Science.gov

Sample records for activity plan generator

  1. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  2. Planning activity for internally generated reward goals in monkey amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    Hernádi, István; Grabenhorst, Fabian; Schultz, Wolfram

    2015-03-01

    The best rewards are often distant and can only be achieved by planning and decision-making over several steps. We designed a multi-step choice task in which monkeys followed internal plans to save rewards toward self-defined goals. During this self-controlled behavior, amygdala neurons showed future-oriented activity that reflected the animal's plan to obtain specific rewards several trials ahead. This prospective activity encoded crucial components of the animal's plan, including value and length of the planned choice sequence. It began on initial trials when a plan would be formed, reappeared step by step until reward receipt, and readily updated with a new sequence. It predicted performance, including errors, and typically disappeared during instructed behavior. Such prospective activity could underlie the formation and pursuit of internal plans characteristic of goal-directed behavior. The existence of neuronal planning activity in the amygdala suggests that this structure is important in guiding behavior toward internally generated, distant goals.

  3. Planning activities in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Kai-Hsiung

    1987-01-01

    Three aspects of planning activities in space are presented. These include generating plans efficiently, coordinating actions among multiple agents, and recovering from plan execution errors. Each aspect is discussed separately.

  4. Active Learning Crosses Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Diane K.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the benefits of intergenerational programs, highlighting a child care program that offers age-appropriate and mutually beneficial activities for children and elders within a nearby retirement community. The program has adopted High/Scope's active learning approach to planning and implementing activities that involve both generations. The…

  5. Using plan reasoning in the generation of plan descriptions

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.M.

    1996-12-31

    Previous work on the generation of natural language descriptions of complex activities has indicated that the unwieldy amount of text needed to describe complete plans makes for ineffective and unnatural descriptions. We argue here that concise and effective text descriptions of plans can be generated by exploiting a model of the hearer`s plan reasoning capabilities. We define a computational model of the hearer`s interpretation process that views the interpretation of plan descriptions as refinement search through a space of partial plans. This model takes into account the hearer`s plan preferences and the resource limitations on her reasoning capabilities to determine the completed plans she will construct from a given partial description.

  6. Central station applications planning activities and supporting studies. [application of photovoltaic technology to power generation plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, S. L.; Siegel, B.

    1980-01-01

    The application of photovoltaic technology in central station (utility) power generation plants is considered. A program of data collection and analysis designed to provide additional information about the subset of the utility market that was identified as the initial target for photovoltaic penetration, the oil-dependent utilities (especially muncipals) of the U.S. Sunbelt, is described along with a series of interviews designed to ascertain utility industry opinions about the National Photovoltaic Program as it relates to central station applications.

  7. Modeling and Field Test Planning Activities in Support of Disposal of Heat-Generating Waste in Salt

    SciTech Connect

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Blanco Martin, Laura; Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Houseworth, Jim; Birkholzer, Jens

    2014-09-26

    The modeling efforts in support of the field test planning conducted at LBNL leverage on recent developments of tools for modeling coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes in salt and their effect on brine migration at high temperatures. This work includes development related to, and implementation of, essential capabilities, as well as testing the model against relevant information and published experimental data related to the fate and transport of water. These are modeling capabilities that will be suitable for assisting in the design of field experiment, especially related to multiphase flow processes coupled with mechanical deformations, at high temperature. In this report, we first examine previous generic repository modeling results, focusing on the first 20 years to investigate the expected evolution of the different processes that could be monitored in a full-scale heater experiment, and then present new results from ongoing modeling of the Thermal Simulation for Drift Emplacement (TSDE) experiment, a heater experiment on the in-drift emplacement concept at the Asse Mine, Germany, and provide an update on the ongoing model developments for modeling brine migration. LBNL also supported field test planning activities via contributions to and technical review of framework documents and test plans, as well as participation in workshops associated with field test planning.

  8. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    SciTech Connect

    King, D.A.

    1994-11-10

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  9. Activity Planning for the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Jonsson, Ari K.; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    2004-01-01

    Operating the Mars Exploration Rovers is a challenging, time-pressured task. Each day, the operations team must generate a new plan describing the rover activities for the next day. These plans must abide by resource limitations, safety rules, and temporal constraints. The objective is to achieve as much science as possible, choosing from a set of observation requests that oversubscribe rover resources. In order to accomplish this objective, given the short amount of planning time available, the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system was made a mission-critical part of the ground operations system. MAPGEN is a mixed-initiative system that employs automated constraint-based planning, scheduling, and temporal reasoning to assist operations staff in generating the daily activity plans. This paper describes the adaptation of constraint-based planning and temporal reasoning to a mixed-initiative setting and the key technical solutions developed for the mission deployment of MAPGEN.

  10. Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator Life Certification Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Zampino, Edward

    2013-01-01

    An Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) power supply is being developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) in partnership with NASA for potential future deep space science missions. Unlike previous radioisotope power supplies for space exploration, such as the passive MMRTG used recently on the Mars Curiosity rover, the ASRG is an active dynamic power supply with moving Stirling engine mechanical components. Due to the long life requirement of 17 years and the dynamic nature of the Stirling engine, the ASRG project faced some unique challenges trying to establish full confidence that the power supply will function reliably over the mission life. These unique challenges resulted in the development of an overall life certification plan that emphasizes long-term Stirling engine test and inspection when analysis is not practical. The ASRG life certification plan developed is described.

  11. Waiver Plan Generates Relief, Fret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Alyson; McNeil, Michele

    2011-01-01

    While the Obama administration's plan to offer states relief from parts of the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act--if they agree to embrace unspecified education redesign priorities--has drawn kudos from some quarters, it isn't sitting well in others. Officials in a number of states have praised the idea as an opportunity for badly needed relief from…

  12. Waste generator services implementation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Mousseau, J.; Magleby, M.; Litus, M.

    1998-04-01

    Recurring waste management noncompliance problems have spurred a fundamental site-wide process revision to characterize and disposition wastes at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The reengineered method, termed Waste Generator Services, will streamline the waste acceptance process and provide waste generators comprehensive waste management services through a single, accountable organization to manage and disposition wastes in a timely, cost-effective, and compliant manner. This report outlines the strategy for implementing Waste Generator Services across the INEEL. It documents the culmination of efforts worked by the LMITCO Environmental Management Compliance Reengineering project team since October 1997. These efforts have included defining problems associated with the INEEL waste management process; identifying commercial best management practices; completing a review of DOE Complex-wide waste management training requirements; and involving others through an Integrated Process Team approach to provide recommendations on process flow, funding/charging mechanisms, and WGS organization. The report defines the work that will be performed by Waste Generator Services, the organization and resources, the waste acceptance process flow, the funding approach, methods for measuring performance, and the implementation schedule and approach. Field deployment will occur first at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant in June 1998. Beginning in Fiscal Year 1999, Waste Generator Services will be deployed at the other major INEEL facilities in a phased approach, with implementation completed by March 1999.

  13. Computer-Generated Movies for Mission Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. H., Jr.; vanDillen, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    Computer-generated movies help the viewer to understand mission dynamics and get quantitative details. Sample movie frames demonstrate the uses and effectiveness of movies in mission planning. Tools needed for movie-making include computer programs to generate images on film and film processing to give the desired result. Planning scenes to make an effective product requires some thought and experience. Viewpoints and timing are particularly important. Lessons learned so far and problems still encountered are discussed.

  14. Towards automatic planning for manufacturing generative processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-05-24

    Generative process planning describes methods process engineers use to modify manufacturing/process plans after designs are complete. A completed design may be the result from the introduction of a new product based on an old design, an assembly upgrade, or modified product designs used for a family of similar products. An engineer designs an assembly and then creates plans capturing manufacturing processes, including assembly sequences, component joining methods, part costs, labor costs, etc. When new products originate as a result of an upgrade, component geometry may change, and/or additional components and subassemblies may be added to or are omitted from the original design. As a result process engineers are forced to create new plans. This is further complicated by the fact that the process engineer is forced to manually generate these plans for each product upgrade. To generate new assembly plans for product upgrades, engineers must manually re-specify the manufacturing plan selection criteria and re-run the planners. To remedy this problem, special-purpose assembly planning algorithms have been developed to automatically recognize design modifications and automatically apply previously defined manufacturing plan selection criteria and constraints.

  15. Planning for the next generation.

    PubMed

    Valdes, C

    1992-01-01

    Poverty, illiteracy, and lack of government commitment or ability to solve social ills translates into rapid population growth in central American isthmus countries: El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, and even Costa Rica and Panama. The social conditions in Panama and Costa Rica lead to better family planning (FP). Educational and health resources are lacking for the rest of the countries. High birth and infant mortality rates and political unrest contribute to the total fertility rate in Honduras of 5.4 children/woman, the growth rate in Nicaragua of 3.4%, and the contraceptive use rate f 23% among married women in Guatemala and 27% in Nicaragua. The population of El Salvador is expected to double to 11 million in 25 years. FP efforts are being threatened in Costa Rica and Panama due to the doubling of the poor population since 1983 and the cutbacks in government spending for FP. For every North American woman who dies of maternal mortality, 134 die in Central America. Today the power of the Catholic Church is offset by the government population policy and programs of private organizations. Improvements have been made in Costa Rica in maternal and child health services and FP; life expectancy for children has increased 22 years in Honduras; and total fertility is under 3 children/woman in Panama. Private organizations have taken the lead in FP programs. Although population policy is part of development, national governments still lack the political will to solve the problems of access to basic health care and education, better water and sewers, and good food and jobs. The civil wars in Nicaragua and El Salvador and insurgency in Guatemala have diverted resources for health care, housing, and education. The gross national products in each of these countries is US$910/person/year. FP funds must compete with education, health care, and other basic services for government spending. The systems for FP have been established, but the political will is missing

  16. Wave activated generator

    SciTech Connect

    Neuenschwander, V. L.

    1985-09-03

    A wave activated generator utilizes the principle of providing relative movement between a permanent magnet and a coil to induce an electrical current in the coil. The coil is situated in a static tube anchored to the sea bed by means of a ballast tank at the base of the tube and guy wires extending from the tube. A plunger with permanent magnets is mounted in the tube for vertical reciprocation of the plunger, the plunger projecting outwardly from the upper end of the tube and terminating in a hull-shaped float which rides the water surface and provides vertical reciprocation of the plunger responsive to wave motion in order to move the magnets relative to the coil and generate current in the coil.

  17. Software for Planning Scientific Activities on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai-Chang, Mitchell; Bresina, John; Jonsson, Ari; Hsu, Jennifer; Kanefsky, Bob; Morris, Paul; Rajan, Kanna; Yglesias, Jeffrey; Charest, Len; Maldague, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    Mixed-Initiative Activity Plan Generator (MAPGEN) is a ground-based computer program for planning and scheduling the scientific activities of instrumented exploratory robotic vehicles, within the limitations of available resources onboard the vehicle. MAPGEN is a combination of two prior software systems: (1) an activity-planning program, APGEN, developed at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory and (2) the Europa planner/scheduler from NASA Ames Research Center. MAPGEN performs all of the following functions: Automatic generation of plans and schedules for scientific and engineering activities; Testing of hypotheses (or what-if analyses of various scenarios); Editing of plans; Computation and analysis of resources; and Enforcement and maintenance of constraints, including resolution of temporal and resource conflicts among planned activities. MAPGEN can be used in either of two modes: one in which the planner/scheduler is turned off and only the basic APGEN functionality is utilized, or one in which both component programs are used to obtain the full planning, scheduling, and constraint-maintenance functionality.

  18. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book: Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-13

    The document titled “WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book”. This book is divided into two volumes; one is the main document (volume 1)and the other is appendices (volume 2). The main document is a collection of the best practices and the information regarding the application and impact of variables generation on power system planning. This volume (appendices) has additional information on the following topics: Probabilistic load flow problems. 2. Additional useful indices. 3. high-impact low-frequency (HILF) events. 4. Examples of wide-area nomograms. 5. Transmission line ratings, types of dynamic rating methods. 6. Relative costs per MW-km of different electric power transmission technologies. 7. Ultra-high voltage (UHV) transmission. 8.High voltage direct current (VSC-HVDC). 9. HVDC. 10. Rewiring of existing transmission lines. 11. High-temperature low sag (HTLS) conductors. 12. The direct method and energy functions for transient stability analysis in power systems. 13.Blackouts caused by voltage instability. 14. Algorithm for parameter continuation predictor-corrector methods. 15. Approximation techniques available for security regions. 16. Impacts of wind power on power system small signals stability. 17. FIDVR. 18. FACTS. 19. European planning standard and practices. 20. International experience in wind and solar energy sources. 21. Western Renewable Energy Zones (WREZ). 22. various energy storage technologies. 23. demand response. 24. BA consolidation and cooperation options. 25. generator power management requirements and 26. European planning guidelines.

  19. PLAN-IT-2: The next generation planning and scheduling tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggemeyer, William C.; Cruz, Jennifer W.

    1990-01-01

    PLAN-IT is a scheduling program which has been demonstrated and evaluated in a variety of scheduling domains. The capability enhancements being made for the next generation of PLAN-IT, called PLAN-IT-2 is discussed. PLAN-IT-2 represents a complete rewrite of the original PLAN-IT incorporating major changes as suggested by the application experiences with the original PLAN-IT. A few of the enhancements described are additional types of constraints, such as states and resettable-depletables (batteries), dependencies between constraints, multiple levels of activity planning during the scheduling process, pattern constraint searching for opportunities as opposed to just minimizing the amount of conflicts, additional customization construction features for display and handling of diverse multiple time systems, and reduction in both the size and the complexity for creating the knowledge-base to address the different problem domains.

  20. Technical planning activity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    In April 1985, the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Fusion Energy commissioned the Technical Planning Activity (TPA). The purpose of this activity was to develop a technical planning methodology and prepare technical plans in support of the strategic and policy framework of the Magnetic Fusion Program Plan issued by DOE in February 1985. Although this report represents the views of only the US magnetic fusion community, it is international in scope in the sense that the technical plans contained herein describe the full scope of the tasks that are prerequisites for the commercialization of fusion energy. The TPA has developed a well-structured methodology that includes detailed definitions of technical issues, definitions of program areas and elements, statements of research and development objectives, identification of key decision points and milestones, and descriptions of facility requirements.

  1. Management plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.; Pratt, D.R.

    1991-08-01

    The DOE/RL 89-19, United States Department of Energy-Richland Operations Office Environmental Protection Implementation Plan (1989), requires the Hanford Site to prepare an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) by November 9, 1991. The DOE/EH-0173T, Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (1991), provides additional guidance and requires implementation of the EMP within 36 months of the effective data of the rule. DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, requires each US Department of Energy (DOE) site, facility, or activity that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant quantities of hazardous materials to prepare an EMP. This EMP is to identify and discuss two major activities: (1) effluent monitoring and (2) environmental surveillance. At the Hanford Site, the site-wide EMP will consist of the following elements: (1) A conceptual plan addressing effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance; (2) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) site-wide environmental surveillance program; (3) Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) effluent monitoring program consisting of the near-field operations environmental monitoring activities and abstracts of each Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP). This management plan addresses the third of these three elements of the EMP, the FEMPs.

  2. WECC Variable Generation Planning Reference Book

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Du, Pengwei; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Vyakaranam, Bharat

    2013-05-14

    This planning reference book is a document reflecting a Western Electricity Coordination Council (WECC) effort to put together multiple sources of information and provide a clear, systemic, comprehensive outline of the problems, both existing and anticipated; their impacts on the system; currently used and proposed solutions by the industry and research community; planning practices; new technologies, equipment, and standards; and expected future trends. This living (periodically updated) document could help WECC and other practicing engineers, especially the younger generation of engineers joining the workforce, to get familiar with a large variety of information related to the integration of variable resources into the WECC system, bypassing in part the need for time-consuming information gathering and learning processes from more experienced engineers or from the literature.

  3. Active droplet generation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhuang Zhi; Tan, Say Hwa; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Tor, Shu Beng; Loh, Ngiap Hiang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of micron-sized droplets is an important process for various applications in droplet-based microfluidics. The generated droplets work as a self-contained reaction platform in droplet-based lab-on-a-chip systems. With the maturity of this platform technology, sophisticated and delicate control of the droplet generation process is needed to address increasingly complex applications. This review presents the state of the art of active droplet generation concepts, which are categorized according to the nature of the induced energy. At the liquid/liquid interface, an energy imbalance leads to instability and droplet breakup.

  4. Active droplet generation in microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Chong, Zhuang Zhi; Tan, Say Hwa; Gañán-Calvo, Alfonso M; Tor, Shu Beng; Loh, Ngiap Hiang; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of micron-sized droplets is an important process for various applications in droplet-based microfluidics. The generated droplets work as a self-contained reaction platform in droplet-based lab-on-a-chip systems. With the maturity of this platform technology, sophisticated and delicate control of the droplet generation process is needed to address increasingly complex applications. This review presents the state of the art of active droplet generation concepts, which are categorized according to the nature of the induced energy. At the liquid/liquid interface, an energy imbalance leads to instability and droplet breakup. PMID:26555381

  5. Autonomously generating operations sequences for a Mars Rover using AI-based planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Mishkin, Andrew; Estlin, Tara; Chien, Steve; Backes, Paul; Cooper, Brian; Maxwell, Scott; Rabideau, Gregg

    2001-01-01

    This paper discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from highlevel science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This Artificial Intelligence (AI) based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules.

  6. A planning language for activity scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoch, David R.; Lavallee, David; Weinstein, Stuart; Tong, G. Michael

    1991-01-01

    Mission planning and scheduling of spacecraft operations are becoming more complex at NASA. Described here are a mission planning process; a robust, flexible planning language for spacecraft and payload operations; and a software scheduling system that generates schedules based on planning language inputs. The mission planning process often involves many people and organizations. Consequently, a planning language is needed to facilitate communication, to provide a standard interface, and to represent flexible requirements. The software scheduling system interprets the planning language and uses the resource, time duration, constraint, and alternative plan flexibilities to resolve scheduling conflicts.

  7. Generation and transmission expansion planning for renewable energy integration

    SciTech Connect

    Bent, Russell W; Berscheid, Alan; Toole, G. Loren

    2010-11-30

    In recent years the expansion planning problem has become increasingly complex. As expansion planning (sometimes called composite or integrated resource planning) is a non-linear and non-convex optimization problem, researchers have traditionally focused on approximate models of power flows to solve the problem. The problem has also been split into generation expansion planning (GEP) and transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) to improve computational tractability. Until recently these approximations have produced results that are straight-forward to combine and adapt to the more complex and complete problem. However, the power grid is evolving towards a state where the adaptations are no longer easy (e.g. large amounts of limited control, renewable generation, comparable generation and transmission construction costs) and necessitates new approaches. Recent work on deterministic Discrepancy Bounded Local Search (DBLS) has shown it to be quite effective in addressing the TNEP. In this paper, we propose a generalization of DBLS to handle simultaneous generation and transmission planning.

  8. Generation Expansion Planning with High Penetration of Wind Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharan, Ishan; Balasubramanian, R.

    2016-08-01

    Worldwide thrust is being provided in generation of electricity from wind. Planning for the developmental needs of wind based power has to be consistent with the objective and basic framework of overall resource planning. The operational issues associated with the integration of wind power must be addressed at the planning stage. Lack of co-ordinated planning of wind turbine generators, conventional generating units and expansion of the transmission system may lead to curtailment of wind power due to transmission inadequacy or operational constraints. This paper presents a generation expansion planning model taking into account fuel transportation and power transmission constraints, while addressing the operational issues associated with the high penetration of wind power. For analyzing the operational issues, security constrained unit commitment algorithm is embedded in the integrated generation and transmission expansion planning model. The integrated generation and transmission expansion planning problem has been formulated as a mixed integer linear problem involving both binary and continuous variables in GAMS. The model has been applied to the expansion planning of a real system to illustrate the proposed approach.

  9. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  10. 7 CFR 3430.1007 - Planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1007 Planning activities. (a) Required plan. The Centers and... program. Proposals submitted to the Sun Grant Program must be sufficiently detailed and of high...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.1007 - Planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1007 Planning activities. (a) Required plan. The Centers and... program. Proposals submitted to the Sun Grant Program must be sufficiently detailed and of high...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.1007 - Planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1007 Planning activities. (a) Required plan. The Centers and... program. Proposals submitted to the Sun Grant Program must be sufficiently detailed and of high...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.1007 - Planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1007 Planning activities. (a) Required plan. The Centers and... program. Proposals submitted to the Sun Grant Program must be sufficiently detailed and of high...

  14. Toward Fully Automated Multicriterial Plan Generation: A Prospective Clinical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W.J.; Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Fransen, Dennie; Levendag, Peter C.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare plans generated with iCycle, an in-house-developed algorithm for fully automated multicriterial intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) beam profile and beam orientation optimization, with plans manually generated by dosimetrists using the clinical treatment planning system. Methods and Materials: For 20 randomly selected head-and-neck cancer patients with various tumor locations (of whom 13 received sequential boost treatments), we offered the treating physician the choice between an automatically generated iCycle plan and a manually optimized plan using standard clinical procedures. Although iCycle used a fixed “wish list” with hard constraints and prioritized objectives, the dosimetrists manually selected the beam configuration and fine tuned the constraints and objectives for each IMRT plan. Dosimetrists were not informed in advance whether a competing iCycle plan was made. The 2 plans were simultaneously presented to the physician, who then selected the plan to be used for treatment. For the patient group, differences in planning target volume coverage and sparing of critical tissues were quantified. Results: In 32 of 33 plan comparisons, the physician selected the iCycle plan for treatment. This highly consistent preference for the automatically generated plans was mainly caused by the improved sparing for the large majority of critical structures. With iCycle, the normal tissue complication probabilities for the parotid and submandibular glands were reduced by 2.4% ± 4.9% (maximum, 18.5%, P=.001) and 6.5% ± 8.3% (maximum, 27%, P=.005), respectively. The reduction in the mean oral cavity dose was 2.8 ± 2.8 Gy (maximum, 8.1 Gy, P=.005). For the swallowing muscles, the esophagus and larynx, the mean dose reduction was 3.3 ± 1.1 Gy (maximum, 9.2 Gy, P<.001). For 15 of the 20 patients, target coverage was also improved. Conclusions: In 97% of cases, automatically generated plans were selected for treatment because of

  15. New transmission planning methodology for requesting proposals for wind generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacs, Andrew L.

    The increasing interest in renewable energy technologies during the last decade has caused conventional transmission and generation expansion planning methodologies to be strained and in some cases abandoned. This is due both to the quantity of generator interconnection requests and the constraints imposed by deregulated energy industry structures. One technique used to control the influx of renewable generation while maintaining competitive principles is a Request for Proposals (RFP). However, lack of transmission planning due to a disconnection between generation and transmission owners, difficulty in identifying viable projects, and high risk for proponents stand as obstacles to the goals of an RFP. This research proposes a procedure which minimizes the effect of these obstacles; meeting the purchaser requirements for low price and combining conventional planning concepts with feedback from competitive structures. The general features of the method include definition of generation limits and study area, expansion plan design, transmission cost evaluation, optimal selection of requested generation levels, and final selection of successful proponents. The method is shown to be effective in creating an RFP where proponents are well-informed and provided with cost certainty to reduce bid price, buyers are able to determine end costs of their energy, and good expansion planning principles are maintained. A case study using a real system in New Mexico demonstrates these concepts.

  16. Applications of probabilistic peak-shaving technique in generation planning

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, A.S.; Cory, B.J.; Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents two novel applications of probabilistic peak-shaving technique in generation planning, i.e., to simulate efficiently and accurately multiple limited-energy units probabilistically in equivalent load duration curve method and to simulate efficiently the candidate plants, whose different configurations are tested for finding the least-cost generation expansion planning solution. The applications of the technique are demonstrated with the help of two hand calculation examples. An efficient algorithm is also presented to simulate multiple limited-energy units probabilistically, for different hydrological conditions, in a generation mix of hydro-thermal units in probabilistic production costing framework.

  17. Assembly modeling for plan generation and DFA analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelamkavil, Joseph

    2000-10-01

    Assembly in the state when a product really comes to life and is able to function; a product achieves its functionality by the concerted efforts of its components. Assembling consists of the act of putting two or more components together; but behind the scenes work includes many activities necessary to realize a complete product, repair it, disassemble it for recycling or disposal and so on. During the past two decades or so, several methodologies- graph theory, matrix algebra, knowledge-based, object-oriented, etc. - have evolved for the modeling of assemblies. Each method has its own merit; but the suitability and practicality of a method often depends on the computer hardware capability and the state of available software language features (expression capability and libraries). Generally speaking, the modeling of assemblies involves a two step process: component relationship modeling and detailed CAD modeling. Product designers use the components relationship models, often informally, to complete their design. This paper describes the modeling techniques and implementation details pertaining to the component relations. Matrix algebra-based modeling framework that is used in this work is capable of representing product final assemblies, sub-assemblies and individual components. The framework has the required expression capability that may be used to perform bill of materials calculations, material requirements planning, the creation of assembly liaison or mating information, design for assembly (DFA) analysis and the generation of assembly plans/sequences.

  18. Planning in time - Windows and durations for activities and goals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vere, S. A.

    1983-01-01

    The present general purpose automated planner/scheduler generates parallel plans aimed at the achievement of goals having imposed time constraints, with both durations and start time windows being specifiable for sets of goal conditions. Deterministic durations of such parallel plan activities as actions, events triggered by circumstances, inferences, and scheduled events entirely outside the actor's control, are explicitly modeled and may be any computable function of the activity variables. The final plan network resembles a PERT chart. Examples are given from the traditional 'blocksworld', and from a realistic 'Spaceworld' in which an autonomous spacecraft photographs objects in deep space and transmits the information to earth.

  19. Generating AN Optimum Treatment Plan for External Beam Radiation Therapy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabus, Irwin

    1990-01-01

    The application of linear programming to the generation of an optimum external beam radiation treatment plan is investigated. MPSX, an IBM linear programming software package was used. All data originated from the CAT scan of an actual patient who was treated for a pancreatic malignant tumor before this study began. An examination of several alternatives for representing the cross section of the patient showed that it was sufficient to use a set of strategically placed points in the vital organs and tumor and a grid of points spaced about one half inch apart for the healthy tissue. Optimum treatment plans were generated from objective functions representing various treatment philosophies. The optimum plans were based on allowing for 216 external radiation beams which accounted for wedges of any size. A beam reduction scheme then reduced the number of beams in the optimum plan to a number of beams small enough for implementation. Regardless of the objective function, the linear programming treatment plan preserved about 95% of the patient's right kidney vs. 59% for the plan the hospital actually administered to the patient. The clinician, on the case, found most of the linear programming treatment plans to be superior to the hospital plan. An investigation was made, using parametric linear programming, concerning any possible benefits derived from generating treatment plans based on objective functions made up of convex combinations of two objective functions, however, this proved to have only limited value. This study also found, through dual variable analysis, that there was no benefit gained from relaxing some of the constraints on the healthy regions of the anatomy. This conclusion was supported by the clinician. Finally several schemes were found that, under certain conditions, can further reduce the number of beams in the final linear programming treatment plan.

  20. My Game Plan: Food and Activity Tracker

    MedlinePlus

    ... MY GAME PLAN THIS WEEK… FOR CUTTING FAT GRAMS: FOR CUTTING CALORIES: FOR GETTING MORE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: ... FOOD AND DRINK TRACKER AMOUNT /NAME /DESCRIPTION FAT GRAMS CALORIES 1/2 cup oatmeal 1 73 1 ...

  1. From Physical Activity Guidelines to a National Activity Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Daniel B.; Pate, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) is a comprehensive strategic plan aimed at increasing physical activity levels in all segments of the American population. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the development of the NPAP, provide an update on the status of the NPAP, and comment on the future of the NPAP. The NPAP was released…

  2. Planning and Conducting Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Some directions and influences on dental research activities in the near future are discussed. Current challenges include international competition, fellowships, and equipment. Potential research activity includes preventive medicine, epidemiology, chronic illness, the elderly, bioengineering, materials research, nutrition, soft tissue research,…

  3. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Sterling, J.; McLaren, J.; Taylor, M.; Cory, K.

    2013-10-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. State and federal support policies, solar photovoltaic (PV) price declines, and the introduction of new business models for solar PV 'ownership' are leading to increasing interest in solar technologies (especially PV); however, solar introduces myriad new variables into the utility resource planning decision. Most, but not all, utility planners have less experience analyzing solar than conventional generation as part of capacity planning, portfolio evaluation, and resource procurement decisions. To begin to build this knowledge, utility staff expressed interest in one effort: utility exchanges regarding data, methods, challenges, and solutions for incorporating solar in the planning process. Through interviews and a questionnaire, this report aims to begin this exchange of information and capture utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  4. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  5. Semantic Activation in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann, Oliver; Stenneken, Prisca; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments investigated activation of semantic information in action preparation. Participants either prepared to grasp and use an object (e.g., to drink from a cup) or to lift a finger in association with the object's position following a go/no-go lexical-decision task. Word stimuli were consistent to the action goals of the object use…

  6. Distributed Query Plan Generation Using Multiobjective Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Shina; Vijay Kumar, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    A distributed query processing strategy, which is a key performance determinant in accessing distributed databases, aims to minimize the total query processing cost. One way to achieve this is by generating efficient distributed query plans that involve fewer sites for processing a query. In the case of distributed relational databases, the number of possible query plans increases exponentially with respect to the number of relations accessed by the query and the number of sites where these relations reside. Consequently, computing optimal distributed query plans becomes a complex problem. This distributed query plan generation (DQPG) problem has already been addressed using single objective genetic algorithm, where the objective is to minimize the total query processing cost comprising the local processing cost (LPC) and the site-to-site communication cost (CC). In this paper, this DQPG problem is formulated and solved as a biobjective optimization problem with the two objectives being minimize total LPC and minimize total CC. These objectives are simultaneously optimized using a multiobjective genetic algorithm NSGA-II. Experimental comparison of the proposed NSGA-II based DQPG algorithm with the single objective genetic algorithm shows that the former performs comparatively better and converges quickly towards optimal solutions for an observed crossover and mutation probability. PMID:24963513

  7. Software Engineering Improvement Activities/Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    bd Systems personnel accomplished the technical responsibilities for this reporting period, as planned. A close working relationship was maintained with personnel of the MSFC Avionics Department Software Group (ED14). Work accomplishments included development, evaluation, and enhancement of a software cost model, performing literature search and evaluation of software tools available for code analysis and requirements analysis, and participating in other relevant software engineering activities. Monthly reports were submitted. This support was provided to the Flight Software Group/ED 1 4 in accomplishing the software engineering improvement engineering activities of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Software Engineering Improvement Plan.

  8. Engineering Task Plan for Fourth Generation Hanford Corrosion Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    NORMAN, E.C.

    2000-06-20

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) describes the activities associated with the installation of cabinets containing corrosion monitoring equipment on tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107. The new cabinets (one per tank) will be installed adjacent to existing corrosion probes already installed in riser WST-RISER-016 on both tanks. The corrosion monitoring equipment to be installed utilizes the technique of electrochemical noise (EN) for monitoring waste tank corrosion. Typically, EN consists of low frequency (4 Hz) and small amplitude signals that are spontaneously generated by electrochemical reactions occurring at corroding or other surfaces. EN analysis is well suited for monitoring and identifying the onset of localized corrosion, and for measuring uniform corrosion rates. A typical EN based corrosion-monitoring system measures instantaneous fluctuations in corrosion current and potential between three nominally identical electrodes of the material of interest immersed in the environment of interest. Time-dependent fluctuations in corrosion current are described by electrochemical current noise, and time-dependent fluctuations of corrosion potential are described by electrochemical noise. The corrosion monitoring systems are designed to detect the onset of localized corrosion phenomena if tank conditions should change to allow these phenomena to occur. In addition to the EN technique, the systems also facilitate the use of the Linear Polarization Resistance (LPR) technique to collect uniform corrosion rate information. LPR measures the linearity at the origin of the polarization curve for overvoltages up to a few millivolts away from the rest potential or natural corrosion potential. The slope of the current vs. voltage plot gives information on uniform corrosion rates.

  9. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  10. 7 CFR 1485.15 - Activity plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... MAP. Evaluation of MAP's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by participants of goals, method of achievement, and results of activities at regular intervals. The overall goal of the MAP and of..., sales that would not have occurred in the absence of MAP funding. (2) A staffing plan for any...

  11. 7 CFR 1485.15 - Activity plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... MAP. Evaluation of MAP's effectiveness will depend on a clear statement by participants of goals, method of achievement, and results of activities at regular intervals. The overall goal of the MAP and of..., sales that would not have occurred in the absence of MAP funding. (2) A staffing plan for any...

  12. An Ontological Model of Behaviour Theory to Generate Personalized Action Plans to Modify Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Baig, Wasif; Abidi, Samina; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change approaches aim to assist patients in achieving self-efficacy in managing their condition. Social cognitive theory (SCT) stipulates self-efficacy as a central element to behavior change and provides constructs to achieve self-efficacy guided by person-specific action plans. In our work, to administer behaviour change in patient with chronic conditions, our approach entails the computerization of SCT-based self-efficacy constructs in order to generate personalized action plans that are suitable to an individual's current care scenario. We have taken a knowledge management approach, whereby we have computerized the SCT-based self-efficacy constructs in terms of a high-level SCT knowledge model that can be operationalized to generate personalized behaviour change action plans. We have collected and computerized behavior change content targeting healthy living and physical activity. Semantic web technologies have been used to develop the SCT knowledge model, represented in terms of an ontology and SWRL rules. The ontological SCT model can inferred to generate personalized self-management action plans for a given patient profile. We present formative evaluation of the clinical correctness and relevance of the generated personalized action plans for a range of test patient profiles. PMID:27577412

  13. An Ontological Model of Behaviour Theory to Generate Personalized Action Plans to Modify Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Baig, Wasif; Abidi, Samina; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change approaches aim to assist patients in achieving self-efficacy in managing their condition. Social cognitive theory (SCT) stipulates self-efficacy as a central element to behavior change and provides constructs to achieve self-efficacy guided by person-specific action plans. In our work, to administer behaviour change in patient with chronic conditions, our approach entails the computerization of SCT-based self-efficacy constructs in order to generate personalized action plans that are suitable to an individual's current care scenario. We have taken a knowledge management approach, whereby we have computerized the SCT-based self-efficacy constructs in terms of a high-level SCT knowledge model that can be operationalized to generate personalized behaviour change action plans. We have collected and computerized behavior change content targeting healthy living and physical activity. Semantic web technologies have been used to develop the SCT knowledge model, represented in terms of an ontology and SWRL rules. The ontological SCT model can inferred to generate personalized self-management action plans for a given patient profile. We present formative evaluation of the clinical correctness and relevance of the generated personalized action plans for a range of test patient profiles.

  14. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.N. Wright

    2005-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Project is envisioned to demonstrate the following: (1) A full-scale prototype VHTR by about 2021; (2) High-temperature Brayton Cycle electric power production at full scale with a focus on economic performance; (3) Nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen (with about 10% of the heat) with a focus on economic performance; and (4) By test, the exceptional safety capabilities of the advanced gas-cooled reactors. Further, the NGNP program will: (1) Obtain a Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) License to construct and operate the NGNP, this process will provide a basis for future performance based, risk-informed licensing; and (2) Support the development, testing, and prototyping of hydrogen infrastructures. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. The NGNP Materials R&D Program includes the following elements: (1) Developing a specific approach, program plan and other project management tools for

  15. Learning plan applicability through active mental entities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baroni, Pietro; Fogli, Daniela; Guida, Giovanni

    1999-03-01

    This paper aims at laying down the foundations of a new approach to learning in autonomous mobile robots. It is based on the assumption that robots can be provided with built-in action plans and with mechanisms to modify and improve such plans. This requires that robots are equipped with some form of high-level reasoning capabilities. Therefore, the proposed learning technique is embedded in a novel distributed control architecture featuring an explicit model of robot's cognitive activity. In particular, cognitive activity is obtained by the interaction of active mental entities, such as intentions, persuasions and expectations. Learning capabilities are implemented starting from the interaction of such mental entities. The proposal is illustrated through an example concerning a robot in charge of reaching a target in an unknown environment cluttered with obstacles.

  16. A Simulation of Generation Investment Planning Development under Competitive Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Akira; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Hasegawa, Jun

    Several new generation companies such as PPS (Power Producer and Supplier) and IPP (Independent Power Producer) are emerging due to the deregulation and liberalization of the power industry. One of the most important concerns after the deregulation is decline of investment for power plant construction due to uncertainties associated with the power market. Development of power stations should be planned considering short-term and long term trends of power market. This paper focuses on the power stations development issues under competitive environment and proposes a simulation method of power stations development. The developed simulation tool can deal the interactions among each player's both short-term and long-term strategies.

  17. Earthquake emergency plans and seismic criteria for their activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roca, A.; Gasulla, N.; Susagna, T.; Goula, X.; Romeu, N.

    2003-04-01

    The organization of human and material resources to face up to an earthquake crisis is established through emergency plans at different scales (national, regional and local). National plans often establish the criteria for preparing regional and local plans mainly based on intensity of ground shaking. However, in order to decide which counties or municipalities need to prepare a specific emergency plan, vulnerability and risk should be assessed and damage scenarios generated. The emergency plans include various levels of intervention depending of the severity of the event in order to bring out the adequate amount of resources, and can be activated by early warnings based on rapid detection provided by seismic networks. These activation levels should be defined taking into account not only the ground shaking but also many other factors related to the physical, human and societal vulnerability. An approach developed for the area of Catalonia, NE Spain, in which earthquake risk and damage scenarios were estimated and activation levels were defined in function of the focal parameters of the seismic event and the population distribution is presented. An automatic system for implementing these concepts linked to the existing real time VSAT based seismic network of Catalonia is under development.

  18. MAPGEN: Mixed-Initiative Activity Planning for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ai-Chang, Mitchell; Bresina, John; Hsu, Jennifer; Jonsson, Ari; Kanefsky, Bob; McCurdy, Michael; Morris, Paul; Rajan, Kanna; Vera, Alonso; Yglesias, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    This document describes the Mixed initiative Activity Plan Generation system MAPGEN. This system is one of the critical tools in the Mars Exploration Rover mission surface operations, where it is used to build activity plans for each of the rovers, each Martian day. The MAPGEN system combines an existing tool for activity plan editing and resource modeling, with an advanced constraint-based reasoning and planning framework. The constraint-based planning component provides active constraint and rule enforcement, automated planning capabilities, and a variety of tools and functions that are useful for building activity plans in an interactive fashion. In this demonstration, we will show the capabilities of the system and demonstrate how the system has been used in actual Mars rover operations. In contrast to the demonstration given at ICAPS 03, significant improvement have been made to the system. These include various additional capabilities that are based on automated reasoning and planning techniques, as well as a new Constraint Editor support tool. The Constraint Editor (CE) as part of the process for generating these command loads, the MAPGEN tool provides engineers and scientists an intelligent activity planning tool that allows them to more effectively generate complex plans that maximize the science return each day. The key to the effectiveness of the MAPGEN tool is an underlying constraint-based planning and reasoning engine.

  19. NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program - Strategy and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2003-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration established a new program office, Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program Office, last year to pursue technologies for future space launch systems. NGLT will fund research in key technology areas such as propulsion, launch vehicles, operations and system analyses. NGLT is part of NASA s Integrated Space Technology Plan. The NGLT Program is sponsored by NASA s Office of Aerospace Technology and is part of the Space Launch Initiative theme that includes both NGLT and Orbital Space Plane. NGLT will focus on technology development to increase safety and reliability and reduce overall costs associated with building, flying and maintaining the nation s next-generations of space launch vehicles. These investments will be guided by systems engineering and analysis with a focus on the needs of National customers.

  20. Generation expansion planning in a competitive electric power industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Angela Shu-Woan

    This work investigates the application of non-cooperative game theory to generation expansion planning (GEP) in a competitive electricity industry. We identify fundamental ways competition changes the nature of GEP, review different models of oligopoly behavior, and argue that assumptions of the Cournot model are compatible with GEP. Applying Cournot theory of oligopoly behavior, we formulate a GEP model that may characterize expansion in the new competitive regime, particularly in pool-dominated generation supply industries. Our formulation incorporates multiple markets and is patterned after the basic design of the California ISO/PX system. Applying the model, we conduct numerical experiments on a test system, and analyze generation investment and market participation decisions of different candidate expansion units that vary in costs and forced outage rates. Simulations are performed under different scenarios of competition. In particular, we observe higher probabilistic measures of reliability from Cournot expansion compared to the expansion plan of a monopoly with an equivalent minimum reserve margin requirement. We prove several results for a subclass of problems encompassed by our formulation. In particular, we prove that under certain conditions Cournot competition leads to greater total capacity expansion than a situation in which generators collude in a cartel. We also show that industry output after introduction of new technology is no less than monopoly output. So a monopoly may lack sufficient incentive to introduce new technologies. Finally, we discuss the association between capacity payments and the issue of pricing reliability. And we derive a formula for computing ideal capacity payment rates by extending the Value of Service Reliability technique.

  1. Activity Scratchpad Prototype: Simplifying the Rover Activity Planning Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramyan, Lucy

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover mission depends on the Science Activity Planner as its primary interface to the Spirit and Opportunity Rovers. Scientists alternate between a series of mouse clicks and keyboard inputs to create a set of instructions for the rovers. To accelerate planning by minimizing mouse usage, a rover planning editor should receive the majority of inputted commands from the keyboard. Thorough investigation of the Eclipse platform's Java editor has provided the understanding of the base model for the Activity Scratchpad. Desirable Eclipse features can be mapped to specific rover planning commands, such as auto-completion for activity titles and content assist for target names. A custom editor imitating the Java editor's features was created with an XML parser for experimenting purposes. The prototype editor minimized effort for redundant tasks and significantly improved the visual representation of XML syntax by highlighting keywords, coloring rules, folding projections, and providing hover assist, templates and an outline view of the code.

  2. Generating patient-specific pulmonary vascular models for surgical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murff, Daniel; Co-Vu, Jennifer; O'Dell, Walter G.

    2015-03-01

    Each year in the U.S., 7.4 million surgical procedures involving the major vessels are performed. Many of our patients require multiple surgeries, and many of the procedures include "surgical exploration". Procedures of this kind come with a significant amount of risk, carrying up to a 17.4% predicted mortality rate. This is especially concerning for our target population of pediatric patients with congenital abnormalities of the heart and major pulmonary vessels. This paper offers a novel approach to surgical planning which includes studying virtual and physical models of pulmonary vasculature of an individual patient before operation obtained from conventional 3D X-ray computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest. These models would provide clinicians with a non-invasive, intricately detailed representation of patient anatomy, and could reduce the need for invasive planning procedures such as exploratory surgery. Researchers involved in the AirPROM project have already demonstrated the utility of virtual and physical models in treatment planning of the airways of the chest. Clinicians have acknowledged the potential benefit from such a technology. A method for creating patient-derived physical models is demonstrated on pulmonary vasculature extracted from a CT scan with contrast of an adult human. Using a modified version of the NIH ImageJ program, a series of image processing functions are used to extract and mathematically reconstruct the vasculature tree structures of interest. An auto-generated STL file is sent to a 3D printer to create a physical model of the major pulmonary vasculature generated from 3D CT scans of patients.

  3. Student Activities Can Generate Positive PR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    1985-01-01

    To counter negative news about education it is important to make sure that positive school activities receive their fair share of exposure in the news media. Presents tips on how to generate positive public relations. Includes a list of newsworthy activities ideas. (MD)

  4. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  5. 24 CFR 572.205 - Planning grants-eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Planning grants-eligible activities... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... (HOPE 3) Grants § 572.205 Planning grants—eligible activities. Any planning grants made by HUD under...

  6. A novel adaptive Cuckoo search for optimal query plan generation.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  7. A novel adaptive Cuckoo search for optimal query plan generation.

    PubMed

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented.

  8. A Novel Adaptive Cuckoo Search for Optimal Query Plan Generation

    PubMed Central

    Gomathi, Ramalingam; Sharmila, Dhandapani

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of multiple web pages day by day leads to the development of the semantic web technology. A World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standard for storing semantic web data is the resource description framework (RDF). To enhance the efficiency in the execution time for querying large RDF graphs, the evolving metaheuristic algorithms become an alternate to the traditional query optimization methods. This paper focuses on the problem of query optimization of semantic web data. An efficient algorithm called adaptive Cuckoo search (ACS) for querying and generating optimal query plan for large RDF graphs is designed in this research. Experiments were conducted on different datasets with varying number of predicates. The experimental results have exposed that the proposed approach has provided significant results in terms of query execution time. The extent to which the algorithm is efficient is tested and the results are documented. PMID:25215330

  9. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  10. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2010-12-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  11. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Technical Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2007-01-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  12. An Extensible, User- Modifiable Framework for Planning Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joshing, Joseph C.; Abramyan, Lucy; Mickelson, Megan C.; Wallick, Michael N.; Kurien, James A.; Crockett, Thomasa M.; Powell, Mark W.; Pyrzak, Guy; Aghevli, Arash

    2013-01-01

    This software provides a development framework that allows planning activities for the Mars Science Laboratory rover to be altered at any time, based on changes of the Activity Dictionary. The Activity Dictionary contains the definition of all activities that can be carried out by a particular asset (robotic or human). These definitions (and combinations of these definitions) are used by mission planners to give a daily plan of what a mission should do. During the development and course of the mission, the Activity Dictionary and actions that are going to be carried out will often be changed. Previously, such changes would require a change to the software and redeployment. Now, the Activity Dictionary authors are able to customize activity definitions, parameters, and resource usage without requiring redeployment. This software provides developers and end users the ability to modify the behavior of automatically generated activities using a script. This allows changes to the software behavior without incurring the burden of redeployment. This software is currently being used for the Mars Science Laboratory, and is in the process of being integrated into the LADEE (Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer) mission, as well as the International Space Station.

  13. Microgrids and distributed generation systems: Control, operation, coordination and planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Liang

    Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) which include distributed generations (DGs), distributed energy storage systems, and adjustable loads are key components in microgrid operations. A microgrid is a small electric power system integrated with on-site DERs to serve all or some portion of the local load and connected to the utility grid through the point of common coupling (PCC). Microgrids can operate in both grid-connected mode and island mode. The structure and components of hierarchical control for a microgrid at Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) are discussed and analyzed. Case studies would address the reliable and economic operation of IIT microgrid. The simulation results of IIT microgrid operation demonstrate that the hierarchical control and the coordination strategy of distributed energy resources (DERs) is an effective way of optimizing the economic operation and the reliability of microgrids. The benefits and challenges of DC microgrids are addressed with a DC model for the IIT microgrid. We presented the hierarchical control strategy including the primary, secondary, and tertiary controls for economic operation and the resilience of a DC microgrid. The simulation results verify that the proposed coordinated strategy is an effective way of ensuring the resilient response of DC microgrids to emergencies and optimizing their economic operation at steady state. The concept and prototype of a community microgrid that interconnecting multiple microgrids in a community are proposed. Two works are conducted. For the coordination, novel three-level hierarchical coordination strategy to coordinate the optimal power exchanges among neighboring microgrids is proposed. For the planning, a multi-microgrid interconnection planning framework using probabilistic minimal cut-set (MCS) based iterative methodology is proposed for enhancing the economic, resilience, and reliability signals in multi-microgrid operations. The implementation of high-reliability microgrids

  14. Autonomously Generating Operations Sequences for a Mars Rover Using Artificial Intelligence-Based Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, R.; Mutz, D.; Estlin, T.; Chien, S.; Backes, P.; Norris, J.; Tran, D.; Cooper, B.; Rabideau, G.; Mishkin, A.; Maxwell, S.

