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  1. Inhibition of FAK kinase activity preferentially targets cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kolev, Vihren N.; Tam, Winnie F.; Wright, Quentin G.; McDermott, Sean P.; Vidal, Christian M.; Shapiro, Irina M.; Xu, Qunli; Wicha, Max S.; Pachter, Jonathan A.; Weaver, David T.

    2017-01-01

    Because cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been implicated in chemo-resistance, metastasis and tumor recurrence, therapeutic targeting of CSCs holds promise to address these clinical challenges to cancer treatment. VS-4718 and VS-6063 are potent inhibitors of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a non-receptor tyrosine kinase that mediates cell signals transmitted by integrins and growth factor receptors. We report here that inhibition of FAK kinase activity by VS-4718 or VS-6063 preferentially targets CSCs, as demonstrated by a panel of orthogonal CSC assays in cell line models and surgically resected primary breast tumor specimens cultured ex vivo. Oral administration of VS-4718 or VS-6063 to mice bearing xenograft models of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) significantly reduced the proportion of CSCs in the tumors, as evidenced by a reduced tumor-initiating capability upon re-implantation in limiting dilutions of cells prepared from these tumors. In contrast, the cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents, paclitaxel and carboplatin, enriched for CSCs, consistent with previous reports that these cytotoxic agents preferentially target non-CSCs. Importantly, VS-4718 and VS-6063 attenuated the chemotherapy-induced enrichment of CSCs in vitro and delayed tumor regrowth following cessation of chemotherapy. An intriguing crosstalk between FAK and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was revealed wherein FAK inhibition blocks β-catenin activation by reducing tyrosine 654 phosphorylation of β-catenin. Furthermore, a constitutively active mutant form of β-catenin reversed the preferential targeting of CSCs by FAK inhibition, suggesting that this targeting is mediated, at least in part, through attenuating β-catenin activation. The preferential targeting of cancer stem cells by FAK inhibitors provides a rationale for the clinical development of FAK inhibitors aimed to increase durable responses for cancer patients. PMID:28881682

  2. Synthetic peptide with inhibin-like activity preferentially inhibits follitropin secretion in comparison with lutropin-releasing hormone antagonists

    SciTech Connect

    Sairam, M.R.; Ramasharma, K.; Li, C.H.

    1987-04-01

    Biological activity of a synthetic peptide with inhibin-like activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions was compared with three highly potent synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone antagonists. Unlike the synthetic lutropin-releasing hormone antagonists, which effectively inhibited both lutropin and follitropin secretion from the pituitary, the inhibin-like peptide showed a preferential effect by inhibiting follitropin release both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, small peptides such as inhibin-like peptide with a sequence unrelated to lutropin-releasing hormone may provide a basis for design of selective inhibitors of gonadotropin release. FSH and LH were measured by radioimmunoassay.

  3. A pyrazolopyran derivative preferentially inhibits the activity of human cytosolic serine hydroxymethyltransferase and induces cell death in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Fiascarelli, Alessio; Macone, Alberto; Gargano, Maurizio; Rinaldo, Serena; Giardina, Giorgio; Pontecorvi, Valentino; Koes, David; McDermott, Lee; Yang, Tianyi; Paiardini, Alessandro; Contestabile, Roberto; Cutruzzolà, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) is a central enzyme in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, providing activated one-carbon units in the serine-glycine one-carbon metabolism. Previous studies demonstrated that the cytoplasmic isoform of SHMT (SHMT1) plays a relevant role in lung cancer. SHMT1 is overexpressed in lung cancer patients and NSCLC cell lines. Moreover, SHMT1 is required to maintain DNA integrity. Depletion in lung cancer cell lines causes cell cycle arrest and uracil accumulation and ultimately leads to apoptosis. We found that a pyrazolopyran compound, namely 2.12, preferentially inhibits SHMT1 compared to the mitochondrial counterpart SHMT2. Computational and crystallographic approaches suggest binding at the active site of SHMT1 and a competitive inhibition mechanism. A radio isotopic activity assay shows that inhibition of SHMT by 2.12 also occurs in living cells. Moreover, administration of 2.12 in A549 and H1299 lung cancer cell lines causes apoptosis at LD50 34 μM and rescue experiments underlined selectivity towards SHMT1. These data not only further highlight the relevance of the cytoplasmic isoform SHMT1 in lung cancer but, more importantly, demonstrate that, at least in vitro, it is possible to find selective inhibitors against one specific isoform of SHMT, a key target in metabolic reprogramming of many cancer types. PMID:26717037

  4. Preferential inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) activity by diphenyleneiodonium chloride with NADPH as donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    The cell-surface NADH oxidase (NOX) protein of plant and animal cells will utilize both NADH and NADPH as reduced electron donors for activity. The two activities are distinguished by a differential inhibition by the redox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Using both plasma membranes and cells, activity with NADPH as donor was markedly inhibited by DPI at submicromolar concentrations, whereas with NADH as donor, DPI was much less effective or had no effect on the activity. The possibility of the inhibition being the result of two different enzymes was eliminated by the use of a recombinant NOX protein. The findings support the concept that NOX proteins serve as terminal oxidases for plasma membrane electron transport involving cytosolic reduced pyridine nucleotides as the natural electron donors and with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.

  5. Preferential inhibition of the plasma membrane NADH oxidase (NOX) activity by diphenyleneiodonium chloride with NADPH as donor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morre, D. James

    2002-01-01

    The cell-surface NADH oxidase (NOX) protein of plant and animal cells will utilize both NADH and NADPH as reduced electron donors for activity. The two activities are distinguished by a differential inhibition by the redox inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium chloride (DPI). Using both plasma membranes and cells, activity with NADPH as donor was markedly inhibited by DPI at submicromolar concentrations, whereas with NADH as donor, DPI was much less effective or had no effect on the activity. The possibility of the inhibition being the result of two different enzymes was eliminated by the use of a recombinant NOX protein. The findings support the concept that NOX proteins serve as terminal oxidases for plasma membrane electron transport involving cytosolic reduced pyridine nucleotides as the natural electron donors and with molecular oxygen as the electron acceptor.

  6. Inhibition of HSP90 by AUY922 Preferentially Kills Mutant KRAS Colon Cancer Cells by Activating Bim through ER Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chun Yan; Guo, Su Tang; Wang, Jia Yu; Liu, Fen; Zhang, Yuan Yuan; Yari, Hamed; Yan, Xu Guang; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong; Jiang, Chen Chen

    2016-03-01

    Oncogenic mutations of KRAS pose a great challenge in the treatment of colorectal cancer. Here we report that mutant KRAS colon cancer cells are nevertheless more susceptible to apoptosis induced by the HSP90 inhibitor AUY922 than those carrying wild-type KRAS. Although AUY922 inhibited HSP90 activity with comparable potency in colon cancer cells irrespective of their KRAS mutational statuses, those with mutant KRAS were markedly more sensitive to AUY922-induced apoptosis. This was associated with upregulation of the BH3-only proteins Bim, Bik, and PUMA. However, only Bim appeared essential, in that knockdown of Bim abolished, whereas knockdown of Bik or PUMA only moderately attenuated apoptosis induced by AUY922. Mechanistic investigations revealed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was responsible for AUY922-induced upregulation of Bim, which was inhibited by a chemical chaperone or overexpression of GRP78. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of GRP78 or XBP-1 enhanced AUY922-induced apoptosis. Remarkably, AUY922 inhibited the growth of mutant KRAS colon cancer xenografts through activation of Bim that was similarly associated with ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that AUY922 is a promising drug in the treatment of mutant KRAS colon cancers, and the agents that enhance the apoptosis-inducing potential of Bim may be useful to improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Inhibition of telomerase activity preferentially targets aldehyde dehydrogenase-positive cancer stem-like cells in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Mortality rates for advanced lung cancer have not declined for decades, even with the implementation of novel chemotherapeutic regimens or the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for resistance to chemo/radiotherapy. Therefore, targeting CSCs with novel compounds may be an effective approach to reduce lung tumor growth and metastasis. We have isolated and characterized CSCs from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and measured their telomerase activity, telomere length, and sensitivity to the novel telomerase inhibitor MST312. Results The aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) positive lung cancer cell fraction is enriched in markers of stemness and endowed with stem cell properties. ALDH+ CSCs display longer telomeres than the non-CSC population. Interestingly, MST312 has a strong antiproliferative effect on lung CSCs and induces p21, p27 and apoptosis in the whole tumor population. MST312 acts through activation of the ATM/pH2AX DNA damage pathway (short-term effect) and through decrease in telomere length (long-term effect). Administration of this telomerase inhibitor (40 mg/kg) in the H460 xenograft model results in significant tumor shrinkage (70% reduction, compared to controls). Combination therapy consisting of irradiation (10Gy) plus administration of MST312 did not improve the therapeutic efficacy of the telomerase inhibitor alone. Treatment with MST312 reduces significantly the number of ALDH+ CSCs and their telomeric length in vivo. Conclusions We conclude that antitelomeric therapy using MST312 mainly targets lung CSCs and may represent a novel approach for effective treatment of lung cancer. PMID:21827695

  8. Brain Cancer Stem Cells Display Preferential Sensitivity to Akt Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Eyler, Christine E.; Foo, Wen-Chi; LaFiura, Katherine M.; McLendon, Roger E.; Hjelmeland, Anita B.; Rich, Jeremy N.

    2009-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are among the most lethal cancers, and conventional therapies are largely limited to palliation. Novel therapies targeted against specific molecular pathways may offer improved efficacy and reduced toxicity compared to conventional therapies, but initial clinical trials of molecular targeted agents in brain cancer therapy have been frequently disappointing. In brain tumors and other cancers, subpopulations of tumor cells have recently been characterized by their ability to self-renew and initiate tumors. Although these cancer stem cells, or tumor initiating cells, are often only present in small numbers in human tumors, mounting evidence suggests that cancer stem cells contribute to tumor maintenance and therapeutic resistance. Thus, the development of therapies that target cancer stem cell signal transduction and biologies may improve brain tumor patient survival. We now demonstrate that populations enriched for cancer stem cells are preferentially sensitive to an inhibitor of Akt, a prominent cell survival and invasion signaling node. Treatment with an Akt inhibitor more potently reduced the numbers of viable brain cancer stem cells relative to matched non-stem cancer cells associated with a preferential induction of apoptosis and a suppression of neurosphere formation. Akt inhibition also reduced the motility and invasiveness of all tumor cells but had a greater impact on cancer stem cell behaviors. Furthermore, inhibition of Akt activity in cancer stem cells increased survival of immunocompromised mice bearing human glioma xenografts in vivo. Together, these results suggest that Akt inhibitors may function as effective anti-cancer stem cell therapies. PMID:18802038

  9. Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-interacting Kinase (MNK) Preferentially Affects Translation of mRNAs Containing Both a 5'-Terminal Cap and Hairpin.

