluating PA levels did not discriminate between incidental PA and regular exercise. We hypothesized that incidental PA “per se” would influence cardiac autonomic indices as assessed via HR variability (HRV) and HR recovery (HRR) in non-exercisers. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the relationships between objective PA levels, CRF, and cardiac autonomic indices in adult, regular non-exercising female workers. After familiarization with procedures and evaluation of body composition, 21 women completed a submaximal cycling test and evaluation of HRR on four different days. Resting (2-min seated and standing) and ambulatory (4-h) HRV were also recorded. Levels of PA were assessed by accelerometry over five consecutive days (i.e., Wednesday to Sunday). Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was measured as an index of CRF. As reliability was low to moderate for most HR measures, relationships between these and PA and CRF were examined using the 4-day average measures. Significant correlations were identified between post-exercise HRR in the first min with various PA indices (daily moderate PA, daily vigorous PA, and the sum of vigorous and very vigorous daily PA). Additionally, VO2max was significantly correlated to HRV but not to HRR. The current results indicated that CRF was influential in enhancing HRV while incidental or non-exercise based PA was associated with greater autonomic reactivation in adult overweight women. Therefore, both CRF and non-exercise based PA contribute significant but diverse effects on cardiac health. The use of 4-day averages instead of single measures for evaluation of autonomic control of HR may provide a better indication of regular cardiac autonomic function that remains to be refined. PMID:26779034

  15. Using Momentary Time Sampling to Estimate Minutes of Physical Activity in Physical Education: Validation of Scores for the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Edward M.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lensegrav, Tera L.; Fallon, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a direct observation system specifically developed for use during physical education (PE; McKenzie, 1991; McKenzie, Sallis, & Nader, 1991). The purpose of this study was to validate the estimates of time spent in various physical activity intensities obtained with the paper and pencil…

  16. Physical fitness profiles of young men: associations between physical fitness, obesity and health.

    PubMed

    Kyröläinen, Heikki; Santtila, Matti; Nindl, Bradley C; Vasankari, Tommi

    2010-11-01

    Obesity in youth has increased during the last 10 years in Western countries. Several studies have investigated physical activity and its effects on obesity and health, showing that regular physical activity combined with improved physical fitness reduces the risk of obesity and several metabolic problems (e.g. diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, heart disease) and also improves overall health. However, there is only limited scientific information available concerning the changes in the physical fitness profiles of youth. It is obvious that only slight changes observed in endurance-type physical activity can also be observed in aerobic capacity. Today and in the future, a major public health concern for teenage and young adults is the combination of increasing body fatness together with decreasing physical fitness. In order to evaluate overall fitness level, it is particularly essential to examine both aerobic and neuromuscular fitness. Therefore, in clinical practice work and health behaviour education, a person's physical fitness should be measured more frequently with various measures. Furthermore, population-based surveys should be combined with regular measurement of physical fitness to study sedentary lifestyles, particularly in young people. This article presents a review of current physical fitness profiles of male children, adolescents and young adults, which hopefully initiates further studies in this relevant scientific field. In addition, the importance of physical fitness level is evaluated in relation to obesity and health. Collectively, studies examining physical fitness profiles of young men suggest a disturbing worldwide trend of decreased aerobic fitness and increased obesity. Continued efforts to foster improved physical fitness and healthy lifestyles should be encouraged to combat these trends. Such efforts should include frequent and objective assessment of physical fitness rather than solely relying on subjective assessment of physical

  17. Media device ownership and media use: Associations with sedentary time, physical activity and fitness in English youth.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Alibrahim, Mohammed; Bellamy, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ownership and use of electronic media were associated with sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) in youth. We also aimed to determine if associations were independent of physical activity (PA). Fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle-run. PA, sedentary time, ownership of media devices and media use were self-reported. Participants (n = 678, age 10-15 years) reported daily sedentary time of 620 (± 210) min. Forty-one percent of participants had low PA and 50.4% had low fitness. Higher weekend sedentary time was associated with low fitness in girls (p = 0.005) and boys (p < 0.001) and remained significant when adjusted for PA in the latter (p = 0.006). Using social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and low fitness in girls. High sedentary time was more likely (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 2.0-14.4) in boys who owned game consoles. Low fitness was more likely in boys who owned digital/satellite TV receivers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.8-3.2). Schoolchildren spent > 10 h or ~ 85% of each waking day sedentary. Use of social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and with low fitness in girls. Reducing social media use in youth offers one potential target for intervention. Behaviours associated with sedentary time differed from predictors of low fitness. The complex and often sex-specific interactions identified between sedentary time, PA and fitness suggest the need for carefully targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time and improve fitness in English youth. PMID:27413678

  18. Media device ownership and media use: Associations with sedentary time, physical activity and fitness in English youth.

    PubMed

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Alibrahim, Mohammed; Bellamy, Mark

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether ownership and use of electronic media were associated with sedentary time and cardiorespiratory fitness (fitness) in youth. We also aimed to determine if associations were independent of physical activity (PA). Fitness was measured using the 20 m shuttle-run. PA, sedentary time, ownership of media devices and media use were self-reported. Participants (n = 678, age 10-15 years) reported daily sedentary time of 620 (± 210) min. Forty-one percent of participants had low PA and 50.4% had low fitness. Higher weekend sedentary time was associated with low fitness in girls (p = 0.005) and boys (p < 0.001) and remained significant when adjusted for PA in the latter (p = 0.006). Using social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and low fitness in girls. High sedentary time was more likely (OR = 5.3, 95%CI: 2.0-14.4) in boys who owned game consoles. Low fitness was more likely in boys who owned digital/satellite TV receivers (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.8-3.2). Schoolchildren spent > 10 h or ~ 85% of each waking day sedentary. Use of social media was associated with higher sedentary time in both sexes and with low fitness in girls. Reducing social media use in youth offers one potential target for intervention. Behaviours associated with sedentary time differed from predictors of low fitness. The complex and often sex-specific interactions identified between sedentary time, PA and fitness suggest the need for carefully targeted interventions to reduce sedentary time and improve fitness in English youth.

  19. Associations of physical activity with fatness and fitness in adolescents with Down syndrome: The UP&DOWN study.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Gomez, Rocío; Martínez-Gómez, David; Villagra, Ariel; Fernhall, Bo; Veiga, Oscar L

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) with several markers of fatness and fitness in a relatively large sample of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). This study comprised a total of 100 adolescents with DS (37 females) aged 11-20 years-old, and a sex-matched sample of 100 adolescents without disabilities, participating in the UP&DOWN study. The ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for adolescents was used to assess fatness and fitness. PA was measured by accelerometry. Adolescents with DS had higher fatness and significantly lower fitness levels in all variables measured than adolescents without DS (all p<0.05). Moderate-to-large effects were observed in fatness variables (d=0.65-1.42), but particularly large values were found in fitness variables (d=2.05-2.43). In addition, PA levels was not associated with fatness variables, whereas total PA and vigorous PA were associated with all fitness variables (p<0.05), and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with muscular fitness (p<0.05), after adjusting for potential confounders. Further analysis revealed that there were differences in fitness by tertiles of vigorous PA between the lowest and the highest groups in all fitness variables (all p<0.05). However, no significant differences were found in fitness by tertiles of MVPA according with PA guidelines (≥60min in MVPA). Our findings indicate that PA levels are not associated with fatness variables, whereas high PA levels, in particular vigorous PA, are positively associated with high fitness in adolescents with DS.

  20. Effects of the BEAT Cancer physical activity behavior change intervention on physical activity, aerobic fitness, and quality of life in breast cancer survivors: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Laura Q; Courneya, Kerry S; Anton, Philip M; Hopkins-Price, Patricia; Verhulst, Steven; Vicari, Sandra K; Robbs, Randall S; Mocharnuk, Robert; McAuley, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Most breast cancer survivors (BCS) are not meeting recommended physical activity guidelines. Here, we report the effects of the Better Exercise Adherence after Treatment for Cancer (BEAT Cancer) behavior change intervention on physical activity, aerobic fitness, and quality of life (QoL). We randomized 222 post-primary treatment BCS to the 3-month intervention (BEAT Cancer) or usual care (UC). BEAT Cancer combined supervised exercise, face-to-face counseling, and group discussions with tapering to home-based exercise. Assessments at baseline, immediately post-intervention (month 3; M3), and 3 months post-intervention (month 6; M6) included accelerometer and self-reported physical activity, submaximal treadmill test, and QoL [Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Breast scale]. Adjusted linear mixed-model analyses demonstrated significant effects of BEAT Cancer compared to UC on weekly minutes of ≥ moderate intensity physical activity at M3 by accelerometer [mean between group difference (M) = +41; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 10-73; p = 0.010] and self-report (M = +93; CI = 62-123; p < 0.001). Statistical significance remained at M6 for self-reported physical activity (M = +74; CI = 43-105; p < 0.001). BEAT Cancer participants were significantly more likely to meet physical activity recommendations at both time points [accelerometer M3 adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.2; CI = 1.0-4.8 and M6 adjusted OR = 2.4; CI = 1.1-5.3; self-report M3 adjusted OR = 5.2; CI = 2.6-10.4 and M6 adjusted OR = 4.8; CI = 2.3-10.0]. BEAT Cancer significantly improved fitness at M6 (M = +1.8 ml/kg/min; CI = 0.8-2.8; p = 0.001) and QoL at M3 and M6 (M = +6.4; CI = 3.1-9.7; p < 0.001 and M = +3.8; CI = 0.5-7.2; p = 0.025, respectively). The BEAT Cancer intervention significantly improved physical activity, fitness, and QoL with benefits continuing 3 months post-intervention.

  1. Associations between work ability, health-related quality of life, physical activity and fitness among middle-aged men.

    PubMed

    Sörensen, Lars E; Pekkonen, Mika M; Männikkö, Kaisa H; Louhevaara, Veikko A; Smolander, Juhani; Alén, Markku J

    2008-11-01

    The Work ability of ageing work force is a matter of major concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived work ability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and to investigate their associations with age, physical activity and physical fitness in middle-aged men working in blue-collar occupations. The study population consisted of 196 middle-aged (aged 40-60 years) men (construction and industrial work) attending occupationally orientated early medical rehabilitation. They were mostly healthy having only symptoms of musculoskeletal or psychological strain. Perceived work ability was assessed with the work ability index (WAI) and HRQoL with the Rand, 36-item health survey (Rand-36). Information on physical activity was obtained with a structured questionnaire. Cardiorespiratory fitness was estimated with a submaximal exercise test on a cycle-ergometer. The WAI was significantly (p<0.001) associated with the total score of Rand-36, and with all its domains. Age, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness were neither associated with the WAI, nor did physical activity predict any of the dimensions of Rand-36. Cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with the physical functioning dimension of the Rand-36 whilst age was positively associated with the dimensions of the energy, emotional well being and social functioning of the Rand-36. The present study on middle-aged men showed a close relationship between perceived work ability and the HRQoL. It is suggested that the promotion of work ability may have beneficial effects on quality of life.

  2. Social support from teachers mediates physical activity behavior change in children participating in the Fit-4-Fun intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few studies have examined the mediators of behavior change in successful school-based physical activity interventions. The aim of this study was to explore potential mediators of physical activity in the Fit-4-Fun program for primary school children. Design Group randomized controlled trial. Methods Four primary schools were recruited in April, 2011 and randomized by school into intervention or control conditions. Participants included 213 children (mean age = 10.7 years ± 0.6; 52.2% female) with the treatment group (n = 118) completing the 8-week multi-component Fit-4-Fun program. Participants were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-months. Physical activity was measured using Yamax SW700 pedometers (mean steps/day) and questionnaires were used to assess constructs from Social Cognitive Theory and Competence Motivation Theory. Hypothesized mediators measured included social support from peers, parents and teachers; physical activity self-efficacy (barrier and task); enjoyment; and perceived school physical environment. Mediation was assessed using Preacher and Hayes’ multiple mediation regression SPSS macro. Action theory (A), conceptual theory (B) and the significance of the product of coefficients (AB) are reported. Results The intervention had a significant effect on physical activity (p<0.001). The action theory test results revealed significant treatment effects at 3-months for perceived school environment (A=0.28, p<0.001); and at 6-month follow-up for perceived school environment (A=0.058, p<0.001), teacher social support (A=0.54, p<0.05) and enjoyment (A=-0.23, p<0.05). The conceptual theory test revealed a significant relationship between changes in teacher social support and changes in physical activity at 6-month follow-up (B=828, P<0.05). Teacher social support was shown to have a significant mediating effect on physical activity (AB = 445, CI = 77-1068 steps, proportion= 13%), and perceived school environment approached significance (AB

  3. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  4. Factors Influencing Physical Fitness Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haarer, Barbara G.

    This annotated bibliography focuses on works that examine areas in which the physical educator can improve the administration of physical fitness tests in the elementary and secondary schools. The first part contains annotations that examine modifications of existing components which measure aspects of muscular and cardiovascular endurance. The…

  5. Physical Therapist Assistant Fitness Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backstrom, Kurt; And Others

    Colby Community College's (CCC) Fitness Lab was established to provide the Physical Therapist Assistant (PTA) Program with a learning laboratory in which students can practice classroom-acquired skills, while at the same time promoting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual well-being of CCC students and staff, and community members. A…

  6. Moving Souls: History Offers Insights into Physical Activity that Go beyond Fitness and Fun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sydnor, Synthia

    2005-01-01

    This article looks at four theoretical themes that scholars insist on when studying history. The themes--social memory, liminality, community, and critique--may be useful in stimulating the direction, planning, and practice of physical activity in young adults. These particular themes were chosen because they seem to match some of the…

  7. The effects of objectively measured physical activity and fitness on fear of falling among Korean older women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung; Lim, Seung-Kil; Shin, Sohee; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on fear of falling (FOF) among older adults. The subjects were 94 Korean females aged 65–79. PA was measured with accelerometers, PF with the senior fitness test and FOF with the Korean Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly. With the subjects’ age, number of chronic conditions, and history of falls included as correction factors, a multiple regression analysis showed that PA (P=0.016) and agility/dynamic balance measured by the 8-foot up-and-go test (UNG) (P=0.001) significantly influenced FOF. The FOF of the slowest UNG quartile was significantly higher than those of other groups (P=0.002). This study concludes that among female older adults agility/dynamic balance as measured by UNG is the main factor impacting FOF and individuals with markedly low UNG tend to have high FOF. PMID:27807530

  8. Changes in physical activity, physical fitness, self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral therapy program in outpatients with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Probst, Michel; Adriaens, An; Pieters, Guido; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Soundy, Andy; Vanderlinden, Johan

    2014-10-30

    The aim of the current study was to explore the associations between changes in the number of binges, physical activity participation, physical fitness, physical self-perception and quality of life following a 6-month physical activity counseling and cognitive behavioral program in patients with binge eating disorder (BED). In total 34 (31 women) outpatients with BED (38.5±10.7 years) completed a 6-month 1-day per week group-based program. Participants completed the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, the Baecke Physical Activity questionnaire, the Physical Self Perception Profile and performed a 6-min walk test (6MWT) at baseline, after 3 and 6 months. Except for physical activity at work, physical strength and self-worth perception, all parameters significantly improved after 6 months. The effect sizes ranged from -0.33 for the number of binges to 1.67 for participation in sports activities. Significant increases in leisure time physical activity were associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life, perceived sports competence and physical fitness and in perceived body attractiveness. The significant reduction in the number of binges was associated with significant improvements in physical health related quality of life. Future research should focus on detailing which techniques can stimulate physical activity participation in patients with BED.

  9. [Institutionalized elderly: functional capacity and physical fitness].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Lúcia Hisako Takase; Silva, Aline Huber da; Mazo, Giovana Zarpsellon; Benedetti, Tânia R Bertoldo; dos Santos, Silvia Maria Azevedo; Marques, Sueli; Rodrigues, Rosalina A Partezani; Portella, Marilene Rodrigues; Scortegagna, Helenice de Moura; Santos, Silvana Sidney C; Pelzer, Marlene Teda; Souza, Andrea dos Santos; Meira, Edmeia Campos; Sena, Edite Lago da Silva; Creutzberg, Marion; Resende, Thais de Lima; Rezende, Tais de Lima

    2010-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between physical fitness and functional capacity in 78 residents of long-stay institutions for low-income elderly located in five regions of Brazil. The majority of the sample consisted of women, and mean age was 77.4 years (SD = 7.9). Physical fitness was assessed with the AAHPERD test, adjusted for institutionalized elderly. The Katz scale was used for functional capacity. The five components of physical fitness rated fair for flexibility, coordination, agility, and aerobic endurance and good for strength. The mean general physical fitness (GPF) index was fair. According to the findings, the greater the degree of dependency in institutionalized elderly, the lesser their strength and GPF level; meanwhile, better coordination and agility are associated with greater independence for performing activities of daily living. The results can contribute to appropriate physical exercise programs for maintenance and/or recovery of functionality.

  10. Evaluation of a web-based program promoting healthy eating and physical activity for adolescents: teen choice: food and fitness.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Thompson, Debbe; Boushey, Carol; Konzelmann, Karen; Chen, Tzu-An

    2013-08-01

    This randomized clinical trial tested the impact of a website promoting nutrition and physical activity for adolescents (Teen Choice: Food and Fitness). Participants, (408) 12- to 17-year-old adolescents in the Houston area, completed online surveys measuring diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior and diet/physical activity mediators at baseline. After randomization, they were asked to log onto either the intervention or the control condition website weekly for 8 weeks to review web content and set goals to improve dietary and physical activity behaviors. Post-test occurred after 8 weeks. Logistic regression analyses and one-way analyses of covariance were used in the analyses. At post, more intervention group adolescents reported eating three or more daily vegetable servings in the past week compared with the control group (P < 0.05); both groups reported significant increases in physical activity (P < 0.001) and significant decreases in TV watching (P < 0.01). Average log on rate was 75% over the 8 weeks; there was no difference by condition. The website enabled adolescents to improve vegetable intake and daily physical activity, reduce sedentary behavior and had a high log on rate. Future research should identify effective methods for disseminating this website to wider audiences.

  11. BMI Group-Related Differences in Physical Fitness and Physical Activity in Preschool-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niederer, Iris; Kriemler, Susi; Zahner, Lukas; Burgi, Flavia; Ebenegger, Vincent; Marques- Vidal, Pedro; Puder, Jardena J.

    2012-01-01

    In the Ballabeina study, we investigated age- and BMI-group-related differences in aerobic fitness (20 m shuttle run), agility (obstacle course), dynamic (balance beam) and static balance (balance platform), and physical activity (PA, accelerometers) in 613 children (M age = 5.1 years, SD = 0.6). Normal weight (NW) children performed better than…

  12. Evidence-Based Referral: Effects of the Revised “Youth Fit 4 Life” Protocol on Physical Activity Outputs

    PubMed Central

    Annesi, James J; Vaughn, Linda L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity is prevalent in youths. Pediatricians seek referrals to reliably increase outputs, especially in their overweight and underactive patients. Objective: Within a randomized controlled trial, we contrasted 2 physical activity/nutrition treatments on the basis of social cognitive and self-efficacy theory, and a comparison condition, on time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during the 45-min/day physical activity segment of elementary afterschool care. Methods: In youths ranging in age from 9 to 12 years (9.7 ± 0.8 years, overall), the Original Youth Fit For Life treatment (Original YFFL; n = 49), the Revised Youth Fit 4 Life treatment (Revised YF4L, n = 43), and a comparison condition of typical care (Comparison, n = 46) were contrasted using a 3 (groups) × 2 (sexes) analysis of variance incorporating means of 3 accelerometer measurements over 12 weeks. Results: There was a significantly greater amount of time in MVPA in the Revised YF4L group than either the Original YFFL or Comparison groups (F2, 132 = 281.20, p < 0.001). Boys completed significantly more time in MVPA than girls (F2, 132 = 16.43, p < 0.001); however, there was not a significant group × sex interaction. Supplementary analyses indicated sedentary time was significantly less by 29% in the Revised YF4L when contrasted with the Comparison group. Conclusion: The Revised YF4L protocol that sought to maximize participants’ cardiovascular physical activity appeared to improve upon the Original YFFL treatment on time in MVPA. Thus, pediatricians might have confidence in referring their patients to such evidence-based approaches. Future research should also evaluate the effects of YF4L on psychosocial predictors of physical activity and change in body mass index. PMID:26057685

  13. Physical Activity and Fitness of First Nations Youth in a Remote and Isolated Northern Ontario Community: A Needs Assessment.

    PubMed

    Gates, Michelle; Hanning, Rhona; Gates, Allison; Stephen, Judy; Fehst, Andrew; Tsuji, Leonard

    2016-02-01

    Among a group of First Nations youth, this research aimed to obtain objective measures of anthropometry, physical activity (PA) and fitness; to identify any group-level differences by sex, body mass index, waist circumference and body fat categories; to assess the barriers and supports to PA. Youth participated in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, body fat percentage), PA assessment (3 days of accelerometry) and fitness testing (guided by the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Approach). Barriers and supports were assessed via environmental scan and focus groups. Descriptive statistics were compared to reference data. Group differences by sex, BMI status, waist circumference and body fat categories were tested using Mann-Whitney U and Chi square tests (p ≤ 0.05). Qualitative data were assembled into one file and coded manually for categories and themes. Seventy-two youth (12.1 ± 1.1 years, 61.1% male) participated in at least one measure; 36 completed the accelerometry. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese, 51% were abdominally obese and 21% had excess body fat. Most (86.1%) met Canada's PA guidelines. Boys were more active than girls (p = 0.025) and had greater cardiorespiratory endurance (p = 0.003). Overweight, obese, or abdominally obese youth had lower cardiorespiratory endurance than normal weight youth (p < 0.001). Barriers and supports fell under the main themes: motivation, role models, personnel and facilities, environment and programs. Based on this assessment, youth in this community are active, but not sufficiently physically fit, especially among those affected by obesity and abdominal obesity. The findings, in addition to the numerous barriers to PA, support the community's desire for school-based PA programming.

  14. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).

    PubMed

    Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical activity categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical activity guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p <0.05) but additively only improved R(2) by 2%. There was a significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) subjects achieved higher CRF for a given level of physical activity compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men

  15. Long-term effects of 4-year longitudinal school-based physical activity intervention on the physical fitness of children and youth during 7-year followup assessment.

    PubMed

    Jurak, Gregor; Cooper, Ashley; Leskosek, Bojan; Kovac, Marjeta

    2013-12-01

    Many school-based physical activity (PA) interventions have been developed, but only a few have assessed their long-term effects. A PA intervention taking place in the first four years of some Slovenian primary schools entails an enhanced physical education (PE) curriculum, including two extra lessons of PE per week, a wider selection of PE content, and additional outdoor education delivered by both a specialist PE teacher and a general teacher. The effects of the intervention on children's physical fitness (motor tasks and anthropometry) were evaluated within a quasi-experimental study. In total, 324 children from nine Slovenian primary schools either received the enhanced curriculum (intervention (n=160)) or standard PE (control (n=164)), and were followed for a four-year intervention period and seven years post intervention. Data from the SLOFIT database were used to compare differences in the physical fitness of children each year. Linear Mixed Models were used to test the influence of the PA intervention. Over an 11-year period, the PA intervention group significantly differed in all motor tasks, but not in anthropometric measures or body mass index, after controlling for year of measurement and sex. Differences between the control and intervention groups decreased with time. This study highlights the importance of tracking the long term effects of PA interventions. PA intervention in the first four years of Slovenian primary school offers the possibility of improving physical performance in children; initiatives aiming to increase their performance (physical fitness, physical activity) and health outcomes are warranted.

  16. Physical Performance, Fitness and Diet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Donald R.

    This book deals principally with the relationships between diet, fitness, and physical work capacity. The extreme nutritional states of obesity and chronic food deprivation are considered, and the effect of supplementation and modification of normal dietaries on work capacity are discussed. Figures and data tables provide information regarding…

  17. National Adult Physical Fitness Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports Newsletter, 1973

    1973-01-01

    This report of a personal interview research survey conducted for the President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 1972 presents the following findings: (a) 45 percent of all adult Americans do not engage in any form of exercise; (b) walking is the most popular form of exercise, followed by bicycle riding, swimming, calisthenics, bowling,…

  18. Physical Education's Fourth Domain: Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudet, Bob; Acquaviva, John

    2005-01-01

    The Surgeon General's report discusses the importance of daily physical activity and addresses the role of schools' physical education programs in implementing activity into every child's life. Professionals in the physical education field have typically used three domains to address the physical education curriculum: motor, cognitive, and…

  19. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  20. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  1. Effects of Requiring Physical Fitness in a Lecture-Based College Course: Students' Attitudes toward Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esslinger, Keri A.; Grimes, Amanda R.; Pyle, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated students' attitudes toward physical activity (PA) when including a required PA component in a university-required personal wellness class. The study included (a) an experimental group of students enrolled in a personal wellness course in which there was a required PA requirement and (b) a control group of students…

  2. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The purpose was to: 1) perform a systematic review of studies examining the relation between physical activity, fitness, and health in school-aged children and youth, and 2) make recommendations based on the findings. Methods The systematic review was limited to 7 health indicators: high blood cholesterol, high blood pressure, the metabolic syndrome, obesity, low bone density, depression, and injuries. Literature searches were conducted using predefined keywords in 6 key databases. A total of 11,088 potential papers were identified. The abstracts and full-text articles of potentially relevant papers were screened to determine eligibility. Data was abstracted for 113 outcomes from the 86 eligible papers. The evidence was graded for each health outcome using established criteria based on the quantity and quality of studies and strength of effect. The volume, intensity, and type of physical activity were considered. Results Physical activity was associated with numerous health benefits. The dose-response relations observed in observational studies indicate that the more physical activity, the greater the health benefit. Results from experimental studies indicate that even modest amounts of physical activity can have health benefits in high-risk youngsters (e.g., obese). To achieve substantive health benefits, the physical activity should be of at least a moderate intensity. Vigorous intensity activities may provide even greater benefit. Aerobic-based activities had the greatest health benefit, other than for bone health, in which case high-impact weight bearing activities were required. Conclusion The following recommendations were made: 1) Children and youth 5-17 years of age should accumulate an average of at least 60 minutes per day and up to several hours of at least moderate intensity physical activity. Some of the health benefits can be achieved through an average of 30 minutes per day. [Level 2, Grade A]. 2) More vigorous intensity activities should

  3. Physical fitness of militia forces.

    PubMed

    Song, T M; Moore, J

    1989-09-01

    Anthropometry and physical fitness of Canadian militia infantry (n = 19) and militia service battalion (SVC, n = 27) men, ranging in age from 17 to 21 years, were examined and were compared with recent Canadian fitness norms. The height of the infantry was taller (p less than 0.05) than that of civilians. There was no difference between the two groups for the body mass index (BMI), skinfolds, grip strength, and maximum oxygen consumption rate. Flexibility and muscular endurance (sit-ups) of the infantry were greater (p less than 0.01) than those of the militia service battalion. Skinfolds and muscular endurance of the militia were above the average, and BMI and maximum oxygen consumption rate of the militia were below the average for civilians. Further study is needed to establish the fitness criteria that should be met by the militia in the future.

  4. 75 FR 2546 - Opportunity for Co-Sponsorship of the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Awards Program; Correction AGENCY: President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. ACTION: Notice; correction. SUMMARY: The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports published a document in...

  5. Environment factors associated with adolescents' body mass index, physical activity and physical fitness in Kuching South City, Sarawak: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye L; Chang, Ching T; Saimon, Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived built environment attributes and physical activity, physical fitness and body weight among adolescents aged 14-16 years in Sarawak. This was a cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling. A set of questionnaires consisting of socio-demographic information, a self-administered physical activity checklist and a Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Youth (NEWS-Y) was used. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and physical fitness was tested using a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 316 respondents participated. The mean BMI for boys was almost equal to the mean BMI for girls. Only 7.9% of the sampled population was found to be overweight or obese. The overall mean duration spent per day on physical activity was 128.4 min (SD 118.43), with mean of 56.1 min (SD 73.94) after school time. Girls reported to spend longer each day taking physical activity before and during school. Boys were found to have significantly higher VO2max of 27.79±5.91 mL/kg/min as compared to girls (t=11.22, p<0.000). Based on comparison with other countries, the NEWS-Y scores indicated a mixture of low and high walkability neighborhoods. Respondents who had lower BMIs reported living in lower residential density areas and less risk of crime, and respondents who had better physical fitness reported less suitable infrastructure for walking. Promotion of exercise at all levels should be continuously encouraged as it would lead to improvement in the well-being of an individual.