    2001-07-01

    This article discusses a proof-of-concept prototype for ground-based automatic generation of validated rover command sequences from high-level science and engineering activities. This prototype is based on ASPEN, the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment. This artificial intelligence (AI)-based planning and scheduling system will automatically generate a command sequence that will execute within resource constraints and satisfy flight rules. An automated planning and scheduling system encodes rover design knowledge and uses search and reasoning techniques to automatically generate low-level command sequences while respecting rover operability constraints, science and engineering preferences, environmental predictions, and also adhering to hard temporal constraints. This prototype planning system has been field-tested using the Rocky 7 rover at JPL and will be field-tested on more complex rovers to prove its effectiveness before transferring the technology to flight operations for an upcoming NASA mission. Enabling goal-driven commanding of planetary rovers greatly reduces the requirements for highly skilled rover engineering personnel. This in turn greatly reduces mission operations costs. In addition, goal-driven commanding permits a faster response to changes in rover state (e.g., faults) or science discoveries by removing the time-consuming manual sequence validation process, allowing rapid "what-if" analyses, and thus reducing overall cycle times.

  15. [Anti-planned parenthood activities denounced].

    PubMed

    1981-08-17

    Recently, there have been many instances of people privately and illegally removing contraceptive rings from rural women. The people responsible have spread deceptive propaganda among the masses. They make great profits by illegally removing the rings. Ignoring the danger of life, they use instruments they have made themselves or substitute implements and arbitrarily remove rings despite a lack of necessary medical knowledge and hygienic conditions. According to incomplete statistics from 6 countries and 1 district in Zhaotong Prefecture (China), there were over 9600 cases last year of illegal removal of the ring. 7 women died. Decisive action must be taken to stop these activities. Otherwise, the efforts to realize planned parenthood will be negatively affected, and it will be impossible to guarantee the health and safety of women practicing contraception. To stop these incidents of illegal removal of contraceptive rings, ideological education must be carried out, and scientific and cultural knowledge on planned parenthood must be publicized and popularized throughout the rural areas. In addition, in carrying out planned parenthood measures, the comrades of the medical and public health departments must adopt an attitude of responsiblity for the health of the masses. They must improve the quality of their service and keep errors and accidents to the minimum. In this way they will gain the trust and support of the masses, and the masses will no longer be deceived.

  16. Prototype steam generator test at SCTI/ETEC. Acoustic program test plan. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, D.A.; Thiele, A.; Claytor, T.N.

    1981-10-01

    This document is an integrated test plan covering programs at General Electric (ARSD), Rockwell International (RI) and Argonne National Laboratory (CT). It provides an overview of the acoustic leak detection test program which will be completed in conjunction with the prototype LMFBR steam generator at the Energy Technology Engineering Laboratory. The steam generator is installed in the Sodium Components Test Installation (SCTI). Two acoustic detection systems will be used during the test program, a low frequency system developed by GE-ARSD (GAAD system) and a high frequency system developed by RI-AI (HALD system). These systems will be used to acquire data on background noise during the thermal-hydraulic test program. Injection devices were installed during fabrication of the prototype steam generator to provide localized noise sources in the active region of the tube bundle. These injectors will be operated during the steam generator test program, and it will be shown that they are detected by the acoustic systems.

  17. Generation-X mirror technology development plan and the development of adjustable x-ray optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Paul B.; Davis, William; O'Dell, Stephen; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Tolier-McKinstry, Susan; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Zhang, William

    2009-08-01

    Generation-X is being studied as an extremely high resolution, very large area grazing incidence x-ray telescope. Under a NASA Advanced Mission Concepts Study, we have developed a technology plan designed to lead to the 0.1 arcsec (HPD) resolution adjustable optics with 50 square meters of effective area necessary to meet Generation-X requirements. We describe our plan in detail. In addition, we report on our development activities of adjustable grazing incidence optics via the fabrication of bimorph mirrors. We have successfully deposited thin-film piezo-electric material on the back surface of thin glass mirrors. We report on the electrical and mechanical properties of the bimorph mirrors. We also report on initial finite element modeling of adjustable grazing incidence mirrors; in particular, we examine the impact of how the mirrors are supported - the boundary conditions - on the deformations which can be achieved.

  18. Fully Automated Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy Plan Generation for Prostate Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W.J. Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim; Incrocci, Luca; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate fully automated volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning for prostate cancer patients, avoiding manual trial-and-error tweaking of plan parameters by dosimetrists. Methods and Materials: A system was developed for fully automated generation of VMAT plans with our commercial clinical treatment planning system (TPS), linked to the in-house developed Erasmus-iCycle multicriterial optimizer for preoptimization. For 30 randomly selected patients, automatically generated VMAT plans (VMAT{sub auto}) were compared with VMAT plans generated manually by 1 expert dosimetrist in the absence of time pressure (VMAT{sub man}). For all treatment plans, planning target volume (PTV) coverage and sparing of organs-at-risk were quantified. Results: All generated plans were clinically acceptable and had similar PTV coverage (V{sub 95%} > 99%). For VMAT{sub auto} and VMAT{sub man} plans, the organ-at-risk sparing was similar as well, although only the former plans were generated without any planning workload. Conclusions: Fully automated generation of high-quality VMAT plans for prostate cancer patients is feasible and has recently been implemented in our clinic.

  19. Mission activities planning for a Hermes mission by means of AI-technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pape, U.; Hajen, G.; Schielow, N.; Mitschdoerfer, P.; Allard, F.

    1993-01-01

    Mission Activities Planning is a complex task to be performed by mission control centers. AI technology can offer attractive solutions to the planning problem. This paper presents the use of a new AI-based Mission Planning System for crew activity planning. Based on a HERMES servicing mission to the COLUMBUS Man Tended Free Flyer (MTFF) with complex time and resource constraints, approximately 2000 activities with 50 different resources have been generated, processed, and planned with parametric variation of operationally sensitive parameters. The architecture, as well as the performance of the mission planning system, is discussed. An outlook to future planning scenarios, the requirements, and how a system like MARS can fulfill those requirements is given.

  20. Generativity as a Route to Active Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Andreas; Schmitt, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We elucidate the significance of active ageing from an individual as well as from a societal perspective. Taking an individual perspective, maintaining activity in later years is linked to successful ageing because of empirical relationships to positive self-perception, satisfaction with life, and development of competences, whereas from a societal perspective, active ageing implies usage of older people's life competences as a human capital of society—a societal imperative, particularly in times of demographic change but also more basically substantiated in an ethics of responsibility, intergenerational solidarity, and generation equity. We focus on the psychological construct of generativity which is interpreted as an aspect of the philosophical-anthropological category of joint responsibility. Our own research in Mexico and the Baltic States supports the notion that maintaining access to the public sphere and active engagement for others is a more basic individual concern than a life-stages specific developmental task. We report background and results of a Dialogue Forum Project Funding, a research cooperation between our institute and the Foundation Remembrance, Responsibility, and Future aimed to improve generativity in Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine by implementing and supporting local initiatives offering opportunities for intergenerational dialogue. PMID:22919378

  1. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  2. Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

    1995-03-16

    The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

  3. 24 CFR 598.400 - HUD grants for planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD grants for planning activities... Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF... DESIGNATIONS Post-Designation Requirements § 598.400 HUD grants for planning activities. (a) HUD will...

  4. Generation of prostate IMAT plans adaptable to the inter-fractional changes of patient geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holubyev, K.; Gainey, M.; Bratengeier, K.; Polat, B.; Flentje, M.

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of 2-Step generation of adaptable IMAT plans for prostate carcinoma cases. The 2-Step IMAT plans show clinical and dosimetric equivalence to the reference SmartArcTM-generated VMAT plans. The 2-Step plans are adapted to inter-fractional changes of prostate-rectum geometry using 2-Step adaptation rules for a cohort of ten adaptation cases. The adapted 2-Step IMAT plans show statistically significant improvement (Wilcoxon 1-tail p < 0.05) of target coverage and of rectum sparing when compared to isocenter relocated plans.

  5. Advancing Design-for-Assembly: The Next Generation in Assembly Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Calton, T.L.

    1998-12-09

    At the 1995 IEEE Symposium on Assembly and Task Planning, Sandia National Laboratories introduced the Archimedes 2 Software Tool [2]. The system was described as a second-generation assembly planning system that allowed preliminmy application of awembly planning for industry, while solidly supporting further research in planning techniques. Sandia has worked closely with indust~ and academia over the last four years. The results of these working relationships have bridged a gap for the next generation in assembly planning. Zke goal of this paper is to share Sandia 's technological advancements in assembly planning over the last four years and the impact these advancements have made on the manufacturing communip.

  6. Evaluation of an Expert System for the Generation of Speech and Language Therapy Plans

    PubMed Central

    López-Nores, Martín; García-Duque, Jorge; Pazos-Arias, José J; Arévalo-Lucero, Daysi

    2016-01-01

    Background Speech and language pathologists (SLPs) deal with a wide spectrum of disorders, arising from many different conditions, that affect voice, speech, language, and swallowing capabilities in different ways. Therefore, the outcomes of Speech and Language Therapy (SLT) are highly dependent on the accurate, consistent, and complete design of personalized therapy plans. However, SLPs often have very limited time to work with their patients and to browse the large (and growing) catalogue of activities and specific exercises that can be put into therapy plans. As a consequence, many plans are suboptimal and fail to address the specific needs of each patient. Objective We aimed to evaluate an expert system that automatically generates plans for speech and language therapy, containing semiannual activities in the five areas of hearing, oral structure and function, linguistic formulation, expressive language and articulation, and receptive language. The goal was to assess whether the expert system speeds up the SLPs’ work and leads to more accurate, consistent, and complete therapy plans for their patients. Methods We examined the evaluation results of the SPELTA expert system in supporting the decision making of 4 SLPs treating children in three special education institutions in Ecuador. The expert system was first trained with data from 117 cases, including medical data; diagnosis for voice, speech, language and swallowing capabilities; and therapy plans created manually by the SLPs. It was then used to automatically generate new therapy plans for 13 new patients. The SLPs were finally asked to evaluate the accuracy, consistency, and completeness of those plans. A four-fold cross-validation experiment was also run on the original corpus of 117 cases in order to assess the significance of the results. Results The evaluation showed that 87% of the outputs provided by the SPELTA expert system were considered valid therapy plans for the different areas. The SLPs

  7. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: (1) Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (2) Demonstrate safe and economical nuclear-assisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: (1) High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior; (2) High temperature materials qualification; (3) Design methods development and validation; (4) Hydrogen production technologies; and (5) Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented

  8. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    P. E. MacDonald

    2005-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research and development (R&D) on the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design concept for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a highly efficient manner. The NGNP reactor core could be either a prismatic graphite block type core or a pebble bed core. Use of a liquid salt coolant is also being evaluated. The NGNP will use very high-burnup, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel, and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years. The VHTR concept is considered to be the nearest-term reactor design that has the capability to efficiently produce hydrogen. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The objectives of the NGNP Project are to: Demonstrate a full-scale prototype VHTR that is commercially licensed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Demonstrate safe and economical nuclearassisted production of hydrogen and electricity. The DOE laboratories, led by the INL, will perform R&D that will be critical to the success of the NGNP, primarily in the areas of: High temperature gas reactor fuels behavior High temperature materials qualification Design methods development and validation Hydrogen production technologies Energy conversion. The current R&D work is addressing fundamental issues that are relevant to a variety of possible NGNP designs. This document describes the NGNP R&D planned and currently underway in the first three topic areas listed above. The NGNP Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development and Qualification Program is presented in Section 2, the NGNP Materials R&D Program Plan is presented in Section 3, and the NGNP Design Methods Development and Validation R&D Program is presented in Section 4. The DOE-funded hydrogen

  9. Treatment of Solar Generation in Electric Utility Resource Planning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Sterling, J.; Taylor, M.; McLaren, J.

    2014-01-01

    Today's utility planners have a different market and economic context than their predecessors, including planning for the growth of renewable energy. Through interviews and a questionnaire, the authors gathered information on utility supply planning and how solar is represented. Utilities were asked to provide their resource planning process details, key assumptions (e.g. whether DG is represented as supply or negative load), modeling methodology (e.g. type of risk analytics and candidate portfolio development), capacity expansion and production simulation model software, and solar project representation (project size, capacity value and integration cost adder). This presentation aims to begin the exchange of information between utilities, regulators and other stakeholders by capturing utility-provided information about: 1) how various utilities approach long-range resource planning; 2) methods and tools utilities use to conduct resource planning; and, 3) how solar technologies are considered in the resource planning process.

  10. Plans for EUMETSAT's Thrid Generation Meteosat (MTG) geostationary satellite program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhlmann, R. S.; Tjemkes, S. A. T.; Rodriguez, A. R. R.; Bézy, J. L. B.; Aminou, D. A.; Bensi, P. B.

    After movement of the first Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) satellite to 3.4 degree West by end of January 2004, the satellite has been renamed Meteosat-8 and the system has been declared fully operational. Meteosat-8 is now the primary European source of geostationary observations over Europe and Africa, as the first in a series of four satellites expected to deliver operational services at least until 2015. Considering the time required for the definition phases of new space systems their typical development cycle and the approval of complex programmes, it is necessary to plan for follow-up missions. EUMETSAT has therefore, as a first step in the preparation of the Third Generation Meteosat (MTG) European geostationary satellite system, established a USER Consultation Process aimed at capturing the foreseeable high-level user/service needs and priorities of the EUMETSAT customers and users in the 2015-2025 timeframe. This process was implemented through the set up of Applications Expert Groups (AEGs) tasked to propose their vision on operational services, to define associated needs and priorities for input information and observations. At the 1st Post-MSG User Consultation Workshop, November 2001, the work of the AEGs were presented to a broader user group serving as a basis for the identification of relevant observing techniques and the definition of requirements for the MTG observation missions. Currently, a total of five observation missions has been defined for pre-phase A studies at system level under ESA contract to be started in July 2004. Those are: High Resolution Fast Imagery Mission (successor to MSG SEVIRI HRV mission) Full Disk High Spectral Resolution Imagery Mission (successor to the mission of other SEVIRI channels) Lightning Imagery Mission IR Sounding Mission UV Sounding Mission Prior to the start of industry pre-phase A studies the joined ESA/EUMETSAT MTG Project Team, supported by an external group of experts named the MTG Mission Team

  11. Swim Pressure: Stress Generation in Active Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatori, S. C.; Yan, W.; Brady, J. F.

    2014-07-01

    We discover a new contribution to the pressure (or stress) exerted by a suspension of self-propelled bodies. Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique swim pressure that is entirely athermal in origin. The origin of the swim pressure is based upon the notion that an active body would swim away in space unless confined by boundaries—this confinement pressure is precisely the swim pressure. Here we give the micromechanical basis for the swim stress and use this new perspective to study self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. The swim pressure gives rise to a nonequilibrium equation of state for active matter with pressure-volume phase diagrams that resemble a van der Waals loop from equilibrium gas-liquid coexistence. Theoretical predictions are corroborated by Brownian dynamics simulations. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria to catalytic nanobots to molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  12. Swim pressure: stress generation in active matter.

    PubMed

    Takatori, S C; Yan, W; Brady, J F

    2014-07-11

    We discover a new contribution to the pressure (or stress) exerted by a suspension of self-propelled bodies. Through their self-motion, all active matter systems generate a unique swim pressure that is entirely athermal in origin. The origin of the swim pressure is based upon the notion that an active body would swim away in space unless confined by boundaries-this confinement pressure is precisely the swim pressure. Here we give the micromechanical basis for the swim stress and use this new perspective to study self-assembly and phase separation in active soft matter. The swim pressure gives rise to a nonequilibrium equation of state for active matter with pressure-volume phase diagrams that resemble a van der Waals loop from equilibrium gas-liquid coexistence. Theoretical predictions are corroborated by Brownian dynamics simulations. Our new swim stress perspective can help analyze and exploit a wide class of active soft matter, from swimming bacteria to catalytic nanobots to molecular motors that activate the cellular cytoskeleton.

  13. Active Ageing: Intergenerational Relationships and Social Generativity.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Giovanna; Boccacin, Lucia; Bramanti, Donatella; Meda, Stefania G

    2014-01-01

    This contribution is a reflection on the concept of active ageing from the perspective of relational sociology. At the same time, it offers practical implications and outlines possible future courses of action, in the face of demographic and relational scenarios rapidly changing, and the challenges that each day people of all generations are called to cope with. Active ageing is quite a recent concept and indicates an attitude towards ageing that enhances the quality of life as people become older. The goal of active ageing is to enable people to realise their potential for physical, social and mental well-being and to participate in social life also in the last stage of the life cycle. In this phase, the presence of a network of support, security and care adequate to the possible onset of problems and criticalities is crucial. Relational sociology frames the phenomenon of an ageing population in a dense network of social relations, primarily at the level of family and community. For this reason, as supported by the most recent sociological literature and evidence from studies conducted in Italy and abroad (cf. SHARE), it is extremely important to investigate the link between active ageing, intergenerational orientation (solidarity and exchanges) and practices of prosociality (i.e. engagement in third-sector activities and volunteering in later life).

  14. Design for Diversity: A Program Planning Grid for Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kubik, Jan B.

    This guide provides a program planning grid for college student personnel workers involved in the area of student activities. A program planning and evaluative system is proposed to address campus needs and allow greater control in planning an educationally balanced program. This system is based on an outline of topical areas to be addressed…

  15. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coordination of planning process activities. 450.208 Section 450.208 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PLANNING...

  16. Trajectory Generation and Path Planning for Autonomous Aerobots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Shivanjli; Kulczycki, Eric A.; Elfes, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents global path planning algorithms for the Titan aerobot based on user defined waypoints in 2D and 3D space. The algorithms were implemented using information obtained through a planner user interface. The trajectory planning algorithms were designed to accurately represent the aerobot's characteristics, such as minimum turning radius. Additionally, trajectory planning techniques were implemented to allow for surveying of a planar area based solely on camera fields of view, airship altitude, and the location of the planar area's perimeter. The developed paths allow for planar navigation and three-dimensional path planning. These calculated trajectories are optimized to produce the shortest possible path while still remaining within realistic bounds of airship dynamics.

  17. Validation of a sampling plan to generate food composition data.

    PubMed

    Sammán, N C; Gimenez, M A; Bassett, N; Lobo, M O; Marcoleri, M E

    2016-02-15

    A methodology to develop systematic plans for food sampling was proposed. Long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil were selected to validate the methodology in Argentina. Fatty acid profile in all foods, proximal composition, and calcium's content in milk were determined with AOAC methods. The number of samples (n) was calculated applying Cochran's formula with variation coefficients ⩽12% and an estimate error (r) maximum permissible ⩽5% for calcium content in milks and unsaturated fatty acids in oil. n were 9, 11 and 21 for long life whole and skimmed milk, and sunflower oil respectively. Sample units were randomly collected from production sites and sent to labs. Calculated r with experimental data was ⩽10%, indicating high accuracy in the determination of analyte content of greater variability and reliability of the proposed sampling plan. The methodology is an adequate and useful tool to develop sampling plans for food composition analysis. PMID:26433300

  18. Colony Rheology: Active Arthropods Generate Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen; Mann, Michael; Charbonneau, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    Hydrodynamic-like flows are observed in biological systems as varied as bacteria, insects, birds, fish, and mammals. Both the phenomenology (e.g. front instabilities, milling motions) and the interaction types (hydrodynamic, direct contact, psychological, excluded-volume) strongly vary between systems, but a question common to all of them is to understand the role of particle-scale fluctuations in controlling large-scale rheological behaviors. We will address these questions through experiments on a new system, Tyrolichus casei (cheese mites), which live in dense, self-mixing colonies composed of a mixture of living mites and inert flour/detritus. In experiments performed in a Hele-Shaw geometry, we observe that the rheology of a colony is strongly dependent on the relative concentration of active and inactive particles. In addition to spreading flows, we also observe that the system can generate convective circulation and auto-compaction.

  19. Generating passive NIR images from active LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrom, Shea; Broadwater, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Many modern LIDAR platforms contain an integrated RGB camera for capturing contextual imagery. However, these RGB cameras do not collect a near-infrared (NIR) color channel, omitting information useful for many analytical purposes. This raises the question of whether LIDAR data, collected in the NIR, can be used as a substitute for an actual NIR image in this situation. Generating a LIDAR-based NIR image is potentially useful in situations where another source of NIR, such as satellite imagery, is not available. LIDAR is an active sensing system that operates very differently from a passive system, and thus requires additional processing and calibration to approximate the output of a passive instrument. We examine methods of approximating passive NIR images from LIDAR for real-world datasets, and assess differences with true NIR images.

  20. Evaluation of plan quality assurance models for prostate cancer patients based on fully automatically generated Pareto-optimal treatment plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yibing; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben; Petit, Steven F.

    2016-06-01

    IMRT planning with commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) is a trial-and-error process. Consequently, the quality of treatment plans may not be consistent among patients, planners and institutions. Recently, different plan quality assurance (QA) models have been proposed, that could flag and guide improvement of suboptimal treatment plans. However, the performance of these models was validated using plans that were created using the conventional trail-and-error treatment planning process. Consequently, it is challenging to assess and compare quantitatively the accuracy of different treatment planning QA models. Therefore, we created a golden standard dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal IMRT plans for 115 prostate patients. Next, the dataset was used to assess the performance of a treatment planning QA model that uses the overlap volume histogram (OVH). 115 prostate IMRT plans were fully automatically planned using our in-house developed TPS Erasmus-iCycle. An existing OVH model was trained on the plans of 58 of the patients. Next it was applied to predict DVHs of the rectum, bladder and anus of the remaining 57 patients. The predictions were compared with the achieved values of the golden standard plans for the rectum D mean, V 65, and V 75, and D mean of the anus and the bladder. For the rectum, the prediction errors (predicted–achieved) were only  ‑0.2  ±  0.9 Gy (mean  ±  1 SD) for D mean,‑1.0  ±  1.6% for V 65, and  ‑0.4  ±  1.1% for V 75. For D mean of the anus and the bladder, the prediction error was 0.1  ±  1.6 Gy and 4.8  ±  4.1 Gy, respectively. Increasing the training cohort to 114 patients only led to minor improvements. A dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal prostate IMRT plans was generated. This dataset can be used to train new, and validate and compare existing treatment planning QA models, and has been made publicly available. The OVH model was highly

  1. Evaluation of plan quality assurance models for prostate cancer patients based on fully automatically generated Pareto-optimal treatment plans.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yibing; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben; Petit, Steven F

    2016-06-01

    IMRT planning with commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) is a trial-and-error process. Consequently, the quality of treatment plans may not be consistent among patients, planners and institutions. Recently, different plan quality assurance (QA) models have been proposed, that could flag and guide improvement of suboptimal treatment plans. However, the performance of these models was validated using plans that were created using the conventional trail-and-error treatment planning process. Consequently, it is challenging to assess and compare quantitatively the accuracy of different treatment planning QA models. Therefore, we created a golden standard dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal IMRT plans for 115 prostate patients. Next, the dataset was used to assess the performance of a treatment planning QA model that uses the overlap volume histogram (OVH). 115 prostate IMRT plans were fully automatically planned using our in-house developed TPS Erasmus-iCycle. An existing OVH model was trained on the plans of 58 of the patients. Next it was applied to predict DVHs of the rectum, bladder and anus of the remaining 57 patients. The predictions were compared with the achieved values of the golden standard plans for the rectum D mean, V 65, and V 75, and D mean of the anus and the bladder. For the rectum, the prediction errors (predicted-achieved) were only  -0.2  ±  0.9 Gy (mean  ±  1 SD) for D mean,-1.0  ±  1.6% for V 65, and  -0.4  ±  1.1% for V 75. For D mean of the anus and the bladder, the prediction error was 0.1  ±  1.6 Gy and 4.8  ±  4.1 Gy, respectively. Increasing the training cohort to 114 patients only led to minor improvements. A dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal prostate IMRT plans was generated. This dataset can be used to train new, and validate and compare existing treatment planning QA models, and has been made publicly available. The OVH model was highly accurate

  2. Evaluation of plan quality assurance models for prostate cancer patients based on fully automatically generated Pareto-optimal treatment plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yibing; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben; Petit, Steven F.

    2016-06-01

    IMRT planning with commercial Treatment Planning Systems (TPSs) is a trial-and-error process. Consequently, the quality of treatment plans may not be consistent among patients, planners and institutions. Recently, different plan quality assurance (QA) models have been proposed, that could flag and guide improvement of suboptimal treatment plans. However, the performance of these models was validated using plans that were created using the conventional trail-and-error treatment planning process. Consequently, it is challenging to assess and compare quantitatively the accuracy of different treatment planning QA models. Therefore, we created a golden standard dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal IMRT plans for 115 prostate patients. Next, the dataset was used to assess the performance of a treatment planning QA model that uses the overlap volume histogram (OVH). 115 prostate IMRT plans were fully automatically planned using our in-house developed TPS Erasmus-iCycle. An existing OVH model was trained on the plans of 58 of the patients. Next it was applied to predict DVHs of the rectum, bladder and anus of the remaining 57 patients. The predictions were compared with the achieved values of the golden standard plans for the rectum D mean, V 65, and V 75, and D mean of the anus and the bladder. For the rectum, the prediction errors (predicted-achieved) were only  -0.2  ±  0.9 Gy (mean  ±  1 SD) for D mean,-1.0  ±  1.6% for V 65, and  -0.4  ±  1.1% for V 75. For D mean of the anus and the bladder, the prediction error was 0.1  ±  1.6 Gy and 4.8  ±  4.1 Gy, respectively. Increasing the training cohort to 114 patients only led to minor improvements. A dataset of consistently planned Pareto-optimal prostate IMRT plans was generated. This dataset can be used to train new, and validate and compare existing treatment planning QA models, and has been made publicly available. The OVH model was highly accurate

  3. Semi-automatic simulation model generation of virtual dynamic networks for production flow planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenczyk, D.; Skolud, B.; Olender, M.

    2016-08-01

    Computer modelling, simulation and visualization of production flow allowing to increase the efficiency of production planning process in dynamic manufacturing networks. The use of the semi-automatic model generation concept based on parametric approach supporting processes of production planning is presented. The presented approach allows the use of simulation and visualization for verification of production plans and alternative topologies of manufacturing network configurations as well as with automatic generation of a series of production flow scenarios. Computational examples with the application of Enterprise Dynamics simulation software comprising the steps of production planning and control for manufacturing network have been also presented.

  4. Transient Thermoelectric Generator: An Active Load Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockholm, J. G.; Goupil, C.; Maussion, P.; Ouerdane, H.

    2015-06-01

    Under stationary conditions, the optimization of maximum power output and efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is a well-known subject. Use of a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) approach to the description of TEGs has demonstrated that there exists a closed feedback effect between the output electrical load value and the entering heat current. From the practical point of view, this effect is strongly evidenced by the use of direct current (DC-to-DC) converters as active loads. Both transient conditions and FTT contribute to a complex landscape of the optimization of the power and efficiencies of a TEG. It has been claimed that the use of inductive load may lead to a strong enhancement of the efficiency, and the frequency response of a TEG as a band-pass filter has also been recently reported. We consider these results using a classical linear Onsager approach of a TEG operating under transient conditions. We show that a trans-admittance may be defined as a coupling element between the input and the output, leading to the observed electric-to-thermal feedback. We discuss recent experiments on a TEG connected to an active load, which is reported to boast an efficiency exceeding the usual stationary DC thermoelectric efficiency.

  5. Predicting Changes in Physical Activity among Adolescents: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Intention, Action Planning and Coping Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo-Soares, Vera; McIntyre, Teresa; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to test the direct predictors of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), action planning and coping planning as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) in 157 adolescents (mean age: 12). TPB measures, the Action Planning and Coping Planning Scales (APCPS) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaires were measured…

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan, Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    G.O. Hayner; R.L. Bratton; R.E. Mizia; W.E. Windes; W.R. Corwin; T.D. Burchell; C.E. Duty; Y. Katoh; J.W. Klett; T.E. McGreevy; R.K. Nanstad; W. Ren; P.L. Rittenhouse; L.L. Snead; R.W. Swindeman; D.F. Wlson

    2007-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 950°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Some of the general and administrative aspects of the R&D Plan include: • Expand American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Codes and American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards in support of the NGNP Materials R&D Program. • Define and develop inspection needs and the procedures for those inspections. • Support selected university materials related R&D activities that would be of direct benefit to the NGNP Project. • Support international materials related collaboration activities through the DOE sponsored Generation IV International Forum (GIF) Materials and Components (M&C) Project Management Board (PMB). • Support document review activities through the Materials Review Committee (MRC) or other suitable forum.

  7. Demonstration of a Spoken Dialogue Interface for Planning Activities of a Semi-autonomous Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowding, John; Frank, Jeremy; Hockey, Beth Ann; Jonsson, Ari; Aist, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    Planning and scheduling in the face of uncertainty and change pushes the capabilities of both planning and dialogue technologies by requiring complex negotiation to arrive at a workable plan. Planning for use of semi-autonomous robots involves negotiation among multiple participants with competing scientific and engineering goals to co-construct a complex plan. In NASA applications this plan construction is done under severe time pressure so having a dialogue interface to the plan construction tools can aid rapid completion of the process. But, this will put significant demands on spoken dialogue technology, particularly in the areas of dialogue management and generation. The dialogue interface will need to be able to handle the complex dialogue strategies that occur in negotiation dialogues, including hypotheticals and revisions, and the generation component will require an ability to summarize complex plans. This demonstration will describe a work in progress towards building a spoken dialogue interface to the EUROPA planner for the purposes of planning and scheduling the activities of a semi-autonomous robot. A prototype interface has been built for planning the schedule of the Personal Satellite Assistant (PSA), a mobile robot designed for micro-gravity environments that is intended for use on the Space Shuttle and International Space Station. The spoken dialogue interface gives the user the capability to ask for a description of the plan, ask specific questions about the plan, and update or modify the plan. We anticipate that a spoken dialogue interface to the planner will provide a natural augmentation or alternative to the visualization interface, in situations in which the user needs very targeted information about the plan, in situations where natural language can express complex ideas more concisely than GUI actions, or in situations in which a graphical user interface is not appropriate.

  8. Automated generation of IMRT treatment plans for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses: Comparison of different planning strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Voet, Peter W. J.; Dirkx, Maarten L. P.; Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To compare IMRT planning strategies for prostate cancer patients with metal hip prostheses.Methods: All plans were generated fully automatically (i.e., no human trial-and-error interactions) using iCycle, the authors' in-house developed algorithm for multicriterial selection of beam angles and optimization of fluence profiles, allowing objective comparison of planning strategies. For 18 prostate cancer patients (eight with bilateral hip prostheses, ten with a right-sided unilateral prosthesis), two planning strategies were evaluated: (i) full exclusion of beams containing beamlets that would deliver dose to the target after passing a prosthesis (IMRT{sub remove}) and (ii) exclusion of those beamlets only (IMRT{sub cut}). Plans with optimized coplanar and noncoplanar beam arrangements were generated. Differences in PTV coverage and sparing of organs at risk (OARs) were quantified. The impact of beam number on plan quality was evaluated.Results: Especially for patients with bilateral hip prostheses, IMRT{sub cut} significantly improved rectum and bladder sparing compared to IMRT{sub remove}. For 9-beam coplanar plans, rectum V{sub 60Gy} reduced by 17.5%{+-} 15.0% (maximum 37.4%, p= 0.036) and rectum D{sub mean} by 9.4%{+-} 7.8% (maximum 19.8%, p= 0.036). Further improvements in OAR sparing were achievable by using noncoplanar beam setups, reducing rectum V{sub 60Gy} by another 4.6%{+-} 4.9% (p= 0.012) for noncoplanar 9-beam IMRT{sub cut} plans. Large reductions in rectum dose delivery were also observed when increasing the number of beam directions in the plans. For bilateral implants, the rectum V{sub 60Gy} was 37.3%{+-} 12.1% for coplanar 7-beam plans and reduced on average by 13.5% (maximum 30.1%, p= 0.012) for 15 directions.Conclusions: iCycle was able to automatically generate high quality plans for prostate cancer patients with prostheses. Excluding only beamlets that passed through the prostheses (IMRT{sub cut} strategy) significantly improved OAR

  9. Activity Based Startup Plan for Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner

    SciTech Connect

    SUTTER, C.S.

    1999-08-31

    Testing activities on the Prototype Vertical Denitration Calciner at PFP were suspended in January 1997 due to the hold on fissile material handling in the facility. The restart of testing activities will require a review through an activity based startup process based upon Integrated Safety Management (ISM) principles to verify readiness. The Activity Based Startup Plan has been developed for this process.

  10. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOEpatents

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  11. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-08-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  12. Active control of fan-generated plane wave noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.; Nuckolls, William E.; Santamaria, Odillyn L.; Martinson, Scott D.

    1993-01-01

    Subsonic propulsion systems for future aircraft may incorporate ultra-high bypass ratio ducted fan engines whose dominant noise source is the fan with blade passage frequency less than 1000 Hz. This low frequency combines with the requirement of a short nacelle to diminish the effectiveness of passive duct liners. Active noise control is seen as a viable method to augment the conventional passive treatments. An experiment to control ducted fan noise using a time domain active adaptive system is reported. The control sound source consists of loudspeakers arrayed around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. In this first series of tests, the fan is configured so that predominantly zero order circumferential waves are generated. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same. The noise reduction is not as great when the mode orders are not the same even though the noise source modes are evanescent, but the control system converges stably and global noise reduction is demonstrated in the far field. Further experimentation is planned in which the performance of the system will be evaluated when higher order radial and spinning modes are generated.

  13. Planning and Designing for K-12 Next Generation Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Dave

    2015-01-01

    The changing demands of the 21st century--and the students growing up in it--are generating fundamental challenges to historical assumptions about what education looks like. The challenge today is to provide a deeper level of personalized learning to each and every student so that all can achieve mastery of the Common Core standards and other…

  14. Junior Achievement Lesson Plans and Activity Ideas, 1997-98.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Junior Achievemnt, Inc., Colorado Springs, CO.

    This packet contains economics lesson plans and activities for the high school student. Detailed lesson plans and worksheets address the following concepts: (1) stock market; (2) economics of water; (3) diaper economics; (4) quality; (5) scarcity; (6) steps to success; (7) effective marketing; (8) careers and success; (9) interviewing tips and…

  15. 24 CFR 578.39 - Continuum of Care planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Continuum of Care planning activities. 578.39 Section 578.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  16. 24 CFR 572.205 - Planning grants-eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Planning grants-eligible activities. 572.205 Section 572.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 24 CFR 572.205 - Planning grants-eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Planning grants-eligible activities. 572.205 Section 572.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  18. 24 CFR 572.205 - Planning grants-eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Planning grants-eligible activities. 572.205 Section 572.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  19. 24 CFR 578.39 - Continuum of Care planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Continuum of Care planning activities. 578.39 Section 578.39 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  20. 24 CFR 572.205 - Planning grants-eligible activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Planning grants-eligible activities. 572.205 Section 572.205 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT...

  1. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  2. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  3. NREL Next Generation Drivetrain: Mechanical Design and Test Plan (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, J.; Halse, C.

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Energy and industry partners are sponsoring a $3m project for design and testing of a 'Next Generation' wind turbine drivetrain at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This poster focuses on innovative aspects of the gearbox design, completed as part of an end-to-end systems engineering approach incorporating innovations that increase drivetrain reliability, efficiency, torque density and minimize capital cost.

  4. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    G. O. Hayner; E.L. Shaber

    2004-09-01

    The U.S Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed, thermal neutron spectrum reactor that will produce electricity and hydrogen in a state-of-the-art thermodynamically efficient manner. The NGNP will use very high burn-up, low-enriched uranium, TRISO-coated fuel and have a projected plant design service life of 60 years.

  5. Hong Kong plans new generation chemical waste plant for 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Haggin, J. )

    1991-02-01

    The first comprehensive chemical waste treatment facility in a Pacific Rim country is scheduled for completion in Hong Kong in early 1993. Designed to treat industrial chemical wastes generated in Hong Kong and vicinity, the plant will have an output consisting of environmentally safe materials, energy, and some recovered products. The new waste treatment facility will be located on Tsing-yi Island, which is connected to the New Territories by road, near Ha Kwai Chung. The island is close to the main harbor and western shipping channel, providing immediate access to the Pearl River and Guangzhou (Canton).

  6. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Materials Selection and Qualification Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    R. Doug Hamelin; G. O. Hayner

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production without greenhouse gas emissions. The reactor design is a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble bed thermal neutron spectrum reactor with an average reactor outlet temperature of at least 1000 C. The NGNP will use very high burn up, lowenriched uranium, TRISO-Coated fuel in a once-through fuel cycle. The design service life of the NGNP is 60 years.

  7. Integrated capacity planning for electricity generation: A fuzzy environmental policy analysis approach

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, F.; Huang, G.

    2008-07-01

    This study proposes an integrated model for capacity planning in electricity generation. It utilizes a multiple-criteria linear programming to incorporate cost and environmental objectives into the planning. To treat the uncertainties embedded in definition of model parameters, the concept of decision-maker degree of optimism will be used. Optimization of the model provides different planning scenarios. To determine the best compromise plan, a post-optimization assessment based on fuzzy set theory concepts is developed. The proposed methodology is employed for a medium-term capacity planning in Canada's electricity generation sector. The results approve a major capacity growth for natural gas facilities accompanied by retirement of most coal-burning facilities.

  8. Multi-day activity scheduling reactions to planned activities and future events in a dynamic model of activity-travel behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijland, Linda; Arentze, Theo; Timmermans, Harry

    2014-01-01

    Modeling multi-day planning has received scarce attention in activity-based transport demand modeling so far. However, new dynamic activity-based approaches are being developed at the current moment. The frequency and inflexibility of planned activities and events in activity schedules of individuals indicate the importance of incorporating those pre-planned activities in the new generation of dynamic travel demand models. Elaborating and combining previous work on event-driven activity generation, the aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an extension of a need-based model of activity generation that takes into account possible influences of pre-planned activities and events. This paper describes the theory and shows the results of simulations of the extension. The simulation was conducted for six different activities, and the parameter values used were consistent with an earlier estimation study. The results show that the model works well and that the influences of the parameters are consistent, logical, and have clear interpretations. These findings offer further evidence of face and construct validity to the suggested modeling approach.

  9. Mixed-Initiative Constraint-Based Activity Planning for Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John; Jonsson, Ari K.; Morris, Paul H.; Rajan, Kanna

    2004-01-01

    In January, 2004, two NASA rovers, named Spirit and Opportunity, successfully landed on Mars, starting an unprecedented exploration of the Martian surface. Power and thermal concerns constrained the duration of this mission, leading to an aggressive plan for commanding both rovers every day. As part of the process for generating these command loads, the MAPGEN tool provides engineers and scientists an intelligent activity planning tool that allows them to more effectively generate complex plans that maximize the science return each day. The key to'the effectiveness of the MAPGEN tool is an underlying artificial intelligence plan and constraint reasoning engine. In this paper we outline the design and functionality of the MAEPGEN tool and focus on some of the key capabilities it offers to the MER mission engineers.

  10. Manned spaceflight activity planning with knowledge-based systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mogilensky, J.; Dalton, R. E.; Scarl, E. A.

    1983-01-01

    An on-board expert system, capable of assisting with crew-activity planning and platform-status monitoring, could provide unprecedented autonomy to the crew of a permanently manned space station. To demonstrate this concept's feasibility, an existing knowledge-based system is adapted to support Space Shuttle crew-activity timeline planning. Proposed timeline changes are to be checked for compliance with crew capabilities and mission operating guidelines, so that a nonexpert can be guided through a successful plan modification. Early lessons that have been learned about the scope of the adaptation needed to achieve this objective are presented.

  11. 78 FR 12676 - Timing Requirements for the Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... Submission of a Site Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan (GAP) for a Renewable Energy Project on... Assessment Plan (SAP) or General Activities Plan (GAP) pursuant to the regulations governing renewable energy... rule, all OCS renewable energy leases and grants will have a preliminary term of 12 months in which...

  12. En Route Descent Advisor Multi-Sector Planning Using Active and Provisional Controller Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivona, Robert; Green, Steven

    2003-01-01

    As decision support tools are developed to support controllers in complex air traffic control environments, new approaches to maintaining situation awareness and managing traffic planning must be developed to handle the ever-increasing amounts of alerting and advisory data. Within high-density metering and other environments where flight path changes are the rule, not the exception, and where interactions between these changes are required, current trial planning approaches are limited by potential increases in workload. The Enroute Descent Advisor (EDA) is a set of decision support tool capabilities for managing high-density en route traffic subject to metering restrictions. The EDA system s novel approach builds aircraft plans from combinations of user intent data and builds controller plans from combinations of aircraft plans to effectively maintain situation awareness during traffic planning. By maintaining both active (current) and provisional (proposed) controller plans, EDA supports controllers in coordinated traffic planning both within and between sectors. Ultimately, EDA s multi-sector planning approach will facilitate a transition from current sector-oriented operations to a new trajectory-oriented paradigm, enabling new levels of efficiency and collaboration in air traffic control.

  13. Early planning activity in frontal and parietal cortex in a simplified task

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Cortical planning activity has traditionally been probed with visual targets. However, external sensory signals might obscure early correlates of internally generated plans. We devised a nonspatial decision-making task in which the monkey is encouraged to decide randomly whether to reach or saccade in the absence of sensory stimuli. Neurons in frontal and parietal planning areas (in and around the arcuate and intraparietal sulci) showed responses predictive of the monkey's upcoming movement at early stages during the planning process. Neurons predicted the animal's future movements several seconds beforehand, sometimes before the trial even began. These data cast new light on the role of the cerebral cortex in the action planning process, when the animal is free to decide on his own actions in the absence of extraneous sensory cues. PMID:25761951

  14. 7 CFR 1485.15 - Activity plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Specific goals and benchmarks to be used to measure the effectiveness of each activity. This will assist... achieve additional exports of U.S. agricultural products, that is, sales that would not have occurred in... standards established by 13 CFR part 121. (d) Requests for approval of “supergrades”. (1) Ordinarily,...

  15. Estimating evaporative vapor generation from automobiles based on parking activities.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xinyi; Tschantz, Michael; Fu, Joshua S

    2015-07-01

    A new approach is proposed to quantify the evaporative vapor generation based on real parking activity data. As compared to the existing methods, two improvements are applied in this new approach to reduce the uncertainties: First, evaporative vapor generation from diurnal parking events is usually calculated based on estimated average parking duration for the whole fleet, while in this study, vapor generation rate is calculated based on parking activities distribution. Second, rather than using the daily temperature gradient, this study uses hourly temperature observations to derive the hourly incremental vapor generation rates. The parking distribution and hourly incremental vapor generation rates are then adopted with Wade-Reddy's equation to estimate the weighted average evaporative generation. We find that hourly incremental rates can better describe the temporal variations of vapor generation, and the weighted vapor generation rate is 5-8% less than calculation without considering parking activity.

  16. Planning and Development of Lab Training Activities for Powerline Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drosopoulos, A.; Hatziprokopiou, M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the planning and development of student training and activities for the Powerline Communications Laboratory at the Technical Education Institute (TEI), Patras, Greece. Powerline communications is currently an active area of research and development that combines three separate specializations from the standard training of…

  17. Flight data file: STS-4 crew activity plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippert, E. B., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The STS-4 Crew Activity Plan contains the on-orbit timeline, which is a flight data file article. Various time scales such as Mission Elapsed Time (MET), Greenwich Mean Time (GMT), and time until deorbit ignition as well as crew activities, day/night, orbit position, ground tracking, communication coverage, attitude, and maneuvers are presented in chart form.

  18. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug.

  19. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation

    PubMed Central

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  20. Fluidic Active Transducer for Electricity Generation.

    PubMed

    Yang, YoungJun; Park, Junwoo; Kwon, Soon-Hyung; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-01-01

    Flows in small size channels have been studied for a long time over multidisciplinary field such as chemistry, biology and medical through the various topics. Recently, the attempts of electricity generation from the small flows as a new area for energy harvesting in microfluidics have been reported. Here, we propose for the first time a new fluidic electricity generator (FEG) by modulating the electric double layer (EDL) with two phase flows of water and air without external power sources. We find that an electric current flowed by the forming/deforming of the EDL with a simple separated phase flow of water and air at the surface of the FEG. Electric signals between two electrodes of the FEG are checked from various water/air passing conditions. Moreover, we verify the possibility of a self-powered air slug sensor by applying the FEG in the detection of an air slug. PMID:26511626

  1. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed.

  2. Closure Plan for Active Low Level Burial Grounds

    SciTech Connect

    SKELLY, W.A.

    2000-11-16

    This plan has been prepared in response to direction from the U.S. Department of Energy. The purpose of the plan is to define approaches that will be implemented to ensure protection of the public and the environment when active Low-Level Burial Grounds (LLBGs) at the Hanford Site are closed. Performance assessments for active burial grounds in the 200 East and West 200 Areas provide current estimates of potential environmental contamination and doses to the ''maximum exposed individual'' from burial ground operation and closure and compare dose estimates to performance objective dose limits for the facilities. This is an Operational Closure Plan. The intent of the guidance in DOE Order 435.1 is that this plan will be a living document, like the facility performance assessments, and will be revised periodically through the operational life of the LLBGs to reflect updated information on waste inventory. management practices, facility transition planning, schedule dates, assessments of post-closure performance, and environmental consequences. Out year dates identified in this plan are tentative. A Final Closure Plan will be prepared in the future when the timing and extent of closure-related activities for LLBGs can be established with greater certainty. After current operations at the LLBGs are concluded, this plan proposes transitioning of these facilities to the Environmental Restoration Program. This action will enable the Environmental Restoration Program to design and implement consistent and coordinated final remedial actions for active and inactive LLBGs. Active and inactive burial grounds in the 200 West and 200 East Areas are commingled. This plan describes approaches that will be implemented during Interim Closure, Final Closure, and Institutional Control Periods to prepare LLBGs for surface barriers, and the construction of barriers, as well as the scope of inspection, monitoring and maintenance practices that will be performed during and after closure

  3. Plans for the Sentinel-3 SLSTR Active Fire Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Martin; Xu, Weidong

    2010-05-01

    The Sea and Land Surface Temperature Radiometer (SLSTR) will fly on the ESA Sentinel-3 satellites as a follow-on to the highly successful ERS/ENVISAR (A)ATSR series of imaging radiometers. SLSTR has been designed to offer a series of new capabilities over and above those of the forunner instruments (including an increased number of spectral channels, a much wider swath width, and an increased revisit frequency) whist still maintaining the key characteristics of dual-view, high accuracy and high precision radiometry. Included in the SLSTR-design are two dedicated "fire channels" that will allow unsaturated thermal spectral radiance observations over even high intensity and/or large open vegetation fires. Data from these and the other spectral channels will be used to generate an operational near real-time SLSTR active fire detection and fire radiative power product, to be used for both scientific studies on wildfire causes, behaviour and effects, and also operational applications involved with forecasting the short-term atmospheric impact of wildfire smoke. This work will present the plans for the SLSTR fire product, including details of the algorithm design and performance analysis, and an evaluation of the ver1 algorithm using MODIS data of global fire events.

  4. Methodologies for estimating one-time hazardous waste generation for capacity generation for capacity assurance planning

    SciTech Connect

    Tonn, B.; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Elliot, S.; Peretz, J.; Bohm, R.; Hendrucko, B.

    1994-04-01

    This report contains descriptions of methodologies to be used to estimate the one-time generation of hazardous waste associated with five different types of remediation programs: Superfund sites, RCRA Corrective Actions, Federal Facilities, Underground Storage Tanks, and State and Private Programs. Estimates of the amount of hazardous wastes generated from these sources to be shipped off-site to commercial hazardous waste treatment and disposal facilities will be made on a state by state basis for the years 1993, 1999, and 2013. In most cases, estimates will be made for the intervening years, also.

  5. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Steam Generator and Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright

    2010-09-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  6. Firefighters’ Physical Activity across Multiple Shifts of Planned Burn Work

    PubMed Central

    Chappel, Stephanie E.; Aisbett, Brad; Vincent, Grace E.; Ridgers, Nicola D.