    PubMed

    Korneeva, Nadejda L; Song, Anren; Gram, Hermann; Edens, Mary Ann; Rhoads, Robert E

    2016-02-12

    The MAPK-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) are activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or p38 in response to cellular stress and extracellular stimuli that include growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Modulation of MNK activity affects translation of mRNAs involved in the cell cycle, cancer progression, and cell survival. However, the mechanism by which MNK selectively affects translation of these mRNAs is not understood. MNK binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and phosphorylates the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Using a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes programmed with mRNAs containing different 5'-ends, we show that an MNK inhibitor, CGP57380, affects translation of only those mRNAs that contain both a cap and a hairpin in the 5'-UTR. Similarly, a C-terminal fragment of human eIF4G-1, eIF4G(1357-1600), which prevents binding of MNK to intact eIF4G, reduces eIF4E phosphorylation and inhibits translation of only capped and hairpin-containing mRNAs. Analysis of proteins bound to m(7)GTP-Sepharose reveals that both CGP and eIF4G(1357-1600) decrease binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. These data suggest that MNK stimulates translation only of mRNAs containing both a cap and 5'-terminal RNA duplex via eIF4E phosphorylation, thereby enhancing the coupled cap-binding and RNA-unwinding activities of eIF4F. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Methylisoindigo preferentially kills cancer stem cells by interfering cell metabolism via inhibition of LKB1 and activation of AMPK in PDACs.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xinlai; Kim, Jee Young; Ghafoory, Shahrouz; Duvaci, Tijen; Rafiee, Roya; Theobald, Jannick; Alborzinia, Hamed; Holenya, Pavlo; Fredebohm, Johannes; Merz, Karl-Heinz; Mehrabi, Arianeb; Hafezi, Mohammadreza; Saffari, Arash; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Wölfl, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) clinically has a very poor prognosis. No small molecule is available to reliably achieve cures. Meisoindigo is chemically related to the natural product indirubin and showed substantial efficiency in clinical chemotherapy for CML in China. However, its effect on PDAC is still unknown. Our results showed strong anti-proliferation effect of meisoindigo on gemcitabine-resistant PDACs. Using a recently established primary PDAC cell line, called Jopaca-1 with a larger CSCs population as model, we observed a reduction of CD133+ and ESA+/CD44+/CD24+ populations upon treatment and concomitantly a decreased expression of CSC-associated genes, and reduced cellular mobility and sphere formation. Investigating basic cellular metabolic responses, we detected lower oxygen consumption and glucose uptake, while intracellular ROS levels increased. This was effectively neutralized by the addition of antioxidants, indicating an essential role of the cellular redox balance. Further analysis on energy metabolism related signaling revealed that meisoindigo inhibited LKB1, but activated AMPK. Both of them were involved in cellular apoptosis. Additional in situ hybridization in tissue sections of PDAC patients reproducibly demonstrated co-expression and -localization of LKB1 and CD133 in malignant areas. Finally, we detected that CD133+/CD44+ were more vulnerable to meisoindigo, which could be mimicked by LKB1 siRNAs. Our results provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that LKB1 sustains the CSC population in PDACs and demonstrate a clear benefit of meisoindigo in treatment of gemcitabine-resistant cells. This novel mechanism may provide a promising new treatment option for PDAC. Copyright © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glutamine preferentially inhibits T-helper type 2 cell-mediated airway inflammation and late airway hyperresponsiveness through the inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) activity in a murine asthma model.

    PubMed

    Ko, H M; Kang, N I; Kim, Y S; Lee, Y M; Jin, Z W; Jung, Y J; Im, S Y; Kim, J H; Shin, Y H; Cho, B H; Lee, H K

    2008-02-01

    The non-essential amino acid, l-glutamine (Gln), is abundant in the human body. Gln exhibits beneficial effects on endotoxic shock through the inhibition of cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) activity. cPLA(2) has been reported to be implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, but the effects of Gln on asthma have not yet been defined. To investigate the effects of Gln on allergic bronchial inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), and to determine the possible action mechanisms of Gln in a murine model of asthma. cPLA(2) phosphorylation was assessed by immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Smears of bronchoalveolar lavage cells were stained with Diff-Quik solution for differential cell counting. Airway levels of the proteins [T-helper type-1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines, and mucin] were measured by ELISA. mRNA expression of cytokines was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. AHR was assessed as a change in airway resistance (RL). Histological studies were performed to assess the levels of mucin and pulmonary inflammation. Systemic Gln administration inhibited cPLA(2) phosphorylation and its enzymatic activity in the lungs. Additionally, Gln effectively suppressed the key features of Th2-dependent asthmatic features, such as airway eosinophilia, mucus formation, and airway type 2 cytokine production, as well as late AHR. Gln was found to be effective in the suppression of Th2-dependent phenotypes and late AHR, and this effect of Gln appeared to be at least partially attributable to its ability to suppress cLPA(2) activity in the airway. Our results suggest that clinical use of Gln for patients with asthma may be beneficial.

  12. Antiepileptic Activity of Preferential Inhibitors of Persistent Sodium Current

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Lyndsey L.; Thompson, Christopher H.; Hawkins, Nicole A.; Nath, Ravi D.; Petersohn, Adam A.; Rajamani, Sridharan; Bush, William S.; Frankel, Wayne N.; Vanoye, Carlos G.; Kearney, Jennifer A.; George, Alfred L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evidence from basic neurophysiology and molecular genetics has implicated persistent sodium current conducted by voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels as a contributor to the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Many antiepileptic drugs target NaV channels and modulate neuronal excitability mainly by a use-dependent block of transient sodium current, although suppression of persistent current may also contribute to the efficacy of these drugs. We hypothesized that a drug or compound capable of preferential inhibition of persistent sodium current would have antiepileptic activity. Methods We examined the antiepileptic activity of two selective persistent sodium current blockers ranolazine, an FDA-approved drug for treatment of angina pectoris, and GS967, a novel compound with more potent effects on persistent current, in the epileptic Scn2aQ54 mouse model. We also examined the effect of GS967 in the maximal electroshock model and evaluated effects of the compound on neuronal excitability, propensity for hilar neuron loss, development of mossy fiber sprouting and survival of Scn2aQ54 mice. Results We found that ranolazine was capable of reducing seizure frequency by ~50% in Scn2aQ54 mice. The more potent persistent current blocker GS967 reduced seizure frequency by greater than 90% in Scn2aQ54 mice and protected against induced seizures in the maximal electroshock model. GS967 greatly attenuated abnormal spontaneous action potential firing in pyramidal neurons acutely isolated from Scn2aQ54 mice. In addition to seizure suppression in vivo, GS967 treatment greatly improved the survival of Scn2aQ54 mice, prevented hilar neuron loss, and suppressed the development of hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting. Significance Our findings indicate that the selective persistent sodium current blocker GS967 has potent antiepileptic activity and this compound could inform development of new agents. PMID:24862204

  13. Pref-1 preferentially inhibits heat production in brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Koppen, Arjen; Kalkhoven, Eric

    2012-05-01

    In mammals there are two types of adipocytes with opposing functions. Brown adipocytes are characterized by a high number of mitochondria and are specialized for heat production (thermogenesis), expressing thermogenic genes such as UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1). White adipocytes, on the other hand, store energy. Although many key regulators in the differentiation of white adipocytes have been established, our current knowledge on the same proteins in brown adipogenesis is lagging behind. One example is Pref-1 (pre-adipocyte factor-1), which maintains white pre-adipocytes in an undifferentiated state, but is only poorly characterized in the brown pre-adipocyte lineage. In this issue of the Biochemical Journal, Armengol et al. now shed new light on the role and regulation of Pref-1 in brown pre-adipocytes. First, Pref-1 specifically inhibits the thermogenic gene programme in brown pre-adipocytes. Secondly, they identified the transcription factor C/EBPδ (CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein δ) as a direct positive regulator of Pref-1 expression, whereas this protein does not fulfil this role in white adipogenesis. Taken together, these findings indicate that specific manipulation of brown adipocyte differentiation and/or function without interfering with their white adipocyte counterparts may be possible, which may open up new therapeutic ways to combat obesity-associated health problems.

  14. Preferential inhibition of mouse hepatic coumarin 7-hydroxylase by inhibitors of steroid metabolizing monooxygenases.

    PubMed

    Kojo, A; Honkakoski, P; Järvinen, P; Pelkonen, O; Lang, M

    1989-08-01

    Etomidate, metomidate and metyrapone, all potent inhibitors of steroid metabolizing monooxygenases, inhibit preferentially coumarin 7-hydroxylase (COH) amongst several liver microsomal monooxygenase activities from control and pyrazole-treated D2 mice in vitro. SKF-525A, an inhibitor of phenobarbital-inducible monooxygenase activities has a much weaker effect on COH than the other three drugs, even though COH is a phenobarbital-inducible enzyme. Treatment of mice with eto- and metomidate decreases the microsomal COH also in vivo while the other activities remained unchanged (with the exception of 7-ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECDE) in case of metomidate). Despite of the decrease in COH no parallel decrease in the amount of microsomal P450Coh (P450 isoenzyme highly active in the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin) could be found in dot immuno-binding analysis. These data suggest that among several liver microsomal P450 isoenzymes, metyrapone, eto- and metomidate interact preferentially with the P450Coh and that eto- and metomidate may alter selectively the catalytic properties of P450Coh leading to decreased enzyme activity. Two different Ks-values could be found for all three drug in their binding to microsomal cytochrome(s) P450. Based on substrate binding spectra, potassium ferricyanide treatment does not dissociate the complex between reduced P450 and metomidate and does it only partly for etomidate. Furthermore potassium ferricyanide treatment of microsomes does not increase COH after in vivo treatment of mice with eto- and metomidate. These data further suggest that the complex between P450Coh and eto- and metomidate may be particularly strong and independent from the redox state of the haem iron.

  15. Preferential pharmacological inhibition of macrophage ACAT increases plaque formation in mouse and rabbit models of atherogenesis.