  6. [The module "Motorik" in the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS). Motor fitness and physical activity of children and young people].

    PubMed

    Opper, E; Worth, A; Wagner, M; Bös, K

    2007-01-01

    Motor fitness and physical activity are important aspects of a healthy development in childhood and adolescence. However, the assessment of motor fitness and physical activity is not subject to standardized criteria; furthermore, the samples investigated do not provide a representative image of the whole population. Therefore, the existing data only allow very limited statements on the state and development of motor fitness and physical activity. The "Motorik" module, as part of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS), offers nationwide representative data on the motor fitness and physical activity of children and adolescents for the first time. Besides the baseline-analysis, another aim is to analyse the complex relationship between motor fitness, physical activity and health. Motor fitness, based on the systematisation of motor abilities, was assessed using a test profile. The test profile consists of 11 items measuring cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, coordination and mobility. Physical activity was assessed using a questionnaire containing 51 items on the duration, intensity and frequency of physical activity in everyday life, during leisure time, at school and in sports clubs. The above-mentioned questionnaire subtopics were supplemented by questions on the weekly prevalence of at least 60 minutes of daily physical activity, on material and local conditions, as well as on cognition and motivation for physical activity. In the years 2004 to 2006, the motor fitness and physical activity of 4,529 children and young people between the ages of 4 and 17 years was investigated on 168 sample points in the context of the "Motorik" module. Half of the children and adolescents investigated belong to the middle class, approximately 15% have a background of migration. The majority of the subjects come from small towns, about a quarter live in the city, less than 20% are settled in rural areas.

  7. Children Are Fit but Not Active!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Neil

    1989-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between exercise, physical activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness. Data is presented from a study of 300 British children which indicated surprisingly low levels of physical activity, with significant differences occurring along age and gender lines. (IAH)

  8. Tracking of physical activity, fitness, body composition and diet from adolescence to young adulthood: The Young Hearts Project, Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Boreham, Colin; Robson, Paula J; Gallagher, Alison M; Cran, Gordon W; Savage, J Maurice; Murray, Liam J

    2004-10-01

    BACKGROUND: The assumption that lifestyles formed early in life track into adulthood has been used to justify the targeting of health promotion programmes towards children and adolescents. The aim of the current study was to use data from the Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project to ascertain the extent of tracking, between adolescence and young adulthood, of physical activity, aerobic fitness, selected anthropometric variables, and diet. METHODS: Males (n 245) and females (n 231) were assessed at age 15 y, and again in young adulthood [mean (SD) age 22 (1.6) y]. At both timepoints, height, weight and skinfold thicknesses were measured, and physical activity and diet were assessed by questionnaire and diet history method respectively. At 15y, fitness was assessed using the 20 metre shuttle run, while at young adulthood, the PWC170 cycle ergometer test was used. For each measurement made at 15y, subjects were ranked into 'low' (L1; lowest 25%), 'medium' (M1; middle 50%) or 'high' (H1; highest 25%) categories. At young adulthood, similar categories (L2, M2, H2) were created. The extent of tracking of each variable over time was calculated using 3 x 3 matrices constructed using these two sets of categories, and summarised using kappa (kappa) statistics. RESULTS: Tracking of diet and fitness was poor (kappa physical activity in males was fair (kappa 0.202), but was poor in females (kappa 0.021). In contrast, anthropometric variables such as weight, body mass index and sum of skinfolds tracked more strongly in females (kappa 0.540, kappa 0.307, kappa 0.357 respectively) than in males (kappa 0.337, kappa 0.199, kappa 0.216 respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The poor tracking of fitness and diet in both sexes, and physical activity in females, suggests that these aspects of adolescent lifestyle are unlikely to be predictive of behaviours in

  9. The effect of a novel ADL-based training program on performance of activities of daily living and physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Dobek, Jessica C; White, Karen N; Gunter, Katherine B

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which a novel training program based on activities of daily living (ADL) would affect performance of ADLs, as well as the fitness of older adults. Fourteen individuals (mean age 82 years) took part in a 10-week control period followed by a 10-week ADL-based training program. Pre- and posttests included the Physical Performance Test (PPT), the Physical Functional Performance-10 (PFP-10), and the Senior Fitness Test (SFT). After the training period, improvements ranging from 7% to 33% (p<.05) were seen on the PPT and PFP-10 and on three items of the SFT. After conversion to standard scores, the magnitude of change in the PPT and the PFP10 was significantly greater (p<.05) than the magnitude of change in the SFT. These data support the idea that this novel ADL-based training program was able to facilitate improved performance of ADLs, as well as select measures of fitness among older adults.

  10. Youth Physical Fitness: Ten Key Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.; Welk, Gregory J.; Richardson, Cheryl; Vowell, Catherine; Lambdin, Dolly; Wikgren, Scott

    2014-01-01

    The promotion of physical fitness has been a key objective of physical education for more than a century. During this period, physical education has evolved to accommodate changing views on fitness and health. The purpose of this article is to discuss issues with fitness assessment and fitness education central to the new Presidential Youth…

  11. Aging, Mental Retardation and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to provide an overview of what physical fitness is and how it relates to people with mental retardation. Questions address the following topics: the fitness movement; a definition of physical fitness; the different components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body…

  12. Assessing Children’s Time-Use in Relation to Physical Fitness and Risks of Obesity and Diabetes: Development of a New Physical Activity Self-Report Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Y; Guo, J; Santiago-Torres, M; Schoeller, D; Esmond, S; Allen, D; Henderson, M; Rendon, A; Carrel, A

    2016-01-01

    Background This study introduces a novel self-report instrument to measure children’s time-use in physical and sedentary activities and examines the relationships between children’s time-use and physical fitness and risks of obesity and diabetes. Methods The new instrument utilizes a series of timelines, each representing an activity type. 188 children (53% girls) aged 10 to 14 year-old participated in the study. Their time-use data for two weekdays and one weekend day were collected. Anthropometrics and cardiovascular fitness were measured and children’s BMI z-score and PACER z-score were computed. One-time blood draw for fasting glucose and insulin were used to calculate insulin resistance using homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMAIR). Results The reliability assessment of this instrument indicated a moderately reproducible procedure (ICC > 0.6) for six activity types. The validity correlation for motorized travel time was high (r = 0.226, P < 0.05) between self-report instrument and GPS tracks. PACER z-score was positively correlated with time-uses of play (r = 0.159, P < 0.05), and organized sports (r = 0.198, P < 0.05); and was highly inversely correlated with BMI z-score (r = −0.441, P < 0.0001) and HOMAIR (r = −0.472, P < 0.0001). Overall, only 14% of the children had physical activity for more than 60 minutes daily over three observation days. Conclusions This instrument is particularly useful in assessing children’s activity patterns, especially for specific physical activities. The new instrument provides a reproducible measure of children’s perception of their activities. Our results emphasize the temporal context which is critical to formulating effective interventions targeting physical activity increase in children. Further efforts are needed to understand the differences between activity time obtained by the new self-report instrument and GPS tracks.

  13. Cardiorespiratory fitness, weight status and objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity in rural and urban Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Mota, Jorge; Padez, Cristina; Ronque, Enio; Cumming, Sean P; Malina, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Relationships among weight status (body mass index [BMI]), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objective measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity (PA) were considered in a cross-sectional sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample included 362 youth aged 13-16 years (165 males, 197 females) from urban and rural regions of the Portuguese midlands. CRF was assessed with the 20-m shuttle-run test. An uniaxial accelerometer was used to obtain five consecutive days of activity behaviours including time being sedentary. Pearson correlations and logistic regression analysis were used to examine relationships among variables. Rural adolescents were less active than their urban peers over the weekend. Both rural and urban youth with higher levels of CRF had a lower relative risk of being overweight/obese. The observations indicate important associations between weight status and CRF in both rural and urban Portuguese adolescents. In addition, place of residence has an important impact on weight status of this sample of adolescents.

  14. Measuring Fitness Actions and Dispositions Associated with Physical Activity: Validation of a Self-Report Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, L. Kent; Wang, Eugene; Hart, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the status of adolescent health has deteriorated at an alarming rate. The National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) proposed six standards that identified characteristics of a physically educated individual. Some of these standards address constructs that can be framed in the self-determination theory.…

  15. Does practicing hatha yoga satisfy recommendations for intensity of physical activity which improves and maintains health and cardiovascular fitness?

    PubMed Central

    Hagins, Marshall; Moore, Wendy; Rundle, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known about the metabolic and heart rate responses to a typical hatha yoga session. The purposes of this study were 1) to determine whether a typical yoga practice using various postures meets the current recommendations for levels of physical activity required to improve and maintain health and cardiovascular fitness; 2) to determine the reliability of metabolic costs of yoga across sessions; 3) to compare the metabolic costs of yoga practice to those of treadmill walking. Methods In this observational study, 20 intermediate-to-advanced level yoga practitioners, age 31.4 ± 8.3 years, performed an exercise routine inside a human respiratory chamber (indirect calorimeter) while wearing heart rate monitors. The exercise routine consisted of 30 minutes of sitting, 56 minutes of beginner-level hatha yoga administered by video, and 10 minutes of treadmill walking at 3.2 and 4.8 kph each. Measures were mean oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate (HR), percentage predicted maximal heart rate (%MHR), metabolic equivalents (METs), and energy expenditure (kcal). Seven subjects repeated the protocol so that measurement reliability could be established. Results Mean values across the entire yoga session for VO2, HR, %MHR, METs, and energy/min were 0.6 L/kg/min; 93.2 beats/min; 49.4%; 2.5; and 3.2 kcal/min; respectively. Results of the ICCs (2,1) for mean values across the entire yoga session for kcal, METs, and %MHR were 0.979 and 0.973, and 0.865, respectively. Conclusion Metabolic costs of yoga averaged across the entire session represent low levels of physical activity, are similar to walking on a treadmill at 3.2 kph, and do not meet recommendations for levels of physical activity for improving or maintaining health or cardiovascular fitness. Yoga practice incorporating sun salutation postures exceeding the minimum bout of 10 minutes may contribute some portion of sufficiently intense physical activity to improve cardio-respiratory fitness in unfit or

  16. Associations of Physical Fitness and Academic Performance among Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dusen, Duncan P.; Kelder, Steven H.; Kohl, Harold W., III; Ranjit, Nalini; Perry, Cheryl L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Public schools provide opportunities for physical activity and fitness surveillance, but are evaluated and funded based on students' academic performance, not their physical fitness. Empirical research evaluating the connections between fitness and academic performance is needed to justify curriculum allocations to physical activity…

  17. Trends in Physical Fitness: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, H. Harrison

    In the early days of physical education, the value of physical fitness was associated with preparation for defense in wartime and preventive medicine. Physical fitness waned in importance in the period between the two World Wars, to become concommitant to other objectives of physical education. A resurgence in emphasis on fitness was triggered and…

  18. Decreased physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adults with ankylosing spondylitis: a cross-sectional controlled study.

    PubMed

    O'Dwyer, Tom; O'Shea, Finbar; Wilson, Fiona

    2015-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) in the general population are numerous; however, few studies have measured PA among adults with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aims of this study were to: (1) objectively measure the PA levels and cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with AS and compare these to population controls, and (2) examine the relationships between PA, cardiorespiratory function and condition-specific outcomes. This cross-sectional study included participants (>18 years) meeting the modified New York criteria for AS, and matched population controls. Exclusion criteria were the presence of comorbidities limiting PA, or recent changes in medication usage. Participants completed clinical questionnaires assessing disease activity, physical function and quality of life. Tri-axial accelerometers recorded habitual PA over 1 week. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed by submaximal treadmill test with breath-by-breath gas analysis and heart rate monitoring. Thirty-nine adults with AS and 39 controls were recruited. The AS group spent significantly less time performing vigorous-intensity PA than controls [mean difference (95 % CI) 1.8 min/day (1.2-2.7)] and performed significantly fewer bouts of health-enhancing PA [1.7 min/day (1.1-2.5)]. The AS group had significantly lower predicted VO(2MAX) than controls [6.0 mL kg(-1) min(-1) (1.8-10.1)]. PA was associated with aerobic capacity. Sedentary time was associated with disease activity and physical function. Adults with AS participate in less health-enhancing PA than population controls. Fewer than half meet PA recommendations, despite exercise being a key component of AS management. Explorations of PA behaviour and strategies to increase PA participation are needed.

  19. Joint Associations of Physical Activity and Aerobic Fitness on the Development of Incident Hypertension: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

    PubMed Central

    Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Evans, Natalie S.; Church, Timothy S.; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Jacobs, David R.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Sidney, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Fitness and physical activity are each inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We tested whether fitness and physical activity were independently associated with the 20-year incidence of hypertension in 4618 men and women. Hypertension was determined in participants who had systolic blood pressure (SBP)≥140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥90 mmHg or who reported antihypertensive medication use. Fitness was estimated based on the duration of a symptom-limited graded exercise treadmill test and physical activity was self-reported. The incidence rate of hypertension was 13.8 per 1000 person-years (n=1022). Both baseline fitness (hazard ratio [HR]=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56, 0.70 per standard deviation [SD; 2.9 minutes]) and physical activity (HR=0.86, 95% CI: 0.79, 0.84 per SD [297 exercise units]) were inversely associated with incident hypertension when included jointly in a model that also adjusted for age, sex, race, baseline smoking status, SBP, alcohol intake, HDL cholesterol, dietary fiber, dietary sodium, fasting glucose and BMI. The magnitude of association between physical activity and hypertension was strongest among participants in the high fitness (HR= 0.80, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.94) category, whereas the magnitude of association between fitness and hypertension was similar across tertiles of physical activity. The estimated proportion of hypertension cases that could be prevented if participants moved to a higher fitness category (i.e., preventive fraction) was 34% and varied by race and sex group. Fitness and physical activity are each associated with incident hypertension, and low fitness may account for a substantial proportion of hypertension incidence. PMID:20516395

  20. Apps for IMproving FITness and Increasing Physical Activity Among Young People: The AIMFIT Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Whittaker, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the global prevalence of insufficient physical activity (PA), effective interventions that attenuate age-related decline in PA levels are needed. Mobile phone interventions that positively affect health (mHealth) show promise; however, their impact on PA levels and fitness in young people is unclear and little is known about what makes a good mHealth app. Objective The aim was to determine the effects of two commercially available smartphone apps (Zombies, Run and Get Running) on cardiorespiratory fitness and PA levels in insufficiently active healthy young people. A second aim was to identify the features of the app design that may contribute to improved fitness and PA levels. Methods Apps for IMproving FITness (AIMFIT) was a 3-arm, parallel, randomized controlled trial conducted in Auckland, New Zealand. Participants were recruited through advertisements in electronic mailing lists, local newspapers, flyers posted in community locations, and presentations at schools. Eligible young people aged 14-17 years were allocated at random to 1 of 3 conditions: (1) use of an immersive app (Zombies, Run), (2) use of a nonimmersive app (Get Running), or (3) usual behavior (control). Both smartphone apps consisted of a fully automated 8-week training program designed to improve fitness and ability to run 5 km; however, the immersive app featured a game-themed design and narrative. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using data collected face-to-face at baseline and 8 weeks, and all regression models were adjusted for baseline outcome value and gender. The primary outcome was cardiorespiratory fitness, objectively assessed as time to complete the 1-mile run/walk test at 8 weeks. Secondary outcomes were PA levels (accelerometry and self-reported), enjoyment, psychological need satisfaction, self-efficacy, and acceptability and usability of the apps. Results A total of 51 participants were randomized to the immersive app intervention (n=17), nonimmersive

  1. Monitoring Health, Activity and Fitness in Physical Education: Its Current and Future State of Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cale, Lorraine; Harris, Jo; Chen, Ming Hung

    2014-01-01

    Various government policies, strategies and responses in England over the years have highlighted schools and physical education to be instrumental in addressing health and the focus on health has been strengthened within subsequent revisions of the National Curriculum. Whilst this might seem encouraging, concerns have been expressed that such…

  2. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas.

  3. Physical activity pattern, cardiorespiratory fitness, and socioeconomic status in the SCAPIS pilot trial - A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Martin; Börjesson, Mats; Ekblom, Örjan; Bergström, Göran; Lappas, Georgios; Rosengren, Annika

    2016-12-01

    Living in a low socioeconomic status (SES) area is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Previous studies have suggested a socioeconomic gradient in daily physical activity (PA), but have mainly relied on self-reported data, and individual rather than residential area SES. This study aimed to investigate the relationships between residential area SES, PA pattern, compliance with PA-recommendations and fitness in a Swedish middle-aged population, using objective measurements. We included 948 individuals from the SCAPIS pilot study (Gothenburg, Sweden, 2012, stratified for SES, 49% women, median age: 58 years), in three low and three high SES districts. Accelerometer data were summarized into intensity-specific categories: sedentary (SED), low (LIPA), and medium-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Fitness was estimated by submaximal ergometer testing. Participants of low SES areas had a more adverse cardiovascular disease risk factor profile (smoking: 20% vs. 6%; diabetes: 9% vs. 3%; hypertension: 38% vs. 25%; obesity: 31% vs. 13%), and less frequently reached 150 min of MVPA per week (67% vs. 77%, odds ratio [OR] = 0.61; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.46-0.82), from 10-minute bouts (19% vs. 31%, OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.72). Individuals in low SES areas showed lower PA levels (mean cpm: 320 vs. 348) and daily average MVPA (29.9 vs. 35.5 min), and 12% lower fitness (25.1 vs. 28.5 mL × min(- 1) × kg(- 1)) than did those in high SES areas. Reduced PA and fitness levels may contribute to social inequalities in health, and should be a target for improved public health in low SES areas. PMID:27413660

  4. Effects of a Three-Tiered Intervention Model on Physical Activity and Fitness Levels of Elementary School Children.

    PubMed

    Dauenhauer, Brian; Keating, Xiaofen; Lambdin, Dolly

    2016-08-01

    Response to intervention (RtI) models are frequently used in schools to tailor academic instruction to the needs of students. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of using RtI to promote physical activity (PA) and fitness in one urban elementary school. Ninety-nine students in grades 2-5 participated in up to three tiers of intervention throughout the course of one school year. Tier one included 150 min/week of physical education (increased from 90 min/week the previous year) and coordinated efforts to improve school health. Tier two consisted of 30 min/week of small group instruction based on goal setting and social support. Tier three included an after-school program for parents and children focused on healthy living. PA, cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were assessed before and after the interventions using pedometers, a 20-m shuttle run, and height/weight measurements. From pre- to post-testing, PA remained relatively stable in tier one and increased by 2349 steps/day in tier two. Cardiovascular fitness increased in tiers one and two by 1.17 and 1.35 ml/kg/min, respectively. Although body mass index did not change, 17 of the 99 students improved their weight status over the course of the school year, resulting in an overall decline in the prevalence of overweight/obesity from 59.6 to 53.5 %. Preliminary results suggest that the RtI model can be an effective way to structure PA/health interventions in an elementary school setting. PMID:27059849

  5. Validation of Using Fitness Center Attendance Electronic Records to Assess the Frequency of Moderate/Vigorous Leisure-Time Physical Activity among Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amireault, Steve; Godin, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide three construct validity evidence for using fitness center attendance electronic records to objectively assess the frequency of leisure-time physical activity among adults. One hundred members of a fitness center (45 women and 55 men; aged 18 to 64 years) completed a self-report leisure-time physical…

  6. Changes on Quality of Life, Self-Efficacy and Social Support for Activities and Physical Fitness in People with Intellectual Disabilities through Multimodal Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pérez-Cruzado, David; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: People with intellectual disability have poor levels of physical activity, quality of life, fitness condition and self-efficacy and social support when they want to undertake physical activity so it is very important to improve these parameters in this population. Method: A prospective study was conducted. Data were measured before and…

  7. Knowledge in Action: Fitness Lesson Segments That Teach Health-Related Fitness in Elementary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Michael G.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; van der Mars, Hans; Lee, Chong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine students' health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) and physical activity levels after the implementation of a series of fitness lessons segments called Knowledge in Action (KIA). KIA aims to teach health-related fitness knowledge (HRFK) during short episodes of the physical education lesson. Teacher…

  8. Objectively assessed physical activity and aerobic fitness in a population-based sample of Norwegian 9- and 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Kolle, E; Steene-Johannessen, J; Andersen, L B; Anderssen, S A

    2010-02-01

    The present study described current physical activity, determined compliance with physical activity guidelines and assessed aerobic fitness in a nationally representative sample of 9- and 15-year-olds in Norway. In 2005-2006, 2299 children and adolescents were randomly recruited. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among the 9- and 15-year-olds, respectively. Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry, and aerobic fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Boys were more physically active than girls, and 9-year-olds were substantially more active than 15-year-olds. Physical activity was higher during weekdays than weekends, and 9-year-olds were most active during spring. While four out of five children met current physical activity guidelines, only half of the adolescents did. The mean (SD) values for peak VO2 were: 9-year-old boys, 48.2 (7.1) mL/min/kg; 9-year-old girls, 42.9 (6.7) mL/min/kg; and 15-year-old girls 41.1 (6.0) mL/min/kg and 15-year-old boys 51.9 (8.0) mL/min/kg. Because of the high participation rate, this study provides a good description of the physical activity and aerobic fitness in the young population. Finally, girls and adolescents seem appropriate targets when promoting physical activity in order to increase the proportion meeting the recommendations.

  9. Physical Activity is Related to Fatty Liver Marker in Obese Youth, Independently of Central Obesity or Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Clarice; Aires, Luisa; Júnior, Ismael Freitas; Silva, Gustavo; Silva, Alexandre; Lemos, Luís; Mota, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most frequent complications associated with excess adiposity and has been identified as the leading cause of liver disease in pediatric populations worldwide. Because cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is related to physical activity (PA) levels, and increased PA plays a protective role against NAFLD risk factors, the aim of this study was to analyze the association between PA and a fatty liver marker (alanine aminotransferase - ALT) in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. 131 obese children (83 girls, 7-15 year-olds) involved in a PA promotion program comprised the sample. Measurements included anthropometric and body composition evaluations (DEXA), biological measurements (venipuncture), CRF (progressive treadmill test), PA (accelerometry), and maturational stage (Tanner criteria). The associations between ALT with PA intensities, central obesity, and CRF were calculated by three different models of linear regression, adjusted for potential confounders. Level of significance was set at 95%. RESULTS: ALT was negatively associated with MVPA (β = -0.305), and CRF (β = -0.426), and positively associated with central obesity (β=.468). After adjustment for central obesity the negative and statistically significant association between ALT with MVPA (β = -0.364) and CRF (β = -0.550) still persists while a positive and significantly correlation was shown between ALT and SB (β = 0.382). Additional adjustment for CRF (Model 3) showed significant associations for all the PA intensities analyzed including light activity. PA at different intensities is associated to a fatty liver marker in obese children and adolescents, independently of central adiposity or CRF. Key points In a previous study our group observed that there might be a potential protective effect of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) against abnormal ALT values; Considering that CRF is related to physical activity (PA

  10. Physical Fitness: A Way of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getchell, Bud

    This book outlines a carefully developed program for physical fitness. The concept of physical fitness and its physiological basis are examined and guidelines are laid down to enable the reader to evaluate an individual physical exercise program commensurate with his or her age and physical condition. Advanced conditioning methods are described as…

  11. Factors Associated with Implementation of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005: Elementary School Principals' and Physical Activity Directors' Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Miriam Jones

    2012-01-01

    This study explores factors associated with implementation of the physical education and physical activity standards of the South Carolina Students Health and Fitness Act of 2005 in Title I elementary schools. The study was framed using selected components of the diffusion of innovations theory, which looked at characteristics of the law and their…

  12. Evidence of Secular Changes in Physical Activity and Fitness, but Not Adiposity and Diet, in Welsh 12-13 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Non E.; Williams, D. R. R.; Rowe, David A.; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate secular trends in selected cardiovascular disease risk factors (namely adiposity, physical activity, physical fitness and diet) in a sample of Welsh 12-13 year olds between 2002 and 2007. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: A secondary school based in South West Wales. Method: Two studies in…

  13. Physical Fitness and Health. Annual Report 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing.

    This annual report from the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health describes a project initiated by the Council in l977. "Project Fitness" serves to evaluate the physical fitness levels of all students in the public schools from grades kindergarten through twelve. Emphasis is placed upon early education of children in the importance of…

  14. The Army's High Priority Physical Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drews, Fred R.

    1984-01-01

    This article explores the importance of physical fitness in the United States Army. The development of expanded fitness assessment and programs is related to health and the prevention of coronary heart disease. Improved physical training programs, improved nutrition, and fundamental research are necessary for maintaining a highly fit and healthy…

  15. Physical Fitness and the Stress Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensel, Walter M.; Lin, Nan

    2004-01-01

    In the current paper we focus on the role of physical fitness in the life stress process for both psychological and physical well-being. The major research question posed in the current study is: Does physical fitness deter distress in a model containing the major components of the life stress process? That is, do individuals who exercise show…

  16. Effects of Training and Detraining on Physical Fitness, Physical Activity Patterns, Cardiovascular Variables, and HRQoL after 3 Health-Promotion Interventions in Institutionalized Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Alexandrina; Carvalho, Joana; Santos, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of different strategies of health on the levels of physical activity (PA), physical fitness (PF), cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and quality of life (QoL) of the institutionalized elderly. Concurrently studies were made of the effect of detraining on these same variables. In this investigation we carried out a prospective longitudinal study with an experimental design, with 1 year plus 3 months of a detraining period. Methodology. (a) A questionnaire with socio-demographic characteristics and a QoL scale (MOS SF-36); (b) Functional Fitness Test to assess PF; (c) An MTI Actigraph to evaluate the PA; (d) Biochemical analysis of blood, blood pressure and bio-impedance. The Main Results Indicated That: (i) ST significantly improved strength and body flexibility and AT the aerobic endurance, agility/dynamic balance and lower strength and flexibility; (ii) Implications of detraining were more evident on the PA groups in the lower body flexibility, which is associated with agility/dynamic balance and lower strength in the AT group; (iii) Cardiovascular variables improved significantly especially blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose in the ST and HDL in the AT group; not having undergone significant changes with the detraining. The results of this thesis contribute positively to highlight the importance of PA in the promotion of health, prevention and reduction of CVD risk factors and the improvement of the PF and QoL. PMID:22332008

  17. Got Fitness? Addressing Student Fitness Needs within Secondary Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Aaron; Reimann, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    Feeling trapped within your daily teaching routine? Are the same curricular activities getting you down, or worse yet ... your students? Perhaps you and your students are craving an injection of new and fun fitness activities designed for the secondary level. The development of health-related fitness has long been associated with primary…

  18. Associations between Active Commuting to School and Health-Related Physical Fitness in Spanish School-Aged Children: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Villa-González, Emilio; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Chillón, Palma

    2015-01-01

    Active commuting (walking or cycling) to school has been positively associated with improved fitness among adolescents. However, current evidence lacks information on whether this association persists in children. The aim of this study was to examine the association of active commuting to school with different fitness parameters in Spanish school-aged children. A total of 494 children (229 girls) from five primary schools in Granada and Jaén (Spain), aged between eight and 11 years, participated in this cross-sectional study. Participants completed the Assessing Levels of Physical Activity (ALPHA) fitness test battery and answered a self-reported questionnaire regarding the weekly travel mode to school. Active commuting to school was significantly associated with higher levels of speed-agility in boys (p = 0.048) and muscle strength of the lower body muscular fitness in girls (p = 0.016). However, there were no significant associations between active commuting to school and cardiorespiratory fitness and upper body muscular fitness. Our findings suggest that active commuting to school was associated with higher levels of both speed-agility and lower body muscular fitness in boys and girls, respectively. Future studies should confirm whether increasing active commuting to school increases speed-agility and muscle strength of the lower body. PMID:26322487

  19. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness as major markers of cardiovascular risk: their independent and interwoven importance to health status.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jonathan; McAuley, Paul; Lavie, Carl J; Despres, Jean-Pierre; Arena, Ross; Kokkinos, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The evolution from hunting and gathering to agriculture, followed by industrialization, has had a profound effect on human physical activity (PA) patterns. Current PA patterns are undoubtedly the lowest they have been in human history, with particularly marked declines in recent generations, and future projections indicate further declines around the globe. Non-communicable health problems that afflict current societies are fundamentally attributable to the fact that PA patterns are markedly different than those for which humans were genetically adapted. The advent of modern statistics and epidemiological methods has made it possible to quantify the independent effects of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and PA on health outcomes. Based on more than five decades of epidemiological studies, it is now widely accepted that higher PA patterns and levels of CRF are associated with better health outcomes. This review will discuss the evidence supporting the premise that PA and CRF are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) as well as the interplay between both PA and CRF and other CVD risk factors. A particular focus will be given to the interplay between CRF, metabolic risk and obesity.