    2016-01-01

    Little is currently known about the physical activity patterns of workers in physically demanding populations. The aims of this study were to (a) quantify firefighters’ physical activity and sedentary time within (2-h periods) and across planned burn shifts; and (b) examine whether firefighters’ activity levels during one shift or 2-h period was associated with their activity levels in the following shift or 2-h period. Thirty-four salaried firefighters (26 men, 8 women) wore an Actical accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Time spent sedentary (SED) and in light- (LPA), moderate- (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) were derived using validated cut-points. Multilevel analyses (shift, participant) were conducted using generalised linear latent and mixed models. Firefighters spent the majority of a planned burn shift (average length 10.4 h) or 2-h period engaged in LPA (69% and 70%, respectively). No significant associations were observed between SED and physical activity levels between consecutive planned burned shifts or 2-h periods. The physical activity that a firefighter engaged in during one shift (or 2-h period) did not subsequently affect their physical activity levels in the subsequent shift (or 2-h period). Further research is needed to establish how workers in physically demanding populations are able to sustain their activity levels over long periods of time. PMID:27706057

  7. Apparatus for generating a robotic plan for automatically assembling a mechanical component

    SciTech Connect

    Maciejewski, A.A.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus operable in combination with a robot positioned in a workcell having a preselected specification is operable to generate a program for operating the robot to assemble a mechanical component. The apparatus includes a planner for receiving as inputs a CAD model of the mechanical component to be assembled, a set of robot primitives and a set of mechanical component assembly rules for determining the conditions under which the set of robot primitives apply. The planner generates from these inputs a general, workcell specification-independent plan for assembling the mechanical component. The general plan generated by the planner is provided as an input to a compiler along with details relating to the workcell specification, and the compiler generates from these inputs a workcell specification-dependent program which operates the robot to assemble the mechanical component.

  8. Next Generation Active Buffet Suppression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galea, Stephen C.; Ryall, Thomas G.; Henderson, Douglas A.; Moses, Robert W.; White, Edward V.; Zimcik, David G.

    2003-01-01

    Buffeting is an aeroelastic phenomenon that is common to high performance aircraft, especially those with twin vertical tails like the F/A-18, at high angles of attack. These loads result in significant random stresses, which may cause fatigue damage leading to restricted capabilities and availability of the aircraft. This paper describes an international collaborative research activity among Australia, Canada and the United States involving the use of active structural control to alleviate the damaging structural response to these loads. The research program is being co-ordinated by the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) and is being conducted under the auspices of The Technical Cooperative Program (TTCP). This truly unique collaborative program has been developed to enable each participating country to contribute resources toward a program that coalesces a broad range of technical knowledge and expertise into a single investigation. This collaborative program is directed toward a full-scale test of an F/A-18 empennage, which is an extension of an earlier initial test. The current program aims at applying advanced directional piezoactuators, the aircraft rudder, switch mode amplifiers and advanced control strategies on a full-scale structure to demonstrate the enhanced performance and capability of the advanced active BLA control system in preparation for a flight test demonstration.

  9. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND..., steam-generating equipment designated as Units 1, 2, and 3, equipment associated with coal and ash... located in the Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (see 40 CFR 81.270). (b)...

  10. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND..., steam-generating equipment designated as Units 1, 2, and 3, equipment associated with coal and ash... located in the Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (see 40 CFR 81.270). (b)...

  11. 40 CFR 49.5513 - Federal Implementation Plan Provisions for Navajo Generating Station, Navajo Nation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE INDIAN COUNTRY: AIR QUALITY PLANNING AND..., steam-generating equipment designated as Units 1, 2, and 3, equipment associated with coal and ash... located in the Northern Arizona Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (see 40 CFR 81.270). (b)...

  12. Resource Constrained Planning of Multiple Projects with Separable Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Susumu; Morita, Hiroshi; Kanawa, Takuya

    In this study we consider a resource constrained planning problem of multiple projects with separable activities. This problem provides a plan to process the activities considering a resource availability with time window. We propose a solution algorithm based on the branch and bound method to obtain the optimal solution minimizing the completion time of all projects. We develop three methods for improvement of computational efficiency, that is, to obtain initial solution with minimum slack time rule, to estimate lower bound considering both time and resource constraints and to introduce an equivalence relation for bounding operation. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated by numerical examples. Especially as the number of planning projects increases, the average computational time and the number of searched nodes are reduced.

  13. Age 55 or better: active adult communities and city planning.

    PubMed

    Trolander, Judith Ann

    2011-01-01

    Active adult, age-restricted communities are significant to urban history and city planning. As communities that ban the permanent residence of children under the age of nineteen with senior zoning overlays, they are unique experiments in social planning. While they do not originate the concept of the common interest community with its shared amenities, the residential golf course community, or the gated community, Sun Cities and Leisure Worlds do a lot to popularize those physical planning concepts. The first age-restricted community, Youngtown, AZ, opened in 1954. Inspired by amenity-rich trailer courts in Florida, Del Webb added the “active adult” element when he opened Sun City, AZ, in 1960. Two years later, Ross Cortese opened the first of his gated Leisure Worlds. By the twenty-first century, these “lifestyle” communities had proliferated and had expanded their appeal to around 18 percent of retirees, along with influencing the design of intergenerational communities.

  14. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  15. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littlefield, R. G. (Editor)

    1983-01-01

    Information concerning active and planned spacecraft and experiments is included. The information covers a wide range of scientific disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft projects represent the efforts and fundng of individual countries as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  16. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, J. I. (Editor); Vostreys, R. W. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    Information concerning active and planned spacecraft and experiments is reported. The information includes a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft projects represent the efforts and funding of individual countries as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  17. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vette, J. I. (Editor); Vostreys, R. W. (Editor); Horowitz, R. (Editor)

    1978-01-01

    Information is presented, concerning active and planned spacecraft and experiments known to the National Space Science Data Center. The information included a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft projects represented the efforts and funding of individual countries as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  18. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brecht, J. J. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    Information dealing with active and planned spacecraft and experiments known to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) is presented. Included is information concerning a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft represent the efforts and funding of individual countries, as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  19. Analysis of Selection Activities to Supplement Approval Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loup, Jean L.; Snoke, Helen Lloyd

    1991-01-01

    Describes two surveys of libraries by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) that were conducted to compare approval plans and to determine alternative acquisitions methods for materials in philosophy and political science. Time spent by selectors is examined, collection evaluation activities are described, and implications for resource…

  20. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, R. (Editor); Nostreys, R. W. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Information on current and planned spacecraft activity for a broad range of scientific disciplines is presented. The information covers a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, Earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft projects represent the efforts and funding of individual countries as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  1. Derivative-free generation and interpolation of convex Pareto optimal IMRT plans.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Aswin L; Siem, Alex Y D; den Hertog, Dick; Kaanders, Johannes H A M; Huizenga, Henk

    2006-12-21

    In inverse treatment planning for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), beamlet intensity levels in fluence maps of high-energy photon beams are optimized. Treatment plan evaluation criteria are used as objective functions to steer the optimization process. Fluence map optimization can be considered a multi-objective optimization problem, for which a set of Pareto optimal solutions exists: the Pareto efficient frontier (PEF). In this paper, a constrained optimization method is pursued to iteratively estimate the PEF up to some predefined error. We use the property that the PEF is convex for a convex optimization problem to construct piecewise-linear upper and lower bounds to approximate the PEF from a small initial set of Pareto optimal plans. A derivative-free Sandwich algorithm is presented in which these bounds are used with three strategies to determine the location of the next Pareto optimal solution such that the uncertainty in the estimated PEF is maximally reduced. We show that an intelligent initial solution for a new Pareto optimal plan can be obtained by interpolation of fluence maps from neighbouring Pareto optimal plans. The method has been applied to a simplified clinical test case using two convex objective functions to map the trade-off between tumour dose heterogeneity and critical organ sparing. All three strategies produce representative estimates of the PEF. The new algorithm is particularly suitable for dynamic generation of Pareto optimal plans in interactive treatment planning.

  2. Report on Active and Planned Spacecraft and Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W. (Editor); Maitson, H. H. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Active and planned spacecraft activity and experiments between June 1, 1980 and May 31, 1981 known to the National Space Science Data Center are described. The information covers a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, Earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. Each spacecraft and experiment is described and its current status presented. Descriptions of navigational and communications satellites and of spacecraft that contain only continuous radio beacons used for ionospheric studies are specifically excluded.

  3. Higgs properties in the fourth-generation MSSM: Boosted signals over the three-generation plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R. C.; Hewett, J. L.; Ismail, A.; Le, M.-P.; Rizzo, T. G.

    2011-10-01

    The generalization of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) to the case of four chiral fermion generations (4GMSSM) can lead to significant changes in the phenomenology of the otherwise familiar Higgs sector. In most of the 3GMSSM parameter space, the lighter CP-even h is {approx}115-125 GeV and mostly standard model-like while H, A, H{sup {+-}} are all relatively heavy. Furthermore, the ratio of Higgs vacuum expectation values, tan{beta}, is relatively unconstrained. In contrast to this, in the 4GMSSM, heavy fourth-generation fermion loops drive the masses of h, H, H{sup {+-}} to large values while the CP-odd boson, A, can remain relatively light and tan{beta} is restricted to the range 1/2 < or approx. tan{beta} < or approx. 2 due to perturbativity requirements on Yukawa couplings. We explore this scenario in some detail, concentrating on the collider signatures of the light CP-odd Higgs at both the Tevatron and LHC. We find that while gg{yields}A may lead to a potential signal in the {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} channel at the LHC, A might first be observed in the {gamma}{gamma} channel due to a highly loop-enhanced cross section that can be more than an order of magnitude greater than that of a SM Higgs for A masses of {approx}100-150 GeV and tan{beta}<1. We find that the CP-even states h, H are highly mixed and can have atypical branching fractions. Precision electroweak constraints, particularly for the light A parameter space region, are examined in detail.

  4. Activity cliffs and activity cliff generators based on chemotype-related activity landscapes.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Méndez-Lucio, Oscar; Soria-Arteche, Olivia; Medina-Franco, José L

    2015-11-01

    Activity cliffs have large impact in drug discovery; therefore, their detection and quantification are of major importance. This work introduces the metric activity cliff enrichment factor and expands the previously reported activity cliff generator concept by adding chemotype information to representations of the activity landscape. To exemplify these concepts, three molecular databases with multiple biological activities were characterized. Compounds in each database were grouped into chemotype classes. Then, pairwise comparisons of structure similarities and activity differences were calculated for each compound and used to construct chemotype-based structure-activity similarity (SAS) maps. Different landscape distributions among four major regions of the SAS maps were observed for different subsets of molecules grouped in chemotypes. Based on this observation, the activity cliff enrichment factor was calculated to numerically detect chemotypes enriched in activity cliffs. Several chemotype classes were detected having major proportion of activity cliffs than the entire database. In addition, some chemotype classes comprising compounds with smooth structure activity relationships (SAR) were detected. Finally, the activity cliff generator concept was applied to compounds grouped in chemotypes to extract valuable SAR information.

  5. Women's income generation activities in Merowe Province, Northern State, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Pitamber, S; Osama, S

    1994-06-01

    wanted raw materials to produce handicrafts, and 21% said they wanted cash to raise livestock. 28.4% had radios. 80.4% lacked any farm equipment. 7.6% owned an electric pump and 7% had an ox plough. A program could be offered after lunch and coordinated with other activities after 4 P.M. at a local center. The population would have to be oriented to business and income generation would have to be planned very carefully.

  6. Uav Aerial Survey: Accuracy Estimation for Automatically Generated Dense Digital Surface Model and Orthothoto Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altyntsev, M. A.; Arbuzov, S. A.; Popov, R. A.; Tsoi, G. V.; Gromov, M. O.

    2016-06-01

    A dense digital surface model is one of the products generated by using UAV aerial survey data. Today more and more specialized software are supplied with modules for generating such kind of models. The procedure for dense digital model generation can be completely or partly automated. Due to the lack of reliable criterion of accuracy estimation it is rather complicated to judge the generation validity of such models. One of such criterion can be mobile laser scanning data as a source for the detailed accuracy estimation of the dense digital surface model generation. These data may be also used to estimate the accuracy of digital orthophoto plans created by using UAV aerial survey data. The results of accuracy estimation for both kinds of products are presented in the paper.

  7. NASA/NREN: Next Generation Internet (NGI) Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    desJardins, Richard; Freeman, Ken

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with next generation internet (NGI) and the NREN (NASA Research and Education Network) activities are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) NREN architecture; 2) NREN applications; and 3) NREN applied research.

  8. 15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. INTERIOR OVERVIEW TO SOUTHEAST. ACTIVE CONTROL PANEL AND GENERATORS AT LEFT, HISTORIC CONTROL PANEL AT RIGHT. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-1 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  9. Emergent Public Spaces: Generative Activities on Function Interpolation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmona, Guadalupe; Dominguez, Angeles; Krause, Gladys; Duran, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    This study highlights ways in which generative activities may be coupled with network-based technologies in the context of teacher preparation to enhance preservice teachers' cognizance of how their own experience as students provides a blueprint for the learning environments they may need to generate in their future classrooms. In this study, the…

  10. Hanford tanks initiative alternatives generation and analysis plan for AX tank farm closure basis

    SciTech Connect

    Schaus, P. S.

    1997-10-22

    The purpose of this document is: (1) to review the HTI Mission Analysis and related documents to determine their suitability for use in developing performance measures for AX Tank Farm closure, (2) to determine the completeness and representativeness of selected alternative closure scenarios, (3) to determine the completeness of current plans for development of tank end-state criteria, and (4) to analyze the activities that are necessary and sufficient to recommend the end-state criteria and performance measures for the AX Tank Farm and recommend activities not currently planned to support establishment of its end-state criteria.

  11. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m{sup 3} (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment.

  12. The road plan model: Information model for planning road building activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azinhal, Rafaela K.; Moura-Pires, Fernando

    1994-01-01

    The general building contractor is presented with an information model as an approach for deriving a high-level work plan of construction activities applied to road building. Road construction activities are represented in a Road Plan Model (RPM), which is modeled in the ISO standard STEP/EXPRESS and adopts various concepts from the GARM notation. The integration with the preceding road design stage and the succeeding phase of resource scheduling is discussed within the framework of a Road Construction Model. Construction knowledge is applied to the road design and the terrain model of the surrounding road infrastructure for the instantiation of the RPM. Issues regarding the implementation of a road planner application supporting the RPM are discussed.

  13. Is {open_quotes}early commitment{close_quotes} in plan generation ever a good idea?

    SciTech Connect

    Joslin, D.; Pollack, M.E.

    1996-12-31

    Partial-Order Causal Link planners typically take a {open_quotes}least-commitment{close_quotes} approach to some decisions (notably, step ordering), postponing those decisions until constraints force them to be made. However, these planners rely to some degree on early commitments in making other types of decisions, including threat resolution and operator choice. We show why existing planners cannot support full least-commitment decision-making, and present an alternative approach that can. The approach has been implemented in the Descartes system, which we describe. We also provide experimental results that demonstrate that a least-commitment approach to planning can be profitably extended beyond what is done in POCL and similar planners, but that taking a least-commitment approach to every planning decision can be inefficient: early commitment in plan generation is sometimes a good idea.

  14. Incorporating operational flexibility into electric generation planning Impacts and methods for system design and policy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmintier, Bryan S.

    This dissertation demonstrates how flexibility in hourly electricity operations can impact long-term planning and analysis for future power systems, particularly those with substantial variable renewables (e.g., wind) or strict carbon policies. Operational flexibility describes a power system's ability to respond to predictable and unexpected changes in generation or demand. Planning and policy models have traditionally not directly captured the technical operating constraints that determine operational flexibility. However, as demonstrated in this dissertation, this capability becomes increasingly important with the greater flexibility required by significant renewables (>= 20%) and the decreased flexibility inherent in some low-carbon generation technologies. Incorporating flexibility can significantly change optimal generation and energy mixes, lower system costs, improve policy impact estimates, and enable system designs capable of meeting strict regulatory targets. Methodologically, this work presents a new clustered formulation that tractably combines a range of normally distinct power system models, from hourly unit-commitment operations to long-term generation planning. This formulation groups similar generators into clusters to reduce problem size, while still retaining the individual unit constraints required to accurately capture operating reserves and other flexibility drivers. In comparisons against traditional unit commitment formulations, errors were generally less than 1% while run times decreased by several orders of magnitude (e.g., 5000x). Extensive numerical simulations, using a realistic Texas-based power system show that ignoring flexibility can underestimate carbon emissions by 50% or result in significant load and wind shedding to meet environmental regulations. Contributions of this dissertation include: 1. Demonstrating that operational flexibility can have an important impact on power system planning, and describing when and how these

  15. Puget Sound Area Electric Reliability Plan. Appendix B : Local Generation Evaluation : Draft Environmental Impact Statement.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    The information and data contained in this Appendix was extracted from numerous sources. The principle sources used for technical data were Bonneville Power Administration's 1990 Resource Program along with its technical appendix, and Chapter 8 of the Draft 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan. All cost data is reported 1988 dollars unless otherwise noted. This information was supplemented by other data developed by Puget Sound utilities who participated on the Local Generation Team. Identifying generating resources available to the Puget Sound area involved a five step process: (1) listing all possible resources that might contribute power to the Puget Sound area, (2) characterizing the technology/resource status, cost and operating characteristics of these resources, (3) identifying exclusion criteria based on the needs of the overall Puget Sound Electric Reliability Plan study, (4) applying these criteria to the list of resources, and (5) summarizing of the costs and characteristics of the final list of resources. 15 refs., 20 tabs.

  16. Master Environmental Plan: Fort Wingate Depot Activity, Gallup, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Biang, C.A.; Yuen, C.R.; Biang, R.P.; Antonopoulos, A.A.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1990-12-01

    The master environmental plan is based on an environmental assessment of the areas requiring environmental evaluation (AREEs) at Fort Wingate Depot Activity near Gallup, New Mexico. The Fort Wingate Depot Activity is slated for closure under the Base Closure and Realignment Act, Public Law 100--526. The MEP assesses the current status, describes additional data requirements, recommends actions for the sites, and establishes a priority order for actions. The plan was developed so that actions comply with hazardous waste and water quality regulations of the State of New Mexico and applicable federal regulations. It contains a brief history of the site, relevant geological and hydrological information, and a description of the current status for each AREE along with a discussion of the available site-specific data that pertain to existing or potential contamination and the impact on the environment. 35 refs., 27 figs., 23 tabs.

  17. Plan generation and hard real-time execution with application to safe, autonomous flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Ella Marie

    We address the problem of constructing and executing control plans for safe, fully-autonomous operation within a complex real-time domain where the combination of an incomplete knowledge base, limited computational resources, and hard real-time deadlines precludes the success of traditional planning and scheduling algorithms. To meet hard deadlines with limited computational resources, we employ a stochastic world model to prioritize the state-space during planning, then utilize feedback from the scheduler to set a threshold below which the planner removes unlikely states from consideration in order to generate a schedulable plan. Our probabilistic planning algorithm minimizes domain knowledge size and explicitly provides for the construction of real-time control plans. Although approximate instead of optimal, the representational efficiency gained by our approach makes it a viable alternative to the well-established Markov Decision Process for complex real-time problem domains. When resource limits require plan modification, our heuristic algorithms for communicating task resource utilization information from real-time scheduler to planner provide a novel method for directing the expensive planner backtracking process specifically toward a schedulable plan. The tradeoff in ignoring reachable but unlikely states, as well as allowing incomplete domain knowledge, is that we must now provide explicitly for the detection of and reaction to these "unexpected" states our system may encounter while executing a plan. By detecting such unhandled states and caching contingency plans for events which, though unlikely, could lead to catastrophic failure, we can still guarantee system safety in the probabilistic sense. Ultimately, however, we are still constrained by plan-execution resource limits regardless of the tradeoff algorithms employed. We apply the resultant architecture (CIRCA-II) to simulated autonomous aircraft flight and demonstrate its utility for intelligently

  18. Report on Active and Planned Spacecraft and Experiments. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vostreys, R. W. (Editor); Horwitz, R. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    Information concerning concerning active and planned spacecraft and experiments known to the National Space Science Data Center are included. The information contains a wide range of disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft projects represent the efforts and funding of individual countries as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries. Approximately 850 articles are included.

  19. 20 CFR 627.225 - Employment generating activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of information on JTPA programs and activities; labor market surveys; and development of on-the-job... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment generating activities. 627.225 Section 627.225 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  20. 20 CFR 627.225 - Employment generating activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... of information on JTPA programs and activities; labor market surveys; and development of on-the-job... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment generating activities. 627.225 Section 627.225 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR...

  1. Active Generations: An Intergenerational Approach to Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Danilea; Teufel, James; Holtgrave, Peter L.; Brown, Stephen L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Over the last 3 decades, US obesity rates have increased dramatically as more children and more adults become obese. This study explores an innovative program, Active Generations, an intergenerational nutrition education and activity program implemented in out-of-school environments (after school and summer camps). It utilizes older…

  2. Westinghouse Hanford Company plan for certifying newly generated contact -- handled transuranic waste. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, R.M.; Backlund, E.G.

    1995-09-01

    All transuranic (TRU) waste generators are required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A to package their TRU waste in order to comply wit the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) -- Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) or keep non-certifiable containers segregated. The Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Transuranic Waste Certification Plan was developed to ensure that TRU newly generated waste at WHC meets the DOE Order 5820.2A and the WHC-WAC which includes the State of Washington Department of Ecology -- Washington Administrative Code (DOE-WAC). The metho used at WHC to package TRU waste are described in sufficient detail to meet the regulations. This document is organized to provide a brief overview of waste generation operations at WHC. The methods used to implement this plan are discussed briefly along with the responsibilities and authorities of applicable organizations. This plan describes how WHC complies with all applicable regulations and requirements set forth in the latest approved revision of WHC-EP-0063-4.

  3. Risk management frameworks: supporting the next generation of Murray-Darling Basin water sharing plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podger, G. M.; Cuddy, S. M.; Peeters, L.; Smith, T.; Bark, R. H.; Black, D. C.; Wallbrink, P.

    2014-09-01

    Water jurisdictions in Australia are required to prepare and implement water resource plans. In developing these plans the common goal is realising the best possible use of the water resources - maximising outcomes while minimising negative impacts. This requires managing the risks associated with assessing and balancing cultural, industrial, agricultural, social and environmental demands for water within a competitive and resource-limited environment. Recognising this, conformance to international risk management principles (ISO 31000:2009) have been embedded within the Murray-Darling Basin Plan. Yet, to date, there has been little strategic investment by water jurisdictions in bridging the gap between principle and practice. The ISO 31000 principles and the risk management framework that embodies them align well with an adaptive management paradigm within which to conduct water resource planning. They also provide an integrative framework for the development of workflows that link risk analysis with risk evaluation and mitigation (adaptation) scenarios, providing a transparent, repeatable and robust platform. This study, through a demonstration use case and a series of workflows, demonstrates to policy makers how these principles can be used to support the development of the next generation of water sharing plans in 2019. The workflows consider the uncertainty associated with climate and flow inputs, and model parameters on irrigation and hydropower production, meeting environmental flow objectives and recreational use of the water resource. The results provide insights to the risks associated with meeting a range of different objectives.

  4. The determination of waste generation and composition as an essential tool to improve the waste management plan of a university.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Edo-Alcón, N; Carlos, M; Renau, M

    2016-07-01

    When many people work in organized institutions or enterprises, those institutions or enterprises become big meeting places that also have energy, water and resources necessities. One of these necessities is the correct management of the waste that is daily produced by these communities. Universities are a good example of institution where every day a great amount of people go to work or to study. But independently of their task, they use the different services at the University such as cafeterias, canteens, and photocopy and as a result of their activity a cleaning service is also needed. All these activities generate an environmental impact. Nowadays, many Universities have accepted the challenge to minimize this impact applying several measures. One of the impacts to be reduced is the waste generation. The first step to implement measures to implement a waste management plan at a University is to know the composition, the amount and the distribution of the waste generated in its facilities. As the waste composition and generation depend among other things on the climate, these variables should be analysed over one year. This research work estimates the waste generation and composition of a Spanish University, the Universitat Jaume I, during a school year. To achieve this challenge, all the waste streams generated at the University have been identified and quantified emphasizing on those which are not controlled. Furthermore, several statistical analyses have been carried out to know if the season of the year or the day of the week affect waste generation and composition. All this information will allow the University authorities to propose a set of minimization measures to enhance the current management. PMID:27107706

  5. The determination of waste generation and composition as an essential tool to improve the waste management plan of a university.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, A; Edo-Alcón, N; Carlos, M; Renau, M

    2016-07-01

    When many people work in organized institutions or enterprises, those institutions or enterprises become big meeting places that also have energy, water and resources necessities. One of these necessities is the correct management of the waste that is daily produced by these communities. Universities are a good example of institution where every day a great amount of people go to work or to study. But independently of their task, they use the different services at the University such as cafeterias, canteens, and photocopy and as a result of their activity a cleaning service is also needed. All these activities generate an environmental impact. Nowadays, many Universities have accepted the challenge to minimize this impact applying several measures. One of the impacts to be reduced is the waste generation. The first step to implement measures to implement a waste management plan at a University is to know the composition, the amount and the distribution of the waste generated in its facilities. As the waste composition and generation depend among other things on the climate, these variables should be analysed over one year. This research work estimates the waste generation and composition of a Spanish University, the Universitat Jaume I, during a school year. To achieve this challenge, all the waste streams generated at the University have been identified and quantified emphasizing on those which are not controlled. Furthermore, several statistical analyses have been carried out to know if the season of the year or the day of the week affect waste generation and composition. All this information will allow the University authorities to propose a set of minimization measures to enhance the current management.

  6. Plans for the next phase of CORDEX activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giorgi, Filippo; Gutowski, William

    2016-04-01

    Ensembles of Regional Climate Model (RCM) projections have been completed under the protocol of the first phase of the COordinated Regional Downscaling EXperiment (CORDEX, Giorgi et al. 2009) over most CORDEX domains. As a result of these activities a number of scientific issues have emerged, which provide the basis for discussion of the next phase of the CORDEX program. Among such issues are a clearer identification and quantification of the added value of the use of RCMs, the development and use of a new generation of very high resolution (<10 km), convection permitting RCMs, the coordination across development efforts of coupled Regional Earth System Models (RESMs), a more detailed and process-based analysis of RCM simulations, the effects of regional forcings (e.g. land use change and aerosols) and a better integration of empirical/statistical downscaling within the CORDEX framework. A large inhomogeneity was also noted across different CORDEX regional efforts, with some domains (e.g. EURO-CORDEX, AFRICA-CORDEX and MED-CORDEX) being covered by large ensembles and others by much more sparse experiment matrices. This has limited the use of CORDEX results in international programs such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Two avenues are being discussed in order to address these issues. The first is to produce a homogeneous set of higher resolution projections (10-20 km) across all or most CORDEX domains using a core set of RCMs downscaling a core set of GCMs. The second is to develop and implement a set of "Flagship Pilot Studies (FPSs)" over sub-regions of interest aimed at addressing specific scientific questions (e.g. added value and convection-permitting simulations, intercomparison of different downscaling approaches, land-use and aerosol effects). In this presentation we will describe the status of the discussion and plans for these new CORDEX initiatives, which will be likely finalized at the upcoming third Pan-CORDEX conference (ICRC

  7. 25 CFR 1000.65 - What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation grants support?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... INDIAN SELF-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Other Financial Assistance for Planning and Negotiation... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What kinds of activities do planning and negotiation... planning and negotiation grants support? The planning and negotiation grants support activities such...

  8. The Generation of Building Floor Plans Using Portable and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Mapping Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, G. J.; Chen, Y. L.; Chiang, K. W.; Lai, Y. C.

    2016-06-01

    Indoor navigation or positioning systems have been widely developed for Location-Based Services (LBS) applications and they come along with a keen demand of indoor floor plans for displaying results even improving the positioning performance. Generally, the floor plans produced by robot mapping focus on perceiving the environment to avoid obstacles and using the feature landmarks to update the robot position in the relative coordinate frame. These maps are not accurate enough to incorporate to the indoor positioning system. This study aims at developing Indoor Mobile Mapping System (Indoor MMS) and concentrates on generating the highly accurate floor plans based on the robot mapping technique using the portable, robot and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) platform. The proposed portable mapping system prototype can be used in the chest package and the handheld approach. In order to evaluate and correct the generated floor plans from robot mapping techniques, this study builds the testing and calibration field using the outdoor control survey method implemented in the indoor environments. Based on control points and check points from control survey, this study presents the map rectification method that uses the affine transformation to solve the scale and deformation problems and also transfer the local coordinate system into world standard coordinate system. The preliminary results illustrate that the final version of the building floor plan reach 1 meter absolute positioning accuracy using the proposed mapping systems that combines with the novel map rectification approach proposed. These maps are well geo-referenced with world coordinate system thus it can be applied for future seamless navigation applications including indoor and outdoor scenarios.

  9. A test sheet generating algorithm based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Peipei; Niu, Zhendong; Chen, Xuting; Chen, Wei

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, computer-based testing has become an effective method to evaluate students' overall learning progress so that appropriate guiding strategies can be recommended. Research has been done to develop intelligent test assembling systems which can automatically generate test sheets based on given parameters of test items. A good multisubject test sheet depends on not only the quality of the test items but also the construction of the sheet. Effective and efficient construction of test sheets according to multiple subjects and criteria is a challenging problem. In this paper, a multi-subject test sheet generation problem is formulated and a test sheet generating approach based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning (GAHP) is proposed to tackle this problem. The proposed approach utilizes hierarchical planning to simplify the multi-subject testing problem and adopts genetic algorithm to process the layered criteria, enabling the construction of good test sheets according to multiple test item requirements. Experiments are conducted and the results show that the proposed approach is capable of effectively generating multi-subject test sheets that meet specified requirements and achieve good performance.

  10. A test sheet generating algorithm based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Peipei; Niu, Zhendong; Chen, Xuting; Chen, Wei

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, computer-based testing has become an effective method to evaluate students' overall learning progress so that appropriate guiding strategies can be recommended. Research has been done to develop intelligent test assembling systems which can automatically generate test sheets based on given parameters of test items. A good multisubject test sheet depends on not only the quality of the test items but also the construction of the sheet. Effective and efficient construction of test sheets according to multiple subjects and criteria is a challenging problem. In this paper, a multi-subject test sheet generation problem is formulated and a test sheet generating approach based on intelligent genetic algorithm and hierarchical planning (GAHP) is proposed to tackle this problem. The proposed approach utilizes hierarchical planning to simplify the multi-subject testing problem and adopts genetic algorithm to process the layered criteria, enabling the construction of good test sheets according to multiple test item requirements. Experiments are conducted and the results show that the proposed approach is capable of effectively generating multi-subject test sheets that meet specified requirements and achieve good performance.

  11. Report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schofield, N. J., Jr.; Littlefield, R. G.; Elsen, M. F.

    1985-01-01

    This report provides the professional community with information on current and planned spacecraft activity (including both free-flying spacecraft and Shuttle-attached payloads) for a broad range of scientific disciplines. By providing a brief description of each spacecraft and experiment as well as its current status, it is hoped that this document will be useful to many people interested in the scientific, applied, and operational uses of the data collected. Furthermore, for those investigators who are planning or coordinating future observational programs employing a number of different techniques such as rockets, balloons, aircraft, ships, and buoys, this document can provide some insight into the contributions that may be provided by orbiting instruments. The document includes information concerning active and planned spacecraft and experiments. The information covers a wide range of scientific disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, particles and fields, solar physics, life sciences, and material sciences. These spacecraft projects represent the efforts and funding of individual countries, as well as cooperative arrangements among different countries.

  12. Payload crew activity planning integration. Task 2: Inflight operations and training for payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hitz, F. R.

    1976-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Payload Crew Activity Planning Integration task were to: (1) Determine feasible, cost-effective payload crew activity planning integration methods. (2) Develop an implementation plan and guidelines for payload crew activity plan (CAP) integration between the JSC Orbiter planners and the Payload Centers. Subtask objectives and study activities were defined as: (1) Determine Crew Activity Planning Interfaces. (2) Determine Crew Activity Plan Type and Content. (3) Evaluate Automated Scheduling Tools. (4) Develop a draft Implementation Plan for Crew Activity Planning Integration. The basic guidelines were to develop a plan applicable to the Shuttle operations timeframe, utilize existing center resources and expertise as much as possible, and minimize unnecessary data exchange not directly productive in the development of the end-product timelines.

  13. NASA Lunar Mining and Construction Activities and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Sacksteder, Kurt R.

    2009-01-01

    The Space Exploration Policy enacted by the US Congress in 2005 calls for the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; Develop the innovative technologies, knowledge, and infrastructures both to explore and to support decisions about the destinations for human exploration; and Promote international and commercial participation in exploration to further U.S. scientific, security, and economic interests. In 2006, NASA released the Lunar Architecture Study, which proposed establishing a lunar Outpost on the Moon with international participation to extend human presence beyond Earth's orbit, pursue scientific activities, use the Moon to prepare for future human missions to Mars, and expand Earth s economic sphere. The establishment of sustained human presence on the Moon for science and exploration combines the design, integration, and operation challenges experienced from both the short Apollo lunar missions and the build-up and sustained crew operations of the International Space Station (ISS). Apollo experience reminds developers and mission planners that hardware must operate under extremely harsh environmental and abrasive conditions and every kilogram of mass and payload must be critical to achieve the mission s objectives due to the difficulty and cost of reaching the lunar surface. Experience from the ISS reminds developers and mission planners that integration of all hardware must be designed and planned from the start of the program, operations and evolution of capabilities on a continuous basis are important, and long-term life-cycle costs and logistical needs are equally or more important than minimizing early development and test costs. Overarching all of this is

  14. Information And Data-Sharing Plan of IPY China Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Cheng, W.

    2007-12-01

    Polar Data-Sharing is an effective resolution to global system and polar science problems and to interdisciplinary and sustainable study, as well as an important means to deal with IPY scientific heritages and realize IPY goals. Corresponding to IPY Data-Sharing policies, Information and Data-Sharing Plan was listed in five sub-plans of IPY Chinese Programme launched in March, 2007,they are Scientific research program of the Prydz Bay, Amery Ice Shelf and Dome A transects(short title:'PANDA'), the Arctic Scientific Research Expedition Plan, International Cooperation Plan, Information and Data-Sharing Plan, Education and Outreach. China, since the foundation of Antarctic Zhongshan Station in 1989, has carried out systematic scientific expeditions and researches in Larsemann Hills, Prydz Bay and the neighbouring sea areas, organized 14 Prydz Bay oceanographic investigations, 3 Amery Ice Shelf expeditions, 4 Grove Mountains expeditions and 5 inland ice cap scientific expeditions. 2 comprehensive oceanographic investigations in the Arctic Ocean were conducted in 1999 and 2003, acquired a large amount of data and samples in PANDA section and fan areas of Pacific Ocean in the Arctic Ocean. A mechanism of basic data submitting ,sharing and archiving has been gradually set up since 2000. Presently, Polar Science Database and Polar Sample Resource Sharing Platform of China with the aim of sharing polar data and samples has been initially established and began to provide sharing service to domestic and oversea users. According to IPY Chinese Activity, 2 scientific expeditions in the Arctic Ocean, 3 in the South Ocean, 2 at Amery Ice Shelf, 1 on Grove Mountains and 2 inland ice cap expeditions on Dome A will be carried out during IPY period. According to the experiences accumulated in the past and the jobs in the future, the Information and Data- Sharing Plan, during 2007-2010, will save, archive, and provide exchange and sharing services upon the data obtained by scientific

  15. Plan now to make your retirement active, productive.

    PubMed

    Schlepp, S

    1989-12-01

    In his book Planning to the Years Ahead, Lester I. Tenney, PhD, professor emeritus at Arizona State University, Tempe, links Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs to retirement planning. According to Maslow, economic and security needs can be achieved through a family environment (eg, food clothing, shelter), and social acceptance, self-worth, and self-satisfaction can be achieved from social interaction, work, or leisure activities. After the basic needs of food, clothing, and shelter have been achieved, people are able to move to the next level of achieving safety and security. The level of dependency that people have on satisfying these needs through work will determine how well they are at adapting to retirement. The more people depend on work alone, the harder will be the adjustment; people who are less dependent on work will find retirement easier to accept.

  16. A simple DVH generation technique for various radiotherapy treatment planning systems for an independent information system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Byung Jun; Nam, Heerim; Jeong, Il Sun; Lee, Hyebin

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the use of a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) for radiation therapy has become the norm in hospital environments and has been suggested for collecting and managing data using Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) objects from different treatment planning systems (TPSs). However, some TPSs do not provide the ability to export the dose-volume histogram (DVH) in text or other format. In addition, plan review systems for various TPSs often allow DVH recalculations with different algorithms. These algorithms result in inevitable discrepancies between the values obtained with the recalculation and those obtained with TPS itself. The purpose of this study was to develop a simple method for generating reproducible DVH values by using the TPSs. Treatment planning information, including structures and delivered dose, was exported in the DICOM format from the Eclipse v8.9 or the Pinnacle v9.6 planning systems. The supersampling and trilinear interpolation methods were employed to calculate the DVH data from 35 treatment plans. The discrepancies between the DVHs extracted from each TPS and those extracted by using the proposed calculation method were evaluated with respect to the supersampling ratio. The volume, minimum dose, maximum dose, and mean dose were compared. The variations in DVHs from multiple TPSs were compared by using the MIM software v6.1, which is a commercially available treatment planning comparison tool. The overall comparisons of the volume, minimum dose, maximum dose, and mean dose showed that the proposed method generated relatively smaller discrepancies compared with TPS than the MIM software did compare with the TPS. As the structure volume decreased, the overall percent difference increased. The largest difference was observed in small organs such as the eye ball, eye lens, and optic nerve which had volume below 10 cc. A simple and useful technique was developed to generate a DVH with an acceptable

  17. International Year of Planet Earth - Activities and Plans in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2007-12-01

    IYPE started as a joint initiative by UNESCO and IUGS with participation of several geosciences organizations, and has developed into a major program in geosciences with inclusion of national committees. In this presentation we focus on current activities and plans in our country, and in the international activities. IYPE activities have concentrated in publications and organization of conferences and meetings. A book series on Earth Science Experiments for Children has been defined, with the first books published on "Atmospheric Pressure and Free Fall of Objects" and "Light and Colors". Following books are on "Standing on Archimedes" and "Foucault and the Climate". Books are distributed free to school children, with more than 10,000 copies given of first volume. Other publications include the special issues of El Faro science magazine edited by the National University, with last issue published and distributed electronically and in hard copies this August. Special events include Conference of IYPE Executive Director presented during the International Day of Science Museums in late May in Science Museum Universum. This was followed by a Planet Earth Week in the University. Current plans include an electronic open-access publication, additional publications of the Planet Earth series, articles and special issues in journals and magazines, and events on selected themes from the IYPE science program, particularly on Megacities, Hazards, Resources and Life. The metropolitan area of Mexico City, with around 20 million inhabitants presents special challenges, being at high altitude within an active tectonic and volcanic area requiring major efforts in water supply, water control, rains and waste disposal and management. Involvement in international activities includes translation into Spanish of IYPE publications and the participation in programs and activities. In addition to activities in the different countries, we consider that IYPE should result in initiatives for

  18. Future of low specific activity molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, A

    2012-10-01

    In last few years, the shortage of molybdenum-99 (99Mo) was felt in the developed and developing countries hospitals, where diagnostic nuclear medicine is practiced. To overcome the shortage of 99Mo various routes of its production by accelerators and reactors generating low and high specific activity products have been planned. High specific activity 99Mo obtained by fission of uranium-235 (235U) has completely dominated in the manufacturing of technetium-99m (99mTc) generators in last 3-4 decades, but due to proliferation and dirty bomb, issues non fission routes of 99Mo production are emphasized. Future of low specific activity 99Mo is discussed. PMID:22642420

  19. NASA 2nd Generation RLV Program Introduction, Status and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Dan L.; Smith, Dennis E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Space Launch Initiative (SLI), managed by the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2ndGen RLV) Program, was established to examine the possibility of revolutionizing space launch capabilities, define conceptual architectures, and concurrently identify the advanced technologies required to support a next-generation system. Initial Program funds have been allocated to design, evaluate, and formulate realistic plans leading to a 2nd Gen RLV full-scale development (FSD) decision by 2006. Program goals are to reduce both risk and cost for accessing the limitless opportunities afforded outside Earth's atmosphere fo civil, defense, and commercial enterprises. A 2nd Gen RLV architecture includes a reusable Earth-to-orbit launch vehicle, an on-orbit transport and return vehicle, ground and flight operations, mission planning, and both on-orbit and on-the-ground support infrastructures All segments of the architecture must advance in step with development of the RLV if a next-generation system is to be fully operational early next decade. However, experience shows that propulsion is the single largest contributor to unreliability during ascent, requires the largest expenditure of time for maintenance, and takes a long time to develop; therefore, propulsion is the key to meeting safety, reliability, and cost goals. For these reasons, propulsion is SLI's top technology investment area.

  20. Program plan for evaluation and remediation of the generation and release of flammable gases in Hanford Site waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.D.

    1991-08-01

    This program plan describes the activities being conducted for the resolution of the flammable gas problem that is associated with 23 high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The classification of the wastes in all of these tanks is not final and some wastes may not be high-level wastes. However, until the characterization and classification is complete, all the tanks are treated as if they contain high-level waste. Of the 23 tanks, Tank 241-SY-101 (referred to as Tank 101-SY) has exhibited significant episodic releases of flammable gases (hydrogen and nitrous oxide) for the past 10 years. The major near-term focus of this program is for the understanding and stabilization of this tank. An understanding of the mechanism for gas generation and the processes for the episodic release will be obtained through sampling of the tank contents, laboratory studies, and modeling of the tank behavior. Additional information will be obtained through new and upgraded instrumentation for the tank. A number of remediation, or stabilization, concepts will be evaluated for near-term (2 to 3 years) applications to Tank 101-SY. Detailed safety assessments are required for all activities that will occur in the tank (sampling, removal of equipment, and addition of new instruments). This program plan presents a discussion of each task, provides schedules for near-term activities, and gives a summary of the expected work for fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993. 16 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. iCycle: Integrated, multicriterial beam angle, and profile optimization for generation of coplanar and noncoplanar IMRT plans

    SciTech Connect

    Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Storchi, Pascal R. M.; Voet, Peter W. J.; Heijmen, Ben J. M.

    2012-02-15

    Purpose: To introduce iCycle, a novel algorithm for integrated, multicriterial optimization of beam angles, and intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) profiles. Methods: A multicriterial plan optimization with iCycle is based on a prescription called wish-list, containing hard constraints and objectives with ascribed priorities. Priorities are ordinal parameters used for relative importance ranking of the objectives. The higher an objective priority is, the higher the probability that the corresponding objective will be met. Beam directions are selected from an input set of candidate directions. Input sets can be restricted, e.g., to allow only generation of coplanar plans, or to avoid collisions between patient/couch and the gantry in a noncoplanar setup. Obtaining clinically feasible calculation times was an important design criterium for development of iCycle. This could be realized by sequentially adding beams to the treatment plan in an iterative procedure. Each iteration loop starts with selection of the optimal direction to be added. Then, a Pareto-optimal IMRT plan is generated for the (fixed) beam setup that includes all so far selected directions, using a previously published algorithm for multicriterial optimization of fluence profiles for a fixed beam arrangement Breedveld et al.[Phys. Med. Biol. 54, 7199-7209 (2009)]. To select the next direction, each not yet selected candidate direction is temporarily added to the plan and an optimization problem, derived from the Lagrangian obtained from the just performed optimization for establishing the Pareto-optimal plan, is solved. For each patient, a single one-beam, two-beam, three-beam, etc. Pareto-optimal plan is generated until addition of beams does no longer result in significant plan quality improvement. Plan generation with iCycle is fully automated. Results: Performance and characteristics of iCycle are demonstrated by generating plans for a maxillary sinus case, a cervical cancer patient, and a

  2. Practice It: Create a Weekly Activity Plan | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    At the beginning of the week, create an activity plan to help you reach your goals. Start by identifying your goals for the week. Based on your goals, write down when you are going to exercise and what you are going to do. If something comes up that keeps you from exercising on one of your selected days, try to find another day (or time) as a make-up. Having a routine is important but so is the ability to adapt your schedule as needed.

  3. Visualisation of nitric oxide generated by activated murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Leone, A M; Furst, V W; Foxwell, N A; Cellek, S; Moncada, S

    1996-04-01

    We have visualised the release and approximate diffusion profile of nitric oxide (NO) from activated murine macrophages using a high transmission microscope coupled to a high sensitivity photon counting camera. The images generated by NO were cell-associated and spread over an area of approximately 175 micrometers from the activated macrophage. The signals obtained were dependent on the presence of exogenous L-arginine in the medium and followed a time course similar to that previously described for the generation of NO by the inducible form of NO synthase. The light signal was attenuated by the inhibitor of NO synthase, N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Studies using superoxide-deficient macrophages further confirmed that the signals detected were generated by NO rather than reactive oxygen intermediates. PMID:8660339

  4. The generation effect: activating broad neural circuits during memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Zachary A; Elman, Jeremy A; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-01-01

    The generation effect is a robust memory phenomenon in which actively producing material during encoding acts to improve later memory performance. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis, we explored the neural basis of this effect. During encoding, participants generated synonyms from word-fragment cues (e.g., GARBAGE-W_ST_) or read other synonym pairs (e.g., GARBAGE-WASTE). Compared to simply reading target words, generating target words significantly improved later recognition memory performance. During encoding, this benefit was associated with a broad neural network that involved both prefrontal (inferior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus) and posterior cortex (inferior temporal gyrus, lateral occipital cortex, parahippocampal gyrus, ventral posterior parietal cortex). These findings define the prefrontal-posterior cortical dynamics associated with the mnemonic benefits underlying the generation effect.

  5. Income Generation Activities among Academic Staffs at Malaysian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Abd Rahman; Soon, Ng Kim; Ting, Ngeoh Pei

    2015-01-01

    Income generation activities have been acquainted among public higher education institutions (HEIs) in Malaysia. Various factors that brought to insufficient of funding caused Higher Education Institutions(HEIs) to seek for additional income as to support the operation expenses. Financial sustainability issues made up the significant impact…

  6. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  7. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  8. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  9. 23 CFR 450.208 - Coordination of planning process activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 500. (e) States may apply asset management principles and techniques in establishing planning... regional intelligent transportation systems (ITS) architectures, as defined in 23 CFR part 940. (g... RESEARCH PLANNING ASSISTANCE AND STANDARDS Statewide Transportation Planning and Programming §...

  10. Generating Coherent Patterns of Activity from Chaotic Neural Networks

    PubMed Central

    Sussillo, David; Abbott, L. F.

    2009-01-01

    Neural circuits display complex activity patterns both spontaneously and when responding to a stimulus or generating a motor output. How are these two forms of activity related? We develop a procedure called FORCE learning for modifying synaptic strengths either external to or within a model neural network to change chaotic spontaneous activity into a wide variety of desired activity patterns. FORCE learning works even though the networks we train are spontaneously chaotic and we leave feedback loops intact and unclamped during learning. Using this approach, we construct networks that produce a wide variety of complex output patterns, input-output transformations that require memory, multiple outputs that can be switched by control inputs, and motor patterns matching human motion capture data. Our results reproduce data on pre-movement activity in motor and premotor cortex, and suggest that synaptic plasticity may be a more rapid and powerful modulator of network activity than generally appreciated. PMID:19709635

  11. Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Applegate, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    This Land Use Control Implementation Plan (LUCIP) has been prepared to inform current and potential future users of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Shuttle Flight Operations Contract Generator Maintenance Facility (SFOC; SWMU 081; "the Site") of institutional controls that have been implemented at the Site1. Although there are no current unacceptable risks to human health or the environment associated with the SFOC, an institutional land use control (LUC) is necessary to prevent human health exposure to antimony-affected groundwater at the Site. Controls will include periodic inspection, condition certification, and agency notification.