    PubMed

    Perrey, S; Legendre, C; Matsuura, A; Guffroy, C; Binet, J; Ohbayashi, S; Tanaka, T; Ortuno, J C; Matsukura, T; Laugel, T; Padovani, P; Bellamy, F; Edgar, A D

    2001-04-01

    The cholesteryl ester, foam cell-enriched vulnerable plaque is a principle pharmacological target for reducing athero-thrombosis. Acyl CoA:cholesterol Acyl Transferase (ACAT) catalyzes the esterification of free cholesterol in intestine, liver, adrenal and macrophages, leading in the latter cells to intracellular cholesteryl ester accumulation and foam cell formation in the arterial intima. Previous studies suggested the existence of several isoforms of ACAT with different tissue distribution and this has largely been confirmed by molecular cloning of ACAT-1 and ACAT-2. We developed a series of ACAT inhibitors that preferentially inhibited macrophage ACAT relative to hepatic or intestinal ACAT based on in vitro assays and ex vivo bioavailability studies. Four of these compounds were tested in three models of atherosclerosis at oral doses shown to give sufficient bioavailable monocyte/macrophage ACAT inhibitory activity. In fat-fed C57BL/6 mice, chow fed apo E-/- mice and KHC rabbits, the various ACAT inhibitors had either no effect or increased indices of atherosclerotic foam cell formation. Direct and indirect measurements suggest that the increase in plaque formation may have been related to inhibition of macrophage ACAT possibly leading to cytotoxic effects due to augmented free cholesterol. These results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of macrophage ACAT may not reduce, but actually aggravate, foam cell formation and progression.

  16. Bioavailable constituents/metabolites of pomegranate (Punica granatum L) preferentially inhibit COX2 activity ex vivo and IL-1beta-induced PGE2 production in human chondrocytes in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Meenakshi; Gupta, Kalpana; Rasheed, Zafar; Khan, Khursheed A; Haqqi, Tariq M

    2008-01-01

    Several recent studies have documented that supplementation with pomegranate fruit extract inhibits inflammatory symptoms in vivo. However, the molecular basis of the observed effects has not been fully revealed. Although previous studies have documented the inhibition of nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in vitro by plant and fruit extracts added directly into the culture medium but whether concentrations of bioactive compounds sufficient enough to exert such inhibitory effects in vivo can be achieved through oral consumption has not been reported. In the present study we determined the effect of rabbit plasma obtained after ingestion of a polyphenol rich extract of pomegranate fruit (PFE) on COX enzyme activity ex vivo and the IL-1β-induced production of NO and PGE2 in chondrocytes in vitro. Plasma samples collected before and 2 hr after supplementation with PFE were tested. Plasma samples collected after oral ingestion of PFE were found to inhibit the IL-1β-induced PGE2 and NO production in chondrocytes. These same plasma samples also inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activity ex vivo but the effect was more pronounced on the enzyme activity of COX-2 enzyme. Taken together these results provide additional evidence of the bioavailability and bioactivity of compounds present in pomegranate fruit after oral ingestion. Furthermore, these studies suggest that PFE-derived bioavailable compounds may exert an anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the inflammatory cytokine-induced production of PGE2 and NO in vivo. PMID:18554383

  17. Arctigenin preferentially induces tumor cell death under glucose deprivation by inhibiting cellular energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yuan; Qi, Chunting; Sun, Xiaoxiao; Ma, Xiuquan; Zhang, Haohao; Hu, Lihong; Yuan, Junying; Yu, Qiang

    2012-08-15

    Selectively eradicating cancer cells with minimum adverse effects on normal cells is a major challenge in the development of anticancer therapy. We hypothesize that nutrient-limiting conditions frequently encountered by cancer cells in poorly vascularized solid tumors might provide an opportunity for developing selective therapy. In this study, we investigated the function and molecular mechanisms of a natural compound, arctigenin, in regulating tumor cell growth. We demonstrated that arctigenin selectively promoted glucose-starved A549 tumor cells to undergo necrosis by inhibiting mitochondrial respiration. In doing so, arctigenin elevated cellular level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and blocked cellular energy metabolism in the glucose-starved tumor cells. We also demonstrated that cellular ROS generation was caused by intracellular ATP depletion and played an essential role in the arctigenin-induced tumor cell death under the glucose-limiting condition. Furthermore, we combined arctigenin with the glucose analogue 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) and examined their effects on tumor cell growth. Interestingly, this combination displayed preferential cell-death inducing activity against tumor cells compared to normal cells. Hence, we propose that the combination of arctigenin and 2DG may represent a promising new cancer therapy with minimal normal tissue toxicity. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyl System of Chalcone-Based Derivatives is Responsible for Broad Inhibition of Proteasomal Activity and Preferential Killing of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-Positive Cervical Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bazzaro, Martina; Anchoori, Ravi K; Mudiam, Mohana Krishna R; Issaenko, Olga; Kumar, Srinivas; Karanam, Balasubramanyam; Lin, Zhenhua; Vogel, Rachel Isaksson; Gavioli, Riccardo; Destro, Federica; Ferretti, Valeria; Roden, Richard BS; Khan, Saeed R

    2011-01-01

    Proteasome inhibitors have potential for the treatment of cervical cancer. We describe the synthesis and biological characterization of a new series of 1,3-diphenylpropen-1-one (chalcone)-based derivatives lacking the boronic acid moieties of the previously reported chalcone-based proteasome inhibitor 3,5-bis-(4-boronic acid-benzylidene)-1-methyl-piperidin- 4-one and bearing a variety of amino acid substitutions on the amino-group of the 4-piperidone. Our lead compound 2 (RA-1) inhibits proteasomal activity and has improved dose-dependent anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic properties in cervical cancer cells containing human papillomavirus. Further, it induces synergistic killing of cervical cancer cell lines when tested in combination with an FDA approved proteasome inhibitor. Exploration of the potential mechanism of proteasomal inhibition by our lead compound using in silico docking studies suggests that the carbonyl group of its oxopiperidine moiety is susceptible to nucleophilic attack by the γ-hydroxy threonine side chain within the catalytic sites of the proteasome. PMID:21186794

  19. Inhibition of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase (MAPK)-interacting Kinase (MNK) Preferentially Affects Translation of mRNAs Containing Both a 5′-Terminal Cap and Hairpin*

    PubMed Central

    Korneeva, Nadejda L.; Song, Anren; Gram, Hermann; Edens, Mary Ann; Rhoads, Robert E.

    2016-01-01

    The MAPK-interacting kinases 1 and 2 (MNK1 and MNK2) are activated by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) or p38 in response to cellular stress and extracellular stimuli that include growth factors, cytokines, and hormones. Modulation of MNK activity affects translation of mRNAs involved in the cell cycle, cancer progression, and cell survival. However, the mechanism by which MNK selectively affects translation of these mRNAs is not understood. MNK binds eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and phosphorylates the cap-binding protein eIF4E. Using a cell-free translation system from rabbit reticulocytes programmed with mRNAs containing different 5′-ends, we show that an MNK inhibitor, CGP57380, affects translation of only those mRNAs that contain both a cap and a hairpin in the 5′-UTR. Similarly, a C-terminal fragment of human eIF4G-1, eIF4G(1357–1600), which prevents binding of MNK to intact eIF4G, reduces eIF4E phosphorylation and inhibits translation of only capped and hairpin-containing mRNAs. Analysis of proteins bound to m7GTP-Sepharose reveals that both CGP and eIF4G(1357–1600) decrease binding of eIF4E to eIF4G. These data suggest that MNK stimulates translation only of mRNAs containing both a cap and 5′-terminal RNA duplex via eIF4E phosphorylation, thereby enhancing the coupled cap-binding and RNA-unwinding activities of eIF4F. PMID:26668315

  20. Inhibition of NIH 3T3 cell proliferation by a mutant ras protein with preferential affinity for GDP.

    PubMed Central

    Feig, L A; Cooper, G M

    1988-01-01

    Substitution of asparagine for serine at position 17 decreased the affinity of rasH p21 for GTP 20- to 40-fold without significantly affecting its affinity for GDP. Transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a mammalian expression vector containing the Asn-17 rasH gene and a Neor gene under the control of the same promoter yielded only a small fraction of the expected number of G418-resistant colonies, indicating that expression of Asn-17 p21 inhibited cell proliferation. The inhibitory effect of Asn-17 p21 required its localization to the plasma membrane and was reversed by coexpression of an activated ras gene, indicating that the mutant p21 blocked the endogenous ras function required for NIH 3T3 cell proliferation. NIH 3T3 cells transformed by v-mos and v-raf, but not v-src, were resistant to inhibition by Asn-17 p21, indicating that the requirement for normal ras function can be bypassed by these cytoplasmic oncogenes. The Asn-17 mutant represents a novel reagent for the study of ras function by virtue of its ability to inhibit cellular ras activity in vivo. Since this phenotype is likely associated with the preferential affinity of the mutant protein for GDP, analogous mutations might also yield inhibitors of other proteins whose activities are regulated by guanine nucleotide binding. Images PMID:3145408

  1. Resveratrol preferentially inhibits IgE-dependent PGD2 biosynthesis but enhances TNF production from human skin mast cells.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Devon; McHale, Cody; Gomez, Gregorio

    2016-04-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in the skin of red grapes, is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties including protective effects against aging. Consequently, Resveratrol is a common nutritional supplement and additive in non-prescription lotions and creams marketed as anti-aging products. Studies in mice and with mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) have indicated anti-allergic effects of Resveratrol. However, the effects of Resveratrol on human primary mast cells have not been reported. Human mast cells were isolated and purified from normal skin tissue of different donors. The effect of Resveratrol on IgE-dependent release of allergic inflammatory mediators was determined using various immunoassays, Western blotting, and quantitative real-time PCR. Resveratrol at low concentrations (≤10 μM) inhibited PGD2 biosynthesis but not degranulation. Accordingly, COX-2 expression was inhibited but phosphorylation of Syk, Akt, p38, and p42/44 (ERKs) remained intact. Surprisingly, TNF production was significantly enhanced with Resveratrol. At a high concentration (100 μM), Resveratrol significantly inhibited all parameters analyzed except Syk phosphorylation. Here, we show that Resveratrol at low concentrations exerts its anti-inflammatory properties by preferentially targeting the arachidonic acid pathway. We also demonstrate a previously unrecognized pro-inflammatory effect of Resveratrol--the enhancement of TNF production from human mature mast cells following IgE-dependent activation. These findings suggest that Resveratrol as a therapeutic agent could inhibit PGD2-mediated inflammation but would be ineffective against histamine-mediated allergic reactions. However, Resveratrol could potentially exacerbate or promote allergic inflammation by enhancing IgE-dependent TNF production from mast cells in human skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Jingzhaotoxin-I, a novel spider neurotoxin preferentially inhibiting cardiac sodium channel inactivation.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yucheng; Tang, Jianzhou; Hu, Weijun; Xie, Jinyun; Maertens, Chantal; Tytgat, Jan; Liang, Songping