  20. Impact of physical activity and cardiovascular fitness on total homocysteine concentrations in European adolescents: The HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Benser, Jasmin; Valtueña, Jara; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Breidenassel, Christina; Vicente-Rodriguez, German; Ferrari, Marika; Widhalm, Kurt; Manios, Yannis; Sjöström, Michael; Molnar, Denes; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Kafatos, Antony; Palacios, Gonzalo; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J; Stehle, Peter; González-Gross, Marcela

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association of physical activity (PA), cardiovascular fitness (CVF) and fatness with total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in European adolescents. The present study comprised 713 European adolescents aged 14.8 ± 1.2 y (females 55.3%) from the multicenter HELENA cross-sectional study. PA was assessed through accelerometry, CVF by the 20-m shuttle run test, and body fat by skinfold thicknesses with the Slaughter equation. Plasma folate, cobalamin, and tHcy concentrations were measured. To examine the association of tHcy with PA, CVF, and fatness after controlling for a set of confounders including age, maturity, folate, cobalamin, creatinine, smoking, supplement use, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase 677 genotype (CC 47%, CT 43%, TT 10%), bivariate correlations followed by multiple regression models were performed. In the bivariate correlation analysis, tHcy concentrations were slightly negatively correlated (p<0.05) with CVF in females (measured both by stages: r=-0.118 and by VO2max: r=-0.102) and positively with body mass index (r=0.100). However, daily time spent with moderate and vigorous PA showed a weak positive association with tHcy in females (p<0.05). tHcy concentrations showed a tendency to decrease with increasing CVF and increase with increasing BMI in female European adolescents. However, tHcy concentrations were positively associated with moderate and vigorous PA in female European adolescents.

  1. Cardiorespiratory fitness moderates the effect of an affect-guided physical activity prescription: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Austin S; Kangas, Julie L; Denman, Deanna C; Smits, Jasper A J; Yamada, Tetsuhiro; Otto, Michael W

    2016-11-01

    Physical activity (PA) interventions have a clear role in promoting mental health. Current PA guidelines directed toward specific PA intensities may have negative effects on affective response to exercise, and affective response is an important determinant of PA adherence. In this randomized trial of 67 previously inactive adults, we compared the effects of a PA prescription emphasizing the maintenance of positive affect to one emphasizing a target heart rate, and tested the extent to which the effect of the affect-guided prescription on PA is moderated by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). We found the effect of an affect-guided prescription was significantly moderated by CRF. At one week, for participants with lower CRF (i.e. poor conditioning), the affect-guided prescription resulted in significantly greater change in PA minutes (M = 240.8) than the heart rate-guided prescription (M = 165.7), reflecting a moderate-sized effect (d = .55). For those with higher CRF (i.e. good conditioning), the means were in the opposite direction but not significantly different. At one month, the same pattern emerged but the interaction was not significant. We discuss the implications of these findings for the type of PA prescriptions offered to individuals in need.

  2. Application of simple anthropometry in the assessment of health risk: implications for the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ross, Robert

    2002-08-01

    Incremental improvements in our knowledge of the associations between human body composition and disease have been facilitated by advances in research technology. Magnetic resonance imaging and computerized tomography are among the technological advances that have helped unravel the mechanisms that link body composition and disease. However, because the use of these methods in large-scale studies and field settings is impractical, the potential relationships between body composition and health risk rely on the use of anthropometric tools. Indeed, the application of simple anthropometry to identify relationships between body composition and health risk in clinical practice is no less valuable than the use of advanced technologies to gain insight into the mechanistic links between body composition and disease in the laboratory. Accordingly, the purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge regarding the ability of anthropometry to predict health risk and to act as surrogate measures of total and abdominal fat distribution. Because the ultimate objective is to make recommendations for revision to the Healthy Body Composition section of the Canadian Physical Activity, Fitness and Lifestyle Appraisal (CPAFLA) manual, we focus on those anthropometric methods specific to CPAFLA. Consistent with this objective, when necessary we present original data to reinforce important concepts not suitably addressed in the literature.

  3. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy

    PubMed Central

    Maltais, Désirée B.; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, based on the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic and muscle strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in non-ambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition. PMID:24820339

  4. Health-related physical fitness for children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Maltais, Désirée B; Wiart, Lesley; Fowler, Eileen; Verschuren, Olaf; Damiano, Diane L

    2014-08-01

    Low levels of physical activity are a global health concern for all children. Children with cerebral palsy have even lower physical activity levels than their typically developing peers. Low levels of physical activity, and thus an increased risk for related chronic diseases, are associated with deficits in health-related physical fitness. Recent research has provided therapists with the resources to effectively perform physical fitness testing and physical activity training in clinical settings with children who have cerebral palsy, although most testing and training data to date pertains to those who walk. Nevertheless, on the basis of the present evidence, all children with cerebral palsy should engage, to the extent they are able, in aerobic, anaerobic, and muscle-strengthening activities. Future research is required to determine the best ways to evaluate health-related physical fitness in nonambulatory children with cerebral palsy and foster long-term changes in physical activity behavior in all children with this condition.

  5. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  6. Formative Evaluation of MyFit: A Curriculum to Promote Self-Regulation of Physical Activity among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grim, Melissa; Petosa, Rick; Hortz, Brian; Hunt, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous interventions to increase physical activity among middle school students have not produced long-term results. Often, students lack the self-regulation skills needed to support long-term adherence to physical activity. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a formative evaluation of a self-regulation based physical…

  7. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences.

  8. Effects of 6-month soccer and traditional physical activity programmes on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory, oxidative stress markers and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese boys.

    PubMed

    Seabra, André; Katzmarzyk, Peter; Carvalho, Maria José; Seabra, Ana; Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel; Abreu, Sandra; Vale, Susana; Póvoas, Susana; Nascimento, Henrique; Belo, Luís; Torres, Sandra; Oliveira, José; Mota, Jorge; Santos-Silva, Alice; Rêgo, Carla; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Physical activity is important in obesity prevention, but the effectiveness of different physical activity modalities remains to be determined among children. The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a 6-month soccer programme and a traditional physical activity programme on changes in body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status in obese boys. Eighty-eight boys (8-12 years; BMI > +2 standard deviations of WHO reference values) participated in one of three groups: soccer, traditional activity and control. Soccer and traditional activity programmes involved 3 sessions per week for 60-90 min at an average intensity of 70-80% of maximal heart rate. Control group participated in activities of normal daily living. All boys participated in school physical education, two sessions per week of 45-90-min. Measurements were taken at baseline and after 6 months, and included body size and composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, inflammatory and oxidative markers, cardiorespiratory fitness and perceived psychological status. Physical activity and dietary intake were assessed before and immediately following the intervention. The three groups had similar characteristics at baseline. After 6 months, both intervention groups had significantly lower relative fatness (% fat), waist circumference and total cholesterol, and higher cardiorespiratory fitness, self-esteem, perceived physical competence and attraction to physical activity compared with control group. In conclusion, physical activity interventions over 6 months positively influenced several indicators of health status among obese boys. The results also suggested that soccer has the potential as an effective tool for the prevention and reduction of childhood obesity and associated consequences. PMID:26890580

  9. Relationship of Nutrition and Physical Activity Behaviors and Fitness Measures to Academic Performance for Sixth Graders in a Midwest City School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Jane U.; Mauch, Lois; Winkelman, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To support curriculum and policy, a midwest city school district assessed the association of selected categories of nutrition and physical activity (NUTR/PA) behaviors, fitness measures, and body mass index (BMI) with academic performance (AP) for 800 sixth graders. Methods: Students completed an adapted Youth Risk Behavior…

  10. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  11. Limited Effects of a 2-Year School-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Body Composition and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in 7-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Kristjan Thor; Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Sigurgeirsson, Ingvar; Johannsson, Erlingur; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a 2-year cluster-randomized physical activity and dietary intervention program among 7-year-old (at baseline) elementary school participants on body composition and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness. Three pairs of schools were selected and matched, then randomly selected as either an…

  12. Self-reported physical activity and objective aerobic fitness: differential associations with gray matter density in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z; McGregor, Keith M; Towler, Stephen; Nocera, Joe R; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness (AF) and self-reported physical activity (srPA) do not represent the same construct. However, many exercise and brain aging studies interchangeably use AF and srPA measures, which may be problematic with regards to how these metrics are associated with brain outcomes, such as morphology. If AF and PA measures captured the same phenomena, regional brain volumes associated with these measures should directly overlap. This study employed the general linear model to examine the differential association between objectively-measured AF (treadmill assessment) and srPA (questionnaire) with gray matter density (GMd) in 29 cognitively unimpaired community-dwelling older adults using voxel based morphometry. The results show significant regional variance in terms of GMd when comparing AF and srPA as predictors. Higher AF was associated with greater GMd in the cerebellum only, while srPA displayed positive associations with GMd in occipito-temporal, left perisylvian, and frontal regions after correcting for age. Importantly, only AF level, and not srPA, modified the relationship between age and GMd, such that higher levels of AF were associated with increased GMd in older age, while decreased GMd was seen in those with lower AF as a function of age. These results support existing literature suggesting that both AF and PA exert beneficial effects on GMd, but only AF served as a buffer against age-related GMd loss. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for use of objective PA measurement and comparability of tools across studies, since results vary dependent upon the measures used and whether these are objective or subjective in nature.

  13. Fitness

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov home http://www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Fitness Fitness Want to look and feel your best? Physical ... are? Check out this info: What is physical fitness? top Physical fitness means you can do everyday ...

  14. Improvements in fundamental movement skill competency mediate the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Kristen E; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Barnett, Lisa M; Lubans, David R

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified a positive association between fundamental movement skill (FMS) competency and physical activity in children; however, the causal pathways have not been established. The aim of this study is to determine if changes in FMS competency mediated the effect of the Supporting Children's Outcomes using Rewards, Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children. Eight primary schools (25 classes) and 460 children (aged 8.5 ± 0.6, 54% girls) were randomised to the SCORES intervention or control group for the 12-month study. The outcomes were accelerometer-determined moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness. The hypothesised mediators were actual FMS competency and perceived sport competence. Mediation analyses were conducted using multilevel linear analysis in MPlus. From the original sample, 138 (30.0%) and 370 (80.4%) children provided useable physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness data at post-test assessments. There were significant treatment effects for locomotor skills and overall FMSs. Changes in MVPA were associated with changes in object-control skills, overall FMSs and perceived competence. The overall FMSs had a significant mediating effect on MVPA (AB = 2.09, CI = 0.01-4.55). Overall FMSs (AB = 1.19, CI = 0.002-2.79) and locomotor skills (AB = 0.74, CI = 0.01-1.69) had a significant mediating effect on cardiorespiratory fitness. The results of this study conclude that actual but not perceived movement skill competency mediated the effect of the SCORES intervention on physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness. PMID:25716899

  15. How Much Walking Is Needed to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness? An Examination of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anton, Stephen D.; Duncan, Glenn E.; Limacher, Marian C.; Martin, Anthony D.; Perri, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    The 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008) indicated that two approaches can be used to achieve the activity threshold needed to derive health benefits. Individuals may engage in either 150 min (2 hr 30 min) of moderate intensity activity (e.g., moderate-paced walking), or 75 min (1 hr…

  16. Self-perception and attitude toward physical activity in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael R; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-exercise controlled trial found that 6-months of Kung Fu training improved enjoyment of physical activity more than the placebo-exercise intervention, while both groups improved perceptions of behavioral conduct and changed strategies for physical activity. Importantly, family support for physical activity declined in subjects who had more visits to health care professionals, which is worrisome, as this represents another risk factor for sedentary behavior in this vulnerable cohort that must be overcome for successful, sustained behavioral change. Programs supporting positive attitudes of both adolescents and their families toward physical activity will be necessary to optimize exercise adoption and adherence as a means to combat the obesity epidemic in childhood and adolescence.

  17. Self-perception and attitude toward physical activity in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael R; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2013-01-01

    This randomized, placebo-exercise controlled trial found that 6-months of Kung Fu training improved enjoyment of physical activity more than the placebo-exercise intervention, while both groups improved perceptions of behavioral conduct and changed strategies for physical activity. Importantly, family support for physical activity declined in subjects who had more visits to health care professionals, which is worrisome, as this represents another risk factor for sedentary behavior in this vulnerable cohort that must be overcome for successful, sustained behavioral change. Programs supporting positive attitudes of both adolescents and their families toward physical activity will be necessary to optimize exercise adoption and adherence as a means to combat the obesity epidemic in childhood and adolescence. PMID:23286421

  18. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  19. Mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on health-related fitness and physical activity: the ATLAS cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jordan J; Morgan, Philip J; Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Stodden, David F; Lubans, David R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mediating effect of resistance training skill competency on percentage of body fat, muscular fitness and physical activity among a sample of adolescent boys participating in a school-based obesity prevention intervention. Participants were 361 adolescent boys taking part in the Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time (ATLAS) cluster randomised controlled trial: a school-based program targeting the health behaviours of economically disadvantaged adolescent males considered "at-risk" of obesity. Body fat percentage (bioelectrical impedance), muscular fitness (hand grip dynamometry and push-ups), physical activity (accelerometry) and resistance training skill competency were assessed at baseline and post-intervention (i.e., 8 months). Three separate multi-level mediation models were analysed to investigate the potential mediating effects of resistance training skill competency on each of the study outcomes using a product-of-coefficients test. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle. The intervention had a significant impact on the resistance training skill competency of the boys, and improvements in skill competency significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on percentage of body fat and the combined muscular fitness score. No significant mediated effects were found for physical activity. Improving resistance training skill competency may be an effective strategy for achieving improvements in body composition and muscular fitness in adolescent boys.

  20. Peer mentoring is associated with positive change in physical activity and aerobic fitness of grades 4, 5, and 6 students in the heart healthy kids program.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Rebecca A; Bower, Jenna; Kirk, Sara F L; Hancock Friesen, Camille

    2014-11-01

    Only 7% of Canadian children achieve activity recommendations, contributing to obesity and preventable disease. The Heart Healthy Kids (H2K) program was designed to test the relationship between peer mentoring, physical activity, and cardiovascular fitness. Participants from 10 schools (5 control, 5 intervention) were enrolled in the program. In control schools, H2K included a physical activity challenge and education sessions. Intervention schools included the addition of a peer-mentoring component. Physical activity was measured through daily pedometer recording. Cardiovascular fitness was evaluated using the PACER (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run) protocol to calculate maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max). Participants included 808 children (average age 9.9 ± 1.0 years). Although control and intervention schools did not differ at baseline, participants with peer mentoring logged significantly more steps per school day, on average, than those in control schools (6,785 ± 3,011 vs. 5,630 ± 2,586; p < .001). Male participants logged significantly more steps per school day than female participants. A significant improvement in VO2 max was also noted in intervention schools, with an average increase of 1.72 ml/mg/min. H2K was associated with positive change in physical activity and cardiovascular fitness, suggesting that peer mentoring shows promise for application in health promotion interventions.

  1. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    PubMed

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P < 0.05), which was largely due to a 6.4-7.8 % (P < 0.05) greater cortical mass in the posterior-lateral, medial and posterior-medial 66 % tibial regions. Cortical area was not significantly different across PA-fitness categories in girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P < 0.05) greater SSIpolar compared to inactive-fit girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P < 0.05) greater total bone area. There was also a small region-specific cortical mass benefit in the posterior-medial 66 % tibia cortex in active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys.

  2. Keeping Fit: Let's Get Physical

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crupi, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    Modern advances in technology, computer games and TV have caused the present lifestyle to become more sedentary than previous generations. Moreover, with concerns about neighborhood safety and with physical education programs being cut out of school budgets, the classroom teacher is often given the additional responsibility of teaching the…

  3. A comparison of respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living and physical fitness in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Hulya; Yatar, İlker; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Aribas, Zeynep; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Ozcelik, Ugur; Kiper, Nural

    2015-01-01

    There are limited reports that compare muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and parameters of physical fitness of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with healthy peers in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL and physical fitness in patients with CF and healthy subjects. Nineteen patients with CF (mean forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1: 86.56±18.36%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Respiratory (maximal inspiratory pressure-MIP and maximal expiratory pressure-MEP) and peripheral muscle strength (quadriceps, shoulder abductors and hand grip strength) were evaluated. Functional exercise capacity was determined with 6min walk test (6MWT). ADL was assessed with Glittre ADL test and physical fitness was assessed with Munich fitness test (MFT). There were not any statistically significant difference in MIP, %MIP, MEP and %MEP values between two groups (p>0.05). %Peripheral muscle strength (% quadriceps and shoulder abductors strength), 6MWT distance and %6MWT distance were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Glittre ADL-test time was significantly longer in patients with CF than healthy subjects (p<0.05). According to Munich fitness test, the number of bouncing a ball, hanging score, distance of standing vertical jumping and standing vertical jumping score were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL performance and speed, coordination, endurance and power components of physical fitness are adversely affected in mild-severe patients with CF compared to healthy peers. Evaluations must be done in comprehensive manner in patients with CF with all stages. PMID:26241869

  4. A comparison of respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living and physical fitness in patients with cystic fibrosis and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Hulya; Yatar, İlker; Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Aribas, Zeynep; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Savci, Sema; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Ozcelik, Ugur; Kiper, Nural

    2015-01-01

    There are limited reports that compare muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, activities of daily living (ADL) and parameters of physical fitness of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with healthy peers in the literature. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare respiratory and peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL and physical fitness in patients with CF and healthy subjects. Nineteen patients with CF (mean forced expiratory volume in one second-FEV1: 86.56±18.36%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in this study. Respiratory (maximal inspiratory pressure-MIP and maximal expiratory pressure-MEP) and peripheral muscle strength (quadriceps, shoulder abductors and hand grip strength) were evaluated. Functional exercise capacity was determined with 6min walk test (6MWT). ADL was assessed with Glittre ADL test and physical fitness was assessed with Munich fitness test (MFT). There were not any statistically significant difference in MIP, %MIP, MEP and %MEP values between two groups (p>0.05). %Peripheral muscle strength (% quadriceps and shoulder abductors strength), 6MWT distance and %6MWT distance were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Glittre ADL-test time was significantly longer in patients with CF than healthy subjects (p<0.05). According to Munich fitness test, the number of bouncing a ball, hanging score, distance of standing vertical jumping and standing vertical jumping score were significantly lower in patients with CF than those of healthy subjects (p<0.05). Peripheral muscle strength, functional exercise capacity, ADL performance and speed, coordination, endurance and power components of physical fitness are adversely affected in mild-severe patients with CF compared to healthy peers. Evaluations must be done in comprehensive manner in patients with CF with all stages.

  5. Top 10 Research Questions Related to Growth and Maturation of Relevance to Physical Activity, Performance, and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malina, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Growth, maturation, and development dominate the daily lives of children and adolescents for approximately the first 2 decades of life. Growth and maturation are biological processes, while development is largely a behavioral process. The 3 processes occur simultaneously and interact. They can be influenced by physical activity and also can…

  6. 78 FR 76305 - Opportunity for Co-Sponsorship of the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... conferences, speaking at events, and using social media. The co- sponsoring organization shall identify and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Opportunity for Co-Sponsorship of the President's Challenge Physical Activity and...

  7. Physical Fitness in Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schott, Nadja; Alof, Verena; Hultsch, Daniela; Meermann, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    The protective effects of physical activity and fitness on cardiovascular health have clearly been shown among normally developed children. However, data are currently lacking pertaining to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fitness measures, body composition, and…

  8. Project Energize: whole-region primary school nutrition and physical activity programme; evaluation of body size and fitness 5 years after the randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine; McLennan, Stephanie; Obolonkin, Victor; Vandal, Alain C; Hamlin, Michael; Simmons, David; Graham, David

    2014-01-28

    Project Energize, a region-wide whole-school nutrition and physical activity programme, commenced as a randomised controlled trial (RCT) in the period 2004-6 in 124 schools in Waikato, New Zealand. In 2007, sixty-two control schools were engaged in the programme, and by 2011, all but two of the 235 schools in the region were engaged. Energizers (trained nutrition and physical activity specialists) work with eight to twelve schools each to achieve the goals of the programme, which are based on healthier eating and enhanced physical activity. In 2011, indices of obesity and physical fitness of 2474 younger (7·58 (sd 0·57) years) and 2330 older (10·30 (sd 0·51) years) children attending 193 of the 235 primary schools were compared with historical measurements. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, socio-economic status (SES) and school cluster effects, the combined prevalence of obesity and overweight among younger and older children in 2011 was lower by 31 and 15 %, respectively, than that among 'unEnergized' children in the 2004 to 2006 RCT. Similarly, BMI was lower by 3·0 % (95 % CI - 5·8, - 1·3) and 2·4 % (95 % CI - 4·3, - 0·5). Physical fitness (time taken to complete a 550 m run) was significantly higher in the Energized children (13·7 and 11·3 %, respectively) than in a group of similarly aged children from another region. These effects were observed for boys and girls, both indigenous Māori and non-Māori children, and across SES. The long-term regional commitment to the Energize programme in schools may potentially lead to a secular reduction in the prevalence of overweight and obesity and gains in physical fitness, which may reduce the risk of developing obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23867069

  9. "I used to be as fit as a linnet" - beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England.

    PubMed

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity.

  10. "I used to be as fit as a linnet" - beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England.

    PubMed

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-02-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity. PMID:25541186

  11. Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6–11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6–12 (N = 732) that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N = 682). Cardiovascular endurance was estimated by heart rate reserve. Results. Compared to the highest percentile of heart rate reserve, those in the first percentile had 3.52 (2.36, 5.24) odds and those in the second percentile had 3.61 (1.84, 7.06) odds of being in the overweight/obese as compared to the under/normal weight category. Considering the highest percentile, boys had a heart rate reserve of 35%, whereas girls had a heart rate reserve of 13% (less than half that of boys). Conclusion. Having an overweight or obese classification for children in this study demonstrated a compromise in cardiovascular endurance. Parental awareness should be raised as to the detrimental consequence of overweight and heart health. PMID:27774315

  12. A 5-month weight-reduction programme has a positive effect on body composition, aerobic fitness, and habitual physical activity of severely obese girls: a pilot evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Aguer, Céline; Gavarry, Olivier; Gole, Yoann; Boussuges, Alain; Doyard, Pierre; Falgairette, Guy

    2010-02-01

    In this pilot study, we wished to determine whether a 5-month multidisciplinary programme of a combined dietary-nutritional education-exercise intervention would have favourable effects on the health status of 18 obese adolescent girls. Before and after the clinical intervention, body composition and habitual physical activity were assessed by bioelectrical impedance and accelerometry, respectively. Aerobic fitness and substrate utilization were determined by gas exchange using an incremental field test that mimics habitual conditions. Despite a significantly (P < 0.001) greater loss of fat mass (-8.7 +/- 4.1 kg) compared with fat-free mass (-2.8 +/- 2.2 kg), energy expenditure at rest decreased by 9% following the intervention. Maximal oxygen consumption [Vdot]O2max related to fat-free mass increased by 7% (P < 0.05), whereas substrate utilization during exercise did not change following the intervention. Moderate and intense physical activity increased by 15% (+20 min . day(-1); P < 0.05) and 45% (+25 min . day(-1); P < 0.01), respectively. A significant relationship was observed between change in habitual physical activity and change in .[Vdot]O2max fat-free mass (r = 0.56, P = 0.01). The present multidisciplinary programme enhanced the loss of fat mass relative to fat-free mass but not sufficiently so to prevent a decline in metabolic rate during rest. Our results suggest a coupling in the improvement of aerobic fitness and habitual physical activity in obese adolescent girls, and hence an improvement in behaviour in relation to physical activity.

  13. What Current Research Tells Us About Physical Fitness for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cundiff, David E.

    The author distinguishes between the terms "physical fitness" and "motor performance," summarizes the health and physical status of adults, surveys the physical fitness status of children, and proposes a lifestyle approach to the development and lifetime maintenance of health and physical fitness. The distinctions between "physical fitness" as…

  14. Physical Fitness and the Early Childhood Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Rae

    2006-01-01

    The state of children's fitness is the responsibility of all who are involved with children. As early childhood professionals, they have a duty to educate the whole (thinking, feeling, "moving") child. Moreover, teachers of preschoolers can be more realistic than parents in their assessment of children's physical inactivity levels, and preschool…

  15. Testimony on Physical Fitness for Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    Collected here are fourteen statements on the beneficial effects of physical fitness programs for older persons presented at hearings before the Subcommittee on Aging of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, U.S. Senate. Areas discussed include: What research tells us regarding the contribution of exercise to the health of older people;…

  16. Relationship Between Physical Activity and Overweight and Obesity in Children: Findings From the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ickpyo; Coker-Bolt, Patty; Anderson, Kelly R.; Lee, Danbi

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined the relationship between childhood obesity and overweight and functional activity and its enjoyment. METHOD. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze data from the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used. RESULTS. Data for 1,640 children ages 3–15 yr were retrieved. Physical activity was negatively associated with risk of obesity (odds ratio [OR] = 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.87, 0.98]). Although children who were obese and overweight were more likely to have functional limitations (ORs = 1.58–1.61), their enjoyment of physical activity participation was not significantly different from that of the healthy-weight group. CONCLUSION. Physical activity lowered the risk of obesity. Children who were obese had functional limitations compared with healthy-weight children, but both groups enjoyed physical activity equally. Future studies are needed to determine barriers to participation among these children in recreation and sporting activities. PMID:27548862

  17. Health related quality of life, physical fitness and physical activity participation in treatment-seeking obese persons with and without binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; De Herdt, Amber; Vanderlinden, Johan; Lannoo, Matthias; Soundy, Andrew; Pieters, Guido; Adriaens, An; De Hert, Marc; Probst, Michel

    2014-04-30

    This study compared the mental and physical health related quality of life (HRQL) of 40 obese persons with BED with 20 age, gender and body mass index (BMI) matched obese persons without BED and 40 age and gender matched non-obese volunteers. Variables contributing to the variability in HRQL were identified. Participants were asked to fill in the MOS 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), the Symptoms Checklist-90 (SCL-90), the Baecke questionnaire, the bulimia subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Body Attitude Test. All participants also performed a 6-minute walk test (6MWT). BED patients showed a significant impaired physical and mental HRQL compared with obese and non-obese control groups. In the BED-group female participants showed a significantly more impaired mental HRQL than male participants (40.0±21.2 versus 66.6±10.1). The distance achieved on the 6MWT (512.1±75.8m) explained 22.5% of the variability in physical HRQL in the obese BED-group while gender and the SCL-90 depression score (39.1±12.2) explained 47.1% of the variability in mental HRQL. The present findings suggest that the treatment of obese individuals with BED might benefit by giving more attention to HRQL, depressive symptoms and physical fitness.