  12. Three essays on the effect of wind generation on power system planning and operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Clay Duane

    While the benefits of wind generation are well known, some drawbacks are still being understood as wind power is integrated into the power grid at increasing levels. The primary difference between wind generation and other forms of generation is the intermittent, and somewhat unpredictable, aspect of this resource. The somewhat uncontrollable aspect of wind generation makes it important to consider the relationship between this resource and load, and also how the operation of other non-wind generation resources may be affected. The three essays that comprise this dissertation focus on these and other important issues related to wind generation; leading to an improved understanding of how to better plan for and utilize this resource. The first essay addresses the cost of increased levels of installed wind capacity from both a capacity planning and economic dispatch perspective to arrive at the total system cost of installing a unit of wind capacity. This total includes not only the cost of the wind turbine and associated infrastructure, but also the cost impact an additional unit of wind capacity has on the optimal mix and operation of other generating units in the electricity supply portfolio. The results of the model showed that for all wind expansion scenarios, wind capacity is not cost-effective regardless of the level of the wind production tax credit and carbon prices that were considered. Larger levels of installed wind capacity result in reduced variable cost, but this reduction is not able to offset increases in capital cost, as a unit of installed wind capacity does not result in an equal reduction in other non-wind capacity needs. The second essay develops a methodology to better handle unexpected short term fluctuations in wind generation within the existing power system. The methodology developed in this essay leads to lower expected costs by anticipating and planning for fluctuations in wind generation by focusing on key constraints in the system. The

  13. Comparisons of recent growth in actual demand, planned demand, and planned generating capacity at U. S. electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, A.E. )

    1994-12-01

    During the winter of 1993, a number of U.S. electric utilities and some regional power pools discovered that current load exceeded generating capacity. Load restrictions followed, as entire regions-not just isolated utilities or even states-cut back. Was 1993 a typical, or simply a preview of the future If a preview, how did this shortage occur For a number of years, utilities, regulatory agencies, and power pools have been planning to add capacity at a much lower rate than the rate at which load has been growing. The National Electricity Reliability Council (NERC) has projected that eight of it's nine regions will have demand growth exceed capacity growth. The only region where capacity is growing faster is in the Texas Region. There are four reasons behind this shortage: excess capacity in the 1980's, disbelief in current forecasts, passage of the Clean Air act bringing stricter regulation on power plants, and the herd mentality where utilities have all delayed new plant construction.

  14. Construal level theory and theory of planned behavior: time frame effects on salient belief generation.

    PubMed

    Lutchyn, Yuliya; Yzer, Marco

    2011-07-01

    This study tests implications of different time specifications in behavioral definitions as used in belief-elicitation research. Using construal level theory and the theory of planned behavior as complementary frameworks, the authors examined temporal frame effects on beliefs about eating fruits and vegetables and beliefs about condom use generated in a belief-elicitation study. Consistent with propositions from construal level theory, the authors found that temporal perspective (performing the behavior tomorrow, in 3 months, in 6 months, or in 5 years) affects the type of salient behavioral beliefs, such that individuals generate more feasibility (efficacy) beliefs when thinking about proximal behaviors, but more desirability (attitudinal and normative) beliefs when the behavior in question is distal. The authors' results indicate the importance of time frame in behavioral definitions in belief-elicitation research.

  15. Activity plan: Directional drilling and environmental measurements while drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, D.A.

    1998-07-16

    This activity plan describes the testing of directional drilling combined with environmental measurements while drilling at two Hanford Site locations. A cold test is to be conducted at the 105A Mock Tank Leak Facility in the 200 East Area. A hot test is proposed to be run at the 216-B-8 tile field north of the 241-B Tank Farm in 200 East Area. Criteria to judge the success, partial success or failure of various aspects of the test are included. The TWRS program is assessing the potential for use of directional drilling because of an identified need to interrogate the vadose zone beneath the single-shell tanks. Because every precaution must be taken to assure that investigation activities do not violate the integrity of the tanks, control of the drill bit and ability to follow a predetermined drill path are of utmost importance and are being tested.

  16. Emergency response concept plan for Pueblo Depot Activity and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Miller, R.L.; Watson, A.P.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-10-01

    The continuous storage and disposal of the United States' unitary chemical stockpile, including that portion stored at Pueblo Depot Activity (PUDA) near Pueblo, Colorado, have the potential for accidental releases that could escape installation boundaries and pose a threat to civilian populations. The US Army, in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other federal agencies, is committed to implement an emergency preparedness program that will significantly reduce the probability of adverse effects from such releases. This concept plan, which is but a part of a comprehensive ongoing effort, provides a framework for initiating such a program for the PUDA stockpile. This report develops information and methodologies that bear on two major decisions for such a program -- determining emergency planning zones and selecting protective action strategies. These decisions are based on the hazards posed by the PUDA stockpile and its disposal. These hazards, in turn, are based largely on the distribution of potential accidental releases associated with interim storage and disposal activities and associated external events (e.g., earthquakes and airplane crashes), the distribution of natural features that can affect an agent release (topographical features and meteorological characteristics), and the distribution of people and resources (e.g., homes, schools, and hospitals) potentially affected by an accidental release. 21 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. The Distribution of Active Force Generators Controls Mitotic Spindle Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grill, Stephan W.; Howard, Jonathon; Schäffer, Erik; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Hyman, Anthony A.

    2003-07-01

    During unequal cell divisions a mitotic spindle is eccentrically positioned before cell cleavage. To determine the basis of the net force imbalance that causes spindle displacement in one-cell Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, we fragmented centrosomes with an ultraviolet laser. Analysis of the mean and variance of fragment speeds suggests that the force imbalance is due to a larger number of force generators pulling on astral microtubules of the posterior aster relative to the anterior aster. Moreover, activation of heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein) α subunits is required to generate these astral forces.

  18. Integrating planning and design optimization for thermal power generation in developing economies: Designs for Vietnam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, John Dinh Chuong

    In the twenty first century, global warming and climate change have become environmental issues worldwide. There is a need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from thermal power plants through improved efficiency. This need is shared by both developed and developing countries. It is particularly important in rapidly developing economies (for example, Vietnam, South Korea, and China) where there is very significant need to increase generation capacity. This thesis addresses improving thermal power plant efficiency through an improved planning process that emphasizes integrated design. With the integration of planning and design considerations of key components in thermal electrical generation, along with the selection of appropriate up-to-date technologies, greater efficiency and reduction of emissions could be achieved. The major barriers to the integration of overall power plant optimization are the practice of individual island tendering packages, and the lack of coordinating efforts between major original equipment manufacturers (OEM). This thesis assesses both operational and design aspects of thermal power plants to identify opportunities for energy saving and the associated reduction of CO2 emissions. To demonstrate the potential of the integrated planning design approach, three advanced thermal power plants, using anthracite coal, oil and gas as their respective fuel, were developed as a case study. The three plant formulations and simulations were performed with the cooperation of several leading companies in the power industry including Babcock & Wilcox, Siemens KWU, Siemens-Westinghouse Power Corporation, Hitachi, Alstom Air Preheater, TLT-Covent, and ABB Flakt. The first plant is a conventional W-Flame anthracite coal-fired unit for base load operation. The second is a supercritical oil-fired plant with advanced steam condition, for two shifting and cycling operations. The third plant is a gas-fired combined cycle unit employing a modern steam-cooled gas

  19. Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Ten-Year Program Plan Fiscal Year 2005, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-01

    As reflected in the U.S. ''National Energy Policy'', nuclear energy has a strong role to play in satisfying our nation's future energy security and environmental quality needs. The desirable environmental, economic, and sustainability attributes of nuclear energy give it a cornerstone position, not only in the U.S. energy portfolio, but also in the world's future energy portfolio. Accordingly, on September 20, 2002, U.S. Energy Secretary Spencer Abraham announced that, ''The United States and nine other countries have agreed to develop six Generation IV nuclear energy concepts''. The Secretary also noted that the systems are expected to ''represent significant advances in economics, safety, reliability, proliferation resistance, and waste minimization''. The six systems and their broad, worldwide research and development (R&D) needs are described in ''A Technology Roadmap for Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems'' (hereafter referred to as the Generation IV Roadmap). The first 10 years of required U.S. R&D contributions to achieve the goals described in the Generation IV Roadmap are outlined in this Program Plan.

  20. Influence of Pro-Qura-generated plans on postimplant dosimetric quality: a review of a multi-institutional database.

    PubMed

    Allen, Zachariah; Merrick, Gregory S; Grimm, Peter; Blasko, John; Sylvester, John; Butler, Wayne; Chaudry, Usman-Ul-Haq; Sitter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The influence of Pro-Qura-generated plans vs. community-generated plans on postprostate brachytherapy dosimetric quality was compared. In the Pro-Qura database, 2933 postplans were evaluated from 57 institutions. A total of 1803 plans were generated by Pro-Qura and 1130 by community institutions. Iodine-125 (125I) plans outnumbered Palladium 103 (103Pd) plans by a ratio of 3:1. Postimplant dosimetry was performed in a standardized fashion by overlapping the preimplant ultrasound and the postimplant computed tomography (CT). In this analysis, adequacy was defined as a V100 > 80% and a D90 of 90% to 140% for both isotopes along with a V150 < 60% for 125I and < 75% for 103Pd. The mean postimplant V100 and D90 were 88.6% and 101.6% vs. 89.3% and 102.3% for Pro-Qura and community plans, respectively. When analyzed in terms of the first 8 sequence groups (10 patients/sequence group) for each institution, Pro-Qura planning resulted in less postimplant variability for V100 (86.2-89.5%) and for D90 (97.4-103.2%) while community-generated plans had greater V100 (85.3-91.2%) and D90 (95.9-105.2%) ranges. In terms of sequence groups, postimplant dosimetry was deemed "too cool" in 11% to 30% of cases and "too hot" in 12% to 27%. On average, no clinically significant postimplant dosimetric differences were discerned between Pro-Qura and community-based planning. However, substantially greater variability was identified in the community-based plan cohort. It is possible that the Pro-Qura plan and/or the routine postimplant dosimetric evaluation may have influenced dosimetric outcomes at community-based centers. PMID:18674685

  1. Influence of Pro-Qura-generated Plans on Postimplant Dosimetric Quality: A Review of a Multi-Institutional Database

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Zachariah |||; Merrick, Gregory S. ||| Grimm, Peter; Blasko, John; Sylvester, John; Butler, Wayne; Chaudry, Usman-Ul-Haq; Sitter, Michael |||

    2008-10-01

    The influence of Pro-Qura-generated plans vs. community-generated plans on postprostate brachytherapy dosimetric quality was compared. In the Pro-Qura database, 2933 postplans were evaluated from 57 institutions. A total of 1803 plans were generated by Pro-Qura and 1130 by community institutions. Iodine-125 ({sup 125}I) plans outnumbered Palladium 103 ({sup 103}Pd) plans by a ratio of 3:1. Postimplant dosimetry was performed in a standardized fashion by overlapping the preimplant ultrasound and the postimplant computed tomography (CT). In this analysis, adequacy was defined as a V{sub 100} > 80% and a D{sub 90} of 90% to 140% for both isotopes along with a V{sub 150} < 60% for {sup 125}I and < 75% for {sup 103}Pd. The mean postimplant V{sub 100} and D{sub 90} were 88.6% and 101.6% vs. 89.3% and 102.3% for Pro-Qura and community plans, respectively. When analyzed in terms of the first 8 sequence groups (10 patients/sequence group) for each institution, Pro-Qura planning resulted in less postimplant variability for V{sub 100} (86.2-89.5%) and for D{sub 90} (97.4-103.2%) while community-generated plans had greater V{sub 100} (85.3-91.2%) and D{sub 90} (95.9-105.2%) ranges. In terms of sequence groups, postimplant dosimetry was deemed 'too cool' in 11% to 30% of cases and 'too hot' in 12% to 27%. On average, no clinically significant postimplant dosimetric differences were discerned between Pro-Qura and community-based planning. However, substantially greater variability was identified in the community-based plan cohort. It is possible that the Pro-Qura plan and/or the routine postimplant dosimetric evaluation may have influenced dosimetric outcomes at community-based centers.

  2. Mental arithmetic activates analogic representations of internally generated sums.

    PubMed

    Kallai, Arava Y; Schunn, Christian D; Fiez, Julie A

    2012-08-01

    The internal representation of numbers generated during calculation has received little attention. Much of the mathematics learning literature focuses on symbolic retrieval of math facts; in contrast, we critically test the hypothesis that internally generated numbers are represented analogically, using an approximate number system. In an fMRI study, the spontaneous processing of arithmetical expressions was tested. Participants passively viewed a sequence of double-digit addition expressions that summed to the same number. Adaptation was found in number-related regions in a fronto-parietal network. Following adaptation, arrays of dots were introduced, differing in their numerical distance from the sum of the addition expressions. Activation in voxels that showed adaptation to a repeated sum was also sensitive to the distance of the dot quantity from the sum. We conclude that participants exhibited adaptation to an internally generated number, that adapted representations were analogic in nature, and that these analogic representations may undergird arithmetic calculation. PMID:22732492

  3. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Program plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, T.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Morrissey, C.M.

    1992-02-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP), initiated in 1989, provides early detection and performance monitoring of transuranic (TRU) waste and active low-level waste (LLW) facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5820.2A. Active LLW facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 include Tumulus I and Tumulus II, the Interim Waste Management Facility (IWMF), LLW silos, high-range wells, asbestos silos, and fissile wells. The tumulus pads and IWMF are aboveground, high-strength concrete pads on which concrete vaults containing metal boxes of LLW are placed; the void space between the boxes and vaults is filled with grout. Eventually, these pads and vaults will be covered by an engineered multilayered cap. All other LLW facilities in SWSA 6 are below ground. In addition, this plan includes monitoring of the Hillcut Disposal Test Facility (HDTF) in SWSA 6, even though this facility was completed prior to the data of the DOE order. In SWSA 5 North, the TRU facilities include below-grade engineered caves, high-range wells, and unlined trenches. All samples from SWSA 6 are screened for alpha and beta activity, counted for gamma-emitting isotopes, and analyzed for tritium. In addition to these analytes, samples from SWSA 5 North are analyzed for specific transuranic elements.

  4. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chichester, D. L.; Seabury, E. H.

    2009-03-10

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  5. Active Interrogation Using Electronic Neutron Generators for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    David L. Chichester; Edward H. Seabury

    2008-08-01

    Active interrogation, a measurement technique which uses a radiation source to probe materials and generate unique signatures useful for characterizing those materials, is a powerful tool for assaying special nuclear material. The most commonly used technique for performing active interrogation is to use an electronic neutron generator as the probe radiation source. Exploiting the unique operating characteristics of these devices, including their monoenergetic neutron emissions and their ability to operate in pulsed modes, presents a number of options for performing prompt and delayed signature analyses using both photon and neutron sensors. A review of literature in this area shows multiple applications of the active neutron interrogation technique for performing nuclear nonproliferation measurements. Some examples include measuring the plutonium content of spent fuel, assaying plutonium residue in spent fuel hull claddings, assaying plutonium in aqueous fuel reprocessing process streams, and assaying nuclear fuel reprocessing facility waste streams to detect and quantify fissile material. This paper discusses the historical use of this technique and examines its context within the scope and challenges of next-generation nuclear fuel cycles and advanced concept nuclear fuel cycle facilities.

  6. An active view planning method for mobile robots using a trinocular visual sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Y.; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2003-10-01

    The ability of mobile robots to perceive and recognize environments is essential for autonomous navigation. To improve the performance of autonomous environment perception for mobile robots, it is important to effectively plan the next pose (position and orientation) of the sensor system at a current navigation state. In this paper, we propose a next-view-planning method for autonomous map construction needed for mobile robots with visual range sensor systems. The proposed view-planning method mimics the decision-making method of human beings, and uses the occlusion information reduced from the geometric relationship between the sensor view and objects as an important clue for the next sensor view planning. The proposed view-planning algorithms are developed in the following steps: 1) Given a prior map and range measurements sensed at a current location of the mobile robot, it is determined which parts in the map are interested in a view of solving the map uncertainty. 2) Based on the selected potential regions, some candidate poses of the sensor system for the next environment sensing are carefully generated. 3) The created candidates are evaluated by using a specially designed evaluation parameter, and the best one of them is selected as a next sensor position based on a fuzzy decision-making method. In this work, the principle of the view planning method is described in detail, and a series of experimental tests is performed to show the feasibility of the method for autonomous map building. For sensing the environments, an active trinocular vision sensor using laser structured light is utilized, which is mounted on the pan-tilt mechanism of the mobile robot, which is composed of a laser stripe projector and two cameras.

  7. A Planning Tool for Estimating Waste Generated by a Radiological Incident and Subsequent Decontamination Efforts - 13569

    SciTech Connect

    Boe, Timothy; Lemieux, Paul; Schultheisz, Daniel; Peake, Tom; Hayes, Colin

    2013-07-01

    Management of debris and waste from a wide-area radiological incident would probably constitute a significant percentage of the total remediation cost and effort. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) Waste Estimation Support Tool (WEST) is a unique planning tool for estimating the potential volume and radioactivity levels of waste generated by a radiological incident and subsequent decontamination efforts. The WEST was developed to support planners and decision makers by generating a first-order estimate of the quantity and characteristics of waste resulting from a radiological incident. The tool then allows the user to evaluate the impact of various decontamination/demolition strategies on the waste types and volumes generated. WEST consists of a suite of standalone applications and Esri{sup R} ArcGIS{sup R} scripts for rapidly estimating waste inventories and levels of radioactivity generated from a radiological contamination incident as a function of user-defined decontamination and demolition approaches. WEST accepts Geographic Information System (GIS) shape-files defining contaminated areas and extent of contamination. Building stock information, including square footage, building counts, and building composition estimates are then generated using the Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA's) Hazus{sup R}-MH software. WEST then identifies outdoor surfaces based on the application of pattern recognition to overhead aerial imagery. The results from the GIS calculations are then fed into a Microsoft Excel{sup R} 2007 spreadsheet with a custom graphical user interface where the user can examine the impact of various decontamination/demolition scenarios on the quantity, characteristics, and residual radioactivity of the resulting waste streams. (authors)

  8. College 411: Get the Scoop. A Small Group Plan to Promote College Success for First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Land, Christy W.; Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2013-01-01

    First generation college students have more difficulty preparing for and succeeding in post-secondary institutions. Informed by the literature review and relevant research the school counselor presents a small group design for high school students in their junior year. This small group plan for first generation college students addresses issues of…

  9. Gender Difference in Academic Planning Activity among Medical Students

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Huy Van; Giang, Thao Thach

    2013-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, as doctor of medicine is socially considered a special career, both men and women who are enrolled in medical universities often study topics of medicine seriously. However, as culturally expected, women often perform better than men. Because of this, teaching leadership and management skill (LMS) to develop academic planning activity (APA) for female medical students would also be expected to be more effective than male counterparts. This research aimed to compare by gender the effect of teaching LMS on increasing APA, using propensity score matching (PSM). Methods In a cross-sectional survey utilizing a self-reported structured questionnaire on a systematic random sample of 421 male and female medical students in Hanoi Medical University, this study adopted first regression techniques to construct a fit model, then PSM to create a matched control group in order to allow for evaluating the effect of LMS education. Results There were several interesting gender differences. First, while for females LMS education had both direct and indirect effects on APA, it had only direct effect on males’ APA. Second, after PSM to adjust for the possible confounders to balance statistically two groups – with and without LMS education, there is statistically a significant difference in APA between male and female students, making a net difference of 11% (p<.01), equivalent to 173 students. The difference in APA between exposed and matched control group in males and females was 9% and 20%, respectively. These estimates of 9.0 and 20.0 percentage point increase can be translated into the practice of APA by 142 males and 315 females, respectively, in the population. These numbers of APA among male and female students can be explained by LMS education. Conclusions Gender appears to be a factor explaining in part academic planning activity. PMID:23418467

  10. Plans and Activities for NASA's Global Water Cycle Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    Strictly speaking, the water (or hydrologic) cycle is by definition a global phenomenon. To observe, analyze, characterize, understand, and predict its structure and variations requires a coordinated, global effort of observations as well as global prediction systems which can assimilate and predict key fluxes and quantities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the unique capability of space-based experimental and research measurements that observe the Earth's system as well as core modelling activities to exploit these space-based observations for assimilation in diagnostic studies and initialization in weather and climate predictions. A summary of NASA's current water-cycle activities and implementation plans will be presented. Currently, NASA's Global Water and Energy Cycle and Terrestrial Hydrology (formally known as the Land Surface Hydrology) Programs are the key funding sources which support relevant scientific research. These programs not only fund individual scientists, but also support large-scale field missions (for example the Cold Land Processes Experiment, CLPX, and the Soil Moisture Experiment, SMEx) which are critical for calibration/validation of space instruments and retrievals as well as gaining fundamental understanding of local-scale processes which comprise the global system. In addition, a new initiative for Water and Energy cycle Research (WatER) is being formulated which responds to the recent charge of USGCRP and NRC scientific panels calling for focused and prioritized research plans that serve to make significant strides in our understanding and prediction of the global water cycle. Following NASA's unique vocation, the WatER initative sets priorities for science/research support for key observable quantities of the water cycle (precipitation and surface wetness) whose instrument technology is tactable and scientfic end-returns not only benefit water-cycle predictions, but also serve to benefit other critical

  11. Plans for EUMETSAT’s Third Generation Meteosat geostationary satellite programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhlmann, R.; Rodriguez, A.; Tjemkes, S.; Grandell, J.; Arriaga, A.; Bézy, J.-L.; Aminou, D.; Bensi, P.

    The second generation of Meteosat satellites is expected to provide operational services at least until 2015. Considering the time required for the definition phases of new space systems their typical development cycle and the approval of complex programmes, it is necessary to start planning for follow-up geostationary missions already now. EUMETSAT has therefore established a User Consultation Process aimed at capturing the foreseeable high-level user/service needs and priorities of the EUMETSAT Customers and users in the 2015-2025 timeframe. This process led to a first definition of the Third Generation Meteosat (MTG) European geostationary satellite system, which currently consists of a total of five observation missions defined for pre-phase A studies at system level under ESA contract to be started in autumn 2004. The paper gives an overview on the current status of definition of the five observation missions, and a brief description of the MTG schedule and related milestones. Results of scientific studies and presentations/conclusions of MTG User Consultation Workshops and dedicated expert workshops conducted to define the MTG candidate missions are openly available from the EUMETSAT web-page www.eumetsat.de, under the sub-directory 'Preparation of Future Programmes/Meteosat Third Generation (MTG)'.

  12. Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Product Acceptance Test Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.

    1999-06-22

    'The Hanford Site has been used to produce nuclear materials for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste, largely generated during Pu production, exists in 177 underground single- and double-shell tanks. These wastes are to be retrieved and separated into low-activity waste (LAW) and high-level waste (HLW) fractions. The DOE is proceeding with an approach to privatize the treatment and immobilization of Handord''s LAW and HLW.'

  13. Bioreductively Activated Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) Generators as MRSA Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Khodade, Vinayak S; Sharath Chandra, Mallojjala; Banerjee, Ankita; Lahiri, Surobhi; Pulipeta, Mallikarjuna; Rangarajan, Radha; Chakrapani, Harinath

    2014-07-10

    The number of cases of drug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections is on the rise globally and new strategies to identify drug candidates with novel mechanisms of action are in urgent need. Here, we report the synthesis and evaluation of a series of benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-triones, which were designed based on redox-active natural products. We find that the in vitro inhibitory activity of 6-(prop-2-ynyl)benzo[b]phenanthridine-5,7,12(6H)-trione (1f) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), including a panel of patient-derived strains, is comparable or better than vancomycin. We show that the lead compound generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cell, contributing to its antibacterial activity. PMID:25050164

  14. MRI-based treatment planning with pseudo CT generated through atlas registration

    SciTech Connect

    Uh, Jinsoo Merchant, Thomas E.; Hua, Chiaho; Li, Yimei; Li, Xingyu

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based treatment planning using pseudo CTs generated through atlas registration. Methods: A pseudo CT, providing electron density information for dose calculation, was generated by deforming atlas CT images previously acquired on other patients. The authors tested 4 schemes of synthesizing a pseudo CT from single or multiple deformed atlas images: use of a single arbitrarily selected atlas, arithmetic mean process using 6 atlases, and pattern recognition with Gaussian process (PRGP) using 6 or 12 atlases. The required deformation for atlas CT images was derived from a nonlinear registration of conjugated atlas MR images to that of the patient of interest. The contrasts of atlas MR images were adjusted by histogram matching to reduce the effect of different sets of acquisition parameters. For comparison, the authors also tested a simple scheme assigning the Hounsfield unit of water to the entire patient volume. All pseudo CT generating schemes were applied to 14 patients with common pediatric brain tumors. The image similarity of real patient-specific CT and pseudo CTs constructed by different schemes was compared. Differences in computation times were also calculated. The real CT in the treatment planning system was replaced with the pseudo CT, and the dose distribution was recalculated to determine the difference. Results: The atlas approach generally performed better than assigning a bulk CT number to the entire patient volume. Comparing atlas-based schemes, those using multiple atlases outperformed the single atlas scheme. For multiple atlas schemes, the pseudo CTs were similar to the real CTs (correlation coefficient, 0.787–0.819). The calculated dose distribution was in close agreement with the original dose. Nearly the entire patient volume (98.3%–98.7%) satisfied the criteria of chi-evaluation (<2% maximum dose and 2 mm range). The dose to 95% of the volume and the

  15. Automated Kinematics Equations Generation and Constrained Motion Planning Resolution for Modular and Reconfigurable Robots

    SciTech Connect

    Pin, Francois G.; Love, Lonnie L.; Jung, David L.

    2004-03-29

    Contrary to the repetitive tasks performed by industrial robots, the tasks in most DOE missions such as environmental restoration or Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) can be characterized as ''batches-of-one'', in which robots must be capable of adapting to changes in constraints, tools, environment, criteria and configuration. No commercially available robot control code is suitable for use with such widely varying conditions. In this talk we present our development of a ''generic code'' to allow real time (at loop rate) robot behavior adaptation to changes in task objectives, tools, number and type of constraints, modes of controls or kinematics configuration. We present the analytical framework underlying our approach and detail the design of its two major modules for the automatic generation of the kinematics equations when the robot configuration or tools change and for the motion planning under time-varying constraints. Sample problems illustrating the capabilities of the developed system are presented.

  16. SU-E-T-188: Film Dosimetry Verification of Monte Carlo Generated Electron Treatment Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Enright, S; Asprinio, A; Lu, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare dose distributions from film measurements to Monte Carlo generated electron treatment plans. Irradiation with electrons offers the advantages of dose uniformity in the target volume and of minimizing the dose to deeper healthy tissue. Using the Monte Carlo algorithm will improve dose accuracy in regions with heterogeneities and irregular surfaces. Methods: Dose distributions from GafChromic{sup ™} EBT3 films were compared to dose distributions from the Electron Monte Carlo algorithm in the Eclipse{sup ™} radiotherapy treatment planning system. These measurements were obtained for 6MeV, 9MeV and 12MeV electrons at two depths. All phantoms studied were imported into Eclipse by CT scan. A 1 cm thick solid water template with holes for bonelike and lung-like plugs was used. Different configurations were used with the different plugs inserted into the holes. Configurations with solid-water plugs stacked on top of one another were also used to create an irregular surface. Results: The dose distributions measured from the film agreed with those from the Electron Monte Carlo treatment plan. Accuracy of Electron Monte Carlo algorithm was also compared to that of Pencil Beam. Dose distributions from Monte Carlo had much higher pass rates than distributions from Pencil Beam when compared to the film. The pass rate for Monte Carlo was in the 80%–99% range, where the pass rate for Pencil Beam was as low as 10.76%. Conclusion: The dose distribution from Monte Carlo agreed with the measured dose from the film. When compared to the Pencil Beam algorithm, pass rates for Monte Carlo were much higher. Monte Carlo should be used over Pencil Beam for regions with heterogeneities and irregular surfaces.

  17. The Next Generation of Mars-GRAM and Its Role in the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justh, Hilary L.; Justus, Carl G.; Ramey, Holly S.

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Global Reference Atmospheric Model (Mars-GRAM) is an engineering-level atmospheric model widely used for diverse mission applications. Mars-GRAM 2010 is currently being used to develop the onboard atmospheric density estimator that is part of the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. In previous versions, Mars-GRAM was less than realistic when used for sensitivity studies for Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) MapYear=0 and large optical depth values, such as tau=3. A comparison analysis has been completed between Mars-GRAM, TES and data from the Planetary Data System (PDS) resulting in updated coefficients for the functions relating density, latitude, and longitude of the sun. The adjustment factors are expressed as a function of height (z), Latitude (Lat) and areocentric solar longitude (Ls). The latest release of Mars-GRAM 2010 includes these adjustment factors that alter the in-put data from MGCM and MTGCM for the Mapping Year 0 (user-controlled dust) case. The greatest adjustment occurs at large optical depths such as tau greater than 1. The addition of the adjustment factors has led to better correspondence to TES Limb data from 0-60 km as well as better agreement with MGS, ODY and MRO data at approximately 90-135 km. Improved simulations utilizing Mars-GRAM 2010 are vital to developing the onboard atmospheric density estimator for the Autonomous Aerobraking Development Plan. Mars-GRAM 2010 was not the only planetary GRAM utilized during phase 1 of this plan; Titan-GRAM and Venus-GRAM were used to generate density data sets for Aerobraking Design Reference Missions. These data sets included altitude profiles (both vertical and along a trajectory), GRAM perturbations (tides, gravity waves, etc.) and provided density and scale height values for analysis by other Autonomous Aero-braking team members.

  18. Radiation therapy generates platelet-activating factor agonists

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Ravi P.; Harrison, Kathleen A.; Weyerbacher, Jonathan; Murphy, Robert C.; Konger, Raymond L.; Garrett, Joy Elizabeth; Chin-Sinex, Helen Jan; Johnston, Michael Edward; Dynlacht, Joseph R.; Mendonca, Marc; McMullen, Kevin; Li, Gengxin; Spandau, Dan F.; Travers, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Pro-oxidative stressors can suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipid agonists of the platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R). As radiation therapy also induces reactive oxygen species, the present studies were designed to define whether ionizing radiation could generate PAF-R agonists and if these lipids could subvert host immunity. We demonstrate that radiation exposure of multiple tumor cell lines in-vitro, tumors in-vivo, and human subjects undergoing radiation therapy for skin tumors all generate PAF-R agonists. Structural characterization of radiation-induced PAF-R agonistic activity revealed PAF and multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholines that are produced non-enzymatically. In a murine melanoma tumor model, irradiation of one tumor augmented the growth of the other (non-treated) tumor in a PAF-R-dependent process blocked by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. These results indicate a novel pathway by which PAF-R agonists produced as a byproduct of radiation therapy could result in tumor treatment failure, and offer important insights into potential therapeutic strategies that could improve the overall antitumor effectiveness of radiation therapy regimens. PMID:26959112

  19. Radiation therapy generates platelet-activating factor agonists.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ravi P; Harrison, Kathleen A; Weyerbacher, Jonathan; Murphy, Robert C; Konger, Raymond L; Garrett, Joy Elizabeth; Chin-Sinex, Helen Jan; Johnston, Michael Edward; Dynlacht, Joseph R; Mendonca, Marc; McMullen, Kevin; Li, Gengxin; Spandau, Dan F; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2016-04-12

    Pro-oxidative stressors can suppress host immunity due to their ability to generate oxidized lipid agonists of the platelet-activating factor-receptor (PAF-R). As radiation therapy also induces reactive oxygen species, the present studies were designed to define whether ionizing radiation could generate PAF-R agonists and if these lipids could subvert host immunity. We demonstrate that radiation exposure of multiple tumor cell lines in-vitro, tumors in-vivo, and human subjects undergoing radiation therapy for skin tumors all generate PAF-R agonists. Structural characterization of radiation-induced PAF-R agonistic activity revealed PAF and multiple oxidized glycerophosphocholines that are produced non-enzymatically. In a murine melanoma tumor model, irradiation of one tumor augmented the growth of the other (non-treated) tumor in a PAF-R-dependent process blocked by a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. These results indicate a novel pathway by which PAF-R agonists produced as a byproduct of radiation therapy could result in tumor treatment failure, and offer important insights into potential therapeutic strategies that could improve the overall antitumor effectiveness of radiation therapy regimens. PMID:26959112

  20. A combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity: a multiple mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Koring, Milena; Richert, Jana; Parschau, Linda; Ernsting, Anna; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Many individuals are motivated to improve their physical activity levels, but often fail to act upon their intention. Interventions fostering volitional strategies, such as action planning, coping planning, and self-efficacy beliefs, can help to translate intentions into behavior. This study examines the effectiveness and the mechanisms of a combined planning and self-efficacy intervention to promote physical activity among motivated individuals. Participants (N = 883) were randomly assigned to the intervention or to a waiting-list control condition. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that the intervention resulted in significantly more physical activity, higher levels of action planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy beliefs (p < 0.01). In addition, multiple mediation analysis showed that action planning, coping planning, and volitional self-efficacy mediate between the intervention and physical activity. The study shows that the intervention successfully fostered physical activity and unfolds the underlying self-regulatory mechanisms of the intervention's effectiveness.

  1. Organ sample generator for expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Nie Xiaobo; Liang Jian; Yan Di

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To create an organ sample generator (OSG) for expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization. The OSG generates random samples of organs of interest from a distribution obeying the patient specific organ variation probability density function (PDF) during the course of adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Principle component analysis (PCA) and a time-varying least-squares regression (LSR) method were used on patient specific geometric variations of organs of interest manifested on multiple daily volumetric images obtained during the treatment course. The construction of the OSG includes the determination of eigenvectors of the organ variation using PCA, and the determination of the corresponding coefficients using time-varying LSR. The coefficients can be either random variables or random functions of the elapsed treatment days depending on the characteristics of organ variation as a stationary or a nonstationary random process. The LSR method with time-varying weighting parameters was applied to the precollected daily volumetric images to determine the function form of the coefficients. Eleven h and n cancer patients with 30 daily cone beam CT images each were included in the evaluation of the OSG. The evaluation was performed using a total of 18 organs of interest, including 15 organs at risk and 3 targets. Results: Geometric variations of organs of interest during h and n cancer radiotherapy can be represented using the first 3 {approx} 4 eigenvectors. These eigenvectors were variable during treatment, and need to be updated using new daily images obtained during the treatment course. The OSG generates random samples of organs of interest from the estimated organ variation PDF of the individual. The accuracy of the estimated PDF can be improved recursively using extra daily image feedback during the treatment course. The average deviations in the estimation of the mean and standard deviation of the organ variation PDF for h

  2. Evaluation of geospatial methods to generate subnational HIV prevalence estimates for local level planning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective: There is evidence of substantial subnational variation in the HIV epidemic. However, robust spatial HIV data are often only available at high levels of geographic aggregation and not at the finer resolution needed for decision making. Therefore, spatial analysis methods that leverage available data to provide local estimates of HIV prevalence may be useful. Such methods exist but have not been formally compared when applied to HIV. Design/methods: Six candidate methods – including those used by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS to generate maps and a Bayesian geostatistical approach applied to other diseases – were used to generate maps and subnational estimates of HIV prevalence across three countries using cluster level data from household surveys. Two approaches were used to assess the accuracy of predictions: internal validation, whereby a proportion of input data is held back (test dataset) to challenge predictions; and comparison with location-specific data from household surveys in earlier years. Results: Each of the methods can generate usefully accurate predictions of prevalence at unsampled locations, with the magnitude of the error in predictions similar across approaches. However, the Bayesian geostatistical approach consistently gave marginally the strongest statistical performance across countries and validation procedures. Conclusions: Available methods may be able to furnish estimates of HIV prevalence at finer spatial scales than the data currently allow. The subnational variation revealed can be integrated into planning to ensure responsiveness to the spatial features of the epidemic. The Bayesian geostatistical approach is a promising strategy for integrating HIV data to generate robust local estimates. PMID:26919737

  3. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Methods Research and Development Technical Program Plan -- PLN-2498

    SciTech Connect

    Richard R. Schultz; Abderrafi M. Ougouag; David W. Nigg; Hans D. Gougar; Richard W. Johnson; William K. Terry; Chang H. Oh; Donald W. McEligot; Gary W. Johnsen; Glenn E. McCreery; Woo Y. Yoon; James W. Sterbentz; J. Steve Herring; Temitope A. Taiwo; Thomas Y. C. Wei; William D. Pointer; Won S. Yang; Michael T. Farmer; Hussein S. Khalil; Madeline A. Feltus

    2008-09-01

    One of the great challenges of designing and licensing the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is to confirm that the intended VHTR analysis tools can be used confidently to make decisions and to assure all that the reactor systems are safe and meet the performance objectives of the Generation IV Program. The research and development (R&D) projects defined in the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Design Methods Development and Validation Program will ensure that the tools used to perform the required calculations and analyses can be trusted. The Methods R&D tasks are designed to ensure that the calculational envelope of the tools used to analyze the VHTR reactor systems encompasses, or is larger than, the operational and transient envelope of the VHTR itself. The Methods R&D focuses on the development of tools to assess the neutronic and thermal fluid behavior of the plant. The fuel behavior and fission product transport models are discussed in the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) program plan. Various stress analysis and mechanical design tools will also need to be developed and validated and will ultimately also be included in the Methods R&D Program Plan. The calculational envelope of the neutronics and thermal-fluids software tools intended to be used on the NGNP is defined by the scenarios and phenomena that these tools can calculate with confidence. The software tools can only be used confidently when the results they produce have been shown to be in reasonable agreement with first-principle results, thought-problems, and data that describe the “highly ranked” phenomena inherent in all operational conditions and important accident scenarios for the VHTR.

  4. Geospatial Information Integration for Science Activity Planning at the Mars Desert Research Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrios, Daniel C.; Sierhuis, Maarten; Keller, Richard M.

    NASA's Mobile Agents project leads coordinated planetary exploration simulations at the Mars Desert Research Station. Through ScienceOrganizer, a Web-based tool for organizing and providing contextual information for scientific data sets, remote teams of scientists access and annotate data sets, images, documents and other forms of scientific information, applying predefined semantic links and metadata using a Web browser. We designed and developed an experimental geographic information server that integrates remotely sensed images of scientific activity areas with information regarding activity plans, actors and data that had been characterized semantically using ScienceOrganizer. The server automatically obtains remotely sensed photographs of geographic survey sites at various resolutions and combines these images with scientific survey data to generate “context maps” illustrating the paths of survey actors and the sequence and types of data collected during simulated surface “extra-vehicular activities.” The remotely located scientific team found the context maps were extremely valuable for achieving and conveying activity plan consensus.

  5. Used fuel disposition campaign international activities implementation plan.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, W. M.

    2011-06-29

    countries with more mature programs. The U.S. fuel cycle is a once through fuel cycle involving the direct disposal of UNF, as spent nuclear fuel, in a geologic repository (previously identified at Yucca Mountain, Nevada), following at most a few decades of storage (wet and dry). The geology at Yucca Mountain, unsaturated tuff, is unique among all countries investigating the disposal of UNF and HLW. The decision by the U.S. Department of Energy to no longer pursue the disposal of UNF at Yucca Mountain and possibly utilize very long term storage (approaching 100 years or more) while evaluating future fuel cycle alternatives for managing UNF, presents a different UNF and HLW management R&D portfolio that has been pursued in the U.S. In addition, the research and development activities managed by OCRWM have been transferred to DOE-NE. This requires a reconsideration of how the UFDC will engage in cooperative and collaborative activities with other countries. This report presents the UFDC implementation plan for international activities. The DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) has cooperated and collaborated with other countries in many different 'arenas' including the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and through bilateral agreements with other countries. These international activities benefited OCRWM through the acquisition and exchange of information, database development, and peer reviews by experts from other countries. DOE-NE cooperates and collaborates with other countries in similar 'arenas' with similar objectives and realizing similar benefits. However the DOE-NE focus has not typically been in the area of UNF and HLW management. This report will first summarize these recent cooperative and collaborative activities. The manner that the UFDC will cooperate and collaborate in the future is expected to change as R&D is conducted

  6. Long-term power generation expansion planning with short-term demand response: Model, algorithms, implementation, and electricity policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohmann, Timo

    Electric sector models are powerful tools that guide policy makers and stakeholders. Long-term power generation expansion planning models are a prominent example and determine a capacity expansion for an existing power system over a long planning horizon. With the changes in the power industry away from monopolies and regulation, the focus of these models has shifted to competing electric companies maximizing their profit in a deregulated electricity market. In recent years, consumers have started to participate in demand response programs, actively influencing electricity load and price in the power system. We introduce a model that features investment and retirement decisions over a long planning horizon of more than 20 years, as well as an hourly representation of day-ahead electricity markets in which sellers of electricity face buyers. This combination makes our model both unique and challenging to solve. Decomposition algorithms, and especially Benders decomposition, can exploit the model structure. We present a novel method that can be seen as an alternative to generalized Benders decomposition and relies on dynamic linear overestimation. We prove its finite convergence and present computational results, demonstrating its superiority over traditional approaches. In certain special cases of our model, all necessary solution values in the decomposition algorithms can be directly calculated and solving mathematical programming problems becomes entirely obsolete. This leads to highly efficient algorithms that drastically outperform their programming problem-based counterparts. Furthermore, we discuss the implementation of all tailored algorithms and the challenges from a modeling software developer's standpoint, providing an insider's look into the modeling language GAMS. Finally, we apply our model to the Texas power system and design two electricity policies motivated by the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's recently proposed CO2 emissions targets for the

  7. Can persuasive messages encourage individuals to create action plans for physical activity?

    PubMed

    Sweet, Shane N; Brawley, Lawrence R; Hatchell, Alexandra; Gainforth, Heather L; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E

    2014-08-01

    Given the positive influence of action planning on physical activity, persuasive messages could be designed to promote action planning. The purpose of this paper was to test action planning messages in two studies. Participants were allocated to one of two message groups, reading either a physical activity only or physical activity plus action planning message (Study 1) and either a gain-framed or loss-framed action planning message (Study 2). The percent of individuals who created an action plan and the quality of the plans were evaluated. In Study 1, individuals in the physical activity plus action planning group created as many action plans as the physical activity only group, but their plans were higher quality. In Study 2, Week 2 differences between the gain- and loss-framed message groups were found for action planning. To our knowledge, these studies were the first to investigate message-induced action planning as a behavior. More research is needed to optimize these messages.

  8. Characterizing and configuring motorized wedge for a new generation telecobalt machine in a treatment planning system.

    PubMed

    Kinhikar, Rajesh A; Sharma, Smriti; Upreti, Rituraj; Tambe, Chandrashekhar M; Deshpande, Deepak D

    2007-01-01

    A new generation telecobalt unit, Theratron Equinox-80, (MDS Nordion, Canada) has been evaluated. It is equipped with a single 60-degree motorized wedge (MW), four universal wedges (UW) for 15°, 30°, 45° and 60°. MW was configured in Eclipse (Varian, Palo Alto, USA) 3D treatment planning system (TPS). The profiles and central axis depth doses (CADD) were measured with radiation field analyzer blue water phantom for MW. These profiles and CADD for MW were compared with UW in a homogeneous phantom generated in Eclipse for various field sizes. The absolute dose was measured for a field size of 10 × 10 cm2 only in a MEDTEC water phantom at 10 cm depth with a 0.13 cc thimble ion chamber (Scanditronix Wellhofer, Uppsala, Sweden) and a NE electrometer (Nuclear Enterprises, UK). Measured dose with ion chamber was compared with the TPS predicted dose. MW angle was verified on the Equinox for four angles (15°, 30°, 45° and 60°). The variation in measured and calculated dose at 10 cm depth was within 2%. The measured and the calculated wedge angles were in well agreement within 2°. The motorized wedges were successfully configured in Eclipse for four wedge angles. PMID:21217916

  9. An active immunization approach to generate protective catalytic antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, J; Han, Y; Wilkinson, M F

    2001-01-01

    We report that mice immunized with a phosphate immunogen produced polyclonal catalytic antibodies (PCAbs) that catalysed the hydrolysis of carbaryl, a widely used broad-spectrum carbamate insecticide that exerts toxic effects in animals and humans. The reaction catalysed by the PCAbs (IgGs) obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics in vitro with the following values at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C: K(m) approximately 8.0 microM, k(cat)=4.8x10(-3)-5.8x10(-1), k(cat)/k(non-cat)=5.6x10(1)-6.8x10(3) (where k(non-cat) is the rate constant of the reaction in the absence of added catalyst). The PCAbs were also active in whole sera under physiological conditions in vitro. The PCAbs induced in vivo were also active in vivo, as immunization with the phosphate immunogen decreased the mouse blood concentration of carbaryl. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that active immunization generates antibodies possessing therapeutic catalytic function in vivo. We propose that active immunization schemes that induce enzymically active antibodies may provide a highly specific therapeutic approach for degrading toxic substances. PMID:11696002

  10. Homeroom Activities in a College of Technology Based on the Master Plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchida, Kunihiiko; Murata, Hideaki; Yuji, Junichiro

    Homeroom (HR) activities have an important role in engineering education at technical colleges. Yatsushiro National College of Technology has made a master plan for them and has been putting the plan into practical use since 2002. This plan is comprehensive and has two main categories, social education and career guidance, both being composed of three sub-categories (e.g., self-understanding and making future plans) . Based on the master plan, each HR teacher makes his own plan for HR activities for his classroom at the beginning of the academic year. We have reached a consensus to share our practice and to improve HR activities for years to come. We also recognize that to carry out HR activities based on a master plan that reflects the school's educational goals is essential in order to train students who are well-prepared, both as engineers and as humans.

  11. Actual operation and regulatory activities on steam generator replacement in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Saeki, Hitoshi

    1997-02-01

    This paper summarizes the operating reactors in Japan, and the status of the steam generators in these plants. It reviews plans for replacement of existing steam generators, and then goes into more detail on the planning and regulatory steps which must be addressed in the process of accomplishing this maintenance. The paper also reviews the typical steps involved in the process of removal and replacement of steam generators.

  12. School Travel Planning: Mobilizing School and Community Resources to Encourage Active School Transportation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buliung, Ron; Faulkner, Guy; Beesley, Theresa; Kennedy, Jacky

    2011-01-01

    Background: Active school transport (AST), school travel using an active mode like walking, may be important to children's overall physical activity. A "school travel plan" (STP) documents a school's transport characteristics and provides an action plan to address school and neighborhood barriers to AST. Methods: We conducted a pilot STP…

  13. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups: a case study of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-shan; Fu, Hui-zhen; Qu, Xiao-yan

    2011-09-15

    Reliable and accurate determinations of the quantities and composition of wastes is required for the planning of municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was developed and employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in Beijing. The principle is that MSW is produced by consumption of consumer goods by residents in their daily activities: 'Maintenance' (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care), 'Subsistence' (providing the financial requirements) and 'Leisure' (social and recreational pursuits) activities. Three series of important parameters - waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure, consumer expenditure distribution to activities in unit time, and time assignment to activities by different resident groups - were determined using a statistical analysis, a sampling survey and the Analytic Hierarchy Process, respectively. Data for analysis were obtained from the Beijing Statistical Yearbook (2004-2008) and questionnaire survey. The results reveal that 'Maintenance' activity produced the most MSW, distantly followed by 'Leisure' and 'Subsistence' activities. In 2008, in descending order of MSW generation the different resident groups were floating population, non-civil servants, retired people, civil servants, college students (including both undergraduates and graduates), primary and secondary students, and preschoolers. The new estimation model, which was successful in fitting waste generation by different activities and resident groups over the investigated years, was amenable to MSW prediction.