    2005-04-01

    Jingzhaotoxin-I (JZTX-I), a 33-residue polypeptide, is derived from the Chinese tarantula Chilobrachys jing-zhao venom based on its ability to evidently increase the strength and the rate of vertebrate heartbeats. The toxin has three disulfide bonds with the linkage of I-IV, II-V, and III-VI that is a typical pattern found in inhibitor cystine knot molecules. Its cDNA determined by rapid amplification of 3'- and 5'-cDNA ends encoded a 62-residue precursor with a small proregion of eight residues. Whole-cell configuration indicated that JZTX-I was a novel neurotoxin preferentially inhibiting cardiac sodium channel inactivation by binding to receptor site 3. Although JZTX-I also exhibits the interaction with channel isoforms expressing in mammalian and insect sensory neurons, its affinity for tetrodotoxin-resistant subtype in mammalian cardiac myocytes (IC50 = 31.6 nm) is approximately 30-fold higher than that for tetrodotoxin-sensitive subtypes in latter tissues. Not affecting outward delay-rectified potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channels in mammal sensory neurons, JZTX-I hopefully represents a potent ligand to discriminate cardiac sodium channels from neuronal tetrodotoxin-resistant isoforms. Furthermore, different from any reported spider toxins, the toxin neither modifies the current-voltage relationships nor shifts the steady-state inactivation of sodium channels. Therefore, JZTX-I defines a new subclass of spider sodium channel toxins. JZTX-I is an alpha-like toxin first reported from spider venoms. The result provides an important witness for a convergent functional evolution between spider and other animal venoms.

  3. Preferential blockade of dioxin-induced activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor by Antrodia camphorata.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Mai; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Okamura, Maro; Tagawa, Yasuhiro; Nakajima, Shotaro; Saito, Yukinori; Takahashi, Shuhei; Yao, Jian; Nishimura, Daisuke; Sugi, Masahito; Matsunaga, Masaji; Kitamura, Masanori

    2009-09-01

    Halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widely distributed pollutants in environments. These toxic substances activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and thereby cause a broad spectrum of pathological changes. Development of AhR inhibitors will be useful for prevention of diseases caused by AhR activation. Using the dioxin responsive element (DRE)-based sensing via secreted alkaline phosphatase (DRESSA), we examined effects of Antrodia camphorata, a mycerial extract, on the activation of AhR by halogenated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We found that Antrodia camphorata markedly suppressed activation of AhR triggered by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In contrast, activation of AhR by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and 3-methylcholanthrene) was inhibited only modestly by this mycelium. Similarly, Antrodia camphorata only mildly attenuated activation of AhR by cigarette smoke that contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Consistent with these results, Northern blot analysis revealed that DRE-driven exogenous and endogenous gene expression triggered by TCDD was abolished by Antrodia camphorata, whereas it did not substantially affect DRE-induced transcription triggered by benzo[a]pyrene, 3-methylcholanthrene or cigarette smoke. We also found that the inhibitory effect of Antrodia camphorata on TCDD-induced AhR activation was ascribed to neither down-regulation of AhR, down-regulation of the AhR nuclear translocator, nor up-regulation of the AhR repressor. These results suggest that Antrodia camphorata preferentially inhibits AhR activation and DRE-dependent gene expression triggered by dioxin.

  4. Disruption of prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex by the preferential D(3) agonist ropinirole in healthy males.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, Stella G; Roussos, Panos; Frangou, Sophia; Bitsios, Panos

    2007-10-01

    Emerging evidence from agonist-antagonist studies suggests a role for the dopamine D(3) receptor subtype in the regulation of PPI in animals, but such evidence is lacking for human subjects. This study examines the effect of the preferential D(3) agonist ropinirole on PPI in humans. PPI was tested in 12 healthy men in three sessions associated with ropinirole 0.25 mg, ropinirole 0.5 mg, or placebo according to a balanced, crossover, double-blind design. Two prepulses (75- and 85-dB white noise bursts) and two lead intervals (50 and 80 ms) were employed. Ropinirole 0.5 mg significantly reduced prepulse inhibition (PPI) with both prepulses at the 80-ms lead intervals. There was no effect of treatment on startle amplitude and habituation. These results suggest a role for the dopamine D(3) receptor in the mediation of human PPI, although a contribution from ropinirole's agonistic activity at the D(2) receptor cannot be entirely excluded. Firm conclusions on the role of the D(3) receptor in the modulation of human PPI can only be drawn with the use of genetic approaches or more selective ligands for this receptor.

  5. Fluoroquinolones inhibit preferentially Streptococcus pneumoniae DNA topoisomerase IV than DNA gyrase native proteins.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moreira, E; Balas, D; Gonzalez, I; de la Campa, A G

    2000-01-01

    The genes encoding the subunits of DNA topoisomerase IV (parC and parE) and DNA gyrase (gyrA and gyrB) of Streptococcus pneumoniae were cloned and overproduced in Escherichia coli by using the T7promoter-T7 RNA polymerase system. The four subunits were separately purified to near homogeneity by column chromatography. Protein purification was achieved by DEAE-sepharose, heparin-agarose, and hydroxylapatite chromatography. DNA topoisomerase IV was reconstituted when ParC and ParE were combined at a 3.8-fold excess of ParE. The reconstituted topoisomerase IV showed to generate efficient ATP-dependent DNA decatenation activity. The DNA gyrase ATP-dependent supercoiling activity was reconstituted by mixing equimolar amounts of the two gyrase subunits. The inhibitory effects of four representative fluoroquinolones on the DNA decatenation activity of topoisomerase IV and DNA supercoiling of gyrase have been examined and compared. All four compounds were more active in inhibiting topoisomerase IV than gyrase. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the inhibitory activity against topoisomerase IV decatenation and DNA gyrase supercoiling. The classification of the four fluoroquinolones, considering their inhibitory activities in decatenation, supercoiling and growth was the following: clinafloxacin > trovafloxacin > sparfloxacin > ciprofloxacin. These results suggest these drugs primarily target topoisomerase IV of S. pneumoniae, and gyrase secondarily, in agreement with genetic data.

  6. Blocking downstream signaling pathways in the context of HDAC inhibition promotes apoptosis preferentially in cells harboring mutant Ras

    PubMed Central

    Luchenko, Victoria; Basseville, Agnes; Chakraborty, Arup R.; Kozlowski, Hanna; Pauly, Gary T.; Patel, Paresma; Schneider, Joel P.; Gottesman, Michael M.; Bates, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in a series of romidepsin-selected T-cell lymphoma cell lines as a mechanism of resistance to the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI), romidepsin. As Ras mutation leads to activation of both the MAPK and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, we examined whether combining romidepsin with small molecule pathway inhibitors would lead to increased apoptosis in cancers harboring Ras mutations. We treated 18 Ras mutant or wild-type cell lines with romidepsin in the presence of a MEK inhibitor (PD-0325901) and/or an AKT inhibitor (MK-2206) and examined apoptosis by flow cytometry. A short-term treatment schedule of romidepsin (25 ng/ml for 6 h) was used to more closely model clinical administration. Romidepsin in combination with a MEK and an AKT inhibitor induced apoptosis preferentially in cells harboring mutant versus wild-type Ras (69.1% vs. 21.1%, p < 0.0001). Similar results were found in a subset of cell lines when belinostat was combined with the MEK and AKT inhibitors and when romidepsin was combined with the dual extracellular signaling-related kinase (ERK)/PI3K inhibitor, D-87503, which inhibited both the MAPK and PI3K pathways at 5–10 μM. The observed apoptosis was caspase-dependent and required Bak and Bax expression. Cells with wild-type or mutant Ras treated with romidepsin alone or in combination with the MEK inhibitor displayed increased expression of proapoptotic Bim. We thus conclude that cancers bearing Ras mutations, such as pancreatic cancer, can be targeted by the combination of an HDI and a dual inhibitor of the MAPK and PI3K pathways. PMID:27634878

  7. Transbilayer movement of phosphatidylserine n erythrocytes: inhibition of transport and preferential labeling of a 31,000-dalton protein by sulfhydryl reactive reagents

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, J.; Schroit, A.J.

    1988-02-09

    A series of /sup 125/I-labeled thiolation reagents were synthesized on the basis of the parent structure pyridyldithioethylamine (PDA). These compounds specifically and reversibly inhibit the active intrabilayer transport of phosphatidylserine (PS) in human blood cells. The binding of PDA to cells can be quantified since the thiol-disulfide exchange reaction yields a chromophore. In addition, the presence of a primary amine makes it amenable to derivatization with a variety of compounds. An iodinated derivative of PDA preferentially labeled a 31,000-dalton red blood cell peptide. The labeled component, which may represent the PS transporter, comigrated with integral membrane protein band 7.

  8. The substituted aspartate analogue L-beta-threo-benzyl-aspartate preferentially inhibits the neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3.

    PubMed

    Esslinger, C Sean; Agarwal, Shailesh; Gerdes, John; Wilson, Paul A; Davis, Erin S; Awes, Alicia N; O'Brien, Erin; Mavencamp, Teri; Koch, Hans P; Poulsen, David J; Rhoderick, Joseph F; Chamberlin, A Richard; Kavanaugh, Michael P; Bridges, Richard J

    2005-11-01

    The excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs) play key roles in the regulation of CNS L-glutamate, especially related to synthesis, signal termination, synaptic spillover, and excitotoxic protection. Inhibitors available to delineate EAAT pharmacology and function are essentially limited to those that non-selectively block all EAATs or those that exhibit a substantial preference for EAAT2. Thus, it is difficult to selectively study the other subtypes, particularly EAAT1 and EAAT3. Structure activity studies on a series of beta-substituted aspartate analogues identify L-beta-benzyl-aspartate (L-beta-BA) as among the first blockers that potently and preferentially inhibits the neuronal EAAT3 subtype. Kinetic analysis of D-[(3)H]aspartate uptake into C17.2 cells expressing the hEAATs demonstrate that L-beta-threo-BA is the more potent diastereomer, acts competitively, and exhibits a 10-fold preference for EAAT3 compared to EAAT1 and EAAT2. Electrophysiological recordings of EAAT-mediated currents in Xenopus oocytes identify L-beta-BA as a non-substrate inhibitor. Analyzing L-beta-threo-BA within the context of a novel EAAT2 pharmacophore model suggests: (1) a highly conserved positioning of the electrostatic carboxyl and amino groups; (2) nearby regions that accommodate select structural modifications (cyclopropyl rings, methyl groups, oxygen atoms); and (3) a unique region L-beta-threo-BA occupied by the benzyl moieties of L-TBOA, L-beta-threo-BA and related analogues. It is plausible that the preference of L-beta-threo-BA and L-TBOA for EAAT3 and EAAT2, respectively, could reside in the latter two pharmacophore regions.

