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Sample records for activity possibly due

  1. Possible changes for mudflow and avalanche activity in former Soviet Union due to the global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Glazovskaya, T.G.; Sidorova, T.L.; Seliverstov, Y.G.

    1996-12-31

    Past research, as well as laboratory evidence have revealed a relationship between climate, mudflow, and avalanche activity. It is possible to predict changes in mudflow and avalanche activity by using climate models. In this study, the GFDL model was used which contained data on mean monthly air temperature, precipitation, and carbon dioxide concentrations.

  2. Possible sea sediments due to glaciofluvial activity in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaumer, J.

    Observations of fluvial morphologies in southern Elysium Planitia strongly supports the hypothesis that water substantially affected this region during the relatively recent geologic past. As of yet, however, the extent of a standing body of water has been speculative. The observation of zig-zag features potentially analogous to those observed near the Wadden Sea on Earth [see 1] may help show in more detail the origin, activity, and fate of water in this region of Mars. These terrestrial analogs could constrain environmental scenarios concerning the formation of these features. We present a geomorphologic map of central Elysium Planitia, that aids in our interpretation of potentially site-specific depositional/erosional morphologies. Positive relief zig-zag features within the Medusae Fossae Formation (Themis Image V05875001) resemble similar structures on Earth observed at shorelines of flat regions. Glaciofluvial activity is indicated by linear features resembling straight glacial flutings, which could form aeolian yardangs subsequently. The flutings are associated with branches of inverted fluvial channels (Images Themis V05588002, MOC e1800307). Their excavated positive relief (height ~40 m) indicates, that the adjacent material was eroded by sublimation or aeolian activity. The channels possibly resemble ice marginal channels. A high resolution Digital Terrain Model of one of the channels suggests, that one channel is possibly running upslope. Fluvial processes could have operated at one location at one time, and glacial processes at another location at another time [2]. A glacial drainage system [see 3] is a possible terrestrial analog for one inverted fluvial channel on Mars (Themis Image V05875001). Flutings occur on the foreland of many glaciers and their length may provide important evidence for rapid advance over substantial distances. Flutings are the product of subglacial erosion and transport processes [4]. By assigning the different environmental

  3. Possible Depolarization Mechanism due to Low Beta Squeeze

    SciTech Connect

    Ranjbar,V.; Luccio, A.; Bai, M.

    2008-04-01

    Simulations reveal a potential depolarization mechanism during low beta squeeze. This depolarization appears to be driven by a spin tune modulation caused by spin precession through the strong low beta quads due to the vertical fields. The modulation of the spin tune introduces an additional snake resonance condition at {nu}{sub s0} {+-} n{nu}{sub x} - {nu}{sub z}l = integer which while the same numerology as the well known sextupole resonance, can operate in the absence of sextupole elements.

  4. A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C.; Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Several late-type stars present activity cycles resembling the Solar one. This fact has been observed mostly in stars ranging from F to K, i.e., in stars with a radiative core and an outer convective layer. Aims: This work aims at studying whether an activity cycle can be detected in the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, which is supposed to be completely convective. Methods: We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed over 7 years. We discarded the spectra that present flare activity, and analyze the remaining activity levels using four different statistical techniques to look for a period of activity. Results: We find strong evidence of a cyclic activity, with a period of ~442 days. We also estimate that the Ca ~II S index varies around 130% due to activity variations outside of flares.

  5. Fault activation due to glacially induced stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, R.; Lund, B.; Wu, P. P.

    2013-12-01

    Melting glaciers worldwide have an effect on sea level, but also on the stability of pre-existing faults. The load due to continental ice sheets or glaciers depresses the surface below, leading to changes in the lithospheric stresses. The accumulation of ice mass increases the vertical stress, and the horizontal stresses increase due to the accompanying flexure of the lithosphere. During deglaciation, ice-mass loss causes a simultaneous decrease in vertical stress; however, horizontal stresses decrease only slowly due to the slow readjusting of the Earth. After the end of deglaciation, only the induced horizontal stresses remain as the process of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) proceeds visco-elastically. The modelling of this process and the estimation of fault slip is enabled by a new GIA-fault model. However, this finite-element model is only available in two dimensions, and the extension to three dimensions is a necessary step further to allow the comparison of obtained fault slips to observations of glacially induced faults in Europe and North America. The model has several input parameters, which affect the activation time of faults and their resulting slip (e.g. ice history, rheology of the Earth, frictional properties, pore-fluid pressure). We will present the results of the new 3D model and show the sensitivity of faults with respect to modelling parameters. Furthermore, a comparison to observations will be presented.

  6. Fault activation due to glacially induced stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Rebekka; Lund, Björn

    2014-05-01

    Melting glaciers worldwide have an effect on sea level, but also on the stability of pre-existing faults. The load due to continental ice sheets or glaciers depresses the surface below, leading to changes in the lithospheric stresses. The accumulation of ice mass increases the vertical stress, and the horizontal stresses increase due to the accompanying flexure of the lithosphere. During deglaciation, ice-mass loss causes a simultaneous decrease in vertical stress; however, horizontal stresses decrease only slowly due to the slow readjusting of the Earth. After the end of deglaciation, only the induced horizontal stresses remain as the process of glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) proceeds visco-elastically. The modelling of this process and the estimation of fault slip is enabled by a new GIA-fault model. However, this finite-element model is only available in two dimensions, and the extension to three dimensions is a necessary step further to allow the comparison of obtained fault slips to observations of glacially induced faults in Europe and North America. The model has several input parameters, which affect the activation time of faults and their resulting slip (e.g. ice history, rheology of the Earth, frictional properties, pore-fluid pressure). We will present the results of the new 3D model and show the sensitivity of faults with respect to modelling parameters. Furthermore, a comparison to observations will be presented.

  7. Peroxisome proliferation due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): species differences and possible mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Elcombe, C R; Mitchell, A M

    1986-01-01

    The exposure of cultured rat hepatocytes to mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) for 72 hr resulted in marked induction of peroxisomal enzyme activity (beta-oxidation; cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl CoA oxidase) and concomitant increases in the number of peroxisomes. Similar treatment of cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes revealed little or no effect of MEHP. In order to eliminate possible confounding influences of biotransformation, the proximate peroxisome proliferator(s) derived from MEHP have been identified. Using cultured hepatocytes these agents were found to be metabolite VI [mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate] and metabolite IX [mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate]. The addition of these "active" metabolites to cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes again revealed little effect upon peroxisomes or related enzyme activities (peroxisomal beta-oxidation or microsomal lauric acid hydroxylation). These studies demonstrate a marked species difference in the response of hepatocytes to MEHP-elicited peroxisome proliferation. Preliminary studies have also suggested that peroxisome proliferation due to MEHP may be due to an initial biochemical lesion of fatty acid metabolism. Images FIGURE 4. a FIGURE 4. b PMID:3104023

  8. Peroxisome proliferation due to di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP): species differences and possible mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Elcombe, C.R.; Mitchell, A.M.

    1986-12-01

    The exposure of cultured rat hepatocytes to mono(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) for 72 hr resulted in marked induction of peroxisomal enzyme activity (..beta..-oxidation; cyanide-insensitive palmitoyl CoA oxidase) and concomitant increases in the number of peroxisomes. Similar treatment of cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes revealed little or no effect of MEHP. In order to eliminate possible confounding influences of biotransformation, the proximate peroxisome proliferator(s) derived from MEHP have been identified. Using cultured hepatocytes these agents were found to be metabolite VI (mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate) and metabolite IX (mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate). The addition of these active metabolites to cultured guinea pig, marmoset, or human hepatocytes again revealed little effect upon peroxisomes or related enzyme activities (peroxisomal ..beta..-oxidation or microsomal lauric acid hydroxylation). These studies demonstrate a marked species difference in the response of hepatocytes to MEHP-elicited peroxisome proliferation. Preliminary studies have also suggested that peroxisome proliferation due to MEHP may be due to an initial biochemical lesion of fatty acid metabolism.

  9. A possible activity cycle in Proxima Centauri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cincunegui, C.; Díaz, R. F.; Mauas, P. J. D.

    Several late-type stars (stars with a radiative core and an outer convective layer) present activity cycles resembling the Solar one. This work aims at studying whether an activity cycle can be detected in the dM5.5e star Proxima Centauri, which is supposed to be completely convective. We present periodical medium-resolution echelle observations covering the complete visual range, which were taken at the CASLEO Argentinean Observatory. These observations are distributed along 7 years. We analize the activity levels to look for a period of activity. We find strong evidence of a cyclic activity, with a period of ˜442 days. We also estimated that the Ca II S index varies around 130% due to activity variations outside of flares.

  10. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  11. POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano

    2014-01-20

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.

  12. Classification of Extrapulmonary Manifestations Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection on the Basis of Possible Pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Narita, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The list of extrapulmonary manifestations due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection can be classified according to the following three possible mechanisms derived from the established biological activity of M. pneumoniae; (1) a direct type in which the bacterium is present at the site of inflammation and local inflammatory cytokines induced by the bacterium play an important role (2) an indirect type in which the bacterium is not present at the site of inflammation and immune modulations, such as autoimmunity or formation of immune complexes, play an important role, and (3) a vascular occlusion type in which obstruction of blood flow induced either directly or indirectly by the bacterium plays an important role. Recent studies concerning extrapulmonary manifestations have prompted the author to upgrade the list, including cardiac and aortic thrombi as cardiovascular manifestations; erythema nodosum, cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and subcorneal pustular dermatosis as dermatological manifestations; acute cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, and thalamic necrosis as neurological manifestations; pulmonary embolism as a respiratory system manifestation; and renal artery embolism as a urogenital tract manifestation. Continuing nosological confusion on M. pneumoniae-induced mucositis (without skin lesions), which may be called M. pneumoniae-associated mucositis or M. pneumoniae-induced rash and mucositis separately from Stevens-Johnson syndrome, is argued in the dermatological manifestations. Serological methods are recommended for diagnosis because pneumonia or respiratory symptoms are often minimal or even absent in extrapulmonary manifestations due to M. pneumoniae infection. Concomitant use of immunomodulators, such as corticosteroids or immunoglobulins with antibiotics effective against M. pneumoniae, can be considered as treatment modalities for most severe cases, such as encephalitis. Further studies would be necessary to construct a

  13. Classification of Extrapulmonary Manifestations Due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection on the Basis of Possible Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Narita, Mitsuo

    2016-01-01

    The list of extrapulmonary manifestations due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection can be classified according to the following three possible mechanisms derived from the established biological activity of M. pneumoniae; (1) a direct type in which the bacterium is present at the site of inflammation and local inflammatory cytokines induced by the bacterium play an important role (2) an indirect type in which the bacterium is not present at the site of inflammation and immune modulations, such as autoimmunity or formation of immune complexes, play an important role, and (3) a vascular occlusion type in which obstruction of blood flow induced either directly or indirectly by the bacterium plays an important role. Recent studies concerning extrapulmonary manifestations have prompted the author to upgrade the list, including cardiac and aortic thrombi as cardiovascular manifestations; erythema nodosum, cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis, and subcorneal pustular dermatosis as dermatological manifestations; acute cerebellar ataxia, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, and thalamic necrosis as neurological manifestations; pulmonary embolism as a respiratory system manifestation; and renal artery embolism as a urogenital tract manifestation. Continuing nosological confusion on M. pneumoniae–induced mucositis (without skin lesions), which may be called M. pneumoniae-associated mucositis or M. pneumoniae-induced rash and mucositis separately from Stevens-Johnson syndrome, is argued in the dermatological manifestations. Serological methods are recommended for diagnosis because pneumonia or respiratory symptoms are often minimal or even absent in extrapulmonary manifestations due to M. pneumoniae infection. Concomitant use of immunomodulators, such as corticosteroids or immunoglobulins with antibiotics effective against M. pneumoniae, can be considered as treatment modalities for most severe cases, such as encephalitis. Further studies would be necessary to construct a

  14. Heat production due to intracellular killing activity.

    PubMed

    Hayatsu, H; Masuda, S; Miyamae, T; Yamamura, M

    1990-09-01

    Using Saccharomyces ceravisiae, Candida albicans and Stapylococcus aureus, heat production during phagocytosis was measured in U937 cells which are capable of differentiating to monocytic phagocytes. No increase in heat production of non-differentiated U937 was observed since they were not phagocytic cells. However after differentiation to monocytic phagocytes by lymphokine, U937 cells produced a remarkable amount of heat during phagocytosis. Although Ehrlich ascites tumor cells sensitized with antibody were capable of engulfing S. aureus, no increase in heat nor in superoxide anion production during phagocytosis was detected. It was also found that no heat increase occurred in neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). It can thus be concluded that the heat production during phagocytosis is due to the intercellular killing process of phagocytic cells. PMID:2131646

  15. Ionospheric Response Due to Seismic Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Signatures of the seismic activity in the ionospheric F2 region have been studied by analyzing the measurement of electron and ion temperatures during the occurrence of earthquake. The ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data recorded by the RPA payload aboard the Indian SROSS-C2 satellite during the period from January 1995 to December 2000 were used for the altitude range 430-630 km over Indian region. The normal day's electron and ion temperatures have been compared to the temperatures recorded during the seismic activity. The details of seismic events were obtained from USGS earthquake data information website. It has been found that the average electron temperature is enhanced during the occurrence of earthquakes by 1.2 to 1.5 times and this enhancement was for ion temperature ranging from 1.1to 1.3 times over the normal day's average temperatures. The above careful quantitative analysis of ionospheric electron and ion temperatures data shows the consistent enhancement in the ionospheric electron and ion temperatures. It is expected that the seismogenic vertical electrical field propagates up to the ionospheric heights and induces Joule heating that may cause the enhancement in ionospheric temperatures.

  16. Due Process: Possible Dangers and Advantages of Extension of Use of Due Process and Off-Campus Legal Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funk, Robert N.

    Until recently, the name commonly given to the relationship between the college and its students was in loco parentis, a concept that today is completely outdated. Due process of law has replaced it and many feel that its advantages are great. There are many disadvantages, however. (1) The literal adoption of legal processes from "the outside…

  17. Possibility of submarine landslide triggering due to dissociation of hydrates - an approach through ring shear tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, H.

    2014-12-01

    Japanese national institutes and MH21 consortium are developing the advanced technology of mining submarine methane hydrates by reducing pressure of hydrates to induce dissociation and gasification of hydrates. However, assessment and prediction technology of dissociation is still under development through intensive study. On the other hands, authors have pointed out the possibility of large-scale submarine landslides by the sliding surface liquefaction of the hydrate-bearing-layers. Author has tested dry-ice and silica-sands mixture specimen as a methane hydrate substitutes in a series of partially-drained high speed / stress-controlled ring shear tests. Their results strongly suggest the possibility of sliding surface liquefaction under strong seismic condition, while the possibility of extensive dissociation especially under mining by reducing pressure is not clear. Author modified the ring shear apparatus DPRI-7 of Kyoto University so that it can cool down the specimen and measure the specimen temperature during shearing. Silica sands #7 submerged in TBAB (Tetra-butyl-ammonium bromide) solution was used for the specimen. This TBAB solution was frozen at around room temperature of 8 - 12 degrees Celsius under 1 atmospheric pressure. A series of constant speed shearing test was conducted to examine the rate-effect. Frictional characteristics was achieved under 0.1 - 10 cm/s of shear speed which was changed in stepping-up and down. The results show rather the temperature effect was obvious than the speed. At the first shearing of the specimen immediately after frozen, extreme high peak stress was obtained. Then the residual shear strength showed medium peak at temperature of about 4 degrees, then gradually decreased up to about 10 degrees. The medium peak of shear strength may come from the generation of angular grains due to crushing the specimen during initial shearing. The decreasing thereafter may have resulted from further crushing, rounding of the hydrates

  18. Acute Vitamin D Intoxication Possibly Due to Faulty Production of a Multivitamin Preparation

    PubMed Central

    Anık, Ahmet; Çatlı, Gönül; Abacı, Ayhan; Dizdarer, Ceyhun; Böber, Ece

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin D intoxication usually occurs as a result of inappropriate use of vitamin D preparations and can lead to life-threatening hypercalcemia. It is also known that there are a number of physicians who prescribe vitamin D supplements for various clinical conditions, such as poor appetite and failure to thrive. While inappropriate use of vitamin D supplements may lead to vitamin D intoxication, there are no reports of cases of vitamin D toxicity due to manufacturing errors of vitamin D preparations. Here, we present cases of hypervitaminosis D which developed following the use of a standard dose of a multivitamin preparation. All three cases presented with hypercalcemia symptoms and had characteristic laboratory findings such as hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, low levels of parathyroid hormone. The very high serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in these patients indicated vitamin D excess. The vitamin D level of the prescribed multivitamin preparation in the market was studied and was found to contain a very low level of vitamin D (10 IU/5 mL). Although the stated vitamin D content of the preparations ingested by these patients was not high, unproven but possible manufacturing errors were considered to be a possible cause of the hypervitaminosis D diagnosed in these three patients. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23748070

  19. Full spinal cord regeneration after total transection is not possible due to entropy change.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, P; Sokal, P

    2016-09-01

    Transected spinal cord regeneration is a main challenge of regenerative medicine. The mainstream of research is focused on the promotion of spinal axons growth, which is strongly inhibited in mammals. Assuming that the inhibition of the axonal growth may be ever overcome, the complexity of neural reconnections may be the second serious stand to overcome. Peripheral nerve axons regeneration seem to form a random pattern of their targets reconnections. The hypothesis is that due to the laws of entropy or irreversible information loss the full spinal cord restoration after the transection is not possible. The hypothesis is discussed based on several assumptions. Simplifying the dissertation spinal cord is represented by 2millions of pyramidal axons. After the transection each of these axons has to make a growth and reconnect with exactly matching targets below the transection, in the same number. Axons are guided by neurotrophic factors and afterwards reconnected with neuroplasticity mechanisms. Assuming random reconnections, there are 2,000,000! permutations [Formula: see text] , therefore the chance of ideally random but correct reconnection of pyramidal axons with adequate targets is 1/2,000,000!. Apart from pyramidal axons, there are other axons, like extrapyramidal, sensory and associative. Empirical data and analysis of neurotrophic factors and organogenesis mechanisms may seem to slightly contradict the hypothesis, but strictly adhering to the second law of thermodynamics and entropy laws the full restoration of the transected cord may never be possible. PMID:27515203

  20. Possibility of submarine landslide triggering due to dissociation of hydrates - an approach through ring shear tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Dok, Atitkagna

    2015-04-01

    In Japan, the MH21 Research Consortium is developing the advanced technology of mining submarine methane hydrates by reducing pressure of hydrates to induce dissociation and gasification of hydrates. However, assessment and prediction technology of dissociation is still under development through intensive study. On the other hands, authors have pointed out the possibility of large-scale submarine landslides by the sliding surface liquefaction of the hydrate bearing- layers. Author has tested dry-ice and silica-sands mixture specimen as a methane hydrate substitutes in a series of partially-drained high speed / stress-controlled ring shear tests. Their results strongly suggest the possibility of sliding surface liquefaction under strong seismic condition, while the possibility of extensive dissociation especially under mining by reducing pressure is not clear. Author modified the ring shear apparatus DPRI-7 of Kyoto University so that it can cool down the specimen and measure the specimen temperature during shearing. Silica sands #7 submerged in TBAB (Tetra-butyl-ammonium bromide) solution was used for the specimen. This TBAB solution was frozen at around room temperature of 8 - 12 degrees Celsius under 1 atmospheric pressure. A series of constant speed shearing test was conducted to examine the rate-effect. Frictional characteristics was achieved under 0.1 - 10 cm/s of shear speed which was changed in stepping-up and down. The results show rather the temperature effect was obvious than the speed. At the first shearing of the specimen immediately after frozen, extreme high peak stress was obtained. Then the residual shear strength showed medium peak at temperature of about 4 degrees, then gradually decreased up to about 10 degrees. The medium peak of shear strength may come from the generation of angular grains due to crushing the specimen during initial shearing. The decreasing thereafter may have resulted from further crushing, rounding of the hydrates and

  1. Possible two-step solar energy release mechanism due to turbulent magnetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect

    Fan Quanlin; Feng Xueshang; Xiang Changqing

    2005-05-15

    In this paper, a possible two-step solar magnetic energy release process attributed to turbulent magnetic reconnection is investigated by magnetohydrodynamic simulation for the purpose of accounting for the closely associated observational features including canceling magnetic features and different kinds of small-scale activities such as ultraviolet explosive events in the lower solar atmosphere. Numerical results based on realistic transition region physical parameters show that magnetic reconnections in a vertical turbulent current sheet consist of two stages, i.e., a first slow Sweet-Parker-like reconnection and a later rapid Petschek-like reconnection, where the latter fast reconnection phase seems a direct consequence of the initial slow reconnection phase when a critical state is reached. The formation of coherent plasmoid of various sizes and their coalescence play a central role in this complex nonlinear evolution. The 'observed' values of the rate of cancellation flux as well as the approaching velocity of magnetic fragments of inverse polarity in present simulation are well consistent with the corresponding measurements in the latest observations. The difference between our turbulent magnetic reconnection two-step energy release model and other schematic two-step models is discussed and then possible application of present outcome to solar explosives is described.

  2. Possible long-term effects of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) due to neurotoxicity and overdose.

    PubMed

    van Amsterdam, Jan G C; Brunt, Tibor M; McMaster, Minni T B; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2012-04-01

    In several countries, including the Netherlands, the use of GHB seems to be rising. GHB is regarded by recreational users as an innocent drug without any side effects. Recently, the number of patients in treatment due to GHB addiction sharply increased. In addition, various studies report incidents following risky GHB use or GHB overdosing. Other sedative drugs, like ketamine and alcohol have been shown to result in unintended neurotoxic harm at the level of memory and cognitive function. As outlined in the present review, GHB and ketamine have a common mode of action, which suggests that GHB may also lead to similar neurotoxicity as ketamine. GHB overdosing, as well as binge drinking (and high ketamine doses), induce profound coma which is probably neurotoxic for the brain especially in the maturing brain of young adults. It is therefore advocated to investigate possible long-term neurotoxic effects in recreational GHB users e.g. by studying the residual effects on cognition and memory. PMID:22342779

  3. A food borne outbreak of gastroenteritis due to shigella and possibly salmonella in a school.

    PubMed

    Chanachai, Karoon; Pittayawonganon, Chakrarat; Areechokchai, Darin; Suchatsoonthorn, Chiyaporn; Pokawattana, Ladda; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn

    2008-03-01

    On August 5, 2005, a private hospital reported a large number of students with gastrointestinal illness from the same school in Bangkok, Thailand. The Bureau of Epidemiology along with the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration investigated this outbreak, to determine risk factors, identify the source of infection and possible causative organism, and recommend prevention and control strategies. A case was defined as a person who was studying or working at School A and who developed abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea or vomiting during the five-day period of August 4 to 8, 2005. A descriptive study was carried out for active case-finding, medical records review, and case interviews. We conducted the retrospective cohort study among third and fourth grade students. Stool samples were collected and tested at the Thai National Institute of Health and at private hospital laboratories. The overall attack rate was 37%. Main symptoms were diarrhea, fever, headache, abdominal pain, vomiting, and nausea. The highest attack rate (63%) was among fourth-grade students. Based on food-history data collected from ill and well students, a multiple logistic regression analysis showed that a mixed chicken and rice dish served for lunch on August 4 was associated with illness (OR 3.28, 95% CI 1.46-7.36). Among stools samples from 103 cases, Shigella group D was found in 18 cases, Salmonella group C in 5 cases, and Salmonella group E in 2 cases. This food borne outbreak of gastroenteritis was most likely caused by Shigella spp although the possibility of mixed contamination with Shigella and Salmonella spp cannot be ruled out. Food borne outbreaks such as this can be prevented through simple and effective hygienic measures. PMID:18564716

  4. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity. PMID:24416640

  5. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  6. Possible relationships between solar activity and atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roosen, R. G.; Angione, R. J.

    1975-01-01

    The large body of data on solar variations and atmospheric constituents collected between 1902 and 1953 by the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution (APO) was examined. Short-term variations in amounts of atmospheric aerosols and water vapor due to seasonal changes, volcanic activity, air pollution, and frontal activity are discussed. Preliminary evidence indicates that increased solar activity is at times associated with a decrease in attenuation due to airborne particulates.

  7. Possible relationships between solar activity and atmospheric constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roosen, R. G.; Angione, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    The large body of data on solar variations and atmospheric constituents collected between 1902 and 1953 by the Astrophysical Observatory of the Smithsonian Institution (APO) is examined. Short term variations in amounts of atmospheric aerosols and water vapor due to seasonal changes, volcanic activity, air pollution, and frontal activity are discussed. Preliminary evidence indicates that increased solar activity is at times associated with a decrease in attenuation due to airborne particulates.

  8. A formula for computing transmissibility causing maximum possible drawdown due to pumping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, G.M.; Skibitzke, Herbert E.

    1962-01-01

    By modifying the Theis nonequilibrium formula a relation is found in which the maximum possible drawdown is expressed in terms of a unique value for the aquifer coefficient of transmissibility. The relation is valid for any specified period and rate of pumping, for a given aquifer coefficient of storage, and for ,any desired radial distance from the center of pumping.

  9. An autochthonous case of Zika due to possible sexual transmission, Florence, Italy, 2014.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Giulietta; Zammarchi, Lorenzo; Fortuna, Claudia; Remoli, Maria Elena; Benedetti, Eleonora; Fiorentini, Cristiano; Trotta, Michele; Rizzo, Caterina; Mantella, Antonia; Rezza, Giovanni; Bartoloni, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of Zika virus infection imported in Florence, Italy ex-Thailand, leading to a secondary autochthonous case, probably through sexual transmission. The two cases occurred in May 2014 but were retrospectively diagnosed in 2016 on the basis of serological tests (plaque reduction neutralisation) performed on stored serum samples. Our report provides further evidence that sexual transmission of Zika virus is possible. PMID:26939607

  10. Possible bias in tree-ring time series due to mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Lucier, A A; Warnick, W L; Hyink, D M

    1989-07-01

    This article discusses the possible bias in tree-ring time series studies extending from the year of sample collection to a prepollution period. The authors hypothesizes that normal mortality (i.e., mortality not associated with sudden disturbance) can cause reduced tree ring widths in years preceding actual tree death and produce a bias toward smaller and more variable ring widths at the end of the tree-ring time series.

  11. Increases in leach rate due to possible cracking in silicate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Sang, J.C.; Barkatt, A.; Talmy, I.G.; Norr, M.K.

    1993-12-31

    Comparative studies of two multi-component silicate glasses have confirmed the observation that glasses with a relatively low SiO{sub 2} + AlO{sub 3/2} content may exhibit temporary increases in leach rate during the initial stages of their exposure to water. SEM studies of the leached glass surfaces strongly support the assumption that this phenomenon is due to cracking of the leached glass and a consequent increase of the exposed surface area.

  12. Exudative pharyngitis possibly due to Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum, a new challenge in the differential diagnosis of diphtheria.

    PubMed Central

    Izurieta, H. S.; Strebel, P. M.; Youngblood, T.; Hollis, D. G.; Popovic, T.

    1997-01-01

    Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum has rarely been reported to cause disease in humans, despite its common presence in the flora of the upper respiratory tract. We report here a case of exudative pharyngitis with pseudomembrane possibly caused by C. pseudodiphtheriticum in a 4-year-old girl. The case initially triggered clinical and laboratory suspicion of diphtheria. Because C. pseudodiphtheriticum can be easily confused with Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Gram stain, clarification of its role in the pathogenesis of exudative pharyngitis in otherwise healthy persons is of public health importance. Simple and rapid screening tests to differentiate C. pseudodiphtheriticum from C. diphtheriae should be performed to prevent unnecessary concern in the community and unnecessary outbreak control measures. PMID:9126447

  13. Unrest at Bárdarbunga: Preparations for possible flooding due to subglacial volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardardottir, Jorunn; Roberts, Matthew; Pagneux, Emmanuel; Einarsson, Bergur; Thorarinsdottir, Tinna; Johannesson, Tomas; Sigurdsson, Oddur; Egilson, David; Sigurdsson, Gunnar; Imo hydrological-monitoring-team

    2015-04-01

    . Estimation of flood travel times within Jökulsá á Fjöllum and Skjálfandafljót were based on empirical observations of jökulhlaups elsewhere in Iceland. Map and reports featuring the assessment results have throughout the eruption been presented to the Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management of the National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police, and to the public via IMO's web-site (http://en.vedur.is/) and during public consultations. In addition, IMO operates real-time monitoring of stage, discharge, conductivity and temperature at several hydrometric stations within the watersheds of Jökulsá á Fjöllum and Skjálfandafljót. This monitoring has been enhanced during the eruption with additional stations which all are programmed to give automated signal to the 24/7 duty at IMO if changes are observed in any of these parameters. It is of interest that no marked changes were observed in discharge or conductivity in Jökulsá á Fjöllum following the formation of subsidence cauldrons possibly caused by a minor subglacial eruption on 23 August. Preparations for a possible jökulhlaup from Bárdarbunga continue in line with the evolution of the fissure eruption and a possible subglacial eruption in or around the caldera.

  14. The solar wind and human birth rate: A possible relationship due to magnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Walter

    1990-03-01

    Data obtained from the literature on the annual pattern of human conceptions and plasma melatonin at high latitudes indicated that simple annual rhythms do not exist. Instead, prominent semiannual rhythms are found, with equinoctial troughs and solsticial peaks. A prominent semiannual environmental event is the magnetic disturbance induced by the solar wind. The semiannual magnetic disturbances are worldwide, but most pronounced in the auroral zones where the corpuscular radiation enters the atmosphere. Magnetic indices that predominantly reflect these events were obtained from the literature and correlated with the melatonin and conception data. Significant and inverse correlations were found for Inuit conceptions and the melatonin data. The correlations obtained for 48 contiguous states of the United States indicated that only the extreme northern states exhibited this relationship. These data were compared with a previous correlational study in the United States which established that sunshine was correlated with conceptions in the middle latitude and southern states. An hypothesis of dual control by electromagnetic and magnetic energies is proposed: melatonin is a progonadal hormone in humans controlled by both factors, depending on their relative strength. Other studies are reviewed regarding the possible factors involved in determining the annual pattern of human conceptions. Demographic studies of geographic variation in temporal patterns of conceptions, with particular regard to variations of the magnetic fields on the earth's surface, may provide some insight into the efficacy of these different factors.

  15. Hyperimmunoglobulin syndrome due to CD40 deficiency: Possibly the first case from India

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, A; Italia, K; Gupta, M; Desai, M; Madkaikar, M

    2015-01-01

    Hyperimmunoglobulin M (HIGM) type 3 due to CD40 deficiency is a very rare syndrome. Only 16 cases have been reported thus far. The clinical presentation is very variable. We present the first case of this rare disorder from India. The case is of a two-and-a-half-year-old female, with a history of repeated episodes of skin infections and diarrhea since birth. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated absolute lymphocyte count and an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of 1026/mm3. The lymphocyte subset analysis showed normal absolute counts of Natural Killer (NK) cells and elevated absolute counts of T-cells (CD4 and CD8) and B-cells. The serum immunoglobulin estimation showed low levels of IgG, IgA, IgE and an elevated level of IgM. The CD154 analysis was normal and expression of CD40 was absent on the B-cells. Molecular analysis showed a novel mutation, with deletion of 3bp (AAG) [p.Glu107GlyfsX84] in the homozygous state, in the CD40 gene. Thus the patient was diagnosed as HIGM type 3. The parents were screened and counseled regarding prenatal diagnosis at the time of next pregnancy. PMID:25511220

  16. Possible risks due to exposure of workers and patients with implants by TETRA transmitters.

    PubMed

    Cecil, Stefan; Neubauer, Georg; Rauscha, Friedrich; Stix, Günter; Müller, Wolfgang; Breithuber, Christian; Glanzer, Markus

    2014-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that mobile telephones that use different technologies, such as Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) or Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS), have the potential to influence the functionality of active electronic implants, including cardiac pacemakers. According to these studies, a few safety measures, such as maintaining minimum distances of 25 cm between implants and transmitters, are sufficient to avoid such effects. Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA) has become a well-established communication standard in many countries, including Germany and Austria. TETRA transmitters are typically used by police forces and emergency services. Employees and volunteers working for such institutions are often in close contact with patients, causing TETRA transmitters to potentially have an impact on the functionality of the implants of patients. Therefore, the main focus of our study was to investigate the functionality of several types of implants when exposed to TETRA transmitters. Moreover, we investigated the difference in the degree of exposure of users of TETRA transmitters when they carry the devices in different locations near the body, and when they use them in different positions near the head. Our results show that a compliance distance of 30 cm between implant and transmitter is sufficient to exclude any influence on the examined implants. All examined exposure conditions demonstrated that the levels were well below recommended limits. If a user wants to minimize their exposure, use of transmitters in front of the mouth leads to somewhat lower exposure when compared to typical mobile phone like use. PMID:24436224

  17. Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Bhupendra Kumar

    Major geomagnetic storm due to solar activity (2006-2013). Bhupendra Kumar Tiwari Department of Physics, A.P.S.University, Rewa(M.P.) Email: - btiwtari70@yahoo.com mobile 09424981974 Abstract- The geospace environment is dominated by disturbances created by the sun, it is observed that coronal mass ejection (CME) and solar flare events are the causal link to solar activity that produces geomagnetic storm (GMS).CMEs are large scale magneto-plasma structures that erupt from the sun and propagate through the interplanetary medium with speeds ranging from only a few km/s to as large as 4000 km/s. When the interplanetary magnetic field associated with CMEs impinges upon the earth’s magnetosphere and reconnect occur geomagnetic storm. Based on the observation from SOHO/LASCO spacecraft for solar activity and WDC for geomagnetism Kyoto for geomagnetic storm events are characterized by the disturbance storm time (Dst) index during the period 2006-2013. We consider here only intense geomagnetic storm Dst <-100nT, are 12 during 2006-2013.Geomagnetic storm with maximum Dst< -155nT occurred on Dec15, 2006 associated with halo CME with Kp-index 8+ and also verify that halo CME is the main cause to produce large geomagnetic storms.

  18. [Possible changes in energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion due to chronic low back pain - a literature review].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Alberito Rodrigo; Andrade, Alexandro; Peyré-Tartaruga, Leonardo Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    One goal of the locomotion is to move the body in the space at the most economical way possible. However, little is known about the mechanical and energetic aspects of locomotion that are affected by low back pain. And in case of occurring some damage, little is known about how the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion are manifested in functional activities, especially with respect to the energy-minimizer mechanisms during locomotion. This study aimed: a) to describe the main energy-minimizer mechanisms of locomotion; b) to check if there are signs of damage on the mechanical and energetic characteristics of the locomotion due to chronic low back pain (CLBP) which may endanger the energy-minimizer mechanisms. This study is characterized as a narrative literature review. The main theory that explains the minimization of energy expenditure during the locomotion is the inverted pendulum mechanism, by which the energy-minimizer mechanism converts kinetic energy into potential energy of the center of mass and vice-versa during the step. This mechanism is strongly influenced by spatio-temporal gait (locomotion) parameters such as step length and preferred walking speed, which, in turn, may be severely altered in patients with chronic low back pain. However, much remains to be understood about the effects of chronic low back pain on the individual's ability to practice an economic locomotion, because functional impairment may compromise the mechanical and energetic characteristics of this type of gait, making it more costly. Thus, there are indications that such changes may compromise the functional energy-minimizer mechanisms. PMID:25440708

  19. Possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R. (Editor); Maran, S. P. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted in which the following questions were discussed: (1) the evidence concerning possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena; (2) plausible physical mechanisms to explain these relationships; and (3) kinds of critical measurements needed to determine the nature of solar/meteorological relationships and/or the mechanisms to explain them, and which of these measurements can be accomplished best from space.

  20. Active infrared systems: possible roles in ballistic missile defense?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paleologue, A.

    2006-05-01

    Active Infra-Red (IR) systems developed in the past ten years are now available for missile defense applications. The main purpose of this paper is to describe the advantages an active IR system could offer to a ballistic missile defense (BMD). The active IR system considered in this paper is a LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) system. Historically, the Lincoln Laboratory in the USA began using lasers in the early 1960's. The initial applications included the development of a LIDAR system enabling the measurement of the distance between the earth and the moon in 1962. Satellite tracking using LIDAR began early in 1973. Today, technological developments, with the miniaturization of systems and increased performance levels, have enabled new ambitious projects such as the Discrimination Interceptor Technology Program (DITP) program started in 1998 and the use of LIDAR to help in the discrimination of future exo-atmospheric interceptors within the framework of BMD. The first part of this paper presents the possible contribution of LIDAR to BMD: the main roles, objectives, and strategic advantages. The second part gives a brief overview of the technological features of a generic LIDAR instrument, rapidly addressing laser sources, detectors, optics and electronics. Finally, a modeling of an IR LIDAR system, limited solely to direct detection, and an estimation of performance levels will be presented. A list of possible IR active discriminators will be then presented on the basis of the previous analysis and proposed as new constraints in the design of discrete objects.

  1. Biochemical Properties and Possible Roles of Ectophosphatase Activities in Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Freitas-Mesquita, Anita Leocadio; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Ectophosphatases are surface membrane-bound proteins whose active sites face the extracellular medium. These enzymes have been reported in several microorganisms including a large number of medically relevant fungal species. An effective technique for identifying ectophosphatases is performing phosphatase activity assays using living intact cells. Biochemical characterization of these activities has shown their differential modulation by classical phosphatase inhibitors, divalent metals and pH range. The physiological roles of ectophosphatases are not well established; however, it has been suggested that these enzymes play important roles in nutrition, proliferation, differentiation, adhesion, virulence and infection. Adhesion to host cells is the first step in establishing a fungal infection and ectophosphatases may be one of the first parasite proteins that come into contact with the host cells. Several results indicate that ectophosphatase activities increase the capacity of fungi to adhere to the host cells. In this context, the present review provides an overview of recent discoveries related to the occurrence and possible roles of ectophosphatase activities in fungal cells. PMID:24509700

  2. Favourable Locations of Possible Periodic Biogen Activity On Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kereszturi, A.

    In aur approach the basic assumptions were the following. 1. If once liquid water- loving organisms developed on ancient Mars, 2. during the later global cooling they tried to follow the location of the liquid water. 3. If there were no continuous exis- tence of liquid water on Mars, 4. but there were warm periods because of the climate changes, 6. locally liquid water appeared at some places like in lakes, subsurface reser- voires, water outbreaks. 6. The living organisms on the ancient probably wet Mars may have interrupted their biogen activity during the frozen periods. 7. The best chance for their reactivation during the next warm period is at that regions where the wet periods was the most frequent and longest. We looked for these possible places and analyzed from this point of view the possibility of repeated watery periods and astrobiological consequences at the equatorial regions (because of high temperature during thicker atmosphere) at volcanic centers (long lasted hot spot activity), in subsurface water basins, and at regions of frequent basal melting of the cryosphere.

  3. Possible helio-geomagnetic activity influence on cardiological cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsavrias, Christos

    Eruptive solar events as flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) occur during solar activ-ity periods. Energetic particles, fast solar wind plasma and electromagnetic radiation pass through interplanetary space, arrive on Earth's ionosphere-magnetosphere and produce various disturbances. It is well known the negative influence of geomagnetic substorms on the human technological applications on geospace. During the last 25 years, many studies concerning the possible influence on the human health are published. Increase of the Acute Coronary Syn-dromes and disorders of the Cardiac Rhythm, increase of accidents as well as neurological and psychological disorders (e.g. increase of suicides) during or near to the geomagnetic storms time interval are reported. In this study, we research the problem in Greece, focusing on patients with Acute Myocardial Infraction, hospitalized in the 2nd Cardiological Department of the General Hospital of Nikaea (Piraeus City), for the time interval 1997-2007 (23rd solar cycle) and also to the arrival of emergency cardiological cases to Emergency Department of two greek hospitals, the General Hospital of Lamia City and the General Hospital of Veria City during the selected months, with or without helio-geomagnetic activity, of the 23rd solar cycle. Increase of cases is recorded during the periods with increase helio-geomagnetic activity. The necessity of continuing the research for a longer period and with a bigger sample is high; so as to exact more secure conclusions.

  4. Entropy based analysis of satellite magnetic data for searching possible e.m. signatures due to big earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianchini, G.; de Santis, A.; Balasis, G.; Mandea, M.; Qamili, E.

    2009-04-01

    The importance of detecting possible electromagnetic signatures due to big earthquakes is self-evident, signatures which can be either anticipating, simultaneous or subsequent with respect to the main shock. Taking advantage of the present orbiting Champ satellite, we apply two "ad hoc" techniques both based on the Information Theory (after the seminal monography by Shannon, 1948) to the satellite magnetic data with the aim at extracting eventual time anomalies. These techniques have different time-space resolutions: the first technique requires a preliminary spherical harmonic analysis of daily magnetic data and, potentially, detects long-wavelength variations, while the second uses a preliminary wavelet analysis and can detect shorter-wavelength anomalies. Some examples are given for magnetic satellite data taken in correspondence with the two big earthquakes occurred in the Sumatra region on 24 December 2004 (M=9.1) and 28 March 2005 (M=8.6).

  5. Possible underestimations of risks for the environment due to unregulated emissions of biocides from households to wastewater.

    PubMed

    Wieck, Stefanie; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of household products as possible sources of biocidal active substances in municipal wastewater and their regulation under the Biocidal Products Regulation (EU) 528/2012. In 131 households, we investigated the prevalence of products used to control pests, washing and cleaning agents and select personal care products with high release to wastewater. Inventories of these products were established with the help of barcode scanning. All uses of biocidal active substances were evaluated regarding their assessment under the Biocidal Products Regulation. 2963 products were scanned in total, with 48% being washing and cleaning agents, 43% personal care products and 9% products used to control pests. Biocidal active substances were found in each household. These were observed primarily in washing and cleaning agents and personal care products (90%), while only a small percentage of the observations of biocidal active substances was in biocidal products. 64% of the observations of biocidal active substances were in applications that do not fall under the Biocidal Products Regulation and are thus not subject to its environmental risk assessment. This study shows clearly that risks for the environment are underestimated because unregulated emissions to wastewater occur. It demonstrates that there are gaps in the current chemical legislation that lead to a release of substances into wastewater that were not subject to environmental risk assessment under the Biocidal Products Regulation. This is one example of the limitations of scientific risk assessment of chemicals - its complexity is immense. From our point of view, the results underline the importance of a sustainable use of the substances as this is the only way to decrease yet unidentified risks. PMID:27448707

  6. Changes in osteoblastic activity due to simulated weightless conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S. B.; Morey-Holton, E. R.

    1982-01-01

    Using histochemistry and electron microscopy, the reduced bone formation which occurs in the hypokinetic, orthostatically treated adult rat has been studied. The two major changes noted occurred in the osteoblast population, indicated by a reduced alkaline phosphatase activity and reduced numbers of gap junctions between cells. These results were most noticeable in the periosteum and endosteum of the long bones. Changes in osteoblasts lining the surface of trabecular bone were not as evident. These results indicate that the cells lining the surfaces of weight bearing bones are most affected by hypokinesia and this reduction in cellular activity may be a mechanically induced effect.

  7. Analysis of exposure due to work on activated components

    SciTech Connect

    Cossairt, J.D.

    1987-09-01

    In this brief note the author summarized analysis of the exposure incurred in various maintenance jobs involving activated accelerator and beam line components at Fermilab. A tabulation was made of parameters associated with each job. Included are rather terse descriptions of the various tasks. The author presented various plots of the quantities in the table. All exposure rates are mR/hr while all exposures accumulated are mR. The exposure rates were generally measured at the Fermilab standard one foot distance from the activated component. Accumulated exposures are taken from the self-reading pocket dosimeter records maintained by the radiation control technicians.

  8. Effects of activity interference on annoyance due to aircraft noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.; Powell, C. A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of aircraft flyover noise on annoyance were compared for face to face conversation, reverie, and television viewing. Eighteen 5 minute sessions, each composed of three flyovers, were presented on each of 2 days to subjects in a simulated living room. Twelve pairs of females and 12 pairs of males were tested, once before and once after work. Flyovers varied in peak noise level from 53 to 83 dB, A weighted. On each day, subjects engaged in 18 sessions, six of conversation, six of television viewing, and six of reverie. The subjects completed subjective ratings of annoyance and acceptability following every session. Annoyance and unacceptability rating scores were significantly higher for the activity of television viewing compared to conversation or reverie. There was no difference between judgments during the latter two activities. No differences were found in the judgments when compared on the basis of "fatigue" (before/after work) or sex of the subject.

  9. Asymmetric thoracic metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) activity due to prior radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xia; Yang, Hua; Zhuang, Hongming

    2015-06-01

    A 5-year-old patient suffered Horner syndrome, which was caused by a neuroblastoma in the left apex of the lung shown on the initial I-MIBG scan. After the surgical resection and external radiation to the left lung field, a follow-up I-MIBG scan revealed significantly less MIBG activity in the left upper chest compared to the contralateral right upper chest. PMID:25742240

  10. Density increase due to active feedback in mirror machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seemann, Omri; Be'Ery, Ilan

    2014-10-01

    Mirror machines are one of the schemes for future fusion systems. Its main drawbacks are the flute instability and being open ended which results in plasma losses. A feedback system is used to stabilize the flute instability in a table top mirror machine with a continuous plasma source and RF heating. Under certain source density and temperature conditions, although the plasma was stabilized, plasma density increase was not measured. After decreasing the source density and increasing the temperature, Plasma density increase was achieved. It is theorized that these results are due to transition of the plasma main loss mechanism from collision dominated to instability dominated. In the former, the main density loss is through diffusion and In the latter, it is through flute instability which drives the plasma to the edge of the vacuum chamber. Future research directions are discussed for a planned machine which should achieve higher temperatures and better diagnostic capabilities. The research will focus on magnetic actuators and passive RF stabilization.

  11. The Medication Level Variability Index (MLVI) predicts rejection, possibly due to nonadherence, in adult liver transplant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Supelana, Christina; Annunziato, Rachel; Schiano, Thomas; Anand, Ravinder; Vaidya, Swapna; Chuang, Kelley; Zack, Yelena; Florman, Sander; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Shemesh, Eyal

    2014-01-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressants may play a role in late rejection in liver transplant recipients. In children, emerging data suggest that adherence can be measured by computing the standard deviation (SD) of consecutive blood levels of tacrolimus, resulting in a number that reflects the degree of variability between individual measures (the Medication Level Variability Index, MLVI). A higher MLVI value means erratic immunosuppression, likely due to less adherence. Data on this method in adults are limited. We obtained data from the medical charts of 150 randomly selected adult recipients. The MLVI was significantly higher in patients who had biopsy-confirmed rejection (mean MLVI=3.8, SD=3.2) as compared with the rest of the cohort (mean MLVI=2.3, SD=1.5; p<0.01), and it was significantly higher in patients who had a rejection as compared with patients who had a biopsy that was not read as a rejection (mean MLVI=2.6, SD=1.6; p<0.01). The MLVI was both associated with rejection and predicted its occurrence. A threshold MLVI of 2.0 resulted in 77% sensitivity and 60% specificity in predicting rejection; a threshold of 1.8 resulted in a sensitivity of 92% and specificity of 48%. The Area Under the Curve (AUC) in a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was 0.71 (95% CI: 0.61–0.81). The MLVI is associated with and can predict rejection, possibly related to nonadherence, in adult liver transplant recipients. PMID:24931127

  12. An overview of possible and not-so-possible tasks for active control of sound and vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Flotow, Andreas H.

    1991-05-01

    While such passive approaches to helicopter sound and vibration control as vibration isolation/acoustic blocking, damping/acoustic absorption, and tuned absorbers, can be actively implemented and enhanced, active control methods transcend these possibilities. A survey is presently conducted of the literature generated by active-control research in recent years, with a view to emerging opportunities that do not risk instability, excessive development and production costs, and undue complexity.

  13. Possibility of weather and climate change by active experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avakyan, Sergey; Voronin, Nikolai; Troitsky, Arkadil; Chernouss, Sergey

    stimulated by HF heating in an experiment at the "Sura" even earlier (2002) This led to the appearance of Rydberg states exited by the accelerated electrons impact (Troitskii et al.) found that at the threshold of sensitivity of radiometric measurements in 0.006 g/cm(2) observed a decrease in the water vapor content in the troposphere at 0.05 g/cm(2) at a total natural content 1.8-2.1 g/cm(2) in a special experiment on the basis of "Sura" facility to study the cluster-condensation mechanism. These reductions were observed almost simultaneously with the work of facility and time delay was about 1 minute. It should be noted that the heating power was 20 times less than the maximal reached power in such facilities. The extending of the experimental possibilities on the clustering in the troposphere by ionospheric microwave radiation (SPbSU) supposedly can give us the same result as an active impact on the ionosphere by heating facilities and power transmitters. We believe that manifestation of the described effects give a contribution to change of climatic characteristics: cloud formation, cyclogenesis, temperature anomalies and precipitation. This follows from the results of the analysis of correlation between cloud cover, temperature and precipitation and solar-geomagnetic activity over secular and annual (2 - 5 years) scales. Authors propose to use an optical method for detecting emissions of atomic oxygen in those electronic transitions between Rydberg states, which wavelengths are located in the atmospheric spectral windows in the visible and IR ranges. It will be the test for contribution of the Rydberg excitation processes in the formation of the flux of microwave active effects of the ionosphere. Corresponding lines for the visible region of the spectrum in low-lying Rydberg levels (with principal quantum number n of about 10) are in the blue region of the spectrum: 448.4 nm (the electronic transition is 11d - 3p), 452,3 nm (10d - 3p), and 457.7 nm (9d - 3p

  14. Possible mechanisms of normal amylase activity in hyperlipemic pancreatitis.

    PubMed Central

    Mishkin, S.; Bates, J.; O'Hashi, J.; Schneider, P.; Sniderman, A. D.; Wolf, R. O.

    1976-01-01

    Lipemic serum from three patients with acute pancreatitis and type IV hyperlipemia was fractionated into very-low-density lipoproteins and clear serum. Amylase activity (determined by the Phadebas method) in the component fractions did not exceed that in the original lipemic serum. Addition of these fractions or VLDL and chylomicrons from asymptomatic patients with hyperlipemia to nonlipemic serum from patients with "routine acute pancreatitis" did not inhibit amylase activity or alter the electrophoretic mobility of amylase isoenzymes. Therefore the normal amylase activity often observed in hyperlipemic pancreatitis does not result from an inhibition of amylase activity by serum lipoproteins. Images FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:206333

  15. Increased Mortality in Schizophrenia Due to Cardiovascular Disease – A Non-Systematic Review of Epidemiology, Possible Causes, and Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ringen, Petter Andreas; Engh, John A.; Birkenaes, Astrid B.; Dieset, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is among the major causes of disability worldwide and the mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) is significantly elevated. There is a growing concern that this health challenge is not fully understood and efficiently addressed. Methods: Non-systematic review using searches in PubMed on relevant topics as well as selection of references based on the authors’ experience from clinical work and research in the field. Results: In most countries, the standardized mortality rate in schizophrenia is about 2.5, leading to a reduction in life expectancy between 15 and 20 years. A major contributor of the increased mortality is due to CVD, with CVD mortality ranging from 40 to 50% in most studies. Important causal factors are related to lifestyle, including poor diet, lack of physical activity, smoking, and substance abuse. Recent findings suggest that there are overlapping pathophysiology and genetics between schizophrenia and CVD-risk factors, further increasing the liability to CVD in schizophrenia. Many pharmacological agents used for treating psychotic disorders have side effects augmenting CVD risk. Although several CVD-risk factors can be effectively prevented and treated, the provision of somatic health services to people with schizophrenia seems inadequate. Further, there is a sparseness of studies investigating the effects of lifestyle interventions in schizophrenia, and there is little knowledge about effective programs targeting physical health in this population. Discussion: The risk for CVD and CVD-related deaths in people with schizophrenia is increased, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. Coordinated interventions in different health care settings could probably reduce the risk. There is an urgent need to develop and implement effective programs to increase life expectancy in schizophrenia, and we argue that mental health workers should be more involved in this important task. PMID:25309466

  16. Worries and Possibilities in Active Citizenship: Three Swedish Educational Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldenmyr, Sara Irisdotter; Wigg, Ulrika Jepson; Olson, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how the concept of active citizenship has been given a neo-liberal character by examining practice in three different educational contexts in Sweden. The concept of active citizenship has become influential in educational policy and practice throughout the European Union. The aim of this article is to highlight concerns at…

  17. POSSIBLE ERRORS IN ASSAY FOR B-GLYCOSIDASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because intestinal B-glycosidase enzymes activate the toxicity and/or carcinogenicity of many environmental chemicals, accurate analysis of their activities is toxicologically important. owever, previous work in this lab indicated that widespread use of the glycosides of p-nitrop...

  18. 76 FR 20707 - Notice of Possible Shutdown of Investigative Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... determined to shut down its investigative activities in the event of the absence of an appropriation. FOR... because of the potential for an absence of an appropriation as of 12:01 a.m. on Saturday, April 9, 2011... shut down its investigative activities for the duration of the absence of appropriation....

  19. Anti-stress Activity of Ocimum sanctum: Possible Effects on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis.

    PubMed

    Jothie Richard, Edwin; Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandhakumar, Senthilkumar; Bhaskar, Anirban; Chinampudur Velusami, Chandrasekaran; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated anti-stress potential of Ocimum sanctum in chronic variable stress (CVS) paradigm. Further, the possible mechanism of anti-stress was explored in vitro using cell and cell-free assays. Rats were administered O. sanctum followed by CVS regimen for a period of 16 days. On days 4, 8, 12, and 16, body weight and immobility time in forced swim test were measured. In addition, the possible inhibitory effect of O. sanctum and ursolic acid on cortisol release and CRHR1 receptor activity were studied in cell-based assays, while inhibitory effects on 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were studied in cell-free assays. CVS group demonstrated less body weight gain and higher immobility time than O. sanctum administered groups, while oral administration of O. sanctum significantly increased body weight gain and decreased the immobility time. Further, O. sanctum and its constituents inhibited cortisol release and exhibited a significant CRHR1 receptor antagonist activity. Also, they had specific inhibitory activity towards 11β-HSD1 and COMT activity. Thus, O. sanctum was found to be effective in the management of stress effects, and anti-stress activity could be due to inhibition of cortisol release, blocking CRHR1 receptor, and inhibiting 11β-HSD1 and COMT activities. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26899341

  20. A Possible Mechanism for Redox Control of Human Neuroglobin Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Neuroglobin (Ngb) promotes neuron survival under hypoxic/ischemic conditions. In vivo and in vitro assays provide evidence for redox-regulated functioning of Ngb. On the basis of X-ray crystal structures and our MD simulations, a mechanism for redox control of human Ngb (hNgb) activity via the influence of the CD loop on the active site is proposed. We provide evidence that the CD loop undergoes a strand-to-helix transition when the external environment becomes sufficiently oxidizing, and that this CD loop conformational transition causes critical restructuring of the active site. We postulate that the strand-to-helix mechanics of the CD loop allows hNgb to utilize the lability of Cys46/Cys55 disulfide bonding and of the Tyr44/His64/heme propionate interaction network for redox-controlled functioning of hNgb. PMID:24855999

  1. Saharan Dust, Transport Processes, and Possible Impacts on Hurricane Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M.; Kim, K. M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present observational evidence of significant relationships between Saharan dust outbreak, and African Easterly wave activities and hurricane activities. We found two dominant paths of transport of Saharan dust: a northern path, centered at 25degN associated with eastward propagating 6-19 days waves over northern Africa, and a southern path centered at 15degN, associated with the AEW, and the Atlantic ITCZ. Seasons with stronger dust outbreak from the southern path are associated with a drier atmosphere over the Maximum Development Region (MDR) and reduction in tropical cyclone and hurricane activities in the MDR. Seasons with stronger outbreak from the northern path are associated with a cooler N. Atlantic, and suppressed hurricane in the western Atlantic basin.

  2. On the possibility of negative activation energies in bimolecular reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate constants for model reacting systems was studied to understand some recent experimental measurements which imply the existence of negative activation energies. A collision theory model and classical trajectory calculations are used to demonstrate that the reaction probability can vary inversely with collision energy for bimolecular reactions occurring on attractive potential energy surfaces. However, this is not a sufficient condition to ensure that the rate constant has a negative temperature dependence. On the basis of these calculations, it seems unlikely that a true bimolecular reaction between neutral molecules will have a negative activation energy.

  3. The Politics and Possibilities of Activism in Contemporary Feminist Psychologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebert, Rachel; Leve, Michelle; Hui, Amber

    2011-01-01

    The authors facilitated a structured discussion on transgenerational activism at the 2011 meeting of the Association of Women in Psychology (AWP). Their discussion there had been sparked by an essay recently published by "Harpers" magazine in which Susan Faludi (2010) characterized a generational strife among the feminist "waves." Still catalyzed…

  4. Possible Relationship of the Solar Activity and Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Trejo, J. I.; Cervantes, F.; Real-Ramírez, C. A.; Hoyos-Reyes, L. F.; Miranda-Tello, R.; Area de Sistemas Computacionales

    2013-05-01

    Several authors have recently argued that there is a relationship between solar activity and big earthquakes. This work compares Dst index fluctuations along 2012 and 2013, with the earthquake activity near La Paz, Baja California, Mexico. The earthquakes measurements at this place were divided according its deep focus. It was observed that the frequency of the deeper earthquakes increases shortly after considerable fluctuations in the Dst index are registered. We assume that the number of deep earthquakes increases because the interaction of the tectonic plate below that place and the tectonic plates in contact with it increases. This work also shows that the frequency of shallowest minor and light earthquakes increases shortly before a strongest earthquake takes place in the vicinity.

  5. The possibility of a fuzzy zone of semiotic activity.

    PubMed

    Morioka, Masayoshi

    2007-12-01

    In this commentary I tried to further develop the idea of Madureira (Integr Psych Behav Sci, 42(2), 2007), who challenges to clarify the complex sexuality problem of homophobia from the viewpoint of the cultural semiotic activity. Two remarking points were proposed in this commentary article. First, I took notice of the boundary phenomenon constructed between the homophobia and the other. It has a cultural meaning. Concerning with this process, I introduced and examined the concept of tonus that is sensed a subtle changing process of tension in self-other relationship. The second, I discussed about the fuzzy zone of semiotic activity. If one can feel in oneself fuzzy awareness into the source of discomfort affect, it is able to be a creative moment in the tension of fuzzy field (A and non-A) where generates dialogical activity in both vertical and horizontal. Through this discussion, I proposed some remarks for the dissolution on the culturally constructed prejudice of sexuality. PMID:18232094

  6. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  7. Studies on potential emission of hazardous gases due to uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres and their possible impacts on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakya, Pawan R.; Shrestha, Pratima; Tamrakar, Chirika S.; Bhattarai, Pradeep K.

    Uncontrolled open-air burning of waste vehicle tyres causing environmental pollution has become a popular practice in Nepal despite official ban considering the environment and public health hazards. In this study, an experimental model was set up in a laboratory scale in an attempt to understand the potential emission of hazardous gases such as CO, SO 2 and NO 2 due to such activities in Kathmandu Valley and their possible impacts on the environment. For this purpose, four types of tyre were collected representing two from passenger car and two from motorbike category. The emission level of CO in the tyre smoke was measured with a CO gas detector tube while SO 2 and NO 2 were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometer. Among the three types of the gases analyzed, SO 2 was emitted in significantly high levels by all the representative tyre samples. The emission levels of CO, SO 2 and NO 2 ranged from 21to 49, 102to 820 and 3to 9 μg g -1, respectively. Results revealed that the emission levels also varied with the tyre types and qualities. The potential emission of the hazardous gases per representative scrap tyre mass was also estimated. Results indicate that the gaseous pollutants due to the tyre fires could make a significant contribution for deterioration of the environmental condition of the Valley or elsewhere.

  8. An analysis of the teratagenic effects that could possibly be due to alcohol consumption by pregnant mothers.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, J D

    2000-10-01

    It can be concluded that alcohol is definitely harmful to the developing fetus. The effect can manifest in various ways, the most extreme of which is a condition called Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). The diagnosis of maternal alcoholism leading onto cases of FAS is difficult due to absence of accurate diagnostic tests. The diagnosis of FAS in a child is easier by a proper examination. There is no specific treatment of FAS in a child. The only management is by institution of corrective and rehabilitative measures. The exact mechanism of the teratogenic action of alcohol is not known. It is probably due to the harmful effect of alcohol on the epiblast layer of the bilaminar germ disc. In the absence of adequate knowledge regarding FAS, not much can be done to remedy the deleterious effects of alcohol. Hence, a word of advice to all pregnant women is to avoid drinking during pregnancy. PMID:11262858

  9. Scenario forecasting changes in the water balance components of the Olenek and Iindigirka river basins due to possible climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, Ye. M.; Nasonova, O. N.; Dzhogan, L. Ya.; Kovalev, E. E.

    2015-06-01

    Scenario projections of the dynamics of meteorological characteristics for the basins of the Olenek and Indigirka rivers (the Republic of Sakha) in the XXI century have been obtained for four IPCC global climate change scenarios of SRES family which correspond to specified scenarios of economic, technological, political, and demographic development of human civilization. The projections have been used to calculate scenarios of possible changes in water balance components for the basins under consideration up to the year of 2063. The calculation procedure involves a physically-based model for heat and mass exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere SWAP and climate scenario generator MAGICC/SCENGEN.

  10. Possible high-energy neutrino and photon signals from gravitational wave bursts due to double neutron star mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, He; Zhang, Bing; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao

    2013-08-01

    As the technology of gravitational-wave and neutrino detectors becomes increasingly mature, a multimessenger era of astronomy is ushered in. Advanced gravitational-wave detectors are close to making a ground-breaking discovery of gravitational-wave bursts (GWBs) associated with mergers of double neutron stars (NS-NS). It is essential to study the possible electromagnetic and neutrino emission counterparts of these GWBs. Recent observations and numerical simulations suggest that at least a fraction of NS-NS mergers may leave behind a massive millisecond magnetar as the merger product. Here we show that protons accelerated in the forward shock powered by a magnetar wind pushing the ejecta launched during the merger process would interact with photons generated in the dissipating magnetar wind and emit high-energy neutrinos and photons. We estimate the typical energy and fluence of the neutrinos from such a scenario. We find that ˜PeV neutrinos could be emitted from the shock front as long as the ejecta could be accelerated to a relativistic speed. The diffuse neutrino flux from these events, even under the most optimistic scenarios, is too low to account for the two events announced by the IceCube Collaboration, but it is only slightly lower than the diffuse flux of GRBs, making it an important candidate for the diffuse background of ˜PeV neutrinos. The neutron-pion decay of these events make them a moderate contributor to the sub-TeV gamma-ray diffuse background.

  11. Mode of Strong Earthquake Recurrence In Central Ionian Islands (greece). Possible Triggering Due To Coulomb Stress Changes Generated By The Occurrence of Previous Strong Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadimitriou, E.

    The spatial-temporal distribution of shallow strong (M>6.3) earthquakes occurring in the area of central Ionian Islands is analyzed. These shocks generated on two adja- cent fault segments with different strike, but both associated with strike-slip faulting, constituting the boundary between continental collision to the north and oceanic sub- duction to the south. Seismic activity is confined in short time intervals alternating by much longer relatively quiescent periods. Each active period consists of a relatively large event or series (two to four) of events occurring closely both in space and time. This alteration was observed to happen four times since 1867, from when complete data exist for the study area. Since the phenomenon is not strictly periodic and during each active period multiple events occurred, it is attempted to interpret the seismic behavior on the basis of possible triggering. It is then investigated how changes in Coulomb Failure Function (DCFF) associated with one or more earthquakes may trig- ger subsequent events. Both the coseismic slip due to the generation of the strong earthquakes and stress build up associated with the two major fault segments were taken into account for the DCFF calculation. Earthquakes can be modeled as static dislocations in elastic half-space, and the stress pattern has been inverted according to the geometry and slip of each of the faults that ruptured in the chain of events. These calculations show that 13 out of 14 earthquakes with M>6.3 were preceded by a static stress change that encouraged failure. The magnitude of the stress increases transferred from one earthquake to another ranged from 0.01 MPa (0.1 bar) to over 0.1 MPa (1 bar). Maps of current DCFF provide additional information to long-term earthquake prediction. Areas of positive DCFF have been identified at two sites in Ke- falonia and Lefkada faults, respectively, where the next strong events are expected to occur.

  12. Primary Adrenal Lymphoma Possibly Associated With Epstein-Barr Virus Reactivation Due to Immunosuppression Under Methotrexate Therapy.

    PubMed

    Ohkura, Yu; Shindoh, Junichi; Haruta, Shusuke; Kaji, Daisuke; Ota, Yasunori; Fujii, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Goro; Matsuda, Masamichi

    2015-08-01

    Primary adrenal lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) is an extremely rare disease that is widely known to be associated with methotrexate (MTX) use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).A 70-year-old man was incidentally found to have a tumor at the dorsal part of the liver in a medical check-up. He had a history of RA treated with MTX. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a low echoic mass (30 mm in diameter) at the dorsal part of the liver, located close to the inferior vena cava. Preoperative differential diagnoses included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, adrenal tumor, and hepatic malignant lymphoma, but no definitive diagnosis was reached. On exploratory laparotomy, the tumor seemed to be derived from the right adrenal gland and adhered tightly to segment 7 of the liver. Therefore, right adrenectomy with partial resection of segment 7 of the liver was performed. Pathological findings revealed diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration with a population of small atypical lymphoid cells, with positive immunohistochemical evidence for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Final diagnosis was primary adrenal iatrogenic EBV-positive LPD, classified as "other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated LPDs: Hodgkin-like lesions."In this report, we described the possibility of the spontaneous healing of MTX-associated LPD (MTX-LPD) before treatment and the importance of doubting MTX-LPD and doing immunostaining to necrotic tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MTX-related EBV-positive LPD, Hodgkin-like lesion, of the unilateral adrenal gland in patient with RA. PMID:26252293

  13. Primary Adrenal Lymphoma Possibly Associated With Epstein–Barr Virus Reactivation Due to Immunosuppression Under Methotrexate Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ohkura, Yu; Shindoh, Junichi; Haruta, Shusuke; Kaji, Daisuke; Ota, Yasunori; Fujii, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Masaji; Watanabe, Goro; Matsuda, Masamichi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Primary adrenal lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD) is an extremely rare disease that is widely known to be associated with methotrexate (MTX) use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 70-year-old man was incidentally found to have a tumor at the dorsal part of the liver in a medical check-up. He had a history of RA treated with MTX. Abdominal ultrasonography demonstrated a low echoic mass (30 mm in diameter) at the dorsal part of the liver, located close to the inferior vena cava. Preoperative differential diagnoses included intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, adrenal tumor, and hepatic malignant lymphoma, but no definitive diagnosis was reached. On exploratory laparotomy, the tumor seemed to be derived from the right adrenal gland and adhered tightly to segment 7 of the liver. Therefore, right adrenectomy with partial resection of segment 7 of the liver was performed. Pathological findings revealed diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration with a population of small atypical lymphoid cells, with positive immunohistochemical evidence for Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Final diagnosis was primary adrenal iatrogenic EBV-positive LPD, classified as “other iatrogenic immunodeficiency-associated LPDs: Hodgkin-like lesions.” In this report, we described the possibility of the spontaneous healing of MTX-associated LPD (MTX-LPD) before treatment and the importance of doubting MTX-LPD and doing immunostaining to necrotic tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of MTX-related EBV-positive LPD, Hodgkin-like lesion, of the unilateral adrenal gland in patient with RA. PMID:26252293

  14. RhNGF slow unfolding is not due to proline isomerization: possibility of a cystine knot loop-threading mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    De Young, L. R.; Burton, L. E.; Liu, J.; Powell, M. F.; Schmelzer, C. H.; Skelton, N. J.

    1996-01-01

    The unfolding of recombinant human beta-NGF (NGF) in guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) was found to be time dependent with the denaturation midpoint moving to lower GdnHCl concentration over time. Dissociation and extensive unfolding of the NGF dimer occurred rapidly in 5 M GdnHCl, but further unfolding of the molecule occurred over many days at 25 degrees C. Fluorescence spectroscopy, size-exclusion and reversed-phase HPLC, ultra-centrifugation, and proton NMR spectroscopy were used to ascertain that the slow unfolding step was between two denatured monomeric states of NGF (M1 and M2). Proton NMR showed the monomer formed at early times in GdnHCl (M1) had little beta-sheet structure, but retained residual structure in the tryptophan indole and high-field methyl regions of the spectrum. This residual structure was lost after prolonged incubation in GdnHCl giving a more fully unfolded monomer, M2. From kinetic unfolding experiments in 5 M GdnHCl it was determined that the conversion of M1 to M2 had an activation energy of 26.5 kcal/mol, a half-life of 23 h at 25 degrees C, and the rate of formation of M2 was dependent on the GdnHCl concentration between 5 and 7.1 M GdnHCl. These properties of the slow unfolding step are inconsistent with a proline isomerization mechanism. The rate of formation of the slow folding monomer M2 increases with truncation of five and nine amino acids from the NGF N-terminus. A model for the slow unfolding reaction is proposed where the N-terminus threads through the cystine knot to form M2, a loop-threading reaction, increasing the conformational freedom of the denatured state. PMID:8844846

  15. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  16. Smooth muscle relaxant activity of Crocus sativus (saffron) and its constituents: possible mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Mokhtari-Zaer, Amin; Khazdair, Mohammad Reza; Boskabady, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Saffron, Crocus sativus L. (C. sativus) is rich in carotenoids and used in traditional medicine for treatment of various conditions such as coughs, stomach disorders, amenorrhea, asthma and cardiovascular disorders. These therapeutic effects of the plant are suggested to be due to its relaxant effect on smooth muscles. The effect of C. sativus and its constituents on different smooth muscles and the underlying mechanisms have been studied. Several studies have shown the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents including safranal, crocin, crocetin and kaempferol on blood vessels. In addition, it was reported that saffron stigma lowers systolic blood pressure. The present review highlights the relaxant effects of C. sativus and its constituents on various smooth muscles. The possible mechanisms of this relaxing effect including activation of ß2-adrenoceptors, inhibition of histamine H1 and muscarinic receptors and calcium channels and modulation of nitric oxide (NO) are also reviewed. PMID:26468456

  17. Biological activity of glycolipids produced by microorganisms: new trends and possible therapeutic alternatives.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Sánchez, Alejandro de Jesús; Hernández-Sánchez, Humberto; Jaramillo-Flores, María Eugenia

    2013-01-15

    Several biological processes in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms require the presence of glycolipids (biosurfactants), compounds with both hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups in their structure. They constitute the backbone of different metabolic functions and biological structures such as cell membranes. Besides being structural components, glycolipids show surface activity in the interfaces and are mainly produced by microorganisms. Interest in biosurfactants has increased considerably in recent times due to their applications in the environmental, oil, food, and pharmaceutical industries, since they have unique properties such as low toxicity, high biodegradability, environmentally friendly, foaming capacity, high selectivity and specificity at extreme temperatures, pH and salinity, as well as biological activity. All of these properties are considered advantages over other chemical surfactants, and therefore glycolipids are considered a good alternative, given the current interest on sustainable development. The present work shows a general view of bio-surfactants of microbial origin, particularly of glycolipids, referring to several studies on their biological activity that have revealed their great potential in the medical-biological field, discovering interesting possibilities for their therapeutic application in the near future. PMID:22959834

  18. Misclassification of Physical Activity Level Due to Exclusion of Workplace Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boslaugh, Sarah E.; Kreuter, Matthew W.; Weaver, Nancy L.; Naleid, Kimberly S.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effect of including workplace physical activity in calculating the proportion of adults meeting Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines for physical activity. Data on leisure-time and workplace activity were collected from 1,090 Black and White adults in St. Louis, MO. A series of assumptions were used to equate…

  19. Overexpression of 3β-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases/C-4 Decarboxylases Causes Growth Defects Possibly Due to Abnormal Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Gyusik; Fujioka, Shozo; Takatsuto, Suguru; Choe, Sunghwa

    2012-01-01

    Sterols play crucial roles as membrane components and precursors of steroid hormones (e.g., brassinosteroids, BR). Within membranes, sterols regulate membrane permeability and fluidity by interacting with other lipids and proteins. Sterols are frequently enriched in detergent-insoluble membranes (DIMs), which organize molecules involved in specialized signaling processes, including auxin transporters. To be fully functional, the two methyl groups at the C-4 position of cycloartenol, a precursor of plant sterols, must be removed by bifunctional 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases/C-4 decarboxylases (3βHSD/D). To understand the role of 3βHSD/D in Arabidopsis development, we analyzed the phenotypes of knock-out mutants and overexpression lines of two 3βHSD/D genes (At1g47290 and At2g26260). Neither single nor double knock-out mutants displayed a noticeable phenotype; however, overexpression consistently resulted in plants with wrinkled leaves and short inflorescence internodes. Interestingly, the internode growth defects were opportunistic; even within a plant, some stems were more severely affected than others. Endogenous levels of BRs were not altered in the overexpression lines, suggesting that the growth defect is not primarily due to a flaw in BR biosynthesis. To determine if overexpression of the sterol biosynthetic genes affects the functions of membrane-localized auxin transporters, we subjected plants to the auxin efflux carrier inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid (NPA). Whereas the gravity vectors of wild-type roots became randomly scattered in response to NPA treatment, those of the over-expression lines continued to grow in the direction of gravity. Overexpression of the two Arabidopsis 3βHSD/D genes thus appears to affect auxin transporter activity, possibly by altering sterol composition in the membranes. PMID:22673766

  20. A sub-luminous outburst of a transient in the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5, possibly due to EXO 1745-248 (aka Terzan 5 X-1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijnands, R.; Bahramian, A.; Altamirano, D.; Sivakoff, G.; Heinke, C.; Degenaar, N.