  14. 75 FR 54370 - BOEMRE Information Collection Activity: 1010-0183, Information Requirements for Exploration Plans...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... techniques sufficient to prevent or minimize the likelihood of blowouts, loss of well control, fires... review the data submitted to analyze future activities under Exploration Plans (EPs), Development...

  15. 36 CFR 219.15 - Project and activity consistency with the plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Project and activity consistency with the plan. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.15 Project...

  16. 36 CFR 219.15 - Project and activity consistency with the plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Project and activity consistency with the plan. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.15 Project...

  17. 36 CFR 219.15 - Project and activity consistency with the plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Project and activity consistency with the plan. 219.15 Section 219.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANNING National Forest System Land Management Planning § 219.15 Project...

  18. Final Report on Regional Exchange Activities During the October 1976-February 1977 Planning Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEMREL, Inc., St. Louis, MO.

    This report describes in detail the Central Midwest Regional Educational Laboratory's (CEMREL) activities during the October 1976-February 1977 planning phase of the nationwide R & D Exchange (RDX) program sponsored by the National Institute of Education. Basically, CEMREL's task during the planning period was to develop plans for the creation and…

  19. Experimental generation of single photons via active multiplexing

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Xiaosong; Zotter, Stefan; Kofler, Johannes; Jennewein, Thomas; Zeilinger, Anton

    2011-04-15

    An on-demand single-photon source is a fundamental building block in quantum science and technology. We experimentally demonstrate the proof of concept for a scheme to generate on-demand single photons via actively multiplexing several heralded photons probabilistically produced from pulsed spontaneous parametric down-conversions (SPDCs). By utilizing a four-photon-pair source, an active feed-forward technique, and an ultrafast single-photon router, we show a fourfold enhancement of the output photon rate. Simultaneously, we maintain the quality of the output single-photon states, confirmed by correlation measurements. We also experimentally verify, via Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, that the router does not affect the indistinguishability of the single photons. Furthermore, we give numerical simulations, which indicate that photons based on multiplexing of four SPDC sources can outperform the heralding based on highly advanced photon-number-resolving detectors. Our results show a route for on-demand single-photon generation and the practical realization of scalable linear optical quantum-information processing.

  20. Coaxial Mono-Energetic Gamma Generator for Active Interrogation

    SciTech Connect

    Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Antolak, A.J.; Henestroza, E.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K.-N.; Waldron, W.; Wilde, S.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Compact mono-energetic photon sources are sought for active interrogation systems to detect shielded special nuclear materials in, for example, cargo containers, trucks and other vehicles. A prototype gamma interrogation source has been designed and built that utilizes the 11B(p,gamma)12C reaction to produce 12 MeV gamma-rays which are near the peak of the photofission cross section. In particular, the 11B(p,gamma)12C resonance at 163 kV allows the production of gammas at low proton acceleration voltages, thus keeping the design of a gamma generator comparatively small and simple. A coaxial design has been adopted with a toroidal-shaped plasma chamber surrounding a cylindrical gamma production target. The plasma discharge is driven by a 2 MHz rf-power supply (capable up to 50 kW) using a circular rf-antenna. Permanent magnets embedded in the walls of the plasma chamber generate a multi-cusp field that confines the plasma and allows higher plasma densities and lower gas pressures. About 100 proton beamlets are extracted through a slotted plasma electrode towards the target at the center of the device that is at a negative 180 kV. The target consists of LaB6 tiles that are brazed to a water-cooled cylindrical structure. The generator is designed to operate at 500 Hz with 20 mu s long pulses, and a 1percent duty factor by pulsing the ion source rf-power. A first-generation coaxial gamma source has been built for low duty factor experiments and testing.

  1. Next generation safeguards initiative (NGSI) program plan for safeguards by design

    SciTech Connect

    Demuth, Scott F; Budlong - Sylvester, Kory; Lockwood, Dunbar

    2010-01-01

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is defined as the incorporation of safeguards features early in the design phase of a new nuclear facility in order to avoid the need to redesign the facility at a later date, or retrofit the completed facility. Not only can SBD avoid the need for redesign or retrofit, but consideration of safeguards features early in the facility design effort can provide for a more efficient and effective safeguards design. A program has been initiated by the United States Department of Energy during the past several years to develop, demonstrate and institutionalization SBD. This plan has been developed in parallel with a similar effort at the IAEA while taking into account their achievements and future plans. The United States SBD program is focused on (1) identification of best practices that satisfy existing safeguards requirements, (2) identification of advanced concepts where best practices can be improved, and (3) institutionalizing SBD by gaining its acceptance as a global norm for the design of new nuclear facilities. SBD guidance documents are being prepared as an aid to industry for their design activities, to describe the relationship between requirements, best practices, and advanced concepts. SBD 'lessons learned' studies have been conducted to help identify the existing best practices and potential areas for improvement. Finally, acceptance as a global norm is being pursued by way of international workshops, engagement with industry and the IAEA, and setting an example by way of its use in new nuclear facilities in the United States.

  2. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has selected the High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production, with an outlet gas temperature in the range of 750°C, and a design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite-moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. This technology development plan details the additional research and development (R&D) required to design and license the NGNP RPV, assuming that A 508/A 533 is the material of construction. The majority of additional information that is required is related to long-term aging behavior at NGNP vessel temperatures, which are somewhat above those commonly encountered in the existing database from LWR experience. Additional data are also required for the anticipated NGNP environment. An assessment of required R&D for a Grade 91 vessel has been retained from the first revision of the R&D plan in Appendix B in somewhat less detail. Considerably more development is required for this steel compared to A 508/A 533 including additional irradiation testing for expected NGNP operating temperatures, high-temperature mechanical properties, and extensive studies of long-term microstructural stability.

  3. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  4. Planning for the worst: one hospital's process for developing an 'active shooter on campus' policy.

    PubMed

    Plotner, Chuck D

    2008-01-01

    Concerned about the potential for a Virginia Tech type tragedy at a hospital, the author contacted colleagues at other hospitals to inquire about their plans to reduce casualties in the event of an active shooter on campus, only to learn that there weren't any. Working with law enforcement, emergency management, risk management, and other interested officials and review committees, he developed his hospital's plan from scratch. Both the planning process and the plan itself are described in this article.

  5. Generational forecasting in academic medicine: a unique method of planning for success in the next two decades.

    PubMed

    Howell, Lydia Pleotis; Joad, Jesse P; Callahan, Edward; Servis, Gregg; Bonham, Ann C

    2009-08-01

    Multigenerational teams are essential to the missions of academic health centers (AHCs). Generational forecasting using Strauss and Howe's predictive model, "the generational diagonal," can be useful for anticipating and addressing issues so that each generation is effective. Forecasts are based on the observation that cyclical historical events are experienced by all generations, but the response of each generation differs according to its phase of life and previous defining experiences. This article relates Strauss and Howe's generational forecasts to AHCs. Predicted issues such as work-life balance, indebtedness, and succession planning have existed previously, but they now have different causes or consequences because of the unique experiences and life stages of current generations. Efforts to address these issues at the authors' AHC include a work-life balance workgroup, expanded leave, and intramural grants.

  6. Two generations of Canadian active imaging systems: ALBEDOS and ELVISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larochelle, Vincent; Mathieu, Pierre; Simard, Jean-Robert

    1999-07-01

    Search and rescue and general surveillance mission pose a serious challenge to conventional imaging systems used by actual aircraft crews. These systems must often work in low- light and low-visibility conditions to find the identify targets. A new airborne imaging technology has been developed to overcome several deficiencies encountered with common CCD cameras, image intensified system and thermal imaging sensors. The recent developments in laser diode arrays, laser diode beam collimation and gatable micro- channel plate intensifier have made possible the construction of a compact active imagin system, called the Airborne Laser-Based Enhanced Detection and Observation Systems (ALBEDOS). This system proved particularly efficient at night and in degraded weather conditions. In addition, it was demonstrated that range gating, besides eliminating most of the light backscattered by aerosols, provided to some extent immunity to blooming effects specific to highly sensitive cameras. The system was installed on a helicopter and tested in various scenarios in October 1995 to demonstrate its potential. To enhance the surveillance capability over large areas of coverage, to optimize detection of humans and small objects and to improve the effectiveness of the search aircraft, a second-generation payload is presently developed and combines the benefits of two complementary imaging sensors. The Enhanced Low-Light level Visible and IR Surveillance System (ELVISS) consists of an improved range-gated active imager and a high-quality thermal imager, installed in two separate airborne platforms slaved together and controlled by a single user interface. It is expected that such a sensor systems will have a direct impact on improving the response time in finding those in need of assistance or simply in increasing the performance, reliability and efficiency of crews involved in general surveillance operations. This paper explains the concept of range gating, details a preliminary

  7. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation.

    PubMed

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-12-01

    Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  8. Demand generation activities and modern contraceptive use in urban areas of four countries: a longitudinal evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Speizer, Ilene S; Corroon, Meghan; Calhoun, Lisa; Lance, Peter; Montana, Livia; Nanda, Priya; Guilkey, David

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Family planning is crucial for preventing unintended pregnancies and for improving maternal and child health and well-being. In urban areas where there are large inequities in family planning use, particularly among the urban poor, programs are needed to increase access to and use of contraception among those most in need. This paper presents the midterm evaluation findings of the Urban Reproductive Health Initiative (Urban RH Initiative) programs, funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, that are being implemented in 4 countries: India (Uttar Pradesh), Kenya, Nigeria, and Senegal. Between 2010 and 2013, the Measurement, Learning & Evaluation (MLE) project collected baseline and 2-year longitudinal follow-up data from women in target study cities to examine the role of demand generation activities undertaken as part of the Urban RH Initiative programs. Evaluation results demonstrate that, in each country where it was measured, outreach by community health or family planning workers as well as local radio programs were significantly associated with increased use of modern contraceptive methods. In addition, in India and Nigeria, television programs had a significant effect on modern contraceptive use, and in Kenya and Nigeria, the program slogans and materials that were blanketed across the cities (eg, leaflets/brochures distributed at health clinics and the program logo placed on all forms of materials, from market umbrellas to health facility signs and television programs) were also significantly associated with modern method use. Our results show that targeted, multilevel demand generation activities can make an important contribution to increasing modern contraceptive use in urban areas and could impact Millennium Development Goals for improved maternal and child health and access to reproductive health for all. PMID:25611476

  9. Assessment of Geothermal Resources for Electric Generation in the Pacific Northwest, Draft Issue Paper for the Northwest Power Planning Council

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, John D.; Kellerman, L.M.; Bloomquist, R.G.

    1989-09-26

    This document reviews the geothermal history, technology, costs, and Pacific Northwest potentials. The report discusses geothermal generation, geothermal resources in the Pacific Northwest, cost and operating characteristics of geothermal power plants, environmental effects of geothermal generation, and prospects for development in the Pacific Northwest. This report was prepared expressly for use by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The report contains numerous references at the end of the document. [DJE-2005

  10. Planning for a New Generation of Public Library Buildings. The Greenwood Library Management Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Gerard B.

    This book on public library design and construction contains the following chapters: (1) "Beginning the Plan"; (2) "Data for Planning"; (3) "Location: Finding a Site"; (4) "Interior Design"; (5) "Furnishing and Equipping the Library and Its Environs"; (6) "Other Views," including "Using Small College Library Planning Techniques in Public Library…

  11. A Verbal Planning Impairment in Adult ADHD Indexed by Script Generation Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjardins, Catherine; Scherzer, Peter; Braun, Claude M. J.; Godbout, Lucie; Poissant, Helene

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Though juvenile and adult ADHD cases are well known to have a nonverbal planning impairment, a verbal-planning impairment has been demonstrated only in juvenile ADHD. The purpose of this investigation is to determine whether a verbal planning impairment also characterizes adult ADHD. Methods: A cohort of 30 adult ADHD clients of a…

  12. Metrication report to the Congress. 1991 activities and 1992 plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    During 1991, NASA approved a revised metric use policy and developed a NASA Metric Transition Plan. This Plan targets the end of 1995 for completion of NASA's metric initiatives. This Plan also identifies future programs that NASA anticipates will use the metric system of measurement. Field installations began metric transition studies in 1991 and will complete them in 1992. Half of NASA's Space Shuttle payloads for 1991, and almost all such payloads for 1992, have some metric-based elements. In 1992, NASA will begin assessing requirements for space-quality piece parts fabricated to U.S. metric standards, leading to development and qualification of high priority parts.

  13. Microfluidic Platform Generates Oxygen Landscapes for Localized Hypoxic Activation

    PubMed Central

    Rexius, Megan L.; Mauleon, Gerardo; Malik, Asrar B.; Rehman, Jalees; Eddington, David T.

    2014-01-01

    An open-well microfluidic platform generates an oxygen landscape using gas-perfused networks which diffuse across a membrane. The device enables real-time analysis of cellular and tissue responses to oxygen tension to define how cells adapt to heterogeneous oxygen conditions found in the physiological setting. We demonstrate that localized hypoxic activation of cells elicited specific metabolic and gene responses in human microvascular endothelial cells and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. A robust demonstration of the compatibility of the device with standard laboratory techniques demonstrates the wide utility of the method. This platform is ideally suited to study real-time cell responses and cell-cell interactions within physiologically relevant oxygen landscapes. PMID:25315003

  14. Next Generation Whole Atmosphere Model (NGWAM) for ionospheric simulation and forecast: status, plans, requirements, and capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akmaev, R. A.; Yudin, V. A.; Viereck, R. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Whole Atmosphere Model (WAM) has been developed in collaboration of the NOAA Space Weather Prediction and Environmental Modeling Centers (SWPC and EMC) by vertical extension of the operational Global Forecast System (GFS) model over the last decade. The model has demonstrated remarkable performance in simulating climatology and daily variability of the upper atmosphere and ionosphere driven from below. Coupled to ionosphere-electrodynamics models it not only reproduced dramatic variations of ionospheric plasma drifts and density distribution observed during sudden stratospheric warmings but also demonstrated predictive capability with lead times up to 2 weeks. WAM has reached a level of maturity to be implemented into operations at the National Weather Service (NWS) in the next few years. Within the same timeframe NWS also plans to substantially upgrade GFS to the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS). Specific capabilities of NGGPS include in particular a nonhydrostatic dynamical core and the ability to directly simulate important processes such as tropospheric convection at very high resolution globally and without the need for parameterization. This opens an opportunity for development of NGWAM. Specific requirements for extension of NGGPS into NGWAM will be discussed and capabilities of the new models in application to the upper atmosphere and ionosphere dynamics, simulation, and prediction presented.

  15. Generation of virtual models for planning orthognathic surgery using a modified multimodal image fusion technique.

    PubMed

    Uechi, J; Tsuji, Y; Konno, M; Hayashi, K; Shibata, T; Nakayama, E; Mizoguchi, I

    2015-04-01

    Streak artefacts caused by dental metals deteriorate the quality of computed tomography (CT) images. We developed and evaluated a method for generating three-dimensional virtual models to plan orthognathic surgery in patients with multiple dental materials, to avoid the adverse effects of metal artefacts in image fusion. The method basically consists of four procedures: (1) fabrication of a splint in the open-mouth position with fiducial markers, (2) reconstruction of a virtual skull model in the open-mouth position from CT scanning, (3) reconstruction of two virtual dental models in the open-mouth position and either the intercuspal position (ICP) or centric relation (CR) from surface scanning, and (4) three serial steps of image registration and subsequent repositioning of the mandible to the ICP or CR. This method allows for the registration of skull and dental models under artefact-free conditions. To validate the method, CT and dental cast data from 30 patients were used. The registration accuracy was 0.080 mm for the initial registration, 0.033 mm for the second registration, and 0.028 mm for the third registration. The present method can be used to determine the occlusal relationships and craniofacial morphology of patients with dental metals and can be applied to computer-assisted diagnosis and surgery.

  16. The 1975 report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments. [index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, R. (Editor); Davis, L. R. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented on current and planned spacecraft activity for various disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, solar physics, and life sciences. For active orbiting spacecraft, the epoch date, orbit type, orbit period, apoasis, periapsis, and inclination are given along with the spacecraft weight, launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, and sponsoring agency. For each planned orbiting spacecraft, the orbit parameters, planned launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, spacecraft weight, and sponsoring agency are given.

  17. 30 CFR 285.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 285.640 What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)? (a) A GAP describes your... activities on your lease or grant. For a ROW grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit...

  18. 24 CFR 598.400 - HUD grants for planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE... planning grants up to $100,000 to each of the Empowerment Zones designated in accordance with this part....

  19. 24 CFR 598.400 - HUD grants for planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE... planning grants up to $100,000 to each of the Empowerment Zones designated in accordance with this part....

  20. 24 CFR 598.400 - HUD grants for planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE... planning grants up to $100,000 to each of the Empowerment Zones designated in accordance with this part....

  1. 24 CFR 598.400 - HUD grants for planning activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES URBAN EMPOWERMENT ZONES: ROUND TWO AND THREE... planning grants up to $100,000 to each of the Empowerment Zones designated in accordance with this part....

  2. Plan before You Play: An Activity for Teaching the Managerial Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althouse, Norm R.; Hedges, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a 60-minute classroom activity using LEGO® bricks that demonstrates and reinforces the importance of the managerial process. The activity, Plan Before You Play (PBP), is targeted to introductory business classes, and differs from others in that it requires little investment or up-front planning, is easily scalable, and, with…

  3. Collaborative school planning and active schools: a case study of Lee County, Florida.

    PubMed

    Lees, Emily; Salvesen, David; Shay, Elizabeth

    2008-06-01

    To contribute to the understanding of the links between urban planning and school siting and, ultimately, the impact of both on physical activity, we conducted a case study of Lee County, Florida. Our study examined the extent of state-mandated collaboration between the Lee County School Board and Lee County government (e.g., the Lee County Department of Planning, the Office of Smart Growth, and the Department of Parks and Recreation). Specifically, we investigated planning processes under mandated coordination between the school board and the county and the impact of such coordination on the integration of land-use planning and school facility planning. By describing the process of mandated collaborative school planning in Florida, we illustrate the promise and pitfalls of such top-down legislation and offer insights to other state and local governments looking for ways to improve local planning and to increase physical activity among children.

  4. ActivitySim: large-scale agent based activity generation for infrastructure simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Gali, Emmanuel; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Mniszewski, Sue; Cuellar, Leticia; Teuscher, Christof

    2008-01-01

    The United States' Department of Homeland Security aims to model, simulate, and analyze critical infrastructure and their interdependencies across multiple sectors such as electric power, telecommunications, water distribution, transportation, etc. We introduce ActivitySim, an activity simulator for a population of millions of individual agents each characterized by a set of demographic attributes that is based on US census data. ActivitySim generates daily schedules for each agent that consists of a sequence of activities, such as sleeping, shopping, working etc., each being scheduled at a geographic location, such as businesses or private residences that is appropriate for the activity type and for the personal situation of the agent. ActivitySim has been developed as part of a larger effort to understand the interdependencies among national infrastructure networks and their demand profiles that emerge from the different activities of individuals in baseline scenarios as well as emergency scenarios, such as hurricane evacuations. We present the scalable software engineering principles underlying ActivitySim, the socia-technical modeling paradigms that drive the activity generation, and proof-of-principle results for a scenario in the Twin Cities, MN area of 2.6 M agents.

  5. Dosimetric comparison of IMRT rectal and anal canal plans generated using an anterior dose avoidance structure

    SciTech Connect

    Leicher, Brian; Day, Ellen; Colonias, Athanasios; Gayou, Olivier

    2014-10-01

    To describe a dosimetric method using an anterior dose avoidance structure (ADAS) during the treatment planning process for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for patients with anal canal and rectal carcinomas. A total of 20 patients were planned on the Elekta/CMS XiO treatment planning system, version 4.5.1 (Maryland Heights MO) with a superposition algorithm. For each patient, 2 plans were created: one employing an ADAS (ADAS plan) and the other replanned without an ADAS (non-ADAS plan). The ADAS was defined to occupy the volume between the inguinal nodes and primary target providing a single organ at risk that is completely outside of the target volume. Each plan used the same beam parameters and was analyzed by comparing target coverage, overall plan dose conformity using a conformity number (CN) equation, bowel dose-volume histograms, and the number of segments, daily treatment duration, and global maximum dose. The ADAS and non-ADAS plans were equivalent in target coverage, mean global maximum dose, and sparing of small bowel in low-dose regions (5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy). The mean difference between the CN value for the non-ADAS plans and ADAS plans was 0.04 ± 0.03 (p < 0.001). The mean difference in the number of segments was 15.7 ± 12.7 (p < 0.001) in favor of ADAS plans. The ADAS plan delivery time was shorter by 2.0 ± 1.5 minutes (p < 0.001) than the non-ADAS one. The ADAS has proven to be a powerful tool when planning rectal and anal canal IMRT cases with critical structures partially contained inside the target volume.

  6. Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) critical technology pre-development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminou, Donny M. A.; Bézy, Jean Loup; Meynart, Roland; Blythe, Paul; Kraft, S.; Zayer, I.; Linder, M.; Falkner, M.; Luhmann, H. J.

    2009-09-01

    ESA and EUMETSAT have initiated joint preparatory activities for the formulation and definition of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG) geostationary system to ensure the future continuity, and enhancement, of the current Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) system. The MTG programmatics are being established to ensure a seamless transition between the conclusion of the successful MSG operational system and the start of the new MTG operational system, with particular emphasis on continuity of the imagery missions. The MTG phase A studies were successfully concluded in December 2008 an re-consolidation phase B1 activities continued from January to July 2009. They were devoted to the MTG concept definition and requirements consolidation for meeting the User needs in the field of Nowcasting and Very Short Term Weather Forecasting (NWC), Medium/Short Range global and regional Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP), Climate, Air Quality and Composition Monitoring. The following missions have been analysed, measurement techniques studied and preliminary concepts established: - High Resolution Fast Imagery Mission (improved successor to MSG SEVIRI HRV mission) - Full Disk High Spectral Resolution Imagery Mission (improved successor to SEVIRI) - Lightning Imagery Mission - IR Sounding Mission - UV-VIS-NIR Sounding Mission Both space segment architecture and preliminary satellite and instrument concepts were investigated in the course of these studies, and a dual satellite configuration established comprising the Imaging satellite (MTG-I) and the sounding satellite (MTG-S). The study covered all elements to a level of detail allowing to establish a technical baseline, conclude on the feasibility of the system requirements and undertake preliminary programmatic evaluation. Riders to the Phase A studies (Phase B1 work) have been placed to further consolidate the satellite and payload definition and development, prior to the release of the Invitation To Tender (ITT) for the full space

  7. Designing Innovative Lessons Plans to Support the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passow, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) issued earlier in 2013 provide the opportunity to enhance pre-college curricula through a new focus on the ';Big Ideas' in Science, more attention to reading and writing skills needed for college and career readiness, and incorporation of engineering and technology. We introduce a set of lesson plans about scientific ocean drilling which can serve as a exemplars for developing curricula to meet NGSS approaches. Designed for middle and high school students, these can also be utilized in undergraduate courses. Development of these lessons was supported through a grant from the Deep Earth Academy of the Consortium for Ocean Leadership. They will be disseminated through websites of the Deep Earth Academy (http://www.oceanleadership.org/education/deep-earth-academy/) and Earth2Class Workshops for Teachers (http://www.earth2class.org), as well as through workshops at science education conferences sponsored by the National Earth Science Teachers Association (www.nestanet.org) and other organizations. Topics include 'Downhole Logging,' 'Age of the Ocean Floors,' 'Tales of the Resolution,' and 'Continental Shelf Sediments and Climate Change Patterns.' 'Downhole Logging' focuses on the engineering and technology utilized to obtain more information about sediments and rocks cored by the JOIDES Resolution scientific drilling vessel. 'Age of the Ocean Floor' incorporates the GeoMap App visualization tools (http://www.geomapapp.org/) to compare sea bottom materials in various parts of the world. 'Tales of the Resolution' is a series of ';graphic novels' created to describe the scientific discoveries, refitting of the JOIDES Resolution, and variety of careers available in the marine sciences (http://www.ldeo.columbia.edu/BRG/outreach/media/tales/). The fourth lesson focuses on discoveries made during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 313, which investigated patterns in the sediments beneath the continental shelf off New

  8. Results From The Salt Disposition Project Next Generation Solvent Demonstration Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T. B.; Fondeur, F. F.; Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L.

    2014-04-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) samples were taken throughout the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) Demonstration Plan. These samples were analyzed and the results are reported. SHT: The solvent behaved as expected, with no bulk changes in the composition over time, with the exception of the TOA and TiDG. The TiDG depletion is higher than expected, and consideration must be taken on the required rate of replenishment. Monthly sampling of the SHT is warranted. If possible, additional SHT samples for TiDG analysis (only) would help SRNL refine the TiDG degradation model. CWT: The CWT samples show the expected behavior in terms of bulk chemistry. The 137Cs deposited into the CWT varies somewhat, but generally appears to be lower than during operations with the BOBCalix solvent. While a few minor organic components were noted to be present in the Preliminary sample, at this time these are thought to be artifacts of the sample preparation or may be due to the preceding solvent superwash. DSSHT: The DSSHT samples show the predicted bulk chemistry, although they point towards significant dilution at the front end of the Demonstration. The 137Cs levels in the DSSHT are much lower than during the BOBCalix operations, which is the expected observation. SEHT: The SEHT samples represent the most different output of all four of the outputs from MCU. While the bulk chemistry is as expected, something is causing the pH of the SEHT to be higher than what would be predicted from a pure stream of 0.01 M boric acid. There are several possible different reasons for this, and SRNL is in the process of investigating. Other than the pH issue, the SEHT is as predicted. In summary, the NGS Demonstration Plan samples indicate that the MCU system, with the Blend Solvent, is operating as expected. The only issue of concern regards the pH of the SEHT, and SRNL is in the process of investigating

  9. A workbook for preparing a district quality- assurance plan for water-quality activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Childress, Carolyn J.O.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Boucher, Michelle S.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    APPEARS TO BE A REPORT ON HOW TO WRITE REPORTS --THE 'ABSTRACT' THAT FOLLOWS IS JUST THE GENERIC ABSTRACT TO BE USED FOR WATER USE REPORTS: In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the [State name] District in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the [State name] District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the District quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the [State name] District quality-assurance plan.

  10. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    PubMed

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens. PMID:26986905

  11. Autobiographical Planning and the Brain: Activation and Its Modulation by Qualitative Features.

    PubMed

    Spreng, R Nathan; Gerlach, Kathy D; Turner, Gary R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-11-01

    To engage in purposeful behavior, it is important to make plans, which organize subsequent actions. Most studies of planning involve "look-ahead" puzzle tasks that are unrelated to personal goals. We developed a task to assess autobiographical planning, which involves the formulation of personal plans in response to real-world goals, and examined autobiographical planning in 63 adults during fMRI scanning. Autobiographical planning was found to engage the default network, including medial-temporal lobe and midline structures, and executive control regions in lateral pFC and parietal cortex and caudate. To examine how specific qualitative features of autobiographical plans modulate neural activity, we performed parametric modulation analyses. Ratings of plan detail, novelty, temporal distance, ease of plan formulation, difficulty in goal completion, and confidence in goal accomplishment were used as covariates in six hierarchical linear regression models. This modeling procedure removed shared variance among the ratings, allowing us to determine the independent relationship between ratings of interest and trial-wise BOLD signal. We found that specific autobiographical planning, describing a detailed, achievable, and actionable planning process for attaining a clearly envisioned future, recruited both default and frontoparietal brain regions. In contrast, abstract autobiographical planning, plans that were constructed from more generalized semantic or affective representations of a less tangible and distant future, involved interactions among default, sensory perceptual, and limbic brain structures. Specific qualities of autobiographical plans are important predictors of default and frontoparietal control network engagement during plan formation and reflect the contribution of mnemonic and executive control processes to autobiographical planning.

  12. Autobiographical Planning and the Brain: Activation and Its Modulation by Qualitative Features.

    PubMed

    Spreng, R Nathan; Gerlach, Kathy D; Turner, Gary R; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-11-01

    To engage in purposeful behavior, it is important to make plans, which organize subsequent actions. Most studies of planning involve "look-ahead" puzzle tasks that are unrelated to personal goals. We developed a task to assess autobiographical planning, which involves the formulation of personal plans in response to real-world goals, and examined autobiographical planning in 63 adults during fMRI scanning. Autobiographical planning was found to engage the default network, including medial-temporal lobe and midline structures, and executive control regions in lateral pFC and parietal cortex and caudate. To examine how specific qualitative features of autobiographical plans modulate neural activity, we performed parametric modulation analyses. Ratings of plan detail, novelty, temporal distance, ease of plan formulation, difficulty in goal completion, and confidence in goal accomplishment were used as covariates in six hierarchical linear regression models. This modeling procedure removed shared variance among the ratings, allowing us to determine the independent relationship between ratings of interest and trial-wise BOLD signal. We found that specific autobiographical planning, describing a detailed, achievable, and actionable planning process for attaining a clearly envisioned future, recruited both default and frontoparietal brain regions. In contrast, abstract autobiographical planning, plans that were constructed from more generalized semantic or affective representations of a less tangible and distant future, involved interactions among default, sensory perceptual, and limbic brain structures. Specific qualities of autobiographical plans are important predictors of default and frontoparietal control network engagement during plan formation and reflect the contribution of mnemonic and executive control processes to autobiographical planning. PMID:26102226

  13. Clans of the Iroquois. Lesson Plans and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clute, Myron, Comp.; And Others

    This collection of lessons intended for use with elementary school children contains material that is descriptive of the Mohawk People, a group of the Iroquois Nation. The booklet contains an introduction on traditional kinship and family systems, unit outline on the concept of the clan, vocabulary, objectives and materials, and five lesson plans.…

  14. Active Control of Fan-Generated Tone Noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerhold, Carl H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on an experiment to control the noise radiated from the inlet of a ducted fan using a time domain active adaptive system. The control ,sound source consists of loudspeakers arranged in a ring around the fan duct. The error sensor location is in the fan duct. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that the in-duct error sensor reduces the mode spillover in the far field, thereby increasing the efficiency of the control system. The control system is found to reduce the blade passage frequency tone significantly in the acoustic far field when the mode orders of the noise source and of the control source are the same, when the dominant wave in the duct is a plane wave. The presence of higher order modes in the duct reduces the noise reduction efficiency, particularly near the mode cut-on where the standing wave component is strong, but the control system converges stably. The control system is stable and converges when the first circumferential mode is generated in the duct. The control system is found to reduce the fan noise in the far field on an arc around the fan inlet by as much as 20 dB with none of the sound amplification associated with mode spillover.

  15. Forestry Canada: Strategic plan for international science and technology activities, 1990-95

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This document summarizes the international science and technology activities of Forestry Canada and sets out a plan for strategic development and coordination of these activities over 5 years. The plan describes the major project elements of technology inflow and outflow, scientific excellence, international agreements, aid to less-developed countries, and international intelligence. It also provides a description of current and potential activities related to areas of concentration and objectives.

  16. Using a Student-Generated Survey to Inform Planning for a User-Focused Learning Commons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Sharon A.; Weiner, John M.

    2010-01-01

    A master's comprehensive University is planning a learning commons to support undergraduate learning. The planning process included a literature review, site visits to commons, consultations with experts in the field, discussions with campus specialists, and surveys of patrons. The literature reports two primary forms of data gathering for…

  17. Towards a new generation of mission planning systems: Flexibility and performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasquet, A.; Parrod, Y.; Desaintvincent, A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some new approaches which are required for a better adequacy of Mission Planning Systems. In particular, the performance flexibility and genericity issues are discussed based on experience acquired through various Mission Planning systems developed by Matra Marconi Space.

  18. Goal-driven Automation of a Deep Space Communications Station: A Case Study in Knowledge Engineering for Plan Generation and Execution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, R. W., Jr.; Chien, S. A.; Fayyad, K. V.; Chien, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the application of Artificial Intelligence techniques for plan generation, plan execution, and plan monitoring to automate a Deep Space Communication Station. This automation allows a Communication station to respond to a set of tracking goals by appropriately reconfiguring the communications hardware and software to provide the requested communications services.

  19. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. PMID:25861710

  20. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination.

  1. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    PubMed

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents.

  2. Community Vision and Interagency Alignment: A Community Planning Process to Promote Active Transportation.

    PubMed

    DeGregory, Sarah Timmins; Chaudhury, Nupur; Kennedy, Patrick; Noyes, Philip; Maybank, Aletha

    2016-04-01

    In 2010, the Brooklyn Active Transportation Community Planning Initiative launched in 2 New York City neighborhoods. Over a 2-year planning period, residents participated in surveys, school and community forums, neighborhood street assessments, and activation events-activities that highlighted the need for safer streets locally. Consensus among residents and key multisectoral stakeholders, including city agencies and community-based organizations, was garnered in support of a planned expansion of bicycling infrastructure. The process of building on community assets and applying a collective impact approach yielded changes in the built environment, attracted new partners and resources, and helped to restore a sense of power among residents. PMID:26959270

  3. Translating good intentions into physical activity: older adults with low prospective memory ability profit from planning.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Julia K; Warner, Lisa M; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Prospective memory (PM) is the ability to remember to perform an intended action in the future and is necessary for regular physical activity (PA). For older adults with declining PM, planning strategies may help them to act upon their intentions. This study investigates PM as a moderator in a mediation process: intention predicting PA via planning. A mediated moderation was estimated with longitudinal data of older adults (M = 70 years). Intentions (T1) predicted PA (T3) via action and coping planning (T2). PM was included as moderator on the planning-PA association. Both planning strategies were significant partial mediators (action planning: b = 0.17, 95 % CI [0.10, 0.29]; coping planning: b = 0.08, 95 % CI [0.02, 0.18]). For individuals with lower PM, the indirect effect via coping planning was stronger than with higher PM (b = 0.06, 95 % CI [0.01, 0.16]). Action planning is important for PA in old age regardless of PM performance, whereas older adults with lower PM benefitted most from coping planning. Intervention studies for older adults should consider training PM and promote planning skills.

  4. TWRS Retrieval and Storage Mission and Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Plan

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    1999-09-01

    This project plan has a twofold purpose. First, it provides a waste stream project plan specific to the River Protection Project (RPP) (formerly the Tank Waste Remediation System [TWRS] Project) Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (LAW) Disposal Subproject for the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) that meets the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-90-01 (Ecology et al. 1994) and is consistent with the project plan content guidelines found in Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement action plan (Ecology et al. 1998). Second, it provides an upper tier document that can be used as the basis for future subproject line-item construction management plans. The planning elements for the construction management plans are derived from applicable U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) planning guidance documents (DOE Orders 4700.1 [DOE 1992] and 430.1 [DOE 1995a]). The format and content of this project plan are designed to accommodate the requirements mentioned by the Tri-Party Agreement and the DOE orders. A cross-check matrix is provided in Appendix A to explain where in the plan project planning elements required by Section 11.5 of the Tri-Party Agreement are addressed.

  5. Differentiated Instruction for K-8 Math and Science: Activities and Lesson Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Mary; Adams, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This book offers practical recommendations to reach every student in a K-8 classroom. Research-based and written in a teacher-friendly style, it will help teachers with classroom organization and lesson planning in math and science. Included are math and science games, activities, ideas, and lesson plans based on the math and science standards.…

  6. Children Move to Learn: A Guide to Planning Gross Motor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Judy

    This guide for persons working with young children with gross motor delays is designed to be used in the assessment of gross motor abilities, the detection and identification of delays and the planning and implementation of appropriate Individual Activity Plans (IAP) for correcting the delays. Observation guidelines in the form of questions (Can…

  7. 77 FR 35114 - Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office Building, Room 10235... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (NCA PreNeed Burial Planning) Activity Under OMB Review AGENCY... INFORMATION: Title: NCA PreNeed Burial Planning, VA Form 40-10007. OMB Control Number: 2900--New. Type...

  8. The defined-contribution plan: the next generation of healthcare financing.

    PubMed

    Emery, J D

    2001-01-01

    In response to rising health insurance premiums, many purchasers of coverage are evaluating the possibility of implementing defined-contribution health insurance plans. Under a defined-contribution plan, employers or the government pay a specified portion of the premium, and the consumer chooses a plan from a menu of options, paying the balance of the premium based on their plan selection. A shift to a defined-contribution model will have far-reaching implications for consumers, employer and government purchasers, payers, and providers. Providers will face changes in consumption patterns and the need to develop a brand image, market their strengths directly to consumers, educate consumers about their services and pricing, and reconfigure infrastructures to be able to respond efficiently to consumer demands. PMID:11211485

  9. Activating Generative Learning in Organizations through Optimizing Relational Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Mary Kay

    2010-01-01

    Using a grounded theory method, this dissertation seeks to discover how relationships impact organizational generative learning. An organization is a socially constructed reality and organizational learning is situated in the process of co-participation. To discover the link between relationships and generative learning this study considers the…

  10. Mental Arithmetic Activates Analogic Representations of Internally Generated Sums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kallai, Arava Y.; Schunn, Christian D.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    The internal representation of numbers generated during calculation has received little attention. Much of the mathematics learning literature focuses on symbolic retrieval of math facts; in contrast, we critically test the hypothesis that internally generated numbers are represented analogically, using an approximate number system. In an fMRI…

  11. SU-E-T-331: To Evaluate Planning Quality of SBRT with Multiple Lung Metastases Generated with Pinnacle and Tomotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Doxsee, K; Yang, C

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate planning quality of SBRT with multiple lung metastases generated with Pinnacle and Tomotherapy Methods: Nine randomly selected patients diagnosed with non small-cell lung cancer with multiple lesions were planned with Pinnacle (version 9.2) and Tomotherapy (version 4.2). Coplanar and non-coplanar plans were generated on Pinnacle. A total dose of 60 Gy was prescribed to 95% of PTV in 3 fractions. Single isocenter was used. Nine static beams were used for Pinnacle plans. Planning outcomes such as minimum and mean dose, V{sub 9} {sub 5}, D{sub 9} {sub 5} (95% of target volume receives prescription dose), D{sub 5}, and D{sub 1} to PTV, maximum dose to heart, esophagus, cord, trachea, brachial plexus, rib, chest wall, and liver, mean dose to liver, total lung, right and left lung, volume of chest wall receives 30 Gy, volume of lungs receives 5 Gy and 20Gy, conformity index (CI = PIV / PTV) and heterogeneity index (HI = D{sub 5} / D{sub 9} {sub 5}) were reported for evaluation. Results: The mean volume of PTV was 37.77 ± 23.4 cm3. D{sub 9} {sub 5} of PTV with Tomo, coplanar, non-coplanar was 60.2 ± 0.3 Gy, 58.6 ± 1.2 Gy, and 59.1 ± 0.7 Gy, respectively. Mean dose to PTV was lower for Tomo (p < 0.0001), so were D{sub 5} (p < 0.0001) and D{sub 1} (p = 0.001). CI was better with Tomo (p < 0.0001), so was HI (p < 0.0001). Maximum dose to other critical organs were also lower exclusively with Tomo plans. Treatment time was recorded only for Tomo plans (73.0 ± 20.6 min). Conclusion: With 51 beam angles, Tomo plans could generally achieve better tumor coverage while sparing more critical structures for multiple lung lesions study. Non-coplanar also has better tumor coverage with lower dose to critical organs such as lungs, liver, chest wall and cord compare to coplanar plans.

  12. Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan: Focus on Very High Temperature Reactor Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Katoh, Yutai; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Wilson, Dane F

    2008-08-01

    Since 2002, the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems (Gen IV) Program has addressed the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. The six most promising systems identified for next-generation nuclear energy are described within this roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor-SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor-VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor-GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor-LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor-SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. At the inception of DOE's Gen IV program, it was decided to significantly pursue five of the six concepts identified in the Gen IV roadmap to determine which of them was most appropriate to meet the needs of future U.S. nuclear power generation. In particular, evaluation of the highly efficient thermal SCWR and VHTR reactors was initiated primarily for energy production, and evaluation of the three fast reactor concepts, SFR, LFR, and GFR, was begun to assess viability for both energy production and their potential contribution to closing the fuel cycle. Within the Gen IV Program itself, only the VHTR class of reactors was selected for continued development. Hence, this document will address the multiple activities under the Gen IV program that contribute to the development of the VHTR. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural

  13. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  14. 30 CFR 585.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rue Grants § 585.640 What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)? (a) A GAP describes your proposed... lease or grant. For a ROW grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit your GAP within...

  15. 30 CFR 285.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements General Activities Plan Requirements for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 285.640 What... grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit your GAP within 6 months of issuance....

  16. 30 CFR 585.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rue Grants § 585.640 What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)? (a) A GAP describes your proposed... lease or grant. For a ROW grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit your GAP within...

  17. Planning for a healthier, more active senior market.

    PubMed

    Kneen, J W

    1987-10-01

    The continuum of housing and care services for seniors offers growth potential for healthcare providers. But the services required of the healthy elderly are vastly different from the services hospitals typically provide. Real estate, financial, residential management, insurance, health, and social service considerations all drive the senior market. Defining the market needs and audience is just the beginning of the planning process. To position themselves to benefit from this new market, healthcare providers must respond to the housing choices seniors find attractive. This article is the first in a series of three articles on the senior housing industry. The second and third articles discuss financing alternatives and legal considerations.

  18. Emotion at Work: A Contribution to Third-Generation Cultural-Historical Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation cultural-historical activity theory, which drew its inspiration from Leont'ev's work, constituted an advance over Vygotsky's first-generation theory by explicitly articulating the dialectical relation between individual and collective. As part of an effort to develop third-generation-historical activity theory, I propose in this…

  19. On the Automatic Generation of Plans for Life Cycle Assembly Processes

    SciTech Connect

    CALTON,TERRI L.

    2000-01-01

    Designing products for easy assembly and disassembly during their entire life cycles for purposes including product assembly, product upgrade, product servicing and repair, and product disposal is a process that involves many disciplines. In addition, finding the best solution often involves considering the design as a whole and by considering its intended life cycle. Different goals and manufacturing plan selection criteria, as compared to initial assembly, require re-visiting significant fundamental assumptions and methods that underlie current assembly planning techniques. Previous work in this area has been limited to either academic studies of issues in assembly planning or to applied studies of life cycle assembly processes that give no attention to automatic planning. It is believed that merging these two areas will result in a much greater ability to design for, optimize, and analyze the cycle assembly processes. The study of assembly planning is at the very heart of manufacturing research facilities and academic engineering institutions; and, in recent years a number of significant advances in the field of assembly planning have been made. These advances have ranged from the development of automated assembly planning systems, such as Sandia's Automated Assembly Analysis System Archimedes 3.0{copyright}, to the startling revolution in microprocessors and computer-controlled production tools such as computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided manufacturing (CAM), flexible manufacturing systems (EMS), and computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM). These results have kindled considerable interest in the study of algorithms for life cycle related assembly processes and have blossomed into a field of intense interest. The intent of this manuscript is to bring together the fundamental results in this area, so that the unifying principles and underlying concepts of algorithm design may more easily be implemented in practice.

  20. The Crowded Sea: Incorporating Multiple Marine Activities in Conservation Plans Can Significantly Alter Spatial Priorities

    PubMed Central

    Mazor, Tessa; Possingham, Hugh P.; Edelist, Dori; Brokovich, Eran; Kark, Salit

    2014-01-01

    Successful implementation of marine conservation plans is largely inhibited by inadequate consideration of the broader social and economic context within which conservation operates. Marine waters and their biodiversity are shared by a host of stakeholders, such as commercial fishers, recreational users and offshore developers. Hence, to improve implementation success of conservation plans, we must incorporate other marine activities while explicitly examining trade-offs that may be required. In this study, we test how the inclusion of multiple marine activities can shape conservation plans. We used the entire Mediterranean territorial waters of Israel as a case study to compare four planning scenarios with increasing levels of complexity, where additional zones, threats and activities were added (e.g., commercial fisheries, hydrocarbon exploration interests, aquaculture, and shipping lanes). We applied the marine zoning decision support tool Marxan to each planning scenario and tested a) the ability of each scenario to reach biodiversity targets, b) the change in opportunity cost and c) the alteration of spatial conservation priorities. We found that by including increasing numbers of marine activities and zones in the planning process, greater compromises are required to reach conservation objectives. Complex plans with more activities incurred greater opportunity cost and did not reach biodiversity targets as easily as simplified plans with less marine activities. We discovered that including hydrocarbon data in the planning process significantly alters spatial priorities. For the territorial waters of Israel we found that in order to protect at least 10% of the range of 166 marine biodiversity features there would be a loss of ∼15% of annual commercial fishery revenue and ∼5% of prospective hydrocarbon revenue. This case study follows an illustrated framework for adopting a transparent systematic process to balance biodiversity goals and economic

  1. State-Level Activities: A Plan for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamborn, Robert L.

    A variety of specific activities that have been successfully undertaken by the Council for American Private Education (CAPE) are suggested for state members. The activities are related to developing private school communications within states and developing working relationships with local, metropolitan, and state governments and their agencies.…

  2. A Plan for a New Generation 2-METER Class Telescope in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Hucht, Karel A.

    1984-02-01

    One of the prime astrophysical interests of the Observatorium Bosscha is, and has always been, double star research: visual double star research with the double-60 cm Zeiss telescope (dedicated in 1928), and theoretical research of evolved massive spectroscopic binaries (since 1972). For one thing, this is the very reason that this IAU Colloquium No. 80, celebrating the 60th anniversary of the Observatorium Bosscha in Lembang, is devoted to binary astrophysics. Up to now, visual, photographic, and photometric tools have been used for binary research at the Observatorium Bosscha. An important, essential additional tool for binary research is spectrographic equipment, in order to measure radial velocities of binary components. Therefore, we suggest to make a plan for a new modern telescope, a reflector with a primary mirror of about 2 m in diameter and with a modern spectrograph/detector combination for radial velocity measurements. At a number of major astronomical observatories scientists have been considerating to erect new telescopes devoted primarily to radial velocity measurements. The reason for this is that at the end of this decade the parallax and proper motion measurements to be made by the ESA astrometric satellite Hipparcos will become available of more than 100 000 single stars and double stars. At that time there will be a compelling need for radial velocity measurements of all these stars to complement the parallax and proper motion measurements. With the combination of this data enormous progress will be made in double star research, and in the study of galactic dynamics, another topic of interest of the Observatorium Bosscha. If it could be realized to build such a dedicated radial velocity telescope in Indonesia, Indonesian astronomers could take a leading role in this field of research. Without going into technical details, we would like to emphasize here that such a new instrument should be a trueNew Generation Telescope, and that the Institut

  3. Utility Integrated Resource Planning: An Emerging Driver of NewRenewable Generation in the Western United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-09-25

    In the United States, markets for renewable generation--especially wind power--have grown substantially in recent years. This growth is typically attributed to technology improvements and resulting cost reductions, the availability of federal tax incentives, and aggressive state policy efforts. But another less widely recognized driver of new renewable generation is poised to play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Common in the late-1980s to mid-1990s, but relegated to lesser importance as many states took steps to restructure their electricity markets in the late-1990s, IRP has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions such as the western United States, where retail competition has failed to take root. As practiced in the United States, IRP is a formal process by which utilities analyze the costs, benefits, and risks of all resources available to them--both supply- and demand-side--with the ultimate goal of identifying a portfolio of resources that meets their future needs at lowest cost and/or risk. Though the content of any specific utility IRP is unique, all are built on a common basic framework: (1) development of peak demand and load forecasts; (2) assessment of how these forecasts compare to existing and committed generation resources; (3) identification and characterization of various resource portfolios as candidates to fill a projected resource deficiency; (4) analysis of these different ''candidate'' resource portfolios under base-case and alternative future scenarios; and finally, (5) selection of a preferred portfolio, and creation of a near-term action plan to begin to move towards that portfolio. Renewable resources were once rarely considered seriously in utility IRP. In the western United States, however, the most recent resource plans call for a significant amount of new wind power capacity. These planned additions appear to be motivated by the

  4. Using AI Planning Techniques to Automatically Generate Image Processing Procedures: A Preliminary Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes work on the Multimission VICAR Planner (MVP) system to automatically construct executable image processing procedures for custom image processing requests for the JPL Multimission Image Processing Lab (MIPL). This paper focuses on two issues. First, large search spaces caused by complex plans required the use of hand encoded control information. In order to address this in a manner similar to that used by human experts, MVP uses a decomposition-based planner to implement hierarchical/skeletal planning at the higher level and then uses a classical operator based planner to solve subproblems in contexts defined by the high-level decomposition.