  9. Modeling preferential water flow and solute transport in unsaturated soil using the active region model

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, F.; Wang, K.; Zhang, R.; Liu, H.H.

    2009-03-15

    Preferential flow and solute transport are common processes in the unsaturated soil, in which distributions of soil water content and solute concentrations are often characterized as fractal patterns. An active region model (ARM) was recently proposed to describe the preferential flow and transport patterns. In this study, ARM governing equations were derived to model the preferential soil water flow and solute transport processes. To evaluate the ARM equations, dye infiltration experiments were conducted, in which distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration were measured. Predicted results using the ARM and the mobile-immobile region model (MIM) were compared with the measured distributions of soil water content and Cl{sup -} concentration. Although both the ARM and the MIM are two-region models, they are fundamental different in terms of treatments of the flow region. The models were evaluated based on the modeling efficiency (ME). The MIM provided relatively poor prediction results of the preferential flow and transport with negative ME values or positive ME values less than 0.4. On the contrary, predicted distributions of soil water content and Cl- concentration using the ARM agreed reasonably well with the experimental data with ME values higher than 0.8. The results indicated that the ARM successfully captured the macroscopic behavior of preferential flow and solute transport in the unsaturated soil.

  10. Basis for the preferential activation of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ramchandra, Rohit; Hood, Sally G.; Denton, Derek A.; Woods, Robin L.; McKinley, Michael J.; McAllen, Robin M.; May, Clive N.

    2009-01-01

    In heart failure (HF), sympathetic nerve activity is increased. Measurements in HF patients of cardiac norepinephrine spillover, reflecting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity (CSNA), indicate that it is increased earlier and to a greater extent than sympathetic activity to other organs. This has important consequences because it worsens prognosis, provoking arrhythmias and sudden death. To elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the activation of CSNA in HF, we made simultaneous direct neural recordings of CSNA and renal SNA (RSNA) in two groups of conscious sheep: normal animals and animals in HF induced by chronic, rapid ventricular pacing. In normal animals, the level of activity, measured as burst incidence (bursts of pulse related activity/100 heart beats), was significantly lower for CSNA (30 ± 5%) than for RSNA (94 ± 2%). Furthermore, the resting level of CSNA, relative to its maximum achieved while baroreceptors were unloaded by reducing arterial pressure, was set at a much lower percentage than RSNA. In HF, burst incidence of CSNA increased from 30 to 91%, whereas burst incidence of RSNA remained unaltered at 95%. The sensitivity of the control of both CSNA and RSNA by the arterial baroreflex remained unchanged in HF. These data show that, in the normal state, the resting level of CSNA is set at a lower level than RSNA, but in HF, the resting levels of SNA to both organs are close to their maxima. This finding provides an explanation for the preferential increase in cardiac norepinephrine spillover observed in HF. PMID:19136635

  11. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted. PMID:27656243

  12. An Aqueous Extract of Marine Microalgae Exhibits Antimetastatic Activity through Preferential Killing of Suspended Cancer Cells and Anticolony Forming Activity.

    PubMed

    Somasekharan, Syam Prakash; El-Naggar, Amal; Sorensen, Poul H; Wang, Yuzhuo; Cheng, Hongwei

    2016-01-01

    Research on marine natural products as potential anticancer agents is still limited. In the present study, an aqueous extract of a Canadian marine microalgal preparation was assessed for anticancer activities using various assays and cell lines of human cancers, including lung, prostate, stomach, breast, and pancreatic cancers, as well as an osteosarcoma. In vitro, the microalgal extract exhibited marked anticolony forming activity. In addition, it was more toxic, as indicated by increased apoptosis, to nonadherent cells (grown in suspension) than to adherent cells. In vivo, an antimetastatic effect of the extract was observed in NOD-SCID mice carrying subrenal capsule xenografts of PC3 prostate cancer cells. The results of the present study suggest that the antimetastatic effect of the aqueous microalgal extract is based on inhibition of colony forming ability of cancer cells and the preferential killing of suspended cancer cells. Further research aimed at identification of the molecular basis of the anticancer activities of the microalgal extract appears to be warranted.

  13. Lidocaine preferentially inhibits the function of purinergic P2X7 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Okura, Dan; Horishita, Takafumi; Ueno, Susumu; Yanagihara, Nobuyuki; Sudo, Yuka; Uezono, Yasuhito; Minami, Tomoko; Kawasaki, Takashi; Sata, Takeyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Lidocaine has been widely used to relieve acute pain and chronic refractory pain effectively by both systemic and local administration. Numerous studies reported that lidocaine affects several pain signaling pathways as well as voltage-gated sodium channels, suggesting the existence of multiple mechanisms underlying pain relief by lidocaine. Some extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) receptor subunits are thought to play a role in chronic pain mechanisms, but there have been few studies on the effects of lidocaine on ATP receptors. We studied the effects of lidocaine on purinergic P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7 receptors to explore the mechanisms underlying pain-relieving effects of lidocaine. We investigated the effects of lidocaine on ATP-induced currents in ATP receptor subunits, P2X3, P2X4, and P2X7 expressed in Xenopus oocytes, by using whole-cell, two-electrode, voltage-clamp techniques. Lidocaine inhibited ATP-induced currents in P2X7, but not in P2X3 or P2X4 subunits, in a concentration-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration for lidocaine inhibition was 282 ± 45 μmol/L. By contrast, mepivacaine, ropivacaine, and bupivacaine exerted only limited effects on the P2X7 receptor. Lidocaine inhibited the ATP concentration-response curve for the P2X7 receptor via noncompetitive inhibition. Intracellular and extracellular N-(2,6-dimethylphenylcarbamoylmethyl) triethylammonium bromide (QX-314) and benzocaine suppressed ATP-induced currents in the P2X7 receptor in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, repetitive ATP treatments at 5-minute intervals in the continuous presence of lidocaine revealed that lidocaine inhibition was use-dependent. Finally, the selective P2X7 receptor antagonists Brilliant Blue G and AZ11645373 did not affect the inhibitory actions of lidocaine on the P2X7 receptor. Lidocaine selectively inhibited the function of the P2X7 receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. This effect may be caused by acting on sites in the ion

  14. Nonsynaptic junctions on myelinating glia promote preferential myelination of electrically active axons

    PubMed Central

    Wake, Hiroaki; Ortiz, Fernando C.; Woo, Dong Ho; Lee, Philip R.; Angulo, María Cecilia; Fields, R. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    The myelin sheath on vertebrate axons is critical for neural impulse transmission, but whether electrically active axons are preferentially myelinated by glial cells, and if so, whether axo-glial synapses are involved, are long-standing questions of significance to nervous system development, plasticity and disease. Here we show using an in vitro system that oligodendrocytes preferentially myelinate electrically active axons, but synapses from axons onto myelin-forming oligodendroglial cells are not required. Instead, vesicular release at nonsynaptic axo-glial junctions induces myelination. Axons releasing neurotransmitter from vesicles that accumulate in axon varicosities induces a local rise in cytoplasmic calcium in glial cell processes at these nonsynaptic functional junctions, and this signalling stimulates local translation of myelin basic protein to initiate myelination. PMID:26238238

  15. The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) inhibits myeloid differentiation in normal hematopoietic and leukemic progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Guthrie, Katherine A.; Cummings, Carrie L.; Sabo, Kathleen; Wood, Brent L.; Gooley, Ted; Yang, Taimei; Epping, Mirjam T.; Shou, Yaping; Pogosova-Agadjanyan, Era; Ladne, Paula; Stirewalt, Derek L.; Abkowitz, Janis L.; Radich, Jerald P.

    2009-01-01

    The preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) is expressed in several hematologic malignancies, but either is not expressed or is expressed at only low levels in normal hematopoietic cells, making it a target for cancer therapy. PRAME is a tumor-associated antigen and has been described as a corepressor of retinoic acid signaling in solid tumor cells, but its function in hematopoietic cells is unknown. PRAME mRNA expression increased with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) disease progression and its detection in late chronic-phase CML patients before tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy was associated with poorer therapeutic responses and ABL tyrosine kinase domain point mutations. In leukemia cell lines, PRAME protein expression inhibited granulocytic differentiation only in cell lines that differentiate along this lineage after all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) exposure. Forced PRAME expression in normal hematopoietic progenitors, however, inhibited myeloid differentiation both in the presence and absence of ATRA, and this phenotype was reversed when PRAME was silenced in primary CML progenitors. These observations suggest that PRAME inhibits myeloid differentiation in certain myeloid leukemias, and that its function in these cells is lineage and phenotype dependent. Lastly, these observations suggest that PRAME is a target for both prognostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:19625708

  16. In vivo comparison of harmine efficacy against psychostimulants: preferential inhibition of the cocaine response through a glutamatergic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Owaisat, Suzan; Raffa, Robert B; Rawls, Scott M

    2012-09-06

    Harmine is a β-carboline compound that targets glutamatergic, monoaminergic, and GABAergic pathways underlying drug addiction. We compared the efficacy of harmine against different psychoactive drugs using an invertebrate (planarian) assay designed to quantify 'C-shape' responses. Harmine itself (0.01-10 μM) did not produce C-shapes. However, when applied over the same concentration range, harmine significantly inhibited C-shapes elicited by cocaine, with a concentration of 0.1 μM producing almost 90% inhibition. Consistent with its putative actions, harmine produced a similar, though less efficacious, inhibition of C-shapes elicited by the substituted amphetamines methamphetamine and mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) but was much less effective against nicotine. When tested in the presence of the glutamate transporter inhibitor dihydrokainate (DHK) (0.1, 1 μM), harmine (0.1 μM) efficacy against cocaine-induced C-shapes was significantly reduced. Harmine also attenuated C-shapes elicited by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and by glutamate itself. The present data suggest that harmine displays preferential efficacy against different addictive substances (cocaine>amphetamines>nicotine) and, at least for cocaine, is dependent on the glutamate system.