  18. Circuit Weight Training--An Answer to Achieving Physical Fitness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobleigh, Bruce; Kaufer, Irwin J.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a high school circuit weight training (CWT) program which promotes physical fitness and helps students understand relationships between health and physical activity. It consists of upper- and lower-body weight lifts and cardiorespiratory exercises. Research indicates that CWT improves even difficult to improve health-related components.…

  19. Fitness Promotion Strategies for K-12 Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Grant; Turner, Bud

    2004-01-01

    In recent years efforts have been made to emphasize the need for physical education by showing how physical activity helps students reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease; strengthen bones and muscles; supply energy, reduce stress, and help maintain a healthy body weight. This article describes a variety of proactive fitness strategies…

  20. Physical fitness of urban American children.

    PubMed

    Chatrath, R; Shenoy, R; Serratto, M; Thoele, D G

    2002-01-01

    The Bruce treadmill protocol was used to evaluate the exercise endurance in a pediatric urban population. The sample population consisted of 525 healthy children 4 to 18 years of age (303 males and 222 females). Endurance time increased with age in males and increased up to 10 to 12 years of age in females, thereafter leveling off. Results were compared with those of a widely used standard reference of normal for treadmill exercise testing in children. Mean endurance times were significantly shorter compared to those of the reference study (p < 0.03). When the subjects were grouped in percentiles based on the reference study, 61% of males and 81% of females performed below the 25th percentile. There was a strong negative correlation between body mass index and endurance time (p < 0.0001), suggesting that obesity is a major contributor to decreased physical fitness. Compared to subjects in the reference study, children from a large U.S. metropolitan area have markedly diminished exercise endurance times, suggesting poor physical fitness. Inactivity with consequent lack of fitness, if unchecked, are likely to lead to cardiovascular disorders in adulthood. Efforts should be made to encourage physical fitness in children.

  1. Study protocol: the relation of birth weight and infant growth trajectories with physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior at 8-9 years of age - the ABCD study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low birth weight and accelerated infant growth have been identified as independent risk factors for childhood and adult obesity and cardiovascular disease. This led to the ‘Developmental Origins of Health and Disease’ (DOHaD) hypothesis, stating that environmental factors during pregnancy and early postnatal life affect disease risk in later life. There is growing evidence that perinatal factors may influence adult health through the programming of energy balance regulation, including sedentary behavior and physical activity. The present study focuses on the influence of birth weight and infant growth on physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8-9 year old children, as this might partly explain the higher obesity and cardiovascular risk associated with low birth weight and accelerated infant growth. In addition, this study provides the opportunity for a validation study of a linguistic and cross-cultural translated physical activity questionnaire compared to accelerometer data. This article describes the study protocol for this study. Methods/Design This is a study embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) birth cohort. In 200 children of Dutch ethnicity, physical fitness, physical activity and sedentary behavior were assessed at age 8-9. We measured aerobic fitness using the 20 meter multistage shuttle run test, and neuromuscular fitness using the standing broad jump and handgrip strength test. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels were measured using accelerometry. All children also completed a translated physical activity questionnaire, the scores of which will be compared to accelerometry data to assess the construct validity of the questionnaire in Dutch school-aged children. Discussion This study will be the first population-based prospective cohort study to address the association of both prenatal and postnatal growth with physical fitness and objectively-assessed physical activity and

  2. Inter-participant variability in daily physical activity and sedentary time among male youth sport footballers: independent associations with indicators of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Sally A M; Duda, Joan L; Barrett, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Participation in youth sport is assumed to promote and contribute towards more physically active lifestyles among children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine inter-participant variability in objectively measured habitual physical activity (PA) behaviours and sedentary time among youth sport participants and their implications for health. One-hundred-and-eighteen male youth sport footballers (Mean ± s = 11.72 ± 1.60) wore a GT3X accelerometer for 7 days. Average daily PA [min · day(-1), in light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA) and combined moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA)] and sedentary time were calculated. Participants' body mass index adjusted for age and sex (BMI-standard deviation score), per cent body fat (BF%), waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness were assessed. Results revealed that variability in daily PA behaviours and sedentary time (min · day(-1)) was associated with BMI-standard deviation score [VPA (-), MVPA (-)], BF% [sedentary time (+), VPA (-), MVPA (-)], waist circumference [sedentary time (+), LPA (-)] and cardiorespiratory fitness [sedentary time (-), MPA (+), VPA (+), MVPA (+)]. Whilst sedentary time and MVPA were not related to health outcomes independent of one another, associations with markers of adiposity and cardiorespiratory fitness were stronger for sedentary time. Sedentary time was also significantly positively related to waist circumference independent of VPA. Results demonstrate inter-participant variability in habitual PA and sedentary time among youth sport participants which holds implications for their health. Thus, promoting PA and, in particular, reducing sedentary time may contribute towards the prevention of adverse health consequences associated with a physically inactive lifestyle for children and adolescents active in the youth sport context.

  3. An after-school physical activity program for obesity prevention in children: the Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zenong; Hanes, John; Moore, Justin B; Humbles, Patricia; Barbeau, Paule; Gutin, Bernard

    2005-03-01

    This article describes the process of setting up a 3-year, school-based after-school physical activity intervention in elementary schools. The primary aim of the study is to determine whether adiposity and fitness will improve in children who are exposed to a fitogenic versus an obesogenic environment. Eighteen schools were randomized to the control (obesogenic) or intervention (fitogenic) group. The study design, program components, and evaluation of the intervention are described in detail. The intervention consists of (a) academic enrichment, (b) a healthy snack, and (c) physical activity in a mastery-oriented environment. Successful implementation would show the feasibility of schools' being able to provide a fitogenic environment. Significant differences between the groups would provide evidence that a fitogenic environment after school has positive health benefits. If feasibility and efficacy are demonstrated, implementing an after-school program like this one in elementary schools could play a major role in preventing and reducing childhood obesity.

  4. The Role of Physical Fitness in Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannigan, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the research indicating a direct relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, physical fitness levels of students are decreasing in many schools, along with opportunities for physical fitness. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement, as…

  5. Statewide Physical Fitness Testing: A BIG Waist or a BIG Waste?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Ede, Alison

    2009-01-01

    Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical…

  6. Prevalence and Correlates of Physical Fitness Testing in U.S. Schools--2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Fulton, Janet E.; Brener, Nancy D.; Kohl, Harold W., III

    2008-01-01

    Because of the perceived lack of youth physical fitness and/or concerns for increased obesity, physical education teachers are interested in youth fitness and physical activity levels. Statewide mandates are being developed that require school-based teachers to complete physical fitness testing. Data from the nationally representative School…

  7. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY, FITNESS, AND CARDIOMETABOLIC RISK FACTORS IN ADULT SURVIVORS OF CHILDHOOD CANCER WITH A HISTORY OF HEMATOPOIETIC CELL TRANSPLANTATION

    PubMed Central

    Slater, Megan E.; Steinberger, Julia; Ross, Julie A.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Chow, Eric J.; Koves, Ildiko H.; Hoffmeister, Paul; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Petryk, Anna; Moran, Antoinette; Lee, Jill; Chow, Lisa S.; Baker, K. Scott

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Along with other childhood cancer survivors (CCS), hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) survivors are at high risk of treatment-related late effects, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Cardiometabolic risk factor abnormalities may be exacerbated by inadequate physical activity (PA). Relationships between PA and cardiometabolic risk factors have not been well described in CCS with HCT. Methods PA (self-report), mobility (Timed Up and Go test), endurance (six-minute walk test), handgrip strength, and cardiometabolic risk factors were measured in 119 HCT survivors and 66 sibling controls aged ≥18 years. Adjusted comparisons between HCT survivors and controls and between categories of low and high PA, mobility, endurance, and strength were performed with linear regression. Results Among HCT survivors, the high PA group had lower waist circumference (WC) (81.9±2.5 v 88.6±3.1 cm±standard error (SE), P=.009) than the low PA group, while the high endurance group had lower WC (77.8±2.6 v 87.8±2.5 cm±SE, P=.0001) and percent fat mass (33.6±1.8 v 39.4±1.7 %±SE, P=.0008) and greater insulin sensitivity (IS) (10.9±1.0 v 7.42±1.14 mg/kg/min±SE via euglycemic insulin clamp, P=.001) than the low endurance group. Differences were greater in HCT survivors than in controls for WC between low and high PA groups, triglycerides between low and high mobility groups, and WC, systolic blood pressure, and IS between low and high endurance groups (all Pinteraction <.05). Conclusions Higher endurance was associated with a more favorable cardiometabolic profile in HCT survivors, suggesting that interventions directed to increase endurance in survivors may reduce the risk of future cardiovascular disease. PMID:25865649

  8. Short-term Effects of a Physical Activity Intervention on Obesity and Cardiovascular Fitness of 12-14-year-old Boy Students

    PubMed Central

    Marandi, Sayed Mohammad; Minasian, Vazgen; Kelishadi, Roya; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Borojeni, Marjan Momeni; Borghi, Sayed Hashem

    2014-01-01

    Background: Some local governments have implemented strategies to increase physical activity as a way to control obesity in children, but in Iranian students few studies have evaluated the effects of such interventions on overweight and obese children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a short-term school-based physical activity on obesity and cardiovascular fitness in 12-14-year-old boy students. Methods: This study showed an intervention effect on some health-related fitness factors in students. A number of 127 boy students aged 12–14 years, in the city of Isfahan, based on preventive plan of inactivity in children at the provincial Health office selected randomly as subjects. Measurement variables include; weight, height, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), body-fat percent and aerobic power of subjects measured by valid tests. Results: This study revealed that body-fat percentage of this students changed near to 17.84% (42.25% pretest vs. 34.71% posttest), WHR 0.44%, (0.915 pretest vs. 0.911 posttest), VO2 max changed 8.54% (27.84 pretest vs. 30.22 posttest) whereas BMI was changed 2.61% (26.81 pretest vs. 26.03 posttest). Results also revealed that there were significant differences between fat percent, (P = 0.001) and VO2 max (P = 0.001), but there was no difference between BMI of subjects in pre and posttests (P = 0.452). Conclusions: Findings of this study signify that an implementation of short-term intervention components in the school system may have a beneficial effect on body-fat percentage and cardiovascular fitness of overweight/obese children. PMID:26157560

  9. The Case of the Physical Fitness Challenge: An Educator Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. The NASA SCI Files. EG-2005-10-09-LARC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricles, Shannon; Jaramillo, Becky; Fargo, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    In this companion to the "NASA SCI Files[TM]" episode "The Case of the Physical Fitness Challenge," the tree house detectives learn about anatomy, fitness and nutrition in preparation for the President's Challenge. The guide is divided into four segments aimed at grades 3-5, each of which includes an overview, a set of objectives, vocabulary to be…

  10. Cardiometabolic Biomarkers in Young Black Girls: Relations to Body Fatness and Aerobic Fitness, and Effects of a Randomized Physical Activity Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gutin, Bernard; Harris, Ryan A.; Howe, Cheryl A.; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Zhu, Haidong; Dong, Yanbin

    2011-01-01

    There is little evidence from randomized trials showing that physical activity alone influences biomarker profiles in youths. This study tested two hypotheses: (i) that elevated body fatness and poor fitness would be associated with unfavorable levels of cardiometabolic biomarkers in 8–12-y-old black girls (n = 242) and (ii) that a 10-mo PA intervention would have favorable effects on the fatness-related cardiometabolic biomarkers. At baseline, all fatness indices (i.e., percent body fat, visceral adipose tissue, BMI, and waist circumference) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with unfavorable levels of insulin, glucose, systolic BP, diastolic BP, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), and fibrinogen. Aerobic fitness was significantly (P < 0.05) associated with favorable levels of insulin, CRP, fibrinogen, and HDL2. The PA intervention had significant and favorable effects on fitness, fatness, and two biomarkers—resting heart rate and LDL cholesterol. More research is needed to clarify what types of interventions can enhance the cardiometabolic health of youths. PMID:22007244

  11. Comparing 9 to 10 Years Old Children's Performance in Tennis and Physical Fitness Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcucu, Burcin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the degree of performance-related physical coordination of elementary education children (male and female) that play tennis according to their age and gender and to investigate the relationship between their motor ability tests and performances. A total of 210 children tennis players (9 to 10 years; 105 males…

  12. A National Directory of Physical Fitness Programs for Older Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, Lesley

    This directory is designed to help its users locate colleges and universities in the United States that offer physical fitness programs for older adults. The directory's annotations include: program area, scope of activities comprising the program, target population, duration of program, and special comments. The focus of the listed programs is on…

  13. A standard ballroom and Latin dance program to improve fitness and adherence to physical activity in individuals with type 2 diabetes and in obesity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the effectiveness of a dance program to improve fitness and adherence to physical activity in subjects with type 2 diabetes and obesity. Research Design and Methods Following a motivational interviewing session, 100 subjects with diabetes and/or obesity were enrolled either in a dance program (DP, n = 42) or in a self-selected physical activity program (SSP, n = 58), according to their preferences. Outcome measures were reduced BMI/waist circumference, improved metabolic control in type 2 diabetes (−0.3% reduction of HbA1c) and improved fitness (activity expenditure >10 MET-hour/week; 10% increase in 6-min walk test (6MWT)). Target achievement was tested at 3 and 6 months, after adjustment for baseline data (propensity score). Results Attrition was lower in DP. Both programs significantly decreased body weight (on average, −2.6 kg; P < 0.001) and waist circumference (DP, −3.2 cm; SSP, −2.2; P < 0.01) at 3 months, and the results were maintained at 6 months. In DP, the activity-related energy expenditure averaged 13.5 ± 1.8 MET-hour/week in the first three months and 14.1 ± 3.0 in the second three-month period. In SSP, activity energy expenditure was higher but highly variable in the first three-month period (16.5 ± 13.9 MET-hour/week), and decreased in the following three months (14.2 ± 12.3; P vs. first period < 0.001). At three months, no differences in target achievement were observed between groups. After six months the odds to attain the MET, 6MWT and A1c targets were all significantly associated with DP. Conclusion Dance may be an effective strategy to implement physical activity in motivated subjects with type 2 diabetes or obesity (Clinical trial reg. no.NCT02021890, clinicaltrials.gov). PMID:25045404

  14. Effect of a physical fitness program on physical self-concept and physical fitness elements in primary school students.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Vega, D; Viciana, J; Cocca, A; de Rueda Villén, B

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the short-term effect of a physical fitness program on physical self-concept and physical fitness elements among primary school students. Spanish boys and girls (N = 75; M age = 11.1 yr., SD = 0.4) were divided into an experimental group and a control group. During physical education classes, the experimental group performed an 8-week program including two circuits of 8 exercises done for 15 to 35 sec. each with 45 to 25 sec. of rest between them. Physical self-concept (Physical Self-Description Questionnaire) and physical fitness (EUROFIT battery tests) were measured at the beginning and at the end of the physical fitness program. The results showed that the improvements in physical fitness were not accompanied by major changes in physical self-concept, even though the physical fitness program seemed to maintain the Experimental group's previous physical appearance, strength, and self-esteem perceptions, all of which statistically significantly decreased in the control group after the intervention. PMID:23409609

  15. 3 CFR 8370 - Proclamation 8370 of May 1, 2009. National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a child can brighten the day. Simple activities like these also contribute to our physical fitness... children and adolescents, regular physical activity can improve bone health and muscular fitness. Physical activity also helps prevent childhood obesity, which is a serious threat to our Nation’s health....

  16. Workers' Compensation Claims and Physical Fitness Capacity of Police Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Robert W.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    A study compared police officers' physical fitness levels with workers' compensation (WC) claims. Officers who collected WC were predominantly female, younger, and lower ranking, with better physical fitness than officers not collecting WC. Officers in the second highest fitness level and older officers with greater cardiovascular fitness had…

  17. Association of Quality Physical Education Teaching with Students' Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Hammond-Bennett, Austin

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which four essential dimensions of quality physical education teaching (QPET) were associated with healthy levels of physical fitness in elementary school students. Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and 1, 201 fourth- and fifth-grade students who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The students' physical fitness were assessed using four FITNESSGRAM tests. The PE teachers' levels of QPET were assessed using the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR). The AQTR consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4% and 84.5%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t-tests. The four essential teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with the students' cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. However, they accounted for relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, while explaining very low portions of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests. This study indicated that the students who had experienced high level of QPET were more physically fit than their peers who did not have this experience in PACER and Curl-up tests, but not in Push-up and Trunk lift tests. In addition, the significant contribution of the four essential teaching dimensions to physical fitness components was gender-specific. It was concluded that the four teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with students' health-enhancing physical fitness. Key pointsAlthough Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance has its unique and critical teaching components, each essential teaching dimensions is intertwined and immersed in teaching practices.Four essential teaching dimensions all significantly

  18. Association of Quality Physical Education Teaching with Students' Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Hammond-Bennett, Austin

    2016-06-01

    This study examined the extent to which four essential dimensions of quality physical education teaching (QPET) were associated with healthy levels of physical fitness in elementary school students. Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and 1, 201 fourth- and fifth-grade students who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The students' physical fitness were assessed using four FITNESSGRAM tests. The PE teachers' levels of QPET were assessed using the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR). The AQTR consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4% and 84.5%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t-tests. The four essential teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with the students' cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. However, they accounted for relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, while explaining very low portions of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests. This study indicated that the students who had experienced high level of QPET were more physically fit than their peers who did not have this experience in PACER and Curl-up tests, but not in Push-up and Trunk lift tests. In addition, the significant contribution of the four essential teaching dimensions to physical fitness components was gender-specific. It was concluded that the four teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with students' health-enhancing physical fitness. Key pointsAlthough Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance has its unique and critical teaching components, each essential teaching dimensions is intertwined and immersed in teaching practices.Four essential teaching dimensions all significantly

  19. Association of Quality Physical Education Teaching with Students’ Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Weiyun; Mason, Steve; Hypnar, Andrew; Hammond-Bennett, Austin

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which four essential dimensions of quality physical education teaching (QPET) were associated with healthy levels of physical fitness in elementary school students. Participants were nine elementary PE teachers and 1, 201 fourth- and fifth-grade students who were enrolled in nine elementary schools. The students’ physical fitness were assessed using four FITNESSGRAM tests. The PE teachers’ levels of QPET were assessed using the Assessing Quality Teaching Rubrics (AQTR). The AQTR consisted of four essential dimensions including Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance. Codes were confirmed through inter-rater reliability (82.4% and 84.5%). Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics, multiple R-squared regression models, and independent sample t-tests. The four essential teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with the students’ cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility. However, they accounted for relatively low percentage of the total variance in PACER test, followed by Curl-up test, while explaining very low portions of the total variance in Push-up and Trunk Lift tests. This study indicated that the students who had experienced high level of QPET were more physically fit than their peers who did not have this experience in PACER and Curl-up tests, but not in Push-up and Trunk lift tests. In addition, the significant contribution of the four essential teaching dimensions to physical fitness components was gender-specific. It was concluded that the four teaching dimensions of QPET were significantly associated with students’ health-enhancing physical fitness. Key points Although Task Design, Task Presentation, Class Management, and Instructional Guidance has its unique and critical teaching components, each essential teaching dimensions is intertwined and immersed in teaching practices. Four essential teaching dimensions all

  20. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory.

    PubMed

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns.

  1. Prediction of attendance at fitness center: a comparison between the theory of planned behavior, the social cognitive theory, and the physical activity maintenance theory

    PubMed Central

    Jekauc, Darko; Völkle, Manuel; Wagner, Matthias O.; Mess, Filip; Reiner, Miriam; Renner, Britta

    2015-01-01

    In the processes of physical activity (PA) maintenance specific predictors are effective, which differ from other stages of PA development. Recently, Physical Activity Maintenance Theory (PAMT) was specifically developed for prediction of PA maintenance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictability of the future behavior by the PAMT and compare it with the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and Social Cognitive Theory (SCT). Participation rate in a fitness center was observed for 101 college students (53 female) aged between 19 and 32 years (M = 23.6; SD = 2.9) over 20 weeks using a magnetic card. In order to predict the pattern of participation TPB, SCT and PAMT were used. A latent class zero-inflated Poisson growth curve analysis identified two participation patterns: regular attenders and intermittent exercisers. SCT showed the highest predictive power followed by PAMT and TPB. Impeding aspects as life stress and barriers were the strongest predictors suggesting that overcoming barriers might be an important aspect for working out on a regular basis. Self-efficacy, perceived behavioral control, and social support could also significantly differentiate between the participation patterns. PMID:25717313

  2. 10 CFR 1046.12 - Physical fitness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Force Personnel § 1046.12 Physical fitness training program. (a) Each incumbent security police officer... approved physical fitness training program. Once an incumbent security police officer has begun a physical fitness training program, it must be completed before the security police officer may take the...

  3. 10 CFR 1046.12 - Physical fitness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Force Personnel § 1046.12 Physical fitness training program. (a) Each incumbent security police officer... approved physical fitness training program. Once an incumbent security police officer has begun a physical fitness training program, it must be completed before the security police officer may take the...

  4. 10 CFR 1046.12 - Physical fitness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... security police officer, who has not met the applicable physical fitness qualification standard, shall participate in a DOE approved physical fitness training program. Once an incumbent security police officer has begun a physical fitness training program, it must be completed before the security police officer...

  5. 10 CFR 1046.12 - Physical fitness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Force Personnel § 1046.12 Physical fitness training program. (a) Each incumbent security police officer... approved physical fitness training program. Once an incumbent security police officer has begun a physical fitness training program, it must be completed before the security police officer may take the...

  6. 10 CFR 1046.12 - Physical fitness training program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Force Personnel § 1046.12 Physical fitness training program. (a) Each incumbent security police officer... approved physical fitness training program. Once an incumbent security police officer has begun a physical fitness training program, it must be completed before the security police officer may take the...

  7. Health Related Physical Fitness: Who, What, Why, and How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Blanche W.; Claiborne, Janet M.

    In 1975, a joint committee on physical fitness, composed of the Measurement and Evaluation, Physical Fitness, and Research Councils of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) studied its Youth Fitness Test to determine the need for revision. Study results called for: (1) alteration in traditional…

  8. The President's Challenge Physical Fitness Program Packet, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    The President's Challenge Physical Fitness Awards Program makes four awards: The Presidential Physical Fitness Award recognizes those students who score at or about the 85th percentile on all five tests; the National Physical Fitness Award for those in the 50th to 84th percentile; the Participant Award for those who fall below the 50th percentile…

  9. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition.

  10. [EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY VIBRATION TRAINING ON BODY COMPOSITION AND PHYSICAL FITNESS IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE YOUNG ADULTS].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Pardo, Esmeraldo; Martínez-Ruiz, Enrique; Alcaraz, Pedro E; Rubio-Arias, Jacobo A

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, it has been suggested that whole- body vibration training (WBV) may increase neuromuscular performance and consequently affect the muscular improvement as either acute response to vibration or chronic adaptation training. Vibrating platforms generate frequencies from 5-45 Hz and vertical oscillations of 1-11 mm peak to peak, affecting more or less intensity acceleration changing by combining frequency and amplitude. Vibration training, in a session as various offers different results in regard to changes in body composition and in increasing the vertical jump, sprint, and the different manifestations of force development. These promising results await further research to establish parameters (duration, frequency and amplitude) with vibration stimulation in young active subjects. This literature review provides an update on the scientific evidence on the body vibrations in order to answer the question whether WBV, meaning the exercise by increasing the gravitational load collection, is a treatment option if the aim is to improve neuromuscular function, flexibility, balance, agility, coordination and body composition. PMID:26545648

  11. Physical Fitness in the K-12 Curriculum. Some Defensible Solutions to Perennial Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbin, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    Appropriate regular physical activity produces significant health benefits. Physical education can promote such activity, but for lifetime fitness, people must move to higher-order objectives, such as establishing personal exercise programs. Ways physical educators can motivate students to enjoy a lifetime of fitness are presented. (MT)

  12. High School Physical Education Teachers' Attitudes and Use of Fitness Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercier, Kevin; Phillips, Sharon; Silverman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for using and implementing fitness tests have been extensively researched and teachers' attitudes toward fitness tests are beginning to be studied. Less understood is how high school teachers use fitness tests and the role their attitudes toward fitness tests affect students' attitudes toward physical activity. The purpose of this…

  13. Intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Liu, Hsiao-Man; Huang, Chung-Lin

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the era of global high-tech industry and commerce and its associated sedentary lifestyle, opportunities for physical activity are reduced. People's physical fitness and health is deteriorating. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a system that can enhance people's physical fitness and health. However, it is difficult for general physical fitness and healthcare systems to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop a method of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system. The proposed system records all processes of the physical fitness and healthcare system via a wireless sensor network and the results of the diagnosis and prescription will be generated by fuzzy logic inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

  14. Intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chung-Chi; Liu, Hsiao-Man; Huang, Chung-Lin

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of the era of global high-tech industry and commerce and its associated sedentary lifestyle, opportunities for physical activity are reduced. People's physical fitness and health is deteriorating. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a system that can enhance people's physical fitness and health. However, it is difficult for general physical fitness and healthcare systems to meet individualized needs. The main purpose of this research is to develop a method of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system. The proposed system records all processes of the physical fitness and healthcare system via a wireless sensor network and the results of the diagnosis and prescription will be generated by fuzzy logic inference. It will improve individualized physical fitness and healthcare. Finally, we demonstrate the advantages of intelligent diagnosis and prescription for a customized physical fitness and healthcare system. PMID:26444803

  15. Effects of Daily Physical Education on Physical Fitness and Weight Status in Middle School Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erfle, Stephen E.; Gamble, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2009, the Pennsylvania Department of Health developed the Active Schools Program (ASP) which required 30?minutes of daily physical education (PE) in middle schools to reduce childhood obesity. This investigation evaluated the ASP effects on physical fitness and weight status in middle school adolescents throughout 1 academic year.…

  16. Career Fitness Training for High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Erin; Karlstad, Julia A.

    2004-01-01

    Physical education can contribute to the career readiness and development needs of students by providing them with training to meet the physical fitness standards required for many occupations. A course for career fitness training could prepare students for the fitness requirements of careers in law enforcement, firefighting, and the military.…

  17. 30 CFR 57.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 57.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  18. 30 CFR 56.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 56.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  19. 30 CFR 57.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 57.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  20. 30 CFR 57.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 57.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  1. 30 CFR 56.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 56.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  2. 30 CFR 56.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 56.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  3. 30 CFR 56.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 56.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  4. 30 CFR 57.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 57.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  5. 30 CFR 56.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 56.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 56.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  6. 30 CFR 57.19057 - Hoist operator's physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hoist operator's physical fitness. 57.19057... Hoisting Hoisting Procedures § 57.19057 Hoist operator's physical fitness. No person shall operate a hoist... who shall certify his fitness to perform this duty. Such certification shall be available at the mine....