    2016-04-01

    Using Swift/XRT, the Galactic globular cluster Terzan 5 was observed on 17 April 2016. During this observation, we found that the X-ray flux originating from this cluster was significantly above the normal cluster background, indicating that a possible X-ray transient was active during this XRT observation.

  1. Possible mechanism of cardiac depressant activity of Berberis orthobotrys roots in isolated rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Alamgeer; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Jabeen, Qaiser; Bashir, Sajid; Malik, Muhammad Nasir Hayat; Karim, Sabeha; Mushtaq, Muhammad Naveed; Rasool, Shahid; Latif, Fozia; Tabbasum, Nazia; Khan, Abdul Qayyum; Ahsan, Haseeb; Khan, Wasim; Javed, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Berberis orhob, otrvs Bien. ex Aitch. (B.o.) has been reported to have antihypertensive effect in different experimental models. The aim of present study was to evaluate the possible antihypertensive mechanism. Aqueous methanolic extract of B.o. roots and its various fractions namely (ethyl acetate, n-butanol or aqueous) in different concentrations (10 ng/mL, 100 ng/mL, I pg/mL, 10 pg/mL, 100 pg/mL ) were evaluated in isolated perfused rabbit heart to assess their effect on force of contraction, HR and perfusion pressure. The crude extract of B.o. and its fractions exhibited a significant decrease in heart rate, contractility and perfusion pressure of isolated rabbit heart, however, butanolic fraction produced more prominent effect and was selected for further study. The effects of butanol fraction were not blocked by atropine (10' M) in isolated perfused heart. However, butanol fraction significantly blocked the effects of adrenaline (10' M). It is therefore conceivable that cardiac depressant activity of B.o. butanol fraction might be due to the presence of certain 3-blocking agents which might be responsible for antihypertensive effect However, further experiments are required to isolate the active compound(s) and elucidate exact mechanism of action. PMID:25272893

  2. On the Possible Association of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays with Nearby Active Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Moskalenko, Igor V.; Stawarz, Lukasz; Porter, Troy A.; Cheung, Chi C.

    2008-05-14

    Data collected by the Pierre Auger Observatory provide evidence for anisotropy in the arrival directions of cosmic rays (CRs) with energies >57 EeV that suggests a correlation with the positions of active galactic nuclei (AGN) located within {approx}75 Mpc. However, this analysis does not take into account AGN morphology. A detailed study of the sample of AGN whose positions correlate with the CR events shows that most of them are classified as Seyfert 2 and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies which do not differ from other local AGN of the same types. Therefore, the claimed correlation between the CR events observed by the Pierre Auger Observatory and local active galaxies should be considered as resulting from a chance coincidence, if the production of the highest energy CRs is not episodic in nature, but operates in a single object on long ({ge} Myr) timescales. Additionally, most of the selected sources do not show significant jet activity, and hence--in the framework of the jet paradigm--there are no reasons for expecting them to accelerate CRs up to the highest energies, {approx}10{sup 20} eV, at all. If the extragalactic magnetic fields and the sources of these CRs are coupled with matter, it is possible that the deflection angle is larger than expected in the case of a uniform source distribution due to effectively larger fields. A future analysis has to take into account AGN morphology and may yield a correlation with a larger deflection angle and/or more distant sources. We further argue that Cen A alone could be associated with at least 4 events due to its large radio extent, and Cen B can be associated with more than 1 event due to its proximity to the Galactic plane and, correspondingly, the stronger Galactic magnetic field the ultra high energy CRs (UHECRs) encounter during propagation. If the UHECRs associated with these events are indeed accelerated by Cen A and Cen B, their deflection angles may provide information on the

  3. [Ergotism due to simultaneous use of ergot alkaloids and high activity antiretroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes M, Daniel; Blanco L, Sergio; Ramírez F, Camila

    2016-06-01

    High activity antiretroviral therapy may exacerbate the activity of ergot alkaloids due to an inhibition of cytochrome P450. We report a 57 years old female with AIDS treated with lamivudine, zidovudine, atazanavir, ritonavir and cotrimoxazole presenting with ischemic signs in the four limbs. There was acrocyanosis and weak radial and ulnar pulses. A family member referred that the patient used ergot alkaloids for headaches. An ergotism due to the simultaneous use of ergot alkaloids and antiretroviral therapy was suspected. The latter was discontinued and intravenous nitroglycerin, nifedipine and pentoxifyline were started with good results. PMID:27598502

  4. Absence of in vitro Procoagulant Activity in Immunoglobulin Preparations due to Activated Coagulation Factors

    PubMed Central

    Oviedo, Adriana E.; Bernardi, María E.; Guglielmone, Hugo A.; Vitali, María S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Immunoglobulin (IG) products, including intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) immunoglobulins are considered safe and effective for medical therapy; however, a sudden and unexpected increase in thromboembolic events (TE) after administration of certain batches of IVIG products has been attributed to the presence of activated coagulation factors, mainly factor XIa. Our aims were to examine the presence of enduring procoagulant activity during the manufacturing process of IGs, with special focus on monitoring factor XIa, and to evaluate the presence of in vitro procoagulant activity attributed to coagulation factors in different lots of IVIG and SCIG. Methods Samples of different steps of IG purification, 19 lots of IVIG and 9 of SCIG were analyzed and compared with 1 commercial preparation of IVIG and 2 of SCIG, respectively. Factors II, VII, IX, XI and XIa and non-activated partial thromboplastin time (NAPTT) were assayed. Results The levels of factors II, VII, IX, X and XI were non-quantifiable once fraction II had been re-dissolved and in all analyzed lots of IVIG and SCIG. The level of factor XIa at that point was under the detection limits of the assay, and NAPTT yielded values greater than the control during the purification process. In SCIG, we detected higher concentrations of factor XIa in the commercial products, which reached values up to 5 times higher than the average amounts found in the 9 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Factor XIa in commercial IVIG reached levels slightly higher than those of the 19 batches produced by UNC-Hemoderivados. Conclusion IVIG and SCIG manufactured by UNC-Hemoderivados showed a lack of thrombogenic potential, as demonstrated not only by the laboratory data obtained in this study but also by the absence of any reports of TE registered by the post marketing pharmacovigilance department. PMID:26733772

  5. Diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus vaccine induced recurrent seizures and acute encephalopathy in a pediatric patient: Possibly due to pertussis fraction.

    PubMed

    Patel, Mahendra K; Patel, Tejas K; Tripathi, C B

    2012-01-01

    A 5-month-old male patient developed recurrent seizures and acute encephalopathy possibly due to first dose of diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) vaccine used for routine immunization. Postreaction computed tomography (CT) scan of brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, and electroencephalogram were normal. Pertussis fraction of DPT vaccine is responsible for this reaction. It is suggested that acellular pertussis vaccine should be used instead of whole cell vaccine because it is associated with lower frequency of neurological complications, such as seizures, encephalopathy, and hypotensive episodes. However, acellular pertussis-containing vaccines are currently not affordable in most developing countries. PMID:22368426

  6. Diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus vaccine induced recurrent seizures and acute encephalopathy in a pediatric patient: Possibly due to pertussis fraction

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mahendra K.; Patel, Tejas K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2012-01-01

    A 5-month-old male patient developed recurrent seizures and acute encephalopathy possibly due to first dose of diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus (DPT) vaccine used for routine immunization. Postreaction computed tomography (CT) scan of brain, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain, and electroencephalogram were normal. Pertussis fraction of DPT vaccine is responsible for this reaction. It is suggested that acellular pertussis vaccine should be used instead of whole cell vaccine because it is associated with lower frequency of neurological complications, such as seizures, encephalopathy, and hypotensive episodes. However, acellular pertussis-containing vaccines are currently not affordable in most developing countries. PMID:22368426

  7. Detection of methylating activity due to nitrosamide in some nitrosated Nigerian foodstuffs.

    PubMed

    Atawodi, S E; Mende, P; Preussmann, R; Spiegelhalder, B

    1996-02-01

    Popular vegetables, condiments and some Nigerian staple foods were evaluated for their relative methylating potential due to nitrosamide formation following nitrosation under standardized conditions. Methylating activity of nitrosated foodstuffs, expressed as N-nitroso-N-methylurea equivalents, was determined by gas chromatography-thermal energy analysis. In positive samples (detection limit 10 microgram/kg) methylating activity detected was in the range of 50-1200 microgram/kg, the highest activity being found in Telfairia occidentalis (ugwu). This value constitutes the highest amount ever detected for a fresh vegetable. The data suggest that some commonly consumed local foodstuffs might contribute to overall human burden of environmental carcinogens in Nigeria. PMID:8606030

  8. The Possibilities for Activity Scale (PActS): Development, validity, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Cutchin, Malcolm P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Laliberte-Rudman (2005) proposed the concept of occupational possibilities to represent what older adults feel they “should be” and “could be” doing. Purpose This study aimed to develop and validate a measure of perceived occupational possibilities: the Possibilities for Activity Scale (PActS). Method Two factors of the PActS, activity expectations and activity self-efficacy, were operationalized in a 14-item instrument. The instrument was then evaluated with a sample of older adults diagnosed with cancer (n = 179). Findings The PActS demonstrated promising internal consistency reliability (stratified coefficient α =.77) and construct-related (r =. 58; p < .0001), structural (Chi-square, 61.57; CFI, .97; RMSEA, 0.05; TLI, .96; NFI, .91) and known-groups validity. Implications The PActS appears to be a useful measure of internalized occupational possibilities for participation in activity for older adults with cancer. This scale can enhance the measurement of participation in activity by evaluating the perceptions of occupational possibilities. PMID:26281432

  9. Study of the possible mechanisms involved in the mucosal immune system activation by lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Perdigón, G; Vintiñi, E; Alvarez, S; Medina, M; Medici, M

    1999-06-01

    The induction of a mucosal immune response is not easy due to the development of oral tolerance, but under some conditions, bacteria can activate this immune system. Antigens administered orally can interact with M cells of Peyer's patches or bind to the epithelial cells. We have demonstrated that certain lactic acid bacteria are able to induce specific secretory immunity, and others will enhance the gut inflammatory immune response. The aim of this work was to establish the reason for these different behaviors and to define possible mechanisms involved in the interaction of lactic acid bacteria at the intestinal level. We studied IgA+ and IgM+ B cells comparatively in bronchus and intestine and CD4+ T cells and IgA anti-lactic acid bacteria antibodies in the intestinal fluid, induced by oral administration of Lactobacillus casei, Lb. delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus, Lb. acidophilus, Lb. plantarum, Lb. rhamnosus, Lactococcus lactis, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. The increase in the IgA+ B cells in the bronchus means that these lactic acid bacteria were able to induce the IgA cycle by interaction with M cells from Peyer's patches or intestinal epithelial cells. The IgM+ cells increased when the stimulus did not induce the switch from IgM+ to IgA+. The increase in the CD4+ cells suggests interaction of Peyer's patches and enhancement of the B- and T-cell migration. The anti-lactic acid bacteria antibody is related to the processing and presentation of the microorganisms to the immune cells. We demonstrated that Lb. casei and Lb. plantarum were able to interact with Peyer's patch cells and showed an increase in IgA-, CD4+ cells, and antibodies specific for the stimulating strain. Lactobacillus acidophilus induced gut mucosal activation by interaction with the epithelial cells without increase in the immune cells associated with the bronchus. Although Lb. rhamnosus and Strep. salivarius ssp. thermophilus interact with epithelial cells, they also induced

  10. Possible Selves: Students Orientating Themselves towards the Future through Extracurricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jacqueline; Clegg, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the under-researched area of extracurricular activity undertaken by students through the lens of the possible selves literature, which has largely been developed in the North American context. In the UK the employability agenda assumes an orientation towards the future and employers are increasingly expecting students to…

  11. Is It Possible for Teachers to Take Students beyond a Rudimentary Introduction to an Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This brief article presents student and professor responses to the question: Is it possible for teachers to take students beyond a rudimentary introduction to an activity? [Responses to this question were provided by Kevin Reilly, Terra Marjonen, Scott A. G. M. Crawford, Jason S. Whitworth, Brianne Mahoney, Erin Sereduk, Sam Thielen, Matt Lassen,…

  12. Measurements of fusion neutron yields by neutron activation technique: Uncertainty due to the uncertainty on activation cross-sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankunas, Gediminas; Batistoni, Paola; Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean

    2015-07-01

    The neutron activation technique is routinely used in fusion experiments to measure the neutron yields. This paper investigates the uncertainty on these measurements as due to the uncertainties on dosimetry and activation reactions. For this purpose, activation cross-sections were taken from the International Reactor Dosimetry and Fusion File (IRDFF-v1.05) in 640 groups ENDF-6 format for several reactions of interest for both 2.5 and 14 MeV neutrons. Activation coefficients (reaction rates) have been calculated using the neutron flux spectra at JET vacuum vessel, both for DD and DT plasmas, calculated by MCNP in the required 640-energy group format. The related uncertainties for the JET neutron spectra are evaluated as well using the covariance data available in the library. These uncertainties are in general small, but not negligible when high accuracy is required in the determination of the fusion neutron yields.

  13. The highly specific carbohydrate-binding protein cyanovirin-N: structure, anti-HIV/Ebola activity and possibilities for therapy.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Laura G; Gronenborn, Angela M

    2005-01-01

    Cyanovirin-N (CV-N), a cyanobacterial lectin, is a potent viral entry inhibitor currently under development as a microbicide against a broad spectrum of enveloped viruses. CV-N was originally identified as a highly active anti-HIV agent and later, as a virucidal agent against other unrelated enveloped viruses such as Ebola, and possibly other viruses. CV-N's antiviral activity appears to involve unique recognition of N-linked high-mannose oligosaccharides, Man-8 and Man-9, on the viral surface glycoproteins. Due to its distinct mode of action and opportunities for harnessing the associated interaction for therapeutic intervention, a substantial body of research on CV-N has accumulated since its discovery in 1997. In this review we focus in particular on structural studies on CV-N and their relationship to biological activity. PMID:15638789

  14. Biochemical changes in plant leaves as a biomarker of pollution due to anthropogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Thawale, P R; Satheesh Babu, S; Wakode, R R; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Sunil; Juwarkar, A A

    2011-06-01

    The air pollution due to anthropogenic activities seriously affected human life, vegetation, and heritage as well. The vegetation cover in and around the city mitigates the air pollution by acting as a sink for pollution. An attempt was made to evaluate biochemical changes occurred in four selected plant species, namely Azadirachta indica, Mangifera indica, Delonix regia, and Cassia fistula of residential, commercial, and industrial areas of Nagpur city in India. It was observed that the correlated values of air pollutants and plant leaves characteristics alter foliar biochemical features (i.e., chlorophyll and ascorbic acid content, pH and relative water content) of plants due to air pollution. The changes in air pollution tolerance index of plants was also estimated which revealed that these plants can be used as a biomarker of air pollution. PMID:20721619

  15. Biodiversity loss in seagrass meadows due to local invertebrate fisheries and harbour activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana; Gullström, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Seagrass meadows provide a wide variety of ecosystem services, but their distribution and health are adversely affected by man. In the present study, we examined the influence of coastal exploitation in terms of invertebrate harvesting and harbour activity on invertebrate community composition in subtropical seagrass meadows at Inhaca Island, Mozambique, in the Western Indian Ocean. There was a fivefold higher invertebrate density and biomass, and clearly higher invertebrate species richness, in the protected (control) site compared to the two exploited sites. The causes for the clear differences between protected and exploited sites were probably a result of (1) the directional outtake of large edible or saleable invertebrates (mostly molluscs) and the absence of boat traffic in the harvested site, and (2) harbour activities. Invertebrate community composition in the two exploited sites also differed (although less clear), which was likely due to inherent distinction in type of disturbance. Our findings revealed that protection of seagrass habitat is necessary and that disturbances of different origin might require different forms of management and conservation. Designing protected areas is however a complex process due to competition for use and space with activities such as invertebrate harvesting and harbours.

  16. In vitro model of platelet-endothelial activation due to cigarette smoke under cardiovascular circulation conditions.

    PubMed

    Girdhar, Gaurav; Xu, Sulan; Jesty, Jolyon; Bluestein, Danny

    2008-07-01

    Cigarette smoke has been shown to increase platelet activation and endothelial cell (EC) adhesion molecule expression. In the present study, we utilized a hemodynamic shearing device (HSD) to investigate the above effects in vitro in a combined system of platelets and cultured HUVECs (Human Umblical Vein ECs) under physiological shear stress. We investigated the alteration of E-selectin expression on ECs upon exposure to: (1) platelets and nicotine-free smoke extract (NFE), (2) platelets alone, (3) NFE alone, under physiological shear stress. We additionally confirmed the protective effect of nicotine on platelet activation. We found that: (i) surface expression of E-selectin on ECs was significantly increased upon simultaneous exposure of ECs and platelets to NFE relative to exposure of ECs to either platelets or NFE alone (p < 0.05). (ii) Platelet activation was significantly increased in the presence of NFE (p < 0.05). (iii) Nicotine (200 nM) when added to NFE, significantly reduced platelet activation due to NFE (p < 0.05), an effect additionally confirmed by conventional cigarette extracts which contain nicotine (p < 0.05). We therefore conclude that: (a) NFE and platelets additively increase EC E-selectin surface expression, and (b) nicotine modulates platelet activation regardless of ECs. PMID:18452059

  17. On the possible fault activation induced by UGS in depleted reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Janna, Carlo; Teatini, Pietro; Tosattto, Omar

    2014-05-01

    Underground gas storage (UGS) represents an increasingly used approach to cope with the growing energy demand and occurs in many countries worldwide. Gas is injected in previously depleted deep reservoirs during summer when consumption is limited and removed in cold season mainly for heating. As a major consequence the pore pressure p within a UGS reservoir fluctuates yearly between a maximum close to the value pi prior to the field development and a minimum usually larger than the lowest pressure experienced by the reservoir at the end of its production life. The high frequency pressure fluctuations generally confine the pressure change volume to the reservoir volume without significantly involving the aquifers hydraulically connected to the hydrocarbon field (lateral and/or bottom waterdrive). The risk of UGS-induced seismicity is therefore restricted to those cases where existing faults cross or bound the reservoir. The possible risk of anthropogenic seismicity due to UGS operations is preliminary investigated by an advanced Finite Element (FE) - Interface Element (IE) 3-D elasto-plastic geomechanical model in a representative 1500 m deep reservoir bounded by a regional sealing fault and compartimentalized by an internal non-sealing thrust. Gas storage/production is ongoing with p ranging between pi in October/November and 60%pi in April/May. The yearly pressure fluctuation is assumed to be on the order of 50 bar. The overall geomechanical response of the porous medium has been calibrated by reproducing the vertical and horizontal cyclic displacements measured above the reservoir by advanced persistent scatterer interferometry. The FE-IE model shows that the stress variations remain basically confined within the gas field and negligibly propagate within the caprock and the waterdrive. Based on the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, IEs allow for the prediction of the fault activated area A, located at the reservoir depth as expected, and slip displacement d. A

  18. ON THE POSSIBILITY OF SIGNIFICANT ELECTRON DEPLETION DUE TO NANOGRAIN CHARGING IN THE COMA OF COMET 67P/CHURYUMOV-GERASIMENKO NEAR PERIHELION

    SciTech Connect

    Vigren, E.; Eriksson, A. I.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Galand, M.; Lavvas, P.

    2015-01-10

    We approach the complicated phenomena of gas-dust interactions in a cometary ionosphere, focusing in particular on the possibility of significant depletion in electron number density due to grain charging. Our one-dimensional ionospheric model, accounting for grain charging processes, is applied to the subsolar direction and the diamagnetic cavity of 67P/Churyuomov-Gerasimenko, the target comet for the ESA Rosetta mission, at perihelion (∼1.25-1.30 AU). We argue on the one hand that grains with radii >100 nm are unlikely to significantly affect the overall ionospheric particle balance within this environment, at least for cometocentric distances >10 km. On the other hand, if nanograins with radii in the 1-3 nm range are ejected to the coma at a level of ∼1% with respect to the mass of the sublimated gas, a significant electron depletion is expected up to cometocentric distances of several tens of kilometers. We relate these results to the recent Cassini discoveries of very pronounced electron depletion compared with the positive ion population in the plume of Enceladus, which has been attributed to nanograin charging.

  19. RADIOLOGICAL RELEASES DUE TO AIR AND SILICA DUST ACTIVATION IN EMPLACEMENT DRIFTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Tang

    2003-05-07

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the quantity and significance of annual Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface normal radiological releases due to neutron activation of air and silica dust in emplacement drifts. This calculation includes the following items: (1) Calculate activation of ventilation airflow through emplacement drifts to quantify radioactive gaseous releases; and (2) Calculate the bounding potential activated silica dust concentration and releases. The sources of silica dust may arise from air supply to emplacement drifts as well as host rock around emplacement drifts. For this calculation, the source of dust is conservatively assumed to be the host rock (Assumption 3.6), which is subject to long-term neutron exposure resulting in saturated radioactivity. The scope of this calculation is limited to releases from activated air and silica dust only, excluding natural radioactive releases such as radon or releases from defective waste packages (breached or contaminated). This work supports the repository ventilation system design and Preclosure Safety Analysis. This includes MGR items classified as Quality Level 1, for example, the Uncanistered Spent Nuclear Fuel Waste Package (CRWMS M&O [Civilian Radioactive Waste Management and Operation Contractor] 1999a, page 7). Therefore, this calculation is subject to the requirements of the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE [U.S. Department of Energy] 2003). The performance of the calculation and development of this document are carried out in accordance with AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculation and Analyses'' and LP-3.30Q-BSC, ''Hazards Analysis System''.

  20. Cytotoxic activity of Tivantinib (ARQ 197) is not due solely to MET inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Ryohei; Aoyama, Aki; Yamori, Takao; Qi, Jie; Oh-hara, Tomoko; Song, Youngchul; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Fujita, Naoya

    2013-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase c-MET is the high-affinity receptor for the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). The HGF/c-MET axis is often dysregulated in tumors. c-MET activation can be caused by MET gene amplification, activating mutations, and auto- or paracrine mechanisms. Thus, c-MET inhibitors are under development as anti-cancer drugs. Tivantinib (ARQ 197) was reported as a small molecule c-MET inhibitor and early clinical studies suggest anti-tumor activity. To assess if the anti-tumor activity of tivantinib was due to inhibition of c-MET, we compared the activity of tivantinib to other c-MET inhibitors in both c-MET addicted and non-addicted cancer cells. As expected, other c-MET inhibitors, crizotinib and PHA-665752, suppressed the growth of c-MET addicted cancers, but not the growth of cancers that are not addicted to c-MET. In contrast, tivantinib inhibited cell viability with similar potency in both c-MET addicted and non-addicted cells. These results suggest that tivantinib exhibits its antitumor activity in a manner independent of c-MET status. Tivantinib treatment induced a G2/M cell cycle arrest in EBC1 cells similarly to vincristine treatment, whereas PHA-665752 or crizotinib treatment markedly induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. To identify the additional molecular target of tivantinib, we performed COMPARE analysis, an in silico screening of a database of drug sensitivities across 39 cancer cell lines (JFCR39), and identified microtubule as a target of tivantinib. Tivantinib treated cells demonstrated typical microtubule disruption similar to vincristine and inhibited microtubule assembly in vitro. These results suggest that tivantinib inhibits microtubule polymerization in addition to inhibiting c-MET. PMID:23598276

  1. The state of permafrost surrounding "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (Deception Island, Antarctica): Studying the possible degradation due to the infrastructures heating effect.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio, Cayetana; Ángel de Pablo, MIguel; Ramos, MIguel; Molina, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Permafrost degradation is one of the effects of the global warming. Many studies reveal the increase of active layer and reduction on permafrost table thickness, also in Antarctica. However, these trends on permafrost can be accelerated by the human activities, as the heating produced by the Antarctic stations infrastructures when they are not properly isolated from the ground. In Deception island, South Shetland Archipelago, we started 3 years ago a monitoring program at the 26 years old "Gabriel de Castilla" Spanish Antarctic Station (SAS), It is focused on charactering the state of permafrost, since in the coastal scarps at tens of meters from the station an increase on erosion had been detected. Although the main cause of the erosion of this coastal volcanoclastic materials is the 2 meters thick icefield which forms during the winter in the inner sea of this volcanic island, we want to detect any possible contribution to the coastal erosion caused by the permafrost degradation related to the SAS presence. We present our preliminary analysis based on three years of continuous ground temperature data, monitored at a shallow borehole (70 cm deep) in the SAS edge, together with the active layer thickness measured around the station and their vicinities in two thawing seasons. We complete this study with the analysis of the continuous temperature data taken inside the SAS and the air and ground temperatures below the station, acquired during the last Antarctic Campaign (December 2014-February 2015). These preliminary results are fundamental 1) to discard any contribution from the SAS presence, and to help to improve its thermal isolation, 2) to help improve our knowledge about the thermal state of permafrost in the area, and 3) to help to understand the causes of the coastal erosion in the volcanic Deception Island.

  2. Pulseless electrical activity arrest due to air embolism during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Jacob; Parker, Calvin; Wang, James

    2015-01-01

    While most gastroenterologists are aware of the more common complications of endoscopy such as bleeding, infection and perforation, air embolism remains an under-recognised and difficult to diagnose problem due to its varying modes of presentation. This is the case of a 55-year-old man with right upper quadrant pain and imaging notable for cholecystitis and choledocholithiasis, who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). During the ERCP, and shortly after a sphincterotomy was performed, he became hypotensive and hypoxic, quickly decompensating into pulseless electrical activity. While advanced cardiac life support was initiated, the patient passed away. Autopsy revealed air in the pulmonary artery suggestive of a pulmonary embolism. While air embolism remains a rare complication of upper endoscopy, increased awareness and prompt recognition of signs that may point to this diagnosis may potentially save lives by allowing for earlier possible interventions. PMID:26462286

  3. Use of active extracts of poplar buds against Penicillium italicum and possible modes of action.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuzhen; Liu, Limei; Li, Dongmei; Xia, Huan; Su, Xiaojun; Peng, Litao; Pan, Siyi

    2016-04-01

    Antifungal components, from poplar buds active fraction (PBAF) against Penicillium italicum, the causal agent of blue mold in citrus fruits, were identified and possible action modes were investigated. Pinocembrin, chrysin and galangin were determined as active components in PBAF, using HPLC and HPLC-MS analysis. The antifungal activity is stable at temperatures ranging from 4 °C to 100 °C and pH levels ranging from 4 to 8. In the presence of PBAF, the hyphae become shriveled, wrinkled and the cell membrane became seriously disrupted. Further investigation on cell permeability, nucleic acid content and alkaline phosphatase suggest that the cell membrane might be the target. Mycelial oxygen consumption and the respiration-related enzymatic activity of succinate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and ATPase were all inhibited by PBAF. We propose that PBAF is a potentially useful alternative for blue mold control and may act against P. italicum by interfering with respiration and disrupting the cell membrane. PMID:26593534

  4. Revisiting a possible relationship between solar activity and Earth rotation variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abarca del Rio, R.; Gambis, D.

    2011-10-01

    A variety of studies have searched to establish a possible relationship between the solar activity and earth variations (Danjon, 1958-1962; Challinor, 1971; Currie, 1980, Gambis, 1990). We are revisiting previous studies (Bourget et al, 1992, Abarca del Rio et al, 2003, Marris et al, 2004) concerning the possible relationship between solar activity variability and length of day (LOD) variations at decadal time scales. Assuming that changes in AAM for the entire atmosphere are accompanied by equal, but opposite, changes in the angular momentum of the earth it is possible to infer changes in LOD from global AAM time series, through the relation : delta (LOD) (ms) = 1.68 10^29 delta(AAM) (kgm2/s) (Rosen and Salstein, 1983), where δ(LOD) is given in milliseconds. Given the close relationship at seasonal to interannual time's scales between LOD and the Atmospheric Angular Momentum (AAM) (see Abarca del Rio et al., 2003) it is possible to infer from century long atmospheric simulations what may have been the variability in the associated LOD variability throughout the last century. In the absence of a homogeneous century long LOD time series, we take advantage of the recent atmospheric reanalyzes extending since 1871 (Compo, Whitaker and Sardeshmukh, 2006). The atmospheric data (winds) of these reanalyzes allow computing AAM up to the top of the atmosphere; though here only troposphere data (up to 100 hPa) was taken into account.

  5. Changes in Tibiofemoral Forces due to Variations in Muscle Activity during Walking

    PubMed Central

    DeMers, Matthew S.; Pal, Saikat; Delp, Scott L.

    2015-01-01

    Muscles induce large forces in the tibiofemoral joint during walking and thereby influence the health of tissues like articular cartilage and menisci. It is possible to walk with a wide variety of muscle coordination patterns, but the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces remains unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of varied muscle coordination on tibiofemoral contact forces. We developed a musculoskeletal model of a subject walking with an instrumented knee implant. Using an optimization framework, we calculated the tibiofemoral forces resulting from muscle coordination that reproduced the subject’s walking dynamics. We performed a large set of optimizations in which we systematically varied the coordination of muscles to determine the influence on tibiofemoral force. Model-predicted tibiofemoral forces arising with minimum muscle activation matched in vivo forces measured during early stance, but were greater than in vivo forces during late stance. Peak tibiofemoral forces during late stance could be reduced by increasing the activation of the gluteus medius, uniarticular hip flexors, and soleus, and by decreasing the activation of the gastrocnemius and rectus femoris. These results suggest that retraining of muscle coordination could substantially reduce tibiofemoral forces during late stance. PMID:24615885

  6. Variations of 14C around AD 775 and AD 1795 - due to solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhäuser, R.; Neuhäuser, D. L.

    2015-12-01

    The motivation for our study is the disputed cause for the strong variation of 14C around AD 775. Our method is to compare the 14C variation around AD 775 with other periods of strong variability. Our results are: (a) We see three periods, where 14C varied over 200 yr in a special way showing a certain pattern of strong secular variation: after a Grand Minimum with strongly increasing 14C, there is a series of strong short-term drop(s), rise(s), and again drop(s) within 60 yr, ending up to 200 yr after the start of the Grand Minimum. These three periods include the strong rises around BC 671, AD 775, and AD 1795. (b) We show with several solar activity proxies (radioisotopes, sunspots, and aurorae) for the AD 770s and 1790s that such intense rapid 14C increases can be explained by strong rapid decreases in solar activity and, hence, wind, so that the decrease in solar modulation potential leads to an increase in radioisotope production. (c) The strong rises around AD 775 and 1795 are due to three effects, (i) very strong activity in the previous cycles (i.e. very low 14C level), (ii) the declining phase of a very strong Schwabe cycle, and (iii) a phase of very weak activity after the strong 14C rise - very short and/or weak cycle(s) like the suddenly starting Dalton minimum. (d) Furthermore, we can show that the strong change at AD 1795 happened after a pair of two packages of four Schwabe cycles with certain hemispheric leadership (each package consists of two Gnevyshev-Ohl pairs, respectively two Hale-Babcock pairs). We show with several additional arguments that the rise around AD 775 was not that special. We conclude that such large, short-term rises in 14C (around BC 671, AD 775, and 1795) do not need to be explained by highly unlikely solar super-flares nor other rare events, but by extra-solar cosmic rays modulated due to solar activity variations.

  7. Enzyme activity deviates due to spatial and temporal temperature profiles in commercial microtiter plate readers.

    PubMed

    Grosch, Jan-Hendrik; Sieben, Michaela; Lattermann, Clemens; Kauffmann, Kira; Büchs, Jochen; Spieß, Antje C

    2016-03-01

    Microtiter plates (MTP) and automatized techniques are increasingly applied in the field of biotechnology. However, the susceptibility of MTPs to edge effects such as thermal gradients can lead to high variation of measured enzyme activities. In an effort to enhance experimental reliability, to quantify, and to minimize instrument-caused deviations in enzyme kinetics between two MTP-readers, we comprehensively quantified temperature distribution in 96-well MTPs. We demonstrated the robust application of the absorbance dye cresol red as easily applicable temperature indicator in cuvettes and MTPs and determined its accuracy to ±0.16°C. We then quantified temperature distributions in 96-well MTPs revealing temperature deviations over single MTP of up to 2.2°C and different patterns in two commercial devices (BioTek Synergy 4 and Synergy Mx). The obtained liquid temperature was shown to be substantially controlled by evaporation. The temperature-induced enzyme activity variation within MTPs amounted to about 20 %. Activity deviations between MTPs and to those in cuvettes were determined to 40 % due to deviations from the set temperature in MTPs. In conclusion, we propose a better control of experimental conditions in MTPs or alternative experimental systems for reliable determination of kinetic parameters for bioprocess development. PMID:26709721

  8. Mitigation of Autoignition Due to Premixing in a Hypervelocity Flow Using Active Wall Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Axdahl, Erik; Kumar, Ajay; Wilhite, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Preinjection of fuel on the forebody of an airbreathing vehicle is a proposed method to gain access to hypervelocity flight Mach numbers. However, this creates the possibility of autoignition either near the wall or in the core of the flow, thereby consuming fuel prematurely as well as increasing the amount of pressure drag on the vehicle. The computational fluid dynamics code VULCAN was used to conduct three dimensional simulations of the reacting flow in the vicinity of hydrogen injectors on a flat plate at conditions relevant to a Mach 12 notional flight vehicle forebody to determine the location where autoignition occurs. Active wall cooling strategies were formulated and simulated in response to regions of autoignition. It was found that tangential film cooling using hydrogen or helium were both able to nearly or completely eliminate wall autoignition in the flow domain of interest.

  9. TRADEOFFs in climate effects through aircraft routing: forcing due to radiatively active gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stordal, F.; Gauss, M.; Myhre, G.; Mancini, E.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Köhler, M. O.; Berntsen, T.; . G Stordal, E. J.; Iachetti, D.; Pitari, G.; Isaksen, I. S. A.

    2006-10-01

    We have estimated impacts of alternative aviation routings on the radiative forcing. Changes in ozone and OH have been estimated in four Chemistry Transport Models (CTMs) participating in the TRADEOFF project. Radiative forcings due to ozone and methane have been calculated accordingly. In addition radiative forcing due to CO2 is estimated based on fuel consumption. Three alternative routing cases are investigated; one scenario assuming additional polar routes and two scenarios assuming aircraft cruising at higher (+2000 ft) and lower (-6000 ft) altitudes. Results from the base case in year 2000 are included as a reference. Taking first a steady state backward looking approach, adding the changes in the forcing from ozone, CO2 and CH4, the ranges of the models used in this work are -0.8 to -1.8 and 0.3 to 0.6 m Wm-2 in the lower (-6000 ft) and higher (+2000 ft) cruise levels, respectively. In relative terms, flying 6000ft lower reduces the forcing by 5-10% compared to the current flight pattern, whereas flying higher, while saving fuel and presumably flying time, increases the forcing by about 2-3%. Taking next a forward looking approach we have estimated the integrated forcing (m Wm-2 yr) over 20 and 100 years time horizons. The relative contributions from each of the three climate gases are somewhat different from the backward looking approach. The differences are moderate adopting 100 year time horizon, whereas under the 20 year horizon CO2 naturally becomes less important relatively. Thus the forcing agents impact climate differently on various time scales. Also, we have found significant differences between the models for ozone and methane. We conclude that we are not yet at a point where we can include non-CO2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes. Nevertheless, the rerouting cases that have been studied here yield relatively small changes in the radiative forcing due to the radiatively active gases.

  10. Undesirable Consequences of Insecticide Resistance following Aedes aegypti Control Activities Due to a Dengue Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Maciel-de-Freitas, Rafael; Avendanho, Fernando Campos; Santos, Rosangela; Sylvestre, Gabriel; Araújo, Simone Costa; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Martins, Ademir Jesus; Coelho, Giovanini Evelim; Valle, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Background During a dengue outbreak with co-circulation of DENV-1 and -2 in the city of Boa Vista, one patient was diagnosed with DENV-4, a serotype supposed absent from Brazil for almost 30 years. The re-emergence of DENV-4 triggered the intensification of mechanical and chemical Aedes aegypti control activities in order to reduce vector density and avoid DENV-4 dissemination throughout the country. Methods/Principal Findings Vector control activities consisted of (a) source reduction, (b) application of diflubenzuron against larvae and (c) vehicle-mounted space spraying of 2% deltamethrin to eliminate adults. Control activity efficacy was monitored by comparing the infestation levels and the number of eggs collected in ovitraps before and after interventions, performed in 22 Boa Vista districts, covering an area of ∼80% of the city and encompassing 56,837 dwellings. A total of 94,325 containers were eliminated or treated with diflubenzuron. The most frequently positive containers were small miscellaneous receptacles, which corresponded to 59% of all positive breeding sites. Insecticide resistance to deltamethrin was assessed before, during and after interventions by dose-response bioassays adopting WHO-based protocols. The intense use of the pyrethroid increased fourfold the resistance ratio of the local Ae. aegypti population only six months after the beginning of vector control. Curiously, this trend was also observed in the districts in which no deltamethrin was applied by the public health services. On the other hand, changes in the resistance ratio to the organophosphate temephos seemed less influenced by insecticide in Boa Vista. Conclusions Despite the intense effort, mosquito infestation levels were only slightly reduced. Besides, the median number of eggs in ovitraps remained unaltered after control activity intensification. The great and rapid increase in pyrethroid resistance levels of natural Ae. aegypti populations is discussed in the context of

  11. Rescue baroreflex activation therapy after Stanford B aortic dissection due to therapy-refractory hypertension.

    PubMed

    Weipert, Kay F; Most, Astrid; Dörr, Oliver; Helmig, Inga; Elzien, Meshal; Krombach, Gabriele; Hamm, Christian W; Erkapic, Damir; Schmitt, Joern

    2016-06-01

    levels after activation. To our knowledge, we report the first case of an immediate activation of a barostim while the device is usually not activated before 2 to 4 weeks after implantation to allow time for the surgical site to heal. During the follow-up period, the healing process was not impaired, and a significant, immediate, and sustained reduction of blood pressure levels after activation could be observed. This treatment option offers maximum adherence to antihypertensive therapy to avoid future cardiovascular end-organ damage and possibly reduce antihypertensive medication and undesirable side effects. PMID:27184290

  12. Predicted solar flare activity for the 1990s - Possible effects on navigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kunches, J.M.; Hirman, J.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The current solar cycle, which began in September 1986, may prove to be the highest ever, as measured by sunspot numbers and radio flux. The cycle's frequent and strong solar flare activity can be illustrated by the March 1989 episode, which caused many problems for navigation systems. Flares and the geomagnetic storms that sometimes accompany them can disrupt low-frequency systems such as Loran-C, as well as the satellite-borne GPS. Although the maximum of the solar cycle is expected during the first quarter of 1990, flare activity is likely to persist at high levels for a few years to follow. Geomagnetic activity may occur at any time in the cycle, and thus geomagnetic disruptions are possible at any point in the 1990s. 5 refs.

  13. Antitrypanosomal activity & docking studies of isolated constituents from the lichen Cetraria islandica: possibly multifunctional scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Igoli, John Ogbaji; Gray, Alexander Irvine; Clements, Carol Jean; Kantheti, Poorna; Singla, Rajeev Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the lichen Cetraria islandica has led to the isolation of four compounds identified as protolichesterinic acid, lichesterinic acid, protocetraric acid and fumarprotocetraric acid. Their structures were characterized using their physical and spectroscopic data. Using an Alamarblue™ 96 well microplate assay, these compounds were tested to evaluate their trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Protolichesterinic acid (MIC = 6.30 µM) and lichesterinic acid (MIC = 12.5 µM) showed very significant activity against the test organism. Docking studies (GRIP technique) of these molecules revealed their strong affinity towards possible targets of Trypanosoma brucei such as riboflavin kinase, sterol-14α-demethylase (CYP51), rohedsain and glutathione synthetase. Hydrophobicity played a significant role in their antitrypanosomal activity. PMID:24660683

  14. Are the changes in the peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels due to platelet activation?

    PubMed

    Serra-Millàs, Montserrat

    2016-03-22

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in central nervous system development, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity. BDNF is also expressed in several non-neuronal tissues, and it could play an important role in other processes, such as cancer, angiogenesis, etc. Platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. However, platelets also contain high amounts of serotonin; they express specific surface receptors during activation, and a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory bioactive compounds are secreted from the granules. Until recently, there was insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between BDNF and platelets. Recent studies showed that BDNF is present in two distinct pools in platelets, in α-granules and in the cytoplasm, and only the BDNF in the granules is secreted following stimulation, representing 30% of the total BDNF in platelets. BDNF has an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Low levels of serum BDNF have been described in patients with major depressive disorder, and BDNF levels increased with chronic antidepressant treatment. Interestingly, there is an association between depression and platelet function. This review analyzed studies that evaluated the relationship between BDNF and platelet activation and the effect of treatments on both parameters. Only a few studies consider this possible confounding factor, and it could be very important in diseases such as depression, which show changes in both parameters. PMID:27014600

  15. Are the changes in the peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels due to platelet activation?

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Millàs, Montserrat

    2016-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in central nervous system development, neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity. BDNF is also expressed in several non-neuronal tissues, and it could play an important role in other processes, such as cancer, angiogenesis, etc. Platelets are the major source of peripheral BDNF. However, platelets also contain high amounts of serotonin; they express specific surface receptors during activation, and a multitude of pro-inflammatory and immunomodulatory bioactive compounds are secreted from the granules. Until recently, there was insufficient knowledge regarding the relationship between BDNF and platelets. Recent studies showed that BDNF is present in two distinct pools in platelets, in α-granules and in the cytoplasm, and only the BDNF in the granules is secreted following stimulation, representing 30% of the total BDNF in platelets. BDNF has an important role in the pathophysiology of depression. Low levels of serum BDNF have been described in patients with major depressive disorder, and BDNF levels increased with chronic antidepressant treatment. Interestingly, there is an association between depression and platelet function. This review analyzed studies that evaluated the relationship between BDNF and platelet activation and the effect of treatments on both parameters. Only a few studies consider this possible confounding factor, and it could be very important in diseases such as depression, which show changes in both parameters. PMID:27014600

  16. A preliminary investigation of the possible hypoglycemic activity of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis.

    PubMed

    Sachdewa, A; Khemani, L D

    1999-09-01

    The hypoglycemic activity of an ethanol extract of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis was studied in glucose located rats. After a single dose of the extract, a slight but insignificant hypoglycemic effect was observed at 30 and 90 min. At 120 min it was mild but significant. After repeated administration of the extract (once a day for seven consecutive days) a statistically significant (P < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose levels was observed at 30, 90 and 120 min after glucose loading. The average hypoglycemic activity, after repeated administration of 250 mg kg-1 leaf extract was 81%, under similar conditions average activity of tolbutamide was 96%. At 250 mg.kg-1 the efficacy of the extract was found to be 84% of tolbutamide (100 mg.kg-1). Repeated treatment of animals either with tolbutamide a sulphonylurea or H. rosa-sinensis caused a 2-3-fold improvement in glucose tolerance as compared to those receiving only once. These data suggest that the leaf extract acts like tolbutamide and the mechanism of action may be a stimulation of pancreatic beta cells to produce more insulin or an increase of the glycogen deposition in liver. It appears that the active principle in the tested extract has the sulphonylurea skeleton in which-SO2-NH-CO-group and the substituents (S1 and S2) may be the possible active sites responsible for its hypoglycemic activity. PMID:10674186

  17. Dynamic instability of cooperation due to diverse activity patterns in evolutionary social dilemmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Cheng-Yi; Meloni, Sandro; Perc, Matjaž; Moreno, Yamir

    2015-03-01

    Individuals might abstain from participating in an instance of an evolutionary game for various reasons, ranging from lack of interest to risk aversion. In order to understand the consequences of such diverse activity patterns on the evolution of cooperation, we study a weak prisoner's dilemma where each player's participation is probabilistic rather than certain. Players that do not participate get a null payoff and are unable to replicate. We show that inactivity introduces cascading failures of cooperation, which are particularly severe on scale-free networks with frequently inactive hubs. The drops in the fraction of cooperators are sudden, while the spatiotemporal reorganization of compact cooperative clusters, and thus the recovery, takes time. Nevertheless, if the activity of players is directly proportional to their degree, or if the interaction network is not strongly heterogeneous, the overall evolution of cooperation is not impaired. This is because inactivity negatively affects the potency of low-degree defectors, who are hence unable to utilize on their inherent evolutionary advantage. Between cascading failures, the fraction of cooperators is therefore higher than usual, which lastly balances out the asymmetric dynamic instabilities that emerge due to intermittent blackouts of cooperative hubs.

  18. Whiting events: biogenic origin due to the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterial picoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. B.; Schultze-Lam, S.; Beveridge, T. J.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    An annual whiting event occurs each year in late May to early June in Fayetteville Green Lake, New York. The initiation of this event correlates with exponential growth of the Synechococcus population within the lake. Synechococcus is the dominant (by approximately 4 orders of magnitude) autotrophic organism owing to the oligotrophic condition of the lake. The delta 13C values of the dissolved inorganic C range seasonally from -9.5% in winter to -6.2% in summer due to photosynthetic activity. Calcite precipitates principally in the microenvironment surrounding Synechococcus because of a photosynthetically driven alkalization process and the availability of the cells as nucleation sites. This calcite has a heavier delta 13C value (>4%) than does the dissolved inorganic C of the lake water owing to the cells' preferential uptake of 12C. A conceptual model suggests that photosynthetic activity and cell surface chemistry, together with the substantial surface area that arises from the great abundance of micron-sized cells, allow Synechococcus to dominate the annual whiting events in Fayetteville Green Lake.

  19. Possible chromospheric activity cycles in II Peg, UX Ari and V711 Tau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2009-02-01

    We study the Mount Wilson indices we obtained indirectly from IUE high and low resolution spectra of the RS CVn-type systems II Peg (K2IV), UX Ari (K0IV+G5V) and V711 Tau (K1IV+G5V), extensively observed by IUE from 1978 to 1996. We analyze the activity signatures, which correspond to the primary star, with the Lomb-Scargle periodogram. From the analysis of V711 Tau data, we found a possible chromospheric cycle with a period of 18 years and a shorter ~3 year cycle, which could be associated to a chromospheric flip-flop cycle. The data of II Peg also suggest a chromospheric cycle of ~21 years and a flip-flop cycle of ~9 years. Finally, we obtained a possible chromospheric cycle of ~6 years for UX Ari.

  20. Toll-like receptor 4-related immunostimulatory polysaccharides: Primary structure, activity relationships, and possible interaction models.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaorui; Qi, Chunhui; Guo, Yan; Zhou, Wenxia; Zhang, Yongxiang

    2016-09-20

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 is an important polysaccharide receptor; however, the relationships between the structures and biological activities of TLR4 and polysaccharides remain unknown. Many recent findings have revealed the primary structure of TLR4/MD-2-related polysaccharides, and several three-dimensional structure models of polysaccharide-binding proteins have been reported; and these models provide insights into the mechanisms through which polysaccharides interact with TLR4. In this review, we first discuss the origins of polysaccharides related to TLR4, including polysaccharides from higher plants, fungi, bacteria, algae, and animals. We then briefly describe the glucosidic bond types of TLR4-related heteroglycans and homoglycans and describe the typical molecular weights of TLR4-related polysaccharides. The primary structures and activity relationships of polysaccharides with TLR4/MD-2 are also discussed. Finally, based on the existing interaction models of LPS with TLR4/MD-2 and linear polysaccharides with proteins, we provide insights into the possible interaction models of polysaccharide ligands with TLR4/MD-2. To our knowledge, this review is the first to summarize the primary structures and activity relationships of TLR4-related polysaccharides and the possible mechanisms of interaction for TLR4 and TLR4-related polysaccharides. PMID:27261743

  1. Eggshell membrane hydrolyzates activate NF-κB in vitro: possible implications for in vivo efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, Kevin J; Durham, Paul L; O’Reilly, Austin; Long, F Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Eggshell membrane (ESM) has been shown to contain naturally occurring bioactive components, and biological activities such as reducing proinflammatory cytokines, liver fibrosis, and joint pain in osteoarthritis sufferers have also been reported for ESM matrix as a whole. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) is a signaling protein found in the cytoplasm of nearly all human and animal cell types and is a primary regulator of immune function. The studies reported herein were designed to investigate the possible role that NF-κB activity might play in the reported biological activities of ESM. Methods Three ESM hydrolyzates produced via fermentation, enzymatic, or chemical hydrolysis were evaluated in vitro in either human peripheral blood mononuclear cell or THP-1 (human leukemic monocyte) cell cultures for NF-κB activity following 4-hour exposure. The hydrolyzates were compared with untreated control cells or cells incubated with lipopolysaccharide or ascorbic acid. The source of ESM activity was also evaluated. Results NF-κB levels were increased above levels found in untreated cells at all three dilutions (1:100, 1:1,000, and 1:10,000) for the fermentation hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-FH) (P=0.021, P=0.020, P=0.009, respectively) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The enzymatic hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-EH) also produced statistically significant levels of activated NF-κB at the 1:100 and 1:1,000 dilutions (P=0.004, P=0.006, respectively) but fell just shy of significance at the 1:10,000 dilution (P=0.073). Similarly, ESM-FH (P=0.021, P=0.002) and ESM-EH (P=0.007, P=0.007) activated NF-κB in THP-1 cells at 1:1,000 and 1:10,000 dilutions, respectively. The chemical hydrolyzate of ESM (ESM-CH) showed statistically significant levels of activation at the 1:1,000 dilution (P=0.005) but failed to differ from untreated cells at the 1:10,000 dilution (P=0.193) in THP-1 cells. Conclusion Results from our studies provide evidence

  2. Possible differentiation of natal areas of North American waterfowl by neutron activation analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Devine, T.; Peterle, T.J.

    1968-01-01

    The possibility of using neutron activation analyses to differentiate sources of North American waterfowl was investigated by irradiating rectrices and wing bones of birds collected in several localities, and comparing the characteristic gamma-ray spectra. Canada goose rectrices from Oregon specimens could be distinguished from those taken in Wisconsin and Colorado based on higher levels of Mn. Mallard, black duck, and blue-winged teal wing bones from Wisconsin, Colorado, and New Brunswick could not be clearly identified as to locality from levels of Ca, Al, Na, Mn, and Cl.

  3. Subliminal psychodynamic activation: an experiment controlling for major possible confounding influences outlined by Fudin.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, R; Källmén, H

    1991-08-01

    40 and 48 subjects participated in two separate experiments aimed at reproducing the subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA) phenomenon and taking into account the major methodological critique by Fudin (1986, 1990). Subjects were first exposed either to a full or one of all possible partial symbiotic messages and then to their anagram equivalents. Confounding and irrelevant influences were controlled; the results indicate that only the full symbiotic message improved motor performance. This strongly suggests that subjects encode the meaning of the full message and supports an interpretation in terms of an alleviation of an internal symbiotic conflict leading to a state of calmness conducive to improved motor performance. PMID:1945681

  4. Possible dopaminergic stimulation of locus coeruleus alpha1-adrenoceptors involved in behavioral activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan; Quartermain, David; Dunn, Adrian J; Weinshenker, David; Stone, Eric A

    2008-07-01

    alpha(1)-Adrenoceptors of the locus coeruleus (LC) have been implicated in behavioral activation in novel surroundings, but the endogenous agonist that activates these receptors has not been established. In addition to the canonical activation of alpha(1)-receptors by norepinephrine (NE), there is evidence that dopamine (DA) may also activate certain brain alpha(1)-receptors. This study examined the contribution of DA to exploratory activity in a novel cage by determining the effect of infusion of various dopaminergic and adrenergic drugs into the mouse LC. It was found that the D2/D3 agonist, quinpirole, which selectively blocks the release of CNS DA, produced a dose-dependent and virtually complete abolition of exploration and all movement in the novel cage test. The quinpirole-induced inactivity was significantly attenuated by coinfusion of DA but not by the D1 agonist, SKF38390. Furthermore, the DA attenuation of quinpirole inactivity was blocked by coinfusion of the alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonist, terazosin, but not by the D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. LC infusions of either quinpirole or terazosin also produced profound inactivity in DA-beta-hydroxylase knockout (Dbh -/-) mice that lack NE, indicating that their behavioral effects were not due to an alteration of the release or action of LC NE. Measurement of endogenous DA, NE, and 5HT and their metabolites in the LC during exposure to the novel cage indicated an increase in the turnover of DA and NE but not 5HT. These results indicate that DA is a candidate as an endogenous agonist for behaviorally activating LC alpha(1)-receptors and may play a role in the activation of this nucleus by novel surroundings. PMID:18435418

  5. IMPLICATIONS OF MASS AND ENERGY LOSS DUE TO CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS ON MAGNETICALLY ACTIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Cohen, Ofer; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2013-02-20

    Analysis of a database of solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and associated flares over the period 1996-2007 finds well-behaved power-law relationships between the 1-8 A flare X-ray fluence and CME mass and kinetic energy. We extrapolate these relationships to lower and higher flare energies to estimate the mass and energy loss due to CMEs from stellar coronae, assuming that the observed X-ray emission of the latter is dominated by flares with a frequency as a function of energy dn/dE = kE {sup -{alpha}}. For solar-like stars at saturated levels of X-ray activity, the implied losses depend fairly weakly on the assumed value of {alpha} and are very large: M-dot {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10} M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and E-dot {approx}0.1 L{sub sun}. In order to avoid such large energy requirements, either the relationships between CME mass and speed and flare energy must flatten for X-ray fluence {approx}> 10{sup 31} erg, or the flare-CME association must drop significantly below 1 for more energetic events. If active coronae are dominated by flares, then the total coronal energy budget is likely to be up to an order of magnitude larger than the canonical 10{sup -3} L {sub bol} X-ray saturation threshold. This raises the question of what is the maximum energy a magnetic dynamo can extract from a star? For an energy budget of 1% of L {sub bol}, the CME mass loss rate is about 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1}.

  6. Breast Cancer Metabolism and Mitochondrial Activity: The Possibility of Chemoprevention with Metformin.

    PubMed

    Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming refers to the ability of cancer cells to alter their metabolism in order to support the increased energy request due to continuous growth, rapid proliferation, and other characteristics typical of neoplastic cells. It has long been believed that the increase of metabolic request was independent of the mitochondrial action but recently we know that mitochondrial activity together with metabolism plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the energy needed for tumor cell growth and proliferation. For these reasons the mitochondria pathways could be a new target for therapeutic and chemopreventive intervention. Metformin in particular is actually considered a promising agent against mitochondrial activity thanks to its ability to inhibit the mitochondrial complex I. PMID:26605341

  7. Breast Cancer Metabolism and Mitochondrial Activity: The Possibility of Chemoprevention with Metformin

    PubMed Central

    Cazzaniga, Massimiliano; Bonanni, Bernardo

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming refers to the ability of cancer cells to alter their metabolism in order to support the increased energy request due to continuous growth, rapid proliferation, and other characteristics typical of neoplastic cells. It has long been believed that the increase of metabolic request was independent of the mitochondrial action but recently we know that mitochondrial activity together with metabolism plays a pivotal role in the regulation of the energy needed for tumor cell growth and proliferation. For these reasons the mitochondria pathways could be a new target for therapeutic and chemopreventive intervention. Metformin in particular is actually considered a promising agent against mitochondrial activity thanks to its ability to inhibit the mitochondrial complex I. PMID:26605341

  8. A review on soil carbon accumulation due to the management change of major Brazilian agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    La Scala jr, N; De Figueiredo, E B; Panosso, A R

    2012-08-01

    Agricultural areas deal with enormous CO2 intake fluxes offering an opportunity for greenhouse effect mitigation. In this work we studied the potential of soil carbon sequestration due to the management conversion in major agricultural activities in Brazil. Data from several studies indicate that in soybean/maize, and related rotation systems, a significant soil carbon sequestration was observed over the year of conversion from conventional to no-till practices, with a mean rate of 0.41 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1). The same effect was observed in sugarcane fields, but with a much higher accumulation of carbon in soil stocks, when sugarcane fields are converted from burned to mechanised based harvest, where large amounts of sugarcane residues remain on the soil surface (1.8 Mg C ha(-1) year(-1)). The higher sequestration potential of sugarcane crops, when compared to the others, has a direct relation to the primary production of this crop. Nevertheless, much of this mitigation potential of soil carbon accumulation in sugarcane fields is lost once areas are reformed, or intensive tillage is applied. Pasture lands have shown soil carbon depletion once natural areas are converted to livestock use, while integration of those areas with agriculture use has shown an improvement in soil carbon stocks. Those works have shown that the main crop systems of Brazil have a huge mitigation potential, especially in soil carbon form, being an opportunity for future mitigation strategies. PMID:23011303

  9. Temperature dependence of bromine activation due to reaction with ozone in a proxy for organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edebeli, Jacinta; Ammann, Markus; Gilgen, Anina; Eichler, Anja; Schneebeli, Martin; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of boundary layer ozone depletion events in the Polar Regions [1] and in the mid-latitudes [2], two areas of very different temperature regimes, begs the question of temperature dependence of reactions responsible for these observations [3]. These ODEs have been attributed to ozone reacting with halides leading to reactive halogens (halogen activation) of which bromide is extensively studied, R1 - R3 [4, 5] (R1 is a multiphase reaction). O3 + Br‑→ O2 + OBr‑ (R1) OBr‑ + H+ ↔ HOBr (R2) HOBr + H+ + Br‑→ Br2 + H2O (R3) Despite extensive studies of ozone-bromide interactions, the temperature dependence of bromine activation is not clear [3]. This limits parameterization of the involved reactions and factors in atmospheric models [3, 6]. Viscosity changes in the matrix (such as organic aerosols) due to temperature have been shown to influence heterogeneous reaction rates and products beyond pure temperature effect [7]. With the application of coated wall flow-tubes, the aim of this study is therefore to investigate the temperature dependence of bromine activation by ozone interaction while attempting to characterize the contributions of the bulk and surface reactions to observed ozone uptake. Citric acid is used in this study as a hygroscopically characterized matrix whose viscosity changes with temperature and humidity. Here, we present reactive ozone uptake measured between 258 and 289 K. The data show high reproducibility. Comparison of measured uptake with modelled bulk uptake at different matrix compositions (and viscosities) indicate that bulk reactive uptake dominates, but there are other factors which still need further consideration in the model. References 1. Barrie, L.A., et al., Nature, 1988. 334: p. 138 - 141. 2. Hebestreit, K., et al., Science, 1999. 283: p. 55-57. 3. Simpson, W.R., et al., Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 2007. 7: p. 4375 - 4418. 4. Haag, R.W. and J. Hoigné, Environ Sci Technol, 1983. 17: p. 261-267. 5. Oum

  10. Investigation of the possible biological activities of a poisonous South African plant; Hyaenanche globosa (Euphorbiaceae).

    PubMed

    Momtaz, Saeideh; Lall, Namrita; Hussein, Ahmed; Ostad, Seyed Nasser; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane) of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits) of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity) properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured 'Hela cells'. Antioxidant/oxidative properties of the ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa and purified compounds were investigated using reactive oxygen species (ROS), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and lipid peroxidation thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assays. The ethanolic extract of the leaves and fruits of H. globosa showed the best activity, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 3.1 mg/ ml and a minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 1.56 and 6.2 mg/ml, respectively, against M. smegmatis. The ethanolic extract of the fruits of H. globosa (F.E) showed the highest percentage of inhibitory activity of monophenolase (90.4% at 200 mug/ml). In addition, F.E exhibited 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 37.7 mug/ml on the viability of 'HeLa cells' using cytotoxicity MTT assay. Subsequently, F.E was fractionated using phase-partitioning with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The cytotoxicity of these fractions were determined in vitro using different cancer cell lines. The n-hexane fraction exhibited the highest activity of toxicity. Therefore, this fraction was subjected to further separation by chromatographic methods. Two pure compounds known as: 'Tutin' and 'hyenanchin' were isolated and their structures were determined by NMR spectroscopic methods. Unpredictably, none of them showed significant (P < 0.01) inhibition on cell viability/proliferation at the concentrations that were

  11. Levan-induced glomerulitis in rabbits: a possible role for direct complement activation in situ.

    PubMed Central

    Stark, H.; Alkalay, A.; Ben-Bassat, M.; Hazaz, B.; Joshua, H.

    1985-01-01

    Since high-molecular-weight levan is known to reduce capillary permeability to large molecules, an experiment was designed to investigate whether this agent may attenuate the glomerulonephritis associated with acute serum sickness in rabbits. The study, in fact, demonstrated an enhancing effect of levan, which caused increased glomerular proliferative changes and leucocyte infiltration and, possibly, increased IgG deposition in this experimental model. In addition, rabbits injected only with levan also demonstrated mild glomerulitis and C3 deposition. In one of four rabbits examined, this was accompanied by a marked fall in the serum level of total haemolysing complement. Levan was demonstrated to cause activation of complement when incubated with normal rabbit serum in vitro. We believe that these findings are best explained on the basis of complement activation in situ by levan in the glomeruli, probably via the alternative pathway, with the resulting inflammatory response. In the case of BSA-injected rabbits, this response is believed to be additive to that of the classical immune complex-mediated complement activation. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3986130

  12. Silver doped nanomaterials and their possible use for antibacterial photodynamic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wysocka-Król, Katarzyna; Wieliczko, Alina; Podbielska, Halina

    2011-10-01

    Bacteria, viruses and parasites elimination from human environment is one of the most important problem, extensively studied by many groups. The growing resistance to commonly used disinfection and/or sterilization methods and antibiotics, is one of the major problem in the health care sector. Nanomaterials with tailored antimicrobial features may find applications in this field. One of the promising application of nanomaterials is the possibility to enhance the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT), which combines a nontoxic photoactive dye - photosensitizer and nanomaterials properties. This paper focused on the examination of optical and antibacterial properties of silica- and titania-based nanopowders doped with silver and photosensitizer - Photolon. Various concentration of Photolon and nanomaterials have been prepared in order to examine the fluorescence enhancement and resulting better antibacterial activity. It was proved that the fluorescence intensity of Photolon increased, depending on silver concentration. Antibacterial study showed that silver doped silica and titania nanoparticles revealed antibacterial activity, but in the presence of Photolon, the antibacterial activity of materials is more effective.

  13. Elevated Ground Temperatures at Crude Oil Spill Sites due to Microbial Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, E.; Bekins, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    Crude oil near the water table at spill sites near Bemidji and Cass Lake, Minnesota, has been undergoing aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation for decades. Because the reactions are exothermic, biodegradation of oil compounds will produce measurable temperature increases if heat is generated faster than it is transported away from the oil body. Subsurface temperatures at the two spill sites were measured with thermistors at multiple depths in groundwater monitoring wells and water-filled tubes in the vadose zone. Temperatures in selected wells were measured in the summer of 2007, 2008, and 2009. At the Bemidji site, temperatures measured in the summer ranged from a low of 6.3 oC in the background well to a high of 9.2 oC within wells in the oil-contaminated zone. From year to year, background minimum temperatures were constant within +/- 0.05 oC while maximum temperatures within the oil-contaminated zone remained within +/- 0.25 oC. Seasonal changes in temperature in the plume as measured by data loggers exceeded 4 oC, which was far greater than the year to year change in the summer measurements. Seasonal variability was greater near the water table than at depth. It is unclear whether this variability is due to subsurface hydrology or microbial activity. Temperatures in the vadose zone were warmer near and down-gradient from the oil body compared to the background indicating the heat from the oil and plume propagates up and outward into the vadose zone. At the Cass Lake site, summer temperatures in 2009 were 6.4 oC in the background and 11.5 oC in wells near the oil. Reaction rates inferred from chemical data were compared to heating required in a 3-dimension energy transport model of the subsurface. The increased temperature compared well to the expected heat production from biodegradation reactions occurring in the oil and plume. Results indicate that microbial activity in sediments contaminated with crude oil undergoing biodegradation can be detected using

  14. Airway Tissue Plasminogen Activator Prevents Acute Mortality Due to Lethal Sulfur Mustard Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Veress, Livia A.; Anderson, Dana R.; Hendry-Hofer, Tara B.; Houin, Paul R.; Rioux, Jacqueline S.; Garlick, Rhonda B.; Loader, Joan E.; Paradiso, Danielle C.; Smith, Russell W.; Rancourt, Raymond C.; Holmes, Wesley W.; White, Carl W.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical weapon stockpiled today in volatile regions of the world. SM inhalation causes a life-threatening airway injury characterized by airway obstruction from fibrin casts, which can lead to respiratory failure and death. Mortality in those requiring intubation is more than 80%. No therapy exists to prevent mortality after SM exposure. Our previous work using the less toxic analog of SM, 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, identified tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) an effective rescue therapy for airway cast obstruction (Veress, L. A., Hendry-Hofer, T. B., Loader, J. E., Rioux, J. S., Garlick, R. B., and White, C. W. (2013). Tissue plasminogen activator prevents mortality from sulfur mustard analog-induced airway obstruction. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. 48, 439–447). It is not known if exposure to neat SM vapor, the primary agent used in chemical warfare, will also cause death due to airway casts, and if tPA could be used to improve outcome. Methods: Adult rats were exposed to SM, and when oxygen saturation reached less than 85% (median: 6.5 h), intratracheal tPA or placebo was given under isoflurane anesthesia every 4 h for 48 h. Oxygen saturation, clinical distress, and arterial blood gases were assessed. Microdissection was done to assess airway obstruction by casts. Results: Intratracheal tPA treatment eliminated mortality (0% at 48 h) and greatly improved morbidity after lethal SM inhalation (100% death in controls). tPA normalized SM-associated hypoxemia, hypercarbia, and lactic acidosis, and improved respiratory distress. Moreover, tPA treatment resulted in greatly diminished airway casts, preventing respiratory failure from airway obstruction. Conclusions: tPA given via airway more than 6 h after exposure prevented death from lethal SM inhalation, and normalized oxygenation and ventilation defects, thereby rescuing from respiratory distress and failure. Intra-airway tPA should be considered as a life

  15. Evaluation of Activity Concentration Values and Doses due to the Transport of Low Level Radioactive Material

    SciTech Connect

    Rawl, Richard R; Scofield, Patricia A; Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F

    2010-04-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) initiated an international Coordinated Research Project (CRP) to evaluate the safety of transport of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). This report presents the United States contribution to that IAEA research program. The focus of this report is on the analysis of the potential doses resulting from the transport of low level radioactive material. Specific areas of research included: (1) an examination of the technical approach used in the derivation of exempt activity concentration values and a comparison of the doses associated with the transport of materials included or not included in the provisions of Paragraph 107(e) of the IAEA Safety Standards, Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Requirements No. TS-R-1; (2) determination of the doses resulting from different treatment of progeny for exempt values versus the A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values; and (3) evaluation of the dose justifications for the provisions applicable to exempt materials and low specific activity materials (LSA-I). It was found that the 'previous or intended use' (PIU) provision in Paragraph 107(e) is not risk informed since doses to the most highly exposed persons (e.g., truck drivers) are comparable regardless of intended use of the transported material. The PIU clause can also have important economic implications for co-mined ores and products that are not intended for the fuel cycle but that have uranium extracted as part of their industrial processing. In examination of the footnotes in Table 2 of TS-R-1, which identifies the progeny included in the exempt or A1/A2 values, there is no explanation of how the progeny were selected. It is recommended that the progeny for both the exemption and A{sub 1}/A{sub 2} values should be similar regardless of application, and that the same physical information should be used in deriving the limits. Based on the evaluation of doses due to the transport of low-level NORM

  16. Protective effect of carnosine after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion possibly through suppressing astrocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Jihui; Bo, Shuhong; Lu, Xiaotong; Zhang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia (SIVD) induced by chronic hypoperfusion is a common cause of vascular dementia. The aim of this study was to determine whether the protective effect of carnosine on white matter lesion after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion through suppressing astrocyte activation. Methods: Adult male mice (C57BL/6 strain) were subjected to permanent occlusion of the right unilateral common carotid arteries (rUCCAO) and treated with carnosine or histidine. Open field test, freezing test, Klüver-Barrera staining, immunohistochemical analyses and western blot were performed after rUCCAO. Results: We found that carnosine ameliorated white matter lesion and cognitive impairment after rUCCAO. Carnosine suppressed the activation of astrocyte in both wide type mice and histidine decarboxylase knockout mice. However, administration of histidine did not show the same effect. We found that there were no differences between rUCCAO group and sham group for the expression of glutamate transporter-1 (GLT-1) and glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST). Furthermore, carnosine significantly attenuated the increase of inflammatory cytokine interferon gama. Conclusion: These data suggest carnosine induced neuroprotection during SIVD in mice is not dependent on the histaminergic pathway or the regulation of the expression of GLT-1 and GLAST, but may be due to a suppression of astrocyte activation and inflammatory cytokine release. PMID:26885268

  17. Biodegradation of ivory (natural apatite): possible involvement of fungal activity in biodeterioration of the Lewis Chessmen.

    PubMed

    Pinzari, Flavia; Tate, James; Bicchieri, Marina; Rhee, Young Joon; Gadd, Geoffrey Michael

    2013-04-01

    Fungal biodeterioration of ivory was investigated with in vitro inoculation of samples obtained from boar and walrus tusks with the fungi Aspergillus niger and Serpula himantioides, species of known geoactive abilities. A combination of light and scanning electron microscopy together with associated analytical techniques was used to characterize fungal interactions with the ivory, including changes in ivory composition, dissolution and tunnelling, and the formation of new biominerals. The research was aimed at providing further understanding of the potential roles of fungi in the colonization and deterioration of ivory in terrestrial environments, but also contributes to our knowledge regarding the possible origins of the surface damage observed on early medieval sculptures made largely from walrus tusks, referred to as 'the Lewis hoard of gaming pieces', that were presumably produced for playing chess. The experiments have shown that the possibility of damage to ivory being caused by fungi is realistic. Scanning electron microscopy revealed penetration of fungal hyphae within cracks in the walrus tusk that showed also widespread tunnelling by fungal hyphae as well as 'fungal footprints' where the surface was etched as a consequence of mycelial colonization. Similar phenomena were observed with boar tusk ivory, while production of metabolites could lead to complete dissolution of the sample. Colonization of ivory and/or exposure to fungal activity lead to extensive secondary biomineral formation, and this was identified as calcium oxalate, mainly as the monohydrate, whewellite. PMID:23157656

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVE MAIN BELT OBJECT P/2012 F5 (GIBBS): A POSSIBLE IMPACTED ASTEROID

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, R.; Kramer, E. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Mainzer, A. K.

    2012-11-10

    In this work, we characterize the recently discovered active main belt object P/2012 F5 (Gibbs), which was discovered with a dust trail >7' in length in the outer main belt, 7 months prior to aphelion. We use optical imaging obtained on UT 2012 March 27 to analyze the central condensation and the long trail. We find B-band and R-band apparent magnitudes of 20.96 {+-} 0.04 mag and 19.93 {+-} 0.02 mag, respectively, which give an upper limit on the radius of the nucleus of 2.1 km. The geometric scattering cross-section of material in the trail was {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m{sup 2}, corresponding to a mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} kg. Analysis of infrared images taken by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in 2010 September reveals that the object was below the detection limit, suggesting that it was less active than it was during 2012, or possibly inactive, just six months after it passed through perihelion. We set a 1{sigma} upper limit on its radius during this time of 2.9 km. P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) is dynamically stable in the outer main belt on timescales of {approx}1 Gyr, pointing toward an asteroidal origin. We find that the morphology of the ejected dust is consistent with it being produced by a single event that occurred on UT 2011 July 7 {+-} 20 days, possibly as the result of a collision with a small impactor.