  5. Synthetic Training Data Generation for Activity Monitoring and Behavior Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monekosso, Dorothy; Remagnino, Paolo

    This paper describes a data generator that produces synthetic data to simulate observations from an array of environment monitoring sensors. The overall goal of our work is to monitor the well-being of one occupant in a home. Sensors are embedded in a smart home to unobtrusively record environmental parameters. Based on the sensor observations, behavior analysis and modeling are performed. However behavior analysis and modeling require large data sets to be collected over long periods of time to achieve the level of accuracy expected. A data generator - was developed based on initial data i.e. data collected over periods lasting weeks to facilitate concurrent data collection and development of algorithms. The data generator is based on statistical inference techniques. Variation is introduced into the data using perturbation models.

  6. Planning Instruction to Meet the Intent of the Next Generation Science Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krajcik, Joseph; Codere, Susan; Dahsah, Chanyah; Bayer, Renee; Mun, Kongju

    2014-01-01

    The National Research Council's "Framework for K-12 Science Education" and the Next Generation Science Standards ("NGSS Lead States in Next Generation Science Standards: For states, by states." The National Academies Press, Washington, 2013) move teaching away from covering many isolated facts to a focus on a smaller number of…

  7. Community College Succession Planning: Preparing the Next Generation of Women for Leadership Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzebetak, Angela Kaysen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore strategies to enable community colleges to develop and cultivate women for leadership roles through succession planning. According to the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC), the pace of administrative and other key staff retirements exceeds the pace at which these positions are being…

  8. Earth Science Education Plan: Inspire the Next Generation of Earth Explorers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Education Enterprise Strategy, the expanding knowledge of how people learn, and the community-wide interest in revolutionizing Earth and space science education have guided us in developing this plan for Earth science education. This document builds on the success of the first plan for Earth science education published in 1996; it aligns with the new framework set forth in the NASA Education Enterprise Strategy; it recognizes the new educational opportunities resulting from research programs and flight missions; and it builds on the accomplishments th'at the Earth Science Enterprise has made over the last decade in studying Earth as a system. This document embodies comprehensive, practicable plans for inspiring our children; providing educators with the tools they need to teach science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and improving our citizens' scientific literacy. This plan describes an approach to systematically sharing knowledge; developing the most effective mechanisms to achieve tangible, lasting results; and working collaboratively to catalyze action at a scale great enough to ensure impact nationally and internationally. This document will evolve and be periodically reviewed in partnership with the Earth science education community.

  9. Designing a Strategic Plan through an Emerging Knowledge Generation Process: The ATM Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zanotti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this contribution is to describe a new methodology for designing strategic plans and how it was implemented by ATM, a public transportation agency based in Milan, Italy. Design/methodology/approach: This methodology is founded on a new system theory, called "quantum systemics". It is based on models and metaphors both of…

  10. Mothers- and Fathers-to-Be: The Next Generation of Planning and Career-Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Ruth; Mentzer, Danielle R.; Grisaffi, Danielle; Richter, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Newspaper reports of female college seniors modifying their career plans to opt out of work before they enter the workforce challenge the assumption that because many recent college graduates were raised in dual-income families, they would expect to have a substantial workforce role. Using a questionnaire format, this study examines postgraduation…

  11. Nutrition and Physical Activity Strategies for Cancer Prevention in Current National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program Plans.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Mary; Neri, Antonio; Underwood, J Michael; Stewart, Sherri L

    2016-10-01

    Obesity, diet and physical inactivity are risk factors for some cancers. Grantees of the National Comprehensive Cancer Control Program (NCCCP) in US states, tribes, and territories develop plans to coordinate funding and activities for cancer prevention and control. Including information and goals related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA) is a key opportunity for primary cancer prevention, but it is currently unclear to what extent NCCCP plans address these issues. We reviewed 69 NCCCP plans and searched for terms related to NPA. Plans were coded as (1) knowledge of NPA and cancer link; (2) goals to improve NPA behaviors; and (3) strategies to increase healthy NPA activities, environments, or systems changes. NPA content was consistently included in all cancer plans examined across all years. Only 4 (6 %) outlined only the relationship between NPA and cancer without goals or strategies. Fifty-nine plans (89 %) contained goals or strategies related to NPA, with 53 (82 %) including both. However, numbers of goals, strategies, and detail provided varied widely. All programs recognized the importance of NPA in cancer prevention. Most plans included NPA goals and strategies. Increasing the presence of NPA strategies that can be modified or adapted appropriately locally could help with more widespread implementation and measurement of NPA interventions.

  12. Rapid Automated Treatment Planning Process to Select Breast Cancer Patients for Active Breathing Control to Achieve Cardiac Dose Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Wei; Purdie, Thomas G.; Rahman, Mohammad; Marshall, Andrea; Liu Feifei; Fyles, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a rapid automated treatment planning process for the selection of patients with left-sided breast cancer for a moderate deep inspiration breath-hold (mDIBH) technique using active breathing control (ABC); and to determine the dose reduction to the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and the heart using mDIBH. Method and Materials: Treatment plans were generated using an automated method for patients undergoing left-sided breast radiotherapy (n = 53) with two-field tangential intensity-modulated radiotherapy. All patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, defined as having >10 cm{sup 3} of the heart receiving 50% of the prescribed dose (V{sub 50}) on the free-breathing automated treatment plan, underwent repeat scanning on a protocol using a mDIBH technique and ABC. The doses to the LAD and heart were compared between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans. Results: The automated planning process required approximately 9 min to generate a breast intensity-modulated radiotherapy plan. Using the dose-volume criteria, 20 of the 53 patients were selected for ABC. Significant differences were found between the free-breathing and mDIBH plans for the heart V{sub 50} (29.9 vs. 3.7 cm{sup 3}), mean heart dose (317 vs. 132 cGy), mean LAD dose (2,047 vs. 594 cGy), and maximal dose to 0.2 cm{sup 3} of the LAD (4,155 vs. 1,507 cGy, all p <.001). Of the 17 patients who had a breath-hold threshold of {>=}0.8 L, 14 achieved a {>=}90% reduction in the heart V{sub 50} using the mDIBH technique. The 3 patients who had had a breath-hold threshold <0.8 L achieved a lower, but still significant, reduction in the heart V{sub 50}. Conclusions: A rapid automated treatment planning process can be used to select patients who will benefit most from mDIBH. For selected patients with unfavorable cardiac anatomy, the mDIBH technique using ABC can significantly reduce the dose to the LAD and heart, potentially reducing the cardiac risks.

  13. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Reactor Pressure Vessel Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2803)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright; R. N. Wright

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic, or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development Program is responsible for performing research and development on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. Studies of potential Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) steels have been carried out as part of the pre-conceptual design studies. These design studies generally focus on American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code status of the steels, temperature limits, and allowable stresses. Three realistic candidate materials have been identified by this process: conventional light water reactor RPV steels A508/533, 2¼Cr-1Mo in the annealed condition, and modified 9Cr 1Mo ferritic martenistic steel. Based on superior strength and higher temperature limits, the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel has been identified by the majority of design engineers as the preferred choice for the RPV. All of the vendors have

  14. Assessment of factors that predict physical activity among Oklahoma clergy: a theory of planned behavior approach.

    PubMed

    Gwin, Shannon; Taylor, E Laurette; Branscum, Paul; Hofford, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of physical activity among clergy members in Oklahoma, using the theory of planned behavior. A 51-item valid and reliable instrument, measuring theory of planned behavior constructs and physical activity, was developed and administered to 141 clergy members. Results indicated that the majority of those surveyed were white (93%), college educated (97%), and overweight or obese (84%). Stepwise multiple regression analysis found that intentions accounted for 13.8% of the variance of physical activity whereas attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control accounted for 54.8% of the variance of intention. Implications for intervention development are discussed.

  15. A Simulation Based Approach for Contingency Planning for Aircraft Turnaround Operation System Activities in Airline Hubs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adeleye, Sanya; Chung, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Commercial aircraft undergo a significant number of maintenance and logistical activities during the turnaround operation at the departure gate. By analyzing the sequencing of these activities, more effective turnaround contingency plans may be developed for logistical and maintenance disruptions. Turnaround contingency plans are particularly important as any kind of delay in a hub based system may cascade into further delays with subsequent connections. The contingency sequencing of the maintenance and logistical turnaround activities were analyzed using a combined network and computer simulation modeling approach. Experimental analysis of both current and alternative policies provides a framework to aid in more effective tactical decision making.

  16. Status of data, major results, and plans for geophysical activities, Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, H.W.; Hardin, E.L.; Nelson, P.H.

    1990-07-01

    This report describes past and planned geophysical activities associated with the Yucca Mountain Project and is intended to serve as a starting point for integration of geophysical activities. This report relates past results to site characterization plans, as presented in the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Plan (SCP). This report discusses seismic exploration, potential field methods, geoelectrical methods, teleseismic data collection and velocity structural modeling, and remote sensing. This report discusses surface-based, airborne, borehole, surface-to-borehole, crosshole, and Exploratory Shaft Facility-related activities. The data described in this paper, and the publications discussed, have been selected based on several considerations; location with respect to Yucca Mountain, whether the success or failure of geophysical data is important to future activities, elucidation of features of interest, and judgment as to the likelihood that the method will produce information that is important for site characterization. 65 refs., 19 figs., 12 tabs.

  17. The Austrian radon activities on the way to the national radon action plan.

    PubMed

    Gruber, V; Ringer, W; Wurm, G; Haider, W

    2014-07-01

    Based on the new Euratom Basic Safety Standards (BSS), all EU member states will be obliged to design a strategy to address long-term risks from radon exposure, which is laid down in the 'national radon action plan'. In Austria, the National Radon Centre is responsible for the development of the action plan. This paper presents the current and planned radon protection activities on the way to establish the radon action plan--like the national radon database, the definition of radon risk areas by improving the existing radon map, as well as strategies and activities to increase the radon awareness of the public and decision-makers and to involve the building sector. The impact of and the need for actions caused by the BSS requirements on the Austrian radon legislation, strategy and programme are discussed.

  18. Energy: Multidisciplinary Activities for the Classroom. Top Hit Energy Lesson Plans, K-1, 2-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Energy Foundation, Salt Lake City, UT.

    This six-volume set of multidisciplinary instructional materials developed by the National Energy Foundation (NEF) presents energy activities for grades K-1, 2-6. The instructional materials are teacher-developed, teacher-tested, and multi-disciplinary. The lesson plans and activities are organized around seven goal areas of a NEF developed…

  19. Brief Report: The Theory of Planned Behaviour Applied to Physical Activity in Young People Who Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Emma S.; Daley, Amanda J.; Ussher, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical…

  20. Self-Efficacy Theory and the Theory of Planned Behavior: Teaching Physically Active Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jeffrey J.; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers'…

  1. What Do I Like to Do?: 101 Activities to Identify Interests and Plan Careers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wall, Janet E.

    2005-01-01

    This book assists school counselors, career development professionals, and counselor educators in the measurement of a student's interests and provides reproducible activities for immediate use. Short checklists and hands-on practical activities help students understand themselves, and begin to plan for the achievement of educational and career…

  2. Insights for Exercise Adherence from a Minimal Planning Intervention to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janine; Campbell, Marianne; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To test the impact of a minimal, online planning intervention on physical activity in Australian office workers. Method: Employees were randomized to an implementation intention intervention (n = 124) or health information control group (n = 130). Measures of physical activity, past behavior, and motivation were taken at baseline and 6…

  3. Airspace Systems Program: Next Generation Air Transportation System Concepts and Technology Development FY2010 Project Plan Version 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2010-01-01

    This document describes the FY2010 plan for the management and execution of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Concepts and Technology Development (CTD) Project. The document was developed in response to guidance from the Airspace Systems Program (ASP), as approved by the Associate Administrator of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD), and from guidelines in the Airspace Systems Program Plan. Congress established the multi-agency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) in 2003 to develop a vision for the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) and to define the research required to enable it. NASA is one of seven agency partners contributing to the effort. Accordingly, NASA's ARMD realigned the Airspace Systems Program in 2007 to "directly address the fundamental research needs of the Next Generation Air Transportation System...in partnership with the member agencies of the JPDO." The Program subsequently established two new projects to meet this objective: the NextGen-Airspace Project and the NextGen-Airportal Project. Together, the projects will also focus NASA s technical expertise and world-class facilities to address the question of where, when, how and the extent to which automation can be applied to moving aircraft safely and efficiently through the NAS and technologies that address optimal allocation of ground and air technologies necessary for NextGen. Additionally, the roles and responsibilities of humans and automation influence in the NAS will be addressed by both projects. Foundational concept and technology research and development begun under the NextGen-Airspace and NextGen-Airportal projects will continue. There will be no change in NASA Research Announcement (NRA) strategy, nor will there be any change to NASA interfaces with the JPDO, Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Research Transition Teams (RTTs), or other stakeholders

  4. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  5. The theory of active involvement: processes underlying interventions that engage adolescents in message planning and/or production.

    PubMed

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk taking, and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing antirisk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. This article articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory's notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This article provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents.

  6. Updated Generation IV Reactors Integrated Materials Technology Program Plan, Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Corwin, William R; Burchell, Timothy D; Halsey, William; Hayner, George; Katoh, Yutai; Klett, James William; McGreevy, Timothy E; Nanstad, Randy K; Ren, Weiju; Snead, Lance Lewis; Stoller, Roger E; Wilson, Dane F

    2005-12-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE's) Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Program will address the research and development (R&D) necessary to support next-generation nuclear energy systems. Such R&D will be guided by the technology roadmap developed for the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) over two years with the participation of over 100 experts from the GIF countries. The roadmap evaluated over 100 future systems proposed by researchers around the world. The scope of the R&D described in the roadmap covers the six most promising Generation IV systems. The effort ended in December 2002 with the issue of the final Generation IV Technology Roadmap [1.1]. The six most promising systems identified for next generation nuclear energy are described within the roadmap. Two employ a thermal neutron spectrum with coolants and temperatures that enable hydrogen or electricity production with high efficiency (the Supercritical Water Reactor - SCWR and the Very High Temperature Reactor - VHTR). Three employ a fast neutron spectrum to enable more effective management of actinides through recycling of most components in the discharged fuel (the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor - GFR, the Lead-cooled Fast Reactor - LFR, and the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor - SFR). The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) employs a circulating liquid fuel mixture that offers considerable flexibility for recycling actinides, and may provide an alternative to accelerator-driven systems. A few major technologies have been recognized by DOE as necessary to enable the deployment of the next generation of advanced nuclear reactors, including the development and qualification of the structural materials needed to ensure their safe and reliable operation. Accordingly, DOE has identified materials as one of the focus areas for Gen IV technology development.

  7. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC).

  8. Patient Selection and Activity Planning Guide for Selective Internal Radiotherapy With Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, Wan-Yee; Kennedy, Andrew S.; Kim, Yun Hwan; Lai, Hee Kit; Lee, Rheun-Chuan; Leung, Thomas W.T.; Liu, Ching-Sheng; Salem, Riad; Sangro, Bruno; Shuter, Borys; Wang, Shih-Chang

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) with yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) resin microspheres can improve the clinical outcomes for selected patients with inoperable liver cancer. This technique involves intra-arterial delivery of {beta}-emitting microspheres into hepatocellular carcinomas or liver metastases while sparing uninvolved structures. Its unique mode of action, including both {sup 90}Y brachytherapy and embolization of neoplastic microvasculature, necessitates activity planning methods specific to SIRT. Methods and Materials: A panel of clinicians experienced in {sup 90}Y resin microsphere SIRT was convened to integrate clinical experience with the published data to propose an activity planning pathway for radioembolization. Results: Accurate planning is essential to minimize potentially fatal sequelae such as radiation-induced liver disease while delivering tumoricidal {sup 90}Y activity. Planning methods have included empiric dosing according to degree of tumor involvement, empiric dosing adjusted for the body surface area, and partition model calculations using Medical Internal Radiation Dose principles. It has been recommended that at least two of these methods be compared when calculating the microsphere activity for each patient. Conclusions: Many factors inform {sup 90}Y resin microsphere SIRT activity planning, including the therapeutic intent, tissue and vasculature imaging, tumor and uninvolved liver characteristics, previous therapies, and localization of the microsphere infusion. The influence of each of these factors has been discussed.

  9. A generative model for segmentation of tumor and organs-at-risk for radiation therapy planning of glioblastoma patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agn, Mikael; Law, Ian; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Van Leemput, Koen

    2016-03-01

    We present a fully automated generative method for simultaneous brain tumor and organs-at-risk segmentation in multi-modal magnetic resonance images. The method combines an existing whole-brain segmentation technique with a spatial tumor prior, which uses convolutional restricted Boltzmann machines to model tumor shape. The method is not tuned to any specific imaging protocol and can simultaneously segment the gross tumor volume, peritumoral edema and healthy tissue structures relevant for radiotherapy planning. We validate the method on a manually delineated clinical data set of glioblastoma patients by comparing segmentations of gross tumor volume, brainstem and hippocampus. The preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the method.

  10. Biological activity of photoproducts of merocyanine 540 generated by laser-light activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Chanh, Tran C.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Harriman, Anthony; Matthews, James Lester

    1992-08-01

    Controlled exposure of photoactive compounds to light prior to their use in biological targets results in the formation of heretofore unknown photoproducts. This process of photoproduct generation, termed "preactivation," renders the photactive compound capable of systemic use without further dependence on light. Preactivation of mercyanin 540 (MC540) and several other photoactive compounds is achievable by exposure to CW and pulse laser radiation. The singlet oxygen generated at excited states attacks the dye molucule itself, resulting in the formation of biologically active photoproducts. For preactivated MC540 (photoproducts of MC540) generated by exposure to argon laser light (514 nm) and light from free-electron laser, we have demonstrated its effectiveness in selective killing of certain types of cultured tumor cells as well as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) with very low, if any, damage to normal cells and tisues. For example, approximately 90% of the Burkitt's lymphoma Daudi cells and HL-60 leukemic cells are killed by preactivated MC540 at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. A two-hour treatment of cultured cells with buthionine sulfoxamine followed by the treatement with preactivated MC540 reults in 99.99% inhibition of clonogenic tumor stem cell growth. We also have demonstrated that preactivated MC540 is very effective in killing cell-free and cell-associated HIV-1. It also is very effective in killing HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) in virus-infected blood in vitro as determined by reverse transcriptase, P24, P17, core antigen expression and synctium formation. Treatment of HIV-1 with preactivated MC540 renders the treated HIV-1 incapable of binding to CD4 target molecules on T cells as determined by immunofluorescence and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. In vivo toxicology studies show that preactivated MC540 is very well tolerated and does not produce any signs of adverse reaction at the therapeutic doses, as determined by

  11. Path planning and parameter optimization of uniform removal in active feed polishing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jian; Wang, Shaozhi; Zhang, Chunlei; Zhang, Linghua; Chen, Huanan

    2015-06-01

    A high-quality ultrasmooth surface is demanded in short-wave optical systems. However, the existing polishing methods have difficulties meeting the requirement on spherical or aspheric surfaces. As a new kind of small tool polishing method, active feed polishing (AFP) could attain a surface roughness of less than 0.3 nm (RMS) on spherical elements, although AFP may magnify the residual figure error or mid-frequency error. The purpose of this work is to propose an effective algorithm to realize uniform removal of the surface in the processing. At first, the principle of the AFP and the mechanism of the polishing machine are introduced. In order to maintain the processed figure error, a variable pitch spiral path planning algorithm and the dwell time-solving model are proposed. For suppressing the possible mid-frequency error, the uniformity of the synthesis tool path, which is generated by an arbitrary point at the polishing tool bottom, is analyzed and evaluated, and the angular velocity ratio of the tool spinning motion to the revolution motion is optimized. Finally, an experiment is conducted on a convex spherical surface and an ultrasmooth surface is finally acquired. In conclusion, a high-quality ultrasmooth surface can be successfully obtained with little degradation of the figure and mid-frequency errors by the algorithm.

  12. NGEE Arctic Data Management - status and planned activities for 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Boden, Thomas A; Palanisamy, Giri; Hook, Leslie A; Krassovski, Misha B; Killeffer, Terri S

    2013-01-01

    The open sharing of data and informa1on among the NGEE Team, the broader scien1fic community, and the public is cri1cal to mee1ng the scien1fic goals of the Next- Genera1on Ecosystem Experiment (NGEE) Arc1c project. In implemen1ng the integrated approach, the project is genera1ng diverse data sets from observa1ons, experiments, and models across field plot, polygonal landform, regional, and global scales and is drawing in a wealth of exis1ng data products collected and generated by other research organiza1ons across the Arc1c. Developing the data management infrastructure to support this approach is a significant challenge. Nonetheless, the NGEE Arc1c project is commiHed to upholding a rigorous and high- quality data management strategy and the implementa1on of that strategy in an innova1ve, cost- effec1ve data collec1on, management, distribu1on, and archival framework. The NGEE Arc1c Data Portal will support the current research in Barrow and provide a consistent framework to support future research efforts as they expand to other regions.

  13. Transformation reborn: A new generation expert system for planning HST operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerb, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    The Transformation expert system (TRANS) converts proposals for astronomical observations with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into detailed observing plans. It encodes expert knowledge to solve problems faced in planning and commanding HST observations to enable their processing by the Science Operations Ground System (SOGS). Among these problems are determining an acceptable order of executing observations, grouping of observations to enhance efficiency and schedulability, inserting extra observations when necessary, and providing parameters for commanding HST instruments. TRANS is currently an operational system and plays a critical role in the HST ground system. It was originally designed using forward-chaining provided by the OPS5 expert system language, but has been reimplemented using a procedural knowledge base. This reimplementation was forced by the explosion in the amount of OPS5 code required to specify the increasingly complicated situations requiring expert-level intervention by the TRANS knowledge base. This problem was compounded by the difficulty of avoiding unintended interaction between rules. To support the TRANS knowledge base, XCL, a small but powerful extension to Commom Lisp was implemented. XCL allows a compact syntax for specifying assignments and references to object attributes. XCL also allows the capability to iterate over objects and perform keyed lookup. The reimplementation of TRANS has greatly diminished the effort needed to maintain and enhance it. As a result of this, its functions have been expanded to include warnings about observations that are difficult or impossible to schedule or command, providing data to aid SPIKE, an intelligent planning system used for HST long-term scheduling, and providing information to the Guide Star Selection System (GSSS) to aid in determination of the long range availability of guide stars.

  14. The Importance of Lateral Connections in the Parietal Cortex for Generating Motor Plans

    PubMed Central

    Asher, Derrik E.; Oros, Nicolas; Krichmar, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence has highlighted the significant role of associative brain areas, such as the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in transforming multimodal sensory information into motor plans. However, little is known about how different sensory information, which can have different delays or be absent, combines to produce a motor plan, such as executing a reaching movement. To address these issues, we constructed four biologically plausible network architectures to simulate PPC: 1) feedforward from sensory input to the PPC to a motor output area, 2) feedforward with the addition of an efference copy from the motor area, 3) feedforward with the addition of lateral or recurrent connectivity across PPC neurons, and 4) feedforward plus efference copy, and lateral connections. Using an evolutionary strategy, the connectivity of these network architectures was evolved to execute visually guided movements, where the target stimulus provided visual input for the entirety of each trial. The models were then tested on a memory guided motor task, where the visual target disappeared after a short duration. Sensory input to the neural networks had sensory delays consistent with results from monkey studies. We found that lateral connections within the PPC resulted in smoother movements and were necessary for accurate movements in the absence of visual input. The addition of lateral connections resulted in velocity profiles consistent with those observed in human and non-human primate visually guided studies of reaching, and allowed for smooth, rapid, and accurate movements under all conditions. In contrast, Feedforward or Feedback architectures were insufficient to overcome these challenges. Our results suggest that intrinsic lateral connections are critical for executing accurate, smooth motor plans. PMID:26252871

  15. Generation of hemolytic activity in ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine

    SciTech Connect

    Butterman, J.; Chan, P.C.; Kesner, L.

    1987-04-01

    When liposomes prepared from purified soybean phosphatidylcholine were treated with ozone, at least two types of hemolytic agents were formed. One type was stable at 0 degree C but was destroyed rapidly at 37 degrees C. A second type was evolved during storage of ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine at 37 degrees C in the absence of EDTA. This study is concerned mainly with the heat-labile type. The hemolytic activity was not associated with lipid hydroperoxides. A number of substances were shown to inhibit the hemolytic activity and these may be divided into two classes. The first included cysteine, polyamines, n-heptylamine, semicarbazide, and tryptophan. Preincubation of the ozone-treated phosphatidylcholine was necessary with a Class 1 inhibitor, presumably for the interaction of the inhibitor with a functional group of the hemolytic agents. The Class II inhibitors, including BHT and vitamin C, required no preincubation. These possibly abolished the hemolytic activity by scavenging free radicals in the process.

  16. Sensing network for electromagnetic fields generated by seismic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gershenzon, Naum I.; Bambakidis, Gust; Ternovskiy, Igor V.

    2014-06-01

    The sensors network is becoming prolific and play now increasingly more important role in acquiring and processing information. Cyber-Physical Systems are focusing on investigation of integrated systems that includes sensing, networking, and computations. The physics of the seismic measurement and electromagnetic field measurement requires special consideration how to design electromagnetic field measurement networks for both research and detection earthquakes and explosions along with the seismic measurement networks. In addition, the electromagnetic sensor network itself could be designed and deployed, as a research tool with great deal of flexibility, the placement of the measuring nodes must be design based on systematic analysis of the seismic-electromagnetic interaction. In this article, we review the observations of the co-seismic electromagnetic field generated by earthquakes and man-made sources such as vibrations and explosions. The theoretical investigation allows the distribution of sensor nodes to be optimized and could be used to support existing geological networks. The placement of sensor nodes have to be determined based on physics of electromagnetic field distribution above the ground level. The results of theoretical investigations of seismo-electromagnetic phenomena are considered in Section I. First, we compare the relative contribution of various types of mechano-electromagnetic mechanisms and then analyze in detail the calculation of electromagnetic fields generated by piezomagnetic and electrokinetic effects.

  17. Next Generation Nuclear Plant Intermediate Heat Exchanger Materials Research and Development Plan (PLN-2804)

    SciTech Connect

    J. K. Wright

    2008-04-01

    DOE has selected the High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project. The NGNP will demonstrate the use of nuclear power for electricity and hydrogen production. It will have an outlet gas temperature in the range of 900°C and a plant design service life of 60 years. The reactor design will be a graphite moderated, helium-cooled, prismatic or pebble-bed reactor and use low-enriched uranium, Tri-Isotopic (TRISO)-coated fuel. The plant size, reactor thermal power, and core configuration will ensure passive decay heat removal without fuel damage or radioactive material releases during accidents. The NGNP Materials Research and Development (R&D) Program is responsible for performing R&D on likely NGNP materials in support of the NGNP design, licensing, and construction activities. Today’s high-temperature alloys and associated ASME Codes for reactor applications are approved up to 760°C. However, some primary system components, such as the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) for the NGNP will require use of materials that can withstand higher temperatures. The thermal, environmental, and service life conditions of the NGNP will make selection and qualification of some high-temperature materials a significant challenge. Examples include materials for the core barrel and core internals, such as the control rod sleeves. The requirements of the materials for the IHX are among the most demanding. Selection of the technology and design configuration for the NGNP must consider both the cost and risk profiles to ensure that the demonstration plant establishes a sound foundation for future commercial deployments. The NGNP challenge is to achieve a significant advancement in nuclear technology while at the same time setting the stage for an economically viable deployment of the new technology in the commercial sector soon after 2020. A number of solid solution strengthened nickel based alloys have been considered for

  18. Land processes distributed active archive center product lifecycle plan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daucsavage, John C.; Bennett, Stacie D.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Science Data System Program worked together to establish, develop, and operate the Land Processes (LP) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) to provide stewardship for NASA’s land processes science data. These data are critical science assets that serve the land processes science community with potential value beyond any immediate research use, and therefore need to be accounted for and properly managed throughout their lifecycle. A fundamental LP DAAC objective is to enable permanent preservation of these data and information products. The LP DAAC accomplishes this by bridging data producers and permanent archival resources while providing intermediate archive services for data and information products.

  19. 76 FR 52966 - Kawailoa Wind Energy Generation Facility, Oahu, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Lingle announced in October 2008 a comprehensive alternative energy agreement between the State of Hawaii... energy. The State seeks to move Hawaii toward having 70 percent of its energy use coming from alternative... Fish and Wildlife Service Kawailoa Wind Energy Generation Facility, Oahu, HI; Draft...

  20. Using Guided, Corpus-Aided Discovery to Generate Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, educators have proposed a variety of active learning pedagogical approaches that focus on encouraging students to discover for themselves the principles and solutions that will engage them in learning and enhance their educational outcomes. Among these approaches are problem-based, inquiry-based, experiential, and discovery…

  1. Multi-Generational Learning: Developing Informed Advocates and Active Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carson, Linda M.

    2004-01-01

    The creation of multifaceted, multigenerational programs in college communities could create a ripple effect of advocacy for physical education with students and parents becoming agents for change in their own families, communities, cultures, and professions. This article describes community-based physical activity programs at West Virginia…

  2. Educating for Political Activity: A Younger Generational Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin

    2010-01-01

    This paper is a response to Professor Chitty's "Educational Review" Guest Lecture article, "Educating for political activity". I address the three sections of his paper: a global and national-based politics of war, corporate manipulation and parliamentary scandals. This provides a basis to draw upon empirical material from a recent critical…

  3. NOAA Plans for Next Generation, Space-based, Operational Observations (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kicza, M.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation will provide an overview of NOAA’s satellite plans to maintain operational continuity of current observations and to identify research measurements and missions that are high priority candidates for research to operations transition. The year 2009 was eventful with the launch of NOAA N prime (now designated NOAA-19) on February 6 and the launch of GOES-O (now designated GOES-14) on June 27. NOAA is working to ensure cost effective continuity of data, products, and services. In furtherance of this goal, Ms. Kicza will discuss NOAA plans to: - Continue the current programs: GOES-N, GOES-R, POES, NPOESS, and Ocean Altimetry - Ensure climate data continuity: Deliver climate sensors to NPP and NPOESS in the near term, with the long term strategy defined by Summer 2009 - Pursue high priority measurement candidates for research to operations transition, including ocean altimetry, radio occultation, ocean surface vector winds, and solar wind - Identify future measurement candidates and external partnerships for research to operations transitions - Continue to conduct analysis of alternatives and simulation studies to determine the best approaches to realize future transitions - Continue to work with the commercial sector for the possible purchase of satellite products and services that meet NOAA requirements

  4. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  5. Scientific and legal perspectives on science generated for regulatory activities.

    PubMed

    Henry, Carol J; Conrad, James W

    2008-01-01

    This article originated from a conference that asked "Should scientific work conducted for purposes of advocacy before regulatory agencies or courts be judged by the same standards as science conducted for other purposes?" In the article, which focuses on the regulatory advocacy context, we argue that it can be and should be. First, we describe a set of standards and practices currently being used to judge the quality of scientific research and testing and explain how these standards and practices assist in judging the quality of research and testing regardless of why the work was conducted. These standards and practices include the federal Information Quality Act, federal Good Laboratory Practice standards, peer review, disclosure of funding sources, and transparency in research policies. The more that scientific information meets these standards and practices, the more likely it is to be of high quality, reliable, reproducible, and credible. We then explore legal issues that may be implicated in any effort to create special rules for science conducted specifically for a regulatory proceeding. Federal administrative law does not provide a basis for treating information in a given proceeding differently depending on its source or the reason for which it was generated. To the contrary, this law positively assures that interested persons have the right to offer their technical expertise toward the solution of regulatory problems. Any proposal to subject scientific information generated for the purpose of a regulatory proceeding to more demanding standards than other scientific information considered in that proceeding would clash with this law and would face significant administrative complexities. In a closely related example, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency considered but abandoned a program to implement standards aimed at "external" information.

  6. SU-E-T-395: Multi-GPU-Based VMAT Treatment Plan Optimization Using a Column-Generation Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Z; Shi, F; Jia, X; Jiang, S; Peng, F

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: GPU has been employed to speed up VMAT optimizations from hours to minutes. However, its limited memory capacity makes it difficult to handle cases with a huge dose-deposition-coefficient (DDC) matrix, e.g. those with a large target size, multiple arcs, small beam angle intervals and/or small beamlet size. We propose multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization to solve this memory issue to make GPU-based VMAT more practical for clinical use. Methods: Our column-generation-based method generates apertures sequentially by iteratively searching for an optimal feasible aperture (referred as pricing problem, PP) and optimizing aperture intensities (referred as master problem, MP). The PP requires access to the large DDC matrix, which is implemented on a multi-GPU system. Each GPU stores a DDC sub-matrix corresponding to one fraction of beam angles and is only responsible for calculation related to those angles. Broadcast and parallel reduction schemes are adopted for inter-GPU data transfer. MP is a relatively small-scale problem and is implemented on one GPU. One headand- neck cancer case was used for test. Three different strategies for VMAT optimization on single GPU were also implemented for comparison: (S1) truncating DDC matrix to ignore its small value entries for optimization; (S2) transferring DDC matrix part by part to GPU during optimizations whenever needed; (S3) moving DDC matrix related calculation onto CPU. Results: Our multi-GPU-based implementation reaches a good plan within 1 minute. Although S1 was 10 seconds faster than our method, the obtained plan quality is worse. Both S2 and S3 handle the full DDC matrix and hence yield the same plan as in our method. However, the computation time is longer, namely 4 minutes and 30 minutes, respectively. Conclusion: Our multi-GPU-based VMAT optimization can effectively solve the limited memory issue with good plan quality and high efficiency, making GPUbased ultra-fast VMAT planning practical for real clinical use.

  7. FEL Design Studies at LBNL: Activities and Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Corlett, John N.; Fawley, W.; Lidia, S.; Padmore, H.; Penn, G.; Pogorelov, I.; Qiang, J.; Sannibale, F.; Staples, J.; Steier, C.; Venturini, M.; Wan, W.; Wilcox, R.; Zholents, A.

    2007-03-01

    LBNL staff are currently pursuing R&D for future x-ray FELs, and participate in two FEL construction projects. Our strategy is to address the most fundamental challenges, which are the cost-drivers and performance limitations of FEL facilities. An internally funded R&D program is aimed at investigating accelerator physics and technologies in three key areas: (1) Theoretical study, modeling, and experimental development of low emittance, high quantum efficiency cathodes; (2) Design studies of electron beam delivery systems, including emittance manipulations, high-resolution modeling of 6-D phase space, and low-emittance beam transport; and (3) Design studies of optical manipulations of electron beams for seeded and SASE FELs, providing short x-ray pulses of variable duration, synchronous with the seed and pump laser sources, and also long transform-limited pulses with a narrow bandwidth. Design studies of means for production of attosecond x-ray pulses at various wavelengths. We are collaborators in the FERMI{at}Elettra seeded FEL facility under construction at Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy, participating in accelerator design and FEL physics studies, and mechanical and electrical engineering. We are participating in the LCLS project at SLAC, implementing our design of stabilized timing and synchronization systems. Here we outline our long-term objectives, and current activities.

  8. New bounding and decomposition approaches for MILP investment problems: Multi-area transmission and generation planning under policy constraints

    DOE PAGES

    Munoz, F. D.; Hobbs, B. F.; Watson, J. -P.

    2016-02-01

    A novel two-phase bounding and decomposition approach to compute optimal and near-optimal solutions to large-scale mixed-integer investment planning problems is proposed and it considers a large number of operating subproblems, each of which is a convex optimization. Our motivating application is the planning of power transmission and generation in which policy constraints are designed to incentivize high amounts of intermittent generation in electric power systems. The bounding phase exploits Jensen’s inequality to define a lower bound, which we extend to stochastic programs that use expected-value constraints to enforce policy objectives. The decomposition phase, in which the bounds are tightened, improvesmore » upon the standard Benders’ algorithm by accelerating the convergence of the bounds. The lower bound is tightened by using a Jensen’s inequality-based approach to introduce an auxiliary lower bound into the Benders master problem. Upper bounds for both phases are computed using a sub-sampling approach executed on a parallel computer system. Numerical results show that only the bounding phase is necessary if loose optimality gaps are acceptable. But, the decomposition phase is required to attain optimality gaps. Moreover, use of both phases performs better, in terms of convergence speed, than attempting to solve the problem using just the bounding phase or regular Benders decomposition separately.« less

  9. Compact and highly active next-generation libraries for CRISPR-mediated gene repression and activation

    PubMed Central

    Horlbeck, Max A; Gilbert, Luke A; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Adamson, Britt; Pak, Ryan A; Chen, Yuwen; Fields, Alexander P; Park, Chong Yon; Corn, Jacob E; Kampmann, Martin; Weissman, Jonathan S

    2016-01-01

    We recently found that nucleosomes directly block access of CRISPR/Cas9 to DNA (Horlbeck et al., 2016). Here, we build on this observation with a comprehensive algorithm that incorporates chromatin, position, and sequence features to accurately predict highly effective single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) for targeting nuclease-dead Cas9-mediated transcriptional repression (CRISPRi) and activation (CRISPRa). We use this algorithm to design next-generation genome-scale CRISPRi and CRISPRa libraries targeting human and mouse genomes. A CRISPRi screen for essential genes in K562 cells demonstrates that the large majority of sgRNAs are highly active. We also find CRISPRi does not exhibit any detectable non-specific toxicity recently observed with CRISPR nuclease approaches. Precision-recall analysis shows that we detect over 90% of essential genes with minimal false positives using a compact 5 sgRNA/gene library. Our results establish CRISPRi and CRISPRa as premier tools for loss- or gain-of-function studies and provide a general strategy for identifying Cas9 target sites. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.19760.001 PMID:27661255

  10. Generations.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2005-01-01

    Groups naturally promote their strengths and prefer values and rules that give them an identity and an advantage. This shows up as generational tensions across cohorts who share common experiences, including common elders. Dramatic cultural events in America since 1925 can help create an understanding of the differing value structures of the Silents, the Boomers, Gen Xers, and the Millennials. Differences in how these generations see motivation and values, fundamental reality, relations with others, and work are presented, as are some applications of these differences to the dental profession. PMID:16623137

  11. Deterministic generation of remote entanglement with active quantum feedback

    DOE PAGES

    Martin, Leigh; Motzoi, Felix; Li, Hanhan; Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2015-12-10

    We develop and study protocols for deterministic remote entanglement generation using quantum feedback, without relying on an entangling Hamiltonian. In order to formulate the most effective experimentally feasible protocol, we introduce the notion of average-sense locally optimal feedback protocols, which do not require real-time quantum state estimation, a difficult component of real-time quantum feedback control. We use this notion of optimality to construct two protocols that can deterministically create maximal entanglement: a semiclassical feedback protocol for low-efficiency measurements and a quantum feedback protocol for high-efficiency measurements. The latter reduces to direct feedback in the continuous-time limit, whose dynamics can bemore » modeled by a Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation, which yields an analytic solution in the limit of unit measurement efficiency. Our formalism can smoothly interpolate between continuous-time and discrete-time descriptions of feedback dynamics and we exploit this feature to derive a superior hybrid protocol for arbitrary nonunit measurement efficiency that switches between quantum and semiclassical protocols. Lastly, we show using simulations incorporating experimental imperfections that deterministic entanglement of remote superconducting qubits may be achieved with current technology using the continuous-time feedback protocol alone.« less

  12. Deterministic generation of remote entanglement with active quantum feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Leigh; Motzoi, Felix; Li, Hanhan; Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2015-12-10

    We develop and study protocols for deterministic remote entanglement generation using quantum feedback, without relying on an entangling Hamiltonian. In order to formulate the most effective experimentally feasible protocol, we introduce the notion of average-sense locally optimal feedback protocols, which do not require real-time quantum state estimation, a difficult component of real-time quantum feedback control. We use this notion of optimality to construct two protocols that can deterministically create maximal entanglement: a semiclassical feedback protocol for low-efficiency measurements and a quantum feedback protocol for high-efficiency measurements. The latter reduces to direct feedback in the continuous-time limit, whose dynamics can be modeled by a Wiseman-Milburn feedback master equation, which yields an analytic solution in the limit of unit measurement efficiency. Our formalism can smoothly interpolate between continuous-time and discrete-time descriptions of feedback dynamics and we exploit this feature to derive a superior hybrid protocol for arbitrary nonunit measurement efficiency that switches between quantum and semiclassical protocols. Lastly, we show using simulations incorporating experimental imperfections that deterministic entanglement of remote superconducting qubits may be achieved with current technology using the continuous-time feedback protocol alone.

  13. Planning Instruction to Meet the Intent of the Next Generation Science Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krajcik, Joseph; Codere, Susan; Dahsah, Chanyah; Bayer, Renee; Mun, Kongju

    2014-03-01

    The National Research Council's Framework for K- 12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Lead States in Next Generation Science Standards: For states, by states. The National Academies Press, Washington, 2013) move teaching away from covering many isolated facts to a focus on a smaller number of disciplinary core ideas (DCIs) and crosscutting concepts that can be used to explain phenomena and solve problems by engaging in science and engineering practices. The NGSS present standards as knowledge-in-use by expressing them as performance expectations (PEs) that integrate all three dimensions from the Framework for K- 12 Science Education. This integration of core ideas, practices, and crosscutting concepts is referred to as three-dimensional learning (NRC in Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. The National Academies Press, Washington, 2014). PEs state what students can be assessed on at the end of grade level for K-5 and at the end of grade band for 6-8 and 9-12. PEs do not specify how instruction should be developed nor do they serve as objectives for individual lessons. To support students in developing proficiency in the PEs, the elements of the DCIs will need to be blended with various practices and crosscutting concepts. In this paper, we examine how to design instruction to support students in meeting a cluster or "bundle" of PEs and how to blend the three dimensions to develop lesson level PEs that can be used for guiding instruction. We provide a ten-step process and an example of that process that teachers and curriculum designers can use to design lessons that meet the intent of the Next Generation of Science Standards.

  14. Plans for the generation of short radiation pulses at the Diamond Storage Ring.

    SciTech Connect

    Bartolini, R.; Borland, M.; Harkay, K.; Accelerator Systems Division; Diamond Light Source

    2006-01-01

    Diamond is a third generation light source under commissioning in Oxfordshire UK. In view of the increasing interest in the production of short radiation pulses, we have investigated the possibility to operate with a low-alpha optics, the use of a third harmonic cavity for bunch shortening and the implementation of a crab cavity scheme in the Diamond storage ring. The results of the initial accelerator studies will be described, including the modification of the beam optics, non-linear beam dynamics optimization and choice of RF parameters for the crab cavity operation. The expected performance of these schemes will be summarized.

  15. Work plan for the fabrication of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system package mounting

    SciTech Connect

    Satoh, J.A.

    1994-11-09

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) has available a dedicated system for the transportation of RTG payloads. The RTG Transportation System (System 100) is comprised of four systems; the Package (System 120), the Semi-trailer (System 140), the Gas Management (System 160), and the Facility Transport (System 180). This document provides guidelines on the fabrication, technical requirements, and quality assurance of the Package Mounting (Subsystem 145), part of System 140. The description follows the Development Control Requirements of WHC-CM-6-1, EP 2.4, Rev. 3.

  16. O-Plan2: The open planning architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drabble, Brian; Kirby, Richard; Tate, Austin

    1992-01-01

    The O-Plan2 Project at the Artificial Intelligence Applications Institute of the University of Edinburgh is exploring a practical computer based environment to provide for specification, generation, interaction with, and execution of activity plans. O-Plan2 is intended to be a domain-independent general planning and control framework with the ability to embed detailed knowledge of the domain. Various aspects of the project are presented.

  17. Developmental Cryogenic Active Telescope Testbed, a Wavefront Sensing and Control Testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leboeuf, Claudia M.; Davila, Pamela S.; Redding, David C.; Morell, Armando; Lowman, Andrew E.; Wilson, Mark E.; Young, Eric W.; Pacini, Linda K.; Coulter, Dan R.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the technology validation strategy of the next generation space telescope (NGST), a system testbed is being developed at GSFC, in partnership with JPL and Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), which will include all of the component functions envisioned in an NGST active optical system. The system will include an actively controlled, segmented primary mirror, actively controlled secondary, deformable, and fast steering mirrors, wavefront sensing optics, wavefront control algorithms, a telescope simulator module, and an interferometric wavefront sensor for use in comparing final obtained wavefronts from different tests. The developmental. cryogenic active telescope testbed (DCATT) will be implemented in three phases. Phase 1 will focus on operating the testbed at ambient temperature. During Phase 2, a cryocapable segmented telescope will be developed and cooled to cryogenic temperature to investigate the impact on the ability to correct the wavefront and stabilize the image. In Phase 3, it is planned to incorporate industry developed flight-like components, such as figure controlled mirror segments, cryogenic, low hold power actuators, or different wavefront sensing and control hardware or software. A very important element of the program is the development and subsequent validation of the integrated multidisciplinary models. The Phase 1 testbed objectives, plans, configuration, and design will be discussed.

  18. Implementation planning and progress on physical activity goals: the mediating role of life-management strategies.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-03-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects. Results from a sample of 131undergraduate students showed that, as a composite, life-management strategies fully mediated the relationship between planning and goal progress. More specifically, decomposing the effects demonstrated that only elective selection and compensation mediated the association between planning and greater progress on a personal physical activity goal. Results are discussed in light of their practical implications and contributions to the personal goal literature.

  19. Path planning on cellular nonlinear network using active wave computing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeniçeri, Ramazan; Yalçın, Müstak E.

    2009-05-01

    This paper introduces a simple algorithm to solve robot path finding problem using active wave computing techniques. A two-dimensional Cellular Neural/Nonlinear Network (CNN), consist of relaxation oscillators, has been used to generate active waves and to process the visual information. The network, which has been implemented on a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chip, has the feature of being programmed, controlled and observed by a host computer. The arena of the robot is modelled as the medium of the active waves on the network. Active waves are employed to cover the whole medium with their own dynamics, by starting from an initial point. The proposed algorithm is achieved by observing the motion of the wave-front of the active waves. Host program first loads the arena model onto the active wave generator network and command to start the generation. Then periodically pulls the network image from the generator hardware to analyze evolution of the active waves. When the algorithm is completed, vectorial data image is generated. The path from any of the pixel on this image to the active wave generating pixel is drawn by the vectors on this image. The robot arena may be a complicated labyrinth or may have a simple geometry. But, the arena surface always must be flat. Our Autowave Generator CNN implementation which is settled on the Xilinx University Program Virtex-II Pro Development System is operated by a MATLAB program running on the host computer. As the active wave generator hardware has 16, 384 neurons, an arena with 128 × 128 pixels can be modeled and solved by the algorithm. The system also has a monitor and network image is depicted on the monitor simultaneously.

  20. Next-generation electroceramic fibers for active control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bystricky, Pavel; Pascucci, Marina R.; Strock, Harold B.

    2002-07-01

    Lead-based PMN-31PT and lead-free BNBZT fibers in the 250- 500 micrometer diameter range were produced using CeraNova's proprietary extrusion technology. Various recrystallization approaches were investigated, including seeded solid state conversion and self-seeded texturing, with the goal of obtaining single-crystalline or textured macrocrystalline fibers. Grains in excess of 100 micrometers - and exceeding 1 mm in some cases - with surface and bulk coverage approaching 100 percent, were obtained in a narrow temperature range and under carefully controlled atmosphere conditions. Large grain growth in BNBZT required the presence of BaSrTiO3 or SrTiO3 seeds and temperatures in the 1150-1200 degrees C range. In PMN-31PT, nearly compete recrystalline was observed in unseeded material at relatively low temperature and short time, and improved performance was achieved with a two-step sintering schedule and slightly extended time. While conduction effects have not yet allowed compete assessment of recrystalline BNBZT, PMN-31PT fibers have shown excellent piezoelectric properties with remanent polarization in excess of 30(mu) C/cm2 and coercive field of 4.5kV/cm. When incorporated into active fiber composites, the latter fibers' performance of 2000 microstrain in superior to average PZT-based production composites. Efforts are under way to induce preferred orientation in the large crystal in order to maximize performance.