  7. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of the Fit4Fun Intervention for Improving Physical Fitness in a Sample of Primary School Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eather, Narelle; Morgan, Philip J.; Lubans, David R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a school-based physical fitness intervention (Fit4Fun) on the physical fitness and physical activity (PA) levels of primary school children. Methods: A group-randomized controlled trial with a 3-month wait-list control group was conducted in…

  8. A systematic review of MRI studies examining the relationship between physical fitness and activity and the white matter of the ageing brain

    PubMed Central

    Sexton, Claire E.; Betts, Jill F.; Demnitz, Naiara; Dawes, Helen; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Higher levels of physical fitness or activity (PFA) have been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and grey matter volumes in older adults. However, the relationship between PFA and the brain's white matter (WM) is not yet well established. Here, we aim to provide a comprehensive and systematic review of magnetic resonance imaging studies examining the effects of PFA on the WM of the ageing brain. Twenty-nine studies were included in the review: eleven examined WM volume, fourteen WM lesions, and nine WM microstructure. While many studies found that higher levels of PFA were associated with greater WM volumes, reduced volume or severity of WM lesions, or improved measures of WM microstructure, a number of negative findings have also been published. Meta-analyses of global measures of WM volume and WM lesion volume yielded significant, but small, effect sizes. Overall, we found evidence for cautious support of links between PFA and WM structure, and highlighted key areas for future research including the extent to which the relationship between PFA and WM structure is anatomically specific, the influence of possible confounding factors, and the relationship between PFA, WM and cognition. PMID:26477656

  9. Associations of physical activity, fitness, and body composition with heart rate variability–based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and body composition are associated with heart rate variability (HRV)-based indicators of stress and recovery on workdays. Additionally, we evaluated the association of objectively measured stress with self-reported burnout symptoms. Methods Participants of this cross-sectional study were 81 healthy males (age range 26–40 y). Stress and recovery on workdays were measured objectively based on HRV recordings. CRF and anthropometry were assessed in laboratory conditions. The level of PA was based on a detailed PA interview (MET index [MET-h/d]) and self-reported activity class. Results PA, CRF, and body composition were significantly associated with levels of stress and recovery on workdays. MET index (P < 0.001), activity class (P = 0.001), and CRF (P = 0.019) were negatively associated with stress during working hours whereas body fat percentage (P = 0.005) was positively associated. Overall, 27.5% of the variance of total stress on workdays (P = 0.001) was accounted for by PA, CRF, and body composition. Body fat percentage and body mass index were negatively associated with night-time recovery whereas CRF was positively associated. Objective work stress was associated (P = 0.003) with subjective burnout symptoms. Conclusions PA, CRF, and body composition are associated with HRV-based stress and recovery levels, which needs to be taken into account in the measurement, prevention, and treatment of work-related stress. The HRV-based method used to determine work-related stress and recovery was associated with self-reported burnout symptoms, but more research on the clinical importance of the methodology is needed. PMID:24742265

  10. Motor Competence Is Associated with Physical Fitness in Four- to Six-Year-Old Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigmundsson, Hermundur; Haga, Monika

    2016-01-01

    The health benefits of a physical active lifestyle and physical fitness from a young age are widely recognized as beneficial. This study examined the relationship between physical fitness and motor competence in children aged four- to six-years-old. A sample of 42 children (mean age 5.15 years, SD 0.56 year) participated in the study. To assess…

  11. Association between Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in a Cohort of Danish School Pupils

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Mikkel P.; Mortensen, Rikke N.; Vardinghus-Nielsen, Henrik; Franch, Jesper; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Bøggild, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Background: Time spent on physical activity in elementary school has been altered to improve core academics. However, little is known about the relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement. We examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and investigated the influence of parental socioeconomic status…

  12. Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

  13. Children's Physical Fitness and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittberg, Richard A.; Northrup, Karen L.; Cottrel, Lesley

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a major public health threat. Increased fitness may have a positive influence on cognitive performance in both adults and children. Purpose: To examine which aspects of children's fitness assessment are associated with their performance on four different academic areas. Methods: FITNESSGRAM measures aerobic…

  14. Physical Activity (Exercise)

    MedlinePlus

    ... fitness. Your fitness routine should include aerobic and strength-training activities, and may also include stretching activities. Aerobic ... Examples include walking, jogging, bicycling, swimming, and tennis. Strength-training activities These activities increase the strength and endurance ...

  15. Physical fitness and health education program at NASA Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angotti, Cathy

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: policy procedures to enter the NASA Headquarters Physical Fitness and Health Program; eligibility; TDY eligibility; health promotions offered; and general facility management.

  16. Physical fitness in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Schott, Nadja; Alof, Verena; Hultsch, Daniela; Meermann, Dagmar

    2007-12-01

    The protective effects of physical activity and fitness on cardiovascular health have clearly been shown among normally developed children. However data are currently lacking pertaining to children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to examine differences in fitness measures, body composition, and physical activity among children with and without DCD. A cross-sectional design was implemented examining 261 children (118 girls, 143 boys) ages 4-12 years (mean age 7.8 +/- 1.9 years). Children were categorized as having DCD if they scored less than or equal to the 5th percentile (n=71) or between the 6th and the 15th percentile (n=5) on the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC; Henderson & Sugden, 1992). The typically developing children had scores between the 16th and the 50th percentile (n=16) or above the 50th percentile (n=3) on the MABC. The age-related body mass index was used to characterize body composition. Physical fitness was assessed with a 6-min run, 20-m sprint, jump-and-reach test, medicine ball throw, curl-ups, and sit-and-reach test. Physical activity was estimated with a questionnaire. The percentage of overweight and obese children ages 10-12 years were significantly higher in the DCD groups (severe: 50%, moderate: 23.1%) than in the typically developing groups (medium: 5.6%, high: 0%; p < .05). Significant interactions (MABC x Age Group) were found for the fitness tests (p values < .05), except flexibility; whereby specifically, compared to the children in the typically developing groups children in the DCD groups ages 4-6 years achieved significantly worse results for the 20-m sprint, and children of the DCD groups ages 10-12 years achieved significantly worse results for the 6-min run, jump-and-reach test, and medicine ball throw. The study demonstrates poorer performance in fitness tests with high demands on coordination in children with DCD compared to their typically developing peers

  17. Effects of a 12-Week Physical Activity Protocol Delivered by YMCA After-School Counselors (Youth Fit for Life) on Fitness and Self-Efficacy Changes in 5-12-Year-Old Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Westcott, Wayne L.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Unruh, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    To address reduced physical education (PE) in elementary schools, a 12-week physical activity protocol was tested on 5-12-year-old, primarily African American, girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 344) at 14 YMCA after-school care sites. The 3 times/week, 45-min session curriculum included cardiovascular, resistance, and flexibility training, in which…

  18. Manitoba Physical Fitness Performance Test Manual and Fitness Objectives for Manitoba Youth 5-18 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg.

    The physical fitness and lifestyle of Canadian school children has been deteriorating in recent years. The main objectives of physical education are directed toward the development of physical fitness and a positive lifestyle. This manual provides an opportunity for measuring the components of physical fitness. Physical fitness testing involves…

  19. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone’s cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  20. Independent Associations between Sedentary Time, Moderate-To-Vigorous Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Cardio-Metabolic Health: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Knaeps, Sara; Lefevre, Johan; Wijtzes, Anne; Charlier, Ruben; Mertens, Evelien; Bourgois, Jan G

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study the independent associations of sedentary time (ST), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and objectively measured cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) with clustered cardio-metabolic risk and its individual components (waist circumference, fasting glucose, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure). We also investigated whether any associations between MVPA or ST and clustered cardio-metabolic risk were mediated by CRF. MVPA, ST, CRF and individual cardio-metabolic components were measured in a population-based sample of 341 adults (age 53.8 ± 8.9 years; 61% men) between 2012 and 2014. MVPA and ST were measured with the SenseWear pro 3 Armband and CRF was measured with a maximal exercise test. Multiple linear regression models and the product of coefficients method were used to examine independent associations and mediation effects, respectively. Results showed that low MVPA and low CRF were associated with a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.26 and β = -0.43, both p<0.001, respectively). CRF explained 73% of the variance in the association between MVPA and clustered cardio-metabolic risk and attenuated this association to non-significance. After mutual adjustment for MVPA and ST, CRF was the most important risk factor for a higher clustered cardio-metabolic risk (β = -0.39, p<0.001). In conclusion, because of the mediating role of CRF, lifestyle-interventions need to be feasible yet challenging enough to lead to increases in CRF to improve someone's cardio-metabolic health. PMID:27463377

  1. Physical fitness capacity and absenteeism of police officers.

    PubMed

    Boyce, R W; Jones, G R; Hiatt, A R

    1991-11-01

    Police officers (n = 514) were studied to determine the relationship between physical fitness capacity and annual absenteeism rate. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that for officers aged 34 years and younger, only 5% of the variability in absenteeism could be accounted for by age, sex, and physical fitness variables. For officers 35 years old and older, 7% of the variability was explained by these variables, and a bicycle ergometer score was a significant predictor of absenteeism. Each individual test and an overall physical fitness score were classified into five levels. ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between overall fitness levels and absenteeism. However, men 35 and over who were most fit on the bicycle ergometer test had fewer absences, and women 34 and under who were thinnest had more absences. In conclusion, at least among police officers, the extent to which physical fitness capacity can predict absenteeism is low.

  2. Effects of a Movement Integration Program on Elementary School Children's Physical Activity, Fitness Levels, and On-Task Behavior and Teachers' Implementation Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goh, Tan Leng

    2014-01-01

    Physical inactivity is an increasing problem among children and adolescents. The TAKE 10!® program, which integrates physical activity (PA) into academic subjects, was implemented in one elementary school in Magna, Utah to increase children's daily in-school PA. A three-study approach was used to examine: (a) effects of TAKE 10!® on elementary…

  3. Prevalence and correlates of physical fitness testing in U.S. schools--2000.

    PubMed

    Morrow, James R; Fulton, Janet E; Brener, Nancy D; Kohl, Harold W

    2008-06-01

    Because of the perceived lack of youth physical fitness and/or concerns for increased obesity, physical education teachers are interested in youth fitness and physical activity levels. Statewide mandates are being developed that require school-based teachers to complete physical fitness testing. Data from the nationally representative School Health Policies and Programs Study 2000 were analyzed to investigate the prevalence of fitness testing and the professional characteristics of fitness test users. Data were collected with teachers of either randomly selected classes in elementary schools and randomly selected required physical education courses in middle/junior high and senior high schools (N = 1,564). The prevalence of fitness test use is 65% across all school levels. Variables associated with physical fitness test usage were professionally oriented. Results showed that teachers in secondary schools (odds ratio [OR] = 2.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = I.18-4.27), those with degrees in physical education/kinesiology-related disciplines (OR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11-3.63), and those who had completed staff development on physical fitness testing (OR = 3.22, 95% CI = 1.86-5.60) were more likely than respondents without these characteristics to engage in physical fitness testing. Results changed little when separate analyses were conducted for classes/courses in districts requiring versus not requiring fitness testing. Financial variables, including fitness-oriented facilities available, metropolitan location, and discretionary expenditures per student, were not associated with fitness test use. Results provided national prevalence of school-based physical fitness testing use in the U. S. and conveyed information about those who currently use physical fitness tests.

  4. Physical Fitness and Depressive Symptoms during Army Basic Combat Training

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Shannon K.; Wilkinson, Larrell L.; Wigfall, Lisa T.; Reynolds, Alexandria M.; Muraca, Stephanie T.; Glover, Saundra H.; Wooten, Nikki R.; Sui, Xuemei; Beets, Michael W.; Durstine, J. Larry; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health-related problems are a significant cause of attrition during Basic Combat Training (BCT). Evidence in civilian populations suggests that physical fitness is associated with psychological benefits in civilians, but little is known about the association between physical fitness and psychological adjustment during BCT. Methods This study prospectively examined the association between physical fitness and depressive symptoms in 300 BCT soldiers from May to July, 2012 at Fort Jackson, Columbia, SC. Soldiers completed a baseline Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) and survey within one week of arriving at BCT, and an end of cycle survey after eight weeks of BCT. Soldiers were assigned to the “high” fitness category if they had a passing score on the standard APFT of greater than or equal to 180 points out of 300 points. Soldiers scoring less than 180 points on the APFT were assigned to the “ low” fitness category. Depressive symptoms were measured using the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Results In multivariate analyses, adjusting for baseline demographics, self-reported sleep prior to BCT, BCT confidence, Army identification, and depressive symptoms, the odds of reporting depressive symptoms were 60% lower for soldiers in the high fitness category (odds ratio, OR 0.40; 95% confidence interval, CI 0.19–0.84), compared to soldiers in the low fitness category. Conclusions Analogous to other positive outcomes of soldier fitness, improvement of soldier physical fitness prior to BCT might improve soldiers' psychological health outcomes. PMID:24870581

  5. Mix, Match, and Motivate: 107 Activities for Skills and Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Jeff

    This book presents activities to help elementary school teachers show their students that physical activity can be meaningful and fun. Focused on skill development and fitness rather than competition, these activities take a progressive, developmentally centered approach that will help teachers meet a range of individual needs so that every…

  6. Television Viewing and Physical Fitness in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a study of 8,885 adults to determine whether the amount of time spent watching television was associated with cardiovascular fitness, considering confounding effects like age, gender, smoking, work week, exercise time, and obesity. Results indicate the duration of daily television watching is strongly and inversely associated with…

  7. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID.

  8. Physical fitness is predictive for a decline in the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living in older adults with intellectual disabilities: Results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Oppewal, Alyt; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Schoufour, Josje D; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2015-01-01

    The ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is important for one's level of independence. A high incidence of limitations in IADL is seen in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), which is an important determinant for the amount of support one needs. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive value of physical fitness for the ability to perform IADL, over a 3-year follow-up period, in 601 older adults with ID. At baseline, an extensive physical fitness assessment was performed. In addition, professional caregivers completed the Lawton IADL scale, both at baseline and at follow-up. The average ability to perform IADL declined significantly over the 3-year follow-up period. A decline in the ability to perform IADL was seen in 44.3% of the participants. The percentage of participants being completely independent in IADL declined from 2.7% to 1.3%. Manual dexterity, balance, comfortable and fast gait speed, muscular endurance, and cardiorespiratory fitness were significant predictors for a decline in IADL after correcting for baseline IADL and personal characteristics (age, gender, level of ID, and Down syndrome). This can be interpreted as representing the predictive validity of the physical tests for a decline in IADL. This study shows that even though older adults with ID experience dependency on others due to cognitive limitations, physical fitness also is an important aspect for IADL, which stresses the importance of using physical fitness tests and physical fitness enhancing programs in the care for older adults with ID. PMID:26079525

  9. [Development of a method for estimation of physical fitness age for the evaluation of physical performance levels].

    PubMed

    Oda, S

    1992-10-01

    The aims of this study are to develop a method for estimation of physical fitness age for the evaluation of physical performance levels and to examine the efficacy and adaptability of the method. Physical fitness data collected on 15,845 subjects from 23 health promotion centers in Japan, during a 2-year period, 1985-1986, were analysed by correlation analysis to find factors which affect physical performance. From this analysis, stature and exercise habit were selected as factors to be considered in the computation of physical fitness age. For determination of physical fitness and its relation to chronological age, four tests, side step, sit-ups, vertical jump and wing lift were selected from results of correlation and multiple regression analysis and an estimation equation for physical fitness age was developed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, in which the subjective variable is physical fitness data and objective variables are chronological age and height, on 9,528 people without habitual physical activities. Physical fitness age for each fitness test was calculated from the equation and mean individual physical fitness age computed. The suitability of the developed method was tested on other groups with results showing that the developed method was generally applicable to the other group and was exact enough to evaluate the characteristics of the physical level of the group. Analysis of the relation between health indices and physical fitness age obtained by this new method, revealed that the group in which physical fitness age is inferior to chronological age contained relatively more hypertensive patients and obese people.

  10. Physical fitness level and autonomic reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Keller, S; Seraganian, P

    1984-01-01

    Two studies explored the influence of aerobic fitness level on autonomic reactivity to psychosocial stress. Experiment 1 employed a correlational, repeated measures design. A total of 45 men who were physically trained, untrained, or training were tested at three-week intervals over nine weeks. The measure of autonomic reactivity was lability in electrodermal activity during two speeded mental tasks designed to induce psychosocial stress. In the initial test session, trained subjects showed faster autonomic recovery from this stress than did untrained or training subjects; in subsequent test sessions involving the repeated administration of the same tasks, the three groups were indistinguishable. Experiment 2 employed 60 subjects who were randomly assigned to 10-week aerobic exercise, meditation, or music appreciation programs. In each session, two psychosocial stressors selected from a battery of six tasks were counterbalanced across treatments and sessions. Over the course of the study, participants in the exercise program improved significantly in physical fitness and also showed faster recovery in the electrodermal response. This quicker autonomic recovery may allow the aerobically fit to cope more effectively with emotional stress.

  11. The Chemistry of Fitness. Active Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergandine, David R.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    The outline for a unit on the chemistry of fitness and nutrition is presented. Topics discussed include the organic basis of life, functional groups, kitchen experiments, micronutrients, energetics, fitness vs. fatness, current topics, and evaluation. This unit reviews the basic concepts of chemical bonding, acid-base chemistry, stoichiometry, and…

  12. Effects of vitamin D and quercetin, alone and in combination, on cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function in physically active male adults

    PubMed Central

    Scholten, Shane D; Sergeev, Igor N; Song, Qingming; Birger, Chad B

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D and the antioxidant quercetin, are promising agents for improving physical performance because of their possible beneficial effects on muscular strength and cardiorespiratory fitness. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of increased intakes of vitamin D, quercetin, and their combination on antioxidant status, the steroid hormone regulators of muscle function, and measures of physical performance in apparently healthy male adults engaged in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity exercise training. Methods A total of 40 adult male participants were randomized to either 4,000 IU vitamin D/d, 1,000 mg/d quercetin, vitamin D plus quercetin, or placebo for 8 weeks. Measures of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle function, blood markers for antioxidant and vitamin D status, and hormones 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) and testosterone were measured pre- and postsupplementation. Results At enrollment, 88.6% of participants were vitamin D sufficient (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D >50 nmol/L) and had normal serum testosterone levels. Supplementation with vitamin D significantly increased serum 25(OH)D concentration (by 87.3% in the vitamin D group, P<0.001) and was associated with an increasing trend of testosterone concentration. There were no changes in concentration of 1,25(OH)2D3 and markers of antioxidant status associated with vitamin D or quercetin supplementation. No improvements in physical performance measures associated with vitamin D and quercetin supplementation were found. Conclusion The findings obtained demonstrate that long-term vitamin D and quercetin supplementation, alone or in combination, does not improve physical performance in male adults with adequate vitamin D, testosterone, and antioxidant status. PMID:26244032

  13. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop. PMID:24007856

  14. [Physical activity and cancer survival].

    PubMed

    Romieu, Isabelle; Touillaud, Marina; Ferrari, Pietro; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Antoun, Sami; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie; Bachmann, Patrick; Duclos, Martine; Ninot, Grégory; Romieu, Gilles; Sénesse, Pierre; Behrendt, Jan; Balosso, Jacques; Pavic, Michel; Kerbrat, Pierre; Serin, Daniel; Trédan, Olivier; Fervers, Béatrice

    2012-10-01

    Physical activity has been shown in large cohort studies to positively impact survival in cancer survivors. Existing randomized controlled trials showed a beneficial effect of physical activity on physical fitness, quality of life, anxiety and self-esteem; however, the small sample size, the short follow-up and the lack of standardization of physical activity intervention across studies impaired definite conclusion in terms of survival. Physical activity reduces adiposity and circulating estrogen levels and increases insulin sensitivity among other effects. A workshop was conducted at the International Agency for Research on Cancer in April 2011 to discuss the role of physical activity on cancer survival and the methodology to develop multicentre randomized intervention trials, including the type of physical activity to implement and its association with nutritional recommendations. The authors discuss the beneficial effect of physical activity on cancer survival with a main focus on breast cancer and report the conclusions from this workshop.

  15. Physical activity, immunity and infection.

    PubMed

    Romeo, J; Wärnberg, J; Pozo, T; Marcos, A

    2010-08-01

    During the last few decades, scientific evidence has confirmed a wide range of health benefits related to regular physical activity. How physical activity affects the immune function and infection risk is, however, still under debate. Commonly, intensive exercise suppresses the activity and levels of several immune cells, while other immune functions may be stimulated by moderate physical activity. With this knowledge, the understanding of the relationship between different levels of physical activity on the immune function has been raised as a potential tool to protect health not only in athletes but also in the general population; the mechanisms that translate a physically active lifestyle into good health continue to be investigated. Reviewing the literature, although several outcomes (i.e. the mechanisms by which different levels and duration of physical activity programmes affect numerous cell types and responses) remain unclear, given that the additional benefits encompass healthy habits including exercise, the use of physical activity programmes may result in improved health of elderly populations. Moderate physical activity or moderate-regulated training may enhance the immune function mainly in less fit subjects or sedentary population and the pre-event fitness status also seems to be an important individual factor regarding this relationship. Although adequate nutrition and regular physical activity habits may synergistically improve health, clinical trials in athletes using nutritional supplements to counteract the immune suppression have been inconclusive so far.Further research is necessary to find out to what extent physical activity training can exert an effect on the immune function.

  16. The Effect of a Physical Fitness Program on Low-Fit Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ignico, Arlene A.; Mahon, Anthony D.

    1995-01-01

    This study examined the effects of participation in an after school physical fitness program emphasizing aerobics on low-fit elementary students. Data were collected on four occasions. The program had a positive impact on field test measures but did not improve body fatness, cardiovascular responses to exercise, and blood lipid profiles. (SM)

  17. The Role of Physical Activity Assessments for School-Based Physical Activity Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.

    2008-01-01

    The emphasis in public health on lifestyle physical activity in recent years has focused attention on the promotion of lifetime physical activity as the primary objective of physical education. If used properly, physical activity and physical fitness assessments can enhance individual promotion of physical activity and also provide valuable…

  18. Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health Annual Report to the Michigan Department of Public Health, December 29, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Public Health, Lansing. Council on Physical Fitness & Health.

    The projects which the Michigan Council on Physical Fitness and Health undertook in 1978 are reported and described here. The projects and activities include: a school physical fitness program that provided assistance to public, private, and parochial schools in monitoring the physical fitness levels of all students in grades kindergarten through…

  19. Fitness and Nutrition Activity Book for Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Dept. of Health, Columbus.

    This activity book is designed to supplement health lessons on nutrition and physical fitness for fourth, fifth, and sixth grade students. Some of the activities are quite simple and require very little instruction and direction, while others are more difficult and require careful explanation prior to completion. The level of difficulty of the…

  20. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... exceed $100 for the physical examination, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent... immunizations to the extent not covered by the contractor's health insurance policy. (ii) For authorized... $120 per individual, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent not covered by...

  1. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... exceed $100 for the physical examination, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent... immunizations to the extent not covered by the contractor's health insurance policy. (ii) For authorized... $120 per individual, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent not covered by...

  2. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... exceed $100 for the physical examination, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent... immunizations to the extent not covered by the contractor's health insurance policy. (ii) For authorized... $120 per individual, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent not covered by...

  3. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... exceed $100 for the physical examination, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent... immunizations to the extent not covered by the contractor's health insurance policy. (ii) For authorized... $120 per individual, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent not covered by...

  4. 48 CFR 752.7033 - Physical fitness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... exceed $100 for the physical examination, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent... immunizations to the extent not covered by the contractor's health insurance policy. (ii) For authorized... $120 per individual, plus reimbursement of charges for immunizations to the extent not covered by...

  5. Statewide physical fitness testing: perspectives from the gym.

    PubMed

    Martin, Scott B; Ede, Alison; Morrow, James R; Jackson, Allen W

    2010-09-01

    This paper provides observations of physical fitness testing in Texas schools and physical education teachers' insights about large-scale testing using the FITNESSGRAM assessment (Cooper Institute, 2007) as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. In the first study, undergraduate and graduate students who were trained to observe and assess student fitness testing in grades 3 through 12 provided observations. In the second study, physical education teachers responded to selected interview questions during a focus group discussion. From the observations and responses, specific themes emerged related to teachers' knowledge and training about conducting fitness testing and managing data, students' knowledge and motivation, support and resources for conducting fitness assessments, and complexity of the fitness situation.

  6. Learning Science-Based Fitness Knowledge in Constructivist Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Haichun; Chen, Ang; Zhu, Xihe; Ennis, Catherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Teaching fitness-related knowledge has become critical in developing children's healthful living behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a science-based, constructivist physical education curriculum on learning fitness knowledge critical to healthful living in elementary school students. The schools (N = 30) were randomly…

  7. Fitness Load and Exercise Time in Secondary Physical Education Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Xiao Jun; Dunham, Paul, Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Investigates the effect of secondary school physical education on fitness load: the product of the mean heart rate above threshold (144 bpm) and the time duration of heart rate above that threshold. Highly and moderately skilled students achieved fitness load more frequently than their lower skilled colleagues. (GLR)

  8. Physical Fitness and Fatness in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salaun, Laureline; Berthouze-Aranda, Sophie E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study investigated health-related fitness in adolescents with intellectual disabilities and analysed the various performances in physical fitness tests according to degrees of obesity. Materials and Methods: Eighty-seven French intellectual disabilities adolescents (14.24 [plus or minus] 1.48 years) performed the EUROFIT physical…

  9. The Relationship of Television Viewing to Physical Fitness and Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, Larry A.

    1986-01-01

    Determined the extent to which light, moderate, and heavy television viewing relates to multiple measures of obesity and physical fitness among high school males (N=379). Showed that light television viewers scored significantly better than heavy viewers on a composite fitness index. Light viewers were not significantly less obese than moderate or…

  10. Children's Television Viewing, Body Fat, and Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Colin A.; Sallis, James F.; Alcaraz, John E.; Kolody, Bohdan; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Hovell, Melbourne F.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the relationship between elementary students' television viewing and their physical fitness. Data from parent and student questionnaires and measures of body fat, cardiovascular fitness, muscular strength/endurance, and muscular flexibility indicated that television viewing weakly and inconsistently related to various components of…

  11. Secular trends of physical fitness in Swedish adults.

    PubMed

    Ekblom, B; Engström, L-M; Ekblom, O

    2007-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to study differences in fitness (maximal aerobic power (VO(2max)), balance control, abdominal strength and endurance) and anthropometric data in Swedish women and men (20-65 years of age) between two national cross-sectional samples, studied in 1990/1991 and 2000/2001, respectively. The absolute and relative VO(2max) (aerobic fitness), estimated from a submaximal test, declined with increasing age in both genders. The submaximal test was validated against running VO(2max). Furthermore, the relative aerobic fitness (mL/min/kg) was lower in the 2000/2001 sample in men but not in women. Overall physical activity level was unchanged in both genders. An unexpected finding was that in both samples there were no major differences in relative VO(2max) between men and women of the same age. Combined overweight and obesity (body mass index> or =25) is becoming more prevalent in men, but not in women with prevalence in 2000/2001 of 61% and 38% for men and women, respectively. Balance control and abdominal strength and endurance decrease with increasing age with no differences between the two samples. Thus, the near future health situation for men may be worse, while for women it may be less or no differences compared with today.

  12. Developing physical fitness for the elderly through sport and exercise.

    PubMed Central

    Meusel, H.

    1984-01-01

    For maintaining and developing motor mobility in old age motor activity is essential. We can take from the phylogenesis and ontogenesis of the human being how important physical activity is for personality development and for maintaining physical fitness in old age. Many phenomena, which have so far been thought to be due to natural consequences of the ageing process, can now be traced back to lack of physical activity. These findings are illustrated by examples referring to the most important subsystems of our organism (such as the central nervous system, the cardiovascular system, etc.). To keep these subsystems and with them our organism as a whole functioning as well as possible, we must improve their specific adaptability through sports and exercise. Sports and exercise for the elderly as well as gymnastics for senior citizens should therefore adequately improve co-ordinative skills, the ability of the muscles to relax, joint flexibility, muscle strength, endurance, vegetative adaptability, stress tolerance, controlling body-weight, and resistance to infections. Images p4-a Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:6722424

  13. Physical Activity Levels during Adventure-Physical Education Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehris, Jeffrey; Myers, Elizabeth; Whitaker, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Adventure-physical education has been proposed to promote adolescents' physical development, but little is known about physical activity levels during such lessons. Using the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time, we observed students' (ages 11-14 years) physical activity levels in co-educational classes during 43 adventure-physical…

  14. Fit to play: the fitness effect on physically challenging flute repertoire.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Jennifer A

    2011-03-01

    This case study was done to determine whether physical fitness plays a part in performing flute repertoire. Most repertoire allows performers the choice of where to breathe. However, there exists a "brute" repertoire where breathing is prescribed by the composer, which poses physical challenges for performers. The author contrasted pieces from traditional repertoire with Heinz Holliger's (t)air(e), which requires passages of breath-holding and measured inhalations. The author was tested for cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) and corresponded these levels to pulse rates while playing at baseline and 6 months after undertaking a physical fitness program. After the exercise program, expertise with standard repertoire combined with the unmeasured variables of resonance, openness of the chest and oral cavities, embouchure size, and air speed saw little improvement with increased fitness levels. However, when air regulation is out of the performer's control, the effect of cardiovascular training brought the "brute" repertoire into the same range of difficulty as the standard repertoire.