  17. In vivo comparison of harmine efficacy against psychostimulants: preferential inhibition of the cocaine response through a glutamatergic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Owaisat, Suzan; Raffa, Robert B.; Rawls, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Harmine is a β-carboline compound that targets glutamatergic, monoaminergic, and GABAergic pathways underlying drug addiction. We compared the efficacy of harmine against different psychoactive drugs using an invertebrate (planarian) assay designed to quantify ‘C-shape’ responses. Harmine itself (0.01 – 10 µM) did not produce C-shapes. However, when applied over the same concentration range, harmine significantly inhibited C-shapes elicited by cocaine, with a concentration of 0.1 µM producing almost 90% inhibition. Consistent with its putative actions, harmine produced a similar, though less efficacious, inhibition of C-shapes elicited by the substituted amphetamines methamphetamine and mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) but was much less effective against nicotine. When tested in the presence of the glutamate transporter inhibitor dihydrokainate (DHK) (0.1, 1 µM), harmine (0.1 µM) efficacy against cocaine-induced C-shapes was significantly reduced. Harmine also attenuated C-shapes elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and by glutamate itself. The present data suggest that harmine displays preferential efficacy against different addictive substances (cocaine > amphetamines > nicotine) and, at least for cocaine, is dependent on the glutamate system. PMID:22877698

  18. Characterizing soil preferential flow using iodine--starch staining experiments and the active region model

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, Feng; Wang, Kang; Zhang, Renduo; Liu, Hui-Hai

    2009-03-01

    Thirteen iodine-starch staining experiments with different boundary conditions and measurement scales were conducted at two sites to study preferential flow processes in natural unsaturated soils. Digital imaging analyses were implemented to obtain the corresponding preferential flow patterns. The test results are used to evaluate a recently proposed active region model in terms of its usefulness and robustness for characterizing unsaturated flow processes at field scale. Test results provide useful insights into flow patterns in unsaturated soils. They show that flow pattern depends on the top boundary condition. As the total infiltrating-water depth increased form 20 mm to 80 mm for the 100 x 100 cm{sup 2} plots, the corresponding flow pattern changed from few preferential flow paths associated with a relatively small degree of stained coverage and a small infiltration depth, to a pattern characterized by a higher stained coverage and a larger infiltration depth, and to (finally) a relatively homogeneous flow pattern with few unstained area and a much larger infiltration depth. Test results also show that the preferential flow pattern became generally more heterogeneous and complex for a larger measurement scale (or size of infiltration plot). These observations support the general idea behind the active region model that preferential flow pattern in unsaturated soils are dynamic and depend on water flow conditions. Further analyses of the test results indicate that the active-region model is able to capture the major features of the observed flow pattern at the scale of interest, and the determined parameter values do not significantly depend on the test conditions (initial water content and total amount of infiltrating water) for a given test site. This supports the validity of the active region model that considers that parameter to be a property of the corresponding unsaturated soil. Results also show that some intrinsic relation seems to exist between active

  19. Notexin preferentially inhibits the release of newly synthesized acetylcholine from rat brain synaptosomal fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Gundersen, C.B.; Jenden, D.J.

    1981-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effects of the snake venom neurotoxin, notexin, on acetylcholine turnover in rat brain P2 fractions using a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric assay for acetylcholine and choline. In contrast to earlier reports, we found a stimulation of the uptake and acetylation of labeled choline by toxin-treated P2 fractions. More significantly, notexin inhibited the release of this newly synthesized transmitter. These effects were found to be dependent on the dose of the toxin and the time of exposure of the P2 fraction to notexin. Longer exposure to notexin or experiments involving resuspension of notexin-treated P2 fractions appeared to result in considerable lysis of the transmitter-containing particles. Thus, notexin may alter acetylcholine compartmentation in the nerve ending and thereby affect acetylcholine synthesis.

  20. Neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water achieves tumor-preferential clonal growth inhibition over normal cells and tumor invasion inhibition concurrently with intracellular oxidant repression.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Yasukazu; Okayasu, Hajime; Xiao, Li; Harata, Yoshikazu; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The properties and effects of neutral pH hydrogen-enriched electrolyzed water (NHE water) on tumor cells were examined. NHE water diminished hydroxyl radicals as demonstrated by ESR in a cell-free system. Human tongue carcinoma cells HSC-4 were inhibited for either colony formation efficiencies or colony sizes by NHE water without significant inhibition to normal human tongue epithelial-like cells DOK. Furthermore, NHE water caused growth inhibition, cell degeneration, and inhibition of invasion through the reconstituted basement membrane to human fibrosarcoma cells HT-1080. Intracellular oxidants such as hydroperoxides and hydrogen peroxides were scavenged in HSC-4 or HT-1080 cells by NHE water. In the human oral cavity, a dissolved hydrogen concentrations (DH) of NHE water was drastically declined from 1.1 to 0.5 ppm, but settled to 0.3-0.4 ppm until 180 s, upon static holding without gargling. Thus, NHE water was shown to achieve tumor-preferential growth inhibition and tumor invasion together with scavenging of intracellular oxidants, and is expected as a preventive material against tumor progression and invasion.

  1. A clickable neurosteroid photolabel reveals selective Golgi compartmentalization with preferential impact on proximal inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaoping; Shu, Hong-Jin; Krishnan, Kathiresan; Qian, Mingxing; Taylor, Amanda A.; Covey, Douglas F.; Zorumski, Charles F.; Mennerick, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Anesthetic, GABA-active neurosteroids potently augment GABAA receptor function, leading to important behavioral consequences. Neurosteroids and their synthetic analogues are also models for a wide variety of cell-permeant neuroactive compounds. Cell permeation and compartmentalization raise the possibility that these compounds’ actions are influenced by their cellular partitioning, but these contributions are not typically considered experimentally or therapeutically. To examine the interplay between cellular accumulation and pharmacodynamics of neurosteroids, we synthesized a novel chemical biology analogue (bio-active, clickable photolabel) of GABA-active neurosteroids. We discovered that the analogue selectively photo-labels neuronal Golgi in rat hippocampal neurons. The active analogue’s selective distribution was distinct from endogenous cholesterol and not completely shared by some non-GABA active, neurosteroid-like analogues. On the other hand, the distribution was not enantioselective and did not require energy, in contrast to other recent precedents from the literature. We demonstrate that the soma-selective accumulation can act as a sink or source for steroid actions at plasma-membrane GABA receptors, altering steady-state and time course of effects at somatic GABAA receptors relative to dendritic receptors. Our results suggest a novel mechanism for compartment-selective drug actions at plasma-membrane receptors. PMID:27114255

  2. Preferential Quadriceps Activation in Female Athletes With Incremental Increases in Landing Intensity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Kevin R.; Myer, Gregory D.; Schmitt, Laura C.; Uhl, Timothy L.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify alterations in preparatory muscle activation patterns across different drop heights in female athletes. Sixteen female high school volleyball players performed the drop vertical jump from three different drop heights. Surface electromyography of the quadriceps and hamstrings were collected during the movement trials. As the drop height increased, muscle activation of the quadriceps during preparatory phase also increased (p < .05). However, the hamstrings activation showed no similar increases relative to drop height. Female athletes appear to preferentially rely on increased quadriceps activation, without an increase in hamstrings activation, with increased plyometric intensity. The resultant decreased activation ratio of the hamstrings relative to quadriceps before landing may represent altered dynamic knee stability and may contribute to the increased risk of ACL injury in female athletes. PMID:21844610

  3. Active and inactive genes localize preferentially in the periphery of chromosome territories

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The intranuclear position of a set of genes was analyzed with respect to the territories occupied by the whole chromosomes in which these genes are localized. Genes and their respective chromosome territories were simultaneously visualized in three-dimensionally preserved nuclei applying dual color fluorescence in situ hybridization. Three coding (DMD, MYH7, and HBB) and two noncoding sequences (D1Z2 and an anonymous sequence) were analyzed in four different cell types, including cells where DMD and MYH7 are actively transcribed. Spatial analysis by confocal laser scanning microscopy revealed that the genes are preferentially located in the periphery of chromosome territories. This positioning was independent from the activity of the genes. In contrast, the non-expressed anonymous fragment was found randomly distributed or localized preferentially in the interior of the corresponding chromosome territory. Furthermore, the distribution of the analyzed genes within the territorial peripheries was found to be highly characteristic for each gene, and, again, independent from its expression. The impact of these findings with regard to the three- dimensional arrangement of the linear DNA string within chromosome territories, as well as with respect to a putative nuclear subcompartment confining gene expression, are discussed. PMID:8947544

  4. Whose side are you on: does serotonin preferentially activate the right hemisphere and norepinephrine the left?

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2012-08-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) innervate both the left and right hemispheres of the brain, but whether they affect lateralization of function is unknown. This paper concisely examines evidence that these two neurotransmitters differentially affect the two hemispheres, and puts forth the novel hypothesis 5-HT preferentially activates the right hemisphere (RH) and NE the left hemisphere (LH). The principal lines of evidence comprise studies of: (1) 5-HT and NE level measurement, (2) receptor binding, (3) functional brain imaging, (4) dichotic listening, and (5) electroencephalography and evoked potentials. In assessing these 5 lines, emphasis is placed on studies of pharmaceutical drugs that affect the 5-HT and NE systems. While all of the data do not support the hypothesis, they are generally consistent with it, or a variant of the hypothesis that there is a bias toward 5-HT preferentially activating a majority of brain areas or functions in the RH, and NE a majority of LH areas or functions. If this hypothesis, or a variant of it, is correct, it may be relevant to understanding the physiological basis of neuropsychiatric disorders that could involve dysfunction in brain monoaminergic systems, as well as understanding potential lateralization of the effects of drugs that act on these systems.