  19. Neutrophil proteolytic activation cascades: a possible mechanistic link between chronic periodontitis and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alfakry, Hatem; Malle, Ernst; Koyani, Chintan N; Pussinen, Pirkko J; Sorsa, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are chronic inflammatory diseases that affect a large segment of society. Coronary heart disease (CHD), the most common cardiovascular disease, progresses over several years and affects millions of people worldwide. Chronic infections may contribute to the systemic inflammation and enhance the risk for CHD. Periodontitis is one of the most common chronic infections that affects up to 50% of the adult population. Under inflammatory conditions the activation of endogenous degradation pathways mediated by immune responses leads to the release of destructive cellular molecules from both resident and immigrant cells. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their regulators can activate each other and play an important role in immune response via degrading extracellular matrix components and modulating cytokines and chemokines. The action of MMPs is required for immigrant cell recruitment at the site of inflammation. Stimulated neutrophils represent the major pathogen-fighting immune cells that upregulate expression of several proteinases and oxidative enzymes, which can degrade extracellular matrix components (e.g. MMP-8, MMP-9 and neutrophil elastase). The activity of MMPs is regulated by endogenous inhibitors and/or candidate MMPs (e.g. MMP-7). The balance between MMPs and their inhibitors is thought to mirror the proteolytic burden. Thus, neutrophil-derived biomarkers, including myeloperoxidase, may activate proteolytic destructive cascades that are involved in subsequent immune-pathological events associated with both periodontitis and CHD. Here, we review the existing studies on the contribution of MMPs and their regulators to the infection-related pathology. Also, we discuss the possible proteolytic involvement and role of neutrophil-derived enzymes as an etiological link between chronic periodontitis and CHD. PMID:26608308

  20. Aldrin-induced locomotor activity: possible involvement of the central GABAergic-cholinergic-dopaminergic interaction.

    PubMed

    Jamaluddin, S; Poddar, M K

    2001-01-01

    Aldrin (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) under nontolerant condition, administered either for a single day or for 12 consecutive days, enhanced locomotor activity (LA) of rats. The increase in LA was greater in rats treated with aldrin for 12 consecutive days than that observed with a single dose. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the involvement of possible interactions of central GABAergic, cholinergic and dopaminergic systems using their agonist(s) and antagonist(s) in the regulation of LA in aldrin nontolerant rats. Administration of either L-DOPA along with carbidopa or bicuculline potentiated aldrin-induced increase in LA under nontolerant condition as well as LA of the control rats. Treatment with muscimol, haloperidol, atropine or physostigmine all decreased the LA of both aldrin nontolerant and control rats. Further, the application of (a) haloperidol along with bicuculline, atropine or physostigmine and (b) physostigmine along with bicuculline or L-DOPA + carbidopa significantly reduced LA but L-DOPA + carbidopa along with atropine or bicuculline increased LA of the control rats. These agonist(s)/antagonist(s)-induced decrease or increase in LA of the control rats were attenuated or potentiated, respectively, when those agonist(s)/antagonist(s) under abovementioned condition were administered to aldrin nontolerant rats. The attenuating or potentiating effects of aldrin on agonist(s)/antagonist(s) (either individually or in different combinations)-induced change in LA were greater in rats treated with aldrin for 12 consecutive days than that observed with a single-dose aldrin treatment. These results suggest that aldrin, under nontolerant condition, reduces central GABAergic activity and increases LA by activating dopaminergic system via inhibition of cholinergic activity. The treatment with aldrin for 12 consecutive days produces greater effect than that caused by a single-day treatment. PMID:11785907

  1. Imbalance of Nature due to Anthropogenic Activities in the Bay of Bacorehuis, Sinaloa, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torrecillas Nunez, C.; Cárdenas Cota, H.

    2013-05-01

    Pollution is further enhancing water scarcity by reducing water usability downstream, globally the most prevalent water quality problem is eutrophication, a result of high-nutrient loads, which substantially impairs beneficial uses of water. Projected food production needs and increasing wastewater effluents associated with an increasing population over the next three decades suggest a 10%-15% increase in the river input of nitrogen loads into coastal ecosystems (UNO, 2009). Our study in the Bay of Bacorehuis in the State of Sinaloa, which was carried out due to a request from local fishermen who wanted to find out the reason for fishing stocks depletion, confirmed this trend with the consequent imbalance of nature. Sinaloa depends heavily on intensive agricultural production to support its economy which in turn relies on water irrigation and the application of agro-chemicals. The research project included a desk top study of geophysical and environmental factors as well as sampling and testing of the water. In addition we carried out socio-economic research to find out the impact on the local community of the imbalance caused by anthropogenic activities in the watershed upstream from the Bay. Our research established that the Bay of Bacorehuis is contaminated by organic matter, bacteria coliforms, pesticides and mercury due to the discharge of surplus runoff generated by irrigation of farmlands into drainage networks as well as the discharge of untreated industrial and domestic wastewater form more than 24,000 inhabitants. The main contaminants detected in the water bodies were organic matter, faecal coliforms, mercury, dimethoate, endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organonitrogen, synthetic pyrethroid, chlorothalonil, ethion, endosulfan, diazinon, malathion and chlorpyrifos. Contaminants in sediments included the pesticides endosulfan, heptachlor, DDE, DDT, organophosphates, organonitrogen and synthetic pyrethroids. Natural water courses have been highly modified

  2. 1H NMR Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Alzheimer's Disease Patients: An Example of a Possible Misinterpretation Due to Non-Adjustment of pH.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Thomas; Balayssac, Stéphane; Gilard, Véronique; Martino, Robert; Vincent, Christian; Pariente, Jérémie; Malet-Martino, Myriam

    2014-01-01

    Two publications from the same research group reporting on the detection of new possible biomarkers for the early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), based on the analysis of cerebrospinal fluid samples (CSF) with 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), are at the origin of the present study. The authors observed significant differences in 1H NMR spectra of CSF from AD patients and healthy controls and, thus, proposed some NMR signals (without attribution) as possible biomarkers. However, this work was carried out in non-standardized pH conditions. Our study aims at warning about a possible misinterpretation that can arise from 1H NMR analyses of CSF samples if pH adjustment is not done before NMR analysis. Indeed, CSF pH increases rapidly after removal and is subject to changes over conservation time. We first identify the NMR signals described by the authors as biomarkers. We then focus on the chemical shift variations of their NMR signals as a function of pH in both standard solutions and CSF samples. Finally, a principal component analysis of 1H NMR data demonstrates that the same CSF samples recorded at pH 8.1 and 10.0 are statistically differentiated. PMID:24958390

  3. Review of eruptive activity at Tianchi volcano, Changbaishan, northeast China: implications for possible future eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Haiquan; Liu, Guoming; Gill, James

    2013-04-01

    One of the largest explosive eruptions in the past several thousand years occurred at Tianchi volcano, also known as Changbaishan, on the China-North Korea border. This historically active polygenetic central volcano consists of three parts: a lower basaltic shield, an upper trachytic composite cone, and young comendite ash flows. The Millennium Eruption occurred between 938 and 946 ad, and was preceded by two smaller and chemically different rhyolitic pumice deposits. There has been at least one additional, small eruption in the last three centuries. From 2002 to 2005, seismicity, deformation, and the helium and hydrogen gas contents of spring waters all increased markedly, causing regional concern. We attribute this event to magma recharge or volatile exhalation or both at depth, followed by two episodes of addition of magmatic fluids into the overlying aquifer without a phreatic eruption. The estimated present magma accumulation rate is too low by itself to account for the 2002-2005 unrest. The most serious volcanic hazards are ash eruption and flows, and lahars. The available geological information and volcano monitoring data provide a baseline for comprehensive assessment of future episodes of unrest and possible eruptive activity.

  4. Possibilities for Observations of Electromagnetic Perturbations Related to Seismic Activity with Swarm Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Santis, A.; Mandea, M.; Balasis, G.

    2014-12-01

    It has been suggested that intense seismic activity might generate upward electromagnetic (EM) perturbations that can be detected by ground-based and low altitude spaceborne measurements. For instance, DEMETER satellite (2004-2010) very low frequency (VLF) wave observations pointed out a statistically significant decrease of the measured ionospheric wave intensity a few hours before large shallow earthquakes (EQs). This result would confirm the existence of a lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling before the occurrence of an impending significant EQ. Swarm offers a great opportunity to study EM perturbations possibly related to seismic activity because it is a multi-satellite low Earth orbit (LEO) mission with a unique space-time configuration able to measure both electric and magnetic fields at various altitudes in the topside ionosphere. Here, we are analyzing, using various signal processing techniques, Swarm measurements shortly before and after large shallow EQs (magnitude above 7 and depth < 40 km) that occurred in the first year of the mission and report on the initial results of our analysis.

  5. Possible Detection of Volcanic Activity on Europa: Analysis of An Optical Transient Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de La Fuente Marcos, R.; Nissar, A.

    2002-06-01

    Europa's low crater density suggests that geological activity has continued to the present epoch, leading to the possibility that current resurfacing events might be detectable. CCD observations were carried out with a ST-6 camera at the 0.5 m Mons Cassegrain telescope (Izaña Observatory, Tenerife,Canary Islands, Spain) during the night between 2 3 October 1999. Our images show a transient bright feature on the Galilean satellite. These images are analyzed here with the purpose of understanding the nature of the transient phenomena as it could be the result of explosive venting on the surface of the Jovian satellite. By comparison, we use NASA Infrared Telescope Facility images of two Io hot spots taken on12 October 1990. Although we mainly restrict our discussion on apossible eruptive nature of the observed spots, we also consider other alternative mechanisms able to produce bright events. In particular, an interaction between charged material being ejected from Europa and the Jovian magnetosphere cannot be entirely ruled out. If confirmed, this result would lend support for the existence of active resurfacing in Europa.

  6. [Polyclonal activation due to Epstein-Barr virus superinfection in a case with chronic hepatitis B].

    PubMed

    Bakir Ozbey, Saliha; Mistik, Reşit; Gürcüoğlu, Emel; Oral, Barbaros; Göral, Güher

    2007-10-01

    Primary infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) often occurs subclinically during childhood, resulting in a latent infection of B lymphocytes. In this report, a chronic hepatitis B case who presented with a serologic profile mimicking acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and exhibiting transient autoantibody positivities because of the polyclonal activation of B cells due to EBV reactivation has been presented. The test results of 56 years old male patient who suffered from fatigue and pain on the right upper quadrant, revealed high levels of liver enzymes (AST: 187 U/L, ALT: 569 U/L), positivity of HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG and anti-HBe, and negativity of anti-HBc IgM, HBeAg and anti-HBs. Since HBV-DNA level was found 405,974 copies/mL by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the patient was taken into follow-up. At the 6th month AST and ALT levels further elevated (352 U/L and 609 U/L, respectively), and anti-HBc IgM and anti-HBs became positive in addition to the previous positive markers of HBV. With the suspicion of superinfection, further laboratory investigations yielded negative results in CMV-IgM and Paul Bunnel test, while positive results in EBV anti-VCA IgM and IgG, anti-EBNA IgM and IgG, anti-p22 IgM and IgG and anti-EA IgM. In the follow-up period high levels of autoantibody positivities [rheumatoid factor (42.200 U/ml), anti-nuclear antibody (1/100) and anti-Ro-52] together with increased levels of total IgG, IgM and IgA were detected. In the following months, the levels of transaminases, total immunoglobulins and HBV-DNA have distinctively decreased, and in the 20th month the previous HBV profile regained (HBsAg, anti-HBc IgG and anti-HBe positive, anti-HBc IgM and anti-HBs negative, HBV-DNA: 6984 copies/ml) and the other pathological test results returned to normal. As a result, ALT increases seen during the course of chronic hepatitis B should not always be considered as HBV manifestations and the unusual serologic patterns should

  7. Experimental response of Salix cuttings to different flow regimes due to human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorla, Lorenzo; Signarbieux, Constant; Turberg, Pascal; Buttler, Alexandre; Perona, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    Hydropower production and other human activities change the natural flow regime of rivers, in turn impacting the riparian environment. The main challenge in order to define eco-sustainable flows is to quantify the effects in terms of geomorphology and ecosystem adaptation. We present 2-years controlled experiments to investigate riparian vegetation (Salix Viminalis) response to forced water table changing dynamics, from one water regime to another, in a temperate region (Switzerland). Three synthetic flow regimes have been simulated and applied to three batteries of Salix cuttings growing outdoor within plastic pots, each about 1 meter tall. In 2012 one treatment simulated a minimal flow policy for small run-of-river hydropower plants, which drastically impacts the low and the medium-low components of the hydrograph, but not the extremes. In 2013 we confirmed and completed some of 2012 results, by reproducing typical hydropeaking effects due to dam management and focusing on daily water table variations and offsets. For both the seasons, after an initial period where all pots undergone the same oscillations in order to uniform the plants initial conditions, the experiment started, and the water dynamic was changed. Cuttings transitory response dynamics has been quantified by continuous sap flow and water potential measurements, and by regularly collecting growth parameters, as well as leaves photosynthesis, fluorescence, and pictures of each plant. At the end of the experiment, all cuttings were carefully removed and the both above and below ground biomass analyzed in detail. Particularly, the 3D root structure was obtained by High Resolution Computer Tomography. Our analyses revealed a clear dependence between roots distribution and water regime reflecting the need for adaptation, in agreement with field observations of Pasquale et al. (2012). In particular, an initial strong difference in terms of stress and growth performances was then followed by a later

  8. An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Sheng, Hui-Ping; He, Lan-Jie; Fan, Xue-Wen; He, Zhi-Xu; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xueji; Zhao, Ruan Jin; Gu, Ling; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People’s Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. LBPs may potentiate the efficacy of lymphokine activated killer/interleukin-2 combination therapy in cancer patients. LBPs exhibit significant hypoglycemic effects and insulin-sensitizing activity by increasing glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and promoting pancreatic β-cell proliferation. They protect retinal ganglion cells in experimental models of glaucoma. LBPs protect the liver from injuries due to exposure to toxic chemicals or other insults. They also show potent immunoenhancing activities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, LBPs protect against neuronal injury and loss induced by β-amyloid peptide, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemic/reperfusion, and other neurotoxic insults. LBPs ameliorate the symptoms of mice with Alzheimer’s disease and enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, improving learning and memory abilities. They reduce irradiation- or chemotherapy-induced organ toxicities. LBPs are beneficial to male reproduction by increasing the quality, quantity, and motility of sperm, improving sexual performance, and protecting the testis

  9. An evidence-based update on the pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiang; Zhou, Zhi-Wei; Sheng, Hui-Ping; He, Lan-Jie; Fan, Xue-Wen; He, Zhi-Xu; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Xueji; Zhao, Ruan Jin; Gu, Ling; Cao, Chuanhai; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Lycium barbarum berries, also named wolfberry, Fructus lycii, and Goji berries, have been used in the People's Republic of China and other Asian countries for more than 2,000 years as a traditional medicinal herb and food supplement. L. barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs) are the primary active components of L. barbarum berries and have been reported to possess a wide array of pharmacological activities. Herein, we update our knowledge on the main pharmacological activities and possible molecular targets of LBPs. Several clinical studies in healthy subjects show that consumption of wolfberry juice improves general wellbeing and immune functions. LBPs are reported to have antioxidative and antiaging properties in different models. LBPs show antitumor activities against various types of cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth in nude mice through induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. LBPs may potentiate the efficacy of lymphokine activated killer/interleukin-2 combination therapy in cancer patients. LBPs exhibit significant hypoglycemic effects and insulin-sensitizing activity by increasing glucose metabolism and insulin secretion and promoting pancreatic β-cell proliferation. They protect retinal ganglion cells in experimental models of glaucoma. LBPs protect the liver from injuries due to exposure to toxic chemicals or other insults. They also show potent immunoenhancing activities in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, LBPs protect against neuronal injury and loss induced by β-amyloid peptide, glutamate excitotoxicity, ischemic/reperfusion, and other neurotoxic insults. LBPs ameliorate the symptoms of mice with Alzheimer's disease and enhance neurogenesis in the hippocampus and subventricular zone, improving learning and memory abilities. They reduce irradiation- or chemotherapy-induced organ toxicities. LBPs are beneficial to male reproduction by increasing the quality, quantity, and motility of sperm, improving sexual performance, and protecting the testis

  10. Pore Pressure Diffusion as a possible mechanism for the Ag. Ioanis 2001 earthquake swarm activity (Gulf of Corinth, Central Greece).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.; Michas, G.; Papadakis, G.; Sammonds, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Gulf of Corinth rift (Central Greece) is one of the most seismotectonically active areas in Europe (Ambraseys and Jackson, 1990; 1997), with an important continental N-S extension of about 13 mm/yr and 6 mm/yr at the west and east part respectively (Clarke et al., 1997a). The seismicity of the area includes 5 main earthquakes of magnitude greater than 5.8 since 1960. In the western part of the rift, where the extension reaches its maximum value, earthquake swarms are often being observed (Bourouis and Cornet, 2009). Such an earthquake crisis has been occurred on 2001 at the southern margin of the west part of the rift. The crisis lasted about 100 days with a major event the Ag. Ioanis earthquake (4.3 Mw) on 8th of April 2001 (Pacchiani and Lyon-Caen, 2010). The possible relation between fluids flow and the observed earthquake swarms at the west part of the Gulf of Corinth rift has been discussed in the works of Bourouis and Cornet (2009) and Pacchiani and Lyon-Caen (2010). In the present work we examine the spatiotemporal properties of the Ag. Ioanis 2001 earthquake swarm, using data from the CRL network (http://crlab.eu/). We connect these properties to a mechanism due to pore pressure diffusion (Shapiro et al., 1997) and we estimate the hydraulic diffusivity and the permeability of the surrounding rocks. A back front of the seismicity (Parotidis et al., 2004) is also been observed, related to the migration of seismicity and the development of a quiescence region near the area of the initial pore pressure perturbation. Moreover, anisotropy of the hydraulic diffusivity has been observed, revealing the heterogeneity of the surrounding rocks and the fracture systems. This anisotropy is consistent in direction with the fault zone responsible for the Ag. Ioanis earthquake (Pacchiani and Lyon-Caen, 2010). Our results indicate that fluids flow and pore pressure perturbations are possible mechanisms for the initiation and the evolution of the Ag. Ioanis 2001

  11. Neferine inhibits cultured hepatic stellate cell activation and facilitates apoptosis: A possible molecular mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hui; Shi, Jinghong; Wang, Ying; Guo, Jia; Zhao, Juhui; Dong, Lei

    2011-01-10

    Neferine is a major alkaloid component of "Lian Zi Xin", embryos of the seeds of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertner, Nymphaeaceae. Previous studies have shown that neferine has an inhibitory effect on pulmonary fibrosis through its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative activities and inhibition of cytokines and NF-κB. However, it is unknown whether neferine also has an inhibitory effect on liver fibrosis through inhibition of TGF-β1 and collagen I and facilitation of apoptosis of hepatic stellate cells. This study examined the effects of neferine on cultured hepatic stellate (HSC-T6) cells and explored its possible action mechanisms by means of MTT assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow-cytometric annexin V-PI assay and Hoechst 33258 staining, as well as real-time PCR and western blotting. The results showed that neferine administration (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10μmol/l) significantly decreased the TGF-β1 and collagen I produced in HSC-T6 cells, and increased the HSC-T6 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Neferine treatment for 48h at concentrations of 6 and 10μmol/l significantly increased Bax and caspase 3 mRNAs and proteins, and reduced Bcl2 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) mRNAs and proteins. Our data indicate that neferine efficiently inhibits cultured HSC-T6 cell activation and induces apoptosis by increasing Bax and caspase 3 expression via the mitochondrial pathway. PMID:20969858

  12. Antimicrobial Activity of Ferulic Acid Against Cronobacter sakazakii and Possible Mechanism of Action.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chao; Zhang, Xiaorong; Sun, Yi; Yang, Miaochun; Song, Kaikuo; Zheng, Zhiwei; Chen, Yifei; Liu, Xin; Jia, Zhenyu; Dong, Rui; Cui, Lu; Xia, Xiaodong

    2016-04-01

    Cronobacter sakazakii is an opportunistic pathogen transmitted by food that affects mainly newborns, infants, and immune-compromised adults. In this study, the antibacterial activity of ferulic acid was tested against C. sakazakii strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration of ferulic acid against C. sakazakii strains was determined using the agar dilution method. Changes in intracellular pH, membrane potential and intracellular ATP concentration were measured to elucidate the possible antibacterial mechanism. Moreover, SYTO 9 nucleic acid staining was used to assess the effect of ferulic acid on bacterial membrane integrity. Cell morphology changes were observed under a field emission scanning electron microscope. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of ferulic acid against C. sakazakii strains ranged from 2.5 to 5.0 mg/mL. Addition of ferulic acid exerted an immediate and sustained inhibition of C. sakazakii proliferation. Ferulic acid affected the membrane integrity of C. sakazakii, as evidenced by intracellular ATP concentration decrease. Moreover, reduction of intracellular pH and cell membrane hyperpolarization were detected in C. sakazakii after exposure to ferulic acid. Reduction of green fluorescence indicated the injury of cell membrane. Electronic microscopy confirmed that cell membrane of C. sakazakii was damaged by ferulic acid. Our results demonstrate that ferulic acid has moderate antimicrobial activity against C. sakazakii. It exerts its antimicrobial action partly through causing cell membrane dysfunction and changes in cellular morphology. Considering its antimicrobial properties, together with its well-known nutritional functions, ferulic acid has potential to be developed as a supplement in infant formula or other foods to control C. sakazakii. PMID:26919471

  13. Seasonally-Active Water on Mars: Vapour, Ice, Adsorbate, and the Possibility of Liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    Seasonally-active water can be defined to include any water reservoir that communicates with other reservoirs on time scales of a year or shorter. It is the interaction of these water reservoirs, under the influence of varying solar radiation and in conjunction with surface and atmospheric temperatures, that determines the phase-stability field for water at the surface, and the distribution of water in various forms below, on, and above the surface. The atmosphere is the critical, dynamical link in this cycling system, and also (fortunately) one of the easiest to observe. Viking and Mars Global Surveyor observations paint a strongly asymmetric picture of the global seasonal water cycle, tied proximately to planetary eccentricity, and the existence of residual ice caps of different composition at the two poles. The northern summer experiences the largest water vapour columns, and is associated with sublimation from the northern residual water ice cap. The southern summer residual carbon dioxide ice cap is cold trap for water. Asymmetry in the water cycle is an unsolved problem. Possible solutions may involve the current timing of perihelion (the water cap resides at the pole experiencing the longer but cooler summer), the trapping of water ice in the northern hemisphere by tropical water ice clouds, and the bias in the annual-average, zonal-mean atmospheric circulation resulting from the zonal-mean difference in the elevation of the northern and southern hemispheres. Adsorbed and frozen water have proven harder to constrain. Recent Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer results suggest substantial ground ice in the mid- and high-latitudes, but this water is likely below the seasonal skin depth for two reasons: the GRS results are best fit with such a model, and GCM models of the water cycle produce dramatically unrealistic atmospheric vapour distributions when such a very near surface, GRS-like distribution is initialized - ultimately removing the water to the northern and

  14. Chapter 9: Performance-Limiting MHD Activity and Possibilities for Its Stabilization in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Guenter, Sibylle; Zohm, Hartmut

    2003-11-15

    Performance-limiting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities on ASDEX Upgrade are discussed. In the conventional H-mode scenario, the main MHD performance limitation is found to be the neoclassical tearing mode (NTM). The onset {beta} of NTMs in ASDEX Upgrade scales with the poloidal ion gyroradius, in agreement with theoretical expectations. At higher {beta} values, NTMs occur in a more benign form, the frequently-interrupted-regime NTMs, which lead to a smaller confinement degradation than normal NTMs. Active control of NTMs by electron cyclotron current drive in the island has been demonstrated on ASDEX Upgrade. In advanced tokamak regimes with reversed shear, a variety of performance-limiting instabilities has been observed. The shear reversal zone can be unstable to double tearing modes or to infernal modes; both have been identified in ASDEX Upgrade. Due to the broad current profile in advanced tokamak discharges, the ideal external kink mode can be unstable at relatively low {beta}{sub N} {<=} 2; this is a main limitation to strongly reversed shear discharges with peaked pressure profiles. Finally, it is shown that fast-particle-driven modes such as fishbones can also have beneficial effects, such as providing stationary current profiles or triggering internal transport barriers.

  15. Hysteresis and positive cooperativity as possible regulatory mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi hexokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Héctor; Cáceres, Ana; González-Marcano, Eglys; Quiñones, Wilfredo; Avilán, Luisana; Dubourdieu, Michel; Concepción, Juan Luis

    2014-12-01

    In Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas disease, the first six or seven steps of glycolysis are compartmentalized in glycosomes, which are authentic but specialized peroxisomes. Hexokinase (HK), the first enzyme in the glycolytic pathway, has been an important research object, particularly as a potential drug target. Here we present the results of a specific kinetics study of the native HK from T. cruzi epimastigotes; a sigmoidal behavior was apparent when the velocity of the reaction was determined as a function of the concentration of its substrates, glucose and ATP. This behavior was only observed at low enzyme concentration, while at high concentration classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics was displayed. The progress curve of the enzyme's activity displays a lag phase of which the length is dependent on the protein concentration, suggesting that HK is a hysteretic enzyme. The hysteretic behavior may be attributed to slow changes in the conformation of T. cruzi HK as a response to variations of glucose and ATP concentrations in the glycosomal matrix. Variations in HK's substrate concentrations within the glycosomes may be due to variations in the trypanosome's environment. The hysteretic and cooperative behavior of the enzyme may be a form of regulation by which the parasite can more readily adapt to these environmental changes, occurring within each of its hosts, or during the early phase of transition to a new host. PMID:25683029

  16. Triplet supercurrent due to spin-active zones in a Josephson junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linder, Jacob; Sudbø, Asle

    2010-07-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment evidencing triplet superconductivity in a ferromagnetic Josephson junction with a Cu2MnAl -Heusler barrier, we construct a theoretical model accounting for this observation. The key ingredients in our model which generate the triplet supercurrent are spin-active zones, characterized by an effective canted interface magnetic moment. Using a numerical solution of the quasiclassical equations of superconductivity with spin-active boundary conditions, we find qualitatively very good agreement with the experimentally observed supercurrent. Further experimental implications of the spin-active zones are discussed.

  17. Possible involvement of CD10 in the development of endometriosis due to its inhibitory effects on CD44-dependent cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Akira; Kotani, Tomomi; Goto, Maki; Kobayashi, Hiroharu; Takikawa, Sachiko; Nakahara, Tatsuo; Nakamura, Tomoko; Kondo, Mika; Bayasula; Nagatomo, Yoshinari; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2014-01-01

    A reduced response to progesterone in the eutopic endometrium with endometriosis and in endometriotic tissues is considered to be the underlying factor for endometriosis. CD10 is known to be expressed by endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells and may be induced by progestins, although the function of CD10 is not fully revealed in endometrial or endometriotic tissues. In the current study, the expression of CD10 was significantly increased by treatment of the cells with progesterone, 17β-estradiol, and dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in the endometrial stromal cells. On the other hand, the expression of CD10 following treatment with progesterone, 17β-estradiol, and dibutyryl cAMP was not significantly increased in endometriotic stromal cells. The adhesion assay for endometrial and endometriotic stromal cells to hyaluronan using 5- or 6-(N-succinimidyloxycarbonyl)-fluorescein 3', 6'-diacetate-labeled cells demonstrated that the CD44-dependent adhesion of stromal cells was inhibited by CD10. As far as the induction of CD10 is concerned, the effect of progesterone was different between endometrial stromal cells and endometriotic stromal cells. CD10 might be involved in the development of endometriosis due to its influence on CD44-dependent cell adhesion. PMID:23653392

  18. Impairment of vitamin D metabolism due to environmental cadmium exposure, and possible relevance to sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage

    SciTech Connect

    Tsuritani, Ikiko; Honda, Ryumon; Ishizaki, Masao; Yamada, Yuichi ); Kido, Teruhiko; Nogawa, Koji )

    1992-12-01

    To determine whether depleted serum 1[alpha],25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD) concentrations are associated with cadmium (Cd)-induced renal damage, the relationships between four indices of renal function and two indicators of bone metabolism, that is, serum VD and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations, were analyzed in 30 male and 44 female subjects exposed to environmental Cd. Also, these associations were compared in male and female subjects to evaluate sex-related differences in vulnerability to the bone damage observed in Cd-exposed persons. Serum VD decreased significantly with declines in creatinine clearance and percentage tubular reabsorption of phosphate, and with increases in serum creatinine and serum [beta][sub 2]-microglobulin ([beta][sub 2]m) concentrations in the female subjects exposed to Cd, but not in the male subjects. The correlation between serum VD and PTH levels was also significant only in the females. Correlation coefficients between serum [beta][sub 2]m and VD and those between serum PTH and VD in both sexes were significantly different. These results suggest that renal damage due to Cd exposure leads to the decreases in the serum VD level and increases in serum PTH level, and that the more marked changes in serum VD and PTH in the women may play a role in the development of sex-related differences in Cd-induced bone injury.

  19. Enhanced Xylitol Production by Mutant Kluyveromyces marxianus 36907-FMEL1 Due to Improved Xylose Reductase Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Seong; Park, Jae-Bum; Jang, Seung-Won; Ha, Suk-Jin

    2015-08-01

    A directed evolution and random mutagenesis were carried out with thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus ATCC 36907 for efficient xylitol production. The final selected strain, K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1, exhibited 120 and 39 % improvements of xylitol concentration and xylitol yield, respectively, as compared to the parental strain, K. marxianus ATCC 36907. According to enzymatic assays for xylose reductase (XR) activities, XR activity from K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1 was around twofold higher than that from the parental strain. Interestingly, the ratios of NADH-linked and NADPH-linked XR activities were highly changed from 1.92 to 1.30 when K. marxianus ATCC 36907 and K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1 were compared. As results of KmXYL1 genes sequencing, it was found that cysteine was substituted to tyrosine at position 36 after strain development which might cause enhanced XR activity from K. marxianus 36907-FMEL1. PMID:26043853

  20. Radiation environment due to galactic and solar cosmic rays during manned mission to Mars in the periods between maximum and minimum solar activity cycles.

    PubMed

    Pissarenko, N F

    1994-10-01

    A possibility of a manned mission to Mars without exceeding the current radiation standards is very doubtful during the periods of minimum solar activity since the dose equivalent due to galactic cosmic rays exceeds currently recommended standards even inside a radiation shelter with an equivalent of 30 g cm-2 aluminum. The radiation situation at the time of maximum solar activity is determined by the occurrence of major solar proton events which are exceedingly difficult to forecast. This paper discusses the radiation environment during a manned mission to Mars in the years between minimum and maximum solar activity when the galactic cosmic ray intensity is considerably reduced, but the solar flare activity has not yet maximized. PMID:11540024

  1. THE DISCOVERY OF PERIODIC MODULATIONS IN THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF GALAXIES, POSSIBLY DUE TO ULTRARAPID LIGHT BURSTS FROM THEIR MASSIVE CENTRAL BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Borra, Ermanno F.

    2013-09-10

    A Fourier transform analysis of 2.5 million spectra in the SDSS survey was carried out to detect periodic modulations contained in the intensity versus frequency spectrum. A statistically significant signal was found for 223 galaxies, while the spectra of 0.9 million galaxies were observed. A plot of the periods as a function of redshift clearly shows that the effect is real without any doubt, because the modulations are quantized at two base periods that increase with redshift in two very tight parallel linear relations. We suggest that this result could be caused by light bursts separated by times on the order of 10{sup -13} s, but other causes may be possible. We investigate the hypothesis that the modulation is generated by the Fourier transform of spectral lines, but conclude that this hypothesis is not valid. Although the light burst suggestion implies absurdly high temperatures, it is supported by the fact that the Crab pulsar also has extremely short unresolved pulses (<0.5 ns) that imply similarly high temperatures. Furthermore, the radio spectrum of the Crab pulsar also has spectral bands similar to those that have been detected. Finally, decreasing the signal-to-noise threshold of detection gives results consistent with beamed signals having a small beam divergence, as expected from non-thermal sources that send a jet, like those seen in pulsars. Considering that galaxy centers contain massive black holes, exotic black hole physics may be responsible for the spectral modulation. However, at this stage, this idea is only a hypothesis to be confirmed with further work.

  2. Encephalopathy in megacystis-microcolon-intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome patients on long-term total parenteral nutrition possibly due to selenium deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hirato, Junko; Nakazato, Yoichi; Koyama, Hiroshi; Yamada, Ami; Suzuki, Norio; Kuroiwa, Minoru; Takahashi, Atsushi; Matsuyama, Shiro; Asayama, Kohtaro

    2003-09-01

    resulted from oxidative damage of the brain related to the low levels of glutathione peroxidase and other selenoproteins due to selenium deficiency. PMID:12845451

  3. Possible effects of ongoing and predicted climate change on snow avalanche activity in western Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laute, Katja; Beylich, Achim A.

    2016-04-01

    As snow avalanche formation is mainly governed by meteorological conditions as, e.g., air temperature fluctuations, heavy precipitation and wind conditions, it is likely that the frequency and magnitude of both ordinary and extreme snow avalanche events is modified through the documented effects of current and future climate change. In the Northern Hemisphere, 1983-2013 was likely the warmest 30-year period of the last 1400 years (IPCC, 2013). Meteorological records of western Norway show the general trend that the last 100 years, especially the last three decades, have been warmer and wetter than the time periods before. However, it is not evident that snow avalanche activity will increase in the near future. Today, the number of studies assessing the impact of climate change on the occurrence and magnitude of snow avalanches is limited. This work focuses on recent and possible future effects of climate change on snow avalanche activity along the western side of the Jostedalsbreen ice cap representing one of the areas with the highest snow avalanche activity in entire Norway. We have analyzed long-term homogenized meteorological data from five meteorological stations in different elevations above sea level, three of them with a long-term record of 120 years (1895-2015). In addition to the statistical analyses of long-term datasets, gained results and insights from a four-year (2009-2012) high-resolution snow avalanche monitoring study conducted in the same study area are incorporated. The statistical analyses of mean monthly air temperature, monthly precipitation sums and mean monthly snow depths showed that there is a trend of increasing air temperatures and precipitation sums whereas no clear trend was found for mean snow depths. Magnitude-frequency analyses conducted for three defined time intervals (120, 90, 60 years) of monthly precipitation sums exhibit an increase of precipitation especially during the last 30 years with the tendency that more precipitation

  4. Packing of Large Two- and Three-Photon Activity Into Smallest Possible Unsymmetrical Fluorene Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Kundi, Varun; Thankachan, Pompozhi Protasis

    2016-05-01

    The quantum chemical study of one-, two-, and three-photon absorption (1PA, 2PA, and 3PA) properties for a set of compact fluorene derivatives (FD) with combination of different donor and acceptor moieties on both sides of fluorene ring system is presented. The main goal of the study is to pack large two-photon (2P) and three-photon (3P) activity into smallest possible chromophore. Linear, quadratic, and cubic response time-dependent density functional theory was used to calculate 1PA, 2PA, and 3PA properties, respectively. We used CAMB3LYP/cc-pVDZ level of theory for all the property calculations. The 2P and 3P transition probabilities were recalculated using two-state model approach and found to be in good agreement with the response theory results for first excited state. To include the contributions from higher states, the three-state model was also employed to recalculate the 2P transition probabilities and found to be in excellent agreement with response theory. The 2P/3P tensor elements were also analyzed to find reasons behind large 2P/3P activities. All the orbitals involved in transition processes were studied in detail by both molecular orbital pictures (qualitatively) and overlap diagnostic Λ-values (quantitatively). The study reveals that the novel fluorene derivatives FD-12 and FD-13 have shown large 2PA cross-section values of 1100 G.M. and 1030 G.M.; and 3PA transition probabilities of 6.10 × 10(10) a.u. and 4.85 × 10(10) a.u., respectively, for transition S0 → S1. The largest 3PA transition probability of 4.04 × 10(11) a.u. was found with FD-12 for S0 → S2 excitation. The linear relationship between Λ-values and 2PA cross-section values was also studied. PMID:27054876

  5. Late-onset MNGIE without peripheral neuropathy due to incomplete loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity.

    PubMed

    Massa, Roberto; Tessa, Alessandra; Margollicci, Maria; Micheli, Vanna; Romigi, Andrea; Tozzi, Giulia; Terracciano, Chiara; Piemonte, Fiorella; Bernardi, Giorgio; Santorelli, Filippo M

    2009-12-01

    Mitochondrial NeuroGastroIntestinal Encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe gastrointestinal dysmotility, cachexia, peripheral neuropathy, ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and leukoencephalopathy with early onset and severe prognosis. Mutations in the TYMP/ECGF1 gene cause a loss of thymidine phosphorylase catalytic activity, disrupting the homeostasis of intramitochondrial nucleotide pool. We report a woman with a very late onset of MNGIE, lacking peripheral neuropathy. Thymidine phosphorylase activity was markedly reduced in cultured fibroblasts, but only mildly reduced in buffy coat, where the defect is usually detected, and plasma thymidine was mildly increased compared to typical MNGIE patients. TYMP/ECGF1 analysis detected two heterozygous mutations, including a novel missense mutation. These findings indicate that a partial loss of thymidine phosphorylase activity may induce a late-onset and incomplete MNGIE phenotype. PMID:19853446

  6. The spatial structure of underwater noise due to shipping activities in the Celtic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Shapiro, Georgy; Thain, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Underwater noise is now classed as pollution alongside chemical pollution and marine litter (MSFD, 2012). Underwater noise from man-made sources arises from a number of sources including shipping activities. There are numerous examples of sound-induced effects recorded for various marine mammals, either in controlled situations, or opportunistically (MSFD-GES, 2012). Broad or narrow band continuous sounds, as well as pulses, have been documented to cause effects ranging from slight behaviour change, to activity disruption, avoidance or abandonment of preferred habitat (see Clark et al., 2009). Underwater ambient noise generated by shipping activities has increased significantly over the past decades (e.g. Mcdonald et al., 2006). Noise from shipping is a major contributor to the ambient noise levels in ocean, particularly at low (

  7. Utilizing an Extraterrestrial Analogue to Predict Sediment Migration on Frenchman Flat due to Convective Vortex (Dust Devil) Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGee, B. W.

    2006-12-01

    data from the NTS, and combining them with measurements of sediment loading and erosive strength in terrestrial dust devils, it is possible to both illustrate the potential significance of dust devils to currently-accepted radionuclide residence time on Frenchman Flat playa, as well as predict areas of unexpected radionuclide migration and/or attenuation due to dust devil activity.

  8. Enhanced antioxidant defense due to extracellular catalase activity in Syrian hamster during arousal from hibernation.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hitomi; Okamoto, Iwao; Hanaya, Toshiharu; Arai, Shigeyuki; Ohta, Tsunetaka; Fukuda, Shigeharu

    2006-08-01

    Mammalian hibernators are considered a natural model for resistance to ischemia-reperfusion injuries, and protective mechanisms against oxidative stress evoked by repeated hibernation-arousal cycles in these animals are increasingly the focus of experimental investigation. Here we show that extracellular catalase activity provides protection against oxidative stress during arousal from hibernation in Syrian hamster. To examine the serum antioxidant defense system, we first assessed the hibernation-arousal state-dependent change in serum attenuation of cytotoxicity induced by hydrogen peroxide. Serum obtained from hamsters during arousal from hibernation at a rectal temperature of 32 degrees C, concomitant with the period of increased oxidative stress, attenuated the cytotoxicity four-fold more effectively than serum from cenothermic control hamsters. Serum catalase activity significantly increased during arousal, whereas glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 50%, compared with cenothermic controls. The cytoprotective effect of purified catalase at the concentration found in serum was also confirmed in a hydrogen peroxide-induced cytotoxicity model. Moreover, inhibition of catalase by aminotriazole led to an 80% loss of serum hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity. These results suggest that extracellular catalase is effective for protecting hibernators from oxidative stress evoked by arousal from hibernation. PMID:16807122

  9. Impacts on ambient air quality due to flaring activities in one of Oman's oilfields.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah; Ali, Sappurd; Sardar, Sabir; Irfan, Naseem

    2012-01-01

    This work was conducted to assess the impacts on workplace and ambient air quality due to release of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) into the atmosphere at Al-Noor production station, located in southern desert of Sultanate of Oman. The SO(2) is released because of oxidation of H(2)S to SO(2) on flaring of H(2)S rich off gas at the Al-Noor. In the first phase of the study, CALPUFF modeling system was used to predict the ground level concentrations of SO(2) emissions from the flare stacks. The evaluation of the modeling system was carried out by comparing the predicted results with that of the measured. In the second stage of the study, the estimated results were compared with the air quality standards/guidelines set by Omani regulatory authorities as well as by World Health Organization (WHO). It was concluded on the basis of current study that the sensitive individuals in the workplace of the Al-Noor could experience adverse health effects due to short-term exposure of SO(2). PMID:22315930

  10. Modeling of geomagnetic activity due to passage of different structures and features of high speed streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustajab, Fainana

    2016-07-01

    The modeling of terrestrial environment and relative geoeffectiveness due to high speed streams of different type and also compare their geoeffectiveness due to fine structures associated with streams, for example i) streams with different speed, ii) streams with different durations, iii) streams from different solar source and iv) associated fine structures. We also observed high speed streams during 1996 to 2011, and divided them into convenient groups based on their i) speed, ii) durations, iii) solar sources and iv) Dst groups. Performed them method of superposed-epoch analysis and other some statistical-analysis and correlation analysis between geomagnetic index Dst and plasma/field parameters during for both main phase and recovery phase. Streams having the passage duration ranging from 4.5 days to 10.5 days is 59% while other groups, having passage duration <4.5 days and > 10.5 days, contribute only near about 13%. When we observe group according to speed of streams, 30% of high speed streams are having the speed >650km/s and other groups are near about equally distributed in the range 400km/s to 650km/s. Out of 575 high speed streams, 45% streams are caused by single coronal hole, 20% due to multiple coronal hole, 24% by compound i.e: due to coronal hole and coronal mass ejections and only 10% from coronal mass ejections. The streams which are responsible for quiet, weak, moderate storms are nearly equal and only 12% streams cause severe storms. Dst gives best correlation with V(km/s) and BVres to the power 2 (x10res to the power 6) for over all storm time. B(nT) and BV(x10res to the power 3) represent good correlation with Dst during recovery phase duration for the speed groups. I observed the percentage of quiet storms decreases with increasing speed of streams. Near about equal percentage of weak storm are observed in each set of speed of stream. 17% moderate storms are found to contribute for the speed range 400-550km/s and ≈33% contribution is

  11. Activity pattern and energy expenditure due to physical activity before and during pregnancy in healthy Swedish women.

    PubMed

    Lof, Marie; Forsum, Elisabet

    2006-02-01

    Human pregnancy is associated with increased requirements for dietary energy and this increase may be partly offset by reductions in physical activity during gestation. Studies in well-nourished women have shown that the physical activity level (PAL), obtained as the total energy expenditure (TEE) divided by the BMR, decreases in late pregnancy. However, it is not known if this decrease is really caused by reductions in physical activity or if it is the result of decreases in energy expenditure/BMR (the so-called metabolic equivalent, MET) for many activities in late pregnancy. In the present study activity pattern, TEE and BMR were assessed in twenty-three healthy Swedish women before pregnancy as well as in gestational weeks 14 and 32. Activity pattern was assessed using a questionnaire and heart rate recording. TEE was assessed using the doubly labelled water method and BMR was measured by means of indirect calorimetry. When compared to the pre-pregnant value, there was little change in the PAL in gestational week 14 but it was significantly reduced in gestational week 32. Results obtained by means of the questionnaire and by heart rate recording showed that the activity pattern was largely unaffected by pregnancy. The findings support the following conclusion: in a population of well-nourished women where the activity pattern is maintained during pregnancy, the increase in BMR represents approximately the main part of the pregnancy-induced increase in TEE, at least until gestational week 32. PMID:16469145

  12. Distribution of Hydrothermal Activity at the Lau ISS: Possible Controlling Parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, F.; Baker, E. T.; Resing, J. A.; Edwards, M. H.; Walker, S. L.; Buck, N.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic tomographic studies of intermediate to fast spreading rate mid-ocean ridges (MORs) interpret zones of rapid crustal cooling a few (3-4) km off axis surrounding the axial seismic low velocity zone (LVZ). These zones of rapid cooling also broadly correlate with the initiation and growth of large abyssal hill faults. The close association of both high thermal gradients and development of fault permeability at crustal scales suggests the hypothesis that these areas may be favorable locations for off-axis high temperature hydrothermal activity. In March-May 2008 on R/V Kilo Moana we conducted a near-bottom sidescan sonar and oceanographic survey along the Eastern Lau Spreading Center (ELSC) and Valu Fa Ridge (VFR) in the Lau back-arc basin to map the distribution of hydrothermal activity within this region. The survey utilized the deep-towed DSL120A (IMI120) sonar, an array of miniature autonomous plume recorders (MAPRs) attached to the tow cable and tethered beneath the sonar's depressor weight, an in situ chemical scanner (VISA) and 23 CTD hydrocasts (see Baker et al., this session). At the ELSC the survey spanned ~100 x 10 km area encompassing the ABE, Tow Cam and Kilo Moana vent fields with ~ 1 km spaced lines overall and ~500 m spaced lines in the area of the ABE vent field. On the VFR the survey spanned a distance of ~100 km along axis by ~5 km across axis with 700 m spaced lines encompassing the Vai Lili, Mariner and Tui Malila vent sites. Initial results identified particle plumes, indicative of high temperature venting, only within about a km of the ridge axis at the ELSC and VFR with possible diffuse venting indicated by MAPR oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) measurements at flank sites at VFR. The expanded sonar coverage better defines the volcano-tectonic context of the hydrothermal signals and previously mapped vent sites. Initial results suggest, however, no high-T venting more than about 1 km from the ridge axis, an apparently negative test of

  13. Priming the Holiday Spirit: Persistent Activation due to Extra-Experimental Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Coane, Jennifer H.; Balota, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The concept of activation is a critical component of many models of cognition. A key characteristic of activation is that recent experience with a concept or stimulus increases the accessibility of the corresponding representation. The extent to which increases in accessibility occur as a result of experiences outside of laboratory settings has not been extensively explored. In the present study, we presented lexical stimuli associated to different holidays and festivities over the course of a year in a lexical decision task. When stimulus meaning and time of testing were congruent (e.g., leprechaun in March), response times were faster and accuracy greater than when meaning and time of test were incongruent (e.g., leprechaun in November). Congruency also benefited performance on a surprise free recall task of the items presented earlier in the lexical decision task. Discussion focuses on potential theoretical accounts of this heightened accessibility of time-of-the-year relevant concepts. PMID:19966266

  14. The Antimicrobial Activity of Marinocine, Synthesized by Marinomonas mediterranea, Is Due to Hydrogen Peroxide Generated by Its Lysine Oxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lucas-Elío, Patricia; Gómez, Daniel; Solano, Francisco; Sanchez-Amat, Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Marinocine is a broad-spectrum antibacterial protein synthesized by the melanogenic marine bacterium Marinomonas mediterranea. This work describes the basis for the antibacterial activity of marinocine and the identification of the gene coding for this protein. The antibacterial activity is inhibited under anaerobic conditions and by the presence of catalase under aerobic conditions. Marinocine is active only in culture media containing l-lysine. In the presence of this amino acid, marinocine generates hydrogen peroxide, which causes cell death as confirmed by the increased sensitivity to marinocine of Escherichia coli strains mutated in catalase activity. The gene coding for this novel enzyme was cloned using degenerate PCR with primers designed based on conserved regions in the antimicrobial protein AlpP, synthesized by Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and some hypothetical proteins. The gene coding for marinocine has been named lodA, standing for lysine oxidase, and it seems to form part of an operon with a second gene, lodB, that codes for a putative dehydrogenase flavoprotein. The identity of marinocine as LodA has been demonstrated by N-terminal sequencing of purified marinocine and generation of lodA mutants that lose their antimicrobial activity. This is the first report on a bacterial lysine oxidase activity and the first time that a gene encoding this activity has been cloned. PMID:16547036

  15. Coma Morphology Due to an Extended Active Region and Implications for the Spin State of Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2000-01-01

    We show that the circular character of continuum structures observed in the coma of comet Hale-Bopp around the perihelion passage is most likely due to a dust jet from a large extended active region on the surface. Coma morphology due to a wide jet is different from that due to a narrow jet. The latter shows foreshortening effects due to observing geometry, wider jet produces more circular features. This circularization effect provides a self-consistent explanation for the evolution of near-perihelion coma morphology. No changes in the direction of the rotational angular momentum vector are required during this period in contrast to the models of Schleicher et al. This circularization effect also enables us to produce near-circular coma features in the S-E quadrant during 1997 late February and therefore questions the basic premise on which Sekanina bases his morphological arguments for a gravitationally bound satellite nucleus.

  16. Estimation of landslides activities evolution due to land-use changes in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Desramaut, Nicolas; Cottin, Léa; Bernardie, Séverine; Grandjean, Gilles

    2015-04-01

    Global changes would have impacts worldwide, but their effects should be even more exacerbated in areas particularly vulnerable. Mountainous areas are among these vulnerable territories. Ecological systems are often at a fragile equilibrium, socio-economical activities are often climate-dependent and climate-driven natural hazards can be a major threat for human activities. In order to estimate the capacity of such mountainous valleys to face global changes (climate, but also climate- and human- induced land-use changes), it is necessary to be able to evaluate the evolution of the different threats. The present work presents a method to evaluate the influences of the evolution of both climate and vegetation cover on landslides activities over a whole valley, to propose adequate solutions for current and future forestry management. It is therefore necessary to properly estimate the vegetation influences on slope stabilities. In the present study, we develop a complementary module to our large-scale slope stability assessment tool to take into account the effects of vegetation on the mechanical soil properties (cohesion and over-load), but also on the slope hydrology (change in interceptions, run-off, and infiltration). Hence the proposed method combines a mechanical stability model (using finite slope analysis), a hydrological model, and a vegetation module which interfere with both aspects. All these elements are interfaced within a GIS-based solution. The whole chain is applied to a 100-km² Pyrenean Valley, for the ANR Project SAMCO (Society Adaptation for coping with Mountain risks in a global change COntext), as a first step in the chain for risk assessment for different climate and economical development scenarios, to evaluate the resilience of mountainous areas.

  17. Mammoth Lakes earthquakes and ground uplift: precursors to possible volcanic activity ( USA)?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bailey, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Recent seismicity and ground uplift in the area are described. A comparison with other areas in the Cascades is made and the possibility of the Long Valley Magma Chamber as a source for eruptions is discussed. -P.N.Chroston

  18. Telmisartan prevented cognitive decline partly due to PPAR-{gamma} activation

    SciTech Connect

    Mogi, Masaki; Li Jianmei; Tsukuda, Kana; Iwanami, Jun; Min, Li-Juan; Sakata, Akiko; Fujita, Teppei; Iwai, Masaru; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2008-10-24

    Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-{gamma}. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of A{beta} 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function evaluated by shuttle avoidance test. Pretreatment with a non-hypotensive dose of telmisartan significantly inhibited such cognitive decline. Interestingly, co-treatment with GW9662, a PPAR-{gamma} antagonist, partially inhibited this improvement of cognitive decline. Another ARB, losartan, which has less PPAR-{gamma} agonistic effect, also inhibited A{beta}-injection-induced cognitive decline; however the effect was smaller than that of telmisartan and was not affected by GW9662. Immunohistochemical staining for A{beta} showed the reduced A{beta} deposition in telmisartan-treated mice. However, this reduction was not observed in mice co-administered GW9662. These findings suggest that ARB has a preventive effect on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease, and telmisartan, with PPAR-{gamma} activation, could exert a stronger effect.

  19. Can human local activities worsen the rise of temperature due to Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, E.; Santana, J.; Deeb, A.; Grünwaldt, A.; Prieto, R.

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have shown a global scale temperature rise which in consequence, have brought up the need to propose various impact scenarios for this change on the planet and its life forms. Climate changes have a direct effect on human activities. Particularly these alterations have a negative impact on economy which in turn affects the most vulnerable and marginal population on developing nations. In a recent study based on 30 years climatological observed temperature in ten Mexican watersheds, from the period between 1970 and 1999, positive trend on maximum temperature were found in all watersheds. At each watershed at least 10 climatological stations from the net operated by the National Meteorological Service (Servicio Meterologico Nacional), whose data are maintained in the CLICOM database (Computerized Climate database), were selected. The climatological stations have at least 70% valid data per decade. In eight watersheds a maximum temperature trend oscillates between +0.5 to +1 oC every 30 years with a 95% confidence level. Nonetheless, in Rio Bravo and Rio Verde watersheds the tendencies are +1.75 and +2.75 oC over 30 years. The result in these two last watersheds evinces that: 1) there are fragile systems; 2) the human activities have a strong impact in those places, and 3) a principal anthropogenic influence on temperature rise is the change in land use. Temperature rised on Jalostitlan within Rio Verde watershed

  20. Biological Activities of Uric Acid in Infection Due to Enteropathogenic and Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Crane, John K; Broome, Jacqueline E; Lis, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    In previous work, we identified xanthine oxidase (XO) as an important enzyme in the interaction between the host and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli(EPEC) and Shiga-toxigenic E. coli(STEC). Many of the biological effects of XO were due to the hydrogen peroxide produced by the enzyme. We wondered, however, if uric acid generated by XO also had biological effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Uric acid triggered inflammatory responses in the gut, including increased submucosal edema and release of extracellular DNA from host cells. While uric acid alone was unable to trigger a chloride secretory response in intestinal monolayers, it did potentiate the secretory response to cyclic AMP agonists. Uric acid crystals were formed in vivo in the lumen of the gut in response to EPEC and STEC infections. While trying to visualize uric acid crystals formed during EPEC and STEC infections, we noticed that uric acid crystals became enmeshed in the neutrophilic extracellular traps (NETs) produced from host cells in response to bacteria in cultured cell systems and in the intestine in vivo Uric acid levels in the gut lumen increased in response to exogenous DNA, and these increases were enhanced by the actions of DNase I. Interestingly, addition of DNase I reduced the numbers of EPEC bacteria recovered after a 20-h infection and protected against EPEC-induced histologic damage. PMID:26787720

  1. Charge transport due to photoelectric interface activation in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliusi, P.; Cipparrone, G.

    2002-11-01

    We report a study of the crucial role of liquid-crystal-polymer interface on photoinduced transport and redistribution of charges in pure nematic liquid-crystal cells that exhibit a photorefractivelike effect. A stationary photocurrent that is 30% of the dark current has been measured for very low power illumination (few mW) and low applied dc electric field (about 0.1 V/mum). The experimental results indicate a clear dependence of the effect on the light wavelength. The absence of photocurrent in cells with only one component, liquid-crystal, or polymer, suggests that both are not intrinsically photoconductive, rules out light-induced charge injection by the electrodes, and indicates the polymer-liquid-crystal interface as the photoactive element in the effect. The photocurrent dynamics indicate the presence of various mechanisms. We suppose that the effect is due to photoinduced carriers injection through the liquid-crystal-polymer interface and recombination process with the counterions present on the opposite side. Different hypotheses are made and discussed.

  2. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  3. Soft computing analysis of the possible correlation between temporal and energy release patterns in seismic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantaras, Anthony; Katsifarakis, Emmanouil; Artzouxaltzis, Xristos; Makris, John; Vallianatos, Filippos; Varley, Martin

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a preliminary investigation of the possible correlation of temporal and energy release patterns of seismic activity involving the preparation processes of consecutive sizeable seismic events [1,2]. The background idea is that during periods of low-level seismic activity, stress processes in the crust accumulate energy at the seismogenic area whilst larger seismic events act as a decongesting mechanism releasing considerable energy [3,4]. A dynamic algorithm is being developed aiming to identify and cluster pre- and post- seismic events to the main earthquake following on research carried out by Zubkov [5] and Dobrovolsky [6,7]. This clustering technique along with energy release equations dependent on Richter's scale [8,9] allow for an estimate to be drawn regarding the amount of the energy being released by the seismic sequence. The above approach is being implemented as a monitoring tool to investigate the behaviour of the underlying energy management system by introducing this information to various neural [10,11] and soft computing models [1,12,13,14]. The incorporation of intelligent systems aims towards the detection and simulation of the possible relationship between energy release patterns and time-intervals among consecutive sizeable earthquakes [1,15]. Anticipated successful training of the imported intelligent systems may result in a real-time, on-line processing methodology [1,16] capable to dynamically approximate the time-interval between the latest and the next forthcoming sizeable seismic event by monitoring the energy release process in a specific seismogenic area. Indexing terms: pattern recognition, long-term earthquake precursors, neural networks, soft computing, earthquake occurrence intervals References [1] Konstantaras A., Vallianatos F., Varley M.R. and Makris J. P.: ‘Soft computing modelling of seismicity in the southern Hellenic arc', IEEE Geoscience and Remote Sensing Letters, vol. 5 (3), pp. 323-327, 2008 [2] Eneva M. and

  4. Activation of the alternative pathway by gluten. A possible aetiological factor in dermatitis herpetiformis.

    PubMed

    Massey, A; Capner, P M; Mowbray, J F

    1977-09-01

    Gluten fractions are shown to activate the alternative pathway of complement when added to normal human serum. Breakdown of C3 and Factor B occur in a manner analogous to that when activated by zymosan, in the presence of MgEGTA and in serum devoid of classical pathway activity. The suggestion is made that bypass activation may be the primary event when gluten enters the serum across a damaged gut mucosa. Immune complexes containing non-complement fixing IgA antigluten antibody are carried to the skin where it is proposed that complexed gluten activates C3 and initiates an inflammatory reaction. PMID:908582

  5. Reduced polarization decay due to carrier in-scattering in a semiconductor active medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, S.; Knorr, A.; Koch, S.W.; Chow, W.W.

    1996-07-01

    The in-scattering processes, which reduce the decay of the active medium polarization, should be included in a consistent treatment of semiconductor laser gain. The in-scattering processes affect the laser gain by decreasing the influence of the high k-states, which contribute absorption to the spectrum. A theory, based on the semiconductor-Bloch equations with the effects of carrier-carrier scattering treated at the level of the quantum kinetic equations in the Markov limit, predicts gain spectra that do not exhibit absorption below the renormalized band gap, in agreement with experiment. When compared to gain calculations where the in-scattering contribution is neglected, the theory predicts markedly different properties for intrinsic laser parameters, such as peak gain, gain bandwidth, differential gain and carrier density at transparency, especially at low carrier densities.

  6. Improved Detection of Polygalacturonase Activity due to Mucor piriformis with a Modified Dinitrosalicylic Acid Reagent.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Michailides, T J; Bostock, R M

    1997-02-01

    ABSTRACT An assay for determination of galacturonic acid with 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid was developed that substantially extends the linear range of detection compared to a previously published method with this reagent. In the improved assay, galacturonic acid was detected with a reagent containing 44 mM 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4 mM sodium sulfite, and 375 mM sodium hydroxide. The absorbance of the solution after reaction with galacturonic acid was determined at 575 nm and was linear at concentrations of galacturonic acid up to 50 mumol, with a lower limit of detection at ~400 nmol. The assay with the improved reagent could be performed in wavelength ranges from 550 to 575 nm, with higher sensitivity at the shorter wavelengths. The new reagent was used in routine assays of polygalacturonase activity in culture filtrates of the important postharvest fungal pathogen Mucor piriformis. PMID:18945136

  7. CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY DUE TO TURBULENT CONVECTION IN SPHERICAL WEDGE GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Kaepylae, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-08-10

    We report on simulations of turbulent, rotating, stratified, magnetohydrodynamic convection in spherical wedge geometry. An initially small-scale, random, weak-amplitude magnetic field is amplified by several orders of magnitude in the course of the simulation to form oscillatory large-scale fields in the saturated state of the dynamo. The differential rotation is solar-like (fast equator), but neither coherent meridional poleward circulation nor near-surface shear layer develop in these runs. In addition to a poleward branch of magnetic activity beyond 50 Degree-Sign latitude, we find for the first time a pronounced equatorward branch at around 20 Degree-Sign latitude, reminiscent of the solar cycle.

  8. Natural Killer Cell-Based Therapies Targeting Cancer: Possible Strategies to Gain and Sustain Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Carin I. M.; Sarhan, Dhifaf; Chrobok, Michael; Duru, Adil D.; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered 40 years ago, by their ability to recognize and kill tumor cells without the requirement of prior antigen exposure. Since then, NK cells have been seen as promising agents for cell-based cancer therapies. However, NK cells represent only a minor fraction of the human lymphocyte population. Their skewed phenotype and impaired functionality during cancer progression necessitates the development of clinical protocols to activate and expand to high numbers ex vivo to be able to infuse sufficient numbers of functional NK cells to the cancer patients. Initial NK cell-based clinical trials suggested that NK cell-infusion is safe and feasible with almost no NK cell-related toxicity, including graft-versus-host disease. Complete remission and increased disease-free survival is shown in a small number of patients with hematological malignances. Furthermore, successful adoptive NK cell-based therapies from haploidentical donors have been demonstrated. Disappointingly, only limited anti-tumor effects have been demonstrated following NK cell infusion in patients with solid tumors. While NK cells have great potential in targeting tumor cells, the efficiency of NK cell functions in the tumor microenvironment is yet unclear. The failure of immune surveillance may in part be due to sustained immunological pressure on tumor cells resulting in the development of tumor escape variants that are invisible to the immune system. Alternatively, this could be due to the complex network of immune-suppressive compartments in the tumor microenvironment, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and regulatory T cells. Although the negative effect of the tumor microenvironment on NK cells can be transiently reverted by ex vivo expansion and long-term activation, the aforementioned NK cell/tumor microenvironment interactions upon reinfusion are not fully elucidated. Within this context, genetic modification of NK cells

  9. Natural Killer Cell-Based Therapies Targeting Cancer: Possible Strategies to Gain and Sustain Anti-Tumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Sarhan, Dhifaf; Chrobok, Michael; Duru, Adil D; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered 40 years ago, by their ability to recognize and kill tumor cells without the requirement of prior antigen exposure. Since then, NK cells have been seen as promising agents for cell-based cancer therapies. However, NK cells represent only a minor fraction of the human lymphocyte population. Their skewed phenotype and impaired functionality during cancer progression necessitates the development of clinical protocols to activate and expand to high numbers ex vivo to be able to infuse sufficient numbers of functional NK cells to the cancer patients. Initial NK cell-based clinical trials suggested that NK cell-infusion is safe and feasible with almost no NK cell-related toxicity, including graft-versus-host disease. Complete remission and increased disease-free survival is shown in a small number of patients with hematological malignances. Furthermore, successful adoptive NK cell-based therapies from haploidentical donors have been demonstrated. Disappointingly, only limited anti-tumor effects have been demonstrated following NK cell infusion in patients with solid tumors. While NK cells have great potential in targeting tumor cells, the efficiency of NK cell functions in the tumor microenvironment is yet unclear. The failure of immune surveillance may in part be due to sustained immunological pressure on tumor cells resulting in the development of tumor escape variants that are invisible to the immune system. Alternatively, this could be due to the complex network of immune-suppressive compartments in the tumor microenvironment, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and regulatory T cells. Although the negative effect of the tumor microenvironment on NK cells can be transiently reverted by ex vivo expansion and long-term activation, the aforementioned NK cell/tumor microenvironment interactions upon reinfusion are not fully elucidated. Within this context, genetic modification of NK cells

  10. Butyrate Induced IGF2 Activation Correlated with Distinct Chromatin Signatures Due to Histone Modification.

    PubMed

    Shin, Joo Heon; Li, Robert W; Gao, Yuan; Bickhart, Derek M; Liu, George E; Li, Weizhong; Wu, Sitao; Li, Cong-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Histone modification has emerged as a very important mechanism regulating the transcriptional status of the genome. Insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) is a peptide hormone controlling various cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis. H19 gene is closely linked to IGF2 gene, and IGF2 and H19 are reciprocally regulated imprinted genes. The epigenetic signature of H19 promoter (hypermethylation) on the paternal allele plays a vital role in allowing the expression of the paternal allele of IGF2.46 Our previous studies demonstrate that butyrate regulates the expression of IGF2 as well as genes encoding IGF Binding proteins. To obtain further understanding of histone modification and its regulatory potentials in controlling IGF2/H19 gene expression, we investigated the histone modification status of some key histones associated with the expression of IGF2/H19 genes in bovine cells using RNA-seq in combination with Chip-seq technology. A high-resolution map of the major chromatin modification at the IGF2/H19 locus induced by butyrate was constructed to illustrate the fundamental association of the chromatin modification landscape that may play a role in the activation of the IGF2 gene. High-definition epigenomic landscape mapping revealed that IGF2 and H19 have distinct chromatin modification patterns at their coding and promoter regions, such as TSSs and TTSs. Moreover, the correlation between the differentially methylated regions (DMRs) of IGF2/H19 locus and histone modification (acetylation and methylation) indicated that epigenetic signatures/markers of DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone acetylation were differentially distributed on the expressed IGF2 and silenced H19 genes. Our evidence also suggests that butyrate-induced regional changes of histone acetylation statusin the upstream regulation domain of H19 may be related to the reduced expression of H19 and strong activation of IGF2. Our results provided insights into the mechanism

  11. Promyelocytic leukemia protein induces apoptosis due to caspase-8 activation via the repression of NFκB activation in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Matsuzaki, Kazuhito; Mizobuchi, Yoshihumi; Mure, Hideo; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Kageji, Teruyoshi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2009-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein plays an essential role in the induction of apoptosis; its expression is reduced in various cancers. As the functional roles of PML in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) have not been clarified, we assessed the expression of PML protein in GBM tissues and explored the mechanisms of PML- regulated cell death in GBM cells. We examined the PML mRNA level and the expression of PML protein in surgical GBM specimens. PML-regulated apoptotic mechanisms in GBM cells transfected with plasmids expressing the PML gene were examined. The protein expression of PML was significantly lower in GBM than in non- neoplastic tissues; approximately 10% of GBM tissues were PML-null. The PML mRNA levels were similar in both tissue types. The overexpression of PML activated caspase-8 and induced apoptosis in GBM cells. In these cells, PML decreased the expression of transactivated forms of NFκ B/p65, and c-FLIP gene expression was suppressed. Therefore, PML-induced apoptosis resulted from the suppression of the transcriptional activity of NFκB/p65. PML overexpression decreased phosphorylated IκBα and nuclear NFκB/p65 and increased the expression of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS-1). A proteasome inhibitor blocked the reduction of activated p65 by PML. The reduction of PML is associated with the pathogenesis of GBM. PML induces caspase-8– dependent apoptosis via the repression of NFκB activation by which PML facilitates the proteasomal degradation of activated p65 and the sequestration of p65 with IκBα in the cytoplasm. This novel mechanism of PML-regulated apoptosis may represent a therapeutic target for GBM. PMID:18812519

  12. The hepatocyte growth factor isoform NK2 activates motogenesis and survival but not proliferation due to lack of Akt activation.

    PubMed

    Mungunsukh, Ognoon; Lee, Young H; Bottaro, Donald P; Day, Regina M

    2016-08-01

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotrophic factor involved in cellular proliferation, migration and morphogenesis. HGF is required for normal tissue and organ development during embryogenesis, but in the adult HGF has been demonstrated to drive normal tissue repair and inhibit fibrotic remodeling. HGF has two naturally occurring human isoforms as a result of alternative splicing, NK1 and NK2. While NK1 has been defined as an agonist for HGF receptor, Met, NK2 is defined as a partial Met antagonist. Furthermore, under conditions of fibrotic remodeling, NK2 is still expressed while full length HGF is suppressed. Furthermore, the mechanism by which NK2 partially signals through Met is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the mitogenic, motogenic, and anti-apoptotic activities of NK2 compared with full length HGF in primary human bronchial epithelial cells (BEpC) and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAEC). In human BEpC, NK2 partial activated Met, inducing Met phosphorylation at Y1234/1235 in the tyrosine-kinase domain but not at Y1349 site in the multifunctional docking domain. Partial phosphorylation of Met by NK2 resulted in activation of MAPK and STAT3, but not AKT. This correlated with motogenesis and survival in a MAPK-dependent manner, but not cell proliferation. Overexpression of a constitutively active AKT complemented NK2 signaling, allowing NK2 to induce cell proliferation. These data indicate that NK2 and HGF drive motogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling but only HGF drives cell proliferation by activating AKT-pathway signaling. These results have implications for the biological consequences of differential regulation of the two isoforms under pro-fibrotic conditions. PMID:27224506

  13. Linking possible selves and behavior: do domain-specific hopes and fears translate into daily activities in very old age?

    PubMed

    Hoppmann, Christiane A; Gerstorf, Denis; Smith, Jacqui; Klumb, Petra L

    2007-03-01

    We used time-sampling information from a subsample of the Berlin Aging Study (N=83; M=81.1 years) to investigate the link between possible selves in three domains (health, everyday cognition, and social relations) and performance of daily activities. In the domains of health and social relations, hoped-for selves were associated with higher probabilities of performing daily activities in those domains. There were no associations in the cognitive domain or between feared selves and activities. Individuals who engaged in hope-related activities reported concurrent higher positive affect and subsequently had a higher probability of survival over a 10-year period. These findings speak to important associations between beliefs about possible selves and activities in advanced old age and the value of considering associations between microlevel and macrolevel indicators of successful aging. PMID:17379670

  14. Monthly Variability in Upper Ocean Biogeochemistry Due to Mesoscale Eddy Activity in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Erin N.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of monthly biogeochemical measurements made from 1993 to 1995, combined with hydrography and satellite altimetry, was used to observe the impacts of nine eddy events on primary productivity and particle flux in the Sargasso Sea. Measurements of primary production, thorium-234 flux, nitrate+nitrite, and photosynthetic pigments made at the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series Study (BATS) site were used. During the three years of this study, four out of six high thorium-234 flux events over 1000 dpm/sq m/d occurred during the passage of an eddy. Primary production nearly as high as the spring bloom maximum was observed in two mode-water eddies (May 1993 and July 1995). The 1994 spring bloom at BATS was suppressed by the passage of an anticyclone. Distinct phytoplankton community shifts were observed in mode-water eddies, which had an increased percentage diatoms and dinoflagelletes, and in cyclones, which had an increased percentage cyanobacteria (excluding Prochlorococcus). The difference in the observations of mode-water eddies and cyclones may result from the age of the eddy, which was very important to the biological response. In general, eddies that were one to two months old elicited a large biological response; eddies that were three months old may show a biological response and were accompanied by high thorium flux measurements; eddies that were four months old or older did not show a biological response or high thorium flux. Our conceptual model depicting the importance of temporal changes during eddy upwelling and decay fit the observations well in all seven upwelling eddies. Additional information is needed to determine the importance of deeper mixed layers and winter mixing to the magnitude of the eddy impacts. Also, sampling generally captured only the beginning, end, and/or edge of an eddy due to the monthly to semi-monthly frequency of the measurements made at BATS. Lagrangian studies, higher resolution time-series, and/or more spatial

  15. Monthly Variability in Upper Ocean Biogeochemistry due to Mesoscale Eddy Activity in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sweeney, Erin N.