  15. Nutritional status and physical fitness of elderly sportsmen.

    PubMed

    Chatard, J C; Boutet, C; Tourny, C; Garcia, S; Berthouze, S; Guézennec, C Y

    1998-01-01

    The nutritional status of elderly sportsmen has not been reported on, neither has the nutritional balance nor the precise relationship between nutritional status and physical fitness been detailed for this population. Thus, group of 18 sportsmen [age 63 (SD 4.5) years] was monitored by weighing their food during a 6-day period. Macro nutrient, mineral and vitamin content was derived from tables. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) and sport activity (DSA) were quantified over a 7-day period using a questionnaire. Physical fitness was assessed by maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) measurements. The DEE was 11429 (SD 1890) kJ x day(-1). The DSA corresponded to 38% of DEE and VO2max to 35.9 (SD 6.1) ml x min(-1) x kg(-1). When compared with French recommended dietary allowances (RDA) intakes were higher for energy (+ 24%), macro nutrients, and most minerals and vitamins. Despite high energy intakes, some subjects had mineral and vitamin deficits. Energy intakes were significantly related to intakes of magnesium, phosphorus, iron, vitamins B2, B6, C and to VO2max, but not to age. Stepwise regressions indicated that vitamin C intake was the only determinant to have a relationship with VO2max. Thus, most elderly sportsmen had higher nutritional status than RDA, although some had mineral and vitamin deficits. It is therefore suggested that elderly sportsmen should be encouraged to consume food with higher mineral and vitamin contents.

  16. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport lecture. Statewide physical fitness testing: a big waist or a big waste?

    PubMed

    Morrow, James R; Ede, Alison

    2009-12-01

    Statewide physical fitness testing is gaining popularity in the United States because of increased childhood obesity levels, the relations between physical fitness and academic performance, and the hypothesized relations between adult characteristics and childhood physical activity, physical fitness, and health behaviors. Large-scale physical fitness testing can be fraught with problems unless properly planned and conducted. Legislators, administrators, teachers, and parents should consider the following 10 essential issues when conducting large-scale physical fitness testing purpose of testing, proper planning, training, quality of the data, reporting support, costs, interpretation, programmatic matters, and policies and politics.

  17. [Sedentarism and physical fitness in postmenopausal women].

    PubMed

    Morales, Silvia; Gómez-Cabello, Alba; González-Agüero, Alejandro; Casajús, José Antonio; Ara, Ignacio; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: El envejecimiento es un proceso fisiológico natural asociado a diferentes cambios, entre los que se encuentra un descenso de la condición física. Objetivos: Establecer la relación entre un comportamiento sedentario (permanecer sentada =?4 horas/día) y la condición física en 457 mujeres mayores de 65 años. Metodología: La condición física se evaluó mediante 8 test (adaptados de las baterías “Senior Fitness Test” y “Eurofit Testing Battery”). Se utilizó ANOVA para analizar las diferencias entre grupos en función de las horas de sedestación y regresión logística para estudiar la asociación del comportamiento sedentario con una baja condición física, utilizando como referencia el percentil 20 de los valores normativos en España (Proyecto EXERNET). Resultados: Las mujeres sedentarias obtuvieron valores más bajos en las pruebas de equilibrio, fuerza de piernas y brazos, flexibilidad de brazos, velocidad y resistencia (p < 0,05). Además, aquellas mujeres que permanecían sentadas =?4 horas/día tenían mayor probabilidad de tener baja condición física en la mayoría de las pruebas citadas anteriormente, independientemente de las horas dedicadas a caminar (p < 0,05). Conclusión: Permanecer mucho tiempo sentada influye negativamente sobre la condición física de las mujeres postmenopáusicas independientemente del tiempo que caminen.

  18. More Cooperative and Fitness Activities on Scooters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mark A.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes both individual and team cooperative and fitness activities that can be played with scooters. The activities include but are not limited to: (1) Traffic Jam; (2) Chariot; (3) Crab Walk; (4) Pom Pom Pull Away; (5) Clothespin Hustle; (6) Four Corners; (7) Spider; (8) Carousel; (9) Amoeba; (10) Caterpillar; (11) Centipede; (12)…

  19. A Study of the Physical Fitness Test in Relation to Demographics, Academic Achievement, and Students' Physical Fitness Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobilia-Jones, Karen

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall results of the Physical Fitness Test (PFT) and the six fitness areas of the PFT, academic achievement, demographics and self perceptions and the potential impact on students' performance on the PFT. While academic expectations are increasing, the adolescent obesity rate is also increasing, producing a decline in the…

  20. “I used to be as fit as a linnet” – Beliefs, attitudes, and environmental supportiveness for physical activity in former mining areas in the North-East of England☆

    PubMed Central

    Rind, Esther; Jones, Andy

    2015-01-01

    Studies of geographical variations in physical activity behaviours have suggested that activity levels are particularly low in areas that have undergone employment loss associated with the decline of industry. This is of concern given that affected populations are already at risk of poor health. Applying focus group methodology amongst 19 participants in four groups, this study aims to unpack how broader societal and environmental changes associated with industrial decline affect beliefs and attitudes towards physical activity in ex-mining communities in the North-East of England. Identified core themes comprise the direct impact of deindustrialisation on social and physical environments. Based on our findings, we provide evidence for mechanisms that operate via loss of occupational physical activity as well as the progressive development of environments that are not fit to support population activity levels. Particularly important was the loss of recreational facilities, public green spaces and sports facilities that were owned and organised by the miners themselves with support from the mining companies. Attitudes and beliefs directly related to the areas' industrial past were also seen to be key. We suggest that the development of interventions considering the socio-cultural history and socio-economic reality of communities could be a promising route to encourage more active lifestyles in deprived areas with particularly low levels of physical activity. PMID:25541186

  1. Physical Activity Assessment

    Cancer.gov

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  2. Facts about Physical Activity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  3. Achievement Motivation and Physical Fitness of 15-Year Old Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guszkowska, Monika; Rychta, Tadeusz

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To determine the relations between the general and physical education-specific achievement motivation, and physical fitness of adolescent girls. Material and methods: A group of 52 girls aged 15 years were studied by applying two questionnaires: P-O scale of Widerszal-Bazyl for evaluating the general achievement motivation and Nishida's…

  4. Principles and Applications of Physical Fitness: Course Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, David G.

    A proposal is presented for a Community College of Philadelphia Life Sciences and Allied Health Services course in physical fitness. Following a standard cover form, a statement of purpose explains that the course is designed to provide instruction and experience in the basic areas of nutrition and physical conditioning, including dietary…

  5. Statewide Physical Fitness Testing: Perspectives from the Gym

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Scott B.; Ede, Alison; Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides observations of physical fitness testing in Texas schools and physical education teachers' insights about large-scale testing using the FITNESSGRAM[R] assessment (Cooper Institute, 2007) as mandated by Texas Senate Bill 530. In the first study, undergraduate and graduate students who were trained to observe and assess student…

  6. Instructional Framework for Fitness Education in Physical Education. Guidance Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The National Association for Sport and Physical Education's (NASPE) Fitness Education Project team gathered insights from professionals across the country who have worked on national and state physical education standards and district curriculum materials; from content and pedagogy specialists; and from current literature to provide what follows:…

  7. Physical Education "of" and "through" Fitness and Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newell, Karl M.

    2011-01-01

    Fitness and skill are embedded constructs that have been the primary foci of the field of physical education. The emphasis of one of these constructs over the other is a matter of context that cannot, given their embedding, lead to the exclusivity of one in the education "of" and "through" the physical (Williams, 1930), particularly as we seek to…

  8. Fit for Life: A Plea for P.E. Spotlight: Physical Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Andy

    2000-01-01

    Asserts that movement and physical activity are essential for intellectual growth of Montessori students. Outlines important concepts and procedures for developing a physical education program. Advocates "Fit for Life" approach, involving daily aerobic activities and muscular development routines. Describes how one teacher prepared his 9-12…

  9. Return to work after spinal cord injury: the potential contribution of physical fitness.

    PubMed

    Noreau, L; Shephard, R J

    1992-08-01

    The history, physical characteristics and fitness status of 60 persons who had sustained a spinal cord injury at least 3 years previously were considered in relation to current occupation. All subjects had completed their education, 39 being gainfully employed and 21 unemployed. The general characteristics of the sample, mainly beneficiaries of the Quebec Automobile Insurance Plan, were typical of spinal cord injured individuals in North America. The working group had a significantly higher current level of education than those who were unemployed (p less than .01). In terms of physical fitness, the workers were lighter, with a lower body mass index and a higher aerobic power (p less than .05). Isokinetic testing suggested a trend toward a higher peak torque in the workers. The total work performed (Nm.kg-1) during an isokinetic endurance test (25 biphasic contraction at 180 degrees.sec-1) was significantly higher in the workers, suggesting that such muscular endurance might be even more useful than greater peak isokinetic strength during vocational activities. However, the likelihood of employment was unrelated to habitual patterns of either aerobic exercise or overall physical activity. No significant differences of physical fitness or physical activity habits were found between workers holding sedentary versus physically demanding jobs. The results verified the positive relationship between physical fitness (body composition, aerobic power, muscular endurance) and the gainful employment of paraplegics, but failed to show any significant relationship between physical fitness and the acceptance of physically demanding work by such individuals.

  10. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels.

  11. Differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health in Vietnamese and German older adults.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung M; Cihlar, Volker

    2013-06-01

    This cross-sectional study aims to investigate the differences in physical fitness and subjectively rated physical health of Vietnamese and German older adults in a community dwelling. The Vietnamese sample was a random sample of 96 community-dwelling individuals aged 60 to 80 years; 50 % were women. Education is 0 % less than 5 years, 23.95 % 5 to 9 years, 47.91 % 10 to 12 years, and 28.12 % more than 12 years. The German sample was a random sample of 159 community-dwelling persons aged 59 to 90 years; 79.8 % were women. Education is 1.25 % less than 5 years, 40.25 % 5 to 9 years, 38.84 % 10 to 12 years, and 21.38 % more than 12 years. Senior Fitness Test and Short Form-36 were used as outcome measures. The Vietnamese sample shows significantly higher performance levels in motor abilities, i.e., aerobic fitness, strength, and flexibility. The Vietnamese sample indicates a lower difference in performance levels between age groups than the German sample. No differences in subjectively rated physical health factors were found. The higher performance levels of the Vietnamese sample might reflect a more active lifestyle throughout the life span, especially in socially mediated domains like living arrangements or labor work. Lower performance levels in the studied age groups of the German sample might lead to higher risks of cardiovascular diseases and proneness of falls. A more active lifestyle after retirement could contribute to a healthier, more capable, and more independent individual and collective aging. Subjectively rated health stated is a culturally mitigated domain and therefore might be independent of actual physical fitness levels. PMID:23666598

  12. Biological mechanisms underlying the role of physical fitness in health and resilience.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Marni N; Deuster, Patricia A

    2014-10-01

    Physical fitness, achieved through regular exercise and/or spontaneous physical activity, confers resilience by inducing positive psychological and physiological benefits, blunting stress reactivity, protecting against potentially adverse behavioural and metabolic consequences of stressful events and preventing many chronic diseases. In this review, we discuss the biological mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects of physical fitness on mental and physical health. Physical fitness appears to buffer against stress-related disease owing to its blunting/optimizing effects on hormonal stress responsive systems, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the sympathetic nervous system. This blunting appears to contribute to reduced emotional, physiological and metabolic reactivity as well as increased positive mood and well-being. Another mechanism whereby regular exercise and/or physical fitness may confer resilience is through minimizing excessive inflammation. Chronic psychological stress, physical inactivity and abdominal adiposity have been associated with persistent, systemic, low-grade inflammation and exert adverse effects on mental and physical health. The anti-inflammatory effects of regular exercise/activity can promote behavioural and metabolic resilience, and protect against various chronic diseases associated with systemic inflammation. Moreover, exercise may benefit the brain by enhancing growth factor expression and neural plasticity, thereby contributing to improved mood and cognition. In summary, the mechanisms whereby physical fitness promotes increased resilience and well-being and positive psychological and physical health are diverse and complex. PMID:25285199

  13. How physical activity can work?

    PubMed

    Fogelholm, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    This review examines how physical activity can work for health during childhood and adolescence. Special emphasis is put on weight control and prevention of obesity-related morbidity. Both low sedentary and high exercise activities contribute to increased energy expenditure, improved weight control and prevention of obesity. Exercise, if intensity is at least moderate, has also a positive effect on fat distribution by decreasing the proportion of abdominal or visceral fat. The prevalence of clustered (multiple) cardiovascular risk factors is lower in children and adolescents, who are physically active or fit. However, the risks of obesity are greater than those from being sedentary, i.e., high physical activity reduces, but does not totally offset risks related to obesity. Good health in youth is easily lost by an unhealthy lifestyle in adulthood. An additional benefit of childhood physical activity is that it increases the likelihood of physical activity later in adulthood. PMID:18278627

  14. The relationship of television viewing to physical fitness and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tucker, L A

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which light, moderate, and heavy television viewing relates to multiple measures of obesity and physical fitness among 379 high school males. The Body Mass Index and Tucker's Perceived Somatotype Scale were employed to assess obesity; physical fitness was measured by six tests: pushups, pullups, sidestep, long jump, situps, and jog-walk. Results showed that light television viewers scored significantly better than heavy viewers on a composite fitness index and on pushups, pullups, sidestep, situps, and jog-walk considered individually. Similarly, light viewers performed better than moderate viewers on the composite fitness measure and on pushups, pullups, and jog-walk. Light viewers displayed a strong tendency toward better fitness than moderate viewers on the long jump, situps, and sidestep tests, although statistical significance was not attained. Light viewers were not significantly less obese than moderate or heavy viewers. Statistical control of the demographic variables, applied simultaneously, had little influence on the associations found in this study. The findings indicate that for purposes of good physical fitness, television viewing should be limited to one hour or less per day.

  15. The relationship of television viewing to physical fitness and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tucker, L A

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which light, moderate, and heavy television viewing relates to multiple measures of obesity and physical fitness among 379 high school males. The Body Mass Index and Tucker's Perceived Somatotype Scale were employed to assess obesity; physical fitness was measured by six tests: pushups, pullups, sidestep, long jump, situps, and jog-walk. Results showed that light television viewers scored significantly better than heavy viewers on a composite fitness index and on pushups, pullups, sidestep, situps, and jog-walk considered individually. Similarly, light viewers performed better than moderate viewers on the composite fitness measure and on pushups, pullups, and jog-walk. Light viewers displayed a strong tendency toward better fitness than moderate viewers on the long jump, situps, and sidestep tests, although statistical significance was not attained. Light viewers were not significantly less obese than moderate or heavy viewers. Statistical control of the demographic variables, applied simultaneously, had little influence on the associations found in this study. The findings indicate that for purposes of good physical fitness, television viewing should be limited to one hour or less per day. PMID:3825662

  16. Kung fu training improves physical fitness measures in overweight/obese adolescents: the "martial fitness" study.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Tracey W; Kohn, Michael R; Chow, Chin Moi; Fiatarone Singh, Maria Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the efficacy of a six-month Kung Fu (KF) program on physical fitness in overweight/obese adolescents. Methods. Subjects were randomly assigned to the KF or sham exercise (Tai Chi, TC) control group. Physical measurements in cardiovascular fitness and muscle fitness occurred at baseline and after 6 months of training thrice weekly. Results. Twenty subjects were recruited. One subject was lost to follow-up, although overall compliance to the training sessions was 46.7 +/- 27.8%. At follow-up, the cohort improved in absolute upper (P = .002) and lower (P = .04) body strength, and upper body muscle endurance (P = .02), without group differences. KF training resulted in significantly greater improvements in submaximal cardiovascular fitness (P = .03), lower body muscle endurance (P = .28; significant 95% CI: 0.37-2.49), and upper body muscle velocity (P = .03) relative to TC training. Conclusions. This short-term KF program improved submaximal cardiovascular fitness, lower body muscle endurance, and muscle velocity, in overweight/obese adolescents with very low baseline fitness.

  17. Benefits of physical exercises in developing certain fitness levels in children with hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Golubović, S; Milutinović, D; Golubović, B

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of participating in regular physical activity on the fitness of children with hyperactivity. The study compared a sample of children who were assessed as hyperactive with the same number of children rated as non-hyperactive. The Conners' Rating Scale was used for hyperactivity evaluation, while fitness levels were assessed using a battery of six motor tests prior to and following the completion of the physical exercise programme. The findings indicated that while overall fitness levels of both groups improved, the differences were not statistically significant. However, improvements shown within the group of hyperactive children with regard to coordination of the whole body, trunk strength and agility were statistically significant. Physical activity may be associated with enhanced levels of some aspects of physical fitness. PMID:23701503

  18. Benefits of physical exercises in developing certain fitness levels in children with hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Golubović, S; Milutinović, D; Golubović, B

    2014-09-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of participating in regular physical activity on the fitness of children with hyperactivity. The study compared a sample of children who were assessed as hyperactive with the same number of children rated as non-hyperactive. The Conners' Rating Scale was used for hyperactivity evaluation, while fitness levels were assessed using a battery of six motor tests prior to and following the completion of the physical exercise programme. The findings indicated that while overall fitness levels of both groups improved, the differences were not statistically significant. However, improvements shown within the group of hyperactive children with regard to coordination of the whole body, trunk strength and agility were statistically significant. Physical activity may be associated with enhanced levels of some aspects of physical fitness.

  19. A better way of fitting clips? A comparative study with respect to physical workload.

    PubMed

    Gaudez, Clarisse; Wild, Pascal; Aublet-Cuvelier, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    The clip fitting task is a frequently encountered assembly operation in the car industry. It can cause upper limb pain. During task laboratory simulations, upper limb muscular activity and external force were compared for 4 clip fitting methods: with the bare hand, with an unpowered tool commonly used at a company and with unpowered and powered prototype tools. None of the 4 fitting methods studied induced a lower overall workload than the other three. Muscle activity was lower at the dominant limb when using the unpowered tools and at the non-dominant limb with the bare hand or with the powered tool. Fitting clips with the bare hand required a higher external force than fitting with the three tools. Evaluation of physical workload was different depending on whether external force or muscle activity results were considered. Measuring external force only, as recommended in several standards, is insufficient for evaluating physical workload.

  20. A better way of fitting clips? A comparative study with respect to physical workload.

    PubMed

    Gaudez, Clarisse; Wild, Pascal; Aublet-Cuvelier, Agnès

    2015-11-01

    The clip fitting task is a frequently encountered assembly operation in the car industry. It can cause upper limb pain. During task laboratory simulations, upper limb muscular activity and external force were compared for 4 clip fitting methods: with the bare hand, with an unpowered tool commonly used at a company and with unpowered and powered prototype tools. None of the 4 fitting methods studied induced a lower overall workload than the other three. Muscle activity was lower at the dominant limb when using the unpowered tools and at the non-dominant limb with the bare hand or with the powered tool. Fitting clips with the bare hand required a higher external force than fitting with the three tools. Evaluation of physical workload was different depending on whether external force or muscle activity results were considered. Measuring external force only, as recommended in several standards, is insufficient for evaluating physical workload. PMID:26154222

  1. A Portfolio Approach to Impacting Physically Active Lifestyles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ray; Pulling, Andrew R.; Alpert, Amanda; Jackman, Emma

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a physical activity portfolio designed to help students manage their own fitness and health-related physical activity outside of the physical education classroom. A main goal of physical education programs is to prepare students to lead a physically active lifestyle and maintain a lifetime of health-related fitness. The…

  2. Assess workers' needs and preferences first before planning a physical fitness programme: findings from a polytechnic institute in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Wong, M L; Koh, D; Lee, M H

    1998-01-01

    Workplace physical fitness programmes are usually poorly attended because the activities do not meet workers' needs. We investigated leisure-time physical activity and its relation to sociodemographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors in a polytechnic institute in Singapore before planning a physical fitness programme. Low leisure-time physical activity (defined as no activity or engaging in physical activity less than once per week) was more prevalent among older women, married workers, smokers and men with unhealthy dietary habits. The type of physical activity varied with age and gender, with a preference for walking by women and older men and jogging by younger men. Low physical activity was significantly associated with sickness absence and self-reported stress in women and higher values of triglycerides and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. This survey helps to identify target groups for physical fitness programmes and determine leisure-time physical activities specific to workers' preferences by age and gender. PMID:9604471

  3. Physical Activity and Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, David O.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    There has been an increase in the cancer survivor population in the United States over the past several decades primarily due to improvements in early detection of first malignancies and effective treatment modalities. A wealth of evidence has demonstrated that regular physical activity is associated with a lower risk of death, all-cause mortality, cancer recurrence, and several chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, common comorbid conditions in people who have survived cancer. Physical activity also is a central component of weight management. Methods This review summarizes the current physical activity recommendations and the evidence linking physical activity to improvements in weight management, physiological effects, and psychological health outcomes for cancer survivors. Results The available literature suggests physical activity is safe and is positively associated with weight management, cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength and endurance, quality of life, fatigue, and other psychosocial factors in cancer survivors. Yet relationships related to specific cancer diagnoses, treatments, and underlying cardiometabolic mechanisms associated with survival have not been thoroughly examined in randomized controlled trials. Furthermore, factors that influence adherence to physical activity behaviors must be identified to develop effective exercise programs. The use of objective measures of physical activity and the standardization of reporting outcome measures within intervention trials are needed to complement this effort. Conclusions Healthcare providers should consider individual differences among cancer survivors and tailor physical activity programs to meet the individual needs of the patient to assist in the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle. PMID:25335787

  4. Linking coordinative and fitness training in physical education settings.

    PubMed

    Gallotta, M C; Marchetti, R; Baldari, C; Guidetti, L; Pesce, C

    2009-06-01

    To assess whether an enrichment of the coordinative demands of physical education (PE) during the curricular time may more efficiently improve coordinative abilities than the traditional PE program. One hundred and fifty-two middle school students aged 11-12 years were randomly assigned either to an experimental (n=77) or to a traditional (n=75) PE program lasting 5 months. The experimental intervention was structured in different modules focused on co-ordination abilities. Pre- and post-intervention tests assessed students' fitness (1 mile run/walk, curl-up, flexed arm hang, trunk lift, sit and reach, 30 m run, standing long jump, basketball forward throw) and motor co-ordination abilities (four field tests of kinesthetic discrimination and response orientation ability). After the intervention period, both groups showed a significant increment in most fitness tests. However, only the experimental group showed a significant improvement or a significantly more pronounced improvement than the control group in coordinative performances. The results show that both experimental and traditional PE interventions lead to increase physical fitness levels, but only the experimental one also improves coordinative abilities. Thus, focusing on a multivariate PE approach linking co-ordination and fitness training seems to add quality to students' experiences without reducing their effectiveness in terms of physical fitness.

  5. Fatness and physical fitness of girls 7 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Beunen, G P; Classens, A L; Lefevre, J; Vanden Eynde, B V; Renson, R; Vanreusel, B; Simons, J

    1995-05-01

    A two-fold approach was used to investigate the association between fatness and fitness of girls 7 to 17 years of age: first, age-specific correlations between fatness and measures of health-related and motor fitness, and second, comparisons of fitness levels of girls classified as fat and lean. A representative sample of 6700 between 7 to 17 years was surveyed. Adiposity (fatness) was estimated as the sum of five skinfolds (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf). Physical fitness included health-related items (step test, PWC170, the sit and reach, sit-ups and leg lifts, flexed arm hang) and motor performance items (standing long jump, vertical jump, arm pull strength, flamingo stand, shuttle run, plate tapping). Age-specific partial correlations between fatness and each fitness item, controlling for stature and weight, were calculated. In addition, in each age group the fattest 5% (presumably the obese) and the leanest 5% were compared on each fitness test. After controlling for stature and weight, subcutaneous fatness accounts for variable percentages of the variance in each fitness item. Estimates for health-related fitness items are: cardiorespiratory endurance-step test (3% to 5%) and PWC170 (0% to 16%), flexibility-sit and reach (3% to 8%), functional strength-flexed arm hand (6% to 17%) and abdominal strength-sit-ups/leg lifts (1% to 8%). Corresponding estimates for motor fitness items are more variable: speed of limb movement-plate tapping (0% to 3%), balance-flamingo stand (0% to 5%), speed and agility-shuttle run (2% to 12%), static strength-arm pull (4% to 12%), explosive strength-standing long jump/vertical jump (11% to 18%). At the extremes, the fattest girls have generally poorer levels of health-related and motor fitness.

  6. Fit to play: the fitness effect on physically challenging flute repertoire.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, Jennifer A

    2011-03-01

    This case study was done to determine whether physical fitness plays a part in performing flute repertoire. Most repertoire allows performers the choice of where to breathe. However, there exists a "brute" repertoire where breathing is prescribed by the composer, which poses physical challenges for performers. The author contrasted pieces from traditional repertoire with Heinz Holliger's (t)air(e), which requires passages of breath-holding and measured inhalations. The author was tested for cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) and corresponded these levels to pulse rates while playing at baseline and 6 months after undertaking a physical fitness program. After the exercise program, expertise with standard repertoire combined with the unmeasured variables of resonance, openness of the chest and oral cavities, embouchure size, and air speed saw little improvement with increased fitness levels. However, when air regulation is out of the performer's control, the effect of cardiovascular training brought the "brute" repertoire into the same range of difficulty as the standard repertoire. PMID:21442138

  7. Behavioral, Psychological, and Demographic Predictors of Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Terry L.

    Achieving higher levels of physical fitness has become a goal of many Americans both for personal reasons (e.g., improved health, appearance, and perceived well-being) and for organizational reasons (e.g., corporate cost-savings with healthy employees, operational readiness for the military services). Understanding the factors which have an impact…

  8. 75 FR 24365 - National Physical Fitness and Sports Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ..., and obesity, which are among our most costly and widespread health problems. That is why my... depends on how we raise and prepare the next generation, and America's epidemic of childhood obesity... Physical Fitness and Sports, and other members of the White House Task Force on Childhood Obesity...

  9. A Proposed Conceptual Framework for Curriculum Design in Physical Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter V.; Beauchamp, Larry S.

    A physical fitness curriculum, designed to provide cumulative benefits in a sequential pattern, is based upon a framework of a conceptual structure. The curriculum's ultimate goal is the achievement of greater physiological efficiency through a holistic approach that would strengthen circulatory-respiratory, mechanical, and neuro-muscular…

  10. The Benefits of Play Go Well beyond Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahern, Rose; Beach, Rebecca; Leibke, Stephanie Moats; Proud, Ian; Spencer, Anne-Marie; Strickland, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Sagacious wisdom finds much support from more than 80 years of research: play is crucial to the development of creativity, problem solving, critical thinking, anticipatory planning, and even complex brain structures. The benefits of play go well beyond physical fitness. Recent research demonstrates the positive effects interactive play and…

  11. ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Physical Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of the International Council for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, Sport, and Dance, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents necessary information for administering the ICHPER-SD Asia Youth Health Related Physical Fitness Test, including descriptions of and scoring for each test item, needed equipment, notes, and suggested preparations for test leaders. The test includes the endurance run, situps in 60 seconds, pullups, sit and reach test, and skinfold…

  12. Norms for College Students. Health Related Physical Fitness Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pate, Russell R.