  1. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    SciTech Connect

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-08-14

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303.

  2. Automated Sequence Generation Process and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gladden, Roy

    2007-01-01

    "Automated sequence generation" (autogen) signifies both a process and software used to automatically generate sequences of commands to operate various spacecraft. The autogen software comprises the autogen script plus the Activity Plan Generator (APGEN) program. APGEN can be used for planning missions and command sequences.

  3. Implementation Planning and Progress on Physical Activity Goals: The Mediating Role of Life-Management Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugas, Michelle; Gaudreau, Patrick; Carraro, Natasha

    2012-01-01

    This 4-week prospective study examined whether the use of life-management strategies mediates the relationship between implementation planning and short-term progress on physical activity goals. In particular, the strategies of elective selection, compensation, and loss-based selection were disentangled to assess their specific mediating effects.…

  4. 78 FR 22251 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan (SPP) and... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: IDEA Part B...

  5. 78 FR 22253 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan (SPP) and... in response to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: IDEA Part C...

  6. Research on Physical Activity in the Elderly: Practical Implications for Program Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Anita M.; Gonda, Gail

    1986-01-01

    The authors critically examine the research on physical activity in the elderly to assess the elderly's capacity for exercise and the benefits accruing from exercise. Lower-intensity exercise programs attract a more representative group of senior participants and overcome many barriers. Implications for program planning and efforts are discussed.…

  7. Self-Identity as a Component of the Theory of Planned Behaviour in Predicting Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ries, Francis; Hein, Vello; Pihu, Maret; Armenta, Jose Manuel Sevillano

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the role of self-identity, defined as salient and enduring aspects of one's self-perception (Sparks, 2000), in relation to adolescent physical activity (PA) intentions within the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). School students aged 12 to 18 from two cultural groups (Estonia and Spain) completed measures of…

  8. Supplement no. 1 to the January 1974 report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, R.; Davis, L. R.

    1974-01-01

    Updated information and descriptions on spacecraft and experiments are listed according to spacecraft name and principle experimental investigator. A cumulative index of active and planned spacecraft and experiments is provided; bar graph indexes for electromagnetic radiation experiments are included in table form.

  9. 76 FR 60856 - Information Collection Activities; Plans and Information; Submitted for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... functions of BOEMRE will be transferred to a new bureau, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM). Therefore... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement Information Collection Activities; Plans...: Department of the Interior; Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Regulation and Enforcement; Attention:...

  10. Choice-Making in Vocational Activities Planning: Recommendations from Job Coaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobigo, Virginie; Lachapelle, Yves; Morin, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Choice in the job seeking process may lead to increased satisfaction with the chosen job, and improve attention, performance, and motivation. Consequently, providing opportunities to express choices and interests while planning vocational activities is a key factor in achieving employment outcomes. Despite their commitment to promoting…

  11. Preliminary Closure Plan for the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Facility

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-08-31

    This document describes the preliminary plans for closure of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) disposal facility to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in southeastern Washington. The facility will provide near-surface disposal of up to 204,000 cubic meters of ILAW in engineered trenches with modified RCRA Subtitle C closure barriers.

  12. 10 CFR 420.15 - Minimum criteria for required program activities for plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., State, and Federal energy efficiency, renewable energy and alternative transportation fuel programs... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum criteria for required program activities for plans. 420.15 Section 420.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION STATE ENERGY PROGRAM...

  13. A Plan for Advanced Guidance and Control Technology for 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Fogle, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Advanced guidance and control (AG&C) technologies are critical for meeting safety/reliability and cost requirements for the next generation of reusable launch vehicle (RLV). This becomes clear upon examining the number of expendable launch vehicle failures in the recent past where AG&C technologies would have saved a RLV with the same failure mode, the additional vehicle problems where this technology applies, and the costs associated with mission design with or without all these failure issues. The state-of-the-art in guidance and control technology, as well as in computing technology, is at the point where we can took to the possibility of being able to safely return a RLV in any situation where it can physically be recovered. This paper outlines reasons for AG&C, current technology efforts, and the additional work needed for making this goal a reality.

  14. Generation and evaluation of an ultra-high-field atlas with applications in DBS planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Brian T.; Poirier, Stefan; Guo, Ting; Parrent, Andrew G.; Peters, Terry M.; Khan, Ali R.

    2016-03-01

    Purpose Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a common treatment for Parkinson's disease (PD) and involves the use of brain atlases or intrinsic landmarks to estimate the location of target deep brain structures, such as the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi). However, these structures can be difficult to localize with conventional clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and thus targeting can be prone to error. Ultra-high-field imaging at 7T has the ability to clearly resolve these structures and thus atlases built with these data have the potential to improve targeting accuracy. Methods T1 and T2-weighted images of 12 healthy control subjects were acquired using a 7T MR scanner. These images were then used with groupwise registration to generate an unbiased average template with T1w and T2w contrast. Deep brain structures were manually labelled in each subject by two raters and rater reliability was assessed. We compared the use of this unbiased atlas with two other methods of atlas-based segmentation (single-template and multi-template) for subthalamic nucleus (STN) segmentation on 7T MRI data. We also applied this atlas to clinical DBS data acquired at 1.5T to evaluate its efficacy for DBS target localization as compared to using a standard atlas. Results The unbiased templates provide superb detail of subcortical structures. Through one-way ANOVA tests, the unbiased template is significantly (p <0.05) more accurate than a single-template in atlas-based segmentation and DBS target localization tasks. Conclusion The generated unbiased averaged templates provide better visualization of deep brain nuclei and an increase in accuracy over single-template and lower field strength atlases.

  15. Higgs Properties in the Fourth Generation MSSM: Boosted Signals Over the 3G Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Cotta, R.C.; Hewett, J.L.; Ismail, A.; Le, M.-P.; Rizzo, T.G.; /SLAC

    2011-08-15

    The generalization of the MSSM to the case of four chiral fermion generations (4GMSSM) can lead to significant changes in the phenomenology of the otherwise familiar Higgs sector. In most of the 3GMSSM parameter space, the lighter CP-even h is {approx} 115-125 GeV and mostly Standard Model-like while H,A,H{sup {+-}} are all relatively heavy. Furthermore, the ratio of Higgs vevs, tan {beta}, is relatively unconstrained. In contrast to this, in the 4GMSSM, heavy fourth generation fermion loops drive the masses of h,H,H{sup {+-}} to large values while the CP-odd boson, A, can remain relatively light and tan {beta} is restricted to the range 1/2 {approx}< tan {beta} {approx}< 2 due to perturbativity requirements on Yukawa couplings. We explore this scenario in some detail, concentrating on the collider signatures of the light CP-odd Higgs at both the Tevatron and LHC. We find that while gg {yields} A may lead to a potential signal in the {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} channel at the LHC, A may first be observed in the {gamma}{gamma} channel due to a highly loop-enhanced cross section that can be more than an order of magnitude greater than that of a SM Higgs for A masses of {approx} 115-120 and tan {beta} < 1. We find that the CP-even states h,H are highly mixed and can have atypical branching fractions. Precision electroweak constraints, particularly for the light A parameter space region, are examined in detail.

  16. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement.

  17. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Physical Activity: The Moderating Role of Mental Toughness.

    PubMed

    Hannan, Thomas E; Moffitt, Robyn L; Neumann, David L; Thomas, Patrick R

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether mental toughness, the capacity to maintain performance under pressure, moderated the relation between physical activity intentions and subsequent behavior. Participants (N = 117) completed the Mental Toughness Index and a theory of planned behavior questionnaire. Seven days later, physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained substantial variance (63.1%) in physical activity intentions. Intentions also significantly predicted physical activity behavior. The simple slopes analyses for the moderation effect revealed a nonsignificant intention-behavior relation at low levels of mental toughness. However, intentions were significantly and positively related to physical activity when mental toughness was moderate or high, suggesting that the development of a mentally tough mindset may reduce the gap between behavior and physical activity intention. Future research is needed to confirm these findings and apply them in the design of mental toughness interventions to facilitate physical activity engagement. PMID:26524097

  18. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance. PMID:27416714

  19. [Prospective planning of activity of the Medical service of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020].

    PubMed

    Fisun, A Ya; Kalachev, O V; Redkin, E E; Bershev, M A; Murzo, A V

    2016-04-01

    The article reflects the characteristics of the Plan of activities of the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation for 2016-2020--an important long-term planning document of the Armed Forces. It stressed the need for synchronization of activities for chain of command and deadline. Presented structure of the Medical Service Plan Military District operations (fleet) military medical organization. The attention is focused on the content of its sections. For example, a military hospital layouts presented an action plan and a schedule of events. Reflecting the requirements of the Minister of Defense for the development and adjustment plans, indicators of their performance.

  20. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  1. Planning for the next generation of public health advocates: evaluation of an online advocacy mentoring program.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Emily; Stoneham, Melissa; Saunders, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Despite being viewed as a core competency for public health professionals, public health advocacy lacks a prominent place in the public health literature and receives minimal coverage in university curricula. The Public Health Advocacy Institute of Western Australia (PHAIWA) sought to fill this gap by establishing an online e-mentoring program for public health professionals to gain knowledge through skill-based activities and engaging in a mentoring relationship with an experienced public health advocate. This study is a qualitative evaluation of the online e-mentoring program. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants at the conclusion of the 12-month program to examine program benefits and determine the perceived contribution of individual program components to overall advocacy outcomes. Results Increased mentee knowledge, skills, level of confidence and experience, and expanded public health networks were reported. Outcomes were dependent on participants' level of commitment, time and location barriers, mentoring relationship quality, adaptability to the online format and the relevance of activities for application to participants' workplace context. Program facilitators had an important role through the provision of timely feedback and maintaining contact with participants. Conclusion An online program that combines public health advocacy content via skill-based activities with mentoring from an experienced public health advocate is a potential strategy to build advocacy capacity in the public health workforce. So what? Integrating advocacy as a core component of professional development programs will help counteract current issues surrounding hesitancy by public health professionals to proactively engage in advocacy, and ensure that high quality, innovative and effective advocacy leadership continues in the Australian public health workforce. PMID:27468984

  2. Planning for the next generation of public health advocates: evaluation of an online advocacy mentoring program.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Emily; Stoneham, Melissa; Saunders, Julie

    2016-04-01

    Issue addressed Despite being viewed as a core competency for public health professionals, public health advocacy lacks a prominent place in the public health literature and receives minimal coverage in university curricula. The Public Health Advocacy Institute of Western Australia (PHAIWA) sought to fill this gap by establishing an online e-mentoring program for public health professionals to gain knowledge through skill-based activities and engaging in a mentoring relationship with an experienced public health advocate. This study is a qualitative evaluation of the online e-mentoring program. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with program participants at the conclusion of the 12-month program to examine program benefits and determine the perceived contribution of individual program components to overall advocacy outcomes. Results Increased mentee knowledge, skills, level of confidence and experience, and expanded public health networks were reported. Outcomes were dependent on participants' level of commitment, time and location barriers, mentoring relationship quality, adaptability to the online format and the relevance of activities for application to participants' workplace context. Program facilitators had an important role through the provision of timely feedback and maintaining contact with participants. Conclusion An online program that combines public health advocacy content via skill-based activities with mentoring from an experienced public health advocate is a potential strategy to build advocacy capacity in the public health workforce. So what? Integrating advocacy as a core component of professional development programs will help counteract current issues surrounding hesitancy by public health professionals to proactively engage in advocacy, and ensure that high quality, innovative and effective advocacy leadership continues in the Australian public health workforce.

  3. The Mission Operations Planning Assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Principal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZetaLisp and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  4. The mission operations planning assistant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuetzle, James G.

    1987-01-01

    The Mission Operations Planning Assistant (MOPA) is a knowledge-based system developed to support the planning and scheduling of instrument activities on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). The MOPA system represents and maintains instrument plans at two levels of abstraction in order to keep plans comprehensible to both UARS Prinicpal Investigators and Command Management personnel. The hierarchical representation of plans also allows MOPA to automatically create detailed instrument activity plans from which spacecraft command loads may be generated. The MOPA system was developed on a Symbolics 3640 computer using the ZETALISP and ART languages. MOPA's features include a textual and graphical interface for plan inspection and modification, recognition of instrument operational constraint violations during the planning process, and consistency maintenance between the different planning levels. This paper describes the current MOPA system.

  5. Generation of benzyne from benzoic acid using C-H activation.

    PubMed

    Cant, Alastair A; Roberts, Lee; Greaney, Michael F

    2010-12-01

    ortho C-H activation of benzoic acids with Pd(II) generates an oxapalladacycle that can decarboxylate to produce a palladium-associated aryne. The arynes then undergo [2+2+2] trimerisation to afford triphenylenes.

  6. Leveling the Playing Field: First Generation Korean American Males and School Based Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Corey

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the manner in which extracurricular activities impacted the acculturation of first-generation adolescent males. Specifically, the project focused on the influence of organized high school soccer on the development of first-generation adolescent Korean American males. Eight adolescent participants, ranging in age from fourteen…

  7. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  8. An upward compatible spectrum sharing architecture for existing, actively planned and emerging mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azarbar, Bahman

    1990-01-01

    Existing and actively planned mobile satellite systems are competing for a viable share of the spectrum allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to the satellite based mobile services in the 1.5/1.6 GHz range. The limited amount of spectrum available worldwide and the sheer number of existing and planned mobile satellite systems dictate the adoption of an architecture which will maximize sharing possibilities. A viable sharing architecture must recognize the operational needs and limitations of the existing systems. Furthermore, recognizing the right of access of the future systems as they will emerge in time, the adopted architecture must allow for additional growth and be amenable to orderly introduction of future systems. An attempt to devise such a sharing architecture is described. A specific example of the application of the basic concept to the existing and planned mobile satellite systems is also discussed.

  9. Enhanced colonic nitric oxide generation and nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Stamler, J S; Bachwich, D; Karmeli, F; Ackerman, Z; Podolsky, D K

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO.), the product of nitric oxide synthase in inflammatory cells, may play a part in tissue injury and inflammation through its oxidative metabolism. In this study the colonic generation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nitric oxide synthase activity was determined in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Colonic biopsy specimens were obtained from inflammatory bowel disease patients and from normal controls. Mucosal explants were cultured in vitro for 24 hours and NOx generation was determined. Nitric oxide synthase activity was monitored by the conversion of [3H]-L-arginine to citrulline. Median NOx generation by inflamed colonic mucosa of patients with active ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis was 4.2- and 8.1-fold respectively higher than that by normal human colonic mucosa. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's colitis nitric oxide synthase activity was 10.0- and 3.8-fold respectively higher than in normal subjects. Colonic NOx generation is significantly decreased by methylprednisolone and ketotifen. The decrease in NOx generation by cultured colonic mucosa induced by methylprednisolone suggests that NO synthase activity is induced during the culture and the steroid effect may contribute to its therapeutic effect. Enhanced colonic NOx generation by stimulated nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease may contribute to tissue injury. PMID:7541008

  10. Generation Of Manufacturing Routing And Operations Using Structured Knowledge As Basis To Application Of Computer Aided In Process Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswaldo, Luiz Agostinho

    2011-01-01

    The development of computer aided resources in automation of generation of manufacturing routings and operations is being mainly accomplished through the search of similarities between existent ones, resulting standard process routings that are grouped by analysis of similarities between parts or routings. This article proposes the development of manufacturing routings and operations detailment using a methodology which steps will define the initial, intermediate and final operations, starting from the rough piece and going up to the final specifications, that must have binunivocal relationship with the part design specifications. Each step will use the so called rules of precedence to link and chain the routing operations. The rules of precedence order and prioritize the knowledge of various manufacturing processes, taking in account the theories of machining, forging, assembly, and heat treatments; also, utilizes the theories of accumulation of tolerances and process capabilities, between others. It is also reinforced the availability of manufacturing databases related to process tolerances, deviations of machine tool- cutting tool- fixturing devices—workpiece, and process capabilities. The statement and application of rules of precedence, linking and joining manufacturing concepts in a logical and structured way, and their application in the methodology steps will make viable the utilization of structured knowledge instead of tacit one currently available in the manufacturing engineering departments, in the generation of manufacturing routing and operations. Consequently, the development of Computer Aided in Process Planning will be facilitated, due to the structured knowledge applied with this methodology.

  11. 78 FR 57668 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned for Monitoring Activities for the Saltstone Disposal... availability of ``U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Plan for Monitoring Disposal Actions Taken by the U.S... responsibilities for monitoring DOE's waste disposal activities at the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) at...

  12. Understanding Physical Activity Intention in Canadian School Children and Youth: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mummery, W. Kerry; Spence, John C.; Hudee, John C.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated how well the theory of planned behavior could predict students' physical activity intention. Surveys indicated that direct measures of the theory of planned behavior explained 47 percent of variability in the measure of physical activity intention. Differences surfaced in the relative contributions of three predictors (attitude,…

  13. Building robust conservation plans.

    PubMed

    Visconti, Piero; Joppa, Lucas

    2015-04-01

    Systematic conservation planning optimizes trade-offs between biodiversity conservation and human activities by accounting for socioeconomic costs while aiming to achieve prescribed conservation objectives. However, the most cost-efficient conservation plan can be very dissimilar to any other plan achieving the set of conservation objectives. This is problematic under conditions of implementation uncertainty (e.g., if all or part of the plan becomes unattainable). We determined through simulations of parallel implementation of conservation plans and habitat loss the conditions under which optimal plans have limited chances of implementation and where implementation attempts would fail to meet objectives. We then devised a new, flexible method for identifying conservation priorities and scheduling conservation actions. This method entails generating a number of alternative plans, calculating the similarity in site composition among all plans, and selecting the plan with the highest density of neighboring plans in similarity space. We compared our method with the classic method that maximizes cost efficiency with synthetic and real data sets. When implementation was uncertain--a common reality--our method provided higher likelihood of achieving conservation targets. We found that χ, a measure of the shortfall in objectives achieved by a conservation plan if the plan could not be implemented entirely, was the main factor determining the relative performance of a flexibility enhanced approach to conservation prioritization. Our findings should help planning authorities prioritize conservation efforts in the face of uncertainty about future condition and availability of sites.

  14. Use of Frequency Response Metrics to Assess the Planning and Operating Requirements for Reliable Integration of Variable Renewable Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph H.; Undrill, John; Mackin, Peter; Daschmans, Ron; Williams, Ben; Haney, Brian; Hunt, Randall; Ellis, Jeff; Illian, Howard; Martinez, Carlos; O'Malley, Mark; Coughlin, Katie; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi

    2010-12-20

    An interconnected electric power system is a complex system that must be operated within a safe frequency range in order to reliably maintain the instantaneous balance between generation and load. This is accomplished by ensuring that adequate resources are available to respond to expected and unexpected imbalances and restoring frequency to its scheduled value in order to ensure uninterrupted electric service to customers. Electrical systems must be flexible enough to reliably operate under a variety of"change" scenarios. System planners and operators must understand how other parts of the system change in response to the initial change, and need tools to manage such changes to ensure reliable operation within the scheduled frequency range. This report presents a systematic approach to identifying metrics that are useful for operating and planning a reliable system with increased amounts of variable renewable generation which builds on existing industry practices for frequency control after unexpected loss of a large amount of generation. The report introduces a set of metrics or tools for measuring the adequacy of frequency response within an interconnection. Based on the concept of the frequency nadir, these metrics take advantage of new information gathering and processing capabilities that system operators are developing for wide-area situational awareness. Primary frequency response is the leading metric that will be used by this report to assess the adequacy of primary frequency control reserves necessary to ensure reliable operation. It measures what is needed to arrest frequency decline (i.e., to establish frequency nadir) at a frequency higher than the highest set point for under-frequency load shedding within an interconnection. These metrics can be used to guide the reliable operation of an interconnection under changing circumstances.

  15. Hemispheric activation during planning and execution phases in reaching post stroke: a consort study.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yin; Daly, Janis J; Hansley, Jeff; Yao, Wan X; Yang, Qi; Sun, Jiayang; Hvorat, Ken; Pundik, Svetlana; Yue, Guang H

    2015-01-01

    Enhanced activation in the non-lesion hemisphere in stroke patients was widely observed during movement of the affected upper limb, but its functional role related to motor planning and execution is still unknown.This study was to characterize the activation in the non-lesion hemisphere during movement planning and execution by localizing sources of high-density electroencephalography (EEG) signal and estimating the source strength (current density [A/m]).Ten individuals with chronic stroke and shoulder/elbow coordination deficits and 5 healthy controls participated in the study.EEG (64 channels) was recorded from scalp electrodes while the subjects performed a reach task involving shoulder flexion and elbow extension of the affected (patients) or dominant (controls) upper extremity. Sources of the EEG were obtained and analyzed at 17 time points across movement preparation and execution phases. A 3-layer boundary element model was overlaid and used to identify the brain activation sources. A distributed current density model, low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) L1 norm method, was applied to the data pre-processed by independent component analysis.Subjects with stroke had stronger source strength in the sensorimotor cortices during the movement compared with the controls. Their contralesional/lesional activation ratio (CTLR) for the primary motor cortices was significantly higher than that of the controls during the movement-planning phase, but not during the execution phase. The CTLR was higher in planning than in the execution phase in the stroke group.Excessive contralesional motor cortical activation appears to be more related to movement preparation rather than execution in chronic stroke.

  16. Brothers Grimm. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    Based on Grimm's fairy tales, this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that fairy tales connect them to earlier generations, help them think about present situations, that magic figures prominently in fairy tales, and that fairy tales can inspire readers to create original works of art. The main activity in the…

  17. Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders and Speech-Generating Devices: Communication in Different Activities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thunberg, Gunilla; Ahlsen, Elisabeth; Sandberg, Annika Dahlgren

    2007-01-01

    The communication of four children with autistic spectrum disorder was investigated when they were supplied with a speech-generating device (SGD) in three different activities in their home environment: mealtime, story reading and "sharing experiences of the preschool day". An activity based communication analysis, in which collective and…

  18. Contradictions between the Virtual and Physical High School Classroom: A Third-Generation Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Manzanares, Maria A. Rodriguez

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a third-generation Activity Theory perspective to gain insight into the contradictions between the activity systems of the physical and virtual high school classroom from the perspective of teachers who had transitioned from one system to the other. Data collection relied on semi-structured interviews conducted with e-teachers as…

  19. Analysing Third Generation Activity Systems: Labour-Power, Subject Position and Personal Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry; Warmington, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe how Engestrom's "third generation" activity theory, with its emphasis on developing conceptual tools to understand dialogues, multiple perspectives and networks of interacting activity systems, has informed research into professional learning in multiagency service settings in England.…

  20. Exploring Preferences of Mentoring Activities among Generational Groups of Registered Nurses in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey-Goodwin, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore differences in perceptions of mentoring activities from four generations of registered nurses in Florida, using the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaire ® (AMAQ ®). Statistical procedures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to explore differences among 65 registered nurses in Florida from…

  1. Self-efficacy theory and the theory of planned behavior: teaching physically active physical education classes.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey J; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to examine determinants of teachers' intentions to teach physically active physical education classes (i.e., spend at least 50% of class time with the students engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity). Based on the theory of planned behavior, a model was examined hypothesizing that teachers' intentions were determined by subjective norm, attitude, and perceived behavioral control. Grounded in self-efficacy theory, it was hypothesized that program goal importance and hierarchical and barrier self-efficacy would also predict intention. Using a series of hierarchical regression analyses, the theory of planned behavior was supported by accounting for 59% of the variance in intention due to attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm. Self-efficacy theory based variables received minimal support.

  2. Human Platelets Utilize Cycloxygenase-1 to Generate Dioxolane A3, a Neutrophil-activating Eicosanoid*

    PubMed Central

    Hinz, Christine; Aldrovandi, Maceler; Uhlson, Charis; Marnett, Lawrence J.; Longhurst, Hilary J.; Warner, Timothy D.; Alam, Saydul; Slatter, David A.; Lauder, Sarah N.; Allen-Redpath, Keith; Collins, Peter W.; Murphy, Robert C.; Thomas, Christopher P.; O'Donnell, Valerie B.

    2016-01-01

    Eicosanoids are important mediators of fever, pain, and inflammation that modulate cell signaling during acute and chronic disease. We show by using lipidomics that thrombin-activated human platelets generate a new type of eicosanoid that both stimulates and primes human neutrophil integrin (Mac-1) expression, in response to formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine. Detailed characterization proposes a dioxolane structure, 8-hydroxy-9,11-dioxolane eicosatetraenoic acid (dioxolane A3, DXA3). The lipid is generated in nanogram amounts by platelets from endogenous arachidonate during physiological activation, with inhibition by aspirin in vitro or in vivo, implicating cyclooxygenase-1 (COX). Pharmacological and genetic studies on human/murine platelets revealed that DXA3 formation requires protease-activated receptors 1 and 4, cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), Src tyrosine kinases, p38 MAPK, phospholipase C, and intracellular calcium. From data generated by purified COX isoforms and chemical oxidation, we propose that DXA3 is generated by release of an intermediate from the active site followed by oxygenation at C8. In summary, a new neutrophil-activating platelet-derived lipid generated by COX-1 is presented that can activate or prime human neutrophils, suggesting a role in innate immunity and acute inflammation. PMID:27129261

  3. Beyond participation: the association between school extracurricular activities and involvement in violence across generations of immigration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D

    2012-03-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study explores how the relationship between extracurricular activities and youth violence varies by type of extracurricular activity profile (sports alone, non-sports alone, and a combination of sports and non-sports) and by generations of immigration (first, second, and third-plus). The sample is composed of 9.3% (n = 1,233) first-generation youth, 15.7% (n = 2,080) second generation, and 74.9% (n = 9,923) third-plus generation. The results reveal that adolescents from the third-plus generation (i.e., non-immigrant youth) who participate in non-sports alone or sports plus non-sports have lower odds of involvement in violence than adolescents from the same generation who do not participate in extracurricular activities. However, for first- and second-generation adolescents, participation in extracurricular activities is associated with higher rather than lower odds of violence compared to their non-participating counterparts. These findings challenge the viewpoint that participation in mainstream extracurricular activities as afforded by US schools is equally beneficial for all youth. They also call for additional research that explores why immigrant youth are less likely than non-immigrant youth to gain violence-reducing benefits when they participate in extracurricular activities.

  4. Intelligent behavior generator for autonomous mobile robots using planning-based AI decision making and supervisory control logic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Hitesh K.; Bahl, Vikas; Martin, Jason; Flann, Nicholas S.; Moore, Kevin L.

    2002-07-01

    In earlier research the Center for Self-Organizing and Intelligent Systems (CSOIS) at Utah State University (USU) have been funded by the US Army Tank-Automotive and Armaments Command's (TACOM) Intelligent Mobility Program to develop and demonstrate enhanced mobility concepts for unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). One among the several out growths of this work has been the development of a grammar-based approach to intelligent behavior generation for commanding autonomous robotic vehicles. In this paper we describe the use of this grammar for enabling autonomous behaviors. A supervisory task controller (STC) sequences high-level action commands (taken from the grammar) to be executed by the robot. It takes as input a set of goals and a partial (static) map of the environment and produces, from the grammar, a flexible script (or sequence) of the high-level commands that are to be executed by the robot. The sequence is derived by a planning function that uses a graph-based heuristic search (A* -algorithm). Each action command has specific exit conditions that are evaluated by the STC following each task completion or interruption (in the case of disturbances or new operator requests). Depending on the system's state at task completion or interruption (including updated environmental and robot sensor information), the STC invokes a reactive response. This can include sequencing the pending tasks or initiating a re-planning event, if necessary. Though applicable to a wide variety of autonomous robots, an application of this approach is demonstrated via simulations of ODIS, an omni-directional inspection system developed for security applications.

  5. NASA plans and opportunities. [space flight activities throughout the 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA plans for the Life Science program of a series of space flight activities throughout the decade of the 1990s are discussed with particular attention given to the NASA life science goals and objectives and to the particular space missions which will carry out these objectives. These space missions and specially designed facilities for experiments in space include Space Station Freedom, Space Biology Initiative, Gravitational Biology Facility, Life Sciences Centrifuge Facility, Controlled Ecological Life Support Systems Test Facility, and Exobiology Facility.

  6. Brief report: the theory of planned behaviour applied to physical activity in young people who smoke.

    PubMed

    Everson, Emma S; Daley, Amanda J; Ussher, Michael

    2007-04-01

    It has been hypothesised that physical activity may be useful as a smoking cessation intervention for young adults. In order to inform such interventions, this study evaluated the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) for understanding physical activity behaviour in young smokers. Regular smokers aged 16-19 years (N=124), self-reported physical activity and all TPB components. Physical activity behaviour was significantly explained by both intention and perceived behavioural control (PBC), with both intention and PBC making significant contributions to the model. Intention was significantly explained by attitude, subjective norm (SN) and PBC, with attitude, SN and PBC all making significant contributions to the model. The TPB may be a useful framework for guiding physical activity interventions among young smokers.

  7. Entropy Generation and Human Aging: Lifespan Entropy and Effect of Physical Activity Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos; Annamalai, Kalyan

    2008-06-01

    The first and second laws of thermodynamics were applied to biochemical reactions typical of human metabolism. An open-system model was used for a human body. Energy conservation, availability and entropy balances were performed to obtain the entropy generated for the main food components. Quantitative results for entropy generation were obtained as a function of age using the databases from the U.S. Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which provide energy requirements and food intake composition as a function of age, weight and stature. Numerical integration was performed through human lifespan for different levels of physical activity. Results were presented and analyzed. Entropy generated over the lifespan of average individuals (natural death) was found to be 11,404 kJ/ºK per kg of body mass with a rate of generation three times higher on infants than on the elderly. The entropy generated predicts a life span of 73.78 and 81.61 years for the average U.S. male and female individuals respectively, which are values that closely match the average lifespan from statistics (74.63 and 80.36 years). From the analysis of the effect of different activity levels, it is shown that entropy generated increases with physical activity, suggesting that exercise should be kept to a “healthy minimum” if entropy generation is to be minimized.

  8. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 1998.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, J; Holden, S; Quick, C

    2000-02-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Investment Company Institute (ICI) have been collaborating for the past three years to collect data on participants in 401(k) plans. This effort, known as the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, has obtained data for 401(k) plan participants from certain of EBRI and ICI members serving as plan record keepers and administrators. The report includes 1998 information on 7.9 million active participants in 30,102 plans holding nearly $372 billion in assets. The data include demographic information, annual contributions, plan balances, asset allocation, and loans, and are broadly representative of the universe of 401(k) plans. The database also includes three years of longitudinal information on approximately 3.3 million participants. Key findings include: For all 401(k) participants in the 1998 EBRI/ICI database, almost three-quarters of plan balances are invested directly or indirectly in equity securities. Specifically, 49.8 percent of total plan balances are invested in equity funds, 17.7 percent in company stock, 11.4 percent in guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), 8.4 percent in balanced funds, 6.1 percent in bond funds, 4.7 percent in money funds, and 0.3 percent in other stable value funds. Participant asset allocation varies considerably with age. Younger participants tend to favor equity funds, while older participants are more disposed to invest in GICs and bond funds. On average, participants in their 20s have 62.1 percent of their account balances invested in equity funds, in contrast to 39.8 percent for those in their 60s. Participants in their 20s invest 4.7 percent of their assets in GICs, while those in their 60s invest 20.6 percent. Bond funds, which represent 4.7 percent of the assets of participants in their 20s, amount to 9.0 percent of the assets of participants in their 60s. Investment options offered by 401(k) plans appear to influence asset allocation

  9. 401(k) plan asset allocation, account balances, and loan activity in 1998.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, J; Holden, S; Quick, C

    2000-02-01

    The Employee Benefit Research Institute (EBRI) and the Investment Company Institute (ICI) have been collaborating for the past three years to collect data on participants in 401(k) plans. This effort, known as the EBRI/ICI Participant-Directed Retirement Plan Data Collection Project, has obtained data for 401(k) plan participants from certain of EBRI and ICI members serving as plan record keepers and administrators. The report includes 1998 information on 7.9 million active participants in 30,102 plans holding nearly $372 billion in assets. The data include demographic information, annual contributions, plan balances, asset allocation, and loans, and are broadly representative of the universe of 401(k) plans. The database also includes three years of longitudinal information on approximately 3.3 million participants. Key findings include: For all 401(k) participants in the 1998 EBRI/ICI database, almost three-quarters of plan balances are invested directly or indirectly in equity securities. Specifically, 49.8 percent of total plan balances are invested in equity funds, 17.7 percent in company stock, 11.4 percent in guaranteed investment contracts (GICs), 8.4 percent in balanced funds, 6.1 percent in bond funds, 4.7 percent in money funds, and 0.3 percent in other stable value funds. Participant asset allocation varies considerably with age. Younger participants tend to favor equity funds, while older participants are more disposed to invest in GICs and bond funds. On average, participants in their 20s have 62.1 percent of their account balances invested in equity funds, in contrast to 39.8 percent for those in their 60s. Participants in their 20s invest 4.7 percent of their assets in GICs, while those in their 60s invest 20.6 percent. Bond funds, which represent 4.7 percent of the assets of participants in their 20s, amount to 9.0 percent of the assets of participants in their 60s. Investment options offered by 401(k) plans appear to influence asset allocation

  10. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Kimbrough, Robert A.; Turney, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. The plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the personnel of the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the WAWSC's quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the WAWSC quality-assurance plan.

  11. Antithrombin Regulates Matriptase Activity Involved in Plasmin Generation, Syndecan Shedding, and HGF Activation in Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ya-Wen; Xu, Zhenghong; Baksh, Adrienne N. H.; Wang, Jehng-Kang; Chen, Chiu-Yuan; Swanson, Richard; Olson, Steve T.; Kataoka, Hiroaki; Johnson, Michael D.; Lin, Chen-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Matriptase, a membrane-associated serine protease, plays an essential role in epidermal barrier function through activation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored serine protease prostasin. The matriptase-prostasin proteolytic cascade is tightly regulated by hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor (HAI)-1 such that matriptase autoactivation and prostasin activation occur simultaneously and are followed immediately by the inhibition of both enzymes by HAI-1. However, the mechanisms whereby matriptase acts on extracellular substrates remain elusive. Here we report that some active matriptase can escape HAI-1 inhibition by being rapidly shed from the cell surface. In the pericellular environment, shed active matriptase is able to activate hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), accelerate plasminogen activation, and shed syndecan 1. The amount of active matriptase shed is inversely correlated with the amount of antithrombin (AT) bound to the surface of the keratinocytes. Binding of AT to the surface of keratinocytes is dependent on a functional heparin binding site, Lys-125, and that the N-glycosylation site Asn-135 be unglycosylated. This suggests that β-AT, and not α-AT, is responsible for regulation of pericellular matriptase activity in keratinocytes. Keratinocytes appear to rely on AT to regulate the level of pericellular active matriptase much more than breast and prostate epithelial cells in which AT regulation of matriptase activity occurs at much lower levels than keratinocytes. These results suggest that keratinocytes employ two distinct serine protease inhibitors to control the activation and processing of two different sets of matriptase substrates leading to different biological events: 1) HAI-1 for prostasin activation/inhibition, and 2) AT for the pericellular proteolysis involved in HGF activation, accelerating plasminogen activation, and shedding of syndecans. PMID:23675430

  12. SU-E-T-569: Evaluation of VMAT Plans Generated with HD120 and Millennium 120 MLC Between Two Matched Linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, G; Ballas, L; Chang, E; Chung, E; Chiu, R; Cummings, D; Shiu, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To evaluate VMAT treatment plans generated with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC between two matched linacs and to determine if one can back up the other. Methods: The 6x photon beams are matched for our Varian TrueBeam STx and Trilogy linacs, which are equipped with HD120 MLC and Millennium 120 MLC, respectively. Three prostate and three brain VMAT plans were used for the evaluation. Five plans (three prostate and two brain plans) were originally generated with the TrueBeam STx and re-computed with the Trilogy. One brain plan was evaluated the other way around. For each plan, the PTV coverage of V95 was made the same between two linacs. The dosimetric differences associated with the plans were compared using: 1) Percentage mean dose differences to the PTV, 2) Homogeneity index, HI = (Dmax − Dmin)/Dmean for the PTV. For prostate plans, the mean dose differences to the rectum were evaluated. While for brain plans, the percentage max dose differences to the lenses (left and right lens) were evaluated. Results: For three prostate plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.5 ± 0.1% and the HI was 0.1 ± 0.0%. The average of the percentage mean dose difference to the rectum was 3.5 ± 0.5%. For three brain plans, the average of the percentage mean dose differences to the PTV was 0.2 ± 1.1% and the HI was 0.2 ± 0.1%. The average of the percentage max dose differences to the lenses was 22.9 ± 4.0%. Conclusion: For prostate VMAT plans, changing the treatment from the TrueBeam STx to the Trilogy does not necessarily need re-optimization. But for brain plans, in order to minimize dose to the lenses, it is recommended to re-optimize the plan if changing the treatment between these two linacs.

  13. Free radical generation during the activation of hemolymph prepared from the homopteran Dactylopius coccus.

    PubMed

    García-Gil De Muñoz, F; Lanz-Mendoza, H; Hernández-Hernández, F C

    2007-05-01

    Superoxide anion (O(-) (2)) and nitric oxide (NO) generation in Dactylopius coccus hemolymph obtained by perfusion and activated with zymosan was studied. Activated hemolymph reduced 3-[4,5 dimethylthiazolil-2]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide. This reduction was prevented by superoxide dismutase (SOD) indicating O(-) (2) generation. This activity was dependent on temperature, and hemolymph incubated at 75 degrees C lost its activity. Chromatocytes incubated with zymosan released their content and produced O(-) (2). Activated hemolymph also produced NO and this activity was prevented in the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, suggesting that nitric oxide synthase (NOS) might be present in D. coccus hemolymph. The probable source of O(-) (2) in the D. coccus hemolymph is the anthraquinone oxidation, since commercial carminic dye produced O(-) (2) during its oxidation by Agaricus bisporus tyrosinase. Gram+ Micrococcus luteus exposed to activated hemolymph were killed in vitro, and addition of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and D-Mannitol (a hydroxyl radical scavenger) prevented their killing. The cytotoxic effect produced by the activated hemolymph was not observed with the Gram- bacteria Serratia marcescens. These results suggest that D. coccus activated hemolymph generates reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) that may limit M. luteus growth. PMID:17427930

  14. Characterizing active transportation behavior among college students using the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Robert A; Bernard, Amy L; Wilson, Bradley R A

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity poses concern for health risks among all groups in the United States. Active transportation (AT) (e.g., bicycling) is one way of being physically active and may be helpful in promoting physical activity. This study characterized active transportation behavior among college students using the Theory of Planned Behavior. This study sought to describe predictors, including Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) constructs, of AT behavior among college students at a large Midwest university. Students were recruited through the university registrar's office and e-mailed an electronic survey. Differences among AT users were determined using t-tests, and predictors of AT were identified using regression analysis. Significant differences between AT users for all TPB constructs were observed. Regression analysis using only TPB constructs accounted for 11.58% explained variation in AT use. Other variables added to the model resulted in 44.44% explained variation in AT use. The final model included subjective norms, age, perceived behavioral control, and transportation type and destination. The results of this research are insightful in explaining AT behavior. Perceived norms and the level of control students had regarding their method of transportation were important contributions to AT use. These results may be applied to promoting physical activity in community health.

  15. EDs in the Midwest and South activate disaster plans as deadly tornadoes sweep through the region.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    Hospitals in the Midwest and South activated their disaster plans in early March to deal with a phalanx of powerful tornadoes that leveled several small towns and killed at least two dozen people. Some hospitals had to activate plans for both internal and external disasters as their own facilities were threatened. One small critical-access hospital in West Liberty, KY, sustained significant damage and had to evacuate its patients to another facility. All the hospitals credit their disaster plans and practice drills with helping them to manage the crisis as efficiently as possible. Morgan County ARH Hospital in West Liberty, KY, went for several days without an operational lab or radiology department, but staff kept the ED open for absolute emergencies. Margaret Mary Community Hospital (MMCH) in Batesville, IN, received six tornado victims, but it was prepared for many more. Administrators credit advanced warning of the storms with helping them to prepare effectively, as well as to coordinate their response with other hospitals in the area. As a level 1 trauma center, the University of Louisville Hospital in Louisville, KY, received all the most seriously injured patients in the region, even while the facility itself was under a tornado warning. Staff had to route families away from the glassed-in waiting room to the basement until the tornado warning had passed. At one point during the crisis, there were 90 patients in the hospital's ED even though the department is only equipped with 29 beds. Administrators at Huntsville Hospital in Huntsville, AL, encouraged colleagues to take advantage of smaller-scale emergencies to activate parts of their disaster plans, and to focus disaster preparation drills on their hospital's top hazard vulnerabilities. PMID:22545338

  16. EDs in the Midwest and South activate disaster plans as deadly tornadoes sweep through the region.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    Hospitals in the Midwest and South activated their disaster plans in early March to deal with a phalanx of powerful tornadoes that leveled several small towns and killed at least two dozen people. Some hospitals had to activate plans for both internal and external disasters as their own facilities were threatened. One small critical-access hospital in West Liberty, KY, sustained significant damage and had to evacuate its patients to another facility. All the hospitals credit their disaster plans and practice drills with helping them to manage the crisis as efficiently as possible. Morgan County ARH Hospital in West Liberty, KY, went for several days without an operational lab or radiology department, but staff kept the ED open for absolute emergencies. Margaret Mary Community Hospital (MMCH) in Batesville, IN, received six tornado victims, but it was prepared for many more. Administrators credit advanced warning of the storms with helping them to prepare effectively, as well as to coordinate their response with other hospitals in the area. As a level 1 trauma center, the University of Louisville Hospital in Louisville, KY, received all the most seriously injured patients in the region, even while the facility itself was under a tornado warning. Staff had to route families away from the glassed-in waiting room to the basement until the tornado warning had passed. At one point during the crisis, there were 90 patients in the hospital's ED even though the department is only equipped with 29 beds. Administrators at Huntsville Hospital in Huntsville, AL, encouraged colleagues to take advantage of smaller-scale emergencies to activate parts of their disaster plans, and to focus disaster preparation drills on their hospital's top hazard vulnerabilities.

  17. The Remote Handled Immobilization Low Activity Waste Disposal Facility Environmental Permits & Approval Plan

    SciTech Connect

    DEFFENBAUGH, M.L.

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to revise Document HNF-SD-ENV-EE-003, ''Permitting Plan for the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Project, which was submitted on September 4, 1997. That plan accounted for the interim storage and disposal of Immobilized-Low Activity Waste at the existing Grout Treatment Facility Vaults (Project W-465) and within a newly constructed facility (Project W-520). Project W-520 was to have contained a combination of concrete vaults and trenches. This document supersedes that plan because of two subsequent items: (1) A disposal authorization that was received on October 25, 1999, in a U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters, memorandum, ''Disposal Authorization Statement for the Department of Energy Hanford site Low-Level Waste Disposal facilities'' and (2) ''Breakthrough Initiative Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Disposal Alternative,'' August 1999, from Lucas Incorporated, Richland, Washington. The direction within the U. S. Department of Energy-Headquarters memorandum was given as follows: ''The DOE Radioactive Waste Management Order requires that a Disposal authorization statement be obtained prior to construction of new low-level waste disposal facility. Field elements with the existing low-level waste disposal facilities shall obtain a disposal authorization statement in accordance with the schedule in the complex-wide Low-Level Waste Management Program Plan. The disposal authorization statement shall be issued based on a review of the facility's performance assessment and composite analysis or appropriate CERCLA documentation. The disposal authorization shall specify the limits and conditions on construction, design, operations, and closure of the low-level waste facility based on these reviews. A disposal authorization statement is a part of the required radioactive waste management basis for a disposal facility. Failure to obtain a disposal authorization statement or record of decision shall result in shutdown of an operational

  18. Impaired planning in Parkinson's disease is reflected by reduced brain activation and connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Trujillo, James P.; Gerrits, Niels J.H.M.; Vriend, Chris; Berendse, Henk W.; van den Heuvel, Odile A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective Parkinson's disease (PD) often entails impairments of executive functions, such as planning. Although widely held that these impairments arise from dopaminergic denervation of the striatum, not all executive functions are affected early on, and the underlying neural dynamics are not fully understood. In a combined longitudinal and cross‐sectional study, we investigated how planning deficits progress over time in the early stages of PD compared to matched healthy controls. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify accompanying neural dynamics. Methods Seventeen PD patients and 20 healthy controls performed a parametric Tower of London task at two time points separated by ∼3 years (baseline and follow‐up). We assessed task performance longitudinally in both groups; at follow‐up, a subset of participants (14 patients, 19 controls) performed a parallel version of the task during fMRI. We performed meta‐analyses to localize regions‐of‐interest (ROIs), that is, the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), inferior parietal cortex, and caudate nucleus, and performed group‐by‐task analyses and within‐group regression analyses of planning‐related neural activation. We studied task‐related functional connectivity of seeds in the DLPFC and caudate nucleus. Results PD patients, compared with controls, showed impaired task performance at both time‐points, while both groups showed similar performance reductions from baseline to follow‐up. Compared to controls, patients showed lower planning‐related brain activation together with decreased functional connectivity. Conclusion These findings support the notion that planning is affected early in the PD disease course, and that this impairment in planning is accompanied by decreases in both task‐related brain activity and connectivity. Hum Brain Mapp 36:3703–3715, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID

  19. Agent independent task planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  20. Fiscal Year 2014 Annual Report on BNLs Next Generation Safeguards Initiative Human Capital Development Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper S. E.

    2014-10-10

    Brookhaven National Laboratory’s (BNL’s) Nonproliferation and National Security Department contributes to the National Nuclear Security Administration Office of Nonproliferation and International Security Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) through university engagement, safeguards internships, safeguards courses, professional development, recruitment, and other activities aimed at ensuring the next generation of international safeguards professionals is adequately prepared to support the U.S. safeguards mission. This report is a summary of BNL s work under the NGSI program in Fiscal Year 2014.

  1. NASA Surface-Modeling and Grid-Generation (SM/GG) activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choo, Yung K.

    1992-01-01

    A NASA Steering Committee was formed to carry out the recommendations from the NASA Workshop on Future Directions in Surface Modeling and Grid Generation. Its function is to communicate and coordinate within NASA the acquisition and distribution of geometry/grid generation software/data, establish geometry data exchange standards, and interface with other government, university, and industry efforts. Two speakers present the committee's activities in viewgraph format.