    2001-01-01

    A comparison of monthly biogeochemical measurements made from 1993 to 1995, combined with hydrography and satellite altimetry, was used to observe the impacts of nine eddy events on primary productivity and particle flux in the Sargasso Sea. Measurements of primary production, thorium-234 flux, nitrate+nitrite, and photosynthetic pigments made at the US JGOFS Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site were used. During the three years of this study, four out of six high thorium-234 flux events over 1000 dpm/sq m/d occurred during the passage of an eddy. Primary production nearly as high as the spring bloom maximum was observed in two modewater eddies (May 1993 and July 1995). The 1994 spring bloom at BATS was suppressed by the passage of an anticyclone. Distinct phytoplankton community shifts were observed in mode-water eddies, which had an increased percentage diatoms and dinoflagelletes, and in cyclones, which had an increased percentage cyanobacteria (excluding Prochlorococcus). The difference in the observations of mode-water eddies and cyclones may result from the age of the eddy, which was very important to the biological response. In general, eddies that were one to two months old elicited a large biological response; eddies that were three months old may show a biological response and were accompanied by high thorium flux measurements, eddies that were four months old or older did not show a biological response or high thorium flux. Our conceptual model depicting the importance of temporal changes during eddy upwelling and decay fit the observations well in all 7 upwelling eddies. Additional information is needed to determine the importance of deeper mixed layers and winter mixing to the magnitude of the eddy impacts. Also, sampling generally captured only the beginning, end, and /or edge of an eddy due to the monthly to semi-monthly frequency of the measurements made at BATS. Lagrangian studies, higher resolution time-series, and/or more spatial

  16. UVB Generates Microvesicle Particle Release in Part Due to Platelet-activating Factor Signaling.

    PubMed

    Bihl, Ji C; Rapp, Christine M; Chen, Yanfang; Travers, Jeffrey B

    2016-05-01

    The lipid mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF) and oxidized glycerophosphocholine PAF agonists produced by ultraviolet B (UVB) have been demonstrated to play a pivotal role in UVB-mediated processes, from acute inflammation to delayed systemic immunosuppression. Recent studies have provided evidence that microvesicle particles (MVPs) are released from cells in response to various signals including stressors. Importantly, these small membrane fragments can interact with various cell types by delivering bioactive molecules. The present studies were designed to test if UVB radiation can generate MVP release from epithelial cells, and the potential role of PAF receptor (PAF-R) signaling in this process. We demonstrate that UVB irradiation of the human keratinocyte-derived cell line HaCaT resulted in the release of MVPs. Similarly, treatment of HaCaT cells with the PAF-R agonist carbamoyl PAF also generated equivalent amounts of MVP release. Of note, pretreatment of HaCaT cells with antioxidants blocked MVP release from UVB but not PAF-R agonist N-methyl carbamyl PAF (CPAF). Importantly, UVB irradiation of the PAF-R-negative human epithelial cell line KB and KB transduced with functional PAF-Rs resulted in MVP release only in PAF-R-positive cells. These studies demonstrate that UVB can generate MVPs in vitro and that PAF-R signaling appears important in this process. PMID:26876152

  17. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats due to age-related arginase activation in intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Ogura, Sayoko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Aging induces arginase activation and reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in the arteries. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), conferred by cycles of brief hypoxia and normoxia, contributes to OSAS pathogenesis. Here, we studied the role of arginase and aging in the pathogenesis of PAH in adult (9-mo-old) and young (2-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to IH or normoxia for 4 weeks and analyzed them with a pressure-volume catheter inserted into the right ventricle (RV) and by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Western blot analysis was conducted on arginase, NO synthase isoforms, and nitrotyrosine. IH induced PAH, as shown by increased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, in adult rats but not in young rats. IH increased expression levels of arginase I and II proteins in the adult rats. IH also increased arginase I expression in the pulmonary artery endothelium and arginase II in the pulmonary artery adventitia. Furthermore, IH reduced pulmonary levels of nitrate and nitrite but increased nitrotyrosine levels in adult rats. An arginase inhibitor (N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-1-arginine) prevented IH-induced PAH and normalized nitrite and nitrate levels in adult rats. IH induced arginase up-regulation and PAH in adult rats, but not in young rats, through reduced NO production. Our findings suggest that arginase inhibition prevents or reverses PAH. PMID:25490411

  18. Control of transient vibrations due to stage movements in 6-dof active pneumatic table by inertial force compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jong-Oh; Kim, Kwang-joon

    2013-10-01

    Passive pneumatic tables are popularly used in precision measurements or processes for isolation of ground vibrations over frequency ranges higher than resonance frequencies of a few Hz typically. Recently, active pneumatic tables are also used often because the passive systems are liable to table excitations in the low resonance frequency ranges, causing long settling times. In studies on the active tables, disturbances onto the tables were often regarded to be unknown and, hence, feedback control algorithms were implemented. However, the disturbances are mostly due to inertial forces due to movement of equipment on the table, e.g., x-y stages. Such a movement is given relative to the table as command inputs. Since absolute motion of the table is normally measured in an active isolation table, absolute motion of the equipment can be easily estimated for calculation of the inertial force exerted onto the table by the moving equipment. Consequently, by compensating dynamic pressure inside the pneumatic chamber to counteract with the inertia force due to the equipment motion, resultant forces acting onto the table can be made zero. In this paper, how to apply the proposed feed-forward control algorithm to a 6-degree of freedom active pneumatic table with time-delay pneumatic control is presented. Performance of the inertial force compensation control evaluated through experiments is also discussed.

  19. Monitoring the Perturbation of Soil and Groundwater Microbial Communities Due to Pig Production Activities

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Pei-Ying; Yannarell, Anthony C.; Dai, Qinghua; Ekizoglu, Melike

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine if biotic contaminants originating from pig production farms are disseminated into soil and groundwater microbial communities. A spatial and temporal sampling of soil and groundwater in proximity to pig production farms was conducted, and quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) was utilized to determine the abundances of tetracycline resistance genes (i.e., tetQ and tetZ) and integrase genes (i.e., intI1 and intI2). We observed that the abundances of tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in the soils increased at least 6-fold after manure application, and their abundances remained elevated above the background for up to 16 months. Q-PCR further determined total abundances of up to 5.88 × 109 copies/ng DNA for tetZ, tetQ, intI1, and intI2 in some of the groundwater wells that were situated next to the manure lagoon and in the facility well used to supply water for one of the farms. We further utilized 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing to assess the microbial communities, and our comparative analyses suggest that most of the soil samples collected before and after manure application did not change significantly, sharing a high Bray-Curtis similarity of 78.5%. In contrast, an increase in Bacteroidetes and sulfur-oxidizing bacterial populations was observed in the groundwaters collected from lagoon-associated groundwater wells. Genera associated with opportunistic human and animal pathogens, such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, Yersinia, and Coxiella, were detected in some of the manure-treated soils and affected groundwater wells. Feces-associated bacteria such as Streptococcus, Erysipelothrix, and Bacteroides were detected in the manure, soil, and groundwater ecosystems, suggesting a perturbation of the soil and groundwater environments by invader species from pig production activities. PMID:23396341

  20. Behavioral sexual dimorphism in models of anxiety and depression due to changes in HPA axis activity.

    PubMed

    Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Sideris, Antonios C; Dendi, Artemis; Mikail, Hudu G; Antoniou, Katerina; Papadopoulou-Daifoti, Zeta

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are considered as stress-related disorders, which present considerable sex differentiation. In animal models of anxiety and depression sex differences have been described and linked to the sexually dimorphic hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenals (HPA) axis. The present study aimed to adjust corticosterone, the main HPA axis stress hormone, in male and female adrenalectomized rats with oral (25 μg/ml) corticosterone replacement (ADXR). Subsequently we investigated the behavioral performance of ADXR rats in the open field, light/dark and forced swim test (FST). Male ADXR rats showed less anxiety-like behavior when compared to sham-operated controls, despite adequate corticosterone replacement. They further showed increased swimming and reduced climbing behavior in the FST, while immobility duration did not differ from sham-operated males. On the contrary, adrenalectomy and corticosterone replacement did not have significant effects on the female behavioral response. Females were generally more active and presented less anxiety-like behavior than males, while they exhibited higher depressive-like symptomatology in the FST. ADXR affected behavioral responses predominantly in males, which in turn modified sex differences in the behavioral profile. Females in proestrous and estrous did not differ from females in diestrous and methestrous in any measured behavioral response. Present results suggest that the male and not the female behavioral responses in models of anxiety and depression were mainly affected by ADXR. These findings may play a significant role in explaining the differential coping strategy of the two sexes in response to stressful experiences. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21884710

  1. Modelling Gravimetric Fluctuations due to Hydrological Processes in Active Volcanic Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmings, B.; Gottsmann, J.; Whitaker, F.

    2014-12-01

    Both static and dynamic gravimetric surveys are widely used to monitor magmatic processes in active volcanic settings. However, attributing residual gravimetric signals solely to magma movement can result in misdiagnosis of a volcano's pre-eruptive state and incorrect assessment of hazard. The relative contribution of magmatic and aqueous fluids to integrated gravimetric and geodetic data has become an important topic for debate, particularly in restless caldera systems. Groundwater migration driven by volcanically-induced pressure changes, and groundwater mass fluctuations associated with seasonal and inter-annual variations in recharge may also contribute to measured gravity changes. Here we use numerical models to explore potential gravimetric signals associated with fundamental hydrological processes, focusing on variations in recharge and hydrogeological properties. TOUGH2 simulations demonstrate the significance of groundwater storage within a thick unsaturated zone (up to 100 m). Changes are dominantly in response to inter-annual recharge variations and can produce measurable absolute gravity variations of several 10s of μgal. Vadose zone storage and the rate of response to recharge changes depend on the hydrological properties. Porosity, relative and absolute permeability and capillary pressure conditions all affect the amplitude and frequency of modelled gravity time series. Spatial variations in hydrologic properties and importantly, hydrological recharge, can significantly affect the phase and amplitude of recorded gravity signals. Our models demonstrate the potential for an appreciable hydrological component within gravimetric measurements on volcanic islands. Characterisation of hydrological processes within a survey area may be necessary to robustly interpret gravity signals in settings with significant recharge fluctuations, a thick vadose zone and spatially variable hydrological properties. Such modelling enables further exploration of feedbacks

  2. Discovering the Possibilities: A Study of African American Youth Resistance and Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis-Williams, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a study of African American youth resistance and activism. The data revealed that African American youth have a large capacity for activism and ability to resist. Early engagement on issues of social justice, equality and freedom by family, teachers, pastors and community leaders can help to shape political character and…

  3. Tidal wind as a possible link of coupling between atmospheric waves activity and sporadic E formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalakishvili, Giorgi; Didebulidze, Goderdzi G.; Matiashvili, Giorgi

    2016-04-01

    The horizontal tidal wind in the mesosphere lower thermosphere region (MLT) is considered as a source of atmospheric gravity waves (AGWs) and vortical type perturbations generation. It is shown that at mid-latitude these atmospheric waves, evolving in the tidal wind, can lead to vertical convergence of heavy metallic ions of this region and Formation of sporadic E (Es) layer. The process of sporadic E formation by short-period AGWs (close to Bunt-Vaisala period) and by the stationary type vortical perturbations with the same spatial scale, excited in the horizontal shear flow is demonstrated using numerical simulations. The possibility of oscillation of Es layers electron/ions density by period less than BV period under influence of short-period AGWs is shown and the possible coupling of these processes with quasi-periodic echoes is also noted. In our numerical experiment the mid-latitude nighttime Es layers formed under influence of these atmospheric waves, which are possibly generated by horizontal tidal wind, mostly move downward, this is an observed phenomena. It is noted that investigation of sporadic E formation by atmospheric waves evolving in the tidal wind is important for study of the in situ developing processes in the lower thermosphere determining atmosphere-ionosphere dynamical coupling as well as for revealing their possible dynamical coupling with lower atmosphere. Acknowledgements: This work has been supported by Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation grant No 31/81 and the Shota Rustaveli National Science Foundation grant No FR/51/6-300/14.

  4. Early Maritime Activity on the Dead Sea: Bitumen Harvesting and the Possible Use of Reed Watercraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Asaf; Galili, Ehud; Hadas, Gideon; Klein, Micha

    2015-04-01

    Most studies of ancient maritime activity on the Dead Sea focus on the Hellenistic to the Early Byzantine periods, for which a rich body of archaeological and historic data exists. However, finds of Dead Sea bitumen at distant prehistoric sites and an anchor dating to the seventh century BC indicate that maritime activity on the lake preceded the Greek and Roman periods, and raise questions regarding this activity's origins and nature. By linking the exploitation of Dead Sea bitumen with the use of watercraft, and through consideration of a broader early maritime record of the ancient Near East, this study pushes back the dating of this activity on the lake and suggests the nature of its watercraft.

  5. Theoretical study of nitrodibenzofurans: A possible relationship between molecular properties and mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Stanković, B; Ostojić, B D; Popović, A; Gruden, M А; Đorđević, D S

    2016-11-15

    In this study we present a theoretical investigation of the molecular properties of nitrodibenzofurans (NDFs) and dinitrodibenzofurans (DNDFs) and their relation to mutagenic activity. Equilibrium geometries, relative energies, vertical ionization potentials (IP), vertical electron activities (EA), electronic dipole polarizabilities, and dipole moments of all NDFs and three DNDFs calculated by Density Functional Theory (DFT) methods are reported. The Ziegler/Rauk Energy Decomposition Analysis (EDA) is employed for a direct estimate of the variations of the orbital interaction and steric repulsion terms corresponding to the nitro group and the oxygen of the central ring of NDFs. The results indicate differences among NDF isomers for the cleavage of the related bonds and steric effects in the active site. The results show a good linear relationship between polarizability (<α>), anisotropy of polarizability (Δα), the summation of IR intensities (ΣIIR) and the summation of Raman activities (ΣARaman) over all 3N-6 vibrational modes and experimental mutagenic activities of NDF isomers in Salmonella typhimurium TA98 strain. The polarizability changes with respect to the νsNO+CN vibrational mode are in correlation with the mutagenic activities of NDFs and suggest that intermolecular interactions are favoured along this coordinate. PMID:27475460

  6. Prominent Anti-UV Activity and Possible Cosmetic Potential of Lignin-carbohydrate Complex.

    PubMed

    Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sheng, Hong; Okudaira, Noriyuki; Yasui, Toshikazu; Wakabayashi, Hidetsugu; Jia, Junye; Natori, Takenori; Suguro-Kitajima, Madoka; Oizumi, Hiroshi; Oizumi, Takaaki

    2016-01-01

    This review article summarizes the recent progress of ultraviolet rays (UV) protective substances, including our original reports. We have established a simple assay method for the determination of anti-UV activity that can be applicable to any kind of adherent cells. This method provides information of both anti-UV activity and cytotoxicity of any kind of samples even though those samples contain unknown amounts of test compounds. We found that lignin-carbohydrate complex (LCC) showed one- or two-order higher anti-UV activity compared to well-known lower molecular weight polyphenols and hot-water extracts of Kampo medicines and tea leaves. Among synthetic compounds, water-soluble azulenes showed the highest anti-UV activity. LCC showed additive or synergistic anti-UV activity with vitamin C. Alkaline extract of Sasa senanensis Rehder leaves (SE), an LCC-rich over-the-counter (OTC) drug, also showed potent antiviral and vitamin C-synergized radical scavenging activity. SE has been utilized to manufacture tooth paste, soap and gel cosmetic to increase the level of quality of life (QOL). PMID:27381594

  7. New insights into the activation, interaction partners and possible functions of MK5/PRAK.

    PubMed

    Perander, Maria; Keyse, Stephen M; Seternes, Ole-Morten

    2016-01-01

    MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 5 (MK5) was first described as a downstream target of the p38 MAP kinase pathway leading to its alternative acronym of p38-regulated/activated protein kinase (PRAK). However, since the discovery that MK5 is a bona fide interaction partner of the atypical MAP kinases ERK3 and ERK4 and that this interaction leads to both the activation and subcellular relocalisation of MK5, there has been considerable debate as to the relative roles of these MAPK pathways in mediating the activation and biological functions of MK5. Here we discuss recent progress in defining novel upstream components of the ERK3/ERK4 signalling pathway, our increased understanding of the mechanism by which MK5 interacts with and is activated by ERK3 and ERK4, and the discovery of novel interaction partners for MK5. Finally, we review recent literature that suggests novel biological functions for MK5 in a range of physiological and pathophysiological conditions including neuronal function and cancer. PMID:26709779

  8. Bnip3 Binds and Activates p300: Possible Role in Cardiac Transcription and Myocyte Morphology.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John W; Wei, Jianqin; Appau, Kweku; Wang, Huilan; Yu, Hong; Spiga, Maria G; Graham, Regina M; Webster, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Bnip3 is a hypoxia-regulated member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins that is implicated in apoptosis, programmed necrosis, autophagy and mitophagy. Mitochondria are thought to be the primary targets of Bnip3 although its activities may extend to the ER, cytoplasm, and nucleus. Bnip3 is induced in the heart by ischemia and pressure-overload, and may contribute to cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Only mitochondrial-dependent programmed death actions have been described for Bnip3 in the heart. Here we describe a novel activity of Bnip3 in cultured cardiac myocytes and transgenic mice overexpressing Bnip3 in the heart (Bnip3-TG). In cultured myocytes Bnip3 bound and activated the acetyltransferase p300, increased acetylation of histones and the transcription factor GATA4, and conferred p300 and GATA4-sensitive cellular morphological changes. In intact Bnip3-TG hearts Bnip3 also bound p300 and GATA4 and conferred enhanced GATA4 acetylation. Bnip3-TG mice underwent age-dependent ventricular dilation and heart failure that was partially prevented by p300 inhibition with curcumin. The results suggest that Bnip3 regulates cardiac gene expression and perhaps myocyte morphology by activating nuclear p300 acetyltransferase activity and hyperacetylating histones and p300-selective transcription factors. PMID:26317696

  9. Changes in antioxidant and antiinflammatory activity of black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) protein isolates due to germination and enzymatic digestion.

    PubMed

    López-Barrios, Lidia; Antunes-Ricardo, Marilena; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-07-15

    Germination is an inexpensive process to improve the nutritional properties of legumes. The effect of germinating black bean seeds on the production of cotyledon protein hydrolysates (CPH) with antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities was analyzed in this research. After simulated enzymatic digestion, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of CPH obtained from germinated black beans was lower than that observed for raw cotyledons. There were no significant differences among CPH cellular antioxidant activities (CAA), except for the high CAA of the 120 min hydrolysate obtained from one day germinated black bean cotyledons. The most significant changes due to germination and enzymatic hydrolysis were observed for the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophages. The NO synthesis inhibition observed for raw CPH was reduced after simulated gastrointestinal digestion but for germinated samples the inhibition was doubled. Peptides derived from cell wall proteins produced during germination could be responsible of antiinflammatory activity. PMID:26948633

  10. [A possible biophysical mechanism of the solar activity effect on the central nervous system in man].

    PubMed

    Mikhaĭlova, G A

    2001-01-01

    A biophysical mechanism of interaction between the man and environment is proposed, which treats these components as two correlated oscillation contours with discrete resonance frequencies. The coincidence of biocurrent frequencies of the human brain with the resonance frequencies of the cavity formed by the Earth surface and the lower ionosphere boundary allows one to consider the influence of solar flares on the human organism in terms of variations of the cavity frequencies due to changes in the parameters of its upper wall. PMID:11605398

  11. Agents of Possibility: Examining the Intersections of Art, Education, and Activism in Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Alina

    2011-01-01

    Some art educators working in communities exemplify an alternative to the more common and stereotypical notion of the artist as autonomous, self-focused, and neutral. They view artmaking and education as vehicles for social justice and, in some cases, for social and political activism. In these broader social functions, the boundaries between art,…

  12. Possible changes in natural Pc 1 pulsation activity caused by BART

    SciTech Connect

    Samadani, R.; Fraser-Smith, A.C.; Villard, O.G. Jr.

    1981-10-01

    In a previous preliminary study of the diurnal variation of Pc 1 pulsation activity at Stanford during four months in 1975, evidence was obtained for changes in the rate of occurrence of the pulsations around the times when service was started and terminated by the San Francisco Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) system (Fraser-Smith et al., 1979). The present study extends this earlier work by analyzing Pc 1 pulsation data recorded at Stanford during 1976. Spectrograms of N--S geomagnetic activity were prepared for the complete year and 15-minute intervals containing Pc 1 pulsation activity were tabulated. The diurnal variations of the Pc 1 activity (as measured by these 15-minute intervals) for weekdays, during which BART was in operation, and weekends, during which BART was not normally in operation, were compared. Correlations of the observed differences with the BART schedule suggest once again that the ultralow-frequency electromagnetic noise produced by BART may be influencing the occurrence of Pc 1 pulsations along the Stanford geomagnetic meridian.

  13. Young Children as Active Citizens in Local Government: Possibilities and Challenges from an Australian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomaeus, Clare; Gregoric, Carolyn; Krieg, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Despite considerable research and discussion regarding children and young people's rights and citizenship, the participation of young children in community decision-making is still limited. In this exploratory research, a case study is reported on how ideas about young children as active citizens are interpreted within one local government…

  14. Activities of Venom Proteins and Peptides with Possible Therapeutic Applications from Bees and WASPS.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiujuan; Guan, Suzhen; Liu, Jiwen; Ng, Charlene C W; Chan, Gabriel H H; Sze, Stephen C W; Zhang, Kalin Y; Naude, Ryno; Rolka, Krzysztof; Wong, Jack Ho; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-01-01

    The variety of proteins and peptides isolated from honey bee venom and wasp venom includes melittin, adiapin, apamine, bradykinin, cardiopep, mast cell degranulating peptide, mastoparan, phospholipase A2 and secapin. Some of the activities they demonstrate may find therapeutic applications. PMID:27323949

  15. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  16. Bifunctional enhancement of oxygen reduction reaction activity on Ag catalysts due to water activation on LaMnO3 supports in alkaline media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Shin-Ae; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Song, Hannah; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-08-01

    Ag is considered to be one of the best candidates for oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts in alkaline media for application in various electrochemical energy devices. In this study, we demonstrate that water activation is a key factor in enhancing the ORR activity in alkaline media, unlike in acid environments. Ag supported on LaMnO3 having a high oxophilicity showed a markedly higher ORR activity than that on carbon with inert surfaces. Through various electrochemical tests, it was revealed that the origin of the enhanced ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3 is the bifunctional effect mainly due to the water activation at the interface between Ag and LaMnO3. Furthermore, the ligand effect due to the charge transfer from Mn to Ag leads to the enhancement of both oxygen activation on Ag and water activation on Mn sites, and hence, an improvement in the ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3. On the other hand, the strain effect based on the fine structure variation in the lattice was negligible. We therefore suggest that the employment of a co-catalyst or support with highly oxophilic nature and the maximization of the interface between catalyst and support should be considered in the design of electrocatalysts for the ORR in alkaline media.

  17. Bifunctional enhancement of oxygen reduction reaction activity on Ag catalysts due to water activation on LaMnO3 supports in alkaline media.

    PubMed

    Park, Shin-Ae; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Song, Hannah; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Ag is considered to be one of the best candidates for oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts in alkaline media for application in various electrochemical energy devices. In this study, we demonstrate that water activation is a key factor in enhancing the ORR activity in alkaline media, unlike in acid environments. Ag supported on LaMnO3 having a high oxophilicity showed a markedly higher ORR activity than that on carbon with inert surfaces. Through various electrochemical tests, it was revealed that the origin of the enhanced ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3 is the bifunctional effect mainly due to the water activation at the interface between Ag and LaMnO3. Furthermore, the ligand effect due to the charge transfer from Mn to Ag leads to the enhancement of both oxygen activation on Ag and water activation on Mn sites, and hence, an improvement in the ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3. On the other hand, the strain effect based on the fine structure variation in the lattice was negligible. We therefore suggest that the employment of a co-catalyst or support with highly oxophilic nature and the maximization of the interface between catalyst and support should be considered in the design of electrocatalysts for the ORR in alkaline media. PMID:26310526

  18. Bifunctional enhancement of oxygen reduction reaction activity on Ag catalysts due to water activation on LaMnO3 supports in alkaline media

    PubMed Central

    Park, Shin-Ae; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Song, Hannah; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2015-01-01

    Ag is considered to be one of the best candidates for oxygen reduction reaction electrocatalysts in alkaline media for application in various electrochemical energy devices. In this study, we demonstrate that water activation is a key factor in enhancing the ORR activity in alkaline media, unlike in acid environments. Ag supported on LaMnO3 having a high oxophilicity showed a markedly higher ORR activity than that on carbon with inert surfaces. Through various electrochemical tests, it was revealed that the origin of the enhanced ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3 is the bifunctional effect mainly due to the water activation at the interface between Ag and LaMnO3. Furthermore, the ligand effect due to the charge transfer from Mn to Ag leads to the enhancement of both oxygen activation on Ag and water activation on Mn sites, and hence, an improvement in the ORR activity of Ag/LaMnO3. On the other hand, the strain effect based on the fine structure variation in the lattice was negligible. We therefore suggest that the employment of a co-catalyst or support with highly oxophilic nature and the maximization of the interface between catalyst and support should be considered in the design of electrocatalysts for the ORR in alkaline media. PMID:26310526

  19. THE FERMI BUBBLES. I. POSSIBLE EVIDENCE FOR RECENT AGN JET ACTIVITY IN THE GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Fulai; Mathews, William G.

    2012-09-10

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope reveals two large gamma-ray bubbles in the Galaxy, which extend about 50 Degree-Sign ({approx}10 kpc) above and below the Galactic center (GC) and are symmetric about the Galactic plane. Using axisymmetric hydrodynamic simulations with a self-consistent treatment of the dynamical cosmic ray (CR)-gas interaction, we show that the bubbles can be created with a recent active galactic nucleus (AGN) jet activity about 1-3 Myr ago, which was active for a duration of {approx}0.1-0.5 Myr. The bipolar jets were ejected into the Galactic halo along the rotation axis of the Galaxy. Near the GC, the jets must be moderately light with a typical density contrast 0.001 {approx}< {eta} {approx}< 0.1 relative to the ambient hot gas. The jets are energetically dominated by kinetic energy, and overpressured with either CR or thermal pressure which induces lateral jet expansion, creating fat CR bubbles as observed. The sharp edges of the bubbles imply that CR diffusion across the bubble surface is strongly suppressed. The jet activity induces a strong shock, which heats and compresses the ambient gas in the Galactic halo, potentially explaining the ROSAT X-ray shell features surrounding the bubbles. The Fermi bubbles provide plausible evidence for a recent powerful AGN jet activity in our Galaxy, providing new insights into the origin of the halo CR population and the channel through which massive black holes in disk galaxies release feedback energy during their growth.

  20. Taenia solium cysticercosis/taeniosis: potential linkage with FAO activities; FAO support possibilities.

    PubMed

    Eddi, Carlos; Nari, Armando; Amanfu, William

    2003-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis due to Taenia solium metacestodes is an important cause of human morbidity and mortality, particularly in parts of Latin America, Africa and Asia. The disease has been recognized as potentially eradicable. Emphasis has been placed on control through mass chemotherapy of human populations to remove tapeworm carriers, but this strategy does not control the source of infections, which is cysticercosis in pigs. Also, transmission may continue due to incomplete chemotherapy coverage of human carriers or because of immigration of tapeworm carriers into controlled areas. The FAO through the Veterinary Public Health (VPH) and Food Safety program has provided support for the write-up of guidelines for cysticercosis, diagnoses and control. This should be released in a joint effort with OIE and WHO and will provide regular support to seminars, workshops and congresses related to VPH. The FAO regular program has also established a global network of people directly involved in VPH, and is currently in the process of establishing four regional networks located in Asia, Africa, Eastern and Central Europe and Latin America. The networks should provide a basic framework to spread information related to diagnosis, prevention and control of major zoonotic diseases through electronic conferences, discussions, newsletters, and a Directory to establish contact with people involved in VPH and zoonotic diseases. Through the Technical Cooperation Program (TCP) the FAO has a tool to help Member Countries to create the basic environment to control emerging zoo-sanitary problems, such as zoonotic and food borne diseases. PMID:12781389

  1. Search for Past Life on Mars: Possible Relict Biogenic Activity in Martian Meteorite ALH84001

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Vali, Hojatollah; Romanek, Christopher S.; Clemett, Simon J.; Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Maechling, Claude R.; Zare, Richard N.

    1996-01-01

    Fresh fracture surfaces of the martian meteorite ALH84001 contain abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These fresh fracture surfaces also display carbonate globules. Contamination studies suggest the PAHs are indigenous to the meteorite. High resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy study of surface textures and internal structures of selected carbonate globules show that the globules contain fine-grained, secondary phases of single-domain magnetite and Fe-monosulfides. The carbonate globules are similar in texture and size to some terrestrial bacterially induced carbonate precipitates. Although inorganic formation is possible, formation of the globules by biogenic processes could explain many of the observed features including the PAHs. The PAHs, the carbonate globules, and their associated secondary mineral phases and textures could thus be fossil remains of a past martian biota.

  2. Search for past life on Mars: possible relic biogenic activity in martian meteorite ALH84001.

    PubMed

    McKay, D S; Gibson, E K; Thomas-Keprta, K L; Vali, H; Romanek, C S; Clemett, S J; Chillier, X D; Maechling, C R; Zare, R N

    1996-08-16

    Fresh fracture surfaces of the martian meteorite ALH84001 contain abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These fresh fracture surfaces also display carbonate globules. Contamination studies suggest that the PAHs are indigenous to the meteorite. High-resolution scanning and transmission electron microscopy study of surface textures and internal structures of selected carbonate globules show that the globules contain fine-grained, secondary phases of single-domain magnetite and Fe-sulfides. The carbonate globules are similar in texture and size to some terrestrial bacterially induced carbonate precipitates. Although inorganic formation is possible, formation of the globules by biogenic processes could explain many of the observed features, including the PAHs. The PAHs, the carbonate globules, and their associated secondary mineral phases and textures could thus be fossil remains of a past martian biota. PMID:8688069

  3. Polarization features of solar radio emission and possible existence of current sheets in active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Zheleznyakov, V. V.; White, S. M.; Kundu, M. R.

    1994-01-01

    We show that it is possible to account for the polarization features of solar radio emission provided the linear mode coupling theory is properly applied and the presence of current sheets in the corona is taken into account. We present a schematic model, including a current sheet that can explain the polarization features of both the low frequency slowly varying component and the bipolar noise storm radiation; the two radiations face similar propagation conditions through a current sheet and hence display similar polarization behavior. We discuss the applications of the linear mode coupling theory to the following types of solar emission: the slowly varying component, the microwave radio bursts, metric type U bursts, and bipolar noise storms.

  4. Biological activity of sophorolipids and their possible use as antiviral agents.

    PubMed

    Borsanyiova, Maria; Patil, Amrita; Mukherji, Ruchira; Prabhune, Asmita; Bopegamage, Shubhada

    2016-01-01

    Sophorolipids are surface active glycolipids consisting of a hydrophilic sophorose unit and a hydrophobic portion composed of a fatty acid tail. Crude sophorolipid sample contains both acidic and lactonic forms of sophorolipid with different degrees of acetylation and varying lengths of the fatty acid chains depending on the substrates used in the production process. Carboxylic end in the acidic form of the fatty acid is free, whereas in the lactonic form, it is internally esterified. Sophorolipids show different physicochemical properties with wide range of applications for each structural compound. Lactonic form of sophorolipids shows surface tension reducing ability and biological activity, whereas the acidic form possesses better foam forming ability and higher solubility. Presence of acetyl groups gives hydrophilic nature to the sophorolipids which promotes its antiviral and cytokine-stimulating properties. The aim of this review is to explore and suggest the plausibility of sophorolipids as therapeutic and prophylactic agents for the treatment of viral diseases. PMID:26126789

  5. Estrogenic activity of procymidone in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes: a possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Radice, Sonia; Fumagalli, Roberta; Chiesara, Enzo; Ferraris, Michela; Frigerio, Silvia; Marabini, Laura

    2004-03-15

    It is known that procymidone modifies sexual differentiation in vivo and in vitro, and that it induces vitellogenin (Vtg) synthesis in primary cultured rainbow trout hepatocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanism underlying this latter in vitro estrogenic action. The cells were treated for 24 h with procymidone 150 microM (with 17beta-estradiol [E2] 20 microM as a positive control) combined with an estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist (tamoxifen 20 microM or ICI 182,780 1 microM) or, given the drug toxic action on the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a free radical scavenger (alpha-tocopherol 30 microM). The results from ELISA experiments provided evidence that procymidone Vtg-induction is inhibited by ER antagonists and by alpha-tocopherol suggesting that both ER and ROS are involved in this effect. The ROS detection revealed that the treatment with alpha-tocopherol and tamoxifen completely prevented ROS induction by procymidone, that was not inhibited by ICI 182,780. In exploring the mechanism mediating these events and its timing, we found that procymidone induced mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) at 30 and 60 min, and that this effect was blocked by co-treatment with alpha-tocopherol. In summary, the results of the study clearly support the idea that the estrogenic activity of procymidone in primary cultured trout hepatocytes is mediated by ROS production, and that this activity is similar to that of the ligand-independent ER activation involving MAPK. PMID:15013820

  6. Soil organic components distribution in a podzol and the possible relations with the biological soil activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Romero, Marta; Papa, Stefania; Verstraeten, Arne; Curcio, Elena; Cools, Nathalie; Lozano-Garcia, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Coppola, Elio

    2016-04-01

    This research reports the preliminary results of a study based on the SOC (Soil Organic Carbon) fractionation in a pine forest soil (Pinus nigra). Hyperskeletic Albic Podzol soil (P113005, World Reference Base, 2014), described by the following sequence O-Ah-E-Bh-Bs-Cg, was investigated at Zoniën, Belgium. Total (TOC) and extractable (TEC) soil contents were determined by Italian official method of soil analysis. Different soil C fractions were also determined: Humic Acid Carbon (HAC) and Fulvic Acid Carbon (FAC). Not Humic Carbon (NHC) and Humin Carbon (Huc) fractions were obtained by difference. Along the mineral soil profile, therefore, were also tested some enzymatic activities, such as cellulase, xylanase, laccase and peroxidase, involved in the degradation of the main organic substance components, and dehydrogenase activity, like soil microbial biomass index. The results shows a differential TEC fractions distribution in the soil profile along three fronts of progress: (i) An E leaching horizon of TEC; Bh horizon (humic) of humic acids preferential accumulation, morphologically and analytically recognizable, in which humic are more insoluble that fulvic acids, and predominate over the latter; (ii) horizon Bs (spodic) in which fulvic acids are more soluble that humic acid, and predominate in their turn. All enzyme activities appear to be highest in the most superficial part of the mineral profile and decrease towards the deeper layers with different patterns. It is known that the enzymes production in a soil profile reflects the organic substrates availability, which in turn influences the density and the composition of the microbial population. The deeper soil horizons contain microbial communities adapted and specialized to their environment and, therefore, different from those present on the surface The results suggest that the fractionation technique of TEC is appropriate to interpret the podsolisation phenomenon that is the preferential distribution of

  7. Evaluation of the Possible Mechanisms of Antihypertensive Activity of Loranthus micranthus: An African Mistletoe

    PubMed Central

    Iwalokun, Bamidele A.; Hodonu, Sedoten A.; Nwoke, Stella; Ojo, Olabisi; Agomo, Phillip U.

    2011-01-01

    Loranthus micranthus (LM), also called African mistletoe is a major Nigerian Loranthaceae plant used traditionally to treat hypertension. The methanolic leaf extract of the plant (LMME) has been shown to elicit anti-hypertensive activity in rats but mechanism remains unclear. This study was undertaken to study the effect of LM on pressor-induced contraction of rat aorta smooth muscles and serum lipid profiles in mice. The LMME was partitioned to produce n-butanol (NBF-LMME), chloroform (CF-LMME), ethyl acetate (EAF-LMME) and water (WF-LMME) fractions. The median effective concentrations and maximum relaxation of the fractions were determined against epinephrine and KCl pre-contracted rat aorta ring model. Serum lipid profiles and nitric oxide (NO) were determined spectrophotometrically in mice administered per orally 250 mg/kg b.w. of each fraction for 21 days. Data were analyzed statistically. NBF-LMME elicited the highest dose-dependent inhibitory effect on rat aorta pre-contracted with norepinephrine and KCl, followed in decreasing order by WF-LMME > CF-LMME > EAF-LMME. Similar order of activity was observed in the ability of these fractions to inhibit elevation in artherogenic lipids, raise serum nitric oxide and reduce cardiac arginase in mice. We conclude the anti-hypertensive activity of L. micranthus involve anti-artherogenic events, vasorelaxation, cardiac arginase reduction and NO elevation. PMID:21918720

  8. Lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidylinosiol--novel promissing signaling molecules and their possible therapeutic activity.

    PubMed

    Drzazga, Anna; Sowińska, Agata; Koziołkiewicz, Maria

    2014-01-01

    For many years the role of lysophospholipids (LPLs) was associated only with structural and storage components of the cell without any informational function. Today, based on many research projects performed during the last decades, it is clear that some of the LPLs act as hormone-like signaling molecules and thus are very important inter- and intracellular lipid mediators. They can activate specific membrane receptors and/or nuclear receptors regulating many crucial physiological and pathophysiological processes. The LPLs were iden- tified as involved in a majority of cellular processes, including modulation of disease-related mechanisms observed, for instance, in case of diabetes, obesity, atherosclerosis and cancer. Among LPLs, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) are becoming attractive research topics. Their recently revealed activities as novel ligands of orphan G protein-coupled receptors (i.e., GPR55 and GPR119) involved in modulation of tumor physiology and insulin secretion seem to be one of the most interesting aspects of these compounds. Moreover, the most recent scientific reports emphasize the significance of the acyl chain structure bound to the glycerol basis of LPL, as it entails different biological properties and activities of the compounds. PMID:25745761

  9. Chronic Inflammation and Neutrophil Activation as Possible Causes of Joint Diseases in Ballet Dancers

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Leandro da Silva; Santos, Vinicius Coneglian; de Moura, Nivaldo Ribeiro; Dermargos, Alexandre; Cury-Boaventura, Maria Fernanda; Gorjão, Renata; Pithon-Curi, Tania Cristina; Hatanaka, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we investigated the effects of a ballet class on the kinetic profiles of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, cytokines, complement component 3 (C3), and the concentrations of immunoglobulin (Ig), IgA and IgM, in ballerinas. We also verified neutrophil death and ROS release. Blood samples were taken from 13 dancers before, immediately after, and 18 hours after a ballet class. The ballet class increased the plasma activities of CK-total (2.0-fold) immediately after class, while the activities of CK-cardiac muscle (1.0-fold) and LDH (3.0-fold) were observed to increase 18 hours after the class. Levels of the TNF-α, IL-1β, IgG, and IgA were not affected under the study conditions. The exercise was found to induce neutrophil apoptosis (6.0-fold) 18 hours after the ballet class. Additionally, immediately after the ballet class, the neutrophils from the ballerinas were found to be less responsive to PMA stimulus. Conclusion. Ballet class was found to result in inflammation in dancers. The inflammation caused by the ballet class remained for 18 hours after the exercise. These findings are important in preventing the development of chronic lesions that are commonly observed in dancers, such as those with arthritis and synovitis. PMID:24701035

  10. Root Growth Maintenance at Low Water Potentials (Increased Activity of Xyloglucan Endotransglycosylase and Its Possible Regulation by Abscisic Acid).

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Y.; Spollen, W. G.; Sharp, R. E.; Hetherington, P. R.; Fry, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Previous work suggested that an increase in cell wall-loosening contributes to the maintenance of maize (Zea mays L.) primary root elongation at low water potentials ([psi]w). It was also shown that root elongation at low [psi]w requires increased levels of abscisic acid (ABA). In this study we investigated the effects of low [psi]w and ABA status on xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) activity in the root elongation zone. XET is believed to contribute to wall-loosening by reversibly cleaving xyloglucan molecules that tether cellulose microfibrils. The activity of XET per unit fresh weight in the apical 10 mm (encompassing the elongation zone) was constant at high [psi]w but increased by more than 2-fold at a [psi]w of -1.6 MPa. Treatment with fluridone to decrease ABA accumulation greatly delayed the increase in activity at low [psi]w. This effect was largely overcome when internal ABA levels were restored by exogenous application. Spatial distribution studies showed that XET activity was increased in the apical 6 mm at low [psi]w whether expressed per unit fresh weight, total soluble protein, or cell wall dry weight, corresponding to the region of continued elongation. Treatment with fluridone progressively inhibited the increase in activity with distance from the apex, correlating with the pattern of inhibition of elongation. Added ABA partly restored activity at all positions. The increase in XET activity at low [psi]w was due to maintenance of the rate of deposition of activity despite decreased deposition of wall material. The loss of activity associated with decreased ABA was due to inhibition of the deposition of activity. The results demonstrate that increased XET activity is associated with maintenance of root elongation at low [psi]w and that this response requires increased ABA. PMID:12232354

  11. Epigenetic effects of RRx-001: a possible unifying mechanism of anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongjuan; Ning, Shoucheng; Scicinski, Jan; Oronsky, Bryan; Knox, Susan J.; Peehl, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    RRx-001 is a novel aerospace-derived compound currently under investigation in several ongoing Phase II studies. In a Phase I trial, it demonstrated anti-cancer activity and evidence of resensitization to formerly effective therapies in heavily pre-treated patients with relapsed/refractory solid tumors. RRx-001 generates reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS) and nitric oxide (NO), elicits changes in intracellular redox status, modulates tumor blood flow, hypoxia and vascular function and triggers apoptosis in cancer cells. We investigated the effect of RRx-001 on the epigenome of SCC VII cancer cells. RRx-001 at 0.5 and 2 μM significantly decreased global DNA methylation, i.e., 5-methylcytosine levels, in SCC VII cells. Consistently, 0.5-5 μM RRx-001 significantly decreased Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, global methylation profiling identified differentially methylated genes in SCC VII cells treated with 0.5, 2, and 5 μM RRx-001 compared to control cells. Twenty-three target sites were hypomethylated and 22 hypermethylated by >10% in the presence of at least two different concentrations of RRx-001. Moreover, RRx-001 at 2 μM significantly increased global acetylated histone H3 and H4 levels in SCC VII cells after 24 hour treatment, suggesting that RRx-001 regulates global acetylation in cancer cells. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to the traditional “one drug one target” paradigm, RRx-001 has multi(epi)target features, which contribute to its anti-cancer activity and may rationalize the resensitization to previously effective therapies observed in clinical trials and serve as a unifying mechanism for its anticancer activity. PMID:26657731

  12. Activity of the transposon Tam3 in Antirrhinum and tobacco: possible role of DNA methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C; Prescott, A; Lister, C; MacKay, S

    1989-01-01

    The transposon Tam3 from Antirrhinum majus can transpose in a heterologous host (Nicotiana tabacum); thus the element is autonomous, probably encoding the specific information required for its own transposition. In transgenic tobacco Tam3 rapidly becomes methylated at its ends whilst adjacent flanking sequences remain hypomethylated. This methylation may account for our failure to detect Tam3 transposition in the progeny of transgenic tobacco. Treatment with the inhibitor of cytosine methylation, 5 aza-cytosine appeared to induce transposon related activity at a low level. In Antirrhinum methylation also appears to be associated with inactivation of Tam3 copies. Images PMID:2545443

  13. Chemical composition and possible in vitro phytotoxic activity of Helichrsyum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Emilia; De Martino, Laura; Marandino, Aurelio; Scognamiglio, Maria Rosa; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Helichrysum italicum (Roth) Don ssp. italicum, collected in the National Park of Cilento and Diano Valley, Southern Italy, was studied by means of GC and GC/MS. Forty four compounds of 45 constituents were identified in the oil, mainly oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The essential oil was evaluated for its potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of radish and garden cress. The radicle elongation of radish was significantly inhibited at the highest doses tested, while germination of both seeds was not affected. PMID:21904272

  14. Testing the recent Santorini seismic activity for possible tidal triggering effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contadakis, Michael E.; Arabelos, Dimitrios N.; Vergos, George

    2013-04-01

    Applying the Hi(stogram)Cum(ulation) method, which was introduced recently by Cadicheanu, van Ruymbecke and Zhu (2007), we analyze the series of the earthquakes occurred in the last 50 years in seismic active areas of Greece, i.e. the areas (a) of the Mygdonian Basin(Contadakis et al. 2007), (b) of the Ionian Islands (Contadakis et al. 2012 ) and (c) of the Hellenic Arc (Vergos et al. 2012 ). The result of the analysis for all the areas indicate that the monthly variation of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence is in accordance with the period of the tidal lunar monthly and semi-monthly (Mm and Mf) variations and the same happens with the corresponding daily variations of the frequencies of earthquake occurrence with the diurnal luni-solar (K1) and semidiurnal lunar (M2) tidal variations. In addition the confidence level for the identification of such period accordance between earthquakes occurrence frequency and tidal periods varies with seismic activity, i.e. the higher confidence level corresponds to periods with stronger seismic activity. These results are in favor of a tidal triggering process on earthquakes when the stress in the focal area is near the critical level. Based on these results, we consider the confidence level of earthquake occurrence - tidal period accordance as an index of tectonic stress criticality for earthquake occurrence and we check if the recent increase in the seismic activity at the Santorini island complex indicate that the faults Kameni and Columbo (to which the seismicity is clustered) (Chouliaras et al. 2013) are mature for a stronger earthquake. In this paper we present the results of this test. References Cadicheanu, N., van Ruymbeke, M andZhu P.,2007:Tidal triggering evidence of intermediate depth earthquakes in Vrancea zone(Romania), NHESS 7,733-740. Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. N., Spatalas, S., 2009, Evidence for tidal triggering on the shallow earthquakes of the seismic area of Mygdonia basin, North Greece, in

  15. Some possible applications of measurements on mu mesons to nuclear safeguards, nonproliferation, and arms control activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, W.R.; Vanier, P.E.

    1997-10-01

    In the nuclear safeguards and arms control areas, well-developed methodologies exist for determining the properties of nuclear materials via measurements of the gamma rays and neutrons emitted from these materials, or in the arms control area, by the use of radiography. In certain favorable instances, it may by feasible to perform comparable measurements with the use of a ubiquitous, naturally-occurring radiation--cosmic ray mu mesons (muons). At the earth`s surface these charged particles have a broad energy distribution peaking at about 500 MeV with a flux of approximately 10{sup {minus}2}/cm{sup 2}-sec-steradian. In traversing matter, muons lose energy at a rate of approximately 2 MeV/gram almost independent of atomic number. Muons can readily be detected by either plastic scintillators or wire planes. While the flux is small, a scintillator of one meter area, for example, will register about 20,000 events/min. these particles should have utility in the detection and imaging of objects with sectional densities of a few hundred grams/cm{sup 2}. The degree of intrusiveness of the imaging can be controlled through the detector configuration. Some possible applications include: (1) mass measurements on large UF{sub 6} cylinders, (2) determination of the size of treaty-limited objects, e.g., missiles, in rail cars or other containment; (3) verification of single or multiple warheads or components; (4) the detection of concealed, underground cavities. Examples will be presented.

  16. Evaluation of Possible Genotoxic Activity of Dirithromycin in Cultured Human Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kayraldız, Ahmet; Dönbak, Lale; Yavuz Kocaman, Ayşe; Köker, Esra; Gökçe, Şule

    2015-01-01

    Dirithromycin antibiotic is a 14-membered lactone ring macrolide and is widely used in medicine to treat many different types of bacterial infections. In the present study, the possible genotoxicity of dirithromycin was evaluated in cultured human lymphocytes by using sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), chromosome aberration (CA), and micronucleus (MN) tests and also cell proliferation kinetics such as mitotic index (MI), replication index (RI), and nuclear division index (NDI) were analyzed for cytotoxicity. Cell cultures were treated with four different concentrations of dirithromycin (37.75, 67.50, 125, and 250 µg/mL) for 24 and 48 h periods. Dirithromycin significantly induced SCE and MN frequency at all concentrations in both 24 and 48 h treated cells. In addition, CA level has been markedly increased in the cells treated with almost all concentrations of dirithromycin for 24 (except 37.75 µg/mL) and 48 h treatment periods as compared to control. However, MI, RI, and NDI values were not affected by the dirithromycin treatment (p > 0.05). The results of this study indicated that dirithromycin treatment caused genetic damage by increasing the level of cytogenetic endpoints, suggesting its genotoxic and mutagenic action on human lymphocytes in vitro. PMID:26576152

  17. Antimicrobial Activity and Possible Mechanism of Action of Citral against Cronobacter sakazakii

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chao; Song, Kaikuo; Zhang, Xiaorong; Sun, Yi; Sui, Yue; Chen, Yifei; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Huihui; Sun, Zheng; Xia, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Citral is a flavor component that is commonly used in food, beverage and fragrance industries. Cronobacter sakazakii is a food-borne pathogen associated with severe illness and high mortality in neonates and infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of citral against C. sakazakii strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of citral against C. sakazakii was determined via agar dilution method, then Gompertz models were used to quantitate the effect of citral on microbial growth kinetics. Changes in intracellular pH (pHin), membrane potential, intracellular ATP concentration, and membrane integrity were measured to elucidate the possible antimicrobial mechanism. Cell morphology changes were also examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The MICs of citral against C. sakazakii strains ranged from 0.27 to 0.54 mg/mL, and citral resulted in a longer lag phase and lower growth rate of C. sakazakii compared to the control. Citral affected the cell membrane of C. sakazakii, as evidenced by decreased intracellular ATP concentration, reduced pHin, and cell membrane hyperpolarization. Scanning electron microscopy analysis further confirmed that C. sakazakii cell membranes were damaged by citral. These findings suggest that citral exhibits antimicrobial effect against C. sakazakii strains and could be potentially used to control C. sakazakii in foods. However, how it works in food systems where many other components may interfere with its efficacy should be tested in future research before its real application. PMID:27415761

  18. Antimicrobial Activity and Possible Mechanism of Action of Citral against Cronobacter sakazakii.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chao; Song, Kaikuo; Zhang, Xiaorong; Sun, Yi; Sui, Yue; Chen, Yifei; Jia, Zhenyu; Sun, Huihui; Sun, Zheng; Xia, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    Citral is a flavor component that is commonly used in food, beverage and fragrance industries. Cronobacter sakazakii is a food-borne pathogen associated with severe illness and high mortality in neonates and infants. The objective of the present study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of citral against C. sakazakii strains. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of citral against C. sakazakii was determined via agar dilution method, then Gompertz models were used to quantitate the effect of citral on microbial growth kinetics. Changes in intracellular pH (pHin), membrane potential, intracellular ATP concentration, and membrane integrity were measured to elucidate the possible antimicrobial mechanism. Cell morphology changes were also examined using a field emission scanning electron microscope. The MICs of citral against C. sakazakii strains ranged from 0.27 to 0.54 mg/mL, and citral resulted in a longer lag phase and lower growth rate of C. sakazakii compared to the control. Citral affected the cell membrane of C. sakazakii, as evidenced by decreased intracellular ATP concentration, reduced pHin, and cell membrane hyperpolarization. Scanning electron microscopy analysis further confirmed that C. sakazakii cell membranes were damaged by citral. These findings suggest that citral exhibits antimicrobial effect against C. sakazakii strains and could be potentially used to control C. sakazakii in foods. However, how it works in food systems where many other components may interfere with its efficacy should be tested in future research before its real application. PMID:27415761

  19. Stimulation of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase Activity as a Possible Driving Force in Cholesterol Evolution.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulos, Nicholas; Garcia, Alvaro; Clarke, Ronald J

    2016-06-01

    Cholesterol is exclusively produced by animals and is present in the plasma membrane of all animal cells. In contrast, the membranes of fungi and plants contain other sterols. To explain the exclusive preference of animal cells for cholesterol, we propose that cholesterol may have evolved to optimize the activity of a crucial protein found in the plasma membrane of all multicellular animals, namely the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. To test this hypothesis, mirror tree and phylogenetic distribution analyses have been conducted of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and 3β-hydroxysterol Δ(24)-reductase (DHCR24), the last enzyme in the Bloch cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. The results obtained support the hypothesis of a co-evolution of the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase and DHCR24. The evolutionary correlation between DHCR24 and the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase was found to be stronger than between DHCR24 and any other membrane protein investigated. The results obtained, thus, also support the hypothesis that cholesterol evolved together with the Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in multicellular animals to support Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity. PMID:26715509

  20. Prion-induced neurotoxicity: Possible role for cell cycle activity and DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Bujdoso, Raymond; Landgraf, Matthias; Jackson, Walker S; Thackray, Alana M

    2015-01-01

    Protein misfolding neurodegenerative diseases arise through neurotoxicity induced by aggregation of host proteins. These conditions include Alzheimer’s disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, motor neuron disease, tauopathies and prion diseases. Collectively, these conditions are a challenge to society because of the increasing aged population and through the real threat to human food security by animal prion diseases. It is therefore important to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie protein misfolding-induced neurotoxicity as this will form the basis for designing strategies to alleviate their burden. Prion diseases are an important paradigm for neurodegenerative conditions in general since several of these maladies have now been shown to display prion-like phenomena. Increasingly, cell cycle activity and the DNA damage response are recognised as cellular events that participate in the neurotoxic process of various neurodegenerative diseases, and their associated animal models, which suggests they are truly involved in the pathogenic process and are not merely epiphenomena. Here we review the role of cell cycle activity and the DNA damage response in neurodegeneration associated with protein misfolding diseases, and suggest that these events contribute towards prion-induced neurotoxicity. In doing so, we highlight PrP transgenic Drosophila as a tractable model for the genetic analysis of transmissible mammalian prion disease. PMID:26279981

  1. Acid-sensing ion channels regulate spontaneous inhibitory activity in the hippocampus: possible implications for epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Ievglevskyi, O; Isaev, D; Netsyk, O; Romanov, A; Fedoriuk, M; Maximyuk, O; Isaeva, E; Akaike, N; Krishtal, O

    2016-08-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in numerous functions in the central and peripheral nervous systems ranging from memory and emotions to pain. The data correspond to a recent notion that each neuron and many glial cells of the mammalian brain express at least one member of the ASIC family. However, the mechanisms underlying the involvement of ASICs in neuronal activity are poorly understood. However, there are two exceptions, namely, the straightforward role of ASICs in proton-based synaptic transmission in certain brain areas and the role of the Ca(2+)-permeable ASIC1a subtype in ischaemic cell death. Using a novel orthosteric ASIC antagonist, we have found that ASICs specifically control the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory synaptic activity in the hippocampus. Inhibition of ASICs leads to a strong increase in the frequency of spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents. This effect is presynaptic because it is fully reproducible in single synaptic boutons attached to isolated hippocampal neurons. In concert with this observation, inhibition of the ASIC current diminishes epileptic discharges in a low Mg(2+) model of epilepsy in hippocampal slices and significantly reduces kainate-induced discharges in the hippocampus in vivo Our results reveal a significant novel role for ASICs.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evolution brings Ca(2+) and ATP together to control life and death'. PMID:27377725

  2. Antifungal activity of salicylic acid against Penicillium expansum and its possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2015-12-23

    Apple is a fruit widely produced and consumed around the world. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the main postharvest diseases in apples, leading to a wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of salicylic acid (SA) against P. expansum, elucidating its mechanisms of action. The antimicrobial effect was determined by exposing conidia to a 2.5 mM SA solution for 0 to 120 min, followed by incubation. The effect of pH on the efficacy of SA against P. expansum was assessed both in vitro and in situ. The action mechanisms were investigated through fluorescence assays, measurement of protein leakage, lipid damage, and transmission electronic microscopy. SA was capable of inhibiting 90% of the fungal germination after 30 min, causing damage to the conidial plasma membrane and leading to protein leakage up to 3.2 μg of soluble protein per g of mycelium. The pH of the SA solution affected the antimicrobial activity of this secondary metabolite, which inhibited the germination of P. expansum and the blue mold incidence in apples in solutions with pH≤3 by 100%, gradually losing its activity at higher pH. PMID:26340673

  3. Possibility of decreasing the activation energy of resistivity of mullite by doping with nickel ion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, D.; Das, S.; Nandy, P.

    2012-12-01

    Monophasic mullite samples doped with 0.002 M, 0.02 M, 0.1 M, 0.15 M and 0.2 M of NiCl2 were prepared via sol-gel technique. The prepared gels were dried, grinded, pressed into pellets and sintered at 400 °C, 800 °C, 1000 °C and 1300 °C. The electrical resistivity and activation energy of the composites have been measured and the variation of resistivity with concentration of the nickel ion doping has been investigated. The resistivity decreases with the concentration of nickel ions. X-ray analysis confirms the presence of Ni2+ ions in mullite. The Ni2+ ion, which substitutes Al3+ ion in the octahedral site of mullite structure, can be considered as an efficient factor in reducing the resistivity. The mullite unit cell parameters suggest predominant incorporation of NiCl2 in a glassy phase. The lowest activation energy of resistivity ( E act ) that was achieved is 1.22 eV at 0.02 M.

  4. Scaffolding for Creative Product Possibilities in a Design-Based STEM Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathcock, Stephanie J.; Dickerson, Daniel L.; Eckhoff, Angela; Katsioloudis, Petros

    2015-10-01

    Creativity can and should play a role in students' science experiences. Beghetto (Roeper Review 29(4):265-270, 2007) suggested a framework for teachers to assist students in transforming their creative ideas into creative products. This framework involves taking time to listen to students' ideas, helping them recognize the constraints of a task, and giving them multiple opportunities to think through and try their ideas. Ill-structured problems, such as those found in inquiry and engineering design activities, provide excellent opportunities for students to experience creative processing and express their creativity through product creation. These types of problems are typically challenging, but the use of appropriate questioning has been shown to assist students in solving problems. This multiple case study investigated the use of inquiry-based questioning as a means of supporting creativity within a design-based science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) activity. Findings suggest that groups facilitated by inquiry-based questioning strategies were better able to solve an ill-structured problem and achieved a more linear progression toward creative products than groups who were not facilitated by inquiry-based questions.

  5. Possible role of L-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Kaseda, M; Kadota, J; Mukae, H; Kawamoto, S; Shukuwa, T; Iwashita, T; Matsubara, Y; Ishimatsu, Y; Yoshinaga, M; Abe, K; Kohno, S

    2000-07-01

    A number of adhesion molecules participate in the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation, and selectins together with their ligands are important in the early transient adhesion phase. In this study, we evaluated the role of L-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. We measured serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentrations of soluble (s)L-selectin using an ELISA. Serum and BALF concentrations of sL-selectin were significantly elevated in patients with sarcoidosis compared with control healthy subjects and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients (P < 0.05 and P < 0. 01, respectively). The lymphocyte surface marker was also examined in peripheral blood and BALF by flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of CD3+CD62L+ cells (L-selectin-bearing T lymphocytes) was significantly lower in peripheral blood of sarcoidosis than in that of healthy subjects (P < 0.01). In contrast, the percentage of CD3+CD62L- cells (L-selectin-negative T lymphocytes) in BALF of patients with sarcoidosis was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0.05) and IPF patients (P < 0.01). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between serum concentrations of sL-selectin and the number of L-selectin-negative T lymphocytes in BALF (r = 0.535, P < 0.01). Our results suggest that L-selectin may be involved in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:10886252

  6. Possible role of l-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis

    PubMed Central

    Kaseda, M; Kadota, J; Mukae, H; Kawamoto, S; Shukuwa, T; Iwashita, T; Matsubara, Y; Ishimatsu, Y; Yoshinaga, M; Abe, K; Kohno, S

    2000-01-01

    A number of adhesion molecules participate in the recruitment of inflammatory cells to the site of inflammation, and selectins together with their ligands are important in the early transient adhesion phase. In this study, we evaluated the role of l-selectin in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. We measured serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) concentrations of soluble (s)l-selectin using an ELISA. Serum and BALF concentrations of sl-selectin were significantly elevated in patients with sarcoidosis compared with control healthy subjects and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients (P < 0·05 and P < 0·01, respectively). The lymphocyte surface marker was also examined in peripheral blood and BALF by flow cytometric analysis. The percentage of CD3+CD62L+ cells (l-selectin-bearing T lymphocytes) was significantly lower in peripheral blood of sarcoidosis than in that of healthy subjects (P < 0·01). In contrast, the percentage of CD3+CD62L− cells (l-selectin-negative T lymphocytes) in BALF of patients with sarcoidosis was significantly higher than in healthy subjects (P < 0·05) and IPF patients (P < 0·01). Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between serum concentrations of sl-selectin and the number of l-selectin-negative T lymphocytes in BALF (r = 0·535, P < 0·01). Our results suggest that l-selectin may be involved in T lymphocyte alveolitis in patients with active pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:10886252

  7. Possible seasonal activity of gullies on an sand dune (Russell crater, Mars)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouannic, Gwénaël.; Gargani, Julien; Costard, François

    2010-05-01

    Recent work has shown that gullies are among the most youthful features on Mars (Malin and Edgett, 2000; Costard et al., 2002; Reiss and Jaumann, 2003, Malin et al., 2006). Here we show that the gullies located on the Russell Crater dune are not only extremely youthful but also seem to be still actives. Various geomorphological features consistent with a seasonal activity suggest reactivated flows over the last three terrestrial years. Moreover, using an assemblage of 26 HiRISE images over a 31 month period (November 2006-May 2009) and superposed with MOLA tracks, we performed a quantitative analysis of the sinuosity and branching of the gullies on the shallow slope of the Russell crater. These geomorphologicals features suggest that debris flow have been formed by a fluid flow. As pure water generally is not thought to be stable on the surface of Mars under current conditions, these gullies could be indicative of a highly localized zone of meta-stability heretofore unidentified in the literature or by a highly mineralized water. Equally, the occurrence of the gullies on a dune may point to a near-surface source, i.e. near surface permafrost (Vedie et al. 2008), that could have been emplaced under conditions associated with late Amazonian obliquity excursions (Costard et al., 2002). Nevertheless, the precise composition of the fluid (CO2, mineralized water,…) is still unknown. Costard, F., Forget, F., Mangold, N., Peulvast, J.P., 2002. Formation of recent martian debris flow by melting of near-surface ground ice at high obliquity. Science, 295, 110-113. Malin, M.C., Edgett, K.E., 2000. Evidence for recent groundwater seepage and surface runoff on Mars. Science, 288, 2330-2335. Malin, M.C., Edgett, K.E., Posiolova, L.V., McColley, S.M., Dobrea, E.Z., 2006. Present day impact crater rate and contemporary gully activity on Mars. Science, 314, 1573-1577. Reiss, D., Jaumann, R., 2003. Recent debris flows on Mars : Seasonal observations of the Russell Crater dune field

  8. Hexachlorobenzene as a possible major contributor to the dioxin activity of human milk.

    PubMed Central

    van Birgelen, A P

    1998-01-01

    A dioxinlike compound is a compound that binds to the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor, results in dioxinlike effects, and bioaccumulates. These are the three factors for including dioxinlike chemicals in the toxic equivalency factor (TEF) concept. Risk assessment of dioxinlike compounds is based on using these TEFs. Hexachlorobenzene (HCB) has all three features and should therefore be included in this TEF concept. Relative potency values express the potency of a specific compound in comparison to 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), the most potent dioxinlike compound, with a relative potency value of 1. For the estimation of the total dioxin activity in an environmental biological sample, the TEF value of a compound is multiplied by the concentration in the specific matrix. This results in a certain amount of toxic equivalents (TEQs) for this compound. The summation of all TEQs in a certain mixture gives the total dioxin activity of this mixture. HCB binds to the Ah receptor about 10,000 times less than TCDD. HCB is also about 10,000 times less potent than TCDD based on in vitro cytochrome P4501A induction and porphyrin accumulation. Using a relative potency value of 0.0001, HCB could add 10-60% to the total TEQ in human milk samples in most countries. In a few countries such as Spain, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic, HCB levels in human milk expressed as TEQ could contribute up to a factor of six to the total TEQ in comparison to the contribution of polychlorinated dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls together, i.e., up to a daily intake of about 1 ng TEQ/kg for a breast-fed infant. The HCB levels in human milk in these countries are about the same as in India. Biochemical, immunological, and neurological alterations have been observed in infants fed breast milk in countries with relatively low TEQ levels in human milk. Based on the above information, it is clear that HCB should be classified as a dioxinlike compound, that more studies are needed to

  9. Enhanced photocatalytic activity of ultra-high aspect ratio ZnO nanowires due to Cu induced defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasupathi Sugavaneshwar, Ramu; Duy Dao, Thang; Nanda, Karuna Kar; Nagao, Tadaaki; Hishita, Shunichi; Sakaguchi, Isao

    2015-12-01

    We report the synthesis of ZnO nanowires in ambient air at 650°C by a single-step vapor transport method using two different sources Zn (ZnO nanowires-I) and Zn:Cu (ZnO nanowires-II). The Zn:Cu mixed source co-vaporize Zn with a small amount of Cu at temperatures where elemental Cu source does not vaporize. This method provides us a facile route for Cu doping into ZnO. The aspect ratio of the grown ZnO nanowires-II was found to be higher by more than five times compared ZnO nanowires-I. Photocatalytic activity was measured by using a solar simulator and its ultraviolet-filtered light. The ZnO nanowires-II shows higher catalytic activity due to increased aspect ratio and higher content of surface defects because of incorporation of Cu impurities.

  10. [Neurotoxins with anticholinesterase activity and their possible use as warfare agents].

    PubMed

    Pita, René; Anadón, Arturo; Martínez-Larrañaga, María Rosa

    2003-10-18

    Anatoxin-a(s), onchidal and fasciculins are neurotoxins with anticholinesterase activity. An intoxication by these neurotoxins is characterized by cholinergic syndromes similar to organophosphate insecticide and nerve agent intoxications. Anticholinesterase neurotoxins, as well as other toxins, have some disadvantages if used as weapons of mass destruction. Drawbacks include difficulties to produce them in big quantities and their dissemination in form of aerosols. However, other properties such as high toxicity, improbable identification with common commercial portable detectors for chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial chemicals, as well as the lack of effectiveness of antidotal treatments with oximes may make them attractive in order to be used in military operations or terrorist attacks. For these reasons, it should be necessary to control these neurotoxins through international treaties which have real verification measures such as the Chemical Weapons Convention. PMID:14588195

  11. [Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract and possibilities of their active detection in miners].

    PubMed

    Kozyr', V I; Plotkin, V Ia

    1992-01-01

    The examination of 630 miners aged 18-64 working in the mines of the Lugansk region revealed urinary and renal diseases in 15.7% of them. They were affected with chronic prostatitis (34.3%), urolithiasis (27.2%), chronic pyelonephritis (14.2%), 162 miners (33%) out of 490 had urinary shifts (hematuria in 91, proteinuria in 52, both hematuria and proteinuria in 19 examinees) when examined upon ascending from the mine. 61 miners had urinary syndrome only after working shifts. It was unrelated to relevant diseases. The authors point out the necessity of active screening of renal and urinary diseases during routine medical check-ups in miners. PMID:1387182

  12. Possibility of cellulose-based electro-active paper energy scavenging transducer.

    PubMed

    Abas, Zafar; Kim, Heung Soo; Zhai, Lindong; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo Hyung

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, a cellulose-based Electro-Active Paper (EAPap) energy scavenging transducer is presented. Cellulose is proven as a smart material, and exhibits piezoelectric effect. Specimens were prepared by coating gold electrodes on both sides of cellulose film. The fabricated specimens were tested by a base excited aluminum cantilever beam at resonant frequency. Different tests were performed with single and multiple parallel connected electrodes coated on the cellulose film. A maximum of 131 mV output voltage was measured, when three electrodes were connected in parallel. It was observed that voltage output increases significantly with the area of electrodes. From these results, it can be concluded that the piezoelectricity of cellulose-based EAPap can be used in energy transduction application. PMID:25942809

  13. Sympathomimetic activity of a Hoodia gordonii product: a possible mechanism of cardiovascular side effects.

    PubMed

    Roza, Orsolya; Lovász, Norbert; Zupkó, István; Hohmann, Judit; Csupor, Dezső

    2013-01-01

    Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate) have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β -adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant. PMID:24307991

  14. [Isolation and characterization of active compounds from Aloe vera with a possible role in skin protection].

    PubMed

    Kostálová, D; Bezáková, L; Oblozinský, M; Kardosová, A

    2004-09-01

    Aloe vera is widely used in food supplements, beverages, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics. It has been long recognized as an effective natural remedy for its wound-healing properties and its positive influence on other inflammatory skin disorders. Major proteins and mono- and polysaccharides were identified and analysed from Aloe vera commercial extract. Molecular weight of proteins calculated from the sets of molecular weight reference standards, ranged from 70 kDa for the largest to 14 kDa for the smallest ones. IR spectral analysis of the carbohydrate fraction shows that the main carbohydrate copound is acetylated (1 --> 4)-beta-D-mannan substituated with D-galactose and D-glucose. The results have shown that proteins and polysaccharides are a necessary component in the study of biological activity of Aloe vera leaf extract. PMID:15506709

  15. Effects of verapamil on ventricular tachycardias possibly caused by reentry, automaticity, and triggered activity.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, R J; Shapiro, W A; Shen, E N; Morady, F; Davis, J

    1983-01-01

    To define the role of verapamil in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia (VT), we studied 21 patients with chronic recurrent VT. Electrophysiologic studies were performed before and during intravenous infusion of verapamil (0.15 mg/kg followed by 0.005 mg/kg per min). On the basis of the mode of VT initiation and termination, we identified three groups of patients: (a) 11 patients had VT suggestive of reentry, as VT could be initiated with ventricular extrastimulation and terminated with overdrive ventricular pacing. Verapamil did not affect the inducibility and cycle length of VT. (b) 7 patients had VT suggestive of catecholamine-sensitive automaticity as VT could not be initiated with programmed electrical stimulation but could be provoked by isoproterenol infusion. Moreover, the VT could not be converted to a sustained sinus rhythm with overdrive ventricular pacing and it resolved only with discontinuing isoproterenol infusion. Verapamil exerted no effects on VT. (c) 3 patients had VT with electrophysiologic characteristics suggestive of triggered activity related to delayed afterdepolarizations. Characteristically, after attaining a range of cycle lengths, the sinus, atrial or ventricular paced rhythm could initiate VT without ventricular extrastimulation. The first beat of VT invariably occurred late in the cardiac cycle with a premature coupling interval 0-80 ms shorter than the preceding QRS cycle length; the premature coupling interval gradually decreased as the sinus, atrial or ventricular paced cycle length progressively shortened. Of note, verapamil completely suppressed VT inducibility in these three patients. These observations lead us to suggest that verapamil does not affect VT caused by reentry and catecholamine-sensitive automaticity but is effective in suppressing VT caused by triggered activity related to delayed afterdepolarizations in humans. PMID:6874951

  16. Increased Expression of Cathelicidin by Direct Activation of Protease-Activated Receptor 2: Possible Implications on the Pathogenesis of Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Yoon Jee; Lim, Beom Jin; Sohn, Hyo Jung; Shin, Dongyun

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Recent findings of increased cathelicidin protein and its proteolytic fragments in rosacea suggest a pathogenic role for cathelicidin in this disease. The relationship between cathelicidin and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) is therefore of interest, as PAR-2, expressed principally in keratinocytes, regulates pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in the skin. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between expression of PAR-2 and cathelicidin in rosacea and to test the effect of direct PAR-2 activation on cathelicidin expression in keratinocytes. Materials and Methods Samples from 40 patients with clinicopathologic diagnosis of rosacea and facial skin tissue samples from 20 patients with no specific findings or milium without inflammation were retrieved. Intensities of immunohistochemical staining for PAR-2 and cathelicidin were compared between normal and rosacea-affected skin tissues. Additionally, correlations between PAR-2 and cathelicidin staining intensities within rosacea patients were analyzed. In cultured keratinocytes, changes in PAR-2, cathelicidin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA and protein were analyzed after treatment with PAR-2 activating peptide (AP). Results Cathelicidin expression was significantly higher in rosacea skin tissues than in normal tissues (p<0.001), while PAR-2 expression was not significantly higher in rosacea tissues than in normal skin tissues. A positive correlation between PAR-2 and cathelicidin within rosacea samples was observed (R=0.330, p=0.037). After treatment of PAR-2 AP, both mRNA and protein levels for PAR-2, cathelicidin, and VEGF significantly increased in cultured keratinocytes, compared with PAR-2 control peptide treatment. Conclusion PAR-2 may participate in the pathogenesis of rosacea through activation of cathelicidin LL-37, a mediator of innate immune responses in the skin. PMID:25323904

  17. On the variation of the ionospheric potential due to large-scale radioactivity enhancement and solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slyunyaev, Nikolay N.; Mareev, Evgeny A.; Zhidkov, Artem A.

    2015-08-01

    Sensitivity of the global electric circuit (GEC) to variations of atmospheric conductivity and current sources is analyzed and discussed. When the undisturbed exponential conductivity profile is assumed all over the Earth, the most substantial changes in the ionospheric potential (IP) are caused by conductivity perturbations inside thunderstorms; if, in addition, conductivity reduction inside thunderstorms and nonelectrified clouds is assumed, the IP becomes less sensitive to conductivity perturbations; besides, the IP is even more sensitive to source current variations than to conductivity. Current source and voltage source descriptions of GEC generators are compared; it is shown that the IP variation may critically depend on the chosen description. As an application, the IP variation due to nuclear weapons testing is studied; it is shown that neither local nor global increase of conductivity in the stratosphere could alone explain the observed 40% IP increase in the 1960s; at the same time this increase might be accounted for by a 40% increase in the source current density or a 46% reduction of the conductivity inside thunderstorms, provided that it was not reduced initially. The IP variation due to solar activity and, in particular, due to solar modulation of galactic cosmic ray flux is also discussed and modeled, which required an adequate parameterization of the rate of atmospheric ion pair production over the solar cycle. It is estimated that the maximum IP variation on the scale of the solar cycle does not exceed 5% of the mean value, unless source current perturbations are taken into account.