  5. Timosaponin AIII is preferentially cytotoxic to tumor cells through inhibition of mTOR and induction of ER stress.

    PubMed

    King, Frank W; Fong, Sylvia; Griffin, Chandi; Shoemaker, Mark; Staub, Rick; Zhang, Yan-Ling; Cohen, Isaac; Shtivelman, Emma

    2009-09-30

    The aqueous extract of Anemarrhena asphodeloides (BN108) induces apoptosis in various cancer cell lines but is significantly less cytotoxic in non-transformed cells. Chemical fractionation of BN108 showed that its cytotoxicity is associated with timosaponins, steroidal saponins of coprostane type. Timosaponin BII (TBII) is a major saponin in BN108, but it shows little cytotoxicity. A much less abundant TAIII induces cell death in tumor cells but not in normal cells, reproducing the selectivity of the total extract BN108. Glycosidase treatment, by removing the extra sugar moiety in TBII, converts it to TAIII and confers cytotoxic activity. Analysis of the mechanisms of death induced by TAIII revealed activation of two distinct pro-apoptotic pathways: first, inhibition of mTORC1 manifested in much reduced phosphorylation of mTORC1 targets; second, induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress culminating in phosphorylation of eIF2alpha and activation of caspase 4. These pro-apoptotic pathways are activated by TAIII selectively in tumor cells but not in normal cells. Both pathways play a causative role in TAIII cytotoxicity, as restoration of either mTOR activity or relief of ER stress alone offer only partial protection from TAIII. Inhibition of mTORC1 and induction of ER stress apparently contribute to the induction of the previously reported autophagic response in TAIII-treated cells. TAIII induced autophagy plays a protective role in TAIII induced death signaling, and failure to mount autophagic response is associated with heightened sensitivity to TAIII induced apoptosis. The multiple death-promoting and apparently tumor-selective responses to TAIII, its ability to inhibit mTORC1, and the possibility of further enhancing its cytotoxicity by pharmacological inhibition of autophagy, make TAIII an attractive candidate for development as a cancer therapeutic agent.

  6. Inhibition of Hageman factor activation

    PubMed Central

    Nossel, H. L.; Rubin, H.; Drillings, M.; Hsieh, R.

    1968-01-01

    A method for studying inhibitors of the contact stages of blood coagulation is described. A number of positively charged substances were shown to inhibit the contact stages. The inhibitory substances include spermine, cytochrome c, ribonuclease, and lysozyme. The inhibitory effect of these substances was neutralized by the addition of an activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent, factor XI, (PTA) fraction. Other positively charged substances including protamine, hexadimethrine, polylysine, polyornithine, methylene blue, and ortho-toluidine blue also inhibited the contact stages of coagulation, but the inhibitory effect on coagulation was not neutralized by the activated PTA fraction. Negatively charged substances such as heparin and insulin did not inhibit the contact stages of coagulation. Cytochrome c inhibited Celite adsorption of a partially purified Hageman factor fraction, and cytochrome, ribonuclease, spermine, and lysozome inhibited the adsorption of Hageman factor from PTA-deficient plasma. Very much smaller quantities of Celite completely adsorbed Hageman factor from the fraction rather than from whole plasma, which suggested the possibility that plasma contains an inhibitor or inhibitors of Hageman factor adsorption. Furthermore cytochrome c, spermine, ribonuclease, and lysozyme inhibited the coagulant activity of the following activators of the Hageman and PTA factors: Celite, kaolin, sodium stearate, ellagic acid, and skin. It is suggested that negatively charged sites on these activators are critical for adsorption and activation and that inhibition results from neutralization of the negatively charged sites by the adsorbed inhibtor. Tests with polylysine polymers indicate that inhibitory activity is directly related to molecular size over the molecular weight range of 4000 to 100,000. PMID:5645860

  7. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dihong; Sepulveda, Claudia; Dillman, Adler R

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs) in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist.

  8. Infective Juveniles of the Entomopathogenic Nematode Steinernema scapterisci Are Preferentially Activated by Cricket Tissue

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes are a subgroup of insect-parasitic nematodes that are used in biological control as alternatives or supplements to chemical pesticides. Steinernema scapterisci is an unusual member of the entomopathogenic nematode guild for many reasons including that it is promiscuous in its association with bacteria, it can reproduce in the absence of its described bacterial symbiont, and it is known to have a narrow host range. It is a powerful comparative model within the species and could be used to elucidate parasite specialization. Here we describe a new method of efficiently producing large numbers of S. scapterisci infective juveniles (IJs) in house crickets and for quantifying parasitic activation of the IJs upon exposure to host tissue using morphological features. We found that parasite activation is a temporal process with more IJs activating over time. Furthermore, we found that activated IJs secrete a complex mixture of proteins and that S. scapterisci IJs preferentially activate upon exposure to cricket tissue, reaffirming the description of S. scapterisci as a cricket specialist. PMID:28046065

  9. Fruit preferential activity of the tomato RIP1 gene promoter in transgenic tomato and Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Priyanka; Kumar, Rahul; Pareek, Amit; Sharma, Arun K

    2017-02-01

    Isolation and functional characterization of tissue- and stage-specific gene promoters is beneficial for genetic improvement of economically important crops. Here, we have characterized a putative promoter of a ripening-induced gene RIP1 (Ripening induced protein 1) in tomato. Quantification of the transcript level of RIP1 showed that its expression is fruit preferential, with maximum accumulation in red ripe fruits. To test the promoter activity, we made a reporter construct by cloning 1450 bp putative RIP1 promoter driving the GUS (ß-glucuronidase) gene expression and generated stable transgenic lines in tomato and Arabidopsis. Histochemical and fluorometric assays validated the fruit-specific expression of RIP1 as the highest GUS activity was found in red ripe tomatoes. Similarly, we detected high levels of GUS activity in the siliques of Arabidopsis. On the contrary, weak GUS activity was found in the flower buds in both tomato and Arabidopsis. To characterize the specific regions of the RIP1 promoter that might be essential for its maximum activity and specificity in fruits, we made stable transgenic lines of tomato and Arabidopsis with 5'-deletion constructs. Characterization of these transgenic plants showed that the full length promoter is essential for its function. Overall, we report the identification and characterization of a ripening-induced promoter of tomato, which would be useful for the controlled manipulation of the ripening-related agronomic traits in genetic manipulation studies in future.

  10. Preferential repair of DNA double-strand break at the active gene in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chaurasia, Priyasri; Sen, Rwik; Pandita, Tej K; Bhaumik, Sukesh R

    2012-10-19

    Previous studies have demonstrated transcription-coupled nucleotide/base excision repair. We report here for the first time that DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is also coupled to transcription. We generated a yeast strain by introducing a homing (Ho) endonuclease cut site followed by a nucleotide sequence for multiple Myc epitopes at the 3' end of the coding sequence of a highly active gene, ADH1. This yeast strain also contains the Ho cut site at the nearly silent or poorly active mating type α (MATα) locus and expresses Ho endonuclease under the galactose-inducible GAL1 promoter. Using this strain, DSBs were generated at the ADH1 and MATα loci in galactose-containing growth medium that induced HO expression. Subsequently, yeast cells were transferred to dextrose-containing growth medium to stop HO expression, and the DSB repair was monitored at the ADH1 and MATα loci by PCR, using the primer pairs flanking the Ho cut sites. Our results revealed a faster DSB repair at the highly active ADH1 than that at the nearly silent MATα locus, hence implicating a transcription-coupled DSB repair at the active gene in vivo. Subsequently, we extended this study to another gene, PHO5 (carrying the Ho cut site at its coding sequence), under transcriptionally active and inactive growth conditions. We found a fast DSB repair at the active PHO5 gene in comparison to its inactive state. Collectively, our results demonstrate a preferential DSB repair at the active gene, thus supporting transcription-coupled DSB repair in living cells.

  11. Cytotoxic T cells are preferentially activated in the duodenal epithelium from patients with florid coeliac disease.

    PubMed

    Buri, Caroline; Burri, Philipp; Bähler, Peter; Straumann, Alex; Müller-Schenker, Beatrice; Birrer, Stefan; Mueller, Christoph

    2005-06-01

    Villous atrophy and increased numbers of intraepithelial T cells in duodenal biopsies represent a hallmark of coeliac disease. In the present study, an attempt has been made to define whether cytotoxic cell subsets are activated in situ in the affected mucosa of susceptible individuals early after ingestion of a gluten-containing diet. Duodenal biopsies from 11 patients with coeliac disease who repeatedly underwent endoscopic biopsy after ingestion of individually dosed amounts of gluten were used for immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. To identify the cell subsets expressing perforin mRNA and protein, in situ hybridization and FACS analyses were performed on cells isolated from fresh biopsies. Compared with normal mucosa, the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes containing perforin mRNA and protein increased significantly in tissue samples showing moderate or florid coeliac disease and closely paralleled the severity of morphological alteration, whereas the frequency of perforin-expressing lamina propria lymphocytes increased only moderately. Cells isolated from florid biopsies that expressed perforin mRNA and protein were preferentially T-cell receptor (TCR) alphabeta T cells. The increase in both the absolute number and the percentage of lymphocytes expressing perforin mRNA indicates in situ activation of lymphocytes within the epithelial compartment in florid coeliac disease upon ingestion of a gluten-containing diet in patients predisposed to coeliac disease. Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland

  12. The dual topoisomerase inhibitor A35 preferentially and specially targets topoisomerase 2α by enhancing pre-strand and post-strand cleavage and inhibiting DNA religation

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Chongwen; Li, Yangbiao; Liu, Jingbo; Ye, Cheng; He, Hongwei; Li, Liang

    2015-01-01

    DNA topoisomerases play a key role in tumor proliferation. Chemotherapeutics targeting topoisomerases have been widely used in clinical oncology, but resistance and side effects, particularly cardiotoxicity, usually limit their application. Clinical data show that a decrease in topoisomerase (top) levels is the primary factor responsible for resistance, but in cells there is compensatory effect between the levels of top1 and top2α. Here, we validated cyclizing-berberine A35, which is a dual top inhibitor and preferentially targets top2α. The impact on the top2α catalytic cycle indicated that A35 could intercalate into DNA but did not interfere with DNA-top binding and top2α ATPase activity. A35 could facilitate DNA-top2α cleavage complex formation by enhancing pre-strand and post-strand cleavage and inhibiting religation, suggesting this compound can be a topoisomerase poison and had a district mechanism from other topoisomerase inhibitors. TARDIS and comet assays showed that A35 could induce cell DNA breakage and DNA-top complexes but had no effect on the cardiac toxicity inducer top2β. Silencing top1 augmented DNA break and silencing top2α decreased DNA break. Further validation in H9c2 cardiac cells showed A35 did not disturb cell proliferation and mitochondrial membrane potency. Additionally, an assay with nude mice further demonstrated A35 did not damage the heart. Our work identifies A35 as a novel skeleton compound dually inhibits topoisomerases, and predominantly and specially targets top2α by interfering with all cleavage steps and its no cardiac toxicity was verified by cardiac cells and mice heart. A35 could be a novel and effective targeting topoisomerase agent. PMID:26462155