    This document presents an analysis of a normative study done to determine physical fitness norms of college age young adults. Data for this normative study were collected under the supervision of 24 coinvestigators who were affiliated with institutions distributed in all regions of the United States. The study presents the derivation of the…

  13. Physical Fitness as a Mode for Intervention with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherman, Avraham

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the literature that assesses the effects of physical fitness on the personalities and self-esteem of children. Grouped studies into five categories, based on age and other characteristics of subjects: (1) elementary school age; (2) junior and senior high school age; (3) sports camp participants; (4) a special education group; and (5) a…

  14. Negative Effects of Alcohol on Physical Fitness and Athletic Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiken, Gail B.

    1991-01-01

    Alcohol consumption affects virtually every organ and system of the body. The article examines the negative physiological and psychomotor effects of short-term alcohol consumption relevant to physical fitness and athletic performance. Educators must be responsible for reaching students and discussing the issue. (SM)

  15. Project FIT: Rationale, design and baseline characteristics of a school- and community-based intervention to address physical activity and healthy eating among low-income elementary school children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This paper describes Project FIT, a collaboration between the public school system, local health systems, physicians, neighborhood associations, businesses, faith-based leaders, community agencies and university researchers to develop a multi-faceted approach to promote physical activity and healthy eating toward the general goal of preventing and reducing childhood obesity among children in Grand Rapids, MI, USA. Methods/design There are four overall components to Project FIT: school, community, social marketing, and school staff wellness - all that focus on: 1) increasing access to safe and affordable physical activity and nutrition education opportunities in the schools and surrounding neighborhoods; 2) improving the affordability and availability of nutritious food in the neighborhoods surrounding the schools; 3) improving the knowledge, self-efficacy, attitudes and behaviors regarding nutrition and physical activity among school staff, parents and students; 4) impacting the 'culture' of the schools and neighborhoods to incorporate healthful values; and 5) encouraging dialogue among all community partners to leverage existing programs and introduce new ones. Discussion At baseline, there was generally low physical activity (70% do not meet recommendation of 60 minutes per day), excessive screen time (75% do not meet recommendation of < 2 hours per day), and low intake of vegetables and whole grains and high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages, French fries and chips and desserts as well as a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (48.5% including 6% with severe obesity) among low income, primarily Hispanic and African American 3rd-5th grade children (n = 403). Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01385046 PMID:21801411

  16. Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies. PMID:24761982

  17. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  18. Physical Fitness Differences in Children with and without Motor Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Beth; Larkin, Dawne

    2006-01-01

    Children with motor learning difficulties (MLD) tend to be less physically active than their coordinated peers and one likely consequence is a reduced level of physical fitness. In this study, 52 children with MLD, aged 5 to 8 years, were compared to 52 age- and gender-matched control children across a range of health and skill related fitness…

  19. The Relationship Between Physical Fitness, Preadolescent Obesity, and Academic Achievement in Seventh Grade Students in South Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Phillip Stephen

    Abstract It was not known if, or to what degree, a relationship existed among academic achievement in science, physical fitness, and preadolescent obesity. This quantitative, correlational study explored the relationship between physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, and academic achievement in 136 seventh grade students at an urban middle school in South Carolina who received 50 minutes of physical education daily for one semester. The researcher hypothesized that the level of physical fitness influences preadolescent obesity and academic performance. The hypotheses stated that there would be a positive correlation between physical fitness and achievement in science, a negative correlation between preadolescent obesity and achievement in science, and a negative correlation between fitness and preadolescent obesity. Pearson product-moment correlations were used to test the hypotheses. Physical fitness was measured using the FitnessGram. Academic performance was measured using the science benchmark assessment. The results revealed that physical fitness was positively correlated with academic achievement (r = .32, p = .001), obesity was negatively related to academic achievement (r = -.27, p = .001), and students' BMI was negatively related to physical fitness (r = -.71, p < .001). The findings of this research have significant implications for school policy and public health in terms of the possibilities for physical activity interventions. Keywords: FitnessGram, physical fitness, preadolescent obesity, body mass index.

  20. Retrospective examination of injuries and physical fitness during Federal Bureau of Investigation new agent training

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A retrospective examination was conducted of injuries, physical fitness, and their association among Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) new agent trainees. Methods Injuries and activities associated with injuries were obtained from a review of medical records in the medical clinic that served the new agents. A physical fitness test (PFT) was administered at Weeks 1, 7 and 14 of the 17-week new agent training course. The PFT consisted of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, a 300-meter sprint, and a 1.5-mile run. Injury data were available from 2000 to 2008 and fitness data were available from 2004 to early 2009. Results During the survey period, 37% of men and 44% of women experienced one or more injuries during the new agent training course (risk ratio (women/men) = 1.18, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.31). The most common injury diagnoses were musculoskeletal pain (not otherwise specified) (27%), strains (11%), sprains (10%), contusions (9%), and abrasions/lacerations (9%). Activities associated with injury included defensive tactics training (48%), physical fitness training (26%), physical fitness testing (6%), and firearms training (6%). Over a 6-year period, there was little difference in performance of push-ups, sit-ups, pull-ups, or the 300-meter sprint; 1.5-mile run performance was higher in recent years. Among both men and women, higher injury incidence was associated with lower performance on any of the physical fitness measures. Conclusion This investigation documented injury diagnoses, activities associated with injury, and changes in physical fitness, and demonstrated that higher levels of physical fitness were associated with lower injury risk. PMID:21981817

  1. Systematic changes in perceptual reactance induced by physical fitness training.

    PubMed

    Campbell, J F; Stenstrom, R J; Bertrand, D

    1985-08-01

    The effect of life-change events on perceptual augmentation-reduction was studied in 72 subjects (40 men, 32 women). In three experiments the kinesthetic figural aftereffect was measured prior to and after either a physical fitness program, a course in yoga, or training in Transcendental Meditation. Each program lasted a minimum of 8 wk. Subjects completing fitness training, all of whom were initially classified as augmenters, became reducers by the end of their program. Subjects enrolled in yoga and meditation courses remained relatively stable in their perceptual tendencies.

  2. Physical Education: Tennis, Physical Fitness, Body-Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veilleux, Dave

    This unit plan for introducing high school students to the game of tennis is divided into objectives and suggested activities. A listing of resource outlets and retail prices for equipment and audiovisual materials is included. Student evaluation procedures are outlined, and a sample evaluation checklist is provided. (LH)

  3. Physical Training, Fitness, and Injuries: Lessons Learned From Military Studies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bruce H; Hauschild, Veronique D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of medical encounters across the U.S. military services resulting in more than 2.0 million clinic visits per year. Almost 50% of military service members experience an injury each year and half of those injuries are caused by physical training (PT), exercise, or sports. To prevent a problem as large and complex as injuries in the military requires a systematic approach. Several key questions must be answered to effectively address a problem such as injuries: (1) how big is the problem? (2) what are the causes and risk factors for the problem? (3) do modifiable risk factors for the problem exist? and (4) what works to prevent the problem? The article discusses leading causes of injuries for U.S. Army populations. It then explores key risk factors for exercise and training-related injuries: (1) the amounts of training, (2) types of training activities, (3) participants level of fitness, and (4) personal health risk behaviors. The article concludes with a review of prevention strategies illustrating interventions that have been shown to be effective, and others that are not effective. The data presented suggest that PT and exercise cause injuries and that modifications of training are most likely to prevent the problem. PMID:26506200

  4. Physical Training, Fitness, and Injuries: Lessons Learned From Military Studies.

    PubMed

    Jones, Bruce H; Hauschild, Veronique D

    2015-11-01

    Injuries are the leading cause of medical encounters across the U.S. military services resulting in more than 2.0 million clinic visits per year. Almost 50% of military service members experience an injury each year and half of those injuries are caused by physical training (PT), exercise, or sports. To prevent a problem as large and complex as injuries in the military requires a systematic approach. Several key questions must be answered to effectively address a problem such as injuries: (1) how big is the problem? (2) what are the causes and risk factors for the problem? (3) do modifiable risk factors for the problem exist? and (4) what works to prevent the problem? The article discusses leading causes of injuries for U.S. Army populations. It then explores key risk factors for exercise and training-related injuries: (1) the amounts of training, (2) types of training activities, (3) participants level of fitness, and (4) personal health risk behaviors. The article concludes with a review of prevention strategies illustrating interventions that have been shown to be effective, and others that are not effective. The data presented suggest that PT and exercise cause injuries and that modifications of training are most likely to prevent the problem.

  5. Effect of physical fitness and training on physiological responses to hypogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiki, H.; Nakaya, M.; Sudoh, M.; Abe, M.; Taketomi, Y.; Oh'Ishi, K.; Saiki, Y.; Saiki, A.

    The studies on the orthostatic tolerance during the hypodynamics exposure seem to be significant in connection with the selection, training and health maintenance of astronauts. Using male human subjects of various physical fitness levels, fluctuations of their physical fitness through 2 weeks of vigorous athletic training were measured in many parameters. For some of the subjects, the effects of 6 hr thermal neutral water immersion exposure in head out supine position on the physical fitness parameters and orthostatic tolerability were compared before training with after training. The results obtained were as follows: (1) Before training, orthostatic tolerability before hypodynamics exposure increased, following the physical fitness levels; the value after the hypodynamics exposure decreased in all the cases, but no differences were observed between the physical fitness levels. (2) As a result of training an increase of the physical fitness capacity was observed. The increase of orthostatic tolerability before hypodynamics exposure was noticed except for athletes. (3) Before hypodynamics exposure the urinary excretion of noradrenaline on non-athlete subjects increased as the physicsl fitness level increased. The values were decreased by physical training, the more so the better the physical fitness. After hypodynamics exposure the same relation was observed. But for athletes the values remain more stable and the decrease by hypodynamics exposure was not so distinctive. Such decreased reaction to hypodynamic conditions seems to reveal the neuro hormonal mechanism for the detrimental adaptation of athletes to hypodynamics. These results suggest that stable athletes do not always have low orthostatic tolerability, but do not respond well to hypodynamic conditions, at least from the orthostatic point of view. The mechanism seems related to sympathetic nerve activity.

  6. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  7. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  8. The falling risk and physical fitness in older people.

    PubMed

    Toraman, Ayşe; Yildirim, Necmiye Un

    2010-01-01

    Aims of this study was to analyze the correlation between the falling risk and their physical fitness, determining the top parameters affecting the falling risk, and preparing an evaluation procedure for the medical department working on this issue for the old people in retirement homes. This study includes 60 persons whose mean age was 73.3+/-6.6 years. Their demographic characteristics, cognitive function, their balance, falling risk and their physical fitness level have been evaluated. A survey has been done to determine their demographic features. The cognitive function was determined using mini-mental state examination (MMSE) test; for falling risk the Berg balance test (BBT) and balance by standing on one foot test were used, and the physical fitness was determined by senior fitness test (SFT). While the BBT correlation between chair stand, arm curl and 2-min step test are positive; but the correlation between BBT and '8-foot up-and-go test' were negative. However, there was no correlation between the BBT and chair sit-and-reach test, back scratch test (p>0.05). Due to the results of logistic regression models in order to find out the variations affecting the falling risk most, it has been showed that '8-foot up-and-go test' was reliable. Additionally the subjects probability performing the '8-foot up-and-go' before 8.14s was OR=11 (95% confidence interval=95%CI=2.25-53.84) times more with maximum 56 points in BBT. We have shown that the falling risk increases with declining of upper and lower extremity muscle strength, aerobic endurance, agility and dynamic balance performance. Agility and dynamic balance performance were mostly relevant with falling risk. We concluded that the old persons' falling risk and physical fitness level should be evaluated in some intervals. According to their falling risks and physical fitness level, the rehabilitation programs should be programmed to decrease their falling risk, and to increase lower and upper extremity muscle

  9. Bikram yoga training and physical fitness in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Tracy, Brian L; Hart, Cady E F

    2013-03-01

    There has been relatively little longitudinal controlled investigation of the effects of yoga on general physical fitness, despite the widespread participation in this form of exercise. The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine the effect of short-term Bikram yoga training on general physical fitness. Young healthy adults were randomized to yoga training (N = 10, 29 ± 6 years, 24 sessions in 8 weeks) or a control group (N = 11, 26 ± 7 years). Each yoga training session consisted of 90-minute standardized supervised postures performed in a heated and humidified studio. Isometric deadlift strength, handgrip strength, lower back/hamstring and shoulder flexibility, resting heart rate and blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (treadmill), and lean and fat mass (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) were measured before and after training. Yoga subjects exhibited increased deadlift strength, substantially increased lower back/hamstring flexibility, increased shoulder flexibility, and modestly decreased body fat compared with control group. There were no changes in handgrip strength, cardiovascular measures, or maximal aerobic fitness. In summary, this short-term yoga training protocol produced beneficial changes in musculoskeletal fitness that were specific to the training stimulus. PMID:22592178

  10. Relationship of Physical Fitness Measures vs. Occupational Physical Ability in Campus Law Enforcement Officers.

    PubMed

    Beck, Annie Q; Clasey, Jody L; Yates, James W; Koebke, Nicole C; Palmer, Thomas G; Abel, Mark G

    2015-08-01

    Law enforcement officers (LEOs) on university campuses are required to perform a variety of physical occupational tasks. Identifying which physical fitness characteristics are associated with these occupational tasks will assist in the development of appropriate exercise programs and physical fitness assessments. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify physical fitness and demographic characteristics that were correlated with occupational tasks commonly performed by campus LEOs. The occupational assessment was conducted using an Officer Physical Ability Test (OPAT), which simulated a foot chase of a suspect. Sixteen male LEOs (age: 33.1 ± 8.7 years; body mass: 87.2 ± 11.2 kg; height: 179.0 ± 7.9 cm) performed the OPAT. A battery of physical fitness tests were used to assess aerobic capacity, muscular endurance, strength, power, flexibility, agility, and body composition. Bivariate correlations were performed to identify significant (p ≤ 0.05) correlations between physical fitness characteristics and OPAT time. The officers' age was significantly correlated to the majority of OPAT tasks, physical fitness, and anthropometric assessments. Therefore, partial correlations were used to control for the confounding effects of age. After controlling for the officers' age, the overall OPAT time was significantly correlated with agility (r = 0.57) and aerobic endurance (r = -0.65). Furthermore, push-up, curl-up, body mass, waist circumference, and abdominal circumference were significantly correlated to individual OPAT tasks. In conclusion, exercise programs and fitness assessments should be used for campus LEOs that address a variety of physical fitness characteristics associated with occupational performance. In addition, exercise programs should focus on body composition management and fitness for older LEOs.

  11. Burnout and self-perceptions of physical fitness in a sample of Italian physical education teachers.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Attilio; Scarpa, Stefano; Gobbi, Erica; Bertollo, Maurizio; Robazza, Claudio

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the relations of physical education teachers' burnout with some individual variables, including teachers' self-perceived physical fitness and the perceived influence of personal fitness on teaching. Participants were 219 Italian physical education teachers in secondary school. Demographic and professional information, ratings of self-perception of physical condition, and the Italian version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory were recorded. Compared to the data of a normative sample, average scores on the three dimensions of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Emotional Exhaustion, Depersonalisation, and Reduced Personal Accomplishment) were found. There were statistically significant associations among Reduced Personal Accomplishment, the self-perception of physical fitness, and the perception of the influence of personal fitness on teaching. Women reported scores on Emotional Exhaustion and Reduced Personal Accomplishment indicative of greater severity than men. No significant differences appeared to be related to the years of teaching. Recommendations for further studies are discussed.

  12. Child's Letter to President John F. Kennedy about Physical Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNatt, Missy

    2009-01-01

    On March 3, 1963, nine-year-old Jack Chase of Torrance, California, wrote a letter to President John F. Kennedy. In his single-page note, featured in this article, Jack described his plans for staying physically fit. He said he would walk to school, the store, and the library "because I know a strong boy makes a strong man and a strong man makes a…

  13. Contribution of Organized and Nonorganized Activity to Children's Motor Skills and Fitness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardy, Louise L.; O'Hara, Blythe J.; Rogers, Kris; St George, Alexis; Bauman, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Background: To examine the associations between children's organized physical activity (OPA), nonorganized physical activity (NOPA), and health-related outcomes (fundamental movement skill [FMS] fitness). Methods: Cross-sectional survey of children aged 10-16?years (N?=?4273). Organized physical activity and NOPA were assessed by self-report,…

  14. Maintaining Your Health & Physical Fitness: Expert Recommendations | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    The evidence is clear—physical activity helps to reduce the risk of heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. But did you know that it also has many other benefits that support your overall well-being? Other benefits include more positive mood, increased energy, better sleep, and improved stress management. So how much physical activity do we need?

  15. A Survey of Health-Related Physical Fitness Knowledge Among Preservice and Inservice Physical Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael G.; Housner, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Assessed the health-related physical-fitness knowledge of preservice and inservice physical education teachers and graduate students in physical education and exercise physiology. Survey results indicated that exercise-physiology graduate students surpassed all others in knowledge. Though preservice teachers had relatively poor knowledge levels,…

  16. A case-control study to investigate the relation between low and moderate levels of physical activity and osteoarthritis of the knee using data collected as part of the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, A; Muir, K; Mockett, S; Fentem, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Physical activity is being recommended as an intervention for seemingly almost universal improvements to health. A potential concern with this recommendation for increased exercise is that some believe increased levels of activity may lead to increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the knee (knee OA), as a result of accelerated "wear and tear" of the major joints.
OBJECTIVE—To investigate the hypothesis that the occurrence of knee OA may be related to the duration of participation in some forms of sport and active recreation.
METHODS—The relation between habitual exercise, reported by a cross section of people surveyed in England, and self reported knee OA was investigated. Data were derived from the Allied Dunbar National Fitness Survey (1990-91). A matched retrospective case-control design was used and a new exposure classification system which categorised different grades of activities for different time periods for each subject's lifetime participation in regular physical activities was developed. Additional data on knee injuries sustained and bodily composition were also included in a multivariate analysis.
RESULTS—From 4316 people originally interviewed, 216 eligible cases (66 men, 150 women) were identified (mean age 57.1). Each case was matched to four controls. When habitual sport/exercise participation were examined during a subject's life, only exposure to regular long walks and being physically active between the ages of 20 and 24 suggested any association with developing knee OA later in life. The only strong association found was a greatly increased risk of knee OA having previously sustained a knee injury (p<0.01, odds ratio 8.0 (95% confidence interval 2.0 to 32.0)).
CONCLUSIONS—There was little evidence to suggest that increased levels of regular physical activity throughout life lead to an increased risk of knee OA later in life. Previous knee injury was associated with an increased risk of knee OA

  17. Effects of a Cognitively Demanding Aerobic Intervention During Recess on Children's Physical Fitness and Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    van der Niet, Anneke G; Smith, Joanne; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Scherder, Erik J A; Hartman, Esther; Visscher, Chris

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effects of a physical activity program including both aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities on children's physical fitness and executive functions. Children from 3 primary schools (aged 8-12 years) were recruited. A quasi-experimental design was used. Children in the intervention group (n = 53; 19 boys, 34 girls) participated in a 22-week physical activity program for 30 min during lunch recess, twice a week. Children in the control group (n = 52; 32 boys, 20 girls) followed their normal lunch routine. Aerobic fitness, speed and agility, and muscle strength were assessed using the Eurofit test battery. Executive functions were assessed using tasks measuring inhibition (Stroop test), working memory (Visual Memory Span test, Digit Span test), cognitive flexibility (Trailmaking test), and planning (Tower of London). Children in the intervention group showed significantly greater improvement than children in the control group on the Stroop test and Digit Span test, reflecting enhanced inhibition and verbal working memory skills, respectively. No differences were found on any of the physical fitness variables. A physical activity program including aerobic exercise and cognitively engaging physical activities can enhance aspects of executive functioning in primary school children.

  18. Preschoolers’ Physical Activity Behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Jennifer D.; He, Meizi; Bouck, L. Michelle Sangster; Tucker, Patricia; Pollett, Graham L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To understand parents’ perspectives of their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours. Methods A maximum variation sample of 71 parents explored their preschoolers’ physical activity behaviours through 10 semi-structured focus group discussions. Results Parents perceived Canada’s Physical Activity Guidelines for Children as inadequate; that their preschoolers get and need more than 30–90 minutes of activity daily; and that physical activity habits must be established during the preschool years. Nine barriers against and facilitators toward adequate physical activity were proposed: child’s age, weather, daycare, siblings, finances, time, society and safety, parents’ impact, and child’s activity preferences. Discussion The need for education and interventions that address current barriers are essential for establishing physical activity as a lifestyle behaviour during early childhood and, consequently, helping to prevent both childhood and adulthood obesity. PMID:16625802

  19. Influence of activity patterns in fitness during youth.

    PubMed

    Aires, L; Silva, G; Martins, C; Santos, M P; Ribeiro, J C; Mota, J

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze longitudinal associations between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity and body mass index in a 4-year longitudinal study. 170 students (97 girls and 73 boys) aged at baseline from 11 to 17 years were followed. Students performed 20-m-SR; physical activity patterns and parents' education were evaluated using a standard questionnaire. Body mass index was categorized according to established cut points. In a multilevel analysis using MLwIN, 2 level structures were defined: first for individuals and second for time observations. In a longitudinal 2 level analysis, cardiorespiratory fitness was -negatively associated with body mass index for girls and boys, respectively (p<0.05; R2=0.63; 0.62), especially with obesity category (p<0.01; R2=0.58; 0.60). In girls, independent associations were observed between CRF and PA categories regarding participation "almost every day" in organized (p<0.05; R2=0.50) and non-organized sports outside school (p<0.05; R2=0.52) and participation in sports competitions (p<0.05; R2=0.51). In boys, associations were found only with participation in sports competitions (p<0.05; R2=0.50). The results highlight the importance of youth participation in organized activities and competitive sports over time to achieve health-related fitness benefits.

  20. Interventions for promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Charles; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Thorogood, Margaret; Kaur, Asha; Wedatilake, Thamindu

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about the effectiveness of strategies to enable people to achieve and maintain recommended levels of physical activity. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of interventions designed to promote physical activity in adults aged 16 years and older, not living in an institution. Search methods We searched The Cochrane Library (issue 1 2005), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycLIT, BIDS ISI, SPORTDISCUS, SIGLE, SCISEARCH (from earliest dates available to December 2004). Reference lists of relevant articles were checked. No language restrictions were applied. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials that compared different interventions to encourage sedentary adults not living in an institution to become physically active. Studies required a minimum of six months follow up from the start of the intervention to the collection of final data and either used an intention-to-treat analysis or, failing that, had no more than 20% loss to follow up. Data collection and analysis At least two reviewers independently assessed each study quality and extracted data. Study authors were contacted for additional information where necessary. Standardised mean differences and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous measures of self-reported physical activity and cardio-respiratory fitness. For studies with dichotomous outcomes, odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Main results The effect of interventions on self-reported physical activity (19 studies; 7598 participants) was positive and moderate (pooled SMD random effects model 0.28 95% CI 0.15 to 0.41) as was the effect of interventions (11 studies; 2195 participants) on cardio-respiratory fitness (pooled SMD random effects model 0.52 95% CI 0.14 to 0.90). There was significant heterogeneity in the reported effects as well as heterogeneity in characteristics of the interventions. The heterogeneity in reported effects was reduced in higher quality studies, when physical

  1. A Comparative Study on the Effects of Traditional versus Wholistic Physical Fitness Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Teresa B.; And Others

    This experimental investigation compared the traditional and wholistic approaches to physical fitness. Volunteers from a physical education class were randomly assigned to three experimental groups: physical fitness, fitness/stress management, and fitness/stress management/wellness. A control group was selected from volunteers of a personal health…

  2. Preschool motor development predicting high school health-related physical fitness: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Eric; Baghurst, Timothy M; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2014-08-01

    To address the obesity epidemic there is an increasing effort to emphasize physical activity and fitness in adolescence as opposed to fundamental motor skills. However, what effect this might have on health-related fitness is unclear. This study sought to determine the degree to which motor development competencies in preschool could predict high school fitness. In the initial study, participants were 143 male and 139 female preschoolers (M age = 4.8 yr., SD = 0.7) from four preschool programs in suburban area of a Southern state who completed the Test of Gross Motor Development. Eleven years later, 75 boys and 65 girls (M age = 15.8 yr., SD = 0.7) from the original sample were located and completed the AAHPERD Health Related Fitness Test (1.5 mile run, sit-up, sit-and-reach, body fat percentage). Test of Gross Motor Development scores were found to be strong predictors for all measures of fitness, but object control skills were more predictive of overall physical fitness than locomotor skills. Therefore, educators should consider teaching sport skill development in early childhood over general activity to improve long-term fitness.

  3. Physical Activity in Physical Education: Are Longer Lessons Better?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Nicole J.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Lounsbery, Monica A. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) outcomes in a sample of high school (HS) physical education (PE) lessons from schools that adopted "traditional" versus "modified block" schedule formats. Methods: We used the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) to conduct observations…

  4. Physical Activity and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... of scientists, ranging from experts in basic biological science to those with expertise in community behavioral interventions to increase physical activity. This combination of scientists and expertise will ...

  5. Health-Related Fitness Models in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Jennifer; Kulinna, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Physical education has been an integral part of the school curriculum for more than a century. Although the focus has changed over time, the major objective has remained relatively constant: to provide students with the knowledge, skills, abilities, behaviors, and confidence to be physically active throughout their lifetime. As more physical…

  6. The Effects Of An Exercise Physiology Program on Physical Fitness Variables, Body Satisfaction, and Physiology Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Arlette C.; Rosenblatt, Evelyn S.; Kempner, Lani; Feldman, Brandon B.; Paolercio, Maria A.; Van Bemden, Angie L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of an exercise physiology program on high school students' physical fitness, body satisfaction, and physiology knowledge. Intervention students received exercise physiology theory and active aerobic and resistance exercise within their biology course. Data from student surveys and measurements indicated that the integrated…

  7. Personality Differences of Adult Men Before and After a Physical Fitness Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, R. John; Ismail, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    While all subjects improved on personality factors measuring social precision, persistence, and control after a physical fitness program of jogging, calisthenics, and recreational activities, a longer and intensified period of regular exercise is necessary to cause a dramatic change in personality parameters.

  8. Physical Activity Fundamental to Preventing Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    Regular physical activity, fitness, and exercise are critically important for all people's health and wellbeing. It can reduce morbidity and mortality from many chronic diseases. Despite its well-known benefits, most U.S. adults, and many children, are not active enough to achieve these health benefits. Physical inactivity and related health…

  9. PASS: Creating Physically Active School Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciotto, Carol M.; Fede, Marybeth H.

    2014-01-01

    PASS, a Physically Active School System, is a program by which school districts and schools utilize opportunities for school-based physical activity that enhance overall fitness and cognition, which can be broken down into four integral parts consisting of connecting, communicating, collaborating, and cooperating. There needs to be an…

  10. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Cancer.gov

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  11. [Physical exercise, fitness and health: a decade of sport for all and health promotion in China].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye

    2014-08-01

    In the 21st century, physical inactivity was identified as the fourth leading risk factor in the global scope of deaths. Followed by an introduction about the studies that have been conducted on health promotion through physical activities, this article presents related programs, policies and guidelines worked out for promoting physical activity participation in both developed and developing countries in addition to those designed by WHO over the past ten years. Discussion is focused on Chinese people's physical activity participation, people's fitness and health, and research results in respect to scientific instructions contributing to sports and physical activities. The latest findings achieved in the field of health promotion are also covered in this review.

  12. Enhanced bone mass and physical fitness in prepubescent basketball players.

    PubMed

    Zribi, Anis; Zouch, Mohamed; Chaari, Hamada; Bouajina, Elyes; Zaouali, Monia; Nebigh, Ammar; Tabka, Zouhair

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of basketball practice on bone acquisition in the prepubertal age. In total, 48 prepubescent male basketball players aged 11.1 ± 0.8 yr, Tanner stage 1, were compared with 50 controls matched for age and pubertal stage. Areal bone mineral density, bone mineral content (BMC), and bone area (BA) in deferent sites associated with anthropometric parameters were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Running and jumping tests were performed. Analysis of Student's impaired t-test revealed that basketball players attained better results in all physical fitness tests (p < 0.05). They also exhibited significantly greater BMC and BA in whole body, upper and lower extremities, trochanter, total hip, and whole right and left radius (p < 0.001) compared with the controls. No significant differences were observed between groups in right and left ultradistal and third distal radius and spinal regions, BMC, and BA, whereas a significant positive correlation was reported between lean mass, BMC, and BA of lower limbs. In summary, basketball practice in prepubertal age is associated with improved physical fitness and enhanced lean and bone mass in loaded sites.