  18. Measuring volcanic gases at Taal Volcano Main Crater for monitoring volcanic activity and possible gas hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arpa, M.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Reniva, P.; Bariso, E.; Padilla, G.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Barrancos, J.; Calvo, D.; Nolasco, D.; Padron, E.; Garduque, R.; Villacorte, E.; Fajiculay, E.; Perez, N.; Solidum, R.

    2012-12-01

    Taal is an active volcano located in southwest Luzon, Philippines. It consists of mainly tuff cones which have formed an island at the center of a 30 km wide Taal Caldera. Most historical eruptions, since 1572 on Taal Volcano Island, have been characterized as hydromagmatic eruptions. Taal Main Crater, produced during the 1911 eruption, is the largest crater in the island currently filled by a 1.2 km wide, 85 m deep acidic lake. The latest historical eruption occurred in 1965-1977. Monitoring of CO2 emissions from the Main Crater Lake (MCL) and fumarolic areas within the Main Crater started in 2008 with a collaborative project between ITER and PHIVOLCS. Measurements were done by accumulation chamber method using a Westsystem portable diffuse fluxmeter. Baseline total diffuse CO2 emissions of less than 1000 t/d were established for the MCL from 3 campaign-type surveys between April, 2008 to March, 2010 when seismicity was within background levels. In May, 2010, anomalous seismic activity from the volcano started and the total CO2 emission from the MCL increased to 2716±54 t/d as measured in August, 2010. The CO2 emission from the lake was highest last March, 2011 at 4670±159 t/d when the volcano was still showing signs of unrest. Because CO2 emissions increased significantly (more than 3 times the baseline value) at this time, this activity may be interpreted as magmatic and not purely hydrothermal. Most likely deep magma intrusions occurred but did not progress further to shallower depths and no eruption occurred. No large increase in lake water temperature near the surface (average for the whole lake area) during the period when CO2 was above background, it remained at 30-34°C and a few degrees lower than average ambient temperature. Total CO2 emissions from the MCL have decreased to within baseline values since October, 2011. Concentrations of CO2, SO2 and H2S in air in the fumarolic area within the Main Crater also increased in March, 2011. The measurements

  19. Petrological and Geochemical characterization of central Chihuahua basalts: a possible local sign of rifting activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Garcia-Rascon, M.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.; Morton-Bermea, O.

    2012-12-01

    Gusano and Rancho El Milagro, report an age of 28.7 ± 0.6 and 28.4 Ma respectively, but it is possible that the basalts of La Guajolota are younger, for being considered as small local eruptions.

  20. Possible relationship between western North Pacific tropical cyclone activity and Arctic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Byun, Hi-Ryong

    2010-05-01

    This study found that Arctic Oscillation (AO) has a significant influence on tropical cyclone (TC) activities in the western North Pacific during the boreal summer (July, August, and September). During low- (high-) AO years, more TCs formed over east (west) of 150° E, recurved in the east (west), and passed over the midlatitudes (southeast Asian region), including Korea and Japan (South China Sea and south China), compared to the high- (low-) AO years. In particular, the TC passage frequency difference between the two periods showed a dipole-like pattern between the regions of Southeast and Northeast Asia. The differences between these two periods were caused by a stronger anticyclonic circulation located around Korea and Japan during high-AO years. This circulation played a significant role in blocking the movement of TCs toward Korea and Japan during high-AO years. Instead, TCs moved westward toward the SCS and southern China along the easterly and southeasterly steering flow of this anticyclonic circulation. As a result, TC lifetime and intensity were shorter and weaker during high-AO years.

  1. Solar irradiance observed at Summit, Greenland: Possible links to magnetic activity on short timescales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, John E.

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of ground-level visible sunlight (400-600 nm) from Summit, Greenland over the period August 2004 through October 2014 define the attenuation provided by cloudiness, including its dependence on solar elevation and season. The long-term mean cloud-attenuation increases with increasing solar zenith angle, consistent with radiative transfer calculations which treat a cloud as a plane parallel layer with a strong bias toward forward scattering and an albedo for diffuse radiation near 0.1. The ratio of measured irradiance to clear-sky irradiance for solar zenith angles greater than 66° has a small, but statistically significant, positive correlation with the previous day's magnetic activity as measured by the daily Ap index, but no clear relationship exists between the irradiance ratio and daily changes in the ground-level neutron flux measured at Thule over the time frame considered. A high value of Ap on one day tends to be followed by a day whose ground-level solar irradiance is slightly greater than would occur otherwise. In an average sense, the visible irradiance following a day with Ap>16 exceeds that following a day with Ap≤16 by 1.2-1.3% with a 95% confidence range of approximately ±1.0%. The results are broadly compatible with small changes in atmospheric scattering following magnetic disturbances.

  2. Chemical composition and possible in vitro antigermination activity of three Hypericum essential oils.

    PubMed

    Marandino, Aurelio; De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; Milella, Luigi; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2011-11-01

    The essential oils of Hypericum perforatum, H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum, growing in Southern Italy, were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. In the three oils, 111 compounds in all were identified: 53 for the oil of H. hircinum (93.7% of the total oil), 55 for H. perforatum (96.5% of the total oil) and 63 for H. perfoliatum (98.7% of the total oil). The major fraction of the essential oils of H. perforatum and H. hircinum was represented by sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the monoterpene alpha-pinene, and the phenol thymol were the most abundant compounds in the essential oil of H. perfoliatum. The oils were evaluated for their potential in vitro phytotoxic activity against germination and early radicle elongation of Raphanus sativus and Lepidium sativum. The germination of this latter was significantly inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum, at the highest doses tested, whereas radicle elongation of garden cress was significantly inhibited by the essential oils of H. perfoliatum and H. hircinum. The radicle elongation of radish was inhibited by the essential oil of H. hircinum to a major extent and by H. perforatum and perfoliatum in a minor measure. PMID:22224300

  3. Complement activation in divers after repeated air/heliox dives and its possible relevance to DCS.

    PubMed

    Hjelde, A; Bergh, K; Brubakk, A O; Iversen, O J

    1995-03-01

    Plasma levels of the anaphylatoxin C5a were measured in 19 divers performing repeated air dives. Blood samples were collected immediately before the first dive and 2 h after the first and the second or third dive. Serum obtained at the same times was subjected to complement activation in vitro by air bubbles. Six divers developed symptoms of decompression sickness (DCS). Most intravascular bubbles were observed in divers with the lowest plasma levels of C5a. Postdive plasma levels of C5a did not increase compared with predive levels, nor were postdive levels significantly different after two or three dives compared with the first dive. Repeated dives did not influence the amounts of C5a generated in vitro. Neither plasma levels of C5a nor C5a generated in vitro were significantly different in divers who experienced symptoms of DCS vs. divers without symptoms of DCS. We conclude that plasma level of C5a and measurement of C5a generation in vitro cannot be used to predict DCS. PMID:7775308

  4. Generalized Laplacian for magnetograms of solar active region as possible predictor of strong flare.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volobuev, D. M.; Makarenko, N. G.; Knyazeva, I. S.

    2016-02-01

    Search for predictors of strong flare produced in solar active region (AR) is important application of solar physics. Here we consider the sequence of magnetogram (LOS SDO/HMI instrument) for AR 2034, 2035 and 2036 (April 2014). All three AR were observed on the Sun at about the same time, characterized by low probability of flare events according to official forecasts of NOAA, but 2036 still produced X1-flare near the center of solar disc (April 18). We propose that Generalized Laplacian is a descriptor which could help predict this and similar events. The Laplacian is associated with the flow of Ricci curvature and with topological invariants of the observed field - Betti numbers for compact manifolds. Using discrete version of Morse theory, we consider each pixel of energy flux (B2) image as a simplex and calculate its combinatorial Bochner Laplacian. It was found that maximum of Laplacian is located near AR polarity inversion line. Evolution of total spatial variation of the Laplacian has a number of maxima in time for each of examined AR. However, the maxima in AR 2035 and AR 2034 have relatively low amplitude, while the highest maximum prefaced X1 flare in AR 2036 by about 29 hours.

  5. Possible Future Changes in Permafrost and Active Layer Thickness in Northern Eurasia and their Relation to Permafrost Carbon Pool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, S. S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Chapman, W. L.; Walsh, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    Recent observations indicate a warming of permafrost in many northern regions with the resulting degradation of ice-rich and carbon-rich permafrost. Permafrost temperature has increased by 1 to 3 deg C in northern Eurasia during the last 30 years. To assess possible changes in the permafrost thermal state and the active layer thickness we implemented the GIPL2 (Geophysical Institute Permafrost Lab) transient model for the entire Northern Eurasia for the 1981-2100 time period. Input parameters to the model are spatial datasets of mean monthly air temperature, snow properties or SWE, prescribed vegetation and thermal properties of the multilayered soil column, and water content. The climate scenario was derived from an ensemble of five IPCC Global Circulation Models (GCM) ECHAM5, GFDL21, CCSM, HADcm and CCCMA. The outputs from these five models have been scaled down to 25 km spatial resolution with monthly temporal resolution, based on the composite (mean) output of the five models, using the IPCC SRES A1B CO2 emission scenario through the end of current century. Historic ground temperature measurements in shallow boreholes (3.2 m in depth) from more than 120 weather stations located within the continuous, discontinuous, and sporadic permafrost zones were available for the initial model validation and calibration. To prescribe the thermal properties we used the map of soil characteristics for whole of Russia (Stolbovoi & Savin, 2002) and the map of Soil Carbon Pools, CO2 and CH4 emissions (Tarnocai et al., 2009) and also the soil structure descriptions available for some locations. We estimated dynamics of the seasonally thawed volume of soils within the two upper meters for the entire North Eurasia. The model results indicate 1,200 km3 of seasonally unfrozen soils within the two upper meters within 10,800,000 km2 of northern Eurasian permafrost domain during the last two decades of the 20th century. Our projections have shown that unfrozen volume of soil within two

  6. Impaired activation of Stat1 and c-Jun as a possible defect in macrophages of patients with active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Solís, H; Quiñones-Falconi, F; Zarain-Herzberg, A; Amieva-Fernández, R I; López-Vidal, Y

    2009-10-01

    Studies of patients with active tuberculosis (TB) and infected healthy individuals have shown that interferon (IFN)-gamma is present in sites of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in comparable levels. This suggests that there is a deficiency in the macrophage response to IFN-gamma in TB patients. We used recombinant human IFN-gamma to stimulate adherent monocyte-derived macrophages from three groups of people: patients with active tuberculosis (TBP), their healthy household contacts (HHC) and healthy uninfected controls from the community (CC). We then evaluated the ability of the macrophages to inhibit the growth of M. tuberculosis H37Rv as well as their cytokine profile at early in infection (48 h). After IFN-gamma treatment, macrophages of healthy individuals (HHC and CC) controlled M. tuberculosis growth and produced mainly nitric oxide (NO) and interleukin (IL)-12p70, whereas TBP macrophages did not kill M. tuberculosis. Additionally, TBP macrophages produced low levels of NO and IL-12p70 and high levels of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and IL-10. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta levels were similar among all three groups. M. tuberculosis infection had little effect on the cytokine response after IFN-gamma stimulus, but infection alone induced more IL-10 and TGF-beta in TBP macrophages. There were no differences in Stat1 nuclear translocation and DNA binding between the groups. However, the phosphorylated Stat1 and c-Jun (AP-1) in nuclear protein extracts was diminished in TBP macrophages compared to macrophages of healthy individuals. These results indicate an impairment of Stat1-dependent and Stat1-independent IFN-gamma signalling in macrophages of people with active tuberculosis, suggesting a different molecular regulation that could impact macrophage functionality and disease outcome. PMID:19737230

  7. Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Levy A.; Boslett, James; Varadharaj, Saradhadevi; De Pascali, Francesco; Hemann, Craig; Druhan, Lawrence J.; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; El-Mahdy, Mohamed; Zweier, Jay L.

    2015-01-01

    In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP+, coincided with formation of 2’-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes. PMID:26297248

  8. Possible Recent Volcanic Activity on the East Pacific Rise at 9° 32'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurokawa, T.; Edwards, M. H.; Johnson, P.; Fornari, D. J.; Perfit, M.; Schouten, H.; Tivey, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    In 2001, the DSL-120A near-bottom mapping system was used to survey a 31.4 km by 6.8 km corridor of the East Pacific Rise crest between 9° 25'N and 9° 57'N. The mapping system included a 120 kHz sidescan and interferometric bathymetry sonar that was used to produce 2 meter-resolution sidescan images of the corridor. The sidescan data depict three scarps located approximately 3 km west of the ridge axis that are interpreted to have been volcanically overprinted between 9° 31'N and 9° 32'N on the basis of sharply lineated features that are interrupted along-strike. In transcripts, video, and 35 mm film footage of the same region collected during Alvin Dive 2490 in 1992, these same scarps are documented as two inward-facing and one outward-facing vertical walls that are 17-18 m high. Co-registration of the DSL-120A and Alvin 2490 datasets shows a strong correlation between other features that are depicted in both the acoustic and photographic data, but the appearance of the scarps changes markedly between 1992 and 2001. In the DSL-120A sidescan data, amorphous-shaped regions of relatively high backscatter characterize the area where the scarps are thought to be volcanically overprinted. In some cases, these reflective patches appear to pond at the base of faults or to spill over the faults. To verify whether the morphology changes between 1992 and 2001 reflect recent volcanic activity on the flank of the ridge axis, we have located SeaMARC-II data for the same region collected in 1987. A cursory examination of the much lower-resolution SeaMARC-II sidescan images vaguely shows the presence of similarly-shaped reflective scarps in the approximate location of the new flow. We are presently reprocessing the SeaMARC-II data to improve the data resolution, making a map from the DSL-120A bathymetry data, and searching for additional datasets that may confirm the existence of a new off-axis flow. The results of our efforts will be reported in December.

  9. Experimental evaluation of decrease in the activities of polyphosphate/glycogen-accumulating organisms due to cell death and activity decay in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Wang, Qilin; Cao, Yali; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2010-06-15

    Decrease in bacterial activity (biomass decay) in activated sludge can result from cell death (reduction in the amount of active bacteria) and activity decay (reduction in the specific activity of active bacteria). The goal of this study was to experimentally differentiate between cell death and activity decay as the cause of decrease in bacterial activity. By means of measuring maximal anaerobic phosphate release rates, verifying membrane integrity by live/dead staining and verifying presence of 16S rRNA with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), the decay rates and death rates of polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in a biological nutrient removal (BNR) system and a laboratory phosphate removing sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system were determined, respectively, under famine conditions. In addition, the decay rate and death rate of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in a SBR system with an enrichment culture of GAOs were also measured under famine conditions. Hereto the maximal anaerobic volatile fatty acid uptake rates, live/dead staining, and FISH were used. The experiments revealed that in the BNR and enriched PAO-SBR systems, activity decay contributed 58% and 80% to the decreased activities of PAOs, and that cell death was responsible for 42% and 20% of decreases in their respective activities. In the enriched GAOs system, activity decay constituted a proportion of 74% of the decreased activity of GAOs, and cell death only accounted for 26% of the decrease of their activity. PMID:20178124

  10. The Recent Increase in North Atlantic Hurricane Activity: Is it a Cycle or is it due to Global Warming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelliah, M.; Bell, G.

    2006-12-01

    There has been a noticeable increase in North Atlantic hurricane activity since 1995. The devastating 2005 hurricane season broke many records with 27 tropical storms (TS), 15 hurricanes (H) and four category-5 major hurricanes (MH). This season also featured a record 15 landfalling storms in the Atlantic basin and four landfalling US major hurricanes (MH, defined as categories 3-5 on the Saffir-Simpson scale). Since 1995, North Atlantic hurricane seasons have averaged 13.1 TS, 7.4 H and 3.7 MH and according to NOAA, 9 of the 11 seasons have been termed above normal (active) seasons except for the two El Nino years 1997 and 2002. Prior to 1995, the North Atlantic basin experienced an overall inactive hurricane era from about 1971 to 1994 with an average 7.8 TS, 4.5H and 1.5 MH. But, prior to this inactive era (1971-1994) during the decades of the 1950's and 1960's (and in fact back to 1930's but with less reliable data) a typical season averaged about 8.0 TS, 5.4 H and 2.8 MH. As can be seen from these numbers, the seasonal averages for the number of TS, H, and MH during the recent active period since 1995 are overall higher than those during the earlier active decades of the 1950's and 1960's. These are no major disputes in these numbers. But there are differing views in the scientific community on the causal mechanisms (attribution) behind the recent increase in the North Atlantic hurricane activity. One view suggests that the recent increase is a return of the active hurricane cycle experienced in the past (such as the 1950's and 60's) and the other view suggesting that the increase could be due to global warming. This talk will focus on explaining, at least an attempt to explain, why there has been an increase in the overall hurricane activity since 1995. Based on recent published studies conducted at the Climate Prediction Center and elsewhere, it will be demonstrated that the answers to the ongoing debate, at least in the North Atlantic basin, is not as

  11. Galactic cosmic ray modulation and interplanetary medium perturbations due to a long-living active region during October 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bavassano, B.; Iucci, N.; Lepping, R. P.; Signorini, C.; Smith, E. J.; Villoresi, G.

    1994-01-01

    During October 1989, three very energetic flares were ejected by the same active region at longitudes 9 deg E, 32 deg W, and 57 deg W, respectively. The shape of the galactic cosmic ray variations suggests the presence of large magnetic cloud structures (Nagashima et al., 1990) following the shock-associated perturbations. In spite of long data gaps the interplanetary observations at Interplanetary Monitoring Platform (IMP) 8 (near the Earth) and International Cometary Explorer (ICE)(approximately 1 AU, approximately 65 deg W) confirm this possibility for the event related to the 9 deg E flare; the principal axes analysis shows that the interplanetary magnetic field variations at both spacecraft locations are mainly confined on a meridian plane. This result suggests that the western longitudinal extension of this cloud is indeed very large (greater than or equal to 5 deg). The nonnegligible depression in the cosmic ray intensity observed inside the possible cloud related to the 57 deg W flare indicates that also the eastern extension could be very wide. The analysis of neutron monitor data shows clearly the cosmic ray trapping effect of magnetic clouds; this mechanism seems to be responsible for the enhanced diurnal effect often observed during the recovery phase of Forbush decreases. We give an interpretation for the anisotropic cosmic ray peak occurring in the third event, and, related to that, we suggest that the Forbush decrease modulated region at the Earth's orbit could be somewhat wider than the magnetic cloud, as already anticipated by Nagashima et al. (1990). By this analysis, based mainly on cosmic ray data, we show that it is possible to do reasonable inferences on the large-scale structure of flare-related interplanetary perturbations when interplanetary medium data are not completely present.

  12. Posture, Musculoskeletal Activities, and Possible Musculoskeletal Discomfort Among Children Using Laptops or Tablet Computers for Educational Purposes: A Literature Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binboğa, Elif; Korhan, Orhan

    2014-10-01

    Educational ergonomics focuses on the interaction between educational performance and educational design. By improving the design or pointing out the possible problems, educational ergonomics can be utilized to have positive impacts on the student performance and thus on education process. Laptops and tablet computers are becoming widely used by school children and beginning to be used effectively for educational purposes. As the latest generation of laptops and tablet computers are mobile and lightweight compared to conventional personal computers, they support student-centred interaction-based learning. However, these technologies have been introduced into schools with minimal adaptations to furniture or attention to ergonomics. There are increasing reports of an association between increased musculoskeletal (MSK) problems in children and use of such technologies. Although children are among the users of laptops and tablet computers both in their everyday lives and at schools, the literature investigating MSK activities and possible MSK discomfort regarding children using portable technologies is limited. This study reviews the literature to identify published studies that investigated posture, MSK activities, and possible MSK discomfort among children using mobile technologies (laptops or tablet computers) for educational purposes. An electronic search of the literature published in English between January 1994 and January 2014 was performed in several databases. The literature search terms were identified and combined to search the databases. The search results that the resources investigating MSK outcomes of laptop or tablet use of children are very scarce. This review points out the research gaps in this field, and identifying areas for future studies.

  13. Differential activity in Heschl's gyrus between deaf and hearing individuals is due to auditory deprivation rather than language modality.

    PubMed

    Cardin, Velia; Smittenaar, Rebecca C; Orfanidou, Eleni; Rönnberg, Jerker; Capek, Cheryl M; Rudner, Mary; Woll, Bencie

    2016-01-01

    Sensory cortices undergo crossmodal reorganisation as a consequence of sensory deprivation. Congenital deafness in humans represents a particular case with respect to other types of sensory deprivation, because cortical reorganisation is not only a consequence of auditory deprivation, but also of language-driven mechanisms. Visual crossmodal plasticity has been found in secondary auditory cortices of deaf individuals, but it is still unclear if reorganisation also takes place in primary auditory areas, and how this relates to language modality and auditory deprivation. Here, we dissociated the effects of language modality and auditory deprivation on crossmodal plasticity in Heschl's gyrus as a whole, and in cytoarchitectonic region Te1.0 (likely to contain the core auditory cortex). Using fMRI, we measured the BOLD response to viewing sign language in congenitally or early deaf individuals with and without sign language knowledge, and in hearing controls. Results show that differences between hearing and deaf individuals are due to a reduction in activation caused by visual stimulation in the hearing group, which is more significant in Te1.0 than in Heschl's gyrus as a whole. Furthermore, differences between deaf and hearing groups are due to auditory deprivation, and there is no evidence that the modality of language used by deaf individuals contributes to crossmodal plasticity in Heschl's gyrus. PMID:26348556

  14. Improved photocatalytic activity in RuO2-ZnO nanoparticulate heterostructures due to inhomogeneous space charge effects.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Md Tamez; Nicolas, Yohann; Olivier, Céline; Servant, Laurent; Toupance, Thierry; Li, Shunyi; Klein, Andreas; Jaegermann, Wolfram

    2015-02-21

    New 2-6 wt% RuO2-ZnO heterojunction nanocatalysts were synthesized by a straightforward two-step procedure. They were composed of a porous network of aggregated 25 nm wurtzite ZnO nanocrystallites modified with RuO2 and showed enhanced light absorption in the visible region due to surface plasmon resonance. In order to investigate the energetic structure of the photocatalyst XPS core line and valence band spectra of in situ in UHV prepared heterointerfaces were compared to results obtained from the particles. The shift of Zn 2p3/2 and O 1s core level spectra was determined to be at least 0.80 ± 0.05 eV for the in situ prepared heterojunction whereas it was found to be 0.40 ± 0.05 and 0.45 ± 0.05 eV, respectively, in the photocatalysts. The different values were ascribed to the reduced size of the particles and the different measurability of band bending at the interface of the heterojunction RuO2-ZnO compared to the nanoparticles. The RuO2/ZnO photocatalysts showed higher photocatalytic activity and recyclability than pure ZnO for the degradation of various dyes under UV light irradiation due to vectorial charge separation of photogenerated electrons and holes resulting from internal electric field, the ruthenium oxide acting as a quasi-metallic contact. PMID:25599370

  15. The linoleic acid derivative DCP-LA selectively activates PKC-epsilon, possibly binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Hi, Rika; Mukasa, Takeshi; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the effect of 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA), a newly synthesized linoleic acid derivative with cyclopropane rings instead of cis-double bonds, on protein kinase C (PKC) activity. In the in situ PKC assay with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, DCP-LA significantly activated PKC in PC-12 cells in a concentration-dependent (10 nM-100 microM) manner, with the maximal effect at 100 nM, and the DCP-LA effect was blocked by GF109203X, a PKC inhibitor, or a selective inhibitor peptide of the novel PKC isozyme PKC-epsilon. Furthermore, DCP-LA activated PKC in HEK-293 cells that was inhibited by the small, interfering RNA against PKC-epsilon. In the cell-free PKC assay, of the nine isozymes examined here, DCP-LA most strongly activated PKC-epsilon, with >7-fold potency over other PKC isozymes, in the absence of dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycerol; instead, the DCP-LA action was inhibited by dioleoyl-phosphatidylserine. DCP-LA also activated PKC-gamma, a conventional PKC, but to a much lesser extent compared with that for PKC-epsilon, by a mechanism distinct from PKC-epsilon activation. Thus, DCP-LA serves as a selective activator of PKC-epsilon, possibly by binding to the phosphatidylserine binding site on PKC-epsilon. These results may provide fresh insight into lipid signaling in PKC activation. PMID:16520488

  16. Quasisecular cyclicity in the climate of the Earth's Northern Hemisphere and its possible relation to solar activity variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogurtsov, M. G.; Jungner, H.; Lindholm, M.; Helama, S.; Dergachev, V. A.

    2009-12-01

    Paleoclimatological reconstructions of temperature of the Earth’s Northern Hemisphere for the last thousand years have been studied using the up-to-date methods of statistical analysis. It has bee indicated that the quasisecular (a period of 60-130 years) cyclicity, which is observed in the climate of the Earth’s Northern Hemisphere, has a bimodal structure, i.e., being composed of the 60-85 and 85-130 year periodicities. The possible relation of the quasisecular climatic rhythm to the corresponding Gleissberg solar cycle has been studied using the solar activity reconstructions performed with the help of the solar paleoastrophysics methods.

  17. The structure of host galaxies of radio-loud quasars and possible triggering mechanisms for quasar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romanishin, W.; Hintzen, Paul

    1989-01-01

    An image modeling program is used to analyze optical imaging data for a sample of radio-loud quasars with redshifts between 0.2 and 0.7. It is found that the host galaxies of these quasars tend to be more compact than normal ellipticals. The cooling flow cluster elliptical galaxies near these host galaxies are studied. It is suggested that these cooling flow galaxies are also compact due to star formation in their central regions. Two populations of quasars are identified. One, in which activity is triggered by galaxy mergers of interactions has predominately spiral galaxies and are radio quiet. The other, in which activity is triggered by star formation bursts induced by cooling flows, has predominately elliptical hosts and may be radio loud.

  18. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-05-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr-coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary array of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters based on their waveform characteristics is performed. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  19. Indications for different types of brittle failure due to active coal mining using waveform similarities of induced seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehling-Benatelli, S.; Becker, D.; Bischoff, M.; Friederich, W.; Meier, T.

    2013-10-01

    Longwall mining activity in the Ruhr coal mining district leads to mining-induced seismicity. For detailed studies the seismicity of a single longwall panel beneath the town of Hamm-Herringen in the eastern Ruhr area was monitored between June 2006 and July 2007 with a dense temporary network of 15 seismic stations. More than 7000 seismic events with magnitudes between -1.7 ≤ ML ≤ 2.0 were detected and localized in this period. Most of the events occurred in the vicinity of the moving longwall face. In order to find possible differences in the brittle failure types of these events an association of the events to distinct clusters is performed based on their waveform characteristics. This task is carried out using a new clustering algorithm utilizing a network similarity matrix which is created by combining all available 3-component single station similarity matrices. The resultant network matrix is then sorted with respect to the similarity of its rows leading to a sorted matrix immediately indicating the clustering of the event catalogue. Finally, clusters of similar events are extracted by visual inspection. This approach results in the identification of several large clusters which are distinct with respect to their spatial and temporal characteristics as well as their frequency magnitude distributions. Comparable clusters are also found with a conventional single linkage approach, however, the new routine seems to be able to associate more events to specific clusters without merging the clusters. The nine largest observed clusters can be tentatively divided into three different groups that indicate different types of brittle failure. The first group consists of the two largest clusters which constitute more than half of all recorded events. Results of a relative relocation using cross-correlation data suggest that these events are confined to the extent of the mined out longwall and cluster close to the edges of the active longwall at the depth of active

  20. Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Aloe succotrina in Rats: Possibly Mediated by Inhibition of HMG-CoA Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Lamba, Deepak; Kumar, Ramesh; Nath, Pashupati; Gauttam, Satyaprakash

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate antihyperlipidemic activity of dried pulp of Aloe succotrina leaves in Wistar albino rats. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rats by feeding them high fat diet (HFD) or D-fructose (25% w/v) for 4 successive weeks. From 15th to 28th day, dried pulp (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o) and atorvastatin (10 mg/kg, p.o.) per se were administered 2 h prior to feeding rats with HFD or fructose. Aloe succotrina did not significantly decrease the body weight of rats. The dried pulp and atorvastatin per se significantly decreased relative liver weight but did not significantly affect relative heart weight. HFD or fructose significantly increased serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c, and VLDL, and decreased HDL-c; significantly increased liver MDA and decreased GSH levels. The dried pulp (200 mg/kg p.o.) significantly reversed high fat diet-induced and fructose-induced hyperlipidemia and atherogenic index. Aloe succotrina significantly decreased HMG Co-A reductase activity. Antihyperlipidemic effect of the dried pulp was comparable to atorvastatin. Thus, Aloe succotrina produced significant antihyperlipidemic activity in both HFD and fructose-induced hyperlipidemic rats, possibly through normalization of serum lipid profile, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitory activity, and amelioration of oxidative stress in liver. PMID:24693447

  1. Cytotoxic activity of dendritic cells as a possible mechanism of negative regulation of T lymphocytes in pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Sakhno, Ludmila V; Tikhonova, Marina A; Tyrinova, Tamara V; Leplina, Olga Yu; Shevela, Ekaterina Ya; Nikonov, Sergey D; Zhdanov, Oleg A; Ostanin, Alexander A; Chernykh, Elena R

    2012-01-01

    The PD-1/B7-H1-mediated induction of T cell apoptosis/anergy as a possible mechanism of immune response failure was studied in 76 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with normal and low-proliferative response to antigens of M. tuberculosis (purified protein derivative (PPD)). It was revealed that dendritic cells (DCs), generated in vitro from patient blood monocytes with GM-CSF + IFN-α, were characterized by increased B7-H1 expression, upproduction of IL-10, and reducing of allostimulatory activity in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC). Moreover, DCs of patients with TB were able to enhance T cell apoptosis and to block T-cell division in MLC. It was shown that neutralizing anti-PD1 antibodies significantly decreased the proapoptogenic/tolerogenic effect of DCs. Correlation analysis revealed a direct relationship between IL-10 production and level of B7-H1 expression in the general group of investigated patients. It was demonstrated that generation of healthy donor DCs in the presence of IL-10 led to an increase in the number of DCs-expressed B7-H1 molecule, DC proapoptogenic activity, and a decrease in their allostimulatory activity. Obviously, the revealed phenomenon of the PD-1/B7-H1-mediated pro-apoptogenic activity of DCs is clinically significant since the cytotoxic/tolerogenic potential of DCs is more pronounced in patients with PPD anergy. PMID:23056139

  2. DEEP SILICATE ABSORPTION FEATURES IN COMPTON-THICK ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI PREDOMINANTLY ARISE DUE TO DUST IN THE HOST GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A. D.; Forman, W. R.; Jones, C.; Trichas, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Mullaney, J. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Hickox, R. C.

    2012-08-10

    We explore the origin of mid-infrared (mid-IR) dust extinction in all 20 nearby (z < 0.05) bona fide Compton-thick (N{sub H} > 1.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with hard energy (E > 10 keV) X-ray spectral measurements. We accurately measure the silicate absorption features at {lambda} {approx} 9.7 {mu}m in archival low-resolution (R {approx} 57-127) Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph spectroscopy, and show that only a minority ( Almost-Equal-To 45%) of nearby Compton-thick AGNs have strong Si-absorption features (S{sub 9.7} = ln (f{sub int}/f{sub obs}) {approx}> 0.5) which would indicate significant dust attenuation. The majority ( Almost-Equal-To 60%) are star formation dominated (AGN:SB < 0.5) at mid-IR wavelengths and lack the spectral signatures of AGN activity at optical wavelengths, most likely because the AGN emission lines are optically extinguished. Those Compton-thick AGNs hosted in low-inclination-angle galaxies exhibit a narrow range in Si-absorption (S{sub 9.7} {approx} 0-0.3), which is consistent with that predicted by clumpy-torus models. However, on the basis of the IR spectra and additional lines of evidence, we conclude that the dominant contribution to the observed mid-IR dust extinction is dust located in the host galaxy (i.e., due to disturbed morphologies, dust lanes, galaxy inclination angles) and not necessarily a compact obscuring torus surrounding the central engine.

  3. A new strategy to analyze possible association structures between dynamic nocturnal hormone activities and sleep alterations in humans.

    PubMed

    Kalus, Stefanie; Kneib, Thomas; Steiger, Axel; Holsboer, Florian; Yassouridis, Alexander

    2009-04-01

    The human sleep process shows dynamic alterations during the night. Methods are needed to examine whether and to what extent such alterations are affected by internal, possibly time-dependent, factors, such as endocrine activity. In an observational study, we examined simultaneously sleep EEG and nocturnal levels of renin, growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (between 2300 and 0700) in 47 healthy volunteers comprising 24 women (41.67 +/- 2.93 yr of age) and 23 men (37.26 +/- 2.85 yr of age). Hormone concentrations were measured every 20 min. Conventional sleep stage scoring at 30-s intervals was applied. Semiparametric multinomial logit models are used to study and quantify possible time-dependent hormone effects on sleep stage transition courses. Results show that increased cortisol levels decrease the probability of transition from rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep to wakefulness (WAKE) and increase the probability of transition from REM to non-REM (NREM) sleep, irrespective of the time in the night. Via the model selection criterion Akaike's information criterion, it was found that all considered hormone effects on transition probabilities with the initial state WAKE change with time. Similarly, transition from slow-wave sleep (SWS) to light sleep (LS) is affected by a "hormone-time" interaction for cortisol and renin, but not GH. For example, there is a considerable increase in the probability of SWS-LS transition toward the end of the night, when cortisol concentrations are very high. In summary, alterations in human sleep possess dynamic forms and are partially influenced by the endocrine activity of certain hormones. Statistical methods, such as semiparametric multinomial and time-dependent logit regression, can offer ambitious ways to investigate and estimate the association intensities between the nonstationary sleep changes and the time-dependent endocrine activities. PMID:19144755

  4. Screening of novel chemical compounds as possible inhibitors of carbonic anhydrase and photosynthetic activity of photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Karacan, Mehmet Sayım; Zharmukhamedov, Sergei K; Mamaş, Serhat; Kupriyanova, Elena V; Shitov, Alexandr V; Klimov, Vyacheslav V; Özbek, Neslihan; Özmen, Ümmühan; Gündüzalp, Ayla; Schmitt, Franz-Josef; Karacan, Nurcan; Friedrich, Thomas; Los, Dmitry A; Carpentier, Robert; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2014-08-01

    Thirty novel chemical compounds were designed and synthesized expecting that they would be possible inhibitors. From this number eleven were organic bases, twenty-four were their organic derivatives and fourteen were metal complexes. Screening of these chemicals by their action on photosynthetic electron transfer (PET) and carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity (CAA) of photosystem II (PSII), α-CA, as well as β-CA was done. Several groups were revealed among them. Some of them are capable to suppress either one, two, three, or even all of the measured activities. As example, one of the Cu(II)-phenyl sulfonylhydrazone complexes (compound 25) suppresses CAA of α-CA by 88%, CAA of β-CA by 100% inhibition; CAA of PSII by 100% and the PSII photosynthetic activity by 66.2%. The Schiff base compounds (12, 15) and Cu(II)-phenyl sulfonylhydrazone complexes (25, 26) inhibited the CAA and PET of PSII significantly. The obtained data indicate that the PSII donor side is a target of the inhibitory action of these agents. Some physico- or electrochemical properties such as diffusion coefficient, number of transferred electrons, peak potential and heterogeneous standard rate constants of the compounds were determined in nonaqueous media. pKa values were also determined in nonaqueous and aqueous media. Availability in the studied group of novel chemical agents possessing different inhibitory activity allow in future to isolate the "active part" in the structure of the inhibitors responsible for different inhibitory mechanisms, as well as to determine the influence of side substituters on its inhibitory efficiency. PMID:24418071

  5. Effect on GLE Occurrence Distribution: Possible Action on Active Region by Earth and Jupiter Magnetospheres through Cosmic Ray Deflection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozo Garcia, Eduardo

    Eduardo del Pozo Garcia Geophysics and Astronomy Institute Havana, Cuba pozo@iga.cu Following Perez- Peraza and collaborators works on GLE prediction on basis to Cosmic Ray periodicities and cycles, in particular with 1,2 year cycle, effect prognosis of GLE occurrence was determine, I present here a possible interpretation of their results. Here I present the time distribution of the observed GLE in respect to each GLE nearly Sun-Earth-Jupiter alignment time. At the histogram the X axis cero is the alignment time. These alignments take place cyclically every 1,1 year. The histogram shows a modulation-like GLE distribution. The occurrence increments are near the alignment time and, about 125 days before and after the alignment time. Besides, a work hypothesis is proposed: “The Jupiter and Earth magnetospheres must deflect cosmic rays and, at some Jupiter and Earth positions according the current interplanetary magnetic field, may be favorable to increase the energetic particle flux over current Sun active regions, giving place to a modulation-like GLE distribution. Also, by the cosmic rays action some particle flux increase over active regions may come from radiation belts” This effect means that, during solar activity this is a factor that contributes to: - An accumulative activity increase of sunspot groups and their magnetic configuration complexity - Eventually, over complex active region some increase of high energy particle flux help to trigger GLE, or intensify solar proton events in progress, and become a GLE. This effect is taken into account for GLE prediction.

  6. An underwater landslide or slump on an active submarine fault - a possible source of a devastating tsunami?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, T.

    2007-12-01

    A Mw 7.7 earthquake and subsequent large-scale tsunami occurred on 17th July 2006 off the southern coast of Java Island, Indonesia. A maximum of 7.7 m inundation height was recorded in Pangandaran on the southern coast of Java, according to the field survey just after the tsunami (Tsuji et al., 2006). However, since there are few residents who noticed the earthquake tremors, the earthquake may possibility be so-called "tsunami earthquake". The aftershocks from July to September occurred on the fore-arc area and their CMT solution suggests the predominant north-south tensile stress. R/V MIRAI passed the aftershock area in 2004 and 2005 with continuous multibeam bathymetric survey. The processed topographic map shows a lot of amphitheatres with the scale of 8-20 km along the fault scarps. Convexity landforms are located below the footwall of the amphitheatres, apparently the relics of an underwater landslide, and their relative elevation exceeds 1000 m in maximum. This area is characterised by the southeastern extension of Mentawai Fault and its associated minor faults ranging from the Sumatra fore-arc area. The observed amphitheatres and relics of underwater landslides are located along the active faults. Considering that the tsunami wave height distribution is concentrated on a specific narrow area compared with the scale of the mainshock, the mainshock possibly triggered underwater landslides on these amphitheatres and the slides generated a large-scale tsunami. The Ryukyu district was attacked by a M7-class earthquake followed by a devastating tsunami in 1771. 'The East Ishigaki Fault,' one of the across-arc active normal faults in this area was studied precisely by multibeam echo sounding. The study revealed a slump on the segmented active fault. The slump itself may generate a tsunami with the wave height of several meters and might cause the 1771 tsunami together with the faulting itself. Some recent geohazards also show that a landslide or a slump is

  7. Number of transients/Q-bursts in ELF-band as possible criterion for global thunderstorm activity estimation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondraskova, Adriena; Sevcik, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    Schumann resonances (SR) are resonant electromagnetic oscillations in extremely low frequency band (ELF, 3 Hz - 3 kHz), which arise in the Earth-ionosphere cavity due to lightning activity in planetary range. The time records in the ELF-band consist of background signals and ELF transients/Q-bursts superimposed on the background exceeding it by a factor of 5 - 10. The former are produced by the common worldwide thunderstorm activity (100 - 150 events per second), the latter origin from individual intense distant lightning discharges (100 - 120 powerful strokes per hour). A Q-burst is produced by a combination of direct and antipodal pulses and the decisive factor for its shape follows from the source-to-observer distance (SOD). Diurnal/seasonal variations of global thunderstorm activity can be deduced from spectral amplitudes of SR modes. Here we focus on diurnal/seasonal variations of the number of ELF-transients assuming that it is another way of lightning activity estimation. To search for transients, our own code was applied to the SR vertical electric component measured in October 2004 - December 2008 at the Astronomical and Geophysical Observatory of FMPI CU, Slovakia. Limits (min-max) for the width of primary spike, time difference between primary and secondary spike and the amplitude of the spike were chosen as criteria for the identification of the burst. Cumulative spectral amplitude of the first three SR modes compared with number of ELF-transients in monthly averaged diurnal variations quite successfully confirmed, that the number of transients can be a suitable criterion for the quantification of global lightning activity.

  8. Disturbances of the VLF/LF radio signal reception at Dobrogea Seismological Observatory due to local abnormal electric activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovan, Iren-Adelina; Toader, Victorin; Dolea, Paul; Biagi, Pier Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The National Institute for Earth Physics, as part of the INFREP initiative, has monitored radio waves emitted by 10 transmitters all over Europe in relation with seismicity in the last 5 years. In Romania a radio receiving system is located in only one site (Dobrogea Seismological Observatory) situated in Eforie Nord, in the Eastern part of Romania. The electro-magnetic field monitored both at the ground and (sub) ionospheric level, in different frequency ranges (VLF/LF) is considered to be promising for earthquake forecasting. Because the abnormal behavior of the VLF/LF recordings that could not be correlated with the tectonic activity of the seismogenic zones crossed by the radio paths, we decided to monitor other two parameters, at the receiving site: the vertical component of the atmospheric electric field, which indicates variations of electrical properties of the near-ground air (Boltek electric field mill), and the atmospheric local conditions (WS-3600 weather station). The zone is also surveyed by seismic devices (seismometers, accelerometers and infrasonic equipment) and GPS/GNSS base stations to emphasize the local tectonic conditions. We obtained in such way a multiple-parameter monitoring system that increases the confidence in observational data and decreases uncertainties regarding the accuracy of the data recorded until now. As we are exploring different parameters we have obtained some conclusions regarding the correlation of the anomalies with their possible causes. The final expectation of the monitoring system regard the chance to take a snapshot of the geophysical medium before, during and after a significant earthquake occurrence and to reveal if there was or wasn't a noticeable trace of the preparatory stage of it. This work was partially supported by a grant of the Romanian National Authority for Scientific Research, Programe for research- Space Technology and Avanced Research - STAR, project number 84/2013, and by the NUCLEU project, PN 09

  9. Menadione Suppresses Benzo(α)pyrene-Induced Activation of Cytochromes P450 1A: Insights into a Possible Molecular Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Pivovarova, Elena N.; Markel, Arkady L.; Lyakhovich, Vyacheslav V.; Grishanova, Alevtina Y.

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative reactions that are catalyzed by cytochromes P450 1A (CYP1A) lead to formation of carcinogenic derivatives of arylamines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as the widespread environmental pollutant benzo(α)pyrene (BP). These compounds upregulate CYP1A at the transcriptional level via an arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent signaling pathway. Because of the involvement of AhR-dependent genes in chemically induced carcinogenesis, suppression of this signaling pathway could prevent tumor formation and/or progression. Here we show that menadione (a water-soluble analog of vitamin K3) inhibits BP-induced expression and enzymatic activity of both CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 in vivo (in the rat liver) and BP-induced activity of CYP1A1 in vitro. Coadministration of BP and menadione reduced DNA-binding activity of AhR and increased DNA-binding activity of transcription factors Oct-1 and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), which are known to be involved in negative regulation of AhR-dependent genes, in vivo. Expression of another factor involved in downregulation of CYP1A—pAhR repressor (AhRR)—was lower in the liver of the rats treated with BP and menadione, indicating that the inhibitory effect of menadione on CYP1A is not mediated by this protein. Furthermore, menadione was well tolerated by the animals: no signs of acute toxicity were detected by visual examination or by assessment of weight gain dynamics or liver function. Taken together, our results suggest that menadione can be used in further studies on animal models of chemically induced carcinogenesis because menadione may suppress tumor formation and possibly progression. PMID:27167070

  10. Therapeutic Antibody-Induced Vascular Toxicity Due to Off-Target Activation of Nitric Oxide in Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    PubMed

    Pai, Rama; Ma, Ning; Connor, Anu V; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Tarrant, Jacqueline M; Salvail, Dany; Wong, Lisa; Hartley, Dylan P; Misner, Dinah; Stefanich, Eric; Wu, Yan; Chen, Yongmei; Wang, Hong; Dambach, Donna M

    2016-06-01

    PRO304186, a humanized monoclonal antibody targeting soluble interleukin-17 A and F, was developed for autoimmune and inflammatory disease indications. When administered to cynomolgus monkeys PRO304186 induced unexpected adverse effects characterized by clinical signs of hematemesis, hematochezia, and moribundity. Pathology findings included hemorrhage throughout the gastrointestinal tract without any evidence of vascular wall damage or inflammatory cellular infiltration. Mechanistic investigation of these effects revealed mild elevations of serum MCP-1 and IL-12/23 but without a classical proinflammatory profile in PRO304186-treated animals. In vitro studies demonstrated off-target effects on vascular endothelial cells including activation of nitric oxide synthase leading to production of nitric oxide (NO) accompanied by increased mitochondrial membrane depolarization, glutathione depletion, and increased paracellular permeability. Additionally, endothelial cell-PRO304186-conditioned medium reduced myosin light chain phosphorylation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Furthermore, an ex vivo study utilizing segments from cynomolgus aorta and femoral artery confirmed PRO304186-induced endothelium-dependent smooth muscle relaxation and vasodilation mediated via NO. Finally, a single dose of PRO304186 in cynomolgus monkeys induced a rapid and pronounced increase in NO in the portal circulation that preceded a milder elevation of NO in the systemic circulation and corresponded temporally with systemic hypotension; findings consistent with NO-mediated vasodilation leading to hypotension. These changes were associated with non-inflammatory, localized hemorrhage in the gastrointestinal tract consistent with hemodynamic vascular injury associated with intense local vasodilation. Together, these data demonstrate that PRO304186-associated toxicity in monkeys was due to an off-target effect on endothelium that involved regional NO release resulting in severe systemic

  11. Barriers to Screening and Possibilities for Active Detection of Family Medicine Attendees Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    KOPČAVAR GUČEK, Nena; PETEK, Davorina; ŠVAB, Igor; SELIČ, Polona

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In 1996 the World Health Organization declared intimate partner violence (IPV) the most important public health problem. Meta-analyses in 2013 showed every third female globally had been a victim of violence. Experts find screening controversial; family medicine is the preferred environment for identifying victims of violence, but barriers on both sides prevent patients from discussing it with doctors. Methods In July 2014, a qualitative study was performed through semi-structured interviews with ten family doctors of different ages and gender, working in rural or urban environments. Sound recordings of the interviews were transcribed, and the record verified. The data were interpreted using content analysis. A coding scheme was developed and later verified and analysed by two independent researchers. The text of the interviews was analysed according to the coding scheme. Results Two coding schemes were developed: one for screening, and the other for the active detection of IPV. The main themes emerging as barriers to screening were lack of time, staff turnover, inadequate finance, ignorance of a clear definition, poor commitment to screening, obligatory follow-up, risk of deterioration of the doctor-patient relationship, and insincerity on the part of the patient. Additionally, cultural aspects of violence, uncertainty/ helplessness, fear, lack of competence and qualifications, autonomy/negative experience, and passive role/stigma/ fear on the part of the patients were barriers to active detection. Conclusion All the participating doctors had had previous experience with active detection of IPV and were aware of its importance. Due to several barriers to screening for violence they preferred active detection.

  12. Possible peroxidase active site environment in amyloidogenic proteins: Native monomer or misfolded-oligomer; which one is susceptible to the enzymatic activity, with contribution of heme?

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Reza; Ashrafi-Kooshk, Mohammad Reza; Khodarahmi, Sina; Ghadami, Seyyed Abolghasem; Mostafaie, Ali

    2015-09-01

    Amyloid states of many proteins complex with heme and exhibit significant non-specific peroxidase activity, compared to free heme. Neurotransmitter deficiency, generation of neurotoxins, altered activity/metabolism of key enzymes and cellular DNA damage are possible evidences highlighting the importance of the uncontrollable peroxidase activity in Alzheimer's disease (AD)-involved brain cells. Despite extensive experimental work was carried out on this field, discrepancy on chronological precedence of amyloid aggregation and oxidative reactions as well as the mechanism involved in the peroxidase-induced oxidative stress is still not completely understood. In this study, we highlight further that heme cofactor readily complexes with structural intermediates of amyloid aggregates of ovalbumin, lactoglobulin and crystallin and report the ability of "heme-amyloid aggregate/oligomer") to produce peroxidase-like active site. Histidine side chains are also proposed as both distal and proximal residues required for proper function of these peroxidase systems. Taking uncontrollable peroxidase activity of "Aβ-heme" complex into account, it appears that this process, as a new opened dimension in AD pathologic research, provides structural/mechanistic basis for more efficient therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26123814

  13. The possibly important role played by Ga2O3 during the activation of GaN photocathode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiaoqian; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju; Li, Zhiming; Cui, Shiyao; Zhang, Lejuan

    2015-08-01

    Three different chemical solutions are used to remove the possible contamination on GaN surface, while Ga2O3 is still found at the surface. After thermal annealing at 710 °C in the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber and activated with Cs/O, all the GaN samples are successfully activated to the effective negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathodes. Among all samples, the GaN sample with the highest content of Ga2O3 after chemical cleaning obtains the highest quantum efficiency. By analyzing the property of Ga2O3, the surface processing results, and electron affinity variations during Cs and Cs/O2 deposition on GaN of other groups, it is suggested that before the adsorption of Cs, Ga2O3 is not completely removed from GaN surface in our samples, which will combine with Cs and lead to a large decrease in electron affinity. Furthermore, the effective NEA is formed for GaN photocathode, along with the surface downward band bending. Based on this assumption, a new dipole model Ga2O3-Cs is suggested, and the experimental effects are explained and discussed.

  14. An ectonucleotide ATP-diphosphohydrolase activity in Trichomonas vaginalis stimulated by galactose and its possible role in virulence.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, José Batista; de Sá Pinheiro, Ana Acacia; Lopes, Angela H C S; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2002-01-01

    This work describes the ability of living Trichomonas vaginalis to hydrolyze extracellular ATP (164.0 +/- 13.9 nmol Pi/h x 10(7) cells). This ecto-enzyme was stimulated by ZnCl2, CaCl2 and MgCl2, was insensitive to several ATPase and phosphatase inhibitors and was able to hydrolyze several nucleotides besides ATP. The activity was linear with cell density and with time for at least 60 min. The optimum pH for the T. vaginalis ecto-ATPase lies in the alkaline range. D-galactose, known to be involved in adhesion of T. vaginalis to host cells, stimulated this enzyme by more than 90%. A comparison between two strains of T. vaginalis showed that the ecto-ATPase activity of a fresh isolate was twice as much as that of a strain axenically maintained in culture, through daily passages, for several years. The results suggest a possible role for this ecto-ATPase in adhesion of T. vaginalis to host cells and in its pathogenicity. PMID:12440729

  15. Mutagenicity, genotoxicity, and scavenging activities of extracts from the soft coral Chromonephthea braziliensis: a possibility of new bioactive compounds.

    PubMed

    Carpes, R M; Fleury, B G; Lages, B G; Pinto, A C; Aiub, C A F; Felzenszwalb, I

    2013-01-01

    Coral reefs are diverse ecosystems that have a high density of biodiversity leading to intense competition among species. These species may produce unknown substances, many with pharmacological value. Chromonephthea braziliensis is an invasive soft coral from the Indo-Pacific Ocean that is possibly transported by oil platforms and whose presence can be a threat to a region's biodiversity. This species produces secondary metabolites that are responsible for inducing damage to the local ecosystem. In the present study, extracts were prepared from dried colonies of C. braziliensis (solvents: hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol). We evaluated their mutagenicity using the Salmonella reverse mutation assay (TA97, TA98, TA100, and TA102 strains), their genotoxicity using the DNA breakage analysis and micronucleus assay, and scavenging activity using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-free radical assay. Cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were not observed for any of the extracts. Genotoxicity was observed for the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts at high concentrations, but no DNA damage was observed in the micronucleus assay. Scavenging activity was not detected. PMID:24085422

  16. Adult-onset hyperthyroidism impairs spatial learning: possible involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Bitiktaş, Soner; Kandemir, Başak; Tan, Burak; Kavraal, Şehrazat; Liman, Narin; Dursun, Nurcan; Dönmez-Altuntaş, Hamiyet; Aksan-Kurnaz, Işil; Suer, Cem

    2016-08-01

    Given evidence that mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation is part of the nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones, we investigated the possible consequences of hyperthyroidism for the cognitive functioning of adult rats. Young adult rats were treated with L-thyroxine or saline. Twenty rats in each group were exposed to Morris water maze testing, measuring their performance in a hidden-platform spatial task. In a separate set of rats not exposed to Morris water maze testing (untrained rats), the expression and phosphorylated levels of p38-MAPK and of its two downstream effectors, Elk-1 and cAMP response element-binding protein, were evaluated using quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR and western blotting. Rats with hyperthyroidism showed delayed acquisition of learning compared with their wild-type counterparts, as shown by increased escape latencies and distance moved on the last two trials of daily training in the water maze. The hyperthyroid rats, however, showed no difference during probe trials. Western blot analyses of the hippocampus showed that hyperthyroidism increased phosphorylated p38-MAPK levels in untrained rats. Although our study is correlative in nature and does not exclude the contribution of other molecular targets, our findings suggest that the observed impairments in acquisition during actual learning in rats with hyperthyroidism may result from the increased phosphorylation of p38-MAPK. PMID:27258653

  17. Solar activity as a possible cause of large forest fires--a case study: analysis of the Portuguese forest fires.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J F P; Radovanovic, M

    2008-05-01

    Fires of large dimension destroy forests, harvests and housing objects. Apart from that combustion products and burned surfaces become large ecological problems. Very often fires emerge simultaneously on different locations of a region so a question could be asked if they always have been a consequence of negligence, pyromania, high temperatures or maybe there has been some other cause. This paper is an attempt of establishing the possible connection between forest fires that numerous satellites registered and activities happening on the Sun immediately before fires ignite. Fires emerged on relatively large areas from Portugal and Spain on August 2005, as well as on other regions of Europe. The cases that have been analyzed show that, in every concrete situation, an emission of strong electromagnetic and thermal corpuscular energy from highly energetic regions that were in geo-effective position had preceded the fires. Such emissions have, usually, very high energy and high speeds of particles and come from coronary holes that also have been either in the very structure or in the immediate closeness of the geo-effective position. It should also be noted that the solar wind directed towards the Earth becomes weaker with deeper penetration towards the topographic surface. However, the results presented in this paper suggest that, there is a strong causality relationship between solar activity and the ignition of these forest fires taking place in South-western Europe. PMID:18291443

  18. A Scopus-Based Analysis of Publication Activity in Kazakhstan from 2010 to 2015: Positive Trends, Concerns, and Possible Solutions.

    PubMed

    Yessirkepov, Marlen; Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Anartayeva, Mariya

    2015-12-01

    The article analyzes the publication activity of scientific authors from Kazakhstan based on Scopus and SCImago Journal & Country Rank data from 2010 to 2015. The number of indexed multidisciplinary and medical articles from the country has been steadily growing from 2011 onward and this can be due to the adoption of the new Law on Science in that year. Several regulatory legal acts have been issued in recent years aimed at improving the quality of local journals and the international recognition of academic degrees and titles. Publication activity of scientific authors from Kazakhstan was found to be higher than that from other countries in the Central Asian region. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to the English language barrier, lack of indexing status of local journals, and poor topical education on science writing and editing. As such, the number of articles published in 'predatory' journals remains sizable, and there are concerns over authors' negligence and plagiarism. The global solution to the discussed problems may be achieved by educating researchers, authors, reviewers, and editors. PMID:26713071

  19. A Scopus-Based Analysis of Publication Activity in Kazakhstan from 2010 to 2015: Positive Trends, Concerns, and Possible Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Nurmashev, Bekaidar; Anartayeva, Mariya

    2015-01-01

    The article analyzes the publication activity of scientific authors from Kazakhstan based on Scopus and SCImago Journal & Country Rank data from 2010 to 2015. The number of indexed multidisciplinary and medical articles from the country has been steadily growing from 2011 onward and this can be due to the adoption of the new Law on Science in that year. Several regulatory legal acts have been issued in recent years aimed at improving the quality of local journals and the international recognition of academic degrees and titles. Publication activity of scientific authors from Kazakhstan was found to be higher than that from other countries in the Central Asian region. However, there are still many unresolved issues related to the English language barrier, lack of indexing status of local journals, and poor topical education on science writing and editing. As such, the number of articles published in 'predatory' journals remains sizable, and there are concerns over authors' negligence and plagiarism. The global solution to the discussed problems may be achieved by educating researchers, authors, reviewers, and editors. PMID:26713071

  20. Runaway electron generation as possible trigger for enhancement of magnetohydrodynamic plasma activity and fast changes in runaway beam behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Pankratov, I. M. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Zhou, R. J. E-mail: rjzhou@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, L. Q.

    2015-07-15

    Peculiar phenomena were observed during experiments with runaway electrons: rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signal (cyclotron radiation of suprathermal electrons). These phenomena were initially observed in TEXTOR (Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research), where these events only occurred in the current decay phase or in discharges with thin stable runaway beams at a q = 1 drift surface. These rapid changes in the synchrotron spot were interpreted by the TEXTOR team as a fast pitch angle scattering event. Recently, similar rapid changes in the synchrotron spot and its intensity that coincided with stepwise increases in the non-thermal ECE signal were observed in the EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) runaway discharge. Runaway electrons were located around the q = 2 rational magnetic surface (ring-like runaway electron beam). During the EAST runaway discharge, stepwise ECE signal increases coincided with enhanced magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity. This behavior was peculiar to this shot. In this paper, we show that these non-thermal ECE step-like jumps were related to the abrupt growth of suprathermal electrons induced by bursting electric fields at reconnection events during this MHD plasma activity. Enhancement of the secondary runaway electron generation also occurred simultaneously. Local changes in the current-density gradient appeared because of local enhancement of the runaway electron generation process. These current-density gradient changes are considered to be a possible trigger for enhancement of the MHD plasma activity and the rapid changes in runaway beam behavior.

  1. Antimanic-like activity of candesartan in mice: Possible involvement of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    de Souza Gomes, Júlia Ariana; de Souza, Greicy Coelho; Berk, Michael; Cavalcante, Lígia Menezes; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F; Budni, Josiane; de Lucena, David Freitas; Quevedo, João; Carvalho, André F; Macêdo, Danielle

    2015-11-01

    Activation of the brain angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) triggers pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory mechanisms which are involved in the neurobiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Candesartan (CDS) is an AT1 receptor antagonist with potential neuroprotective properties. Herein we investigated CDS effects against oxidative, neurotrophic inflammatory and cognitive effects of amphetamine (AMPH)-induced mania. In the reversal protocol adult mice were given AMPH 2 mg/kg i.p. or saline and between days 8 and 14 received CDS 0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg orally, lithium (Li) 47.5 mg/kg i.p., or saline. In the prevention treatment, mice were pretreated with CDS, Li or saline prior to AMPH. Locomotor activity and working memory performance were assessed. Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and TNF-α levels were evaluated in the hippocampus (HC) and cerebellar vermis (CV). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3beta) levels were measured in the HC. CDS and Li prevented and reversed the AMPH-induced increases in locomotor activity. Only CDS prevented and reversed AMPH-induced working memory deficits. CDS prevented AMPH-induced alterations in GSH (HC and CV), TBARS (HC and CV), TNF-α (HC and CV) and BDNF (HC) levels. Li prevented alterations in BDNF and phospho-Ser9-GSK3beta. CDS reversed AMPH-induced alterations in GSH (HC and CV), TBARS (HC), TNF-α (CV) and BDNF levels. Li reversed AMPH-induced alterations in TNF-α (HC and CV) and BDNF (HC) levels. CDS is effective in reversing and preventing AMPH-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations, providing a rationale for the design of clinical trials investigating CDS׳s possible therapeutic effects. PMID:26321203

  2. NF-kappaB activity affects learning in aversive tasks: possible actions via modulation of the stress axis.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Michael L; Brachman, Rebecca A; Listwak, Samuel J; Herkenham, Miles

    2010-08-01

    The role of altered activity of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) in specific aspects of motivated behavior and learning and memory was examined in mice lacking the p50 subunit of the NF-kappaB/rel transcription factor family. Nfkb1-deficient mice are unable to produce p50 and show specific susceptibilities to infections and inflammatory challenges, but the behavioral phenotype of such mice has been largely unexamined, owing in large part to the lack of understanding of the role of NF-kappaB in nervous system function. Here we show that Nfkb1 (p50) knockout mice more rapidly learned to find the hidden platform in the Morris water maze than did wildtype mice. The rise in plasma corticosterone levels after the maze test was greater in p50 knockout than in wildtype mice. In the less stressful Barnes maze, which tests similar kinds of spatial learning, the p50 knockout mice performed similarly to control mice. Adrenalectomy with corticosterone replacement eliminated the differences between p50 knockout and wildtype mice in the water maze. Knockout mice showed increased levels of basal anxiety in the open-field and light/dark box tests, suggesting that their enhanced escape latency in the water maze was due to activation of the stress (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal) axis leading to elevated corticosterone production by strongly but not mildly anxiogenic stimuli. The results suggest that, as in the immune system, p50 in the nervous system normally serves to dampen NF-kappaB-mediated intracellular activities, which are manifested physiologically through elevated stress responses to aversive stimuli and behaviorally in the facilitated escape performance in learning tasks. PMID:20399847

  3. A Continuing Analysis of Possible Activity Drivers for the Enigmatic Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambeau, Charles Alfred; Fernandez, Yanga; Samarasinha, Nalin; Sarid, Gal; Mueller, Beatrice; Meech, Karen; Woodney, Laura

    2015-11-01

    We present results from our continuing effort to understand activity drivers in Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (SW1). While being in a nearly circular orbit around 6 AU, SW1 is continuously active and experiences frequent outbursts. Our group’s effort is focusing on finding constraints on physical and dynamical properties of SW1’s nucleus and their incorporation into a thermophysical model [1,2] to explain this behavior. Now we are analyzing coma morphology of SW1 before, during, and after outburst to place constraints on the spin-pole direction, spin period, and surface areas of activity (a spin period lower limit has been measured). Also, we are using the thermal model to investigate if the continuous activity comes from one or multiple processes, such as the release of trapped supervolatiles during the amorphous to crystalline (A-C) water ice phase transition and/or the direct sublimation of pockets of supervolatile ices, which may be primordial or from the condensation of gases released during the A-C phase transition. To explain the possibly quasi-periodic but frequent outbursts, we are looking into subsurface cavities where internal pressures can build, reaching and exceeding surrounding material strengths [3,4] and/or thermal waves reaching a pocket of supervolatile ices, causing a rapid increase in the sublimation rate. For all these phenomena, the model is constrained by comparing the output dust mass loss rate and its variability with what has been observed through optical imaging of the comet at various points in its orbit. We will present preliminary thermal modeling of a homogeneous progenitor nucleus that evolves into a body showing internal material layering, the generation of CO and CO2 ice pockets, and the production of outbursts, thus bringing us closer to explaining the behavior of this intriguing comet.[1] Sarid, G., et al.: 2005, PASP, 117, 843. [2] Sarid, G.: 2009, PhD Thesis, Tel Aviv Univ. [3] Gronkowski, P., 2014, Astron. Nachr./AN 2

  4. A Continuing Analysis of Possible Activity Drivers for the Enigmatic Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schambeau, Charles; Fernández, Yanga; Samarasinha, Nalin H.; Mueller, Beatrice E. A.; Sarid, Gal; Meech, Karen Jean; Woodney, Laura

    2016-01-01

    We present results from our effort to understand activity drivers in Comet 29P/Schwassmann-Wachmann 1 (SW1). In a nearly circular orbit around 6 AU, outside of the water-sublimation zone, SW1 is continuously active and experiences frequent outbursts. Our group's effort is focusing on finding constraints on physical and dynamical properties of SW1's nucleus and their incorporation into a thermophysical model [1,2] to explain this behavior. We are currently analyzing coma morphology of SW1 before, during, and after outburst placing constraints on the spin-pole direction, spin period, and surface areas of activity. In addition, we are using the thermal model to investigate if the continuous activity comes from one or multiple processes, such as the release of trapped supervolatiles during the amorphous to crystalline (A-C) water ice phase transition and/or the direct sublimation of pockets of supervolatile ices. The supervolatile ices may be primordial or from the condensation of gases released during the A-C phase transition. To explain the possibly quasi-periodic but frequent outbursts, we are looking into subsurface cavities where internal pressures can build, reaching and exceeding surrounding material strengths [3,4] and/or thermal waves reaching a pocket of supervolatile ices, causing a rapid increase in the sublimation rate. For all these phenomena, the model is constrained by comparing the output dust mass loss rate and its variability with what has been observed through optical imaging of the comet at various points in its orbit. We will present preliminary thermal modeling of a homogeneous progenitor nucleus that evolves into a body showing internal material layering, the generation of CO and CO2 ice pockets, and the production of outbursts, thus bringing us closer to explaining the behavior of this intriguing comet. [1] Sarid, G., et al.: 2005, PASP, 117, 843. [2] Sarid, G.: 2009, PhD Thesis, Tel Aviv Univ. [3] Gronkowski, P., 2014, Astron. Nachr./AN 2, No

  5. Hydroxy-α sanshool induces colonic motor activity in rat proximal colon: a possible involvement of KCNK9.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kunitsugu; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Mase, Akihito; Imamura, Sachiko; Sudo, Yuka; Miyano, Kanako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Various colonic motor activities are thought to mediate propulsion and mixing/absorption of colonic content. The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100), which is widely used for postoperative ileus in Japan, accelerates colonic emptying in healthy humans. Hydroxy-α sanshool (HAS), a readily absorbable active ingredient of TU-100 and a KCNK3/KCNK9/KCNK18 blocker as well as TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, has been investigated for its effects on colonic motility. Motility was evaluated by intraluminal pressure and video imaging of rat proximal colons in an organ bath. Distribution of KCNKs was investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Current and membrane potential were evaluated with use of recombinant KCNK3- or KCNK9-expressing Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Defecation frequency in rats was measured. HAS dose dependently induced strong propulsive "squeezing" motility, presumably as long-distance contraction (LDC). TRPV1/TRPA1 agonists induced different motility patterns. The effect of HAS was unaltered by TRPV1/TRPA1 antagonists and desensitization. Lidocaine (a nonselective KCNK blocker) and hydroxy-β sanshool (a geometrical isomer of HAS and KCNK3 blocker) also induced colonic motility as a rhythmic propagating ripple (RPR) and a LDC-like motion, respectively. HAS-induced "LDC," but not lidocaine-induced "RPR," was abrogated by a neuroleptic agent tetrodotoxin. KCNK3 and KCNK9 were located mainly in longitudinal smooth muscle cells and in neural cells in the myenteric plexus, respectively. Administration of HAS or TU-100 increased defecation frequency in normal and laparotomy rats. HAS may evoke strong LDC possibly via blockage of the neural KCNK9 channel in the colonic myenteric plexus. PMID:25634809

  6. Hydrothermal activity at Campi Flegrei caldera: rock mechanical properties and implications for outgassing and possible phreatic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, K.; Montanaro, C.; Scheu, B.; Isaia, R.; Mangiacapra, A.; Gresse, M.; Vandemeulebrouck, J.; Moretti, R.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles are the main surface manifestations of the vigorous hydrothermal activity within the Campi Flegrei caldera system. The existing fault system appears to have a major control on outgassing and leads to a strong alteration of the volcanic products in both areas. Consistent with the volcanic history of the area, Solfatara and Pisciarelli are posited as having the highest probability for the opening of new vents, and in particular for possible phreatic activity within the Campi Flegrei system. Hydrothermal alteration deeply affects all the rocks exposed within Solfatara sector, including lava domes, breccias, as well as pyroclastic fallout ash beds and pyroclastic density current deposits. This results in changes of the volcanic rock's original microstructure and of their physical and mechanical properties, which in turn control both the outgassing and their fragmentation behaviors. Here, samples from the wall rocks in the vicinity of the Solfatara and Pisciarelli fumaroles have been subjected to geochemical, physical and mechanical properties characterization. In addition, surficial Solfatara crater floor deposits were characterized and their properties, in particular permeability, were mapped. Results show that hydrothermal alteration increases porosity and permeability of the crater wall samples favoring outgassing, while decreasing the rock strength. At the crater floor the outgassing occurs mainly along the crack system, which has also generated crusted hummocks. Elsewhere the fluid circulation in the subsoil is favored by the presence of coarse and sulfur-hardened levels, whereas their surfacing is hindered by compacted fine-grained, low permeability layers. Decompression experiments were performed to simulate a phreatic eruption at shallow depth. We used crater-wall samples representing the rocks in the proximity of high degassing areas. Changes in the fragmentation behavior and ejection dynamics, depending on the

  7. Tiber delta CO2-CH4 degassing: A possible hybrid, tectonically active Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System near Rome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotoli, G.; Etiope, G.; Marra, F.; Florindo, F.; Giraudi, C.; Ruggiero, L.

    2016-01-01

    Fiumicino town in the Tiber River delta, near Rome International Airport (Italy), is historically affected by large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the ground and gas eruptions triggered by shallow drilling. While it is known that CO2 originates from carbonate thermometamorphism and/or mantle degassing, the origin of methane (CH4) associated with CO2 is uncertain and the outgassing spatial distribution is unknown. Combining isotope gas geochemistry, soil gas, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, we provide evidence for a hybrid fluid source system, classifiable as Sediment-Hosted Geothermal System (SHGS), where biotic CH4 from sedimentary rocks is carried by deep geothermic CO2 through active segments of a half-graben. Molecular and isotopic composition of CH4 and concentration of heavier alkanes (ethane and propane), obtained from gas vents and soil gas throughout the delta area, reveal that thermogenic CH4 (up to 3.7 vol% in soil gas; δ13CCH4: -37 to -40‰ VPDB-Vienna Peedee Belemnite, and δ2HCH4: -162 to -203‰ VSMOW - Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water in gas vents) prevails over possible microbial and abiotic components. The hydrocarbons likely result from known Meso-Cenozoic petroleum systems of the Latium Tyrrhenian coast. Overmaturation of source rocks or molecular fractionation induced by gas migration are likely responsible for increased C1/C2+ ratios. CO2 and CH4 soil gas anomalies are scattered along NW-SE and W-E alignments, which, based on borehole, geomorphologic, and structural-stratigraphic analyses, coincide with active faults of a half-graben that seems to have controlled the recent evolution of the Tiber delta. This SHGS can be a source of considerable greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere and hazards for humans and buildings.

  8. Observed inflation-deflation cycles at Popocatepetl volcano using tiltmeters and its possible correlation with regional seismic activity in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Ruiz Esparza, M. G., Sr.; Jimenez Velazquez, J. C., Sr.; Valdes Gonzalez, C. M., Sr.; Reyes Pimentel, T. A.; Galaviz Alonso, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Popocatepetl, the smoking mountain, is a stratovolcano located in central Mexico with an elevation of 5450 masl. The active volcano, close to some of the largest urban centers in Mexico - 60 km and 30 km far from Mexico City and Puebla, respectively - poses a high hazard to an estimated population of 500 thousand people living in the vicinity of the edifice. Accordingly, in July 1994 the Popocatepetl Volcanological Observatory (POVO) was established. The observatory is operated and supported by the National Center for Disaster Prevention of Mexico (CENAPRED), and is equipped to fully monitor different aspects of the volcanic activity. Among the instruments deployed, we use in this investigation two tiltmometers and broad-band seismometers at two sites (Chipiquixtle and Encinos), which send the information gathered continuously to Mexico City.In this research, we study the characteristics of the tiltmeters signals minutes after the occurrence of certain earthquakes. The Popocatepetl volcano starts inflation-deflation cycles due to the ground motion generated by events located at certain regions. We present the analysis of the tiltmeters and seismic signals of all the earthquakes (Mw>5) occurred from January 2013 to June 2014, recorded at Chipiquixtle and Encinos stations. First, we measured the maximum tilt variation after each earthquake. Next, we apply a band-pass filter for different frequency ranges to the seismic signals of the two seismic stations, and estimated the total energy of the strong motion phase of the seismic record. Finally, we compared both measurements and observed that the maximum tilt variations were occurring when the maximum total energy of the seismic signals were in a specific frequency range. We also observed that the earthquake records that have the maximum total energy in that frequency range were the ones with a epicentral location south-east of the volcano. We conclude that our observations can be used set the ground for an early

  9. Hesperidin inhibits collagen-induced arthritis possibly through suppression of free radical load and reduction in neutrophil activation and infiltration.