  2. Discussing dying in the diaspora: attitudes towards advance care planning among first generation Dutch and Italian migrants in rural Australia.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Craig; Smith, Jessica; Toussaint, Yann; Auret, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Western cultural practices and values have largely shaped advance care planning (ACP) policies across the world. Low uptake of ACP among ethnic minority groups in Western countries has been interpreted with reference to cultural differences. This paper adopts a life-history approach to explore attitudes towards ACP among older, first-generation Dutch-Australian and Italian-Australian migrants. Thirty people participated in extended ethnographic interviews (N = 17) and group discussions (N = 13) during 2012. Transcripts were thematically analyzed and interpreted using a Foucauldian perspective on knowledge and power. Migration experiences, ongoing contact with the native country and participation in migrant community support networks influenced attitudes towards ACP. Dutch participants framed ACP discussions with reference to euthanasia, and adopted a more individualist approach to medical decision-making. Italian participants often spoke of familial roles and emphasized a family-based decision making style. The importance of migrant identity has been neglected in previous discussions of cultural factors influencing ACP uptake among ethnic minority groups. The unique migration experience should be considered alongside culturally appropriate approaches to decision-making, in order to ensure equitable access to ACP among migrant groups. PMID:24560228

  3. US National Committee for the International Year of the Planet Earth: Plans and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    The International Year of the Planet Earth, as proclaimed by Resolution 60/192 of the United Nations General Assembly at its 60th Session, is a 3-year event (2007-2009) aimed at promoting the contribution to sustainable development of society by using geoscience knowledge and information. It is a joint initiative by the International Union of Geological Sciences (IUGS and UNESCO. The US National Committee (USNC) for the International Year of the Planet Earth is responsible for developing national science and outreach activities that contribute to the success of the global awareness on the use of geosociety for society. The USNC plans for a launch activity early in 2008 and a national outreach activity in the fall. Various US based geoscience societies and federal agencies will be conducting IYPE branded activities in support of the year.

  4. Multiscale Aspects of Generation of High-Gamma Activity during Seizures in Human Neocortex123

    PubMed Central

    Marcuccilli, Charles J.; Ben-Mabrouk, Faiza; Lew, Sean M.; Goodman, Robert R.; McKhann, Guy M.; Frim, David M.; Kohrman, Michael H.; Schevon, Catherine A.; van Drongelen, Wim

    2016-01-01

    High-gamma (HG; 80-150 Hz) activity in macroscopic clinical records is considered a marker for critical brain regions involved in seizure initiation; it is correlated with pathological multiunit firing during neocortical seizures in the seizure core, an area identified by correlated multiunit spiking and low frequency seizure activity. However, the effects of the spatiotemporal dynamics of seizure on HG power generation are not well understood. Here, we studied HG generation and propagation, using a three-step, multiscale signal analysis and modeling approach. First, we analyzed concurrent neuronal and microscopic network HG activity in neocortical slices from seven intractable epilepsy patients. We found HG activity in these networks, especially when neurons displayed paroxysmal depolarization shifts and network activity was highly synchronized. Second, we examined HG activity acquired with microelectrode arrays recorded during human seizures (n = 8). We confirmed the presence of synchronized HG power across microelectrode records and the macroscale, both specifically associated with the core region of the seizure. Third, we used volume conduction-based modeling to relate HG activity and network synchrony at different network scales. We showed that local HG oscillations require high levels of synchrony to cross scales, and that this requirement is met at the microscopic scale, but not within macroscopic networks. Instead, we present evidence that HG power at the macroscale may result from harmonics of ongoing seizure activity. Ictal HG power marks the seizure core, but the generating mechanism can differ across spatial scales. PMID:27257623

  5. Designing for Culturally Contextualized Learning Activity Planning: Matching Learning Theories and Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Carvalho, Aparecido Fabiano Pinatti; Anacleto, Junia Coutinho; de Almeida Neris, Vania Paula

    Helping teachers in their activities has been an issue more and more explored in Computer Science. However, in order to support teachers effectively, it is necessary to understand their needs and to design tools that they can easily manage. One of those needs is undoubtedly to put in practice pedagogical principles. This paper presents the design of PACO-T, a tool for helping teachers in planning learning activities (LAs) supported by common sense knowledge, based on PACO, a seven-step textual framework for planning pedagogically suitable LAs. The design was based on the results of a case study carried out to investigate how teachers can plan LAs following PACO steps, using common sense knowledge from a common sense knowledge base collaboratively built through the web. Moreover, the interface design was ruled by a Web Design Pattern Language, attempting to improve the usability of the tool. PACO-T aims to help teachers to put in practice the recommendation for contextualizing LAs to the target group, found in several learning theories.

  6. Working Group 1: Current plans of various organisations for lunar activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of presentations by representatives of several space agencies and the International Academy of Astronautics concerning lunar activities are presented. Participating space agencies reported two different types of lunar planning, long term planning and scenarios and lunar missions competing within regular programs. The long term plans of the various agencies look remarkably similar. They all involve a phased approach (coincidentally all incorporating four phases) and all address three prime scientific elements: science of, on, and from the Moon. The missions under consideration by the second group of agencies could readily fit as elements in the longer term program. There is great interest in lunar astronomy. There is a great deal of potential infrastructure and lunar transport capability already available. There is also a wide range of interesting technological developments that could form part of a lunar program. A well concerted and coordinated international effort could lead to an affordable program. Recommendations are: an international conference on lunar exploration should be held every other year; an electronic network should be established for the daily exchange of information; and a mechanism should be established for regular working level coordination of activities.

  7. Testing a model of physical activity among mothers and fathers of young children: integrating self-determined motivation, planning, and the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Cox, Stephen; White, Katherine M

    2012-02-01

    Parents are at risk for inactivity; however, research into understanding parental physical activity (PA) is scarce. We integrated self-determined motivation, planning, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to better understand parental PA. Parents (252 mothers, 206 fathers) completed a main questionnaire assessing measures underpinning these constructs and a 1-week follow-up of PA behavior to examine whether self-determined motivation indirectly influenced intention via the TPB variables (i.e., attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) and intention indirectly influenced behavior via planning. We found self-determined motivation on intention was fully mediated by the TPB variables and intention on behavior was partially mediated by the planning variables. In addition, slight differences in the model's paths between the sexes were revealed. The results illustrate the range of important determinants of parental PA and provide support for the integrated model in explaining PA decision making as well as the importance of examining sex differences.

  8. Selective optogenetic activation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons generates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Young; McLennan, Timothy; Czieselsky, Katja; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-10-20

    Normal reproductive functioning in mammals depends upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons generating a pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion. The neural mechanism underlying the episodic release of GnRH is not known, although recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) may be involved. In the present experiments we expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in the ARN kisspeptin population to test directly whether synchronous activation of these neurons would generate pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vivo. Characterization studies showed that this strategy targeted ChR2 to 70% of all ARN kisspeptin neurons and that, in vitro, these neurons were activated by 473-nm blue light with high fidelity up to 30 Hz. In vivo, the optogenetic activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons at 10 and 20 Hz evoked high amplitude, pulse-like increments in LH secretion in anesthetized male mice. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 2 min was sufficient to generate repetitive LH pulses. In diestrous female mice, only 20-Hz activation generated significant increments in LH secretion. In ovariectomized mice, 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons were all found to evoke LH pulses. Part of the sex difference, but not the gonadal steroid dependence, resulted from differential pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. Experiments in kisspeptin receptor-null mice, showed that kisspeptin was the critical neuropeptide underlying the ability of ARN kisspeptin neurons to generate LH pulses. Together these data demonstrate that synchronized activation of the ARN kisspeptin neuronal population generates pulses of LH. PMID:26443858

  9. Selective optogenetic activation of arcuate kisspeptin neurons generates pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion.

    PubMed

    Han, Su Young; McLennan, Timothy; Czieselsky, Katja; Herbison, Allan E

    2015-10-20

    Normal reproductive functioning in mammals depends upon gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons generating a pulsatile pattern of gonadotropin secretion. The neural mechanism underlying the episodic release of GnRH is not known, although recent studies have suggested that the kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus (ARN) may be involved. In the present experiments we expressed channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in the ARN kisspeptin population to test directly whether synchronous activation of these neurons would generate pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in vivo. Characterization studies showed that this strategy targeted ChR2 to 70% of all ARN kisspeptin neurons and that, in vitro, these neurons were activated by 473-nm blue light with high fidelity up to 30 Hz. In vivo, the optogenetic activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons at 10 and 20 Hz evoked high amplitude, pulse-like increments in LH secretion in anesthetized male mice. Stimulation at 10 Hz for 2 min was sufficient to generate repetitive LH pulses. In diestrous female mice, only 20-Hz activation generated significant increments in LH secretion. In ovariectomized mice, 5-, 10-, and 20-Hz activation of ARN kisspeptin neurons were all found to evoke LH pulses. Part of the sex difference, but not the gonadal steroid dependence, resulted from differential pituitary sensitivity to GnRH. Experiments in kisspeptin receptor-null mice, showed that kisspeptin was the critical neuropeptide underlying the ability of ARN kisspeptin neurons to generate LH pulses. Together these data demonstrate that synchronized activation of the ARN kisspeptin neuronal population generates pulses of LH.

  10. Activating Photodynamic Therapy in vitro with Cerenkov Radiation Generated from Yttrium-90.

    PubMed

    Hartl, Brad A; Hirschberg, Henry; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R

    2016-01-01

    The translation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to the clinical setting has primarily been limited to easily accessible and/or superficial diseases, for which traditional light delivery can be performed noninvasively. Cerenkov radiation, as generated from medically relevant radionuclides, has been suggested as a means to deliver light to deeper tissues noninvasively to overcome this depth limitation. This article investigates the utility of Cerenkov radiation, as generated from the radionuclide yttrium-90, for activating the PDT process using clinically approved aminolevulinic acid at 1.0 mm and also the more efficient porphyrin-based photosensitizer mesotetraphenylporphine with two sulfonate groups on adjacent phenyl rings (TPPS2a) at 1.2 µm. Experiments were conducted with monolayer cultured glioma and breast tumor cell lines. Although aminolevulinic acid proved to be ineffective for generating a therapeutic effect at all but the highest activity levels, TPPS2a produced at least a 20% therapeutic effect at activities ranging from 6 to 60 µCi/well for the C6 glioma cell line. Importantly, these results demonstrate for the first time, to our knowledge, that Cerenkov radiation generated from a radionuclide can be used to activate PDT using clinically relevant photosensitizers. These results therefore provide evidence that it may be possible to generate a phototherapeutic effect in vivo using Cerenkov radiation and clinically relevant photosensitizers. PMID:27481495

  11. Motivation and planning as mediators of the relation between social support and physical activity among U.S. adolescents: a nationally representative study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background More than half of U.S. high-school students do not meet the moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 hours per week recommendation. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual dimensions (motivation and planning) mediate the relationship of social context with physical activity by integrating available measures of personal characteristic including internal/external motivations (derived from Self-Determination Theory -SDT]) for MVPA, MVPA planning, peer MVPA, and parental support to better understand adolescent MVPA. Methods Survey responses of a nationally representative cohort of 11th graders (N = 2439) in the NEXT Generation Health Study were analyzed with structural equation modeling. Results Adolescent MVPA was directly, significantly associated with MVPA planning (β = 0.17), peer MVPA (β = 0.21), and internal motivation (β = 0.50). Internal motivation was associated with peer MVPA (β = 0.31), parental support for MVPA (β = 0.16), and external motivation (β = 0.40). A significant relation between parental support and external motivation (β = 0.31) was also found. Conclusions Adolescents with higher internal motivation and more active friends were more likely to engage in MVPA. The results are consistent with SDT and suggest that planning is an important construct for adolescent MVPA. PMID:24656181

  12. Comp Plan: A computer program to generate dose and radiobiological metrics from dose-volume histogram files

    SciTech Connect

    Holloway, Lois Charlotte; Miller, Julie-Anne; Kumar, Shivani; Whelan, Brendan M.; Vinod, Shalini K.

    2012-10-01

    Treatment planning studies often require the calculation of a large number of dose and radiobiological metrics. To streamline these calculations, a computer program called Comp Plan was developed using MATLAB. Comp Plan calculates common metrics, including equivalent uniform dose, tumor control probability, and normal tissue complication probability from dose-volume histogram data. The dose and radiobiological metrics can be calculated for the original data or for an adjusted fraction size using the linear quadratic model. A homogeneous boost dose can be added to a given structure if desired. The final output is written to an Excel file in a format convenient for further statistical analysis. Comp Plan was verified by independent calculations. A lung treatment planning study comparing 45 plans for 7 structures using up to 6 metrics for each structure was successfully analyzed within approximately 5 minutes with Comp Plan. The code is freely available from the authors on request.

  13. On-Orbit Checkout and Activation of the ISS Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagdigian, Robert M.; Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.

    2007-01-01

    NASA has developed and; deployed an Oxygen Generation System (OGS) into the Destiny Module of the International Space Station (ISS). The major. assembly; included in this system is the Oxygen Generator Assembly. (OGA) which was developed under NASA contract by Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems International (HSSSI), Inc. This paper summarizes the installation of the system into the Destiny Module, its initial checkout and periodic preventative maintenance activities, and its operational activation. Trade studies and analyses that were conducted with the goal of mitigating on-orbit operational risks are also discussed.

  14. Energy deposition in the earth's atmosphere due to impact of solar activity-generated disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Kan, L. C.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Dryer, M.

    1979-01-01

    Energy deposition in and dynamic responses of the terrestrial atmosphere to solar flare-generated shocks and other physical processes - such as particle precipitation and local heating - are investigated self-consistently in the context of hydrodynamics, the problem being treated as an initial boundary-value problem. It is extremely difficult to construct a general model for the line solar activity-magnetosphere-atmosphere; however, a limited model for this link is possible. The paper describes such a model, and presents some results on energy deposition into the earth's atmosphere due to solar activity-generated disturbances. Results from the present calculations are presented and discussed.

  15. The Promise of Wisconsin's 1999 Comprehensive Planning Law: Land-Use Policy Reforms to Support Active Living.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph; Keyes, Sheila D

    2008-06-01

    Weaving together the disciplines of planning and policy change with the emerging research of active living, this article explores the competing interests and underlying political forces behind the design and passage of Wisconsin's Comprehensive Planning Law of 1999. While Wisconsin's law remains a work in progress, it illustrates the contemporary policy battles over land use and smart growth and the resurgence of the property-rights movement. It further highlights the influence of smart-growth coalitions and policy networks on planning reform. The authors suggest that planning practitioners and active-living proponents can adapt and transfer these policy lessons from Wisconsin to address the complex relationships of the built environment, physical activity, and the nation's current obesity problem through state and local planning reforms.

  16. Two networks involved in producing and realizing plans.

    PubMed

    Crescentini, Cristiano; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Vallesi, Antonino; Shallice, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Planning is essential for normal daily activities. Although the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to be crucially involved in planning, it remains to be understood whether this contribution is attributable to working memory requirements of the tasks and when it occurs, whether during initial planning or during subsequent plan execution. Here, we compared patterns of activation observed when participants planned and executed their plans to solve Tower of Hanoi problems to when they had to memorize and reproduce externally presented sequences of moves. The DLPFC was preferentially active during initial planning relative to both plan execution and initial memorization of sequences of moves. By contrast, plan execution relied on posterior temporal areas, inferior frontal regions and the dorsolateral premotor cortex. We attribute activation in DLPFC to generation and evaluation of abstract sequences of responses, and activation in the regions underlying plan execution to rehearsal of planned sequences of moves. PMID:22433287

  17. Drawing as a Generative Activity and Drawing as a Prognostic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwamborn, Annett; Mayer, Richard E.; Thillmann, Hubertina; Leopold, Claudia; Leutner, Detlev

    2010-01-01

    In this study, 9th-grade students (N = 196) with a mean age of 14.7 years read a scientific text explaining the chemical process of doing laundry with soap and water and then took 3 tests. Students who were instructed to generate drawings during learning scored higher than students who only read on subsequent tests of transfer (d = 0.91),…

  18. Activation of photodynamic therapy in vitro with Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Hirschberg, Henry; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R.

    2016-03-01

    Translation of photodynamic therapy to the clinical setting has primarily been limited to easily accessible and/or superficial diseases where traditional light delivery can be performed noninvasively. Cerenkov luminescence, as generated from medically relevant radionuclides, has been suggested as a means to deliver light to deeper tissues noninvasively in order to overcome this depth limitation. We report on the use of Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 as a means to active the photodynamic therapy process in monolayer tumor cell cultures. The current study investigates the utility of Cerenkov luminescence for activating both the clinically relevant aminolevulinic acid at 1.0 mM and also the more efficient photosensitizer TPPS2a at 1.2 µM. Cells were incubated with aminolevulinic acid for 6 hours prior to radionuclide addition, as well as additional daily treatments for three days. TPPS2a was delivered as a single treatment with an 18 hour incubation time before radionuclide addition. Experiments were completed for both C6 glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Although aminolevulinic acid proved ineffective for generating a therapeutic effect at any activity for either cell line, TPPS2a produced at least a 20% therapeutic effect at activities ranging from 6 to 60 µCi/well for the C6 cell line. Current results demonstrate that it may be possible to generate a therapeutic effect in vivo using Cerenkov luminescence to activate the photodynamic therapy process with clinically relevant photosensitizers.

  19. 77 FR 24950 - Meeting Related to the Transmission Planning Activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby... transmission planning activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP): Strategic Planning Committee Task... Plains, LLC. Docket No. ER11-4105-000, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket No. EL11-34-001,...

  20. School Health Index for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.

    This self-assessment and planning guide is intended to help schools identify the strengths and weaknesses of their health promotion policies and programs, develop an action plan for improving student health, and involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving school services. It focuses on physical activity and nutrition. After…

  1. The Antimicrobial Activity of Marinocine, Synthesized by Marinomonas mediterranea, Is Due to Hydrogen Peroxide Generated by Its Lysine Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Elío, Patricia; Gómez, Daniel; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Marinocine is a broad-spectrum antibacterial protein synthesized by the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This work describes the basis for the antibacterial activity of marinocine and the identification of the gene coding for this protein. The antibacterial activity is inhibited under anaerobic conditions and by the presence of catalase under aerobic conditions. Marinocine is active only in culture media containing l-lysine. In the presence of this amino acid, marinocine generates hydrogen peroxide, which causes cell death as confirmed by the increased sensitivity to marinocine of Escherichia coli strains mutated in catalase activity. The gene coding for this novel enzyme was cloned using degenerate PCR with primers designed based on conserved regions in the antimicrobial protein AlpP, synthesized by Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and some hypothetical proteins. The gene coding for marinocine has been named lodA, standing for lysine oxidase, and it seems to form part of an operon with a second gene, lodB, that codes for a putative dehydrogenase flavoprotein. The identity of marinocine as LodA has been demonstrated by N-terminal sequencing of purified marinocine and generation of lodA mutants that lose their antimicrobial activity. This is the first report on a bacterial lysine oxidase activity and the first time that a gene encoding this activity has been cloned. PMID:16547036

  2. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  3. Incorporating AIDS prevention activities into a family planning organization in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Vernon, R; Ojeda, G; Murad, R

    1990-01-01

    Three AIDS prevention activities were incorporated into the services offered by PROFAMILIA in two operations research projects. The activities included: (1) informative talks given both to the general public and to members of target groups by PROFAMILIA's community marketing (CM) program field workers (or instructors); (2) the establishment of condom distribution posts in meeting places of target groups; and (3) mass-media information campaigns on AIDS prevention. Community-based distributors were able to successfully provide information on AIDS to their regular audiences as well as to deliver information and condoms to special target groups without negatively affecting family planning information/education/communication activities and contraceptive sales. A radio campaign that promoted condom use for AIDS prevention did not affect public perceptions about the condom and did not jeopardize PROFAMILIA's image.

  4. PERK Utilizes Intrinsic Lipid Kinase Activity To Generate Phosphatidic Acid, Mediate Akt Activation, and Promote Adipocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J.; Vaites, Laura Pontano; Singh, Nickpreet; Koretzky, Gary A.; Witze, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident PKR-like kinase (PERK) is necessary for Akt activation in response to ER stress. We demonstrate that PERK harbors intrinsic lipid kinase, favoring diacylglycerol (DAG) as a substrate and generating phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity of PERK correlates with activation of mTOR and phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. PERK lipid kinase activity is regulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α-dependent manner. Moreover, PERK activity is essential during adipocyte differentiation. Because PA and Akt regulate many cellular functions, including cellular survival, proliferation, migratory responses, and metabolic adaptation, our findings suggest that PERK has a more extensive role in insulin signaling, insulin resistance, obesity, and tumorigenesis than previously thought. PMID:22493067

  5. PERK utilizes intrinsic lipid kinase activity to generate phosphatidic acid, mediate Akt activation, and promote adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Pytel, Dariusz; Riese, Matthew J; Vaites, Laura Pontano; Singh, Nickpreet; Koretzky, Gary A; Witze, Eric S; Diehl, J Alan

    2012-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident PKR-like kinase (PERK) is necessary for Akt activation in response to ER stress. We demonstrate that PERK harbors intrinsic lipid kinase, favoring diacylglycerol (DAG) as a substrate and generating phosphatidic acid (PA). This activity of PERK correlates with activation of mTOR and phosphorylation of Akt on Ser473. PERK lipid kinase activity is regulated in a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) p85α-dependent manner. Moreover, PERK activity is essential during adipocyte differentiation. Because PA and Akt regulate many cellular functions, including cellular survival, proliferation, migratory responses, and metabolic adaptation, our findings suggest that PERK has a more extensive role in insulin signaling, insulin resistance, obesity, and tumorigenesis than previously thought.

  6. 76 FR 76182 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Planning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ...; Planning Guidance and Instructions for Submission of the Strategic State Plan and Plan Modifications for... collection request (ICR) titled, ``Planning Guidance and Instructions for Submission of the Strategic State... Administration (ETA). Title of Collection: Planning Guidance and Instructions for Submission of the...

  7. Self-generation of dissipative solitons in magnonic quasicrystal active ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Grishin, S. V. Beginin, E. N.; Morozova, M. A.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.; Nikitov, S. A.

    2014-02-07

    Self-generation of dissipative solitons in the magnonic quasicrystal (MQC) active ring resonator is studied theoretically and experimentally. The developed magnonic crystal has quasiperiodic Fibonacci type structure. Frequency selectivity of the MQC together with the parametric three-wave decay of magnetostatic surface spin wave (MSSW) leads to the dissipative soliton self-generation. The transfer matrix method is used to describe MQC transmission responses. Besides, the model of MQC active ring resonator is suggested. The model includes three coupled differential equations describing the parametric decay of MSSW and two differential equations of linear oscillators describing the frequency selectivity of MQC. Numerical simulation results of dissipative soliton self-generation are in a fair agreement with experimental data.

  8. Active terahertz beam steering by photo-generated graded index gratings in thin semiconductor films.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, T P; Tyagi, H K; Schaafsma, M C; Georgiou, G; Gómez Rivas, J

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate active beam steering of terahertz radiation using a photo-excited thin layer of gallium arsenide. A constant gradient of phase discontinuity along the interface is introduced by an spatially inhomogeneous density of free charge carriers that are photo-generated in the GaAs with an optical pump. The optical pump has been spatially modulated to form the shape of a planar blazed grating. The phase gradient leads to an asymmetry between the +1 and -1 transmission diffracted orders of more than a factor two. Optimization of the grating structure can lead to an asymmetry of more than one order of magnitude. Similar to metasurfaces made of plasmonic antennas, the photo-generated grating is a planar structure that can achieve large beam steering efficiency. Moreover, the photo-generation of such structures provides a platform for active THz beam steering. PMID:25401807

  9. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Miami to conduct water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Miami USGS for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Miami USGS quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities.

  10. Sampling and analysis plan for the preoperational environmental survey for the immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) project W-465

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.M.

    1998-09-28

    This document provides a detailed description of the Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Preoperational Survey to be conducted at the Immobilized Low Activity Waste (ILAW) Project Site in the 200 East Area.

  11. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  12. Developing Students' Listening Metacognitive Strategies Using Online Videotext Self-Dictation-Generation Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Ching; Chang, Chih-Kai

    2014-01-01

    The study is based on the use of a flexible learning framework to help students improve information processes underlying strategy instruction in EFL listening. By exploiting the online videotext self-dictation-generation (video-SDG) learning activity implemented on the YouTube caption manager platform, the learning cycle was emphasized to promote…

  13. Identification of intrinsic catalytic activity for electrochemical reduction of water molecules to generate hydrogen.

    PubMed

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-06-21

    Insufficient hydronium ion activities at near-neutral pH and under unbuffered conditions induce diffusion-limited currents for hydrogen evolution, followed by a reaction with water molecules to generate hydrogen at elevated potentials. The observed constant current behaviors at near neutral pH reflect the intrinsic electrocatalytic reactivity of the metal electrodes for water reduction.

  14. Stability evaluation and correction of a pulsed neutron generator prompt gamma activation analysis system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Source output stability is important for accurate measurement in prompt gamma neutron activation. This is especially true when measuring low-concentration elements such as in vivo nitrogen (~2.5% of body weight). We evaluated the stability of the compact DT neutron generator within an in vivo nitrog...

  15. Supplement to the 1975 report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, R. (Editor); Davis, L. R. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    A listing and brief description of spacecraft and experiments designed to update the January 1975 report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments to March 31, 1975 was presented. The information is given in two sections. In the first, spacecraft and experiments that have become known to NSSDC since the original report or that have changed significantly are described. In the second, an alphabetical listing is given for all spacecraft and experiments described in the first section and in the original report. It also updates status of operation and launch dates to March 31, 1975.

  16. Mediation of personality influences on physical activity within the theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    McEachan, Rosemary R C; Sutton, Stephen; Myers, Lynn

    2010-11-01

    This study estimated the effect of extraversion, conscientiousness and variables from a modified two-component Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) on prospective self-reported physical activity (N = 397). Mediation analysis using structural equation modelling with bootstrapping suggested that only conscientiousness had significant effects on intention and behaviour. Affective attitude and perceived behavioural control partially mediated the effect on intention. The effect on behaviour was significantly mediated by TPB variables consistent with partial or total mediation. The modified TPB mediates the effects of conscientiousness on intention and behaviour; it is unclear whether it is sufficient to mediate all of the effect on behaviour.

  17. Preface: Special Session SpS7 The impact hazard: current activities and future plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montmerle, Thierry

    2015-03-01

    In 2012, at the time of the Beijing GA, two decades had passed since the publication of the Spaceguard Report. Time has not passed in vain for the subject of NEO-related hazards, and we are currently in a totally different situation than in the early nineties. The amount of work done, and the level of awareness of the underlying problems, have both risen to such a level that a re-assessment by the astronomical community of its rôle and involvement was in order, and the GA Special Session 7 ``The impact hazard: current activities and future plans'' was aimed exactly at that.

  18. Generating tsunami risk knowledge at community level as a base for planning and implementation of risk reduction strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegscheider, S.; Post, J.; Zosseder, K.; Mück, M.; Strunz, G.; Riedlinger, T.; Muhari, A.; Anwar, H. Z.

    2011-02-01

    More than 4 million Indonesians live in tsunami-prone areas along the southern and western coasts of Sumatra, Java and Bali. Although a Tsunami Early Warning Center in Jakarta now exists, installed after the devastating 2004 tsunami, it is essential to develop tsunami risk knowledge within the exposed communities as a basis for tsunami disaster management. These communities need to implement risk reduction strategies to mitigate potential consequences. The major aims of this paper are to present a risk assessment methodology which (1) identifies areas of high tsunami risk in terms of potential loss of life, (2) bridges the gaps between research and practical application, and (3) can be implemented at community level. High risk areas have a great need for action to improve people's response capabilities towards a disaster, thus reducing the risk. The methodology developed here is based on a GIS approach and combines hazard probability, hazard intensity, population density and people's response capability to assess the risk. Within the framework of the GITEWS (German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System) project, the methodology was applied to three pilot areas, one of which is southern Bali. Bali's tourism is concentrated for a great part in the communities of Kuta, Legian and Seminyak. Here alone, about 20 000 people live in high and very high tsunami risk areas. The development of risk reduction strategies is therefore of significant interest. A risk map produced for the study area in Bali can be used for local planning activities and the development of risk reduction strategies.

  19. Generation of in vivo activating factors in the ischemic intestine by pancreatic enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuoka, Hiroshi; Kistler, Erik B.; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W.

    2000-02-01

    One of the early events in physiological shock is the generation of activators for leukocytes, endothelial cells, and other cells in the cardiovascular system. The mechanism by which these activators are produced has remained unresolved. We examine here the hypothesis that pancreatic digestive enzymes in the ischemic intestine may be involved in the generation of activators during intestinal ischemia. The lumen of the small intestine of rats was continuously perfused with saline containing a broadly acting pancreatic enzyme inhibitor (6-amidino-2-naphthyl p-guanidinobenzoate dimethanesulfate, 0.37 mM) before and during ischemia of the small intestine by splanchnic artery occlusion. This procedure inhibited activation of circulating leukocytes during occlusion and reperfusion. It also prevented the appearance of activators in portal venous and systemic artery plasma and attenuated initiating symptoms of multiple organ injury in shock. Intestinal tissue produces only low levels of activators in the absence of pancreatic enzymes, whereas in the presence of enzymes, activators are produced in a concentration- and time-dependent fashion. The results indicate that pancreatic digestive enzymes in the ischemic intestine serve as an important source for cell activation and inflammation, as well as multiple organ failure.

  20. VLDL hydrolysis by LPL activates PPAR-alpha through generation of unbound fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ruby, Maxwell A; Goldenson, Benjamin; Orasanu, Gabriela; Johnston, Thomas P; Plutzky, Jorge; Krauss, Ronald M

    2010-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that lipoproteins serve as circulating reservoirs of peroxisomal proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands that are accessible through lipolysis. The present study was conducted to determine the biochemical basis of PPAR-alpha activation by lipolysis products and their contribution to PPAR-alpha function in vivo. PPAR-alpha activation was measured in bovine aortic endothelial cells following treatment with human plasma, VLDL lipolysis products, or oleic acid. While plasma failed to activate PPAR-alpha, oleic acid performed similarly to VLDL lipolysis products. Therefore, fatty acids are likely to be the PPAR-alpha ligands generated by VLDL lipolysis. Indeed, unbound fatty acid concentration determined PPAR-alpha activation regardless of fatty acid source, with PPAR-alpha activation occurring only at unbound fatty acid concentrations that are unachievable under physiological conditions without lipase action. In mice, a synthetic lipase inhibitor (poloxamer-407) attenuated fasting-induced changes in expression of PPAR-alpha target genes. Apolipoprotein CIII (apoCIII), an endogenous inhibitor of lipoprotein and hepatic lipase, regulated access to the lipoprotein pool of PPAR-alpha ligands, because addition of exogenous apoCIII inhibited, and removal of endogenous apoCIII potentiated, lipolytic PPAR-alpha activation. These data suggest that the PPAR-alpha response is generated by unbound fatty acids released locally by lipase activity and not by circulating plasma fatty acids.

  1. Predicting Physical Activity of First-Year University Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwan, Matthew Yiu Wing; Bray, Steven Russell; Ginis, Kathleen Anne Martin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to apply Ajzen's theory of planned behavior (TPB) and a measure of past physical activity behavior to predict first-year students' physical activity intentions and behavior. Participants and Methods: First-year university students (N = 212) completed measures of TPB variables and past physical activity at…

  2. VOC-PLAN: Individual Vocational Education Plan (A Quick, Efficient and Creative Way to Generate Vocational I.E.P.s), Users Manual and Preview Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jim; Seabolt, Pete

    This User's Manual is intended to accompany VOC-PLAN, a computer (Apple) program designed to assist in the preparation of an Individualized Vocational Education Program (IVEP) for handicapped, disadvantaged, or regular vocational secondary and postsecondary students. The program is presented in standard IEP (Individualized Education Program)…

  3. International Year of Planet Earth - Accomplishments, Activities, Challenges and Plans in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fucugauchi, J. U.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.

    2009-12-01

    The International Year of Planet Earth started as a joint initiative by UNESCO and IUGS with the participation of several geosciences organizations, and developed into a major international geosciences program for the triennium 2007-2009, with the inclusion and participation of national and regional committees. In this presentation we focus on current activities and plans in our country and the participation in international activities. Mexican community has been part of international programs since the International Geophysical Year, continuing through its participation in other programs, e.g., Upper Mantle, Geodynamics, Lithosphere, IHY, IPY and eGY. IYPE activities have concentrated in publications, OneGeology, radio/TV programs, organization of conferences, meetings and outreach events. A book series on Earth Science Experiments for Children has been edited, with first books published on “Atmospheric Pressure and Free Fall of Objects”, “Light and Colors”, “Standing on Archimedes”, “Foucault and Climate” and “Earth and its Waves “. Books are distributed to schools, with tens of thousand copies distributed nationwide and new editions underway. Other publications include leaflets, books and special El Faro issues (edited by the National University) and articles in other journals. In 2007 the AGU Joint Assembly with international participation from US, Canada, Europe and Latin America was held in Acapulco. Current plans include an electronic open-access journal, additional publications of the Planet Earth series, articles and special issues in journals and magazines, plus events on selected themes from the IYPE science program, particularly on Megacities, Hazards, Resources and Biodiversity. Mexico City metropolitan area, with > 22 million inhabitants presents special challenges, being at high altitude within an active tectonic and volcanic area requiring major efforts in water supply, water control, rains and waste disposal and management

  4. Review of activities and plans for solar energy in Federal buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-10-01

    Federal Buildings program and plans regarding the use of solar energy are reported. Recommendations concerning the solar Federal Buildings Program's plan are given, specifically an analysis of agencies' Ten Year Buildings construction, leasing and retrofit plans to provide visibility for and detailed knowledge of Federal agencies planning regarding solar and other renewable resources. Statistical information regarding planned solar projects, and recommendations concerning the SFBP plans are presented.

  5. Quality-assurance plan for ground-water activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drost, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the U.S. Geological Survey's Washington Water Science Center, for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of ground-water data. This plan serves as a guide to all Washington Water Science Center personnel involved in ground-water activities, and changes as the needs and requirements of the Washington Water Science Center and Discipline change. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process.

  6. Sphingomyelinase D Activity in Model Membranes: Structural Effects of in situ Generation of Ceramide-1-Phosphate

    PubMed Central

    Stock, Roberto P.; Brewer, Jonathan; Wagner, Kerstin; Ramos-Cerrillo, Blanca; Duelund, Lars; Jernshøj, Kit Drescher; Olsen, Lars Folke; Bagatolli, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of Loxosceles spider venom has been attributed to a rare enzyme, sphingomyelinase D, which transforms sphingomyelin to ceramide-1-phosphate. The bases of its inflammatory and dermonecrotic activity, however, remain unclear. In this work the effects of ceramide-1-phosphate on model membranes were studied both by in situ generation of this lipid using a recombinant sphingomyelinase D from the spider Loxosceles laeta and by pre-mixing it with sphingomyelin and cholesterol. The systems of choice were large unilamellar vesicles for bulk studies (enzyme kinetics, fluorescence spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering) and giant unilamellar vesicles for fluorescence microscopy examination using a variety of fluorescent probes. The influence of membrane lateral structure on the kinetics of enzyme activity and the consequences of enzyme activity on the structure of target membranes containing sphingomyelin were examined. The findings indicate that: 1) ceramide-1-phosphate (particularly lauroyl ceramide-1-phosphate) can be incorporated into sphingomyelin bilayers in a concentration-dependent manner and generates coexistence of liquid disordered/solid ordered domains, 2) the activity of sphingomyelinase D is clearly influenced by the supramolecular organization of its substrate in membranes and, 3) in situ ceramide-1-phosphate generation by enzymatic activity profoundly alters the lateral structure and morphology of the target membranes. PMID:22558302

  7. Manufacture of magnetically active fiber-reinforced composites for use in power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etches, Julie; Bond, Ian; Mellor, Phil

    2004-07-01

    A major issue yet to be resolved for embedding sensors, actuators and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in 'smart' structures is that of providing power. Work is ongoing in the field with examples of micro battery technology, use of solar power and micro fuel cells. The work presented here considers a technology to enable the development of integrated power generation and actuation. Magnetic fibre reinforced composite material has been developed which utilises hollow glass fibres filled with active magnetic material. The resulting material maintains structural integrity as well as providing a possible means of electrical power generation from a dynamically loaded structure. The hollow glass fibres were manufactured in-house using a bespoke fibre drawing facility. Hard magnetic powder materials were introduced into the hollow fibre cores to provide an active electromagnetic function. This paper will discuss the manufacture, characterization and optimisation of active magnetic fibre reinforced composite materials.

  8. Recognition of human-vehicle interactions in group activities via multi-attributed semantic message generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Improved Situational awareness is a vital ongoing research effort for the U.S. Homeland Security for the past recent years. Many outdoor anomalous activities involve vehicles as their primary source of transportation to and from the scene where a plot is executed. Analysis of dynamics of Human-Vehicle Interaction (HVI) helps to identify correlated patterns of activities representing potential threats. The objective of this paper is bi-folded. Primarily, we discuss a method for temporal HVI events detection and verification for generation of HVI hypotheses. To effectively recognize HVI events, a Multi-attribute Vehicle Detection and Identification technique (MVDI) for detection and classification of stationary vehicles is presented. Secondly, we describe a method for identification of pertinent anomalous behaviors through analysis of state transitions between two successively detected events. Finally, we present a technique for generation of HVI semantic messages and present our experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of semantic messages for discovery of HVI in group activities.

  9. Development and validation of the theory of planned behavior questionnaire in physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tirado González, Sonia; Neipp López, M Carmen; Quiles Marcos, Yolanda; Rodríguez-Marín, Jesús

    2012-07-01

    The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) is one of the main theoretical models in the study of the different variables, which influence in the practise of physical activity. The aim in this study was to develop a questionnaire based on TPB in physical activity context providing evidence for the validity of the obtained measures. The instrumental project included three independent studies. The first study entailed the construction and qualitative assessment of the items. In the second study, the analysis of factorial structure was performed by means of exploratory measures, and it showed that the reliability of measures was adequate. The third study provided evidence on the dimensionality of the scale. The confirmatory factorial analysis guaranteed the stability of factorial structure proposed by the TPB and provided evidence for the internal validity of the inventory. Moreover, this study provided evidence of its external validity.

  10. Reading as Active Sensing: A Computational Model of Gaze Planning in Word Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    We offer a computational model of gaze planning during reading that consists of two main components: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting. PMID:20577589

  11. Reading as active sensing: a computational model of gaze planning in word recognition.

    PubMed

    Ferro, Marcello; Ognibene, Dimitri; Pezzulo, Giovanni; Pirrelli, Vito

    2010-01-01

    WE OFFER A COMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF GAZE PLANNING DURING READING THAT CONSISTS OF TWO MAIN COMPONENTS: a lexical representation network, acquiring lexical representations from input texts (a subset of the Italian CHILDES database), and a gaze planner, designed to recognize written words by mapping strings of characters onto lexical representations. The model implements an active sensing strategy that selects which characters of the input string are to be fixated, depending on the predictions dynamically made by the lexical representation network. We analyze the developmental trajectory of the system in performing the word recognition task as a function of both increasing lexical competence, and correspondingly increasing lexical prediction ability. We conclude by discussing how our approach can be scaled up in the context of an active sensing strategy applied to a robotic setting.

  12. Optimal planning of LEO active debris removal based on hybrid optimal control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qian; Chen, Li-hu

    2015-06-01

    The mission planning of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) active debris removal problem is studied in this paper. Specifically, the Servicing Spacecraft (SSc) and several debris exist on near-circular near-coplanar LEOs. The SSc should repeatedly rendezvous with the debris, and de-orbit them until all debris are removed. Considering the long-duration effect of J2 perturbation, a linear dynamics model is used for each rendezvous. The purpose of this paper is to find the optimal service sequence and rendezvous path with minimum total rendezvous cost (Δv) for the whole mission, and some complex constraints (communication time window constraint, terminal state constraint, and time distribution constraint) should be satisfied meanwhile. Considering this mission as a hybrid optimal control problem, a mathematical model is proposed, as well as the solution method. The proposed approach is demonstrated by a typical active debris removal problem. Numerical experiments show that (1) the model and solution method proposed in this paper can effectively address the planning problem of LEO debris removal; (2) the communication time window constraint and the J2 perturbation have considerable influences on the optimization results; and (3) under the same configuration, some suboptimal sequences are equivalent to the optimal one since their difference in Δv cost is very small.

  13. Design and Activation of a LOX/GH Chemical Steam Generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, G. P.; Mulkey, C. A.; Taylor, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a detailed description of the design and activation of the LOX/GH fueled chemical steam generator installed in Cell 2 of the E3 test facility at Stennis Space Center, MS (SSC). The steam generator uses a liquid oxygen oxidizer with gaseous hydrogen fuel. The combustion products are then quenched with water to create steam at pressures from 150 to 450 psig at temperatures from 350 to 750 deg F (from saturation to piping temperature limits).

  14. An embryonic myosin converter domain influences Drosophila indirect flight muscle stretch activation, power generation and flight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Newhard, Christopher S; Ramanath, Seemanti; Sheppard, Debra; Swank, Douglas M

    2014-01-15

    Stretch activation (SA) is critical to the flight ability of insects powered by asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFMs). An essential muscle protein component for SA and power generation is myosin. Which structural domains of myosin are significant for setting SA properties and power generation levels is poorly understood. We made use of the transgenic techniques and unique single muscle myosin heavy chain gene of Drosophila to test the influence of the myosin converter domain on IFM SA and power generation. Replacing the endogenous converter with an embryonic version decreased SA tension and the rate of SA tension generation. The alterations in SA properties and myosin kinetics from the converter exchange caused power generation to drop to 10% of control fiber power when the optimal conditions for control fibers - 1% muscle length (ML) amplitude and 150 Hz oscillation frequency - were applied to fibers expressing the embryonic converter (IFI-EC). Optimizing conditions for IFI-EC fiber power production, by doubling ML amplitude and decreasing oscillation frequency by 60%, improved power output to 60% of optimized control fiber power. IFI-EC flies altered their aerodynamic flight characteristics to better match optimal fiber power generation conditions as wing beat frequency decreased and wing stroke amplitude increased. This enabled flight in spite of the drastic changes to fiber mechanical performance.

  15. An embryonic myosin converter domain influences Drosophila indirect flight muscle stretch activation, power generation and flight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Newhard, Christopher S.; Ramanath, Seemanti; Sheppard, Debra; Swank, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Stretch activation (SA) is critical to the flight ability of insects powered by asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFMs). An essential muscle protein component for SA and power generation is myosin. Which structural domains of myosin are significant for setting SA properties and power generation levels is poorly understood. We made use of the transgenic techniques and unique single muscle myosin heavy chain gene of Drosophila to test the influence of the myosin converter domain on IFM SA and power generation. Replacing the endogenous converter with an embryonic version decreased SA tension and the rate of SA tension generation. The alterations in SA properties and myosin kinetics from the converter exchange caused power generation to drop to 10% of control fiber power when the optimal conditions for control fibers – 1% muscle length (ML) amplitude and 150 Hz oscillation frequency – were applied to fibers expressing the embryonic converter (IFI-EC). Optimizing conditions for IFI-EC fiber power production, by doubling ML amplitude and decreasing oscillation frequency by 60%, improved power output to 60% of optimized control fiber power. IFI-EC flies altered their aerodynamic flight characteristics to better match optimal fiber power generation conditions as wing beat frequency decreased and wing stroke amplitude increased. This enabled flight in spite of the drastic changes to fiber mechanical performance. PMID:24115062

  16. Indomethacin augments lymphokine-activated killer cell generation by patients with malignant mesothelioma

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, L.S.; Bowman, R.V.; Davis, M.R.; Musk, A.W.; Robinson, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Human malignant mesothelioma (MM) cells are resistant to natural killer (NK) cell lysis but susceptible to lysis by lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells from control individuals. The present study was performed to determine the capacity of patients with MM (n = 22) and individuals occupationally exposed to asbestos (the major population at risk of developing this disease, n = 52) to generate LAK cells capable of effectively lysing human mesothelioma cells. Compared to controls (n = 20), both patient groups demonstrated significantly depressed LAK cell activity against mesothelioma tumor cell targets (55 +/- 3% lysis by controls vs 34 +/- 3% lysis by patients with MM, P less than 0.005; and 45 +/- 3% lysis by asbestos-exposed individuals, P less than 0.025). Addition of 10 micrograms/ml indomethacin during LAK cell generation restored normal LAK cell activity for patients with MM (52 +/- 6% lysis of cultured human MM cells, P = NS compared to controls), suggesting that the defective cytolytic cell function observed in some patients with MM is a result of prostaglandin-induced immunosuppression. The ability of indomethacin to restore suppressed LAK cell activity in patients with MM suggests that the concomitant use of this agent in ex vivo LAK cell generation and in patients undergoing interleukin/LAK cell therapy may be beneficial.

  17. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Manash S; Denney, William S; Jing, Huiyan; Diamond, Scott L

    2010-09-30

    Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF), human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa) will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i)) of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor), while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i) to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen), and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters) predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i) of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone) was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai). This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds in the

  18. Report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity for the DOE Fusion Energy Sciences Program

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    This report of the Integrated Program Planning Activity (IPPA) has been prepared in response to a recommendation by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board that, ''Given the complex nature of the fusion effort, an integrated program planning process is an absolute necessity.'' We, therefore, undertook this activity in order to integrate the various elements of the program, to improve communication and performance accountability across the program, and to show the inter-connectedness and inter-dependency of the diverse parts of the national fusion energy sciences program. This report is based on the September 1999 Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee's (FESAC) report ''Priorities and Balance within the Fusion Energy Sciences Program''. In its December 5,2000, letter to the Director of the Office of Science, the FESAC has reaffirmed the validity of the September 1999 report and stated that the IPPA presents a framework and process to guide the achievement of the 5-year goals listed in the 1999 report. The National Research Council's (NRC) Fusion Assessment Committee draft final report ''An Assessment of the Department of Energy's Office of Fusion Energy Sciences Program'', reviewing the quality of the science in the program, was made available after the IPPA report had been completed. The IPPA report is, nevertheless, consistent with the recommendations in the NRC report. In addition to program goals and the related 5-year, 10-year, and 15-year objectives, this report elaborates on the scientific issues associated with each of these objectives. The report also makes clear the relationships among the various program elements, and cites these relationships as the reason why integrated program planning is essential. In particular, while focusing on the science conducted by the program, the report addresses the important balances between the science and energy goals of the program, between the MFE and IFE approaches, and between the domestic and international aspects

  19. Generation of radical species from dihydropyrazines having DNA strand-breakage activity and other characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tadatoshi; Matsumoto, Shigenobu; Masumizu, Toshiki; Takechi, Shinji; Ishida, Takumi; Takeshita, Keizo; Kansui, Hisao; Kunieda, Takehisa

    2012-01-01

    The various biological activity of dihydropyrazines(DHPs)due to the radical generation potency has been described in previous papers. Detailed data about radical species generating be mentioned here. The electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping technique revealed that DHPs generate free radical species such as ·OH, ·OOH, ·CHR(2) and ·CR(3). Oxygen radicals and two carbon-centered radicals were detected as adducts of the spin traps DMPO and DBNBS, respectively. All the 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO)- and 3,5-dibromo-4-nitrosobenzenesulfonate (DBNBS)-adducts of compounds DHP-1-8 exhibited approximately the same signal patterns, with various levels of intensity depending on the substituent of the dihydropyrazine ring. The ESR signal intensity of DHPs also increased remarkably upon addition of Cu(2+), resulting that the effects of DHPs were enhanced. PMID:22689402

  20. Efficient Generation of Cardiac Purkinje Cells from ESCs by Activating cAMP Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Su-Yi; Maass, Karen; Lu, Jia; Fishman, Glenn I.; Chen, Shuibing; Evans, Todd

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dysfunction of the specialized cardiac conduction system (CCS) is associated with life-threatening arrhythmias. Strategies to derive CCS cells, including rare Purkinje cells (PCs), would facilitate models for mechanistic studies and drug discovery and also provide new cellular materials for regenerative therapies. A high-throughput chemical screen using CCS:lacz and Contactin2:egfp (Cntn2:egfp) reporter embryonic stem cell (ESC) lines was used to discover a small molecule, sodium nitroprusside (SN), that efficiently promotes the generation of cardiac cells that express gene profiles and generate action potentials of PC-like cells. Imaging and mechanistic studies suggest that SN promotes the generation of PCs from cardiac progenitors initially expressing cardiac myosin heavy chain and that it does so by activating cyclic AMP signaling. These findings provide a strategy to derive scalable PCs, along with insight into the ontogeny of CCS development. PMID:26028533