  13. Need to Develop Physical Fitness? Head for the Pool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    For children who do not particularly enjoy physical activity, water can entice and stimulate participation in even the most reluctant. Individuals exercising in water do not feel overheated or sweaty. Fun activities engage the mind in positive thoughts. This reduces focus on how hard something is and creates an "I can do this" outlook that is so…

  14. ANTHROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND PHYSICAL FITNESS LEVEL IN RELATION TO BODY WEIGHT STATUS IN CHILEAN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Cadenas-Sánchez, Cristina; Artero, Enrique G; Concha, Fernando; Leyton, Bárbara; Kain, Juliana

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of low-income Chilean preschool children and to examine whether weight status influences children's performance on fitness tests. A total of 434 preschool children (246 boys; 5.48 ± 0.31 years) participated in our study. Anthropometry (weight, height, body mass index -BMI- and waist circumference) and fitness tests (handgrip strength test, standing long jump and 20 m sprint) were assessed by trained nutritionists and physical education teachers, respectively. Significant differences in anthropometry and fitness tests between boys and girls were found. The prevalence of overweight was higher in girls; in contrast to that of obesity. Compared to normal-weight children, overweight/obese boys and girls were heavier and had greater waist circumference (P < 0.001), were taller (P ≤ 0.002), and showed higher performance in handgrip strength (P ≤ 0.027) but not in standing long jump nor 20 m sprint (P ≥ 0.052). Screening physical fitness levels in overweight/obese preschool children could be an important tool in order to design an efficacy physical activity programme.

  15. Physical Activity and Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Emily S.; Fisher, Naomi D.; Forman, John P.; Curhan, Gary C.

    2010-01-01

    Higher urinary albumin excretion predicts future cardiovascular disease, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. Physical activity improves endothelial function so activity may reduce albuminuria. Among diabetics, physical activity decreases albuminuria. In nondiabetics, prior studies have shown no association. The authors explored the cross-sectional association between physical activity and albuminuria in 3,587 nondiabetic women in 2 US cohorts, the Nurses’ Health Study I in 2000 and the Nurses’ Health Study II in 1997. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalents per week. The outcome was the top albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) decile. Multivariate logistic regression was used. Secondary analyses explored the ACR association with strenuous activity and walking. The mean age was 58.6 years. Compared with women in the lowest physical activity quintile, those in the highest quintile had a multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile of 0.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.46, 0.93). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the top ACR decile for those with greater than 210 minutes per week of strenuous activity compared with no strenuous activity was 0.61 (95% CI: 0.37, 0.99), and for those in the highest quintile of walking compared with the lowest quintile, it was 0.69 (95% CI: 0.47, 1.02). Greater physical activity is associated with a lower ACR in nondiabetic women. PMID:20133515

  16. Physical Fitness in Older People Recently Diagnosed with Cognitive Impairment Compared to Older People Recently Discharged from Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Hesseberg, Karin; Bergland, Astrid; Rydwik, Elisabeth; Brovold, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims There is evidence of an association between cognitive function and physical fitness. The aim of this study was to compare physical fitness in patients with cognitive impairment with a group of older people recently discharged from hospital. Methods A cross-sectional study with 98 patients recently diagnosed with cognitive impairment and 115 patients recently discharged from hospital. Associations between the study group variable and different components in the Senior fitness test were examined, controlling for demographic factors and comorbidity. Results The group recently diagnosed with cognitive impairment indicated poorer results on three of six physical fitness components (p < 0.05). Conclusion Older adults with cognitive impairment are in need of individually tailored physical activity programs to increase the level of physical fitness. PMID:27703472

  17. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported. PMID:27528524

  18. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported.

  19. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....” (b)(1) Incumbent security police officers shall meet the applicable physical fitness qualification... are permitted. (c) Each security police officer shall meet the applicable medical and physical...

  20. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....” (b)(1) Incumbent security police officers shall meet the applicable physical fitness qualification... are permitted. (c) Each security police officer shall meet the applicable medical and physical...

  1. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....” (b)(1) Incumbent security police officers shall meet the applicable physical fitness qualification... are permitted. (c) Each security police officer shall meet the applicable medical and physical...

  2. Toward a Cost/Benefit Analysis of Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Roy J.

    1986-01-01

    This article, which is based, in part, on a paper presented to the Canadian Association of Sport Sciences, Quebec City, in November 1985, evaluates the principles of cost/benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis in the specific context of fitness programming. Because of difficulties in valuing all aspects of fitness and health—particularly survival after retirement—cost-effectiveness analysis is generally preferred. Allowance must be made for inflation, the discount rate (except in a “steady state” analysis), marginal costs of program expansion, opportunity costs incurred by participants, the changing fabric of society, the economic multiplication of investment in fitness, and anticipated participation rates. Benefits may be observed by the individual (improved health), the corporation (reduced turnover and absenteeism, increased productivity, fewer injuries), and the state (reduced direct and indirect costs of illness, improved lifestyle, reduced demand for geriatric services). Program costs vary widely with the activity that is undertaken, but even daily walking involves the participant in some expense. Employee programs often cost $500-$750 per participant/year, while, depending on the sport and local speculation by land “developers”, community programs may cost $175-$1,000 per participant/year. Cost/effectiveness analyses allow governments to reach informed decisions, but they cannot always answer associated ethical problems such as determining the value of human life, and the rights of the individual as opposed to those of society. PMID:21267294

  3. Physical Fitness in Older People with ID--Concept and Measuring Instruments: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2010-01-01

    A certain level of physical fitness is a prerequisite for independent functioning and self-care, but the level of physical fitness declines with ageing. This applies to older adult with intellectual disabilities too, but very little is known about their actual level of physical fitness. This lack of knowledge is partly caused by a lack of suitable…

  4. Developing a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale for Hong Kong Primary School-Aged Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Zi; Bond, Trevor G.

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop a Rasch Measurement Physical Fitness Scale (RMPFS) based on physical fitness indicators routinely used in Hong Kong primary schools. A total of 9,439 records of students' performances on physical fitness indicators, retrieved from the database of a Hong Kong primary school, were used to develop the…

  5. Physical Fitness in People with Mental Retardation. Arc Q&A #101-49

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimmer, James H.

    This fact sheet uses a question-and-answer format to summarize issues related to physical fitness in people with mental retardation. Questions and answers address the following topics: a definition of "physical fitness"; the components of physical fitness (muscle strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition, and cardiovascular endurance);…

  6. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  7. 10 CFR 1046.11 - Medical and physical fitness qualification standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....” (b)(1) Incumbent security police officers shall meet the applicable physical fitness qualification... are permitted. (c) Each security police officer shall meet the applicable medical and physical fitness... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical and physical fitness qualification standards....

  8. Is Physical Fitness Associated with Health in Overweight and Obese Youth? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millard-Stafford, Melinda; Becasen, Jeffrey S.; Beets, Michael W.; Nihiser, Allison J.; Lee, Sarah M.; Fulton, Janet E.

    2015-01-01

    A systematic review of literature was conducted to examine the association between changes in health-related fitness (e.g. aerobic capacity and muscular strength /endurance) and chronic disease risk factors in overweight and/or obese youth. Studies published from 2000–2010 were included if the physical activity intervention was a randomized controlled trial and reported changes in fitness and health outcomes by direction and significance (p< 0.05) of the effect. Aerobic capacity improved in 91% and muscular fitness improved in 82% of measures reported. Nearly all studies (32 of 33) reported improvement in at least one fitness test. Changes in outcomes related to adiposity, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, metabolic, and mental/emotional health improved in 60%, 32%, 53%, 41%, and 33% of comparisons studied, respectively. In conclusion, overweight and obese youth can improve physical fitness across a variety of test measures. When fitness improves, beneficial health effects are observed in some, but not all chronic disease risk factors. PMID:26457234

  9. Physical fitness and overweight in Israeli children with and without developmental coordination disorder: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Lifshitz, N; Raz-Silbiger, S; Weintraub, N; Steinhart, S; Cermak, S A; Katz, N

    2014-11-01

    Physical fitness and overweight among children has become paramount in the general population and more so in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the current study was to examine the association between physical fitness and overweight in a sample of Israeli children in comparison to typical children, and to examine gender differences. DCD was identified through total scores on the movement assessment battery for children 2 (MABC-2) equal to or less than the 16th percentile as well as parents' report that the child's deficits in motor skills interfered with at least two daily life activities. The sample included a group of children with DCD (n=22, M age=8.70 [SD=1.36], 16 boys [73%]) and a control group of typical children (n=47, M age=8.90 [SD=1.52], 34 boys [72%]). Measures included the strength subtest of the Bruininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency (BOT-2), the six minutes' walk test (6MWT) with heart rate measure, BMI and the percentage of body fat. Significant differences between DCD and typical children were found on all variables of physical fitness and weight. A two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis (group/gender) also revealed significant interactions for the percentage of body fat (F=8.51, p<.005) and BMI (F=4.50, p<.038) meaning that less fit children are more obese. The current study supports previous findings that children with DCD are less physically fit and more overweight compared to typically developing children. Moreover, in comparing between the genders, the girls in the study sample weighed more and had a significantly higher percentage of body fat than boys, it is essential to further our understanding of the relationships between obesity, physical fitness and gender among children with and without DCD.

  10. The Elderly's Need for Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foret, Claire M.; Clemons, James M.

    1996-01-01

    This article provides: information on the importance of physical activity for older adults and guidelines to ensure safe and successful activity. It discusses the need for activity, risk levels, prescription of exercise intensity, determination of entry level fitness and monitoring of improvement, and the role of the professional. (SM)

  11. The Effect of Group Counseling and Physical Fitness Programs on Self-Esteem and Cardiovascular Fitness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Robert B.

    A study was made to determine the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and self-esteem. Ninth grade boys were divided into four groups: (1) the cardiovascular fitness group; (2) the counseling group; (3) the cardiovascular fitness and counseling group; and (4) the control group. All were administered a pretest and posttest measuring…

  12. Physical Activity Promotion and School Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, James R., Jr.; Jackson, Allen W.; Payne, V. Gregory

    1999-01-01

    This report examines school physical education (PE) and how it can be an important part of the national physical activity promotion effort. Section 1 introduces the issue of youth activity and PE, noting that schools and universities must reintroduce daily, quality physical activity as a key component of comprehensive education. Section 2…

  13. The effects of five weeks of kickboxing training on physical fitness

    PubMed Central

    Ouergui, Ibrahim; Hssin, Nizar; Haddad, Monoem; Padulo, Johnny; Franchini, Emerson; Gmada, Nabil; Bouhlel, Ezzedine

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim: the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of kickboxing training on physical fitness. Methods: 30 subjects were randomized into a kickboxing-group (n=15) and control group (n=15). Each group trained approximately 1-hour per day, three-times per a week during five weeks. Muscle-power (upper-body: bench-press-test, medicine-ball-test; lower-body: squat-jump and counter-movement-jump-test), flexibility, speed and agility, aerobic (progressive maximal exercise test), anaerobic fitness (Wingate test) and body composition were assessed before and after the training period. Results: the kickboxing group showed significant improvement (p < 0.05) in upper-body muscle power, aerobic power, anaerobic fitness, flexibility, speed and agility after training whereas body composition, squat jump and counter movement jump (height, power and velocity components) did not change for both groups. Conclusion: kickboxing-practice was effective to change many physical variables. Thus, this activity can be useful for enhancing physical fitness, but complementary activities and/or nutritional interventions should be necessary. PMID:25332919

  14. The Effect of a Three-Month Physical Fitness Program on Serum Free Cholesterol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, D. L.; Ismail, A. H.

    This study investigates the effect of a three-month physical fitness program on serum-free cholesterol concentration in four age and fitness adult groups. Twenty-four men were divided into the following groups: (a) young, low-fit; (b) old, low-fit; (c) young, high-fit; and (d) old, high-fit. All subjects had normal resting glucose and triglyceride…

  15. Obesity, Physical Activity - Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, Thomas B.

    Childhood obesity starts at a very early age, and preventive measures taken early enough may retard the development of fat cells. It appears that physical activity plays an important role in reducing obesity. The activity program must start early, in preschool days. It is felt that screening children for obesity when they first enter school and…

  16. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Exercise Current Sports Medicine Reports Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ACSM's Health & Fitness Journal Guidelines Books & Multimedia Sports Medicine Basics Fact Sheets Sports Medicine & Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Fit ...

  17. Walkability and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  18. The Effects of a Lifetime Physical Fitness (LPF) Course on College Students’ Health Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    QUARTIROLI, ALESSANDRO; MAEDA, HOTAKA

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine motivational constructs and the effect of physical activity engagement on health behaviors in college students who were required to take a 15-week lifetime physical fitness (LPF) course for graduation. A total of fifty-eight first and second year college students aged between 17 and 23 years (M=18.72; SD=1.09). Paper and pencil questionnaires were anonymously administered at the beginning and at the end of the 15-week long spring 2012 semester. Analysis of the differences between the beginning and the end of the semester was completed. Physical activity behaviors and Behavioral Regulations variables did not change across time (p > .05). Appearance (d = −0.34, p = .013) and fitness (d = −0.37, p = .006) reasons for participating in physical activity and all Theory of Planned Behavior variables decreased over time (d = −0.32 to − 0.41, p < .05). Changes in attitude toward physical activity negatively predicted changes in alcohol consumption (r = −.261 to −.357). This study sustains the already existing literature that supports the positive impact of LPF courses offered to college students. PMID:27293510

  19. Active gel physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prost, J.; Jülicher, F.; Joanny, J.-F.

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical behaviour of cells is largely controlled by a structure that is fundamentally out of thermodynamic equilibrium: a network of crosslinked filaments subjected to the action of energy-transducing molecular motors. The study of this kind of active system was absent from conventional physics and there was a need for both new theories and new experiments. The field that has emerged in recent years to fill this gap is underpinned by a theory that takes into account the transduction of chemical energy on the molecular scale. This formalism has advanced our understanding of living systems, but it has also had an impact on research in physics per se. Here, we describe this developing field, its relevance to biology, the novelty it conveys to other areas of physics and some of the challenges in store for the future of active gel physics.

  20. Relationship between Socioeconomic Status and Physical Fitness in Junior High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohr, Adam D.; Brown, Dale D.; Laurson, Kelly R.; Smith, Peter J. K.; Bass, Ronald W.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on physical fitness often regards socioeconomic status (SES) as a confounding factor. However, few studies investigate the impact of SES on fitness. This study investigated the impact of SES on physical fitness in both males and females, with an economic-based construct of SES. Methods: The sample consisted of 954 6th, 7th,…

  1. Determinants of Teacher Implementation of Youth Fitness Tests in School-Based Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Xiaofen Deng; Silverman, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Background: Millions of American children are participating in fitness testing in school-based physical education (PE) programs. However, practitioners and researchers in the field of PE have questioned the need for regular or mandatory youth fitness testing. This was partly because a significant improvement in youth fitness and physical activity…

  2. Health-Related Physical Fitness in Hungarian Youth: Age, Sex, and Regional Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Csányi, Tamás

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine region, age, and sex profiles of physical fitness in Hungarian youth. Method: A sample of 2,602 Hungarian youth aged 10 to 18 years old completed a series of physical fitness field tests: the Progressive Aerobic Cardiorespiratory Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test, body mass index (BMI), percent…

  3. [Physical activity and obesity].

    PubMed

    Winkler, S; Hebestreit, A; Ahrens, W

    2012-01-01

    One reason for the high prevalence of overweight and obesity might be the differences in lifestyle compared to earlier decades, called the "obesogenic environment." With this, the decline in physical activity (PA) in favor of a sedentary lifestyle is assumed to play an important role. Physical activity or inactivity has a major impact on the development of overweight and obesity as well as on certain metabolic disorders. This review summarizes current scientific knowledge regarding the association between PA and overweight/obesity. The term "physical activity" is defined and different methods of its assessment are introduced. In addition, certain methods for the evaluation/operationalization of collected PA data are described. Finally, some epidemiological studies dealing with the associations between PA and overweight/obesity in children/adolescents as well as in adults are presented.

  4. A policy-driven multifaceted approach for early childhood physical fitness promotion: impacts on body composition and physical fitness in young Chinese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity increased while certain measures of physical fitness deteriorated in preschool children in China over the past decade. This study tested the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention that integrated childcare center, families, and community to promote healthy growth and physical fitness in preschool Chinese children. Methods This 12-month study was conducted using a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest design with comparison group. The participants were 357 children (mean age = 4.5 year) enrolled in three grade levels in two childcare centers in Beijing, China. The intervention included: 1) childcare center intervention (physical activity policy changes, teacher training, physical education curriculum and food services training), 2) family intervention (parent education, internet website for support, and family events), and 3) community intervention (playground renovation and community health promotion events). The study outcome measures included body composition (percent body fat, fat mass, and muscle mass), Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-score and physical fitness scores in 20-meter agility run (20M-AR), broad jump for distance (BJ), timed 10-jumps, tennis ball throwing (TBT), sit and reach (SR), balance beam walk (BBW), 20-meter crawl (20M-C)), 30-meter sprint (30M-S)) from a norm referenced test. Measures of process evaluation included monitoring of children’s physical activity (activity time and intensity) and food preparation records, and fidelity of intervention protocol implementation. Results Children in the intervention center significantly lowered their body fat percent (−1.2%, p < 0.0001), fat mass (−0.55 kg, p <0.0001), and body weight (0.36 kg, p <0.02) and increased muscle mass (0.48 kg, p <0.0001), compared to children in the control center. They also improved all measures of physical fitness except timed 10-jumps (20M-AR: −0.74 seconds, p < 0.0001; BJ: 8.09 cm, p < 0.0001; TBT: 0

  5. [Adolescents' physical activity].

    PubMed

    Pagaeva, E K; Misho, P -A; Zhanin, A; Chanturishvili, T P; Pagaeva, K I

    2006-01-01

    The paper defines the parameters reflecting the physical activity of adolescents and their correlation with health and a risk of behavioral disorders, bad habits, and cravings. A total of 9499 Georgian adolescents aged 14-18 years, the senior (9th-llth-form) pupils, selected through two-step cluster sampling were surveyed. The pupils anonymously filled in special questionnaires. This yielded the parameters reflecting the intensity of physical activity of the adolescents and the latter's going in for sports. The parameters were shown to have a beneficial effect on health, including mental health, and on the magnitude of unhealthy behavior.

  6. Urban-rural contrasts in the physical fitness of school children in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Peña Reyes, Maria Eugenia; Tan, Swee Kheng; Malina, Robert M

    2003-01-01

    The physical fitness of school children resident in an urban colonia and in a rural indigenous community in Oaxaca, southern Mexico, was compared. Two measures of performance-related fitness (standing long jump, 35-yard dash [32 m]) and four measures of health-related fitness (grip strength, sit and reach, timed sit-ups, distance run) were taken on 355 rural (175 boys, 184 girls) and 324 urban (163 boys, 161 girls) school children, 6-13 years of age. Urban children were significantly taller and heavier than rural children. Absolute grip strength did not consistently differ between rural and urban children, but when adjusted for age and body size, strength was greater in rural children. Explosive power (standing long jump) and abdominal strength and endurance (timed sit-ups) were better in urban than in rural children without and with adjustment for age and body size. Urban-rural differences in running speed (dash) and flexibility (sit and reach) varied by age group and sex. Younger rural children and older urban girls performed better in the distance run, whereas older rural and urban boys did not differ in endurance. The size advantage of urban children does not necessarily translate into better levels of performance- and health-related physical fitness. The observed differences may be related to activity habits associated with school physical education and lifestyle in the respective communities.

  7. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  8. Analysis of physical fitness and coronary heart disease risk of Dallas area police officers.

    PubMed

    Pollock, M L; Gettman, L R; Meyer, B U

    1978-06-01

    Two hundred thirteen male police officers between 21 and 52 years of age volunteered to participate in a physical evaluation and conditioning program. Information concerning the physical fitness status and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) of police officers were shown. Younger police officers (less than 30 years of age) were average in physical fitness levels and CHD risk compared to the population of the same age. Middle-aged police officers were shown to be lower in physical fitness levels and higher in CHD risk compared to their cohorts. The results from this investigation support the need for physical fitness and preventive medicine programs for police officers.

  9. Military Services Fitness Database: Development of a Computerized Physical Fitness and Weight Management Database for the U.S. Army

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Donald A.; Bathalon, Gaston P.; Sigrist, Lori D.; Allen, H. Raymond; Friedl, Karl E.; Young, Andrew J.; Martin, Corby K.; Stewart, Tiffany M.; Burrell, Lolita; Han, Hongmei; Hubbard, Van S.; Ryan, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Department of Defense (DoD) has mandated development of a system to collect and manage data on the weight, percent body fat (%BF), and fitness of all military personnel. This project aimed to (1) develop a computerized weight and fitness database to track individuals and Army units over time allowing cross-sectional and longitudinal evaluations and (2) test the computerized system for feasibility and integrity of data collection over several years of usage. The computer application, the Military Services Fitness Database (MSFD), was designed for (1) storage and tracking of data related to height, weight, %BF for the Army Weight Control Program (AWCP) and Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) scores and (2) generation of reports using these data. A 2.5-year pilot test of the MSFD indicated that it monitors population and individual trends of changing body weight, %BF, and fitness in a military population. PMID:19216292

  10. Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Letty P.

    1978-01-01

    Described are three physical activity games designed to help young children develop a sense of mastery over their bodies: (which will in turn improve their self concepts): a poem to be acted out, Simon Says, and a story play to be acted out. (DLS)

  11. Physical Activities for Preschool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkins, Dorothy C.; And Others

    The underlying premise of the University of Hawaii Physical Activities for Preschool curriculum is that important contributions to a positive self-concept are made by motor independence and a realistic body image. Program objectives include: (1) the development of strength, endurance, and flexibility in skills that involve the muscles,…

  12. Physical activity and obesity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A

    1999-04-01

    The regular practice of physical activity promotes metabolic adaptations that facilitate the regulation of energy and fat balance. These effects are important for a better control of body weight in the obese individual and should enable him or her to involve adipose tissue to a lesser extent in this regulation. Physical activity favours a negative energy and fat balance, particularly if activities are prolonged and vigorous. The achievement of a negative energy and fat balance with physical activity also strongly depends on the nutritional context in which it is performed. In the long term, an active lifestyle and low-fat food habits are expected to induce a substantial body weight loss in the obese. This weight loss is progressively attenuated over time, presumably because of the decreased impact of a reduced adipose tissue mass on the regulation of energy and fat balance. For the obese individual complying with an activity programme and healthy food habits, a body weight loss of 10% is a realistic goal before the occurrence of resistance to further loss of body fat.

  13. Status of Older Adult Physical Activity Programs in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitmann, Helen M.

    1984-01-01

    Physical fitness and recreation programs can be a deterrent to premature aging. State-funded physical activity programs for older adults in Illinois offer minimal benefits due to volunteer and untrained personnel. Results of this study are presented. (DF)

  14. Relationship of Blood Cholesterol to Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Dietary Intake Measures in Third-Grade Children and Their Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; Gruber, Mary B.; Munoz, Kathy D.; MacConnie, Susan E.; Pfingston, Yvonne M.; Nguyen, Kim

    2001-01-01

    Investigated interrelationships between blood cholesterol levels, body composition, diet, and physical fitness among third graders and their parents. Data from blood and body measurements, children's physical fitness tests, parents' physical activity surveys, and children's and parents' dietary recalls highlighted significant mild-to-moderate…

  15. Evaluation of the Health Related Physical Fitness Status of Youth in the State of Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastad, Douglas N.; And Others

    This four-part booklet is the result of a project with four goals: (1) familiarize physical educators in Illinois with the four items of the American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance (AAHPERD) Health Related Physical Fitness Test; (2) design materials regarding implementation strategies for health related fitness that…

  16. Subgroups associated with lower physical fitness in older adults with ID: results of the HA-ID study.

    PubMed

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I M; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M

    2014-02-01

    Although physical fitness is generally very low in older adults with intellectual disabilities (ID), levels may differ across subgroups. It is important to identify which subgroups need to be targeted specifically in physical activity and fitness interventions and reference values. Physical fitness was measured with box-and-block-test, response-time-test, Berg-balance-scale, walking speed, grip strength, 30s-chair-stand, 10 m incremental-shuttle-walking test and the extended modified-back-saver-sit-and-reach-test in a large sample of older adults with ID (n=1050), and subgroups associated with lower physical fitness levels were identified applying multivariate linear regression analyses. Both fixed personal characteristics such as being older, being female, having more severe ID and having Down syndrome and modifiable or preventable factors such as physical activity levels, mobility impairments and a need of more intensive care, are independently associated with lower levels of multiple physical fitness components. This first study identifies subgroups of older adults with ID which require adapted reference values, and subgroups that need to be specifically targeted in fitness promotion programs.

  17. History of United States Army physical fitness and physical readiness training.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J; East, Whitfield B

    2014-01-01

    This article traces the history of US Army physical fitness assessments from the first test developed for Cadets at the US Military Academy in 1858 through efforts to revise the current Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT). The first "Individual Efficiency Test" (1920) for all Soldiers consisted of a 100-yard run, running broad jump, wall climb, hand grenade throw, and obstacle course. The first scientific efforts involved testing of 400 Soldiers and a factor analysis of 25 individual test items. In 1944, this resulted in a 7-item test (pull-up, burpee, squat jump, push-up, man-carry, sit-up and 300-yard run) with a 100-point scoring system. In 1943, women were encouraged to take a "self-assessment" consisting of push-ups, bent knee sit-ups, wing lifts, squat thrusts, running, and a stork stand. In 1946, age-adjusted standards were introduced and in 1965 semiannual fitness assessments were mandated. The number of tests proliferated in the 1969-1973 period with 7 separate assessments. The current APFT consisting of push-ups, sit-ups, and a 2-mile run was introduced in 1980 and alternative tests for those with physical limitations in 1982. Current efforts to revise the assessment involve systematic literature reviews and validating the relationship between test items and common Soldiering tasks.

  18. Physical Activity in Elderly.

    PubMed

    Cvecka, Jan; Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-08-24

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  19. Physical Activity in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Tirpakova, Veronika; Sedliak, Milan; Kern, Helmut; Mayr, Winfried; Hamar, Dušan

    2015-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared. PMID:26913164

  20. The Importance of Physical Fitness for Injury Prevention: Part 2.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    This report examines associations between injuries and flexibility, stretching, warm-up, and body composition. Military studies show that either too much or too little flexibility increases injury risk. Static stretching prior to exercise does not appear to reduce the overall injury incidence, although further research is needed on some types of injuries. Static stretching also appears to reduce strength and power (explosive strength). Warm-up (low intensity activity prior to exercise or sports) appears to reduce injury risk. Body mass index (BMI; weight in kg/ height in m²) is a surrogate measure of body fat because it is highly related to laboratory measures of body fat. However, Soldiers can also have a high BMI because of higher muscle mass. If high BMI reflects a larger percentage of body fat relative to height, injury risk might be increased because the additional fat would increase the intensity of physical activity, leading to more rapid fatigue and repetitive stress on the musculoskeletal system. Low BMI could reflect a paucity of fat or muscle/ bone, or both. Low BMI may make Soldiers more susceptible to injury if they lack the muscle mass or strength in the supportive structures (ligaments, bones) required to perform certain physical tasks, and if they overexert or overuse the available muscle mass or supportive structures. Studies in basic combat training show that both high and low BMI increases injury risk. However, studies among active duty Soldiers only show that injury risk increases as BMI increases, possibly because very few active duty Soldiers have very low BMI (i.e., less than 18 kg/m²).