    PubMed

    Umar, Sadiq; Kumar, Anubhav; Sajad, Mir; Zargan, Jamil; Ansari, Meraj; Ahmad, Sayeed; Katiyar, Chandra Kant; Khan, Haider A

    2013-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by the destruction of articular cartilage and bone in a chronic phase. Pathology of rheumatoid arthritis suggests autoimmunity linked to inflammation. In our study, rheumatoid arthritis was induced in Wistar rats by intradermal injections of 100 μl of emulsion containing bovine type II collagen in complete Freund's adjuvant at the base of the tail. Disease developed about 13 ± 1 days after immunization and treatment with hesperidin (HES) at a dose of 160 mg kg(-1) body weight was given after onset of disease daily until 20th day. The effect of treatment in the rats was monitored by clinical scoring, biochemical parameters and histological evaluations in joints. A steady increase in the articular elastase, nitric oxide and lipid peroxidation was observed in joints of arthritic rats as compared to control, whereas a significant decrease in reduced glutathione, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase was observed in collagen-induced arthritis rats as compared to control group. The results from the present work indicate that the treatment with hesperidin was effective in bringing about significant changes on all the parameters studied in collagen-induced arthritis rats. These data confirm that erosive destruction of the joint cartilage in collagen-induced arthritis is due free radicals released by activated neutrophils and produced by other biochemical pathways. In the present study, an attempt has been made to amelioration of the disease process by a natural product. These results suggest that oral administration of HES could be effective for treating human RA patients. PMID:22527139

  10. Effects of lead and natriuretic hormone on kinetics of sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase: possible relevance to hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, E; Khalil-Manesh, F; Gonick, H

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of vascular smooth muscle sodium-potassium-activated adenosine triphosphatase (Na-K-ATPase) has been postulated as a central mechanism in enhancing vascular contractility. In the present study, kinetics of inhibition of Na-K-ATPase by lead, ouabain, and natriuretic hormone (NH) was studied in a purified hog cerebral cortex enzyme preparation. Determination of I50 values for lead, ouabain, and NH revealed that NH is the most potent inhibitor of the enzyme system (0.8 x 10(-6) M ouabain equivalents). Kinetic analyses indicated that lead and NH exhibited different inhibitory mechanisms. The inhibition by lead was noncompetitive with respect to potassium and competitive with respect to sodium and MgATP. Natriuretic hormone was noncompetitive with respect to potassium, uncompetitive with respect to MgATP, and exhibited no inhibitory effect with respect to sodium. Synergism between lead and NH in the inhibition of Na-K-ATPase raises the possibility that lead may be a contributory factor in hypertension via this mechanism. PMID:2849538

  11. Effect of cyclosporin A and analogues on cytosolic calcium and vasoconstriction: possible lack of relationship to immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed Central

    Lo Russo, A.; Passaquin, A. C.; André, P.; Skutella, M.; Rüegg, U. T.

    1996-01-01

    1. The full therapeutic potential of the main immunosuppressive drug, cyclosporin A (CsA), is limited because of its side effects, namely nephrotoxicity and hypertension. Several lines of evidence suggest that the origin of both side effects could be CsA-induced vasoconstriction. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. 2. Diameter measurements of rat isolated mesenteric arteries showed an increase in noradrenaline- and [Arg]8vasopressin-induced vasoconstriction when arteries were pretreated with CsA. 3. Measurements in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) of either cytosolic calcium concentration or of 45Ca2+ efflux showed that CsA potentiated the calcium influx to several vasoconstrictor hormones: [Arg]8vasopressin, angiotensin II, endothelin-1 and 5-hydroxytryptamine. On the other hand, 45Ca2+ efflux in response to thapsigargin, which depletes calcium from intracellular pools, was not potentiated by CsA. 45Ca2+ uptake was not altered by CsA or by any of the analogues tested. 4. Time-course studies in cultured VSMC showed that maximal CsA-induced Ca2+ potentiation occurred after ca. 20 h and this effect was reversed over approximately the next 20 h. 5. To investigate the possible role played by the known intracellular targets of CsA, namely cyclophilin and calcineurin, CsA derivatives with variable potencies with respect to their immunosuppressive activity, were tested on the calcium influx to [Arg]8vasopressin. Derivatives devoid of immunosuppressive activity (cyclosporin H, PSC-833) potentiated calcium signalling, while the potent immunosuppressant, FK520, a close derivative of FK506, and MeVal4CsA, an antagonist of the immunosuppressive effect of CsA did not. The latter compound was unable to reverse the calcium potentiating effect of CsA. 6. Our results show that CsA increases the calcium influx to vasoconstrictor hormones in smooth muscle cells, which presumably increases vasoconstriction. Loading of the intracellular

  12. Impairment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain activity in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat hepatomas: possible involvement of oxygen free radicals.

    PubMed

    Boitier, E; Merad-Boudia, M; Guguen-Guillouzo, C; Defer, N; Ceballos-Picot, I; Leroux, J P; Marsac, C

    1995-07-15

    Alterations in the energy metabolism of cancer cells have been reported for many years. However, the deleterious mechanisms involved in these deficiencies have not yet been clearly proved. The main goal of this study was to decipher the harmful mechanisms responsible for the respiratory chain deficiencies in the course of diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis, where mitochondrial DNA abnormalities had been previously reported. The respiratory activity of freshly isolated hepatoma mitochondria, assessed by oxygen consumption experiments and enzymatic assays, presented a severe complex I deficiency 19 months after DENA treatment, and later on, in addition, a defective complex III activity. Since respiratory complex subunits are encoded by both nuclear and mitochondrial genes, we checked whether the respiratory chain defects were due to impaired synthesis processes. The specific immunodetection of complex I failed to show any alterations in the steady-state levels of both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded subunits in the hepatomas. Moreover, in vitro protein synthesis experiments carried out on freshly isolated hepatoma mitochondria did not bring to light any modifications in the synthesis of the mitochondrial subunits of the respiratory complexes, whatever the degree of tumor progression. Finally, Southern blot analysis of mitochondrial DNA did not show any major mitochondrial DNA rearrangements in DENA-induced hepatomas. Because the synthetic processes of respiratory complexes did not seem to be implicated in the respiratory chain impairment, these deficiencies could be partly ascribed to a direct toxic impact of highly reactive molecules on these complexes, thus impairing their function. The mitochondrial respiratory chain is an important generator of noxious, reactive oxygen free radicals such as superoxide and H2O2, which are normally catabolized by powerful antioxidant scavengers. Nineteen months after DENA treatment, a general collapse of

  13. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC.

    PubMed

    Occhi, Gianluca; Barollo, Susi; Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-10-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice. PMID:26392334

  14. DEEP, LOW-MASS RATIO OVERCONTACT BINARY SYSTEMS. XII. CK BOOTIS WITH POSSIBLE CYCLIC MAGNETIC ACTIVITY AND ADDITIONAL COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y.-G.; Qian, S.-B.; Soonthornthum, B. E-mail: qsb@ynao.ac.cn

    2012-05-15

    We present precision CCD photometry, a period study, and a two-color simultaneous Wilson code solution of the short-period contact binary CK Bootis. The asymmetric light curves were modeled by a dark spot on the primary component. The result identifies that CK Boo is an A-type W UMa binary with a high fillout of f = 71.7({+-} 4.4)%. From the O - C curve, it is found that the orbital period changes in a complicated mode, i.e., a long-term increase with two sinusoidal variations. One cyclic oscillation with a period of 10.67({+-} 0.20) yr may result from magnetic activity cycles, which are identified by the variability of Max. I - Max. II. Another sinusoidal variation (i.e., A = 0.0131 days({+-} 0.0009 days) and P{sub 3} = 24.16({+-} 0.64) yr) may be attributed to the light-time effect due to a third body. This kind of additional companion can extract angular momentum from the central binary system. The orbital period secularly increases at a rate of dP/dt = +9.79 ({+-}0.80) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -8} days yr{sup -1}, which may be interpreted by conservative mass transfer from the secondary to the primary. This kind of deep, low-mass ratio overcontact binaries may evolve into a rapid-rotating single star, only if the contact configuration do not break down at J{sub spin} > (1/3)J{sub orb}.

  15. Thromboxane-insensitive dog platelets have impaired activation of phospholipase C due to receptor-linked G protein dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, G J; Leis, L A; Dunlop, P C

    1993-01-01

    Human platelet thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 (TXA2/PGH2) receptors are linked to phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) via a G protein tentatively identified as a member of the Gq class. In contrast, platelet thrombin receptors appear to activate PI-PLC via other unidentified G proteins. Platelets from most dogs are TXA2 insensitive (TXA2-); i.e., they do not aggregate irreversibly or secrete although they bind TXA2, but they respond normally to thrombin. In contrast, a minority of dogs have TXA2-sensitive (TXA2+) platelets that are responsive to TXA2. To determine the mechanism responsible for TXA2- platelets, we evaluated receptor activation of PI-PLC. Equilibrium binding of TXA2/PGH2 receptor agonists, [125I]BOP and [3H]U46619, and antagonist, [3H]SQ29,548, revealed comparable high-affinity binding to TXA2-, TXA2+, and human platelets. U46619-induced PI-PLC activation was impaired in TXA2- platelets as evidenced by reduced (a) phosphorylation of the 47-kD substrate of protein kinase C, (b) phosphatidic acid (PA) formation, (c) rise in cytosolic calcium concentration, and (d) inositol 1,4,5 trisphosphate (IP3) formation, while thrombin-induced PI-PLC activation was not impaired. GTPase activity stimulated by U46619, but not by thrombin, was markedly reduced in TXA2- platelets. Antisera to Gq class alpha subunits abolished U46619-induced GTPase activity in TXA2-, TXA2+, and human platelets. Direct G protein stimulation by GTP gamma S yielded significantly less PA and IP3 in TXA2- platelets. Immunotransfer blotting revealed comparable quantities of Gq class alpha-subunits in all three platelet types. Thus, TXA2- dog platelets have impaired PI-PLC activation in response to TXA2/PGH2 receptor agonists secondary to G protein dysfunction, presumably involving a member of the Gq class. Images PMID:8227362

  16. Changes in the activation and function of the ankle plantar flexor muscles due to gait retraining in chronic stroke survivors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A common goal of persons post-stroke is to regain community ambulation. The plantar flexor muscles play an important role in propulsion generation and swing initiation as previous musculoskeletal simulations have shown. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that simulation results quantifying changes in plantar flexor activation and function in individuals post-stroke were consistent with (1) the purpose of an intervention designed to enhance plantar flexor function and (2) expected muscle function during gait based on previous literature. Methods Three-dimensional, forward dynamic simulations were created to determine the changes in model activation and function of the paretic ankle plantar flexor muscles for eight patients post-stroke after a 12-weeks FastFES gait retraining program. Results An median increase of 0.07 (Range [−0.01,0.22]) was seen in simulated activation averaged across all plantar flexors during the double support phase of gait from pre- to post-intervention. A concurrent increase in walking speed and plantar flexor induced forward center of mass acceleration by the plantar flexors was seen post-intervention for seven of the eight subject simulations. Additionally, post-training, the plantar flexors had an simulated increase in contribution to knee flexion acceleration during double support. Conclusions For the first time, muscle-actuated musculoskeletal models were used to simulate the effect of a gait retraining intervention on post-stroke muscle model predicted activation and function. The simulations showed a new pattern of simulated activation for the plantar flexor muscles after training, suggesting that the subjects activated these muscles with more appropriate timing following the intervention. Functionally, simulations calculated that the plantar flexors provided greater contribution to knee flexion acceleration after training, which is important for increasing swing phase knee flexion and foot clearance. PMID

  17. Interruption pf physcial activity due to illness in the Lifestyle Interventions and Indepencence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) was a trial to examine the effects of physical activity (PA) compared to a health education control on measures of disability in sedentary older adults. Medical suspensions were examined for the first 12 months of the trial in th...

  18. Antiviral activity and possible mode of action of ellagic acid identified in Lagerstroemia speciosa leaves toward human rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cause billions of USD annually in medical visits and school and work absenteeism. An assessment was made of the cytotoxic and antiviral activities and possible mode of action of the tannin ellagic acid from the leaves of Lagerstroemia speciosa toward HeLa cells and three rhinoviruses, HRV-2, -3, and -4. Methods The antiviral property and mechanism of action of ellagic acid were evaluated using a sulforhodamine B assay and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) with SYBR Green dye. Results were compared with those of the currently used broad-spectrum antiviral agent, ribavirin. Results As judged by 50% inhibitory concentration values, natural ellagic acid was 1.8, 2.3, and 2.2 times more toxic toward HRV-2 (38 μg/mL), HRV-3 (31 μg/mL), and HRV-4 (29 μg/mL) than ribavirin, respectively. The inhibition rate of preincubation with 50 μg/mL ellagic acid was 17%, whereas continuous presence of ellagic acid during infection led to a significant increase in the inhibition (70%). Treatment with 50 μg/mL ellagic acid considerably suppressed HRV-4 infection only when added just after the virus inoculation (0 h) (87% inhibition), but not before -1 h or after 1 h or later (<20% inhibition). These findings suggest that ellagic acid does not interact with the HRV-4 particles and may directly interact with the human cells in the early stage of HRV infections to protect the cells from the virus destruction. Furthermore, RT-PCR analysis revealed that 50 μg/mL ellagic acid strongly inhibited the RNA replication of HRV-4 in HeLa cells, suggesting that ellagic acid inhibits virus replication by targeting on cellular molecules, rather than virus molecules. Conclusions Global efforts to reduce the level of antibiotics justify further studies on L. speciosa leaf-derived materials containing ellagic acid as potential anti-HRV products or a lead molecule for the

  19. [Good practice in occupational health services: prophylactic care and occupational activation of people with disabilities due to respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Wiszniewska, Marta; Tymoszuk, Diana; Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Wagrowska-Koski, Ewa; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a cause of long-term sickness absence, and even of partial or complete inability to work. This paper presents the first in Poland description of principles of good practice in occupational health service provided for people with respiratory diseases. The issues concerning the certification of the ability to work in this group of patients are discussed. The key-principles of preventive care of workers with obstructive and interstitial lung diseases with particular attention paid to the control of major risk factors are also presented. The importance of possible contraindications for job performance by workers affected by these diseases, as well as the responsibilities of occupational health physicians were highlighted. M PMID:24261254

  20. Theoretical Model of Drag Force Impact on a Model International Space Station (ISS) Satellite due to Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the single largest and most complex scientific and engineering space structure in human history. Its orbital parameters make it extremely vulnerable to severe atmospheric drag force. Complex interactions between solar energetic particles, ultraviolet (UV) radiation with atmosphere and geomagnetic field cause heating and subsequent expansion of the upper atmosphere. This condition increases drag on low Earth orbit satellites (LEOSs) and varies with current space weather conditions. In this work, we apply the NRLMSISE-00 empirical atmospheric density model, as a function of space environmental parameters, to model drag force impact on a model LEOS during variation of solar activity. Applying the resulting drag model on a model ISS satellite we observe that depending on the severity and/or stage of solar activity or cycle, a massive artificial satellite could experience orbit decay rate of up to 2.95km/month during solar maximum and up to 1km/month during solar minimum.

  1. Oleanolic acid attenuates obstructive cholestasis in bile duct-ligated mice, possibly via activation of NRF2-MRPs and FXR antagonism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pan; Li, Jingjie; Fan, Xiaomei; Zeng, Hang; Deng, Rongrong; Li, Dongshun; Huang, Min; Bi, Huichang

    2015-10-15

    Obstructive cholestasis is characterized by impairment of hepatic canalicular bile efflux and there are no clinically effective drugs to cure except surgeries. Previously we revealed that oleanolic acid (OA) protected against lithocholic acid (LCA)-induced intrahepatic cholestasis in mice. Cholestasis caused by LCA is characterized by segmental bile duct obstruction, whether OA possesses the beneficial effect on completed obstructive cholestasis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL) remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that BDL-induced mice liver pathological change, and increase in serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP were all significantly reduced by OA (20 mg/kg, i.p.). Meanwhile, OA also lowered total bilirubin and total bile acids levels in serum, as well as total bile acids level in liver, in contrast, urinary total bile acids output was remarkably up-regulated by OA. Gene expression analysis showed that OA caused significant increased mRNA expression of MRP3 and MRP4 located at hepatic basolateral membrane, and restoration of MRP2 and BSEP located at hepatic cannalicular membrane. Furthermore, significant NRF2 protein accumulation in nucleus was also observed in OA treated mice. In mice primary cultured hepatocytes, the effects of OA on MRP2, MRP3 and MRP4 expression were directly proved to be mediated via NRF2 activation, and BSEP downregulation induced by OA was in part due to FXR antagonism. Luciferase assay performed in Hep G2 cells also illustrated that OA was a partial FXR antagonist. Taken together, we conclude that OA attenuates obstructive cholestasis in BDL mice, possibly via activation of NRF2-MRPs and FXR antagonism. PMID:26297978

  2. Optical Modeling Activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). 3; Wavefront Aberrations due to Alignment and Figure Compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    This is part three of a series describing the ongoing optical modeling activities for James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients. The work here investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The optical design of the telescope is a three-mirror anastigmat, with an active fold mirror at the exit pupil for fine guiding. The primary mirror is over 6.5 meters in diameter, and is composed of 18 hexagonal segments that can individually positioned on hexapods, as well as compensated for radius of curvature. This effectively gives both alignment and figure control of the primary mirror. The secondary mirror can be moved in rigid body only, giving alignment control of the telescope. The tertiary mirror is fixed, however, as well as the location of the science instrumentation. Simulations are performed of various combinations of active alignment corrections of component figure errors, and of primary mirror figure corrections of alignment errors. Single field point and moderate field knowledge is assumed in the corrections. Aberrations over the field are reported for the varying cases, and examples presented.

  3. Study of the function of sarcoplasmic reticulum of vascular smooth muscle during activation due to depolarization-induced calcium influx

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in vascular smooth muscle was evaluated with respect to regulation of myoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} during the Ca{sup 2+} entry induced by depolarization. Calcium agonist, Bay K8644, stimulated Ca{sup 2+} influx as well as tension in physiological salt solution, (PSS) in contrast to the priming effects due to the depolarization originally reported. Disparity, however, was found between the Ca{sup 2+} entered and tension developed. Correlation between the tension and {sup 45}Ca influx showed a typical threshold phenomenon; the basal Ca{sup 2+} influx can be raised to a certain level (25%) without tension induction, after which a minor increase in Ca{sup 2+} influx produced significant tension. This subthreshold Ca{sup 2+} influx was found accumulated in the caffeine-sensitive Ca stores, the SR. This confirmed the dependency of tension on the rate of Ca{sup 2+} entry demonstrated by a previous report.

  4. Ruthenium Dihydroxybipyridine Complexes are Tumor Activated Prodrugs Due to Low pH and Blue Light Induced Ligand Release

    PubMed Central

    Hufziger, Kyle T.; Thowfeik, Fathima Shazna; Charboneau, David J.; Nieto, Ismael; Dougherty, William G.; Kassel, W. Scott; Dudley, Timothy J.; Merino, Edward J.; Papish, Elizabeth T.; Paul, Jared J.

    2013-01-01

    Ruthenium drugs are potent anti-cancer agents, but inducing drug selectivity and enhancing their modest activity remain challenging. Slow Ru ligand loss limits the formation of free sites and subsequent binding to DNA base pairs. Herein, we designed a ligand that rapidly dissociates upon irradiation at low pH. Activation at low pH can lead to cancer selectivity, since many cancer cells have higher metabolism (and thus lower pH) than non-cancerous cells. We have used the pH sensitive ligand, 6,6′-dihydroxy-2,2′-bipyridine (66′bpy(OH)2), to generate [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, which contains two acidic hydroxyl groups with pKa1 = 5.26 and pKa2 = 7.27. Irradiation when protonated leads to photo-dissociation of the 66′bpy(OH)2 ligand. An in-depth study of the structural and electronic properties of the complex was carried out using X-Ray crystallography, electrochemistry, UV/visible spectroscopy, and computational techniques. Notably, Ru-N bond lengths in the 66′bpy(OH)2 complex are longer (by ~0.3 Å) than in polypyridyl complexes that lack 6 and 6′ substitution. Thus, the longer bond length predisposes the complex for photo-dissociation and leads to the anti-cancer activity. When the complex is deprotonated, the 66′bpy(O−)2 ligand molecular orbitals mix heavily with the ruthenium orbitals, making new mixed metal-ligand orbitals that lead to a higher bond order. We investigated the anti-cancer activities of [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, [Ru(bpy)2(44′(bpy(OH)2)]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ (44′(bpy(OH)2 = 4,4′-dihydroxy-2,2′-bipyridine) in HeLa cells, which have a relatively low pH. It is found that [Ru(bpy)2(66′(bpy(OH)2)]2+ is more cytotoxic than the other ruthenium complexes studied. Thus, we have identified a pH sensitive ruthenium scaffold that can be exploited for photo-induced anti-cancer activity. PMID:24184694

  5. Inversed relationship between CD44 variant and c-Myc due to oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Go J. Saya, Hideyuki

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •CD44 variant8–10 and c-Myc are inversely expressed in gastric cancer cells. •Redox-stress enhances c-Myc expression via canonical Wnt signal. •CD44v, but not CD44 standard, suppresses redox stress-induced Wnt activation. •CD44v expression promotes both transcription and proteasome degradation of c-Myc. •Inversed expression pattern between CD44v and c-Myc is often recognized in vivo. -- Abstract: Cancer stem-like cells express high amount of CD44 variant8-10 which protects cancer cells from redox stress. We have demonstrated by immunohistochemical analysis and Western blotting, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, that CD44 variant8-10 and c-Myc tend to show the inversed expression manner in gastric cancer cells. That is attributable to the oxidative stress-induced canonical Wnt activation, and furthermore, the up-regulation of the downstream molecules, one of which is oncogenic c-Myc, is not easily to occur in CD44 variant-positive cancer cells. We have also found out that CD44v8-10 expression is associated with the turn-over of the c-Myc with the experiments using gastric cancer cell lines. This cannot be simply explained by the model of oxidative stress-induced Wnt activation. CD44v8-10-positive cancer cells are enriched at the invasive front. Tumor tissue at the invasive area is considered to be composed of heterogeneous cellular population; dormant cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup high}/ c-Myc {sup low} and proliferative cancer stem-like cells with CD44v8-10 {sup high}/ Fbw7 {sup low}/ c-Myc {sup high}.

  6. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of trichosanthin after combination with a human-derived cell-penetrating peptide, and a possible mechanism of activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ye-Zhou; Li, Peng-Fei; Li, Yan-Zhong; Luo, Fan; Guo, Chao; Lin, Bin; Cao, Xue-Wei; Zhao, Jian; Wang, Fu-Jun

    2016-07-01

    Trichosanthin (TCS), a type I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP-I) and renowned Chinese traditional medicine, displays a broad spectrum of biological and pharmacological properties. Particularly, its anti-tumor activity has received a great deal of attention. However, the cellular mechanism for TCS uptake varies with different tumor cell lines, leading to discrepancies in its reported ability to penetrate cells. In this study, HBD, a human derived cell-penetrating peptide (CPP), was used to improve the delivery of TCS into several types of tumor cells, including HeLa cells. Recombinant TCS (rTCS) with or without the fused HBD peptide was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and successfully purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The cellular uptake efficiency of FITC-labelled-rTCS-HBD was observed in HeLa cells and compared with the uptake efficiency of non-HBD conjugated rTCS under the same conditions using laser confocal microscopy. Moreover, the IC50 value of rTCS-HBD in the tested tumor cells was much lower than that of rTCS, indicating that HBD could efficiently deliver the rTCS into tumor cells. When compared with rTCS, rTCS-HBD induced higher rates of apoptosis in HeLa cells as analyzed by flow cytometry. Furthermore, the apoptotic events observed in HeLa cells incubated with HBD-fused rTCS included activation of Caspase-9, decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and cleavage of PARP. These results strongly suggest the participation of mitochondria in apoptosis. This report illustrates one possible method for achieving the efficient transport of TCS into cells using a CPP as a vector, and increases the likelihood that TCS can be used in the clinic. PMID:27050721

  7. Gender differences in satisfaction with life in patients with coronary heart disease: physical activity as a possible mediating factor.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, Lisa A; Riley, Dana L; Blanchard, Chris M; Reid, Robert D; Pipe, Andrew L; Morrin, Louise I; Beaton, Louise J; Papadakis, Sophia; Slovinec D'Angelo, Monika E

    2011-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if time varying, mediating effect of physical activity plays an important role in the gender-satisfaction with life relationship. Six hundred four male and 197 female patients were included. Principal outcomes of interest were self-report satisfaction with life and physical activity at baseline, 6, 12 and 24 months. The Krull and MacKinnon procedure for hierarchical linear modeling showed that the change in physical activity mediated the gender-satisfaction with life over a 2 year period. Results from the current study suggest that increased physical activity partially explains why males report having increased well-being than females after hospitalization. This suggests that future interventions need to focus on reducing the gender disparity in physical activity to improve differences noted in satisfaction with life. If higher physical activity levels impact satisfaction with life positively, the importance of physical activity for female patients is warranted. PMID:20957422

  8. Optical modeling activities for NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): III. Wavefront aberrations due to alignment and figure compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Joseph M.

    2007-09-01

    This paper is part three of a series describing the ongoing optical modeling activities for the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The first two papers discussed modeling JWST on-orbit performance using wavefront sensitivities to predict line of sight motion induced blur, and stability during thermal transients [1-2]. The work here investigates the aberrations resulting from alignment and figure compensation of the controllable degrees of freedom (i.e. the primary and secondary mirrors), which may be encountered during ground alignment and on-orbit commissioning of the observatory. The optical design of the telescope is a three-mirror anastigmat, with an active fold mirror at the exit pupil for fine guiding. The primary mirror is over 6.5 meters in diameter, and is composed of 18 hexagonal segments that can individually positioned on hexapods, as well as compensated for radius of curvature. This architecture effectively gives both alignment and figure control of the primary mirror. The secondary mirror can be moved in rigid body only, and the tertiary mirror is fixed. Simulations are performed of various combinations of alignment and figure errors corrected by the primary and secondary mirrors. Single field point knowledge is assumed in the corrections, and aberrations over the field are reported for the varying cases.

  9. In the Early Stages of Diabetes, Rat Retinal Mitochondria Undergo Mild Uncoupling due to UCP2 Activity.

    PubMed

    Osorio-Paz, Ixchel; Uribe-Carvajal, Salvador; Salceda, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    In order to maintain high transmembrane ionic gradients, retinal tissues require a large amount of energy probably provided by a high rate of both, glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. However, little information exists on retinal mitochondrial efficiency. We analyzed the retinal mitochondrial activity in ex vivo retinas and in isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina and from short-term streptozotocin-diabetic rats. In normal ex vivo retinas, increasing glucose concentrations from 5.6 mM to 30 mM caused a four-fold increase in glucose accumulation and CO2 production. Retina from diabetic rats accumulated similar amounts of glucose. However, CO2 production was not as high. Isolated mitochondria from normal rat retina exhibited a resting rate of oxygen consumption of 14.6 ± 1.1 natgO (min.mg prot)(-1) and a respiratory control of 4.0. Mitochondria from 7, 20 and 45 days diabetic rats increased the resting rate of oxygen consumption and the activity of the electron transport complexes; under these conditions the mitochondrial transmembrane potential decreased. In spite of this, the ATP synthesis was not modified. GDP, an UCP2 inhibitor, increased mitochondrial membrane potential and superoxide production in controls and at 45 days of diabetes. The role of UCP2 is discussed. The results suggest that at the early stage of diabetes we studied, retinal mitochondria undergo adaptations leading to maintain energetic requirements and prevent oxidative stress. PMID:25951172

  10. Stochastic simulation of fission product activity in primary coolant due to fuel rod failures in typical PWRs under power transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed Iqbal, M.; Mirza, Nasir M.; Mirza, Sikander M.

    2008-01-01

    During normal operation of PWRs, routine fuel rods failures result in release of radioactive fission products (RFPs) in the primary coolant of PWRs. In this work, a stochastic model has been developed for simulation of failure time sequences and release rates for the estimation of fission product activity in primary coolant of a typical PWR under power perturbations. In the first part, a stochastic approach is developed, based on generation of fuel failure event sequences by sampling the time dependent intensity functions. Then a three-stage model based deterministic methodology of the FPCART code has been extended to include failure sequences and random release rates in a computer code FPCART-ST, which uses state-of-the-art LEOPARD and ODMUG codes as its subroutines. The value of the 131I activity in primary coolant predicted by FPCART-ST code has been found in good agreement with the corresponding values measured at ANGRA-1 nuclear power plant. The predictions of FPCART-ST code with constant release option have also been found to have good agreement with corresponding experimental values for time dependent 135I, 135Xe and 89Kr concentrations in primary coolant measured during EDITHMOX-1 experiments.

  11. 210Po and 210Pb Activity Concentrations in Cigarettes Produced in Vietnam and Their Estimated Dose Contribution Due to Smoking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thuy-Ngan N.; Le, Cong-Hao; Chau, Van-Tao

    Smoking cigarettes contributes significantly to the increase of radiation in human body because 210Po and 210Pb exist relatively high in tobacco leaves. Therefore, these two radioisotopes in eighteen of the most frequently sold cigarette brands produced in Vietnam were examined in this study. 210Po was determined by alpha spectroscopy using a passivated implanted planar silicon (PIPS) detector after a procedure including radiochemical separation and spontaneous deposition of polonium on a copper disc (the deposition efficiency of 210Po on a copper disc was approximately 94%). Sequentially, 210Pb was determined through the ingrowth of 210Po after storing the sample solutions for approximately six months. The activity concentrations of 210Po in cigarettes ranged from 13.8 to 82.6 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 26.4 mBq/cigarette) and the activity concentrations of 210Pb in cigarettes ranged from 13.9 to 78.8 mBq/cigarette (the mean value was 25.8 mBq/cigarette). The annual committed effective dose for smokers who smoke one pack per day was also estimated to be 295.4 µSv/year (223.0 µSv/year and 72.4 µSv/year from 210Po and 210Pb, respectively). These indicated that smoking increased the risk of developing lung cancer was approximately 60 times greater for smokers than for non-smokers.

  12. Extremely sensitive light-induced reorientation in nondoped nematic liquid crystal cells due to photoelectric activation of the interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagliusi, P.; Cipparrone, G.

    2003-06-01

    We report an investigation of the extremely sensitive molecular reorientation in pure nematic liquid crystal film induced by the combined application of low dc electric field (less than 0.1 V/μm) and very low intensity optical irradiation (few mW/cm2). The effect is observed in planar cells of well-known commercial nematic mixture (E7) aligned with rubbed polyvinyl alcohol layers, which exhibit photorefractive-like effect. We analyze the dependence of the photoinduced changes in birefringence upon the applied dc voltage and the light intensity. According to our results we believe that the effect is due to photoinduced recombination of the opposite charged carriers accumulated near the interface. In the low dc voltage regime (a few volts) the voltage mainly drops on the electric double layers at the interfaces as a consequence of dc field collected charge carriers from liquid crystalline and polymeric films to the border surfaces. Irradiation with appropriate wavelength reduces the interfacial charges density, because of photoinduced carrier injection and recombination processes, and consequently, induces a relocation of the electric field from the surface to the liquid crystal bulk. The light-induced additional electric field component in the nematic film results in a lowering of the Fréedericksz threshold or an enhanced molecular reorientation.

  13. Simulation suggests that rapid activation of social distancing can arrest epidemic development due to a novel strain of influenza

    PubMed Central

    Kelso, Joel K; Milne, George J; Kelly, Heath

    2009-01-01

    Background Social distancing interventions such as school closure and prohibition of public gatherings are present in pandemic influenza preparedness plans. Predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies in a pandemic is difficult. In the absence of other evidence, computer simulation can be used to help policy makers plan for a potential future influenza pandemic. We conducted simulations of a small community to determine the magnitude and timing of activation that would be necessary for social distancing interventions to arrest a future pandemic. Methods We used a detailed, individual-based model of a real community with a population of approximately 30,000. We simulated the effect of four social distancing interventions: school closure, increased isolation of symptomatic individuals in their household, workplace nonattendance, and reduction of contact in the wider community. We simulated each of the intervention measures in isolation and in several combinations; and examined the effect of delays in the activation of interventions on the final and daily attack rates. Results For an epidemic with an R0 value of 1.5, a combination of all four social distancing measures could reduce the final attack rate from 33% to below 10% if introduced within 6 weeks from the introduction of the first case. In contrast, for an R0 of 2.5 these measures must be introduced within 2 weeks of the first case to achieve a similar reduction; delays of 2, 3 and 4 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 7%, 21% and 45% respectively. For an R0 of 3.5 the combination of all four measures could reduce the final attack rate from 73% to 16%, but only if introduced without delay; delays of 1, 2 or 3 weeks resulted in final attack rates of 19%, 35% or 63% respectively. For the higher R0 values no single measure has a significant impact on attack rates. Conclusion Our results suggest a critical role of social distancing in the potential control of a future pandemic and indicate that such

  14. Estimation of landslides activities evolution due to land-use and climate change in a Pyrenean valley

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandromme, Rosalie; Bernardie, Séverine; Houet, Thomas; Grémont, Marine; Grandjean, Gilles; Thiery, Yannick

    2016-04-01

    Global changes would have impacts worldwide, but their effects should be even more exacerbated in areas particularly vulnerable. Mountainous areas are among these vulnerable territories. Ecological systems are often at a fragile equilibrium, socio-economical activities are often climate-dependent and climate-driven natural hazards can be a major threat for human activities. In order to estimate the capacity of such mountainous valleys to face global changes (climate, but also climate- and human- induced land-use changes), it is necessary to be able to evaluate the evolution of the different threats. The present work shows a method to evaluate the influences of the evolution of both vegetation cover and climate on landslides activities over a whole valley until 2100, to propose adequate solutions for current and future forestry management. Firstly, the assessment of future land use is addressed through the construction of four prospective socio-economic scenarios up to 2050 and 2100, which are then spatially validated and modeled with LUCC models. Secondly, the climate change inputs of the project correspond to 2 scenarios of emission of greenhouse gases. The used simulations available on the portal DRIAS (http://www.drias-climat.fr) were performed with the GHG emissions scenarios (RCP: Representative concentration pathways, according to the standards defined by the GIEC) RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5. The impact of land use and climate change is then addressed through the use of these scenarios into hazards computations. For that we use a large-scale slope stability assessment tool ALICE which combines a mechanical stability model (using finite slope analysis), a vegetation module which interfere with the first model, to take into account the effects of vegetation on the mechanical soil properties (cohesion and over-load), and an hydrogeological model. All these elements are interfaced within a GIS-based solution. In that way, future changes in temperature, precipitation and

  15. DCP-LA stimulates AMPA receptor exocytosis through CaMKII activation due to PP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2009-10-01

    The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) activated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by inhibiting protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). DCP-LA induced a transient huge facilitation of synaptic transmission monitored from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, which was largely inhibited by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. DCP-LA potentiated kainate-evoked whole-cell membrane currents for Xenopus oocytes expressing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors composed of the GluR1, GluR3, GluR1/GluR2, GluR1/GluR3, and GluR1/GluR2/GluR3 subunits, and the potentiation was significantly inhibited by KN-93. A similar potentiation was still found with mutant GluR1 (S831A) receptor lacking CaMKII phosphorylation site. The GluR1 and GluR2 subunits formed AMPA receptors in the rat hippocampus, and DCP-LA increased expression of both the subunits on the plasma membrane. The DCP-LA action was blocked by KN-93 and the exocytosis inhibitor botulinum toxin type A, but not by the endocytosis inhibitor phenylarsine oxide. DCP-LA, thus, appears to activate CaMKII through PP-1 inhibition, that stimulates AMPA receptor exocytosis to increase expression of the receptors on the plasma membrane, responsible for potentiate AMPA receptor responses and facilitation of hippocampal synaptic transmission. PMID:19492412

  16. Mercury pollution on district of Dimembe river system North Sulawesi, Indonesia, due to traditional gold mining activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayhuan, D.; Atteng, O.; Dondokambey, A.; Randuk, M.

    2003-05-01

    Mercury contamination caused by the amalgamation of gold in small scale gold mining is a environmental problem. Small-scale gold mining (SSGM) is common in mineral endowed developing countries. It offers an important means of livehood and has served as a safety net in times of natural calamities or economic distress. In north Sulawesi Province alone, approximately 22,000 small-scale gold miners were active in 1998, and produced an estimated 10 tonnes of gold bullion. Activities of traditional / illegal gold mining (PETI) in Dimembe of district, which is located in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi Province. The major environmental concern associated with PETI in mercury pollution from processing of gold-bearing ore. In both the inorganic and organic forms, mercury is one of the most toxic substances to humans. One of the environmental pollution is water pollution on district of Dimembe river system that is probably caused by the use of mercury (Hg) in processing mine ore. This mercury is used in an iron rolling vessel, wllich is called tromol. Mercury concentration at employed in this operation reaches 1 kg out of 30 kg ore. Sampling stage was conducted at Warat river, downstream Taiawaan river, Merut river and Kadumut river on late April 2002 by BAPEDALDA team together with Health Laboratory staff. Material which were sampled was water. Sampling methods carried out were bottle sample immersed about 10 cm below the water surface. The analysis method used was mercury analyzer. The analysis result show that total concentration of mercury range from 1. 69 to 25. 54 ppb. This concentration is closed to Water Quality Standard IV Class that is 0.005 mg/L (Regulation Government No. 82/2001). The result of this research indicate that the district of Dimembe river system in the gold mining area have been contaminated by mercury.

  17. Collapse of the Cretaceous Helvetiafjellet Formation due to tectonic activity at Kvalvågen, eastern Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onderdonk, N.; Midtkandal, I.; Ahokas, J.

    2008-12-01

    A variety of features recording disturbance of Mid-Cretaceous sediments are exposed in coastal cliffs at Kvalvågen, east Spitsbergen. The most striking of these features are large displaced blocks of Helvetiafjellet Formation sandstone (ranging from 5 to 25 meters across) that were dropped down into underlying shale- dominated sediments along normal faults. In addition to the displaced blocks much of the sandstone unit is missing along a 2 km stretch of coastal exposure and must have been slipped out of the plane of exposure. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the style and cause of the Cretaceous collapse at Kvalvågen including delta front collapse (Nemec et al., 1988), landslides into a submarine canyon (Steel et al., 2001), and collapse related to magmatic activity (Midtkandal et al., 2007). New structural data and field observations show that the orientations and style of deformation are not entirely consistent with the previous hypotheses and are better explained as the direct result of tectonically produced topography (i.e., a fault scarp). The deformation at Kvalvågen is the result of west-side-down displacement along a north-striking fault that crops out at the southern end of the cliff exposure. Tectonic disturbance in the area began in Hauterivian time and was over by the early Aptian. These outcrops are the only evidence of tectonic activity in the area during the Mid-Cretaceous and may be the result of displacement along a previously unrecognized extension of the Lomfjorden fault zone or related to regional stresses imposed by extensive sill intrusions during the formation of the High Arctic Large Igneous Province.

  18. Giving Power Its Due: The Powerful Possibilities and the Problems of Power with Deliberative Democracy and English Language Learners. A Response to "Deliberative Democracy in English-Language Education: Cultural and Linguistic Inclusion in the School Community"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jarrod S.

    2015-01-01

    The use of deliberation with English Language Learners presents possibilities to both improve language learning, but also expand the potential for civics education for all students. In particular, this response examines the issue of power to extend Liggett's (2014) arguments for using deliberative democracy with English Language Learners and…

  19. Identification, mapping, and analysis of possible evidences of active petroleum systems in the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loegering, Markus; Anka, Zahie; Rodriguez, Jorge; Marchal, Denis; di Primio, Rolando; Vallejo, Eduardo; Kohler, Guillermina; Pangaro, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    the seismic data, should allow better insights on the potential of Permian, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous source rocks, as well as the characterisation of possibly active petroleum systems in the basin.

  20. Morphodynamics of Travertine Dam/Waterfall Growth due to the Interaction of Biological Activity, Water Flow and Limestone Emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, N.; Parker, G.

    2012-12-01

    Plitvice Lakes in Croatia are characterized by a step-like train of lakes and waterfalls. The waterfalls are located at the crests of naturally-emplaced dams. The top of each dam grows upward at the rate of a few millimeters per year. It is thought that the upward growth of these dams is caused by the interaction of water flow and biological activity, resulting in the precipitation of dissolved limestone. Dam evolution is initiated by the growth of mosses that favor swift, shallow water. Bacteria that inhabit the roots of the moss excrete solid limestone (travertine) from the water. The limestone fossilizes the moss, and then more moss grows on top of the travertine deposit. In this way, the natural dam can grow over to 10 m high, impounding the water behind it to form a lake. We propose a simple model to explain the formation of natural limestone dams by the interaction between water flow and biologically-mediated travertine deposition. We assume for simplicity that light is the only factor determining the growth of moss, which is then colonized by travertine-emplacing bacteria. We also assume that the water is saturated with dissolved limestone, so that the process is not limited by limestone availability. Photosynthesis, and thus the growth rate of moss are crudely approximated as decreasing linearly with depth. We employ the shallow water equations to describe water flow over the dam. In order to obtain a profile of permanent form for a dam migrating upward and downstream at constant speed, we solve the problem in a moving coordinate system. When water flows over the dam, it is accelerated in the streamwise direction, and the water surface forms a backwater curve. The flow regime changes from Froude-subcritical to Froude-supercritical at a point slightly downstream of the crest of the dam. Farther downstream, the flow attains a threshold velocity beyond which moss is detached. This threshold point defines the downstream end of the active part of the dam. The

  1. Posture, Musculoskeletal Activities, and Possible Musculoskeletal Discomfort among Children Using Laptops or Tablet Computers for Educational Purposes: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binboga, Elif; Korhan, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Educational ergonomics focuses on the interaction between educational performance and educational design. By improving the design or pointing out the possible problems, educational ergonomics can be utilized to have positive impacts on the student performance and thus on education process. Laptops and tablet computers are becoming widely used by…

  2. Chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in pancreatic islets impair insulin secretion due to dysregulated calcium dynamics, glucose responsiveness and mitochondrial activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the progression towards diabetes, glucolipotoxicity is one of the main causes of pancreatic beta cell pathology. The aim of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on cellular responses in pancreatic islets, including glucose and fat metabolism, Calcium mobilization, insulin secretion and insulin content. Results Exposure of islets to chronic glucolipotoxic conditions decreased glucose stimulated insulin secretion in vitro. Reduced protein levels of Glut2/slc2a2, and decreased glucokinase and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA levels indicated a significant lowering in glucose sensing. Concomitantly, both fatty acid uptake and triglyceride accumulation increased significantly while fatty acid oxidation decreased. This general suppression in glucose metabolism correlated well with a decrease in mitochondrial number and activity, reduction in cellular ATP content and dampening of the TCA cycle. Further, we also observed a decrease in IP3 levels and lower Calcium mobilization in response to glucose. Importantly, chronic glucolipotoxic conditions in vitro decreased insulin gene expression, insulin content, insulin granule docking (to the plasma membrane) and insulin secretion. Conclusions Our results present an integrated view of the effects of chronic glucolipotoxic conditions on known and novel signaling events, in vitro, that results in reduced glucose responsiveness and insulin secretion. PMID:23815372

  3. [Daptomycin: revitalizing a former drug due to the need of new active agents against grampositive multiresistant bacterias].

    PubMed

    Hernández Martí, V; Romá Sánchez, E; Salavert Lletí, M; Bosó Ribelles, V; Poveda Andrés, J L

    2007-09-01

    The development of mechanisms of resistance of many Gram-positive bacterial strains that cause complicated skin and soft tissue infections, as well as sepsis and bacteremia, has necessitated the search for new drugs that will improve treatment strategies. Daptomycin is a cyclic lipopeptide antibacterial that was launched for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections caused by Gram-positive organisms. The drug's mechanism of action is different from that of any other antibiotic. It binds to bacterial membranes and causes a rapid depolarization of membrane potential. This loss of membrane potential causes inhibition of protein, DNA and RNA synthesis, which results in bacterial cell death. The in vitro spectrum of activity of daptomycin encompasses most clinically relevant aerobic Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria. Compared to other antibiotics with a similar antibacterial spectrum, daptomycin does not cause nephrotoxicity. Taking these and other characteristics into consideration, daptomycin appears to be a good alternative to other drugs used in the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and in Gram-positive bacteremial infections. PMID:18080024

  4. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  5. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system.

    PubMed

    Deme, S; Apathy, I; Hejja, I; Lang, E; Feher, I

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET. PMID:11542227

  6. Anti-filarial Activity of Antibiotic Therapy Is Due to Extensive Apoptosis after Wolbachia Depletion from Filarial Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, William; Taylor, Mark J.

    2011-01-01

    Filarial nematodes maintain a mutualistic relationship with the endosymbiont Wolbachia. Depletion of Wolbachia produces profound defects in nematode development, fertility and viability and thus has great promise as a novel approach for treating filarial diseases. However, little is known concerning the basis for this mutualistic relationship. Here we demonstrate using whole mount confocal microscopy that an immediate response to Wolbachia depletion is extensive apoptosis in the adult germline, and in the somatic cells of the embryos, microfilariae and fourth-stage larvae (L4). Surprisingly, apoptosis occurs in the majority of embryonic cells that had not been infected prior to antibiotic treatment. In addition, no apoptosis occurs in the hypodermal chords, which are populated with large numbers of Wolbachia, although disruption of the hypodermal cytoskeleton occurs following their depletion. Thus, the induction of apoptosis upon Wolbachia depletion is non-cell autonomous and suggests the involvement of factors originating from Wolbachia in the hypodermal chords. The pattern of apoptosis correlates closely with the nematode tissues and processes initially perturbed following depletion of Wolbachia, embryogenesis and long-term sterilization, which are sustained for several months until the premature death of the adult worms. Our observations provide a cellular mechanism to account for the sustained reductions in microfilarial loads and interruption of transmission that occurs prior to macrofilaricidal activity following antibiotic therapy of filarial nematodes. PMID:22072969

  7. Crustal differentiation due to partial melting of granitic rocks in an active continental margin, the Ryoke Belt, Southwest Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akasaki, Eri; Owada, Masaaki; Kamei, Atsushi

    2015-08-01

    The continental margin of Pacific Asia is dominated by the voluminous Cretaceous to Paleogene granitic rocks. The Ryoke granitoids that occur in the Ryoke Belt in the Southwest Japan Arc are divided into the older and younger granites. The high-K Kibe Granite represents the younger granitic intrusion and is exposed in the Yanai area in the western part of Ryoke Belt. The Kibe Granite is associated with the coeval Himurodake Quartz Diorite and their intrusive age is 91 Ma. However, the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite, the older granite, intruded the host Ryoke gneisses at 95 Ma. The Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite is characterized by the localized development of migmatitic structure attributed to the intrusion of the Himurodake Quartz Diorite into the granodiorite. Leucocratic pools and patches occur in the granodiorite in the vicinity of the quartz diorite. The Sr and Nd isotopic compositions of the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite corrected to 91 Ma are plotted within those of the Kibe Granite. Geochemical modeling suggests that partial melting took place in the Gamano-Obatake Granodiorite and resulted in the formation of the Kibe Granite magma. The Himurodake Quartz Diorite is believed to be a heat source for this event. This can be considered as an essential process for the formation of the evolved younger Ryoke granite and for the crustal differentiation in the active continental margin.

  8. Earthquake response reduction of mid-story isolated system due to semi-active control using magnetorheological rotary inertia mass damper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Mai; Yoshida, Shohei; Fujitani, Hideo; Sato, Yusuke

    2015-04-01

    The dynamic characteristics of mid-story isolated buildings and seismic response reduction due to a semi-active control system were investigated using a three-lumped-mass model that simplified the sixteen story building with an isolation layer in the sixth story. A semi-active control method using a rotary inertia mass damper filled with magnetorheological fluid (MR fluid) was proposed. The damper shows both mass amplification effect due to rotational inertia and variable damping effect due to the MR fluid. The damping force is controlled by the strength of the magnetic field that is applied to the MR fluid. It is determined by using the electric current, which is calculated by the proposed semi-active control method based on the velocity of the isolation layer relative to the layer just underneath it. Real-time hybrid tests using an actual damper and simulations using a building model were conducted to check the damper model; the test results were in good agreement with the simulation results. The simulation results suggest that the response displacement of the structure above the isolation layer is significantly reduced, without increasing the response acceleration of the entire structure against near-fault pulse and long-period ground motions. The proposed semi-active control using an MR rotary inertia mass damper was confirmed to be effective for mid-story isolated buildings.

  9. Increased hexosaminidase activity in antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects: possible association with higher occurrence in bipolar disorder patients.

    PubMed

    Tunca, Zeliha; Resmi, Halil; Ozkara, H Asuman; Ciliv, Gönenc; Celtikci, Basak; Alptekin, Koksal; Ozerdem, Aysegul; Akdede, Berna Kivircik; Baykara, Burak; Birsoy, Bilge; Ergor, Gul

    2008-07-01

    Dystonic movements and Parkinsonism are frequently seen in gangliosidoses and these conditions have been reported to modify dopaminergic plasticity. We investigated whether the activity of hexosaminidase, a type-two ganglioside (GM2) degrading enzyme, correlates with drug-induced extrapyramidal system (EPS) side effects in psychiatric patients. We compared hexosaminidase activity in the lymphocytes of 29 EPS-positive patients, 13 EPS-negative patients, and 30 healthy volunteers. The activities of A and B isoforms of hexosaminidase were higher in EPS-positive patients than EPS-negative patients and healthy controls. Multivariate analysis suggested an interaction with increased B isoform activity and EPS side effects in female bipolar disorder patients. Higher levels of hexosaminidase enzyme activity may explain the frequent occurrence of antipsychotic-induced extrapyramidal side effects in mood disorder patients. PMID:18436361

  10. Screening for antibacterial activity of some Turkish plants against fish pathogens: a possible alternative in the treatment of bacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Turker, Hakan; Yıldırım, Arzu Birinci

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity of ethanolic and aqueous crude extracts from 36 plants in Turkey, including seven endemic species, against fish pathogens was studied using the disc diffusion assay. The extract that was most active against all microbial strains, except Aeromonas salmonicida, was that of Dorycnium pentaphyllum. Some of the extracts also showed a very broad spectrum of potent antimicrobial activity. The extract of Anemone nemorosa showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Vibrio anguillarum. V. anguillarum, a Gram-negative bacterium, appeared to be the most susceptible to the plant extracts used in this experiment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the antimicrobial activity of 11 of the studied plants. The preliminary screening assay indicated that some of the Turkish plants with antibacterial properties may offer alternative therapeutic agents against bacterial infections in aquaculture industry. PMID:26019642

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus 1 Tat binds to dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (CD26): a possible mechanism for Tat's immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Gutheil, W G; Subramanyam, M; Flentke, G R; Sanford, D G; Munoz, E; Huber, B T; Bachovchin, W W

    1994-07-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) Tat protein suppresses antigen-induced, but not mitogen-induced, activation of human T cells when added to T-cell cultures [Viscidi, R. P., Mayur, K., Lederman, H. M. & Frankel, A. D. (1989) Science 246, 1606-1608]. This activity is potentially pertinent to the development of AIDS because lymphocytes from HIV-infected individuals exhibit a similar antigen-specific dysfunction. Here we report that Tat binds with high affinity to the T-cell activation molecule dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DP IV), also known as CD26. This molecule occurs on the surface of CD4+ cells responsible for the recall antigen response and appears to play an essential role in this response. Tat binds to both the cell surface and soluble forms of DP IV at physiological salt concentrations without inhibiting the protease activity of DP IV against small chromogenic substrates used to assay activity, but Tat markedly inhibits the activity of DP IV at lower salt concentrations. The kinetics of inhibition indicate the affinity of Tat for DP IV varies from 20 pM to 11 nM, and the activity of the Tat-DP IV complex varies from 13% to 100%, as the NaCl concentration varies from 0 to 140 mM. Cytofluorometry experiments demonstrate that Tat competes with anti-Ta1, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for DP IV, for binding to cell surface DP IV, thus indicating that Tat binds DP IV at or near the Ta1 epitope. Moreover, the anti-Ta1 mAb blocks the immunosuppressive activity of Tat. The high affinity of Tat for DP IV, previous evidence implicating DP IV in antigen-specific T-cell activation events, and the ability of anti-Ta1 mAb to block the immunosuppressive effect of Tat make DP IV a plausible receptor for Tat's immunosuppressive activity. PMID:7912830

  12. Identification of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 as a possible novel target for renal cell carcinoma intervention

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Fandong; Li, Yan; Tian, Xin; Fu, Liye; Yin, Yuanqin; Sui, Chengguang; Ma, Ping; Jiang, Youhong

    2014-10-10

    Highlights: • Inhibition of TAK1 kinase activity suppresses NF-κB activation and RCC cell survival. • TAK1 inhibitors induces apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells. • RCC cells with TAK1 depletion show reduced cell viability and increased apoptosis. • TAK1 and p-NF-κB are both over-expressed in human RCC tissues. • Inhibition or depletion of TAK1 enhances the activity of vinblastine sulfate. - Abstract: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is common renal malignancy within poor prognosis. TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays vital roles in cell survival, apoptosis-resistance and carcinogenesis through regulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and other cancer-related pathways. Here we found that TAK1 inhibitors (LYTAK1, 5Z-7-oxozeanol (5Z) and NG-25) suppressed NF-κB activation and RCC cell (786-O and A489 lines) survival. TAK1 inhibitors induced apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells, which was largely inhibited by the broad or specific caspase inhibitors. Further, shRNA-mediated partial depletion of TAK1 reduced 786-O cell viability whiling activating apoptosis. Significantly, TAK1 was over-expressed in human RCC tissues, and its level was correlated with phosphorylated NF-κB. Finally, kinase inhibition or genetic depletion of TAK1 enhanced the activity of vinblastine sulfate (VLB) in RCC cells. Together, these results suggest that TAK1 may be an important oncogene or an effective target for RCC intervention.

  13. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Arif, Johan; Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi

    2015-09-01

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth's climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth's global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  14. On the possible relations between solar activities and global seismicity in the solar cycle 20 to 23

    SciTech Connect

    Herdiwijaya, Dhani; Arif, Johan; Nurzaman, Muhamad Zamzam; Astuti, Isna Kusuma Dewi

    2015-09-30

    Solar activities consist of high energetic particle streams, electromagnetic radiation, magnetic and orbital gravitational forces. The well-know solar activity main indicator is the existence of sunspot which has mean variation in 11 years, named by solar cycle, allow for the above fluctuations. Solar activities are also related to the space weather affecting all planetary atmospheric variability, moreover to the Earth’s climate variability. Large extreme space and geophysical events (high magnitude earthquakes, explosive volcanic eruptions, magnetic storms, etc.) are hazards for humankind, infrastructure, economies, technology and the activities of civilization. With a growing world population, and with modern reliance on delicate technological systems, human society is becoming increasingly vulnerable to natural hazardous events. The big question arises to the relation between solar forcing energy to the Earth’s global seismic activities. Estimates are needed for the long term occurrence-rate probabilities of these extreme natural hazardous events. We studied connectivity from yearly seismic activities that refer to and sunspot number within the solar cycle 20 to 23 of year 1960 to 2013 (53 years). We found clear evidences that in general high magnitude earthquake events and their depth were related to the low solar activity.

  15. Alpha-amylase Inhibition and Antioxidant Activity of Marine Green Algae and its Possible Role in Diabetes Management

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, P. S.; Suthindhiran, K.; Jayasri, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: In the continuing search for safe and efficient antidiabetic drug, marine algae become important source which provide several compounds of immense therapeutic potential. Alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, and antioxidant compounds are known to manage diabetes and have received much attention recently. In the present study, four green algae (Chaetomorpha aerea, Enteromorpha intestinalis, Chlorodesmis, and Cladophora rupestris) were chosen to evaluate alpha-amylase, alpha-glucosidase inhibitory, and antioxidant activity in vitro. Materials and Methods: The phytochemical constituents of all the extracts were qualitatively determined. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated by inhibitory potential of extracts against alpha-amylase and alpha-glucosidase by spectrophotometric assays. Antioxidant activity was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and nitric oxide scavenging assay. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was carried out to determine the major compound responsible for its antidiabetic action. Results: Among the various extracts screened, chloroform extract of C. aerea (IC50 − 408.9 μg/ml) and methanol extract of Chlorodesmis (IC50 − 147.6 μg/ml) showed effective inhibition against alpha-amylase. The extracts were also evaluated for alpha-glucosidase inhibition, and no observed activity was found. Methanol extract of C. rupestris showed notable free radical scavenging activity (IC50 – 666.3 μg/ml), followed by H2O2 (34%) and nitric oxide (49%). Further, chemical profiling by GC-MS revealed the presence of major bioactive compounds. Phenol, 2,4-bis (1,1-dimethylethyl) and z, z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one were predominantly found in the methanol extract of C. rupestris and chloroform extract of C. aerea. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the selected algae exhibit notable alpha-amylase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Therefore, characterization of active compounds and its in vivo

  16. Possibilities of increasing the pumping efficiency of solid active medium laser generators by optimizing the pumping cavity profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dontu, O.; Ganatsios, S.; Alexandrescu, N.

    2008-03-01

    The paper presents some design elements concerning the optical pumping cavities of the laser generators with active solid medium, as well as the way of increasing their performance. We start from the fact that the laser cavity is a closed optical system, where the active laser medium and the pumping source are conjugated, in order to achieve a maximum concentration of the light flux of the pumping source towards the active medium. We discuss the simple elliptical section laser pumping cavities (with one pumping lamp) and triple elliptical (with three lamps), also presenting a series on calculus nomograms, very useful to those who design the laser generation optical pumping cavities.

  17. Oscillatory activity of single units in a somatosensory cortex of an awake monkey and their possible role in texture analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Ahissar, E; Vaadia, E

    1990-01-01

    Neuronal activity was extracellularly recorded in the cortex of an awake monkey (Macaca fascicularis). Single units displaying oscillatory firing patterns were found in the upper bank of the lateral sulcus in a region where most of the neurons responded to somatosensory stimuli. The spectral energies of the oscillating activity were distributed in a trimodal fashion--0-15, 15-50, and 80-250 Hz--with the most common frequencies around 30 Hz. The oscillatory activity was not affected by anesthesia, but it was often reduced by tactile stimulation or self-initiated movements. Analysis of the spike trains suggests that the majority of oscillatory activity was intrinsically generated by the neurons. A neural model of texture analysis is offered based on a corticothalamic phase-locked loop. The newly identified oscillators play a key role in this model. The relevance of the model to physiological, anatomical, and psychophysical data, as well as testable predictions, are discussed. Images PMID:2247469

  18. Collaboration of local government and experts responding to increase in environmental radiation level due to the nuclear disaster: focusing on their activities and latest radiological discussion.

    PubMed

    Iimoto, T; Nunokawa, J; Fujii, H; Takashima, R; Hashimoto, M; Fukuhara, T; Yajima, T; Matsuzawa, H; Kurosawa, K; Yanagawa, Y; Someya, S

    2015-11-01

    Activities were introduced in Kashiwa city in the Tokyo metropolitan area to correspond to the elevated environmental radiation level after the disaster of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. These were based on a strong cooperation between local governments and experts. Ambient dose rate and radioactivity of foodstuff produced inside of the city have been monitored. Representative ambient dose rates around living environments have almost already become their original levels of the pre-accident because of the decontamination activity, natural washout and effective half-lives of radioactivity. The internal annual dose due to radioactive cesium under the policy of 'Local Production for Local Consumption' is estimated as extremely low comparing the variation range due to natural radioactivity. Systematic survey around a retention basin has been started. All of these latest monitoring data would be one of the core information for the policy making as well as a cost-benefit discussion and risk communication. PMID:25982790

  19. Gsα activity is reduced in erythrocyte membranes of patients with psedohypoparathyroidism due to epigenetic alterations at the GNAS locus.

    PubMed

    Zazo, Celia; Thiele, Susanne; Martín, Cesar; Fernandez-Rebollo, Eduardo; Martinez-Indart, Lorea; Werner, Ralf; Garin, Intza; Hiort, Olaf; Perez de Nanclares, Guiomar

    2011-08-01

    In pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP), PTH resistance results from impairment of signal transduction of G protein-coupled receptors caused by a deficiency of the Gsα-cAMP signaling cascade due to diminished Gsα activity in maternally imprinted tissues. In PHP-Ia, inactivating mutations of the GNAS gene lead to haploinsufficiency in some tissues with biallelic expression, so in addition to PHP, Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) is also present. In PHP-Ib, caused by methylation defects at the GNAS locus, diminished Gsα activity was thought to be limited to maternally imprinted tissues, such as the renal proximal tubule and the thyroid, leading to a lack of AHO. Recently, we demonstrated methylation defects in patients with AHO signs, indicating a connection between epigenetic changes and AHO. Our objective was to determine Gsα activity in erythrocyte membranes in patients with epigenetic defects at the GNAS locus compared to normal controls and patients with inactivating GNAS mutations. Gsα activity and expression, mutation of the GNAS locus, and methylation status were studied in patients with PHP and mild signs of AHO (PHP-Ia: 12; PHP-Ib: 17, of which 8 had some features of AHO). Then, we statistically compared the Gsα activity of the different PHP subtypes. Patients with methylation defects at the GNAS locus show a significant decrease in erythrocyte Gsα activity compared to normal controls (PHP-Ib versus controls, p < .001). This was significantly lower in patients with AHO signs (PHP-Ib + mild-AHO versus PHP-Ib, p < .05). Our research shows that PHP-Ia and PHP-Ib classification is not only overlapped genetically, as reported, but also in terms of Gsα activity. Reduced expression of GNAS due to methylation defects could downregulate Gsα activity in other tissues beyond those described and could also be causative of AHO. PMID:21351142

  20. Activated microglia are less vulnerable to hemin toxicity due to nitric oxide-dependent inhibition of JNK and p38 MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ying; Cho, Geum-Sil; Ju, Chung; Wang, Si-Ling; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Kim, Hee-Sun; Nam, Kung-Woo; Jalin, Angela M A Anthony; Sun, Woong; Choi, In-Young; Kim, Won-Ki

    2011-08-01

    In intracerebral hemorrhage, microglia become rapidly activated and remove the deposited blood and cellular debris. To survive in a harmful hemorrhagic or posthemorrhagic condition, activated microglia must be equipped with appropriate self-defensive mechanism(s) to resist the toxicity of hemin, a component released from damaged RBCs. In the current study, we found that activation of microglia by pretreatment with LPS markedly reduced their vulnerability to hemin toxicity in vitro. Similarly, intracorpus callosum microinjection of LPS prior to hemin treatment reduced the brain tissue damage caused by hemin and increased microglial density in the penumbra in rats. LPS induced the expressions of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1, the rate-limiting enzyme in heme degradation in microglia. The preventive effect by LPS was significantly diminished by an iNOS inhibitor, L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine, whereas it was mimicked by a NO donor, diethylamine-NONOate, both suggesting the crucial role of NO in the modulation of hemin-induced toxicity in activated microglia. We further found that NO reduced hemin toxicity via inhibition of hemin-induced activation of JNK and p38 MAPK pathways in microglia. Whereas HO-1 expression in LPS-stimulated microglia was markedly blocked by L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine, the HO-1 inhibitor, tin protoporphyrin, increased iNOS expression and decreased the susceptibility of LPS-activated microglia to hemin toxicity. The data indicate that the mutual interaction between NO and HO-1 plays a critical role in modulating the adaptive response of activated microglia to hemin toxicity. Better understanding of the survival mechanism of activated microglia may provide a therapeutic strategy to attenuate the devastating intracerebral hemorrhagic injury. PMID:21709153

  1. Fluorine bearing sydnones with styryl ketone group: synthesis and their possible analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Shreenivas Ramachandrarao; Pai, Karkala Vasantakumar

    2012-04-01

    In continuation of structure activity relationship studies, a panel of fluorine containing sydnones with styryl ketone group 4-[1-oxo-3-(substituted aryl)-2-propenyl]-3-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)sydnones 2a-i, was synthesized as better analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents. The title compounds were formed by condensing 4-acetyl-3-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)sydnone with various substituted aryl aldehydes, characterized by spectral studies and evaluated at 100 mg\\kg b.w., p.o. for analgesic, anti-inflammatory and ulcerogenic activities. Compounds 2c and 2e showed good analgesic effect in acetic acid-induced writhing while none showed significant activity in hot plate assay in mice. In carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema test, compound 2c and 2f exhibited good anti-inflammatory effect at 3rd h, whereas compounds 2c, 2e, 2d, 2g and 2h showed activity in croton oil induced ear oedema assay in mice. Compounds 2c and 2e were less ulcerogenic than ibuprofen in rats, when tested by ulcer index method. Compounds with electron attracting substituents such as 2c and 2e were found to be promising in terms of the ratio of efficacy and adverse effect. These compounds generally exhibited better activity than those of earlier series signifying fluorine substitution. PMID:21657951

  2. Nerve growth factor-mediated inhibition of apoptosis post-caspase activation is due to removal of active caspase-3 in a lysosome-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Mnich, K; Carleton, L A; Kavanagh, E T; Doyle, K M; Samali, A; Gorman, A M

    2014-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is well characterised as an important pro-survival factor in neuronal cells that can inhibit apoptotic cell death upstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilisation. Here we addressed the question of whether NGF can also protect against apoptosis downstream of caspase activation. NGF treatment promoted a rapid reduction in the level of the p17 subunit of active caspase-3 in PC12 cells that had been induced to undergo apoptosis by various cytotoxins. The mechanism involved TrkA-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) but not phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt, and de novo protein synthesis. Involvement of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) and proteasomal degradation were ruled out. In contrast, inhibition of lysosome function using chloroquine and concanamycin A reversed NGF-induced removal of p17. Moreover, in NGF-treated cells, active caspases were found to be localised to lysosomes. The involvement of macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy were ruled out. Taken together, these findings suggest an anti-apoptotic mechanism by which NGF induces removal of active caspase-3 in a lysosome-dependent manner. PMID:24787014

  3. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. PMID:20430533

  4. Possible use of the small Argus reactor for activation analysis of samples from gold-bearing deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Drynkin, V.I.; Kerzin, A.L.; Khvostionov, V.E.

    1987-09-01

    The authors study the feasibility of using the small Argus reactor with its power output of up to 50 kW as a neutron source in field neutron activation analysis work. A wide variety of gold ore types were irradiated and analyzed in order to evaluate the sensitivity and detection limits of the analyzer and the activation parameters of the thermal and epithermal neutrons generated by the reactor. These limits were found to practically fully satisfy the requirements for ore prospecting and processing work. A table lists the detection limits not only for gold but for 22 additional elements, including uranium, thorium, and several rare earths.

  5. FcR blocking activity in serum of actively enhanced rat renal allograft recipients due to IgG anti-class II MHC alloantibody.

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, H E; Bolton, E M; Gracie, J A; Cocker, J E; Sandilands, G P; Bradley, J A

    1990-01-01

    In some rat strain combinations, pre-operative donor-specific blood transfusion produces long-term renal allograft survival, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study has examined whether Fc receptor (FcR)-blocking activity could be detected in the serum of unmodified PVG strain recipients bearing a rejecting renal allograft and in recipients bearing an actively enhanced graft following pre-operative blood transfusion. Serum harvested on Day 5 from actively enhanced PVG recipients of DA rat renal allografts was shown to specifically inhibit erythrocyte-antibody (EA) rosette formation with donor strain, but not third-party, splenocytes, while the levels of EA rosette inhibition (EAI) in Day 5 serum from rejecting rats remained markedly lower. This FcR-blocking activity was present in enhanced serum fractions, prepared by discontinuous density gradient centrifugation, which corresponded to the 7 S peak. Purified IgG prepared from enhanced serum was also found to inhibit EA rosette formation with donor splenocytes, and absorption of the IgG preparations with donor strain erythrocytes failed to abrogate EA rosette inhibition. Further experiments, in which absorbed IgG from enhanced animals was tested for FcR blocking activity against splenocytes of defined major histocompatability complex (MHC) subregion specificities, established that FcR-blocking activity was mediated by IgG alloantibodies directed against donor MHC class II antigens. Whether the presence of such antibodies early after transplantation contributes to the beneficial effect of blood transfusion on graft survival remains to be determined. PMID:2312162

  6. Anti-HSV1 activity of brown algal polysaccharides and possible relevance to the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Matthew; Bell, Tracey; Dénes, Ádám; Falshaw, Ruth; Itzhaki, Ruth

    2015-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) induces the formation of the characteristic abnormal molecules of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains, beta-amyloid, and abnormally phosphorylated, AD-like tau (P-tau). Formation of these molecules is inhibited by treatment with the antiviral agent acyclovir (ACV), which prevents viral DNA replication. A totally different mechanism of antiviral action against herpes simplex viruses is shown by sulfated fucans. The antiviral activity of sulfated fucans from five brown algae (Scytothamnus australis, Marginariella boryana, Papenfussiella lutea, Splachnidium rugosum and Undaria pinnatifida) was investigated in relation to the HSV1-induced formation of beta-amyloid, and AD-like tau. Antiviral activity was also related to specific structural features of these polysaccharides. Four sulfated fucan extracts each prevented the accumulation of HSV1-induced beta-amyloid and AD-like tau in HSV1-infected Vero cells. The structures of these extracts had some similarities but also key differences, indicating that a number of structural features can cause antiviral activity. The most active sulfated fucan combined with acyclovir was particularly effective, so may be particularly suitable for further experimental testing in order to develop treatment protocols for AD patients, with the aim of slowing or stopping disease progression. PMID:25583021

  7. Self-Affirmation Activates the Ventral Striatum: A Possible Reward-Related Mechanism for Self-Affirmation.

    PubMed

    Dutcher, Janine M; Creswell, J David; Pacilio, Laura E; Harris, Peter R; Klein, William M P; Levine, John M; Bower, Julienne E; Muscatell, Keely A; Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2016-04-01

    Self-affirmation (reflecting on important personal values) has been shown to have a range of positive effects; however, the neural basis of self-affirmation is not known. Building on studies showing that thinking about self-preferences activates neural reward pathways, we hypothesized that self-affirmation would activate brain reward circuitry during functional MRI (fMRI) studies. In Study 1, with college students, making judgments about important personal values during self-affirmation activated neural reward regions (i.e., ventral striatum), whereas making preference judgments that were not self-relevant did not. Study 2 replicated these results in a community sample, again showing that self-affirmation activated the ventral striatum. These are among the first fMRI studies to identify neural processes during self-affirmation. The findings extend theory by showing that self-affirmation may be rewarding and may provide a first step toward identifying a neural mechanism by which self-affirmation may produce a wide range of beneficial effects. PMID:26917214

  8. Neuropeptide Y, its localization in the human cervix and possible effect on the contractile activity of cervix smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Norström, A; Bryman, I; Dahlström, A

    1992-01-01

    Immunochemical methods were used to identify neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the cervical tissue of women at early and term pregnancy. NPY-containing fibers could not be demonstrated in the upper and lower uterine segments at term, but the cervical innervation persisted during labor. Moreover, NPY alone did not affect cervical contractile activity, although the stimulatory effect of noradrenaline was enhanced. PMID:1427420

  9. The possible contribution of the periodic emissions from farmers' activities in the North China Plain to atmospheric water-soluble ions in Beijing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chenglong; Mu, Yujing; Liu, Chengtang; Xue, Chaoyang; Ye, Can; Liu, Junfeng; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hongxing

    2016-08-01

    The North China Plain (NCP), which includes Beijing, is currently suffering from severe haze events due to a high pollution level of PM2.5. To mitigate the serious pollution problem, identification of the sources of PM2.5 is urgently needed for the effective control measures. Daily samples of PM2.5 were collected in Beijing city and in a rural area in Baoding, Hebei Province through the year of 2014, and the seasonal variation of water-soluble ions (WSIs) in PM2.5 was comprehensively analysed to determine their possible sources. The results indicated that the periodic emissions from farmers' activities made a significant contribution to the atmospheric WSIs in Beijing. The relatively high concentration of K+ in winter and autumn at the two sampling sites confirmed that crop straw burning contributed to atmospheric K+ in Beijing. The remarkable elevation of Cl- at the two sampling sites as well as the evident increase of the Cl- / K+ ratio and the Cl- proportion in WSIs during the winter in Beijing could be ascribed to coal combustion for heating by farmers. The unusually high ratio of Cl- to Na+ in summer, the obviously high concentrations of Cl- in the rural sampling site and the elevation of Cl- proportion in WSIs in Beijing during the maize fertilization could be explained by the use of the prevailing fertilizer of NH4Cl in the vast area of NCP. The abnormally high concentrations of Ca2+ at the two sampling sites and the elevation of Ca2+ proportion during the period of the maize harvest and soil ploughing in Beijing provided convincing evidence that the intensive agricultural activities in autumn contributed to the regional mineral dust. The most serious pollution episodes in autumn were coincident with significant elevation of Ca2+, indicating that the mineral dust emission from the harvest and soil ploughing not only increased the atmospheric concentrations of the primary pollutants, but also greatly accelerated formation of sulfate and nitrate through

  10. Carbohydrate Metabolism Is Perturbed in Peroxisome-deficient Hepatocytes Due to Mitochondrial Dysfunction, AMP-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activation, and Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) Suppression*

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Annelies; Fraisl, Peter; van den Berg, Sjoerd; Ver Loren van Themaat, Emiel; Van Kampen, Antoine; Rider, Mark H.; Takemori, Hiroshi; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Carmeliet, Peter; Baes, Myriam

    2011-01-01

    Hepatic peroxisomes are essential for lipid conversions that include the formation of mature conjugated bile acids, the degradation of branched chain fatty acids, and the synthesis of docosahexaenoic acid. Through unresolved mechanisms, deletion of functional peroxisomes from mouse hepatocytes (L-Pex5−/− mice) causes severe structural and functional abnormalities at the inner mitochondrial membrane. We now demonstrate that the peroxisomal and mitochondrial anomalies trigger energy deficits, as shown by increased AMP/ATP and decreased NAD+/NADH ratios. This causes suppression of gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis and up-regulation of glycolysis. As a consequence, L-Pex5−/− mice combust more carbohydrates resulting in lower body weights despite increased food intake. The perturbation of carbohydrate metabolism does not require a long term adaptation to the absence of functional peroxisomes as similar metabolic changes were also rapidly induced by acute elimination of Pex5 via adenoviral administration of Cre. Despite its marked activation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) was not causally involved in these metabolic perturbations, because all abnormalities still manifested when peroxisomes were eliminated in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α null background. Instead, AMP-activated kinase activation was responsible for the down-regulation of glycogen synthesis and induction of glycolysis. Remarkably, PGC-1α was suppressed despite AMP-activated kinase activation, a paradigm not previously reported, and they jointly contributed to impaired gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, lack of functional peroxisomes from hepatocytes results in marked disturbances of carbohydrate homeostasis, which are consistent with adaptations to an energy deficit. Because this is primarily due to impaired mitochondrial ATP production, these L-Pex5-deficient livers can also be considered as a model for secondary mitochondrial hepatopathies. PMID

  11. Paying Their Dues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scalzo, Teresa

    1995-01-01

    Some colleges and universities have found that alumni prefer to have ownership of their alumni association, and such a membership program can raise revenues for the institution while providing a valuable communication tool. A strong dues program can work well with an annual giving campaign. A variety of membership structures is possible. Details…

  12. RhoA activity increases due to hypermethylation of ARHGAP28 in a highly liver-metastatic colon cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    KASUYA, KAZUHIKO; NAGAKAWA, YUICHI; HOSOKAWA, YUICHI; SAHARA, YATSUKA; TAKISHITA, CHIE; NAKAJIMA, TETSUSHI; HIJIKATA, YOSUKE; SOYA, RYOKO; KATSUMATA, KENJI; TSUCHIDA, AKIHIKO

    2016-01-01

    Certain cell lines exhibit metastatic ability (highly metastatic cell lines) while their parent cell lines have no metastatic ability. Differences in methylation, which are not derived from differences in the gene sequence between cell lines, were extensively analyzed. Using an established highly metastatic cell line, KM12SM, and its parent cell line, KM12C, differences in the frequency of methylation were analyzed in the promoter regions of ~480,000 gene sites using Infinium HumanMethylation450. The promoter region of the Rho GTPase-activating protein 28 (ARHGAP28) gene was the most markedly methylated region in KM12SM compared with KM12C. ARHGAP28 is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP), and it converts activated RhoA to inactivated RhoA via GTPase. RhoA activity was compared between these two cell lines. The activated RhoA level was compared using western blot analysis and G-LISA. The activated RhoA level was higher in KM12SM compared to KM12C for western blot analysis and G-LISA analysis. RhoA is a protein involved in cytoskeleton formation and cell motility. RhoA, for which ARHGAP28 acts as a GAP, is possibly a factor involved in the metastatic ability of cancer. PMID:26998271

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans include possible antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fasseas, Michael K; Fasseas, Costas; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Syntichaki, Popi

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effects of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici were found to inhibit the development and growth of the worm. Compared to Escherichia coli used as the control, L. reuteri and P. acidilactici reduced the lifespan of wild-type and short-lived daf-16 worms. On the contrary, L. salivarius extended the lifespan of daf-16 worms when used live, but reduced it as UV-killed bacteria. The three LAB induced the expression of genes involved in pathogen response and inhibited the growth of tumor-like germ cells, without affecting DAF16 localization or increasing corpse cells. Our results suggest the possible use of C. elegans as a model for studying the antitumor attributes of LAB. The negative effects of these LAB strains on the nematode also indicate their potential use against parasitic nematodes. PMID:22923095

  14. [Recording of possible side effects in the Bureau for Side Effects of Drugs and research activities in 1992].

    PubMed

    Stricker, B H; Ottervanger, J P

    1993-08-28

    In 1992, the Netherlands Centre for Monitoring of Adverse Reactions to Drugs received 1248 reports of suspected adverse reactions. The most important reports concerned chest pain to sumatriptan, cholestatic hepatitis to itraconazole and taste loss to terbinafine. Other important reports pertained to confusion and hallucinations in children on deptropine, postasphyctic encephalopathy of a newborn after intrapartum administration of nalbuphine, torsades de pointes to terodiline, fever to neuroleptics, muscle necrosis to intramuscular administration of diclofenac, gout during use of acetylsalicylic acid, psychic effects of vigabatrine and sudden death during fluorescence angiography. It is the policy of the Netherlands centre to publish as many relevant reports as possible in order to facilitate medical practitioners to adapt their pharmacotherapeutic choice. In close collaboration with several universities, the Netherlands centre currently develops systems and methods for postmarketing surveillance. PMID:8371825

  15. Continuous plasma outflows from the edge of a solar active region as a possible source of solar wind.

    PubMed

    Sakao, Taro; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Bando, Takamasa; Deluca, Edward E; Lundquist, Loraine L; Tsuneta, Saku; Harra, Louise K; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kubo, Masahito; Hara, Hirohisa; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Shimojo, Masumi; Bookbinder, Jay A; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly E; Su, Yingna; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Nakatani, Ichiro

    2007-12-01

    The Sun continuously expels a huge amount of ionized material into interplanetary space as the solar wind. Despite its influence on the heliospheric environment, the origin of the solar wind has yet to be well identified. In this paper, we report Hinode X-ray Telescope observations of a solar active region. At the edge of the active region, located adjacent to a coronal hole, a pattern of continuous outflow of soft-x-ray-emitting plasmas was identified emanating along apparently open magnetic field lines and into the upper corona. Estimates of temperature and density for the outflowing plasmas suggest a mass loss rate that amounts to approximately 1/4 of the total mass loss rate of the solar wind. These outflows may be indicative of one of the solar wind sources at the Sun. PMID:18063788

  16. The photoproduction of superoxide radicals and the superoxide dismutase activity of Photosystem II. The possible involvement of cytochrome b559.

    PubMed

    Ananyev, G; Renger, G; Wacker, U; Klimov, V

    1994-08-01

    In the present study the light induced formation of superoxide and intrinsic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in PS II membrane fragments and D1/D2/Cytb559-complexes from spinach have been analyzed by the use of ferricytochrome c (cyt c(III)) reduction and xanthine/xanthine oxidase as assay systems. The following results were obtained: 1.) Photoreduction of Cyt c (III) by PS II membrane fragments is induced by addition of sodium azide, tetracyane ethylene (TCNE) or carbonylcyanide-p-trifluoromethoxy-phenylhydrazone (FCCP) and after removal of the extrinsic polypeptides by a 1M CaCl2-treatment. This activity which is absent in control samples becomes completely inhibited by the addition of exogenous SOD. 2.) The TCNE induced cyt c(III) photoreduction by PS II membrane fragments was found to be characterized by a half maximal concentration of c1/2=10 μM TCNE. Simultaneously, TCNE inhibits the oxygen evolution rate of PS II membrane fragments with c1/2≈ 3 μM. 3.) The photoproduction of O2 (-) is coupled with H(+)-uptake. This effect is diminished by the addition of the O2 (-)-trap cyt c(III). 4.) D1/D2/Cytb559-complexes and PS II membrane fragments deprived of the extrinsic proteins and manganese exhibit no SOD-activity but are capable of producing O2 (-) in the light if a PS II electron donor is added.Based on these results the site(s) of light induced superoxide formation in PS II is (are) inferred to be located at the acceptor side. A part of the PS II donor side and Cyt b559 in its HP-form are proposed to provide an intrinsic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. PMID:24310115

  17. A possible WISE blazar counterpart of the faint INTEGRAL active galactic nucleus IGR J02341+0228

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; D'Abrusco, R.

    2012-05-01

    Following the Swift-XRT identification of the counterpart for the faint INTEGRAL active galactic nucleus IGR J02341+0228, associated with a new extragalactic source: QSO B0231+022 (ATEL #4102), we searched in the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE; Wright et al. 2010 AJ, 140, 1868) catalog at the position of the QSO B0231+022 source for an infrared counterpart.

  18. [Anti-inflammatory activity of benzo(c) phenanthridine derivatives and possible mechanisms of action (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Iwata, H; Yamamoto, I; Masukawa, T; Komoriya, K; Iwaki, H

    1977-07-01

    Of five newly synthesized benzo[c]phenanthridine derivatives tested, the two compounds, BPD-I and BPD-II were found to have potent anti-edematous activity with intraperitoneal administration to S.D. rats. BPD-I showed a marked inhibitory effect against acute inflammation such as induced rat paw edema and leucocyte emigration and protein exudation by means of CMC pouch method and capillary permeability enhancement induced by various phlogists. This compound also inhibited subacute and chronic inflammatory responses such as granuloma formation induced by croton oil or cotton pellet. The anti-inflammatory activities of this compound resembled those of hydrocortisone. The inhibitory effects of carragenan edema and capillary permeability enhancement by ATP were strikingly reduced in adrenalectomized rats suggesting involvement of the hypophysis-adrenal systems. Rat serum corticosterone level and hepatic tyrosine aminotransferase activity (TAT) were then measured after BPD-I injection. The serum corticosterone level was increased and shortly after the elevation of corticosterone, hepatic TAT levels also increased. Thus it is concluded that the corticosterone release from adrenal gland plays a role in the anti-inflammatory action of BPD-I. PMID:21834

  19. Protective activity of carnosine and anserine against zinc-induced neurotoxicity: a possible treatment for vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Dai; Konoha-Mizuno, Keiko; Mori, Miwako; Sadakane, Yutaka; Koyama, Hironari; Ohkawara, Susumu; Kawahara, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) is a small dipeptide with numerous beneficial effects, including the maintenance of the acid-base balance, antioxidant properties, chelating agent, anti-crosslinking, and anti-glycation activities. High levels of carnosine and its analogue anserine (1-methyl carnosine) are found in skeletal muscle and the brain. Zinc (Zn)-induced neurotoxicity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular dementia (VD), and carnosine inhibits Zn-induced neuronal death. Here, the protective activity of carnosine against Zn-induced neurotoxicity and its molecular mechanisms such as cellular Zn influx and Zn-induced gene expression were investigated using immortalised hypothalamic neurons (GT1-7 cells). Carnosine and anserine protected against Zn-induced neurotoxicity not by preventing increases in intracellular Zn(2+) but by participating in the regulation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathway and the activity-regulated cytoskeletal protein (Arc). Accordingly, carnosine and anserine protected against neurotoxicity induced by ER-stress inducers thapsigargin and tunicamycin. Hence, carnosine and anserine are expected to have future therapeutic potential for VD and other neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25846004

  20. Previously Activated Psoralen: A Possible Novel Format of Psoralen Used in the Treatment of Graft-versus-host Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hu, X; Qian, L; Chen, X; Shen, J

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a lethal complication of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation which limits its application. Psoralen was utilized in the treatment of GVHD as a second-line method, which is also known as extracorporeal photochemotherapy (ECP). In the process of ECP, mononuclear cells must be isolated from the body in advance. Then a photosensitizer, 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP, 200 μg/L for the final concentration), would be added to the cell suspension before its exposure to ultraviolet A [UVA; 365 nm, 2J/cm2]. The disposed lymphocytes re-infused into the body account for 5% to 15% of the lymphocytes in the body. The process of ECP is complicated, expensive and very labour intensive, which limits its popularity. We hypothesized that psoralen should be activated by UVA, and should be kept in activation for a relatively long time before it gets in contact with mononuclear cells. This kind of psoralen is called previously activated psoralen (PAP), which may have the same effects on GVHD as ECP, but would be much easier and economical to work with. PMID:26360687

  1. Lithium enrichment on the single active K1-giant DI Piscium. Possible joint origin of differential rotation and Li enrichment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriskovics, L.; Kővári, Zs.; Vida, K.; Granzer, T.; Oláh, K.

    2014-11-01

    Aims: We investigate the surface spot activity of the rapidly rotating, lithium-rich active single K-giant DI Psc to measure the surface differential rotation and understand the mechanisms behind the Li-enrichment. Methods: Doppler imaging was applied to recover the surface temperature distribution of DI Psc in two subsequent rotational cycles using the individual mapping lines Ca i 6439, Fe i 6430, Fe i 6421, and Li i 6708. Surface differential rotation was derived by cross-correlation of the subsequent maps. Difference maps are produced to study the uniformity of Li-enrichment on the surface. These maps are compared with the rotational modulation of the Li i 6708 line equivalent width. Results: Doppler images obtained for the Ca and Fe mapping lines agree well and reveal strong polar spottedness, as well as cool features at lower latitudes. Cross-correlating the consecutive maps yields antisolar differential rotation with a shear coefficient α = -0.083 ± 0.021. The difference of the average and the Li maps indicates that the lithium abundance is non-activity related. There is also a significant rotational modulation of the Li equivalent width. Data were gathered via OPTICON FP7 in semester 2012B.

  2. Vasorelaxant activity of extracts obtained from Apium graveolens: Possible source for vasorelaxant molecules isolation with potential antihypertensive effect

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Vergara-Galicia; Ángel, Jimenez-Ramirez Luis; Adrián, Tun-Suarez; Francisco, Aguirre-Crespo; Anuar, Salazar-Gómez; Samuel, Estrada-Soto; Ángel, Sierra-Ovando; Emmanuel, Hernandez-Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate vasorelaxant effect of organic extracts from Apium graveolens (A. graveolens) which is a part of a group of plants subjected to pharmacological and phytochemical study with the purpose of offering it as an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. Methods An ex vivo method was employed to assess the vasorelaxant activity. This consisted of using rat aortic rings with and without endothelium precontracted with norepinephrine. Results All extracts caused concentration-dependent relaxation in precontracted aortic rings with and without endothelium; the most active extracts were Dichloromethane and Ethyl Acetate extracts from A. graveolens. These results suggested that secondary metabolites responsible for the vasorelaxant activity belong to a group of compounds of medium polarity. Also, our evidence showed that effect induced by dichloromethane and ethyl acetate extracts from A. graveolens is mediated probably by calcium antagonism. Conclusions A. graveolens represents an ideal source for obtaining lead compounds for designing new therapeutic agents with potential vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. PMID:24075341

  3. Ribonuclease Activity of Dis3 Is Required for Mitotic Progression and Provides a Possible Link between Heterochromatin and Kinetochore Function

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Hiroaki; Goto, Derek B.; Toda, Takashi; Chen, Ee Sin; Grewal, Shiv I.; Martienssen, Robert A.; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2007-01-01

    Background Cellular RNA metabolism has a broad range of functional aspects in cell growth and division, but its role in chromosome segregation during mitosis is only poorly understood. The Dis3 ribonuclease is a key component of the RNA-processing exosome complex. Previous isolation of the dis3-54 cold-sensitive mutant of fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe suggested that Dis3 is also required for correct chromosome segregation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show here that the progression of mitosis is arrested in dis3-54, and that segregation of the chromosomes is blocked by activation of the mitotic checkpoint control. This block is dependent on the Mad2 checkpoint protein. Double mutant and inhibitor analyses revealed that Dis3 is required for correct kinetochore formation and function, and that this activity is monitored by the Mad2 checkpoint. Dis3 is a member of the highly conserved RNase II family and is known to be an essential subunit of the exosome complex. The dis3-54 mutation was found to alter the RNaseII domain of Dis3, which caused a reduction in ribonuclease activity in vitro. This was associated with loss of silencing of an ura4+ reporter gene inserted into the outer repeats (otr) and central core (cnt and imr) regions of the centromere. On the other hand, centromeric siRNA maturation and formation of the RITS RNAi effector complex was normal in the dis3-54 mutant. Micrococcal nuclease assay also suggested the overall chromatin structure of the centromere was not affected in dis3-54 mutant. Conclusions/Significance RNase activity of Dis3, a core subunit of exosome, was found to be required for proper kinetochore formation and establishment of kinetochore-microtubule interactions. Moreover, Dis3 was suggested to contribute to kinetochore formation through an involvement in heterochromatic silencing at both outer centromeric repeats and within the central core region. This activity is likely monitored by the mitotic checkpoint, and distinct

  4. DY determinants, possibly associated with novel class II molecules, stimulate autoreactive CD4+ T cells with suppressive activity

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    A set of T cell clones (TCC) isolated from HLA-DR-, Dw-, DQ-matched allogeneic MLCs was found to proliferate autonomously when stimulated with cells carrying a wide range of class I or II specificities. This apparently unrestricted proliferation was relatively weak, and only low levels of IL-2 were present in the supernatants of stimulated cells. Autologous as well as allogeneic PBMC and B lymphoblastoid cell lines (B-LCL) were capable of stimulating such clones, which were also restimulated by suppressive, but not by helper, TCC. Moreover, such clones displayed the unusual property of autostimulation. mAb inhibition experiments suggested that class II- or class II-restricted antigens were involved in stimulation. Thus, certain "broad" mAbs (TU39, SG520) reacting with multiple locus products inhibited activation of these reagents, but none of those reacting more specifically with DR (TU34, TU37, L243, Q2/70, SG157), DQ (TU22, SPV- L3, Leu 10), or DP (B7/21), or mixtures of these mAbs, were able to do so. Evidence from sequential immunoprecipitation experiments suggested that mAb TU39 bound class II-like molecules other than DR, DQ, and DP on TCC and B-LCL, and it is therefore proposed that such putative novel class II-like molecules may carry the stimulating determinants for these autoreactive clones. DY-reactive clones lacked helper activity for B cells but mediated potent suppressive activity on T cell proliferative responses that was not restricted by the HLA type of the responding cells. Suppressive activity was induced in normal PBMC by such clones, as well as by independent suppressive clones, which was also inhibited only by mAb TU39. These findings lead to the proposal that DY-reactive autostimulatory cells may constitute a self- maintaining suppressive circuit, the level of activity of which would be regulated primarily by the availability of IL-2 in the microenvironment. PMID:2450156

  5. A topographic study of minicolumnar core width by lamina comparison between autistic subjects and controls: possible minicolumnar disruption due to an anatomical element in-common to multiple laminae.

    PubMed

    Casanova, Manuel F; El-Baz, Ayman; Vanbogaert, Eric; Narahari, Praveen; Switala, Andrew

    2010-03-01

    Radial cell minicolumns are basic cytoarchitectonic motifs of the mammalian neocortex. Recent studies reveal that autism is associated with a "minicolumnopathy" defined by decreased columnar width and both a diminished and disrupted peripheral neuropil compartment. This study further characterizes this cortical deficit by comparing minicolumnar widths across layers. Brains from seven autistic patients and an equal number of age-matched controls were celloidin embedded, serially sectioned at 200 microm and Nissl stained with gallocyanin. Photomicrograph mosaics of the cortex were analyzed with computerized imaging methods to determine minicolumnar width at nine separate neocortical areas: Brodmann Area's (BA) 3b, 4, 9, 10, 11, 17, 24, 43 and 44. Each area was assessed at supragranular, granular and infragranular levels. Autistic subjects had smaller minicolumns whose dimensions varied according to neocortical area. The greatest difference between autistic and control groups was observed in area 44. The interaction of diagnosis x cortical area x lamina (F(16,316) = 1.33; P = 0.175) was not significant. Diminished minicolumnar width across deep and superficial neocortical layers most probably reflects involvement of shared constituents among the different layers. In this article we discuss the possible role of double bouquet and pyramidal cells in the translaminar minicolumnar width narrowing observed in autistic subjects. PMID:19725830

  6. Possible involvement of AMP-activated protein kinase in PGE1-induced synthesis of osteoprotegerin in osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    KAINUMA, SHINGO; OTSUKA, TAKANOBU; KUROYANAGI, GEN; YAMAMOTO, NAOHIRO; MATSUSHIMA-NISHIWAKI, RIE; KOZAWA, OSAMU; TOKUDA, HARUHIKO

    2016-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is firmly established as a central regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. We have previously reported that prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) stimulates the synthesis of osteoprotegerin through p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (SAPK/JNK) in osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. The present study investigated the involvement of AMPK in PGE1-induced osteoprotegerin synthesis in MC3T3-E1 cells. The levels of osteoprotegerin were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, while the phosphorylation of AMPK, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK were analyzed by western blotting. In addition, the mRNA expression levels of osteoprotegerin were determined by a reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. It was revealed that PGE1 significantly induced the phosphorylation of the α and β subunits of AMPK in a time-dependent manner (P<0.05). In addition, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, a direct substrate of AMPK, was significantly phosphorylated by PGE1 (P<0.05). Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, was revealed to suppress the phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, which significantly reduced the release and mRNA expression levels of PGE1-stimulated osteoprotegerin (P<0.05). However, the PGE1-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAP kinase and SAPK/JNK were not affected by compound C. The results of the present study indicated that AMPK may positively regulate PGE1-stimulated osteoprotegerin synthesis in osteoblasts; thus providing novel insight into the regulatory mechanisms underlying bone metabolism. PMID:27168848

  7. Possible influence of western North Pacific monsoon on TC activity in mid-latitudes of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ki-Seon; Cha, Yumi; Kim, Hae-Dong; Kang, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzed the correlation between tropical cyclone (TC) frequency and the Western North Pacific monsoon index (WNPMI), which have both been influential in East Asia's mid-latitude regions during the summer season over the past 37 years (1977-2013). A high positive correlation existed between these two variables, which was not reduced even if El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) years were excluded. To determine the cause of this positive correlation, the highest (positive WNPMI phase) and lowest WNPMIs (negative WNPMI phase) during a nine-year period were selected to analyze the mean difference between them, excluding ENSO years. In the positive WNPMI phase, TCs were mainly generated in the eastern seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the East China Sea and moving northward toward Korea and Japan. In the negative phase, TCs were mainly generated in the western seas of the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, passing through the South China Sea and moving westward toward China's southern regions. Therefore, TC intensity in the positive phase was stronger due to the acquisition of sufficient energy from the sea while moving a long distance up to East Asia's mid-latitude. Additionally, TCs occurred more in the positive phase. Regarding the difference of the two phases between the 850 and 500-hPa streamlines, anomalous cyclones were strengthened in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, whereas anomalous anticyclones were strengthened in East Asia's mid-latitude regions. Due to these two anomalous pressure systems, anomalous southeasterlies developed in East Asia's mid-latitude regions, which played a role in the anomalous steering flows that moved TCs into these regions. Furthermore, due to the anomalous cyclones that developed in the tropical and subtropical western North Pacific, more TCs could be generated in the positive phase. Both the lower and upper tropospheric layers had warm anomalies

  8. A Model for Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor-Activated Gene Expression Shows Potency and Efficacy Changes and Predicts Squelching Due to Competition for Transcription Co-Activators

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Ted W.; Budinsky, Robert A.; Rowlands, J. Craig

    2015-01-01

    A stochastic model of nuclear receptor-mediated transcription was developed based on activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) and subsequent binding the activated AHR to xenobiotic response elements (XREs) on DNA. The model was based on effects observed in cells lines commonly used as in vitro experimental systems. Following ligand binding, the AHR moves into the cell nucleus and forms a heterodimer with the aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT). In the model, a requirement for binding to DNA is that a generic coregulatory protein is subsequently bound to the AHR-ARNT dimer. Varying the amount of coregulator available within the nucleus altered both the potency and efficacy of TCDD for inducing for transcription of CYP1A1 mRNA, a commonly used marker for activation of the AHR. Lowering the amount of available cofactor slightly increased the EC50 for the transcriptional response without changing the efficacy or maximal response. Further reduction in the amount of cofactor reduced the efficacy and produced non-monotonic dose-response curves (NMDRCs) at higher ligand concentrations. The shapes of these NMDRCs were reminiscent of the phenomenon of squelching. Resource limitations for transcriptional machinery are becoming apparent in eukaryotic cells. Within single cells, nuclear receptor-mediated gene expression appears to be a stochastic process; however, intercellular communication and other aspects of tissue coordination may represent a compensatory process to maintain an organism’s ability to respond on a phenotypic level to various stimuli within an inconstant environment. PMID:26039703

  9. Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Mortazavi, Gh.; Haghani, M.; Rastegarian, N.; Zarei, S.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), factors such as growing electricity demand, ever-advancing technologies and changes in social behaviour have led to steadily increasing exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields.  Dental amalgam fillings are among the major sources of exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Although it was previously believed that low levels are mercury (i.g. release of mercury from dental amalgam) is not hazardous, now numerous data indicate that even very low doses of mercury cause toxicity. There are some evidence indicating that perinatal exposure to mercury is significantly associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, mercury can decrease the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, noreprenephrine, and acetylcholine in the brain and cause neurological problems. On the other hand, a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels is found in some studies. We have previously shown that exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by common mobile phones can lead to increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Moreover, when we investigated the effects of MRI machines with stronger magnetic fields, our previous findings were confirmed. As a strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and mercury level has been found in our previous studies, our findings can lead us to this conclusion that maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause elevated levels of mercury and trigger the increase in autism rates. Further studies are needed to have a better understanding of the possible role of the increased mercury level after exposure to electromagnetic fields and the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. PMID:27026954

  10. Increased Release of Mercury from Dental Amalgam Fillings due to Maternal Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields as a Possible Mechanism for the High Rates of Autism in the Offspring: Introducing a Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Gh; Haghani, M; Rastegarian, N; Zarei, S; Mortazavi, S M J

    2016-03-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO), factors such as growing electricity demand, ever-advancing technologies and changes in social behaviour have led to steadily increasing exposure to man-made electromagnetic fields.  Dental amalgam fillings are among the major sources of exposure to elemental mercury vapour in the general population. Although it was previously believed that low levels are mercury (i.g. release of mercury from dental amalgam) is not hazardous, now numerous data indicate that even very low doses of mercury cause toxicity. There are some evidence indicating that perinatal exposure to mercury is significantly associated with an increased risk of developmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Furthermore, mercury can decrease the levels of neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, noreprenephrine, and acetylcholine in the brain and cause neurological problems. On the other hand, a strong positive correlation between maternal and cord blood mercury levels is found in some studies. We have previously shown that exposure to MRI or microwave radiation emitted by common mobile phones can lead to increased release of mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Moreover, when we investigated the effects of MRI machines with stronger magnetic fields, our previous findings were confirmed. As a strong association between exposure to electromagnetic fields and mercury level has been found in our previous studies, our findings can lead us to this conclusion that maternal exposure to electromagnetic fields in mothers with dental amalgam fillings may cause elevated levels of mercury and trigger the increase in autism rates. Further studies are needed to have a better understanding of the possible role of the increased mercury level after exposure to electromagnetic fields and the rate of autism spectrum disorders in the offspring. PMID:27026954

  11. Anaerobic phosphate release from activated sludge with enhanced biological phosphorus removal. A possible mechanism of intracellular pH control

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, P.L.; Keller, J.; Blackall, L.L.

    1999-06-05

    The biochemical mechanisms of the wastewater treatment process known as enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) are presently described in a metabolic model. The authors investigated details of the EBPR model to determine the nature of the anaerobic phosphate release and how this may be metabolically associated with polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) formation. Iodoacetate, an inhibitor of glycolysis, was found to inhibit the anaerobic formation of PHA and phosphate release, supporting the pathways proposed in the EBPR metabolic model. In the metabolic model, it is proposed that polyphosphate degradation provides energy for the microorganisms in anaerobic regions of these treatment systems. Other investigations have shown that anaerobic phosphate release depends on the extracellular pH. The authors observed that when the intracellular pH of EBPR sludge was raised, substantial anaerobic phosphate release was caused without volatile fatty acid (VFA) uptake. Acidification of the sludge inhibited anaerobic phosphate release even in the presence of VFA. from these observations, the authors postulate that an additional possible role of anaerobic polyphosphate degradation in EBPR is for intracellular pH control. Intracellular pH control may be a metabolic feature of EBPR, not previously considered, that could have some use in the control and optimization of EBPR.

  12. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August-2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3-10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 counts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0-3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3-100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  13. Betulinic Acid Selectively Increases Protein Degradation and Enhances Prostate Cancer-Specific Apoptosis: Possible Role for Inhibition of Deubiquitinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Reiner, Teresita; Parrondo, Ricardo; de las Pozas, Alicia; Palenzuela, Deanna; Perez-Stable, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) of protein degradation is a valid anti-cancer strategy and has led to the approval of bortezomib for the treatment of multiple myeloma. However, the alternative approach of enhancing the degradation of oncoproteins that are frequently overexpressed in cancers is less developed. Betulinic acid (BA) is a plant-derived small molecule that can increase apoptosis specifically in cancer but not in normal cells, making it an attractive anti-cancer agent. Our results in prostate cancer suggested that BA inhibited multiple deubiquitinases (DUBs), which resulted in the accumulation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, decreased levels of oncoproteins, and increased apoptotic cell death. In normal fibroblasts, however, BA did not inhibit DUB activity nor increased total poly-ubiquitinated proteins, which was associated with a lack of effect on cell death. In the TRAMP transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer, treatment with BA (10 mg/kg) inhibited primary tumors, increased apoptosis, decreased angiogenesis and proliferation, and lowered androgen receptor and cyclin D1 protein. BA treatment also inhibited DUB activity and increased ubiquitinated proteins in TRAMP prostate cancer but had no effect on apoptosis or ubiquitination in normal mouse tissues. Overall, our data suggests that BA-mediated inhibition of DUBs and induction of apoptotic cell death specifically in prostate cancer but not in normal cells and tissues may provide an effective non-toxic and clinically selective agent for chemotherapy. PMID:23424652

  14. A recent strong X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 with possibly less efficient stochastic acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, B.; Dorner, D.; Vercellone, S.; Romano, P.; Kapanadze, S.; Mdzinarishvili, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present an X-ray flaring activity of 1ES 1959+650 in 2015 August - 2016 January, which was the most powerful and prolonged during the 10.75 yr period since the start of its monitoring with X-ray Telescope onboard Swift. A new highest historical 0.3 - 10 keV count rate was recorded three times that makes this object the third BL Lacertae source exceeding the level of 20 cts s-1. Along with the overall variability by a factor of 5.7, this epoch was characterized by fast X-ray flares by a factor of 2.0 - 3.1, accompanied with an extreme spectral variability. The source also shows a simultaneous flaring activity in the optical - UV and 0.3 - 100 GeV bands, although a fast γ-ray flare without significant optical - X-ray counterparts is also found. In contrast to the X-ray flares in the previous years, the stochastic acceleration seems be less important for the electrons responsible for producing X-ray emission during this flare that challenges the earlier suggestion that the electrons in the jets of TeV-detected BL Lacertae objects should undergo an efficient stochastic acceleration resulting in a lower X-ray spectral curvature.

  15. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Han, Wei; Xu, Jing Dong; Wei, Feng Xian; Zheng, Yong Dong; Ma, Jian Zhong; Xu, Xiao Dong; Wei, Zhen Gang; Wang, Wen; Zhang, You Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The peach tree, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE) showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL) caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM), cimetidine (10 µM), and pyrilamine (1 µM) produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L.) Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders. PMID:25821812

  16. Antifungal Activity of Eucalyptus Oil against Rice Blast Fungi and the Possible Mechanism of Gene Expression Pattern.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Li, Fu-Rong; Huang, Li-Jie; Yang, Zhi-Rong; Yuan, Shu; Bai, Lin-Han

    2016-01-01

    Eucalyptus oil possesses a wide spectrum of biological activity, including anti-microbial, fungicidal, herbicidal, acaricidal and nematicidal properties. We studied anti-fungal activities of the leaf oil extracted from Eucalyptus. grandis × E. urophylla. Eleven plant pathogenic fungi were tested based on the mycelium growth rates with negative control. The results showed that Eucalyptus oil has broad-spectrum inhibitory effects toward these fungi. Remarkable morphological and structural alterations of hypha have been observed for Magnaporthe grisea after the treatment. The mRNA genome array of M. grisea was used to detect genes that were differentially expressed in the test strains treated by the Eucalyptus oil than the normal strains. The results showed 1919 genes were significantly affected, among which 1109 were down-regulated and 810 were up-regulated (p < 0.05, absolute fold change >2). According to gene ontology annotation analysis, these differentially expressed genes may cause abnormal structures and physiological function disorders, which may reduce the fungus growth. These results show the oil has potential for use in the biological control of plant disease as a green biopesticide. PMID:27187335

  17. UDP-( sup 14 C)glucose-labelable polypeptides from pea: Possible components of glucan synthase I activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, P.M.; Dhugga, K.S.; Gallaghar, S.R. )

    1989-04-01

    A membrane-bound polypeptide doublet of about 40 kD can be rapidly labeled with UDP-({sup 14}C)glucose under the assay conditions for glucan synthase I (GS-I). Label seems covalently bound, and chases when unlabeled UDPG is added; it might represent a covalent intermediate in polysaccharide synthesis. Labeling and GS-I activity show several common features: they co-sediment with Golgi membranes in sucrose gradients; they depend similarly on Mg{sup 2+} or Mn{sup 2+} (not Ca{sup 2+}); they decrease dramatically from stem apex to base, and are higher in epidermis than internal tissue; they show similar sensitivities to several inhibitors. But the doublet still labels after polysaccharide-synthesizing activity has been destroyed by Triton X-100. The doublet polypeptides might be glucosyl tranferases whose ability to transfer glucose units to a glucan chain is detergent-sensitive, but to accept glucose from UDPG is not; or they might be detergent-insensitive primary glucose acceptors, from which a distinct, detergent-sensitive transferase(s) move(s) these units to glucan chains.

  18. Possible evolutionary relationships between streptomycin and bluensomycin biosynthetic pathways: detection of novel inositol kinase and O-carbamoyltransferase activities.

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J B

    1990-01-01

    Bluensomycin (glebomycin) is an aminocyclitol antibiotic that differs structurally from dihydrostreptomycin in having bluensidine (1D-1-O-carbamoyl-3-guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol) rather than streptidine (1,3-diguanidino-1,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inositol) as its aminocyclitol moiety. Extracts of the bluensomycin producer Streptomyces hygroscopicus form glebosus ATCC 14607 (S. glebosus) were found to have aminodeoxy-scyllo-inositol kinase activity but to lack 1D-1-guanidino-3-amino-1,3-dideoxy-scyllo-inositol kinase activity, showing for the first time that these two reactions in streptomycin producers must be catalyzed by different enzymes. S. glebosus extracts therefore possess the same five enzymes required for synthesis of guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol from myo-inositol that are found in streptomycin producers but lack the next three of the four enzymes found in streptomycin producers that are required to synthesize the second guanidino group of streptidine-P. In place of a second guanidino group, S. glebosus extracts were found to catalyze a Mg2(+)-dependent carbamoylation of guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol to form bluensidine, followed by a phosphorylation to form bluensidine-P. The novel carbamoyl-P:guanidinodeoxy-scyllo-inositol O-carbamoyltransferase and ATP:bluensidine phosphotransferase activities were not detected in streptomycin producers or in S. glebosus during its early rapid growth phase. Free bluensidine appears to be a normal intermediate in bluensomycin biosynthesis, in contrast to the case of streptomycin biosynthesis; in the latter, although exogenous streptidine can enter the pathway via streptidine-P, free streptidine is not an intermediate in the endogenous biosynthetic pathway. Comparison of the streptomycin and bluensomycin biosynthetic pathways provides a unique opportunity to evaluate those proposed mechanisms for the evolutionary acquisition of new biosynthetic capabilities that involve gene duplication and subsequent mutational changes in

  19. Variation in active and passive resource inputs to experimental pools: mechanisms and possible consequences for food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pletcher, Leanna T.; Vonesh, James R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Cross-ecosystem movements of resources, including detritus, nutrients and living prey, can strongly influence food web dynamics in recipient habitats. Variation in resource inputs is thought to be driven by factors external to the recipient habitat (e.g. donor habitat productivity and boundary conditions). However, inputs of or by ‘active’ living resources may be strongly influenced by recipient habitat quality when organisms exhibit behavioural habitat selection when crossing ecosystem boundaries. 2. To examine whether behavioural responses to recipient habitat quality alter the relative inputs of ‘active’ living and ‘passive’ detrital resources to recipient food webs, we manipulated the presence of caged predatory fish and measured biomass, energy and organic content of inputs to outdoor experimental pools of adult aquatic insects, frog eggs, terrestrial plant matter and terrestrial arthropods. 3. Caged fish reduced the biomass, energy and organic matter donated to pools by tree frog eggs by ∼70%, but did not alter insect colonisation or passive allochthonous inputs of terrestrial arthropods and plant material. Terrestrial plant matter and adult aquatic insects provided the most energy and organic matter inputs to the pools (40–50%), while terrestrial arthropods provided the least (7%). Inputs of frog egg were relatively small but varied considerably among pools and over time (3%, range = 0–20%). Absolute and proportional amounts varied by input type. 4. Aquatic predators can strongly affect the magnitude of active, but not passive, inputs and that the effect of recipient habitat quality on active inputs is variable. Furthermore, some active inputs (i.e. aquatic insect colonists) can provide similar amounts of energy and organic matter as passive inputs of terrestrial plant matter, which are well known to be important. Because inputs differ in quality and the trophic level they subsidise, proportional changes in input type could have

  20. Curcumin Inhibits Glyoxalase 1—A Possible Link to Its Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Santel, Thore; Pflug, Gabi; Hemdan, Nasr Y. A.; Schäfer, Angelika; Hollenbach, Marcus; Buchold, Martin; Hintersdorf, Anja; Lindner, Inge; Otto, Andreas; Bigl, Marina; Oerlecke, Ilka; Hutschenreuter, Antje; Sack, Ulrich; Huse, Klaus; Groth, Marco; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Gebhardt, Rolf; Platzer, Mathias; Weiss, Thomas; Vijayalakshmi, Mookambeswaran A.; Krüger, Monika; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Background Glyoxalases (Glo1 and Glo2) are involved in the glycolytic pathway by detoxifying the reactive methylglyoxal (MGO) into D-lactate in a two-step reaction using glutathione (GSH) as cofactor. Inhibitors of glyoxalases are considered as anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic agents. The recent finding that various polyphenols modulate Glo1 activity has prompted us to assess curcumin's potency as an Glo1 inhibitor. Methodology/Principal Findings Cultures of whole blood cells and tumor cell lines (PC-3, JIM-1, MDA-MD 231 and 1321N1) were set up to investigate the effect of selected polyphenols, including curcumin, on the LPS-induced cytokine production (cytometric bead-based array), cell proliferation (WST-1 assay), cytosolic Glo1 and Glo2 enzymatic activity, apoptosis/necrosis (annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining; flow cytometric analysis) as well as GSH and ATP content. Results of enzyme kinetics revealed that curcumin, compared to the polyphenols quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, luteolin and rutin, elicited a stronger competitive inhibitory effect on Glo1 (Ki = 5.1±1.4 µM). Applying a whole blood assay, IC50 values of pro-inflammatory cytokine release (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β) were found to be positively correlated with the Ki-values of the aforementioned polyphenols. Moreover, whereas curcumin was found to hamper the growth of breast cancer (JIMT-1, MDA-MB-231), prostate cancer PC-3 and brain astrocytoma 1321N1 cells, no effect on growth or vitality of human primary hepatocytes was elucidated. Curcumin decreased D-lactate release by tumor cells, another clue for inhibition of intracellular Glo1. Conclusions/Significance The results described herein provide new insights into curcumin's biological activities as they indicate that inhibition of Glo1 by curcumin may result in non-tolerable levels of MGO and GSH, which, in turn, modulate various metabolic cellular pathways including depletion of cellular ATP and GSH content. This may account

  1. The thiocarbamate disulphide drug, disulfiram induces osteopenia in rats by inhibition of osteoblast function due to suppression of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Monika; Khan, Kainat; Pal, Subhashis; Porwal, Konica; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Barbhuyan, Tarun K; Baghel, Khemraj S; Rawat, Tara; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bhadauria, Smrati; Sharma, Vishnu L; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2014-05-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTC), a sulfhydryl group containing compounds, are extensively used by humans that include metam and thiram due to their pesticide properties, and disulfiram (DSF) as an alcohol deterrent. We screened these DTC in an osteoblast viability assay. DSF exhibited the highest cytotoxicity (IC50 488nM). Loss in osteoblast viability and proliferation was due to induction of apoptosis via G1 arrest. DSF treatment to osteoblasts reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and exogenous addition of GSH prevented DSF-induced reactive oxygen species generation and osteoblast apoptosis. DSF also inhibited osteoblast differentiation in vitro and in vivo, and the effect was associated with inhibition of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Out of various ALDH isozymes, osteoblasts expressed only ALDH2 and DSF downregulated its transcript as well as activity. Alda-1, a specific activator of ALDH2, stimulated osteoblast differentiation. Subcutaneous injection of DSF over the calvarium of new born rats reduced the differentiation phenotype of calvarial osteoblasts but increased the mRNA levels of Runx-2 and osteocalcin. DSF treatment at a human-equivalent dose of 30 mg/kg p.o. to adult Sprague Dawley rats caused trabecular osteopenia and suppressed the formation of mineralized nodule by bone marrow stromal cells. Moreover, DSF diminished bone regeneration at the fracture site. In growing rats, DSF diminished growth plate height, primary and secondary spongiosa, mineralized osteoid and trabecular strength. Substantial decreased bone formation was also observed in the cortical site of these rats. We conclude that DSF has a strong osteopenia inducing effect by impairing osteoblast survival and differentiation due to the inhibition of ALDH2 function. PMID:24496638

  2. Possible macrophage activation syndrome following initiation of adalimumab in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Souabni, Leila; Dridi, Leila; Ben Abdelghani, Kawther; Kassab, Selma; Chekili, Selma; Laater, Ahmed; Zakraoui, Leith

    2014-01-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) has been rarely reported in the course of adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) and in the majority of cases, it was triggered by an infection. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first case of MAS occurring after adalimumab treatment initiation and not triggered by an infection. A 26-yearold woman with classical features of AOSD developed persistent fever, severe bicytopenia associated with extreme hyperferritinemia, hyponatremia and abnormal liver function tow months after the initiation of adalimumab treatment. The diagnosis of MAS was made without histological proof. The patient was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy and her condition improved. During the disease course, extensive studies could not identify any viral infection or other known underlying etiology for the reactive MAS. The adalimumab was incriminated in this complication. Currently, the patient is in remission on tocilizumab and low-dose prednisolone. PMID:25018831

  3. Giant stellar arcs in the Large Magellanic Cloud: a possible link with past activity of the Milky Way nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Efremov, Yuri N.

    2013-02-01

    The origin of the giant stellar arcs in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) remains a controversial issue, one that has been discussed since 1966. No other star/cluster arc is so perfect a segment of a circle; moreover, there is another similar arc nearby. Many hypotheses were advanced to explain these arcs and all but one of these was disproved. It was proposed in 2004 that the origin of these arcs was a bow shock from the jet that is intermittently fired by the Milky Way nucleus; during its last episode of activity the jet was pointed toward the LMC. Quite recently, evidence for such a jet indeed appeared. We suggest that it was once energetic enough to trigger star formation in the LMC, and if the jet opening angle was about 2° then it could push out H i gas from a region of about 2 kpc in size, forming a cavity LMC4, but also squeeze two dense clouds that occurred in the same area, causing the formation of stars along their surfaces facing the core of the Milky Way. As a result, spherical segments of stellar shells might arise, visible now as the arcs named the Quadrant and Sextant, the apexes of which point towards the centre of the Milky Way. The orientation of both arcs could be the key to unlocking their origin. Here we give data that confirm the above hypothesis, amongst which are the radial velocities of stars inside and outside the larger of the LMC arcs. The probability is low that a jet from an active galactic nucleus (AGN) points towards a nearby galaxy and triggers star formation there, but a few other examples are now known or suspected.

  4. Combining biochemical with (1)H NMR-based metabolomics approach unravels the antidiabetic activity of genipin and its possible mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Li; Liu, Huan; Xiang, Huan; Qin, Xue-Mei; Du, Guan-Hua; Tian, Jun-Sheng

    2016-09-10

    Diabetes mellitus is a typical heterogeneous metabolic disorder characterized by abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Genipin possesses a wide spectrum of biological activities including ameliorating effects on diabetes, but the definite mechanism of this effect remains unknown. To investigate the antidiabetic activities of genipin and explore the biochemical changes of serum endogenous metabolites on diabetic rats induced by alloxan, (1)H NMR spectroscopy coupled with multivariate data analysis was used to. All rats were randomly divided into six groups including negative control (NC) group, diabetic mellitus (DM) group, metformin hydrochloride group, high dose group of genipin, middle dose group of genipin and low dose group of genipin. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of 120mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Serum samples were collected for the (1)H NMR-based metabolomics and clinical biochemical analysis. Daily oral administration of genipin (25, 50 and 100mg/kg body weight) and metformin hydrochloride (125mg/kg) for two weeks showed beneficial effects on blood glucose level (P<0.01). Significant differences in the metabolic profile as well as the result of biochemical parameters between the diabetic group and the control group were observed. The PLS-DA scores and corresponding loading plots demonstrated that genipin significantly restored the abnormal metabolic state. Detailed analysis of the altered metabolite levels indicated that genipin significantly ameliorated the disturbance in glucose metabolism, tricarboxylic acid cycle, lipid metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Genipin showed the best anti-diabetic effects at a dose of 100mg/kg in rats. This finding indicates that chemical and metabolomic approaches could be powerful tools for the investigation of the biochemical changes in pathological conditions or drug treatment. PMID:27411170

  5. Control of cellular morphogenesis by the Ip12/Bem2 GTPase-activating protein: possible role of protein phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    The IPL2 gene is known to be required for normal polarized cell growth in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We now show that IPL2 is identical to the previously identified BEM2 gene. bem2 mutants are defective in bud site selection at 26 degrees C and localized cell surface growth and organization of the actin cytoskeleton at 37 degrees C. BEM2 encodes a protein with a COOH-terminal domain homologous to sequences found in several GTPase-activating proteins, including human Bcr. The GTPase-activating protein-domain from the Bem2 protein (Bem2p) or human Bcr can functionally substitute for Bem2p. The Rho1 and Rho2 GTPases are the likely in vivo targets of Bem2p because bem2 mutant phenotypes can be partially suppressed by increasing the gene dosage of RHO1 or RHO2. CDC55 encodes the putative regulatory B subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, and mutations in BEM2 have previously been identified as suppressors of the cdc55-1 mutation. We show here that mutations in the previously identified GRR1 gene can suppress bem2 mutations. grr1 and cdc55 mutants are both elongated in shape and cold- sensitive for growth, and cells lacking both GRR1 and CDC55 exhibit a synthetic lethal phenotype. bem2 mutant phenotypes also can be suppressed by the SSD1-vl (also known as SRK1) mutation, which was shown previously to suppress mutations in the protein phosphatase- encoding SIT4 gene. Cells lacking both BEM2 and SIT4 exhibit a synthetic lethal phenotype even in the presence of the SSD1-v1 suppressor. These genetic interactions together suggest that protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play an important role in the BEM2-mediated process of polarized cell growth. PMID:7962097

  6. Control of cellular morphogenesis by the Ip12/Bem2 GTPase-activating protein: possible role of protein phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y J; Francisco, L; Chen, G C; Marcotte, E; Chan, C S

    1994-12-01

    The IPL2 gene is known to be required for normal polarized cell growth in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We now show that IPL2 is identical to the previously identified BEM2 gene. bem2 mutants are defective in bud site selection at 26 degrees C and localized cell surface growth and organization of the actin cytoskeleton at 37 degrees C. BEM2 encodes a protein with a COOH-terminal domain homologous to sequences found in several GTPase-activating proteins, including human Bcr. The GTPase-activating protein-domain from the Bem2 protein (Bem2p) or human Bcr can functionally substitute for Bem2p. The Rho1 and Rho2 GTPases are the likely in vivo targets of Bem2p because bem2 mutant phenotypes can be partially suppressed by increasing the gene dosage of RHO1 or RHO2. CDC55 encodes the putative regulatory B subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, and mutations in BEM2 have previously been identified as suppressors of the cdc55-1 mutation. We show here that mutations in the previously identified GRR1 gene can suppress bem2 mutations. grr1 and cdc55 mutants are both elongated in shape and cold-sensitive for growth, and cells lacking both GRR1 and CDC55 exhibit a synthetic lethal phenotype. bem2 mutant phenotypes also can be suppressed by the SSD1-vl (also known as SRK1) mutation, which was shown previously to suppress mutations in the protein phosphatase-encoding SIT4 gene. Cells lacking both BEM2 and SIT4 exhibit a synthetic lethal phenotype even in the presence of the SSD1-v1 suppressor. These genetic interactions together suggest that protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play an important role in the BEM2-mediated process of polarized cell growth. PMID:7962097

  7. Timing within the oestrous cycle modulates adrenergic suppression of NK activity and resistance to metastasis: possible clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Ben-Eliyahu, S; Shakhar, G; Shakhar, K; Melamed, R

    2000-12-01

    Clinical observations suggest that the rate of metastatic development and long-term mortality following surgery in breast cancer patients is influenced by the menstrual phase during which surgery is conducted. The menstrual cycle is known to modulate various physiological responses and medical conditions that involve adrenergic mechanisms (e.g., asthma). Natural killer activity (NKA), an immune function controlling metastasis, is suppressed following surgery, and in vitro by adrenaline. We therefore hypothesize that the clinical observation may be partly attributable to surgery-induced adrenergic suppression of NK-dependent resistance to metastasis, a suppression that depends on menstrual phase during surgery. To test this hypothesis in rats, 140 F344 females at different phases of their oestrous cycle were injected with a beta-adrenergic agonist, metaproterenol (MP) (0.4 or 0.8 mg kg(-1), s.c.), or with vehicle, before i.v. inoculation with MADB106 tumour cells. This syngeneic mammary adenocarcinoma line metastasizes only to the lungs, and is highly sensitive to NKA. In a second experiment, the suppression of NKA by MP was studied in vitro in blood drawn at different phases of the oestrous cycle (n = 36). Finally, the effects of stress on the number and activity of NK cells were assessed along the oestrous cycle (n = 71). The findings indicate that the suppressive effects of MP on resistance to metastasis and on NKA, are significantly greater during the oestrous phase characterized by high oestradiol levels (D3/proestrus/oestrus). Similarly, NKA per cell was suppressed by stress only during this phase. In untreated animals, in which inadvertent stress was minimized, no effects of the oestrous cycle on NKA or on resistance to metastasis were evident. These findings indicate that the oestrous cycle modulates adrenergic suppression of NKA and of resistance to metastasis. The relevance of these findings to the above clinical observation, as well as that of our related

  8. Geant4 simulation for a study of a possible use of carbon ion pencil beams for the treatment of ocular melanomas with the active scanning system at CNAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, E.; Piersimoni, P.; Riccardi, C.; Rimoldi, A.; Tamborini, A.; Ciocca, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study a possible use of carbon ion pencil beams (delivered with active scanning modality) for the treatment of ocular melanomas at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO). The promising aspect of carbon ions radiotherapy for the treatment of this disease lies in its superior relative radio-biological effectiveness (RBE). The Monte Carlo (MC) Geant4 10.00 toolkit was used to simulate the complete CNAO extraction beamline, with the active and passive components along it. A human eye modeled detector, including a realistic target tumor volume, was used as target. Cross check with previous studies at CNAO using protons allowed comparisons on possible benefits on using such a technique with respect to proton beams. Experimental data on proton and carbon ion beams transverse distributions were used to validate the simulation.

  9. Antiviral Activity and Possible Mechanism of Action of Constituents Identified in Paeonia lactiflora Root toward Human Rhinoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Ngan, Luong Thi My; Jang, Myeong Jin; Kwon, Min Jung; Ahn, Young Joon

    2015-01-01

    Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are responsible for more than half of all cases of the common cold and cost billions of USD annually in medical visits and missed school and work. An assessment was made of the antiviral activities and mechanisms of action of paeonol (PA) and 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranose (PGG) from Paeonia lactiflora root toward HRV-2 and HRV-4 in MRC5 cells using a tetrazolium method and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results were compared with those of a reference control ribavirin. Based on 50% inhibitory concentration values, PGG was 13.4 and 18.0 times more active toward HRV-2 (17.89 μM) and HRV-4 (17.33 μM) in MRC5 cells, respectively, than ribavirin. The constituents had relatively high selective index values (3.3–>8.5). The 100 μg/mL PA and 20 μg/mL PGG did not interact with the HRV-4 particles. These constituents inhibited HRV-4 infection only when they were added during the virus inoculation (0 h), the adsorption period of HRVs, but not after 1 h or later. Moreover, the RNA replication levels of HRVs were remarkably reduced in the MRC5 cultures treated with these constituents. These findings suggest that PGG and PA may block or reduce the entry of the viruses into the cells to protect the cells from the virus destruction and abate virus replication, which may play an important role in interfering with expressions of rhinovirus receptors (intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and low-density lipoprotein receptor), inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor, interferon beta, and IL-1β), and Toll-like receptor, which resulted in diminishing symptoms induced by HRV. Global efforts to reduce the level of synthetic drugs justify further studies on P. lactiflora root-derived materials as potential anti-HRV products or lead molecules for the prevention or treatment of HRV. PMID:25860871

  10. Increased Variation in Adh Enzyme Activity in Drosophila Mutation-Accumulation Experiment Is Not Due to Transposable Elements at the Adh Structural Gene

    PubMed Central

    Aquadro, C. F.; Tachida, H.; Langley, C. H.; Harada, K.; Mukai, T.

    1990-01-01

    We present here a molecular analysis of the region surrounding the structural gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) in 47 lines of Drosophila melanogaster that have each accumulated mutations for 300 generations. While these lines show a significant increase in variation of alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity compared to control lines, we found no restriction map variation in a 13-kb region including the complete Adh structural gene and roughly 5 kb of both 5' and 3' sequences. Thus, the rapid accumulation of ADH activity variation after 28,200 allele generations does not appear to have been due to the mobilization of transposable elements into or out of the Adh structural gene region. PMID:1963870

  11. Reactive macrophage activation syndrome possibly triggered by canakinumab in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease.

    PubMed

    Banse, Christopher; Vittecoq, Olivier; Benhamou, Ygal; Gauthier-Prieur, Maud; Lequerré, Thierry; Lévesque, Hervé

    2013-12-01

    Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a rare and serious complication of adult-onset Still's disease. We describe a case in a 49-year-old woman with Still's disease refractory to glucocorticoids, methotrexate, and infliximab. Anakinra provided satisfactory disease control for 1 year, after which escape phenomenon occurred. After four tocilizumab injections, cutaneous melanoma developed. The persistent systemic manifestations prompted treatment with two canakinumab injections. Ten days later, she had a spiking fever, dyspnea, low back pain, abdominal pain, odynophagia, and hepatomegaly. Laboratory tests showed liver cytolysis (180 IU/L; N: 10-35), acute renal failure (creatinine, 407 μmol/L; N:50-100), thrombocytopenia (60 G/L; N: 150-400), leukocytosis (12,200/mm(3); N: 4000-10,000), hypertriglyceridemia (5070 mmol/L; N: 0.4-1.6), lactate dehydrogenase elevation (4824 IU/L; N: 135-250), and hyperferritinemia (97 761 μg/L; N:15-150). Examination of a bone marrow biopsy showed phagocytosis. Tests were negative for viruses and other infectious agents. Glucocorticoid therapy (1.5 mg/Kg/d) and intravenous polyvalent immunoglobulins (0.5 g/Kg/d) were given. Her condition improved despite the many factors of adverse prognostic significance (thrombocytopenia, absence of lymphadenopathy, and glucocorticoid therapy at diagnosis). This is the first reported case of MAS after canakinumab therapy in a patient with adult-onset Still's disease. PMID:23751410

  12. Future monitoring of charged particle energy deposition into the upper atmosphere and comments on possible relationships between atmospheric phenomena and solar and/or geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Grubb, R. N.; Evans, D. S.; Sauer, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    The charged particle observations proposed for the new low altitude weather satellites, TIROS-N, are described that will provide the capability of routine monitoring of the instantaneous total energy deposition into the upper atmosphere by the precipitation of charged particles from higher altitudes. Estimates are given to assess the potential importance of this type of energy deposition. Discussion and examples are presented illustrating the importance in distinguishing between solar and geomagnetic activity as possible causative sources.

  13. Task Failure during Exercise to Exhaustion in Normoxia and Hypoxia Is Due to Reduced Muscle Activation Caused by Central Mechanisms While Muscle Metaboreflex Does Not Limit Performance

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Morales-Alamo, David; González-Izal, Miriam; Losa-Reyna, José; Pérez-Suárez, Ismael; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether task failure during incremental exercise to exhaustion (IE) is principally due to reduced neural drive and increased metaboreflex activation eleven men (22 ± 2 years) performed a 10 s control isokinetic sprint (IS; 80 rpm) after a short warm-up. This was immediately followed by an IE in normoxia (Nx, PIO2:143 mmHg) and hypoxia (Hyp, PIO2:73 mmHg) in random order, separated by a 120 min resting period. At exhaustion, the circulation of both legs was occluded instantaneously (300 mmHg) during 10 or 60 s to impede recovery and increase metaboreflex activation. This was immediately followed by an IS with open circulation. Electromyographic recordings were obtained from the vastus medialis and lateralis. Muscle biopsies and blood gases were obtained in separate experiments. During the last 10 s of the IE, pulmonary ventilation, VO2, power output and muscle activation were lower in hypoxia than in normoxia, while pedaling rate was similar. Compared to the control sprint, performance (IS-Wpeak) was reduced to a greater extent after the IE-Nx (11% lower P < 0.05) than IE-Hyp. The root mean square (EMGRMS) was reduced by 38 and 27% during IS performed after IE-Nx and IE-Hyp, respectively (Nx vs. Hyp: P < 0.05). Post-ischemia IS-EMGRMS values were higher than during the last 10 s of IE. Sprint exercise mean (IS-MPF) and median (IS-MdPF) power frequencies, and burst duration, were more reduced after IE-Nx than IE-Hyp (P < 0.05). Despite increased muscle lactate accumulation, acidification, and metaboreflex activation from 10 to 60 s of ischemia, IS-Wmean (+23%) and burst duration (+10%) increased, while IS-EMGRMS decreased (−24%, P < 0.05), with IS-MPF and IS-MdPF remaining unchanged. In conclusion, close to task failure, muscle activation is lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. Task failure is predominantly caused by central mechanisms, which recover to great extent within 1 min even when the legs remain ischemic. There is dissociation between the

  14. Investigation of gravity wave activity based on operational radiosonde data from 13 years (1997-2009): Climatology and possible induced variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kramer, R.; Wüst, S.; Bittner, M.

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric gravity waves (GWs) are important for the dynamics of the atmosphere. The analysis of 13 years of routine radiosonde data from Prague (50.01°N, 14.27°E) with temporal highly resolved temperature, pressure and wind measurements is presented in order to derive a climatology of gravity wave activity in the lower stratosphere. An annual cycle with a maximum during winter and a minimum during summer is identified. Gravity wave activity is twice as high during winter as during summer. Winter periods are investigated by wavelet analysis. They show similar periods in vertical flux of horizontal momentum and pressure variance time series. These features may be attributed to planetary waves. When analyzing individual years, maxima of gravity wave activity and vertical flux of horizontal momentum often appears together with minima in surface pressure. We speculate therefore that at least parts of the interannual variations of gravity wave activity may due to cyclones.

  15. High-frequency neural activity and human cognition: past, present and possible future of intracranial EEG research

    PubMed Central

    Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Axmacher, Nikolai; Mormann, Florian; Halgren, Eric; Crone, Nathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Human intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings are primarily performed in epileptic patients for presurgical mapping. When patients perform cognitive tasks, iEEG signals reveal high-frequency neural activities (HFA, between around 40 Hz and 150 Hz) with exquisite anatomical, functional and temporal specificity. Such HFA were originally interpreted in the context of perceptual or motor binding, in line with animal studies on gamma-band (‘40Hz’) neural synchronization. Today, our understanding of HFA has evolved into a more general index of cortical processing: task-induced HFA reveals, with excellent spatial and time resolution, the participation of local neural ensembles in the task-at-hand, and perhaps the neural communication mechanisms allowing them to do so. This review promotes the claim that studying HFA with iEEG provides insights into the neural bases of cognition that cannot be derived as easily from other approaches, such as fMRI. We provide a series of examples supporting that claim, drawn from studies on memory, language and default-mode networks, and successful attempts of real-time functional mapping. These examples are followed by several guidelines for HFA research, intended for new groups interested by this approach. Overall, iEEG research on HFA should play an increasing role in cognitive neuroscience in humans, because it can be explicitly linked to basic research in animals. We conclude by discussing the future evolution of this field, which might expand that role even further, for instance through the use of multi-scale electrodes and the fusion of iEEG with MEG and fMRI. PMID:22750156

  16. An actinomycete isolate from solitary wasp mud nest having strong antibacterial activity and kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vijay; Naik, Bindu; Gusain, Omprakash; Bisht, Gajraj S.

    2014-01-01

    An actinomycetes strain designated as MN 2(6) was isolated from the solitary wasp mud nest. The isolate was identified using polyphasic taxonomy. It produced the extensive branched brown substrate and white aerial hyphae that changed into grayish black. The aerial mycelia produced the spiral spore chains with rugose spore surface. The growth was observed between temperature range of 27–37°C, pH 8–10 and below salt concentration of 6% (w/v). The comparative analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic relationship showed that strain MN 2(6) lies in clade with Streptomyces hygroscopicus subsp. hygroscopicus NRRL 2387T, Streptomyces sporocinereus NBRC 100766T and Streptomyces demainii NRRL B-1478T with which it shares a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 99.3%. The strain MN 2(6) can be differentiated from type strains based on phenotypic characteristics. The strain MN 2(6) showed most promising activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, acid-fast bacilli and Candida species suggesting broad-spectrum characteristics of the active metabolite. Evaluation of anti-candidal activity of the metabolite of strain MN 2(6) by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed changed external morphology of yeast. It kills the Candida cells due to the shrinkage and the cytosolic loss. However, further studies are required to elucidate the structure of the active metabolite produced by the isolate MN 2(6). PMID:25191320

  17. Advanced bone formation in mice with a dominant-negative mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β gene due to activation of Wnt/β-catenin protein signaling.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Patrick J; Kim, Dong Wook; Logan, John G; Davis, Sean; Walker, Robert L; Meltzer, Paul S; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Williams, Graham R

    2012-05-18

    Thyroid hormone (T(3)) acts in chondrocytes and bone-forming osteoblasts to control bone development and maintenance, but the signaling pathways mediating these effects are poorly understood. Thrb(PV/PV) mice have a severely impaired pituitary-thyroid axis and elevated thyroid hormone levels due to a dominant-negative mutant T(3) receptor (TRβ(PV)) that cannot bind T(3) and interferes with the actions of wild-type TR. Thrb(PV/PV) mice have accelerated skeletal development due to unknown mechanisms. We performed microarray studies in primary osteoblasts from wild-type mice and Thrb(PV/PV) mice. Activation of the canonical Wnt signaling in Thrb(PV/PV) mice was confirmed by in situ hybridization analysis of Wnt target gene expression in bone during postnatal growth. By contrast, T(3) treatment inhibited Wnt signaling in osteoblastic cells, suggesting that T(3) inhibits the Wnt pathway by facilitating proteasomal degradation of β-catenin and preventing its accumulation in the nucleus. Activation of the Wnt pathway in Thrb(PV/PV) mice, however, results from a gain of function for TRβ(PV) that stabilizes β-catenin despite the presence of increased thyroid hormone levels. These studies demonstrate novel interactions between T(3) and Wnt signaling pathways in the regulation of skeletal development and bone formation. PMID:22442145

  18. Higher concentrations of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) in soil induced rice chlorosis due to inhibited active iron transportation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Fang, Zhanqiang; Cheng, Wen; Yan, Xiaomin; Tsang, Pokeung Eric; Zhao, Dongye

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the effects of concentrations 0, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg kg(-1) of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) on germination, seedlings growth, physiology and toxicity mechanisms were investigated. The results showed that nZVI had no effect on germination, but inhibited the rice seedlings growth in higher concentrations (>500 mg kg(-1) nZVI). The highest suppression rate of the length of roots and shoots reached 46.9% and 57.5%, respectively. The 1000mg kg(-1) nZVI caused the highest suppression rates for chlorophyll and carotenoids, at 91.6% and 85.2%, respectively. In addition, the activity of antioxidant enzymes was altered by the translocation of nanoparticles and changes in active iron content. Visible symptoms of iron deficiency were observed at higher concentrations, at which the active iron content decreased 61.02% in the shoots, but the active iron content not decreased in roots. Interestingly, the total and available amounts of iron in the soil were not less than those in the control. Therefore, the plants iron deficiency was not caused by (i) deficiency of available iron in the soil and (ii) restraint of the absorption that plant takes in the available iron, while induced by (ⅲ) the transport of active iron from the root to the shoot was blocked. The cortex tissues were seriously damaged by nZVI which was transported from soil to the root, these were proved by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). This current study shows that the mechanism of iron deficiency in rice seedling was due to transport of active iron from the root to the shoot blocked, which was caused by the uptake of nZVI. PMID:26803790

  19. Preferential nitration with tetranitromethane of a specific tyrosine residue in penicillinase from Staphylococcus aureus PCl. Evidence that the preferentially nitrated residue is not part of the active site but that loss of activity is due to intermolecular cross-linking.

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, A F; Virden, R

    1978-01-01

    1. Nitration of tyrosine residues of staphylococal penicillinase was accompanied by a partial loss of enzymic activity, which was not readily explained by nitration of a single residue. 2. Loss of activity correlated with low recovery of tyrosine plus nitrotyrosine, which was consistent with cross-linking. 3. The fraction of treated enzyme that was eluted from Sephadex G-75 earlier than native penicillinase was similar to the fraction of enzyme activity lost. Protein eluted in positions corresponding to monomer, dimer and higher oligomers respectively showed major bands in corresponding positions in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, indicating that the increase in molecular weight was due to intermolecular cross-linking. Monomeric enzyme containing up to 4 mol of nitrotyrosine/mol retained full catalytic activity. Dimeric enzyme retained 50% of normal activity, whereas higher oligomers retained an average of 8-15% of normal activity. 4. Monomeric enzyme isolated after treatment with equimolar tetranitromethane was nitrated predominantly at tyrosine-72.5. Reaction of reduced nitrated monomer with 1,5-difluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene gave a monomeric, apparently cross-linked product with full catalytic activity. 6. It is concluded that tyrosine-72 plays no part in the active site. Its preferential nitration may be due to its being insufficiently exposed to be available for intermolecular cross-linking. This poperty may make it useful for attachment of a reporter group. PMID:629760

  20. Methylene Homologues of Artemisone: An Unexpected Structure-Activity Relationship and a Possible Implication for the Design of C10-Substituted Artemisinins.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yuet; Wu, Ronald Wai Kung; Cheu, Kwan Wing; Williams, Ian D; Krishna, Sanjeev; Slavic, Ksenija; Gravett, Andrew M; Liu, Wai M; Wong, Ho Ning; Haynes, Richard K

    2016-07-01

    We sought to establish if methylene homologues of artemisone are biologically more active and more stable than artemisone. The analogy is drawn with the conversion of natural O- and N-glycosides into more stable C-glycosides that may possess enhanced biological activities and stabilities. Dihydroartemisinin was converted into 10β-cyano-10-deoxyartemisinin that was hydrolyzed to the α-primary amide. Reduction of the β-cyanide and the α-amide provided the respective methylamine epimers that upon treatment with divinyl sulfone gave the β- and α-methylene homologues, respectively, of artemisone. Surprisingly, the compounds were less active in vitro than artemisone against P. falciparum and displayed no appreciable activity against A549, HCT116, and MCF7 tumor cell lines. This loss in activity may be rationalized in terms of one model for the mechanism of action of artemisinins, namely the cofactor model, wherein the presence of a leaving group at C10 assists in driving hydride transfer from reduced flavin cofactors to the peroxide during perturbation of intracellular redox homeostasis by artemisinins. It is noted that the carba analogue of artemether is less active in vitro than the O-glycoside parent toward P. falciparum, although extrapolation of such activity differences to other artemisinins at this stage is not possible. However, literature data coupled with the leaving group rationale suggest that artemisinins bearing an amino group attached directly to C10 are optimal compounds. PMID:27273875

  1. AHCC Activation and Selection of Human Lymphocytes via Genotypic and Phenotypic Changes to an Adherent Cell Type: A Possible Novel Mechanism of T Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Olamigoke, Loretta; Mansoor, Elvedina; Mann, Vivek; Ellis, Ivory; Okoro, Elvis; Wakame, Koji; Fuji, Hajime; Kulkarni, Anil; Francoise Doursout, Marie; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2015-01-01

    Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is a fermented mushroom extract and immune supplement that has been used to treat a wide range of health conditions. It helps in augmentation of the natural immune response and affects immune cell activation and outcomes. The goal of this project was to study and understand the role and mechanisms of AHCC supplementation in the prevention of immunosuppression through T cell activation. The method described here involves “in vitro” culturing of lymphocytes, exposing them to different concentrations of AHCC (0 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, and 500 μg/mL) at 0 hours. Interestingly, clumping and aggregation of the cells were seen between 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The cells lay down extracellular matrix, which become adherent, and phenotypical changes from small rounded lymphocytes to large macrophage-like, spindle shaped, elongated, fibroblast-like cells even beyond 360 hours were observed. These are probably translated from genotypic changes in the cells since the cells propagate for at least 3 to 6 generations (present observations). RNA isolated was subjected to gene array analysis. We hypothesize that cell adhesion is an activation and survival pathway in lymphocytes and this could be the mechanism of AHCC activation in human lymphocytes. PMID:26788109

  2. AHCC Activation and Selection of Human Lymphocytes via Genotypic and Phenotypic Changes to an Adherent Cell Type: A Possible Novel Mechanism of T Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Olamigoke, Loretta; Mansoor, Elvedina; Mann, Vivek; Ellis, Ivory; Okoro, Elvis; Wakame, Koji; Fuji, Hajime; Kulkarni, Anil; Francoise Doursout, Marie; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2015-01-01

    Active Hexose Correlated Compound (AHCC) is a fermented mushroom extract and immune supplement that has been used to treat a wide range of health conditions. It helps in augmentation of the natural immune response and affects immune cell activation and outcomes. The goal of this project was to study and understand the role and mechanisms of AHCC supplementation in the prevention of immunosuppression through T cell activation. The method described here involves "in vitro" culturing of lymphocytes, exposing them to different concentrations of AHCC (0 μg/mL, 50 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL, 250 μg/mL, and 500 μg/mL) at 0 hours. Interestingly, clumping and aggregation of the cells were seen between 24 and 72 hours of incubation. The cells lay down extracellular matrix, which become adherent, and phenotypical changes from small rounded lymphocytes to large macrophage-like, spindle shaped, elongated, fibroblast-like cells even beyond 360 hours were observed. These are probably translated from genotypic changes in the cells since the cells propagate for at least 3 to 6 generations (present observations). RNA isolated was subjected to gene array analysis. We hypothesize that cell adhesion is an activation and survival pathway in lymphocytes and this could be the mechanism of AHCC activation in human lymphocytes. PMID:26788109

  3. Yeast growth in raffinose results in resistance to acetic-acid induced programmed cell death mostly due to the activation of the mitochondrial retrograde pathway.

    PubMed

    Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Zdralević, Maša; Lattanzio, Paolo; Marzulli, Domenico; Pracheil, Tammy; Liu, Zhengchang; Passarella, Salvatore; Marra, Ersilia; Giannattasio, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In order to investigate whether and how a modification of mitochondrial metabolism can affect yeast sensitivity to programmed cell death (PCD) induced by acetic acid (AA-PCD), yeast cells were grown on raffinose, as a sole carbon source, which, differently from glucose, favours mitochondrial respiration. We found that, differently from glucose-grown cells, raffinose-grown cells were mostly resistant to AA-PCD and that this was due to the activation of mitochondrial retrograde (RTG) response, which increased with time, as revealed by the up-regulation of the peroxisomal isoform of citrate synthase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoform 1, RTG pathway target genes. Accordingly, the deletion of RTG2 and RTG3, a positive regulator and a transcription factor of the RTG pathway, resulted in AA-PCD, as shown by TUNEL assay. Neither deletion in raffinose-grown cells of HAP4, encoding the positive regulatory subunit of the Hap2,3,4,5 complex nor constitutive activation of the RTG pathway in glucose-grown cells due to deletion of MKS1, a negative regulator of RTG pathway, had effect on yeast AA-PCD. The RTG pathway was found to be activated in yeast cells containing mitochondria, in which membrane potential was measured, capable to consume oxygen in a manner stimulated by the uncoupler CCCP and inhibited by the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin A. AA-PCD resistance in raffinose-grown cells occurs with a decrease in both ROS production and cytochrome c release as compared to glucose-grown cells en route to AA-PCD. PMID:23906793

  4. Cardiosphere Derived Cells from Pediatric End-Stage Heart Failure Patients Have Enhanced Functional Activity due to the Heat Shock Response Regulating the Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sudhish; Mishra, Rachana; Simpson, David; Wehman, Brody; Colletti, Evan J.; Deshmukh, Savitha; Datla, Srinivasa Raju; Balachandran, Keerti; Guo, Yin; Chen, Ling; Siddiqui, Osama T.; Kaushal, Shalesh; Kaushal, Sunjay

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated that human neonatal cardiosphere derived cells (CDCs) derived from the young are more regenerative due to their robust secretome. However, it is unclear how the decompensated pediatric heart impacts the functional activity of their CDCs. Our aim was to characterize the potency of pediatric CDCs derived from normal functioning myocardium of control heart disease (CHD) patients to those generated from age matched end stage heart failure (ESHF) patients and determine the mechanisms involved. ESHF derived CDCs contained a higher number of c-kit+, Islet-1+, and Sca-1+ cells. When transplanted into an infarcted rodent model, ESHF derived CDCs significantly demonstrated higher restoration of ventricular function, prevented adverse remodeling, and enhanced angiogenesis when compared to CHD patients. The superior functional recovery of the ESHF derived CDCs was mediated in part by increased SDF-1α and VEGF-A secretion resulting in augmented recruitment of endogenous stem cells and proliferation of cardiomyocytes. We determined the mechanism is due to the secretome directed by the heat shock response (HSR), which is supported by three lines of evidence. Firstly, gain of function studies demonstrated that increased HSR induced the lower functioning CHD derived CDCs to significantly restore myocardial function. Secondly, loss-of function studies targeting the HSR impaired the ability of the ESHF derived CDCs to functionally recover the injured myocardium. Finally, the native ESHF myocardium had an increased number of c-kit+ CSCs. These findings suggest that the HSR enhances the functional activity of ESHF derived CDCs by increasing their secretome activity, notably SDF-1α and VEGF-A. PMID:25752510

  5. Mutagenic and alkylating activities of 3-methyl-1-phenyltriazenes and their possible role as carcinogenic metabolites of the parent dimethyl compounds.

    PubMed

    Malaveille, C; Brun, G; Kolar, G; Bartsch, H

    1982-04-01

    3-Methyl-1-phenyltriazene and a series of ring-substituted derivatives (4-methylphenyl, 4-chlorophenyl, and 2,4,6-trichlorophenyl), structurally related benzenediazonium fluoborates and phenyl azides, as well as the recently isolated [1-methyl-3-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl)-2-triazeno]methyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside uronic acid, were studied for their mutagenic activity in Salmonella typhimurium strains. Of these compounds, the 3-methyl-1-phenyltriazene derivatives and 2,4,6-trichlorobenzenediazonium fluoborate were found to be direct-acting mutagens; the glucuronide was active in strain TA 1530 only after deconjugation with beta-glucuronidase. The half-lives of the monomethylphenyltriazenes in vitro were determined and compared with their methylating activity towards 4-(4-nitrobenzyl)pyridine and their mutagenicity. The results are discussed in relation to the possible mechanism of action of the N,N-dimethylphenyltriazenes and their monomethyl derivatives as mutagens and organ-specific carcinogens. PMID:7060018

  6. Conditional deletion of FAK in mice endothelium disrupts lung vascular barrier function due to destabilization of RhoA and Rac1 activities

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Tauseef, Mohammad; Yue, Lili; Bonini, Marcelo G.; Gothert, Joachim; Shen, Tang-Long; Guan, Jun-Lin; Predescu, Sanda; Sadikot, Ruxana

    2013-01-01

    Loss of lung-fluid homeostasis is the hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Association of catenins and actin cytoskeleton with vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is generally considered the main mechanism for stabilizing adherens junctions (AJs), thereby preventing disruption of lung vascular barrier function. The present study identifies endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that canonically regulates focal adhesion turnover, as a novel AJ-stabilizing mechanism. In wild-type mice, induction of ALI by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture markedly decreased FAK expression in lungs. Using a mouse model in which FAK was conditionally deleted only in endothelial cells (ECs), we show that loss of EC-FAK mimicked key features of ALI (diffuse lung hemorrhage, increased transvascular albumin influx, edema, and neutrophil accumulation in the lung). EC-FAK deletion disrupted AJs due to impairment of the fine balance between the activities of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases. Deletion of EC-FAK facilitated RhoA's interaction with p115-RhoA guanine exchange factor, leading to activation of RhoA. Activated RhoA antagonized Rac1 activity, destabilizing AJs. Inhibition of Rho kinase, a downstream effector of RhoA, reinstated normal endothelial barrier function in FAK−/− ECs and lung vascular integrity in EC-FAK−/− mice. Our findings demonstrate that EC-FAK plays an essential role in maintaining AJs and thereby lung vascular barrier function by establishing the normal balance between RhoA and Rac1 activities. PMID:23771883

  7. Conditional deletion of FAK in mice endothelium disrupts lung vascular barrier function due to destabilization of RhoA and Rac1 activities.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Tracy Thennes; Tauseef, Mohammad; Yue, Lili; Bonini, Marcelo G; Gothert, Joachim; Shen, Tang-Long; Guan, Jun-Lin; Predescu, Sanda; Sadikot, Ruxana; Mehta, Dolly

    2013-08-15

    Loss of lung-fluid homeostasis is the hallmark of acute lung injury (ALI). Association of catenins and actin cytoskeleton with vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is generally considered the main mechanism for stabilizing adherens junctions (AJs), thereby preventing disruption of lung vascular barrier function. The present study identifies endothelial focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a nonreceptor tyrosine kinase that canonically regulates focal adhesion turnover, as a novel AJ-stabilizing mechanism. In wild-type mice, induction of ALI by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide or cecal ligation and puncture markedly decreased FAK expression in lungs. Using a mouse model in which FAK was conditionally deleted only in endothelial cells (ECs), we show that loss of EC-FAK mimicked key features of ALI (diffuse lung hemorrhage, increased transvascular albumin influx, edema, and neutrophil accumulation in the lung). EC-FAK deletion disrupted AJs due to impairment of the fine balance between the activities of RhoA and Rac1 GTPases. Deletion of EC-FAK facilitated RhoA's interaction with p115-RhoA guanine exchange factor, leading to activation of RhoA. Activated RhoA antagonized Rac1 activity, destabilizing AJs. Inhibition of Rho kinase, a downstream effector of RhoA, reinstated normal endothelial barrier function in FAK-/- ECs and lung vascular integrity in EC-FAK-/- mice. Our findings demonstrate that EC-FAK plays an essential role in maintaining AJs and thereby lung vascular barrier function by establishing the normal balance between RhoA and Rac1 activities. PMID:23771883

  8. Grape seed extract inhibits EGF-induced and constitutively active mitogenic signaling but activates JNK in human prostate carcinoma DU145 cells: possible role in antiproliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Alpana; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2003-03-01

    A loss of functional androgen receptor and an enhanced expression of growth factor receptors and associated ligands are causal genetic events in prostate cancer (PCA) progression. These genetic alterations lead to an epigenetic mechanism where a feedback autocrine loop between membrane receptor and ligand (e.g. EGFR-TGFalpha) results in a constitutive activation of MAPK-Elk1-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling in human PCA at an advanced and androgen-independent stage. We rationalized that inhibiting these epigenetic events could be useful in controlling advanced PCA growth. Recently, we found that grape seed extract (GSE), a dietary supplement rich in flavonoid procyanidins, inhibits advanced and androgen-independent human PCA DU145 cell growth in culture and nude mice. Here, we performed detailed mechanistic studies to define the effect of GSE on EGFR-Shc-MAPK-Elk1-AP1-mediated mitogenic signaling in DU145 cells. Pretreatment of serum-starved cells with GSE resulted in 70% to almost complete inhibition of EGF-induced EGFR activation and 50% to complete inhibition of Shc activation, which corroborated with a comparable decrease in EGF-induced Shc binding to EGFR. Conversely, EGF-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation was inhibited only by lower doses of GSE; in fact, higher doses showed an increase. Additional studies showed that GSE alone causes a dose- and time-dependent increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation in starved DU145 cells that is inhibited by an MEK1 inhibitor PD98059. Independent of this increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation, GSE showed a strong inhibition of ERK1/2 kinase activity to Elk1 in both cellular and cell-free systems. GSE treatment of cells also inhibited both EGF-induced and constitutively active Elk1 phosphorylation and AP1 activation. GSE treatment also showed DNA synthesis inhibition in starved and EGF-stimulated cells as well as loss of cell viability and apoptotic death that was further increased by adding MEK1 inhibitor. Since GSE strongly induced

  9. Narcolepsy: autoimmunity, effector T cell activation due to infection, or T cell independent, major histocompatibility complex class II induced neuronal loss?

    PubMed

    Fontana, Adriano; Gast, Heidemarie; Reith, Walter; Recher, Mike; Birchler, Thomas; Bassetti, Claudio L

    2010-05-01

    Human narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder, which develops due to a deficiency in hypocretin producing neurons in the hypothalamus. There is a strong association with human leucocyte antigens HLA-DR2 and HLA-DQB1*0602. The disease typically starts in adolescence. Recent developments in narcolepsy research support the hypothesis of narcolepsy being an immune-mediated disease. Narcolepsy is associated with polymorphisms of the genes encoding T cell receptor alpha chain, tumour necrosis factor alpha and tumour necrosis factor receptor II. Moreover the rate of streptococcal infection is increased at onset of narcolepsy. The hallmarks of anti-self reactions in the tissue--namely upregulation of major histocompatibility antigens and lymphocyte infiltrates--are missing in the hypothalamus. These findings are questionable because they were obtained by analyses performed many years after onset of disease. In some patients with narcolepsy autoantibodies to Tribbles homolog 2, which is expressed by hypocretin neurons, have been detected recently. Immune-mediated destruction of hypocretin producing neurons may be mediated by microglia/macrophages that become activated either by autoantigen specific CD4(+) T cells or superantigen stimulated CD8(+) T cells, or independent of T cells by activation of DQB1*0602 signalling. Activation of microglia and macrophages may lead to the release of neurotoxic molecules such as quinolinic acid, which has been shown to cause selective destruction of hypocretin neurons in the hypothalamus. PMID:20403960

  10. Interaction between mercury (Hg), arsenic (As) and selenium (Se) affects the activity of glutathione S-transferase in breast milk; possible relationship with fish and sellfish intake.

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Labrada-Martagón, Vanessa; Celis de la Rosa, Alfredo de Jesús; Acosta-Vargas, Baudilio; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía Celina; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2014-01-01

    Breast milk is regarded as an ideal source of nutrients for the growth and development of neonates, but it can also be a potential source of pollutants. Mothers can be exposed to different contaminants as a result of their lifestyle and environmental pollution. Mercury (Hg) and arsenic (As) could adversely affect the development of fetal and neonatal nervous system. Some fish and shellfish are rich in selenium (Se), an essential trace element that forms part of several enzymes related to the detoxification process, including glutathione S-transferase (GST). The goal of this study was to determine the interaction between Hg, As and Se and analyze its effect on the activity of GST in breast milk. Milk samples were collected from women between day 7 and 10 postpartum. The GST activity was determined spectrophotometrically; total Hg, As and Se concentrations were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry. To explain the possible association of Hg, As and Se concentrations with GST activity in breast milk, generalized linear models were constructed. The model explained 44% of the GST activity measured in breast milk. The GLM suggests that GST activity was positively correlated with Hg, As and Se concentrations. The activity of the enzyme was also explained by the frequency of consumption of marine fish and shellfish in the diet of the breastfeeding women. PMID:25208800

  11. A possibility of avoiding surface roughness due to insects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wortmann, F. X.

    1984-01-01

    Discussion of a method for eliminating turbulence caused by the formation of insect roughness upon the leading edges and fuselage, particularly in aircraft using BLC. The proposed technique foresees the use of elastic surfaces on which insect roughness cannot form. The operational characteristics of highly elastic rubber surface fastened to the wing leading edges and fuselage edges are examined. Some preliminary test results are presented. The technique is seen to be advantageous primarily for short-haul operations.

  12. Possible rainfall reduction through reduced surface temperatures due to overgrazing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otterman, J.

    1975-01-01

    Surface temperature reduction in terrain denuded of vegetation (as by overgrazing) is postulated to decrease air convection, reducing cloudiness and rainfall probability during weak meteorological disturbances. By reducing land-sea daytime temperature differences, the surface temperature reduction decreases daytime circulation of thermally driven local winds. The described desertification mechanism, even when limited to arid regions, high albedo soils, and weak meteorological disturbances, can be an effective rainfall reducing process in many areas including most of the Mediterranean lands.

  13. Acute pancreatitis possibly due to arginine use: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saka, Mendane; Tüzün, Ahmet; Ateş, Yüksel; Bağci, Sait; Karaeren, Necmettin; Dağalp, Kemal

    2004-03-01

    Arginine has been used by millions of athletes over the past 20 years to enhance production of human growth hormone. The effects of arginine supplementation include increased fat burning and muscle building, enhanced immunity, and improvement in erectile function in men. Excessive doses of basic amino acids such as ethionine, methionine and lysine are known to damage the rat pancreas. Recent studies have demonstrated that excessive doses of arginine induce necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. In this article, we report a 16-year-old male patient hospitalized in our clinic because of severe pain in upper abdomen, nausea and vomiting who was suspected to have arginine-induced acute pancreatitis. PMID:15264124

  14. Correlation of the antimicrobial activity of salicylaldehydes with broadening of the NMR signal of the hydroxyl proton. Possible involvement of proton exchange processes in the antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Elo, Hannu; Kuure, Matti; Pelttari, Eila

    2015-03-01

    Certain substituted salicylaldehydes are potent antibacterial and antifungal agents and some of them merit consideration as potential chemotherapeutic agents against Candida infections, but their mechanism of action has remained obscure. We report here a distinct correlation between broadening of the NMR signal of the hydroxyl proton of salicylaldehydes and their activity against several types of bacteria and fungi. When proton NMR spectra of the compounds were determined using hexadeuterodimethylsulfoxide as solvent and the height of the OH proton signal was measured, using the signal of the aldehyde proton as an internal standard, it was discovered that a prerequisite of potent antimicrobial activity is that the proton signal is either unobservable or relatively very low, i.e. that it is extremely broadened. Thus, none of the congeners whose OH proton signal was high were potent antimicrobial agents. Some congeners that gave a very low OH signal were, however, essentially inactive against the microbes, indicating that although drastic broadening of the OH signal appears to be a prerequisite, also other (so far unknown) factors are needed for high antimicrobial activity. Because broadening of the hydroxyl proton signal is related to the speed of the proton exchange process(es) involving that proton, proton exchange may be involved in the mechanism of action of the compounds. Further studies are needed to analyze the relative importance of different factors (such as electronic effects, strength of the internal hydrogen bond, co-planarity of the ring and the formyl group) that determine the rates of those processes. PMID:25621992

  15. Possible Use of Bacteriophages Active against Bacillus anthracis and Other B. cereus Group Members in the Face of a Bioterrorism Threat

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  16. Chlorine Isotopes: As a Possible Tracer of Fluid/Bio-Activities on Mars and a Progress Report on Chlorine Isotope Analysis by TIMs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L.E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C-Y.; Numata, M.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2009-01-01

    Significantly large mass fractionations between chlorine isotopes (Cl-35, Cl-37) have been reported for terrestrial materials including both geological samples and laboratory materials. Also, the chlorine isotopic composition can be used as a tracer for early solar system processes. Moreover, chlorine is ubiquitous on the Martian surface. Typical chlorine abundances in Gusev soils are approx.0.5 %. The global surface average chlorine abundance also is approx.0.5 %. Striking variations among outcrop rocks at Meridiani were reported with some chlorine abundances as high as approx.2%. Characterizing conditions under which chlorine isotopic fractionation may occur is clearly of interest to planetary science. Thus, we have initiated development of a chlorine isotopic analysis technique using TIMS at NASA-JSC. We present here a progress report on the current status of development at JSC and discuss the possible application of chlorine isotopic analysis to Martian meteorites in a search for fluid- and possibly biological activity on Mars.

  17. Possible use of bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other B. cereus group members in the face of a bioterrorism threat.

    PubMed

    Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa; Kłak, Marlena; Weber-Dąbrowska, Beata; Borysowski, Jan; Górski, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax is an infectious fatal disease with epidemic potential. Nowadays, bioterrorism using Bacillus anthracis is a real possibility, and thus society needs an effective weapon to neutralize this threat. The pathogen may be easily transmitted to human populations. It is easy to store, transport, and disseminate and may survive for many decades. Recent data strongly support the effectiveness of bacteriophage in treating bacterial diseases. Moreover, it is clear that bacteriophages should be considered a potential incapacitative agent against bioterrorism using bacteria belonging to B. cereus group, especially B. anthracis. Therefore, we have reviewed the possibility of using bacteriophages active against Bacillus anthracis and other species of the B. cereus group in the face of a bioterrorism threat. PMID:25247187

  18. Quantitative-spatial assessment of soil contamination in S. Francisco de Assis due to mining activity of the Panasqueira mine (Portugal).

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Freire Ávila, Paula; Salgueiro, Ana Rita; Candeias, Carla; Garcia Pereira, Henrique

    2013-11-01

    Through the years, mining and beneficiation processes produces large amounts of As-rich mine wastes laid up in huge tailings and open-air impoundments (Barroca Grande and Rio tailings) that are the main source of pollution in the surrounding area once they are exposed to the weathering conditions leading to the formation of AMD and consequently to the contamination of the surrounding environments, in particularly soils. In order to investigate the environmental contamination impact on S. Francisco de Assis (village located between the two major impoundments and tailings) agricultural soils, a geochemical survey was undertaken to assess toxic metals associations, related levels and their spatial distribution, and to identify the possible contamination sources. According to the calculated contamination factor, As and Zn have a very high contamination factor giving rise to 65.4% of samples with a moderate to high pollution degree; 34.6% have been classified as nil to very low pollution degree. The contamination factor spatial distribution put in evidence the fact that As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn soils contents, downstream Barroca Grande tailing, are increased when compared with the local Bk soils. The mechanical dispersion, due to erosion, is the main contamination source. The chemical extraction demonstrates that the trace metals distribution and accumulation in S. Francisco de Assis soils is related to sulfides, but also to amorphous or poorly crystalline iron oxide phases. The partitioning study allowed understanding the local chemical elements mobility and precipitation processes, giving rise to the contamination dispersion model of the study area. The wind and hydrological factors are responsible for the chemical elements transport mechanisms, the water being the main transporter medium and soils as one of the possible retention media. PMID:23370848

  19. Hypoglycaemic activity of culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus mushrooms in healthy volunteers and type 2 diabetic patients on diet control and the possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Jayasuriya, W J A Banukie N; Wanigatunge, Chandanie A; Fernando, Gita H; Abeytunga, D Thusitha U; Suresh, T Sugandhika

    2015-02-01

    This study determined the oral hypoglycaemic effect of suspensions of freeze dried and powdered (SFDP) Pleurotus ostreatus (P.o) and Pleurotus cystidiosus (P.c), using healthy human volunteers and Type 2 diabetic patients on diet control at a dose of 50 mg/kg/body weight, followed by a glucose load. The possible hypoglycaemic mechanisms were evaluated using rats, by examining intestinal glucose absorption and serum levels of insulin, glucokinase (GK) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK). The P.o and P.c showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in fasting and postprandial serum glucose levels of healthy volunteers and reduced the postprandial serum glucose levels and increased the serum insulin levels (P < 0.05) of Type 2 diabetic patients. The P.o and P.c increased the intestinal absorption of glucose but simultaneously reduced the serum glucose levels (P < 0.05) in rats. Both mushrooms reduced the serum GSK and promoted insulin secretion while P.c increased serum GK (P < 0.05). The hypoglycaemic activity of P.o and P.c makes mushrooms beneficial functional foods in diabetes mellitus. The mechanism of hypoglycaemic activity of P.o and P.c is possibly by increasing GK activity and promoting insulin secretion and thereby increasing the utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, inhibiting GSK and promoting glycogen synthesis. PMID:25382404

  20. The world pandemic of vitamin D deficiency could possibly be explained by cellular inflammatory response activity induced by the renin-angiotensin system

    PubMed Central

    Ferder, Marcelo; Inserra, Felipe; Manucha, Walter

    2013-01-01

    This review attempts to show that there may be a relationship between inflammatory processes induced by chronic overstimulation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the worldwide deficiency of vitamin D (VitD) and that both disorders are probably associated with environmental factors. Low VitD levels represent a risk factor for several apparently different diseases, such as infectious, autoimmune, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases, as well as diabetes, osteoporosis, and cancer. Moreover, VitD insufficiency seems to predispose to hypertension, metabolic syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, heart failure, and chronic vascular inflammation. On the other hand, inappropriate stimulation of the RAS has also been associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension, heart attack, stroke, and hypertrophy of the left ventricle and vascular smooth muscle cells. Because VitD receptors (VDRs) and RAS receptors are almost distributed in the same tissues, a possible link between VitD and the RAS is even more plausible. Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, both systems were developed simultaneously, actively participating in the regulation of inflammatory and immunological mechanisms. Changes in RAS activity and activation of the VDR seem to be inversely related; thus any changes in one of these systems would have a completely opposite effect on the other, making it possible to speculate that the two systems could have a feedback relationship. In fact, the pandemic of VitD deficiency could be the other face of increased RAS activity, which probably causes lower activity or lower levels of VitD. Finally, from a therapeutic point of view, the combination of RAS blockade and VDR stimulation appears to be more effective than either RAS blockade or VDR stimulation individually. PMID:23364265

  1. CrMPK3, a mitogen activated protein kinase from Catharanthus roseus and its possible role in stress induced biosynthesis of monoterpenoid indole alkaloids

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is an important signaling cascade that operates in stress signal transduction in plants. The biologically active monoterpenoid indole alkaloids (MIA) produced in Catharanthus roseus are known to be induced under several abiotic stress conditions such as wounding, UV-B etc. However involvement of any signaling component in the accumulation of MIAs remains poorly investigated so far. Here we report isolation of a novel abiotic stress inducible Catharanthus roseus MAPK, CrMPK3 that may have role in accumulation of MIAs in response to abiotic stress. Results CrMPK3 expressed in bacterial system is an active kinase as it showed auto-phosphorylation and phosphorylation of Myelin Basic Protein. CrMPK3 though localized in cytoplasm, moves to nucleus upon wounding. Wounding, UV treatment and MeJA application on C. roseus leaves resulted in the transcript accumulation of CrMPK3 as well as activation of MAPK in C. roseus leaves. Immuno-precipitation followed by immunoblot analysis revealed that wounding, UV treatment and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) activate CrMPK3. Transient over-expression of CrMPK3 in C. roseus leaf tissue showed enhanced expression of key MIA biosynthesis pathway genes and also accumulation of specific MIAs. Conclusion Results from our study suggest a possible involvement of CrMPK3 in abiotic stress signal transduction towards regulation of transcripts of key MIA biosynthetic pathway genes, regulators and accumulation of major MIAs. PMID:22871174

  2. A direct thrombin inhibitor suppresses protein C activation and factor Va degradation in human plasma: Possible mechanisms of paradoxical enhancement of thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Kamisato, Chikako; Furugohri, Taketoshi; Morishima, Yoshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    We have demonstrated that antithrombin (AT)-independent thrombin inhibitors paradoxically increase thrombin generation (TG) in human plasma in a thrombomodulin (TM)- and protein C (PC)-dependent manner. We determined the effects of AT-independent thrombin inhibitors on the negative-feedback system, activation of PC and production and degradation of factor Va (FVa), as possible mechanisms underlying the paradoxical enhancement of TG. TG in human plasma containing 10nM TM was assayed by means of the calibrated automated thrombography. As an index of PC activation, plasma concentration of activated PC-PC inhibitor complex (aPC-PCI) was measured. The amounts of FVa heavy chain and its degradation product (FVa(307-506)) were examined by western blotting. AT-independent thrombin inhibitors, melagatran and dabigatran (both at 25-600nM) and 3-30μg/ml active site-blocked thrombin (IIai), increased peak levels of TG. Melagatran, dabigatran and IIai significantly decreased plasma concentration of aPC-PCI complex at 25nM or more, 75nM or more, and 10 and 30μg/ml, respectively. Melagatran (300nM) significantly increased FVa and decreased FVa(307-506). In contrast, a direct factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban preferentially inhibited thrombin generation (≥25nM), and higher concentrations were required to inhibit PC activation (≥150nM) and FVa degradation (300nM). The present study suggests that the inhibitions of protein C activation and subsequent degradation of FVa and increase in FVa by antithrombin-independent thrombin inhibitors may contribute to the paradoxical TG enhancement, and edoxaban may inhibit PC activation and FVa degradation as a result of TG suppression. PMID:26974491

  3. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation. PMID:27382033

  4. Age-associated impairement in endpoint accuracy of goal-directed contractions performed with two fingers is due to altered activation of the synergistic muscles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Ting; Pinto Neto, Osmar; de Miranda Marzullo, Ana Carolina; Kennedy, Deanna M; Fox, Emily J; Christou, Evangelos A

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether older adults compared with young adults exhibit impaired end-point accuracy during a two-finger task due to altered activation of the contributing synergistic muscles. Nine young (21.3 years ± 1.6 years, 4 men) and 9 older (73.1 years ± 6.4 years, 5 men) were instructed to accurately match the center of a target with concurrent abduction of the index and little fingers (synergistic two-finger task). The target comprised of 20% MVC and 200 ms. Visual feedback of the force trajectory and target was provided 1s after each trial. Subjects completed 40 trials and the last 10 were used for analysis. Endpoint accuracy was quantified as the normalized deviation from the target in terms of peak force (peak force error), time-to-peak force (time-to-peak force error), and a combination of the two (overall error). Motor output variability was quantified as the standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV) of peak force and time to peak force. The neural activation of the involved synergist muscles (first dorsal interosseus (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM)) was quantified with the electromyography (EMG) amplitude (root mean square) and its frequency structure (wavelet analysis). Older adults exhibited significantly greater peak force (46.7 ± 10% vs. 24.9 ± 3.2%) and overall endpoint error (68.5 ± 9.7% vs. 41.7 ± 4.3%), whereas the time to peak force error was similar for the two age groups. Older adults also exerted greater peak force variability than young adults, as quantified by the CV of peak force (34.3 ± 3.5% vs. 24.1 ± 2.3%). The greater peak force error in older adults was associated with changes in the activation of the ADM muscle but not the FDI. Specifically, greater peak force error was associated with greater power from 13-30 Hz and lesser power from 30-60 Hz. These results, therefore, suggest that older adults compared with young adults exhibit impaired endpoint force accuracy during a two

  5. Possible Role of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylate (ACC) Deaminase Activity of Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 on Symbiosis with Mung Bean and Determinate Nodule Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Sripakdi, Sudarat; Boonkerd, Nantakorn; Tanthanuch, Waraporn; Minamisawa, Kiwamu; Teaumroong, Neung

    2015-01-01

    Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 forms symbiotic interactions with mung bean (Vigna radiata) and contains lrpL-acdS genes, which encode the 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enzyme that cleaves ACC, a precursor of plant ethylene synthesis. Since ethylene interferes with nodule formation in some legumes and plays a role in senescence in plant cells, BL3-enhancing ACC deaminase activity (BL3+) and defective mutant (BL3−) strains were constructed in order to investigate the effects of this enzyme on symbiosis and nodule senescence. Nodulation competitiveness was weaker in BL3− than in the wild-type, but was stronger in BL3+. The inoculation of BL3− into mung bean resulted in less plant growth, a lower nodule dry weight, and smaller nodule number than those in the wild-type, whereas the inoculation of BL3+ had no marked effects. However, similar nitrogenase activity was observed with all treatments; it was strongly detected 3 weeks after the inoculation and gradually declined with time, indicating senescence. The rate of plant nodulation by BL3+ increased in a time-dependent manner. Nodules occupied by BL3− formed smaller symbiosomes, and bacteroid degradation was more prominent than that in the wild-type 7 weeks after the inoculation. Changes in biochemical molecules during nodulation were tracked by Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) microspectroscopy, and the results obtained confirmed that aging processes differed in nodules occupied by BL3 and BL3−. This is the first study to show the possible role of ACC deaminase activity in senescence in determinate nodules. Our results suggest that an increase in ACC deaminase activity in this strain does not extend the lifespan of nodules, whereas the lack of this activity may accelerate nodule senescence. PMID:26657304

  6. Classification of prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and music imagery using hidden Markov models and frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Sarah D.; Falk, Tiago H.; Chau, Tom

    2010-04-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI). In particular, previous research has shown that NIRS signals recorded from the motor cortex during left- and right-hand imagery can be distinguished, providing a basis for a two-choice NIRS-BCI. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an alternative two-choice NIRS-BCI paradigm based on the classification of prefrontal activity due to two cognitive tasks, specifically mental arithmetic and music imagery. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while ten able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and music imagery within a synchronous shape-matching paradigm. With the 18 filtered AC signals, we created task- and subject-specific maximum likelihood classifiers using hidden Markov models. Mental arithmetic and music imagery were classified with an average accuracy of 77.2% ± 7.0 across participants, with all participants significantly exceeding chance accuracies. The results suggest the potential of a two-choice NIRS-BCI based on cognitive rather than motor tasks.

  7. Intrathecal baclofen: Its effect on symptoms and activities of daily living in severe spasticity due to spinal cord injuries: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Jagatsinh, Yogendrasinh

    2009-01-01

    Background: Spasticity is a major problem related to spinal cord injuries. Use of intrathecal baclofen with an implanted pump seems a very useful mode of therapy in patients in whom oral antispasmodic agents are either not effective or produce intolerable side-effects. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four patients with mean age 50 years (range 32-72 years) had intrathecal baclofen pump implanted for the severe spasticity of spinal origin. One patient died following implantation of pump due to natural causes and was not included in the study. The patients were followed up for mean 22 months (range, one to five years). Results: All 24 patients showed improvement in their spasm following the procedure. Improvement was noted in pain (12), sleep disturbance (20) and sphincter control (14). Patients had improvement in activities of daily living such as feeding ability (10), self care (10), indoor and outdoor mobility (19), and driving (4). One patient had catheter leakage immediately after the surgery and required change of catheter. The radio telemetry allows very good adjustment of the dose according the individual patients needs. Conclusion: Intrathecal baclofen pump improves the symptoms of spasm and also the quality of life. It helps the patient to live more independently. It is not an irreversible surgery for the patient and hence it is very useful in the changing the dynamics in this group of patients. PMID:19753179

  8. Model Vestibular Nuclei Neurons Can Exhibit a Boosting Nonlinearity Due to an Adaptation Current Regulated by Spike-Triggered Calcium and Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Adam D.

    2016-01-01

    In vitro studies have previously found a class of vestibular nuclei neurons to exhibit a bidirectional afterhyperpolarization (AHP) in their membrane potential, due to calcium and calcium-activated potassium conductances. More recently in vivo studies of such vestibular neurons were found to exhibit a boosting nonlinearity in their input-output tuning curves. In this paper, a Hodgkin-Huxley (HH) type neuron model, originally developed to reproduce the in vitro AHP, is shown to produce a boosting nonlinearity similar to that seen in vivo for increased the calcium conductance. Indicative of a bifurcation, the HH model is reduced to a generalized integrate-and-fire (IF) model that preserves the bifurcation structure and boosting nonliearity. By then projecting the neuron model’s phase space trajectories into 2D, the underlying geometric mechanism relating the AHP and boosting nonlinearity is revealed. Further simplifications and approximations are made to derive analytic expressions for the steady steady state firing rate as a function of bias current, μ, as well as the gain (i.e. its slope) and the position of its peak at μ = μ*. Finally, although the boosting nonlinearity has not yet been experimentally observed in vitro, testable predictions indicate how it might be found. PMID:27427914

  9. Classification of prefrontal activity due to mental arithmetic and music imagery using hidden Markov models and frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Power, Sarah D; Falk, Tiago H; Chau, Tom

    2010-04-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has recently been investigated as a non-invasive brain-computer interface (BCI). In particular, previous research has shown that NIRS signals recorded from the motor cortex during left- and right-hand imagery can be distinguished, providing a basis for a two-choice NIRS-BCI. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of an alternative two-choice NIRS-BCI paradigm based on the classification of prefrontal activity due to two cognitive tasks, specifically mental arithmetic and music imagery. Deploying a dual-wavelength frequency domain near-infrared spectrometer, we interrogated nine sites around the frontopolar locations (International 10-20 System) while ten able-bodied adults performed mental arithmetic and music imagery within a synchronous shape-matching paradigm. With the 18 filtered AC signals, we created task- and subject-specific maximum likelihood classifiers using hidden Markov models. Mental arithmetic and music imagery were classified with an average accuracy of 77.2% +/- 7.0 across participants, with all participants significantly exceeding chance accuracies. The results suggest the potential of a two-choice NIRS-BCI based on cognitive rather than motor tasks. PMID:20168001

  10. High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress Mediates Apoptosis and Extracellular Matrix Metabolic Imbalances Possibly via p38 MAPK Activation in Rat Nucleus Pulposus Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiaofei; Ni, Bin; Zhang, Feng; Hu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress is implicated in apoptosis of rat nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and abnormal expression of critical genes involved in the metabolic balance of extracellular matrix (ECM). Methods. NPCs were cultured with various concentrations of glucose to detect cell viability and apoptosis. Cells cultured with high glucose (25 mM) were untreated or pretreated with N-acetylcysteine or a p38 MAPK inhibitor SB 202190. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated. Activation of p38 MAPK was measured by Western blot. The expression of ECM metabolism-related genes, including type II collagen, aggrecan, SRY-related high-mobility-group box 9 (Sox-9), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), was analyzed by semiquantitative RT-PCR. Results. High glucose reduced viability of NPCs and induced apoptosis. High glucose resulted in increased ROS generation and p38 MAPK activation. In addition, it negatively regulated the expression of type II collagen, aggrecan, Sox-9, and TIMP-1 and positively regulated MMP-3 expression. These results were changed by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine or SB 202190. Conclusions. High glucose might promote apoptosis of NPCs, trigger ECM catabolic pathways, and inhibit its anabolic activities, possibly through a p38 MAPK-dependent oxidative stress mechanism.

  11. Future monitoring of charged particle energy deposition into the upper atmosphere and comments on possible relationships between atmospheric phenomena and solar and/or geomagnetic activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Grubb, R. N.; Evans, D. S.; Sauer, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Monitoring of earth's atmosphere was conducted for several years utilizing the ITOS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting weather satellites. A space environment monitoring package was included in these satellites to perform measurements of a portion of earth's charged particle environment. The charged particle observations proposed for the low-altitude weather satellite TIROS N, are described which will provide the capability of routine monitoring of the instantaneous total energy deposition into the upper atmosphere by the precipitation of charged particles from higher altitudes. Such observations may be of use in future studies of the relationships between geomagnetic activity and atmospheric weather pattern developments. Estimates are given to assess the potential importance of this type of energy deposition. Discussion and examples are presented illustrating the importance of distinguishing between solar and geomagnetic activity as possible causative sources. Such differentiation is necessary because of the widely different spatial and time scales involved in the atmospheric energy input resulting from these various sources of activity.

  12. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and smooth muscle relaxant activities of the pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyridazinone derivatives: Possible mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Mogilski, Szczepan; Kubacka, Monika; Redzicka, Aleksandra; Kazek, Grzegorz; Dudek, Magdalena; Malinka, Wiesław; Filipek, Barbara

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic as well as anti-inflammatory activities of the new pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyridazinone derivatives. Moreover, the present study attempted to assess some of the mechanisms involved in the pharmacological activity of these compounds. In the previous studies it was shown that these compounds were highly active in the phenylbenzoquinone-induced 'writhing syndrome' test and had much lower activity in the hot plate, which indicates that mainly peripheral mechanisms of analgesia are involved in their effects. In these extended studies the analgesic activity of two tested compounds (4c, 4f) was confirmed in some animal models of pain. The studied compounds showed a significant and dose-related antinociceptive effect in the models of pain induced by formalin, capsaicin and glutamic acid. Both compounds decreased the edema formation and one of them (4c) attenuated mechanical hyperalgesia in carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in rats. Furthermore, both compounds inhibited cell migration, plasma exudation and nociceptive reaction in zymosan A-induced mouse peritonitis. In the subsequent studies, including experiments on isolated organs (ileum, trachea, aorta), radioligand assays and biochemical tests, it was demonstrated that analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the investigated structures are largely due to their competitive antagonism for histamine H1 receptor. The influence on the level of cAMP in inflammatory cells (shown in RAW 264.7 macrophages) and subsequent inhibition of cytokine (TNFα, IL-1β) release can also be one of the important mechanisms of their action. Moreover some additional mechanisms may also be involved in the eventual analgesic effect of tested pyrrolo[3,4-d]pyridazinone derivatives. PMID:25847619

  13. Melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia in rats; possible mechanism by suppressing 5-HT(2A) receptor-mediated activation of HPA axis.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, V; Kulkarni, S K

    2000-03-31

    Serotonin type 2A (5-HT(2A)) receptor-mediated neurotransmitter is known to activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, regulate sleep-awake cycle, induce anorexia and hyperthermia. Interaction between melatonin and 5-HT(2A) receptors in the regulation of the sleep-awake cycle and head-twitch response in rat have been reported. Previous studies have shown that melatonin has suppressant effect on HPA axis activation, decreases core body temperature and induces hyperphagia in animals. However, melatonin interaction with 5-HT(2A) receptors in mediation of these actions is not yet reported. We have studied the acute effect of melatonin and its antagonist, luzindole on centrally administered (+/-)-1-(2, 5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl) 2-amino propane (DOI; a 5-HT(2A/2C) agonist)-induced activation of HPA axis, hypophagia and hyperthermia in 24-h food-deprived rats. Like ritanserin [(1 mg/kg, i.p.) 5-HT(2A/2C) antagonist], peripherally administered melatonin (1.5 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the food intake, rectal temperature or basal adrenal ascorbic acid level. However, pretreatment of rats with it significantly reversed DOI (10 microgram, intraventricular)-induced anorexia and activation of HPA axis. But the hyperthermia induced by DOI was not sensitive to reversal by melatonin. Mel(1) receptor subtype antagonist luzindole (5 microgram, intraventricular) did not modulate the DOI effect but antagonized the melatonin (3 mg/kg, i.p.) reversal of 5-HT(2A) agonist response. The present data suggest that melatonin reversal of DOI-induced hypophagia could be due to suppression of 5-HT(2A) mediated activation of HPA axis. PMID:10727629

  14. Evidence of drug metabolism by macrophages: possible role of macrophages in the pathogenesis of drug-induced tissue damage and in the activation of environmental procarcinogens.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, S N

    1987-01-01

    After interaction with human macrophages derived from blood, bone marrow or spleen, solutions of sodium phenobarbitone, phenytoin sodium and chlorpromazine hydrochloride showed reduced cytotoxicity towards K562 cells. The reduction in cytotoxicity was partially suppressed in the presence of tetrahydrofurane, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450. These data suggest that macrophages are capable of metabolizing certain drugs, probably via a cytochrome P450-dependent mechanism. The present findings raise the possibility that some drug-induced blood dyscrasias are caused by metabolism of the drug by bone marrow macrophages and the consequent release of relatively short-lived molecules which are toxic to adjacent haemopoietic cells. The generation of cytotoxic molecules during drug metabolism by macrophages may also be responsible for drug-induced damage to other macrophage-rich tissues. In addition, since cytochrome P450-dependent reactions seem to occur within macrophages, these cells may activate environmental procarcinogens and thus plays a role in carcinogenesis and leukaemogenesis. PMID:3652639

  15. Enzymatic activation and trapping of luminol-substituted peptides and proteins. A possible means of amplifying the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Parker, C W; Aach, R D; Philpott, G W

    1975-01-01

    Glutathione and glucose oxidase (EC 1.1.3.4) conjugates containing covalently bound luminol were prepared as prototypes for peptides and proteins with latent, enzyme-activatable chemical reactivity. In the presence of small quantities of activated horseradish peroxidase, conjugated luminol molecules were oxidized to unstable free radicals which reacted rapidly with soluble proteins and cells. These observations are of interest in regard to possible sequential localization reactions in which a few molecules of cell-bound antibody-horseradish peroxidase would be used to catalytically alter and trap many molecules of a second (luminol-substituted) enzyme, toxin, or hapten in the same area, as might be desirable in promoting selective cell destruction. PMID:47175

  16. A study of the performance of an Olson type active noise controller and the possibility of the reduction of cabin noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keith, S. E.; Scholaert, H. S. B.

    1981-03-01

    Designed to reduce sound levels by means of an electronic transducing system, the active noise controller is a basic feedback control system composed of a speaker, microphone, amplifier and control unit. Because the scheme can be effective in reducing low frequency noise, it is of particular interest to aircraft manufacturers since attenuation of low frequency noise to increase passenger comfort can be at once costly and cumbersome when conventional sound absorption methods are employed. Olson and May's pioneering work in the 1950's in developing an electronic sound absorber which appeared to be successful over small volumes in a unidirectional sound field is re-examined as well as more recent developments in an effort to test their suitability to the aircraft industry. The results suggest only limited possible use for all systems studied.

  17. T-antigen binding lectin with antibacterial activity from marine invertebrate, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra): possible involvement in differential recognition of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nagaraj M; Goswami, Usha; Khan, M Islam

    2008-10-01

    In invertebrates, cellular and humoral components are evolved to maintain their body immunity and integrity. Both these factors respond to different antigens such as microorganisms, vertebrate erythrocytes and foreign proteins. In this article, we report a study of a lectin (HSL) involved in immune response in the echinoderm, sea cucumber (Holothuria scabra). Correlative studies indicate that the expression of this defensive lectin is induced by bacterial challenge, wherein cell wall glycoconjugates of bacteria are involved in lectin induction. HSL showed strong broad spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Under in vitro conditions, purified HSL mediate agglutination of the test bacteria, there by indicating a possible mode of action in physiological situation. PMID:18501924

  18. Measurement of activation of rhodopsine with heavy ions irradiation in the ALTEA program: a possible mechanism responsible for light flash perceptions in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, Livio; Rinaldi, Adele; Sannita, Walter, , Prof; Paci, Maurizio; Brunetti, Valentina; de Martino, Angelo; Picozza, Piergiorgio

    Since late 60s astronauts in space have reported seeing flashes of light, more frequently when dark adapted. Experiments have been performed to characterize these phenomena, and to suggest possible mechanisms. High Z ions have been shown to be the most likely cause of these perceptions: when ionizing radiation hits the eye there is a high probability of a light flash perception. However the mechanisms behind this phenomenon are not fully understood yet. We show that one of these mechanisms is the activation of the rhodopsin (bleaching) by heavy ions. Rhodopsin is at the start of the photo-electronic cascade in the process of vision. It is one of the best molecular transducer to convert a visible photon into an electric signal. In this work we show that rhodopsine can also be activated by irradiation with 12C nuclei. In the frame of ALTEA program, aimed at studying the effects of cosmic radiation on brain functions, an investigation on the interaction between heavy ions and rhodopsin has been performed. Intact Rod Outer Segment (ROS) containing rhodopsin were isolated from bovine retina. Suspended rods were irradiated with 12C (200 MeV/n, well below the Cherenkov threshold) at GSI (Darmstadt FRG) with doses ranging from few mrem to several rem. Spectrophotometric measurements investigated the presence of non activated and activated rhodopsin. The functionality of the purified rods were checked by previous light irradiation and subsequent regeneration by the addition of external 11-cis-retinal, to confirm the reversibility of the process in vitro. We can show effective and reversible bleaching also following irradiation, thus proving that the rhodopsin was not damaged by radiation. Works are in progress to model this interaction. Latest analysis results and considerations about the underlying mechanism will be presented.

  19. In vitro screening of major neurotransmitter systems possibly involved in the mechanism of action of antibodies to S100 protein in released-active form

    PubMed Central

    Gorbunov, Evgeniy A; Ertuzun, Irina A; Kachaeva, Evgeniya V; Tarasov, Sergey A; Epstein, Oleg I

    2015-01-01

    Experimentally and clinically, it was shown that released-active form of antibodies to S100 protein (RAF of Abs to S100) exerts a wide range of pharmacological activities: anxiolytic, antiasthenic, antiaggressive, stress-protective, antihypoxic, antiischemic, neuroprotective, and nootropic. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of RAF of Abs to S100 on major neurotransmitter systems (serotoninergic, GABAergic, dopaminergic, and on sigma receptors as well) which are possibly involved in its mechanism of pharmacological activity. Radioligand binding assays were used for assessment of the drug influence on ligand–receptor interaction. [35S]GTPγS binding assay, cyclic adenosine monophosphate HTRF™, cellular dielectric spectroscopy assays, and assays based on measurement of intracellular concentration of Ca2+ ions were used for assessment of agonist or antagonist properties of the drug toward receptors. RAF of Abs to S100 increased radioligand binding to 5-HT1F, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2Cedited, 5-HT3, and to D3 receptors by 142.0%, 131.9%, 149.3%, 120.7%, and 126.3%, respectively. Also, the drug significantly inhibited specific binding of radioligands to GABAB1A/B2 receptors by 25.8%, and to both native and recombinant human sigma1 receptors by 75.3% and 40.32%, respectively. In the functional assays, it was shown that the drug exerted antagonism at 5-HT1B, D3, and GABAB1A/B2 receptors inhibiting agonist-induced responses by 23.24%, 32.76%, and 30.2%, respectively. On the contrary, the drug exerted an agonist effect at 5-HT1A receptors enhancing receptor functional activity by 28.0%. The pharmacological profiling of RAF of Abs to S100 among 27 receptor provides evidence for drug-related modification of major neurotransmitter systems. PMID:26604768

  20. ‘Modulation of the enzymatic activities of replicative helicase (DnaB) by interaction with Hp0897: a possible mechanism for helicase loading in Helicobacter pylori’

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vijay; Kumar, Ajay; Nitharwal, Ram Gopal; Alam, Jawed; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Dasgupta, Santanu; Dhar, Suman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication in Helicobacter pylori is initiated from a unique site (oriC) on its chromosome where several proteins assemble to form a functional replisome. The assembly of H. pylori replication machinery is similar to that of the model gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli except for the absence of DnaC needed to recruit the hexameric DnaB helicase at the replisome assembly site. In the absence of an obvious DnaC homologue in H. pylori, the question arises as to whether HpDnaB helicase is loaded at the Hp-replication origin by itself or is assisted by other unidentified protein(s). A high-throughput yeast two-hybrid study has revealed two proteins of unknown functions (Hp0897 and Hp0340) that interact with HpDnaB. Here we demonstrate that Hp0897 interacts with HpDnaB helicase in vitro as well as in vivo. Furthermore, the interaction stimulates the DNA binding activity of HpDnaB and modulates its adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis and helicase activities significantly. Prior complex formation of Hp0897 and HpDnaB enhances the binding/loading of DnaB onto DNA. Hp0897, along with HpDnaB, colocalizes with replication complex at initiation but does not move with the replisome during elongation. Together, these results suggest a possible role of Hp0897 in loading of HpDnaB at oriC. PMID:27001508

  1. Transcriptional profiling analysis of Spodoptera litura larvae challenged with Vip3Aa toxin and possible involvement of trypsin in the toxin activation

    PubMed Central

    Song, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Wu, Songqing; Shao, Ensi; Li, Mengnan; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Vip proteins, a new group of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, are effective against specific pests including Spodoptera litura. Here, we report construction of a transcriptome database of S. litura by de novo assembly along with detection of the transcriptional response of S. litura larvae to Vip3Aa toxin. In total, 56,498 unigenes with an N50 value of 1,853 bp were obtained. Results of transcriptome abundance showed that Vip3Aa toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response of the S. litura midgut. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for immunity-related, metabolic-related and Bt-related genes. Twenty-nine immunity-related genes, 102 metabolic-related genes and 62 Bt-related genes with differential expression were found. On the basis of transcriptional profiling analysis, we focus on the functional validation of trypsin which potentially participated in the activation of Vip3Aa protoxin. Zymogram analysis indicated that the presence of many proteases, including trypsin, in S. litura larvae midgut. Results of enzymolysis in vitro of Vip3Aa by trypsin, and bioassay and histopathology of the trypsin-digested Vip3Aa toxin showed that trypsin was possibly involved in the Vip3Aa activation. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional validation of the differentially expressed genes in an agricultural important pest, S. litura. PMID:27025647

  2. The possibly important role played by Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} during the activation of GaN photocathode

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Xiaoqian E-mail: 214808748@qq.com; Wang, Honggang; Zhang, Junju; Li, Zhiming; Cui, Shiyao; Zhang, Lejuan

    2015-08-14

    Three different chemical solutions are used to remove the possible contamination on GaN surface, while Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} is still found at the surface. After thermal annealing at 710 °C in the ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) chamber and activated with Cs/O, all the GaN samples are successfully activated to the effective negative electron affinity (NEA) photocathodes. Among all samples, the GaN sample with the highest content of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} after chemical cleaning obtains the highest quantum efficiency. By analyzing the property of Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}, the surface processing results, and electron affinity variations during Cs and Cs/O{sub 2} deposition on GaN of other groups, it is suggested that before the adsorption of Cs, Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} is not completely removed from GaN surface in our samples, which will combine with Cs and lead to a large decrease in electron affinity. Furthermore, the effective NEA is formed for GaN photocathode, along with the surface downward band bending. Based on this assumption, a new dipole model Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Cs is suggested, and the experimental effects are explained and discussed.

  3. Transcriptional profiling analysis of Spodoptera litura larvae challenged with Vip3Aa toxin and possible involvement of trypsin in the toxin activation.

    PubMed

    Song, Feifei; Chen, Chen; Wu, Songqing; Shao, Ensi; Li, Mengnan; Guan, Xiong; Huang, Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Vip proteins, a new group of insecticidal toxins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, are effective against specific pests including Spodoptera litura. Here, we report construction of a transcriptome database of S. litura by de novo assembly along with detection of the transcriptional response of S. litura larvae to Vip3Aa toxin. In total, 56,498 unigenes with an N50 value of 1,853 bp were obtained. Results of transcriptome abundance showed that Vip3Aa toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response of the S. litura midgut. The differentially expressed genes were enriched for immunity-related, metabolic-related and Bt-related genes. Twenty-nine immunity-related genes, 102 metabolic-related genes and 62 Bt-related genes with differential expression were found. On the basis of transcriptional profiling analysis, we focus on the functional validation of trypsin which potentially participated in the activation of Vip3Aa protoxin. Zymogram analysis indicated that the presence of many proteases, including trypsin, in S. litura larvae midgut. Results of enzymolysis in vitro of Vip3Aa by trypsin, and bioassay and histopathology of the trypsin-digested Vip3Aa toxin showed that trypsin was possibly involved in the Vip3Aa activation. This study provides a transcriptome foundation for the identification and functional validation of the differentially expressed genes in an agricultural important pest, S. litura. PMID:27025647

  4. Study of the Activity and Possible Mechanism of Action of a Reversible Inhibitor of Recombinant Human KAT-2: A Promising Lead in Neurodegenerative and Cognitive Disorders.

    PubMed

    Nematollahi, Alireza; Sun, Guanchen; Jayawickrama, Gayan S; Hanrahan, Jane R; Church, W Bret

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the human brain are believed to be connected to several central nervous system (CNS) diseases, therefore compounds which affect the production of this crucial metabolite are of interest in CNS drug development. The majority of KYNA production is accounted for by kynurenine aminotransferase-2 (KAT-2) in the mammalian brain; hence this enzyme is one of the most interesting targets with which to modulate KYNA levels. Recently developed human KAT-2 inhibitors with high potencies are known to irreversibly bind to the enzyme cofactor, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP), which may lead to severe side effects due to the abundance of PLP-dependent enzymes. In this study, we report a reversible and competitive inhibitor of KAT-2. Its inhibitory activities were examined using HPLC and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and compare favorably with other recently reported KAT-2 inhibitors. Our inhibitor, NS-1502, demonstrates suitable inhibitory activity, almost 10 times more potent than the known reversible KAT-2, (S)-ESBA. PMID:27367665

  5. Phosphorylation of Mitogen- and Stress-Activated Protein Kinase-1 in Astrocytic Inflammation: A Possible Role in Inhibiting Production of Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jinlong; Ni, Lanchun; Huang, Qingfeng; Xia, Liang; Nie, Dekang; Lu, Xiaojian; Chen, Jian; Shi, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose It is generally accepted that inflammation has a role in the progression of many central nervous system (CNS) diseases, although the mechanisms through which this occurs remain unclear. Among mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) targets, mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase (MSK1) has been thought to be involved in the pathology of inflammatory gene expression. In this study, the roles of MSK1 activation in neuroinflammation were investigated. Methods The bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain injury model was performed on Sprague-Dawley rats. The dynamic expression changes and the cellular location of p-MSK1 in the brain cortex were detected by Western blot and immunofluorescence staining. The synthesis of inflammatory cytokines in astrocytes was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results Phosphorylated MSK1 (p-MSK1 Thr-581) was induced significantly after intracerebral injection of LPS into the lateral ventricles of the rat brain. Specific upregulation of p-MSK1 in astrocytes was also observed in inflamed cerebral cortex. At 1 day after LPS stimulation, iNOS, TNFα expression, and the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) were increased significantly. Also, in vitro studies indicated that the upregulation of p-MSK1 (Thr-581) may be involved in the subsequent astrocyte inflammatory process, following LPS challenge. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), it was confirmed that treatment with LPS in primary astrocytes stimulated the synthesis of inflammatory cytokines, through MAPKs signaling pathways. In cultured primary astrocytes, both knock-down of total MSK1 by small interfering RNAs (siRNA) or specific mutation of Thr-581 resulted in higher production of certain cytokines, such as TNFα and IL-6. Conclusions Collectively, these results suggest that MSK1 phosphorylation is associated with the regulation of LPS-induced brain injury and possibly acts as a negative regulator of

  6. Detection of carboxylesterase and esterase activity in culturable gut bacterial flora isolated from diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), from India and its possible role in indoxacarb degradation.

    PubMed

    Ramya, Shanivarsanthe Leelesh; Venkatesan, Thiruvengadam; Srinivasa Murthy, Kottilingam; Jalali, Sushil Kumar; Verghese, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a notorious pest of brassica crops worldwide and is resistant to all groups of insecticides. The insect system harbors diverse groups of microbiota, which in turn helps in enzymatic degradation of xenobiotic-like insecticides. The present study aimed to determine the diversity of gut microflora in DBM, quantify esterase activity and elucidate their possible role in degradation of indoxacarb. We screened 11 geographic populations of DBM in India and analyzed them for bacterial diversity. The culturable gut bacterial flora underwent molecular characterization with 16S rRNA. We obtained 25 bacterial isolates from larvae (n=13) and adults (n=12) of DBM. In larval gut isolates, gammaproteobacteria was the most abundant (76%), followed by bacilli (15.4%). Molecular characterization placed adult gut bacterial strains into three major classes based on abundance: gammaproteobacteria (66%), bacilli (16.7%) and flavobacteria (16.7%). Esterase activity from 19 gut bacterial isolates ranged from 0.072 to 2.32μmol/min/mg protein. Esterase bands were observed in 15 bacterial strains and the banding pattern differed in Bacillus cereus - KC985225 and Pantoea agglomerans - KC985229. The bands were characterized as carboxylesterase with profenofos used as an inhibitor. Minimal media study showed that B. cereus degraded indoxacarb up to 20%, so it could use indoxacarb for metabolism and growth. Furthermore, esterase activity was greater with minimal media than control media: 1.87 versus 0.26μmol/min/mg protein. Apart from the insect esterases, bacterial carboxylesterase may aid in the degradation of insecticides in DBM. PMID:26991291

  7. [New possibilities in the postoperative measures to prevent bleeding in cardiac surgery. Will the recombinant activated factor VII improve surgical results?].

    PubMed

    Skalski, Janusz H; Czapla, Jerzy; Nadziakiewicz, Paweł; Kaczmarski, Jacek; Zembala, Marian

    2002-01-01

    The authors present the diagnostic and therapeutic management in bleeding episodes associated with cardiosurgical operations, which constitutes the policy that is employed at Department of Cardiac Surgery and Transplantology, Silesian Academy of Medicine, Zabrze, Poland. The paper also presents a compendium of information on the pathophysiology of coagulation processes, most significant from the standpoint of cardiosurgical practice. Separate issues associated with providing optimal hemostasis in patients operated on using cardiopulmonary bypass are discussed, along with the effect of cardiac procedures on coagulation processes. Further, the authors present their clinical observations and experience in the utilization of the recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven, NovoNordisk) in two patients with severe perioperative bleeding. In the first case bleeding was associated heart transplantation procedure in a 37-year old woman, who had previously been twice subjected to operations for valvular heart disease. A dysfunction of two artificial valves implanted 15 years previously resulted in considerable heart muscle damage and an extremenally severe form of cardiac insufficiency. Two months after the heart transplant the patient unfortunately died due to infectious complications. In the second patient the recombinant activated factor VII was employed in an attempt at controlling severe bleeding encountered in a 15-year old boy in the course of reoperation in surgical treatment of a complex congenital heart defect. In this case the treatment was successful. In both described patients who were characterized by a high risk of surgical bleeding, the employment of the recombinant activated factor VII led to significant improvement in coagulation system indices and the hemostatic outcome was regarded positive. The authors state that the introduction of the recombinant activated factor VII to clinical practice in a selected group of patients presenting with most serious

  8. River sinuosity changes as indicators of the possible neotectonic activity - a case study on the Danube River between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovszki, Judit

    2010-05-01

    The meandering, pre-regulation river planforms of the Danube River, between Paks (Hungary) and Beograd (Serbia) was digitized from the map sheets of the Second Military Survey of the Habsburg Empire (Timár et al., 2006). These maps were surveyed before or simultaneously with the river control works, so it is possible to follow the natural riverbeds, the natural changing of the meandering structure. The sinuosity values were calculated with different window sizes, and displayed in a spectrum-like diagram (sinuosity spectra; after van Balen et al., 2008). The channel sinuosity of this river is analyzed in order to draw conclusions on the neotectonic activity of the western part of the Great Hungarian Plain. Several points of sinuosity change were identified. To prove that these are of neotectonic origin, a neotectonic map and seismic sections crossing the study area, were also analyzed. Significant sinuosity changes (low to high or high to low), spatially correlated to linear features identified in seismic survey sections or in tectonic maps (Horváth et al., 2006), indicate their neotectonic activity (Ouchi, 1985; Timár, 2003; Zámolyi et al., 2010). Upstream of the Hungarian-Serbian border, the Duna (Danube) has anabranching planform, the Baracskai-Duna is the main anabranch. There is a fault on the neotectonic map, crossing both rivers, and cause the decreasing of the sinuosity. The vertical activity of the structural line, which is more or less parallel to the international border, is verified by the sinuosity change. The direction of the change (from high to low sinuosity values) correlates with the normal fault character, shown on the map. Another significant sinuosity change occurs downstream of the Drava River confluence. The explanation of this change can be of two kinds. First, there is a known tectonic feature along the Drava River, with dextral faulting. The sinuosity increase could indicate a small active vertical component of this structural line

  9. Decrease in water activity due to fluid absent partial melting monitored with water content in biotite in the Western Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siron, Guillaume; Baumgartner, Lukas; Bouvier, Anne-Sophie; Vennemann, Torsten

    2016-04-01

    interpret the concentration of OH- to be influenced by water activity within the rocks, and temperature. Our results confirm that oxy-biotite is a non-negligible component, but in the case of prograde metamorphism we do not interpret this as the consequence of a Ti-oxygen exchange only, but also as the consequence of a decrease in water activity due to partial melting. Bauer, K. K., & Vennemann, T. W. (2014). Analytical methods for the measurement of hydrogen isotope composition and water content in clay minerals by TC/EA. Chemical Geology, 363(C), 229-240. Cesare, B., Satish-Kumar, M., Cruciani, G., Pocker, S., & Nodari, L. (2008). Mineral chemistry of Ti-rich biotite from pegmatite and metapelitic granulites of the Kerala Khondalite Belt (southeast India): Petrology and further insight into titanium substitutions. American Mineralogist, 93(2-3), 327-338. Floess, D., & Baumgartner, L. (2013). Formation of garnet clusters during polyphase metamorphism. Terra Nova, 25(2), 144-150. Munoz, J. L. (1984). F-OH and Cl-OH Exchange in Micas with Applications to Hydrothermal Ore Deposits. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 13, 469-493.

  10. Evidence that glucose metabolism is decreased in the cerebrum of aged female senescence-accelerated mouse; possible involvement of a low hexokinase activity.

    PubMed

    Kurokawa, T; Sato, E; Inoue, A; Ishibashi, S

    1996-08-16

    d-Glucose metabolism in cerebral cells prepared from aged senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM), was investigated in consideration of a sex difference. The production of 14CO2 from 6-[14C]D-glucose was reduced in female senescence-accelerated-prone mouse (SAMP) 8, a prone substrain, in comparison with that in female senescence-accelerated-resistant mouse (SAMR) 2, a control substrain, whereas there was no difference in males. The 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake into cerebral cells from female SAMP8 was also lower than that of control mice. But, the 3-O-methyl-D-glucose uptake in SAMP8 was higher than that of SAMR2, suggesting that the low hexokinase activity was involved in the decreased glucose metabolism in cerebrum of SAMP8 females irrespective of glucose transporter. This possibility was supported by the finding that the contents of glucose 6-phosphate produced from glucose added to cerebral cells from SAMP8 was lower than that in ICR mice. PMID:8873128

  11. Statistical study of possible connections between quasi-static electric field anomalies in the upper ionosphere and seismo-tectonic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gousheva, Mariyana; Danov, Dimitar; Hristov, Plamen; Matova, Margarita

    The paper proposes a statistical study of possible connections between pre-, co-and post-earthquake effects in the equatorial, low and mid latitude ionosphere and quasi-static electric field disturbances observed from IESP-1 instrument on the INTERCOSMOS-BULGARIA-1300 satellite. Forty eight orbits situated over Europe, Atlantic, North America, Central America, South America, Africa, Indian ocean, Asia, North Pacific, South Pacific and Australia were chosen for the research when they pass above sources of 114 light, moderate or strong earth-quakes.The data of seismic events, their origin time, locations of epicentre, magnitude and depth in the observed period are obtained from United State Geological Survey (USGS) web-site. The observed period includes 117 days. The observations suggest the presence or not of quasi-static electric field disturbances 5-15 days before and 5-15 days after the seismic man-ifestations. In the paper we analyze and discuss an increase of about 5-10-18 mV/m in the vertical component of the quasi-static electric field observed in the upper ionosphere above earthquakes sources during seismic activity. We propose arguments that the noted anomalies could be correlated with seismic manifestations.

  12. Isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium kansasii in an HIV-positive patient, and possible development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.

    PubMed

    Despotovic, A; Savic, B; Salemovic, D; Ranin, J; Jevtovic, Dj

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are rare but important causes of infection in HIV-positive individuals. A 28-year-old HIV-positive male presented with a high fever, non-productive cough, right subcostal pain, splenomegaly, a very low CD4 count, elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a normal white blood cell count. The suspicion of tuberculosis (TB) was very high, and sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli. Standard quadruple anti-TB therapy was initiated, but once culture of the sample revealed Mycobacterium kansasii, pyrazinamide was withdrawn. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was initiated soon after, consisting of abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz. The patient's general condition deteriorated 2 weeks after HAART initiation, which could have been due to the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The patient recovered and was discharged in good condition. However, the results of resistance testing of the isolated organism arrived after discharge, and showed isoniazid and streptomycin resistance. This is the first case report of M. kansasii infection from Serbia and shows the difficulties encountered during the course of treatment. PMID:26603644

  13. Narcolepsy: Autoimmunity, Effector T Cell Activation Due to Infection, or T Cell Independent, Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Induced Neuronal Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Adriano; Gast, Heidemarie; Reith, Walter; Recher, Mike; Birchler, Thomas; Bassetti, Claudio L.

    2010-01-01

    Human narcolepsy with cataplexy is a neurological disorder, which develops due to a deficiency in hypocretin producing neurons in the hypothalamus. There is a strong association with human leucocyte antigens HLA-DR2 and HLA-DQB1*0602. The disease typically starts in adolescence. Recent developments in narcolepsy research support the hypothesis of…

  14. Computational approaches elucidate the allosteric mechanism of human aromatase inhibition: a novel possible route to Small-molecule regulation of CYP450s activities?

    PubMed

    Sgrignani, Jacopo; Bon, Marta; Colombo, Giorgio; Magistrato, Alessandra

    2014-10-27

    Human aromatase (HA) is a P450 cytochrome (CYP) with an essential role in estrogen biosynthesis. Since more than 70% of breast cancers are positive for estrogenic receptor (ER), the reduction of estrogen physiological concentrations through HA inhibition is one of most important therapeutic strategies against this cancer type. Recently, experimental evidence showed that selected taxmoxifen metabolites, which are typically used as estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), inhibit HA through an allosteric mechanism. In this work, we present a computational protocol to (i) characterize the structural framework and (ii) define the atomistic details of the determinants for the noncompetitive inhibition mechanism. Our calculations identify two putative binding sites able to efficiently bind all tamoxifen metabolites. Analysis of long-scale molecular dynamics simulations reveal that endoxifen, the most effective noncompetitive inhibitor, induces significant enzyme rigidity by binding in one of the possible peripheral sites. The consequence of this binding event is the suppression of one of the functional enzymatic collective motions associated with breathing of the substrate access channel. Moreover, an internal dynamics-based alignment of HA with six other human cytochromes shows that this collective motion is common to other members of the CYP450 protein family. On this basis, our findings may thus be of help for the development of new (pan)inhibitors for the therapeutic treatment of cancer, targeting and modulating the activity of HA and of estrogen receptor, and may also stimulate the development of new drug design strategies for chemoprevention and chemoprotection via allosteric inhibition of CYP450 proteins. PMID:25178092

  15. Evaluating cytochrome p450 in lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and tree swallow (Tachycineta bicolor) by monooxygenase activity and immunohistochemistry: Possible nonlethal assessment by skin immunohistochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Melancon, M.J.; Kutay, A.L.; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Six-month-old lesser scaup (Aythya affinis) and nestling tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) were injected intraperitoneally with beta-naphthoflavone (BNF) in corn oil or in vehicle alone. Liver samples were taken and stored at -80 degrees C until microsome preparation and monooxygenase assay. Skin samples were placed in buffered formalin for subsequent immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A). Lesser scaup treated with BNF at 20 or 100 mg/kg body weight showed approximately 6- to 18-fold increases in four monooxygenases (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, methoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, and pentoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase). No IHC response was observed for CYP1A in the skin of vehicle-injected ducks, whereas in the skin from BNF-treated ducks, the positive IHC response was of similar magnitude for both dose levels of BNF. Tree swallows injected with BNF at 100 mg/kg, but not at. 20 mg/kg, showed significant increases (approximately fivefold) in hepatic microsomal O-dealkylase activities. Cytochrome P4501A was undetectable by IHC response in skin from corn oil-treated swallows, but positive IHC responses were observed in the skin of one of five swallows at 20 mg/kg and four of five swallows at 100 mg/kg. Although these data do not allow construction of significant dose-response curves, the IHC responses for CYP1A in skin support the possible use of this nonlethal approach for biomonitoring contaminant exposure of birds. In addition, the CYP1A signal observed at the bases of emerging feathers suggest that these might provide less invasive sampling sites for IHC analysis of CYP1A.

  16. Possible involvement of brain prostaglandin E2 and prostanoid EP3 receptors in prostaglandin E2 glycerol ester-induced activation of central sympathetic outflow in the rat.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takahiro; Tanaka, Kenjiro; Nakamura, Kumiko; Taniuchi, Keisuke; Yawata, Toshio; Higashi, Youichirou; Ueba, Tetsuya; Dimitriadis, Fotios; Shimizu, Shogo; Yokotani, Kunihiko; Saito, Motoaki

    2014-07-01

    We recently reported that intracerebroventricularly administered 2-arachidonoylglycerol elevated plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline by brain monoacylglycerol lipase- (MGL) and cyclooxygenase-mediated mechanisms in the rat. These results suggest that 2-arachidonoylglycerol is hydrolyzed by MGL to free arachidonic acid, which is further metabolized to prostaglandins (PGs) by cyclooxygenase in the brain, thereby elevating plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline. On the other hand, 2-arachidonoylglycerol can be also metabolized by cyclooxygenase to PG glycerol esters (PG-Gs), which seems to be hydrolyzed by MGL to free PGs. Here, we examined the involvement of brain PG-Gs in the elevation of plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline regarding PGE2-G and prostanoid EP receptors using anesthetized male Wistar rats. Intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2-G (1.5 and 3 nmol/animal) dose-dependently elevated plasma noradrenaline but not adrenaline. PGE2-G also elevated systolic, mean and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. The PGE2-G-induced elevation of plasma noradrenaline was attenuated by JZL184 (MGL inhibitor). Intracerebroventricularly administered PGE2 (0.3 and 1.5 nmol/animal) and sulprostone (0.1 and 0.3 nmol/animal) (EP1/EP3 agonist) also elevated plasma noradrenaline but not adrenaline in a dose-dependent manner. The sulprostone-induced elevation was attenuated by L-798,106 (EP3 antagonist), but not by SC-51322 (EP1 antagonist). L-798,106 also attenuated the PGE2-G- and PGE2-induced elevation of plasma noradrenaline, while PF-04418948 (EP2 antagonist) and L-161,982 (EP4 antagonist) had no effect on the PGE2-G-induced response. These results suggest a possibility that brain PGE2-G produced from 2-arachidonoylglycerol can be hydrolyzed to free PGE2, thereby activating central sympathetic outflow by brain prostanoid EP3 receptor-mediated mechanisms in the rat. PMID:24657150

  17. Detection of a Possible X-Ray Quasi-periodic Oscillation in the Active Galactic Nucleus 1H 0707-495

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Hai-Wu; Yuan, Weimin; Yao, Su; Zhou, Xin-Lin; Liu, Bifang; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2016-03-01

    The quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) detected in the X-ray radiation of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs) is thought to originate from dynamical processes in close vicinity of black holes (BHs), and thus carries important physical information therein. Such a feature is extremely rare in