  13. The dual topoisomerase inhibitor A35 preferentially and specially targets topoisomerase 2α by enhancing pre-strand and post-strand cleavage and inhibiting DNA religation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wuli; Jiang, Guohua; Bi, Chongwen; Li, Yangbiao; Liu, Jingbo; Ye, Cheng; He, Hongwei; Li, Liang; Song, Danqing; Shao, Rongguang

    2015-11-10

    DNA topoisomerases play a key role in tumor proliferation. Chemotherapeutics targeting topoisomerases have been widely used in clinical oncology, but resistance and side effects, particularly cardiotoxicity, usually limit their application. Clinical data show that a decrease in topoisomerase (top) levels is the primary factor responsible for resistance, but in cells there is compensatory effect between the levels of top1 and top2α. Here, we validated cyclizing-berberine A35, which is a dual top inhibitor and preferentially targets top2α. The impact on the top2α catalytic cycle indicated that A35 could intercalate into DNA but did not interfere with DNA-top binding and top2α ATPase activity. A35 could facilitate DNA-top2α cleavage complex formation by enhancing pre-strand and post-strand cleavage and inhibiting religation, suggesting this compound can be a topoisomerase poison and had a district mechanism from other topoisomerase inhibitors. TARDIS and comet assays showed that A35 could induce cell DNA breakage and DNA-top complexes but had no effect on the cardiac toxicity inducer top2β. Silencing top1 augmented DNA break and silencing top2α decreased DNA break. Further validation in H9c2 cardiac cells showed A35 did not disturb cell proliferation and mitochondrial membrane potency. Additionally, an assay with nude mice further demonstrated A35 did not damage the heart. Our work identifies A35 as a novel skeleton compound dually inhibits topoisomerases, and predominantly and specially targets top2α by interfering with all cleavage steps and its no cardiac toxicity was verified by cardiac cells and mice heart. A35 could be a novel and effective targeting topoisomerase agent.

  14. Orientation Control of Block Copolymers Using Surface Active, Phase-Preferential Additives.

    PubMed

    Vora, Ankit; Schmidt, Kristin; Alva, Gabriela; Arellano, Noel; Magbitang, Teddie; Chunder, Anindarupa; Thompson, Leslie E; Lofano, Elizabeth; Pitera, Jed W; Cheng, Joy Y; Sanders, Daniel P

    2016-11-02

    Orientation control of thin film nanostructures derived from block copolymers (BCPs) are of great interest for various emerging technologies like separation membranes, nanopatterning, and energy storage. While many BCP compositions have been developed for these applications, perpendicular orientation of these BCP domains is still very challenging to achieve. Herein we report on a new, integration-friendly approach in which small amounts of a phase-preferential, surface active polymer (SAP) was used as an additive to a polycarbonate-containing BCP formulation to obtain perpendicularly oriented domains with 19 nm natural periodicity upon thermal annealing. In this work, the vertically oriented BCP domains were used to demonstrate next generation patterning applications for advanced semiconductor nodes. Furthermore, these domains were used to demonstrate pattern transfer into a hardmask layer via commonly used etch techniques and graphoepitaxy-based directed self-assembly using existing lithographic integration schemes. We believe that this novel formulation-based approach can easily be extended to other applications beyond nanopatterning.

  15. Roscovitine Inhibits CaV3.1 (T-Type) Channels by Preferentially Affecting Closed-State Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Elmslie, Keith S.

    2012-01-01

    T-type calcium channels (CaV3) play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes, including cancerogenesis. CaV3 channel blockers have been proposed as potential cancer treatments. Roscovitine, a trisubstituted purine, is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials as an anticancer drug and has been shown to affect calcium and potassium channel activity. Here, we investigate the effect of roscovitine on CaV3.1 channels. CaV3.1 channels were transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and currents were recorded by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Roscovitine blocks CaV3.1 channels with higher affinity for depolarized cells (EC50 of 10 μM), which is associated with a negative shift in the voltage dependence of closed-state inactivation. Enhanced inactivation is mediated by roscovitine-induced acceleration of closed-state inactivation and slowed recovery from inactivation. Small effects of roscovitine were also observed on T-channel deactivation and open-state inactivation, but neither could explain the inhibitory effect. Roscovitine inhibits CaV3.1 channels within the therapeutic range (10–50 μM) in part by stabilizing the closed-inactivated state. The ability of roscovitine to block multiple mediators of proliferation, including CDKs and CaV3.1 channels, may facilitate its anticancer properties. PMID:22088954

  16. Roscovitine inhibits CaV3.1 (T-type) channels by preferentially affecting closed-state inactivation.

    PubMed

    Yarotskyy, Viktor; Elmslie, Keith S

    2012-02-01

    T-type calcium channels (Ca(V)3) play an important role in many physiological and pathological processes, including cancerogenesis. Ca(V)3 channel blockers have been proposed as potential cancer treatments. Roscovitine, a trisubstituted purine, is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that is currently undergoing phase II clinical trials as an anticancer drug and has been shown to affect calcium and potassium channel activity. Here, we investigate the effect of roscovitine on Ca(V)3.1 channels. Ca(V)3.1 channels were transiently expressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, and currents were recorded by using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Roscovitine blocks Ca(V)3.1 channels with higher affinity for depolarized cells (EC₅₀ of 10 μM), which is associated with a negative shift in the voltage dependence of closed-state inactivation. Enhanced inactivation is mediated by roscovitine-induced acceleration of closed-state inactivation and slowed recovery from inactivation. Small effects of roscovitine were also observed on T-channel deactivation and open-state inactivation, but neither could explain the inhibitory effect. Roscovitine inhibits Ca(V)3.1 channels within the therapeutic range (10-50 μM) in part by stabilizing the closed-inactivated state. The ability of roscovitine to block multiple mediators of proliferation, including CDKs and Ca(V)3.1 channels, may facilitate its anticancer properties.

  17. Diterpenes from "Pini Resina" and their preferential cytotoxic activity under nutrient-deprived condition.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Awale, Suresh; Kalauni, Surya Kant; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2006-10-01

    In the course of our search for anticancer agents based on a novel anti-austerity strategy, we found that the 70 % EtOH extract of "Pini Resina" showed 100 % preferential cytotoxicity at the concentration of 50 microg/mL. Further bioassay-guided fractionation and purification led to the isolation of 15 compounds including one new compound 7-oxo-13 alpha-hydroxyabiet-8(14)-en-18-oic acid (1). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis. Among the isolated compounds, methyl abieta-8,11,13-trien-18-oate (7) showed the most potent preferential cytotoxicity at 10 microg/mL under nutrient-deprived condition.

  18. Preferential activation of excitatory adenosine receptors at rat hippocampal and neuromuscular synapses by adenosine formed from released adenine nucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, R. A.; Correia-de-Sá, P.; Sebastião, A. M.; Ribeiro, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    1. In the present work, we investigated the action of adenosine originating from extracellular catabolism of adenine nucleotides, in two preparations where synaptic transmission is modulated by both inhibitory A1 and excitatory A(2a)-adenosine receptors, the rat hippocampal Schaffer fibres/CA1 pyramid synapses and the rat innervated hemidiaphragm. 2. Endogenous adenosine tonically inhibited synaptic transmission, since 0.5-2 u ml-1 of adenosine deaminase increased both the population spike amplitude (30 +/- 4%) and field excitatory post-synaptic potential (f.e.p.s.p.) slope (27 +/- 4%) recorded from hippocampal slices and the evoked [3H]-acetylcholine ([3H]-ACh) release from the motor nerve terminals (25 +/- 2%). 3. alpha, beta-Methylene adenosine diphosphate (AOPCP) in concentrations (100-200 microM) that almost completely inhibited the formation of adenosine from the extracellular catabolism of AMP, decreased population spike amplitude by 39 +/- 5% and f.e.p.s.p. slope by 32 +/- 3% in hippocampal slices and [3H]-ACh release from motor nerve terminals by 27 +/- 3%. 4. Addition of exogenous 5'-nucleotidase (5 u ml-1) prevented the inhibitory effect of AOPCP on population spike amplitude and f.e.p.s.p. slope by 43-57%, whereas the P2 antagonist, suramin (100 microM), did not modify the effect of AOPCP. 5. In both preparations, the effect of AOPCP resulted from prevention of adenosine formation since it was no longer evident when accumulation of extracellular adenosine was hindered by adenosine deaminase (0.5-2 u ml-1). The inhibitory effect of AOPCP was still evident when A1 receptors were blocked by 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine (2.5-5 nM), but was abolished by the A2 antagonist, 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (10 microM). 6. These results suggest that adenosine originating from catabolism of released adenine nucleotides preferentially activates excitatory A2 receptors in hippocampal CAI pyramid synapses and in phrenic motor nerve endings. PMID:8886406

  19. Yeast transcription co-activator Sub1 and its human homolog PC4 preferentially bind to G-quadruplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jun; Zybailov, Boris L.; Byrd, Alicia K.; Griffin, Wezley C.; Chib, Shubeena; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Tackett, Alan J.; Raney, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Using a G-quadruplex bait, we identified the transcription co-activator Sub1 as a G-quadruplex binding protein by quantitative LC-MS/MS and demonstrated in vivo G-quadruplex binding by ChIP. In vitro, Sub1, and its human homolog PC4, bind preferentially to G-quadruplexes. This provides a possible mechanism by which G-quadruplexes can influence gene transcription. PMID:25813861

  20. AMG 900, pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor, preferentially inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines with dysfunctional p53.

    PubMed

    Kalous, Ondrej; Conklin, Dylan; Desai, Amrita J; Dering, Judy; Goldstein, Jennifer; Ginther, Charles; Anderson, Lee; Lu, Ming; Kolarova, Teodora; Eckardt, Mark A; Langerød, Anita; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Slamon, Dennis J; Finn, Richard S

    2013-10-01

    Aurora kinases play important roles in cell division and are frequently overexpressed in human cancer. AMG 900 is a novel pan-Aurora kinase inhibitor currently being tested in Phase I clinical trials. We aimed to evaluate the in vitro activity of AMG 900 in a panel of 44 human breast cancer and immortalized cell lines and identify predictors of response. AMG 900 inhibited proliferation at low nanomolar concentrations in all cell lines tested. Response was further classified based on the induction of lethality. 25 cell lines were classified as highly sensitive (lethality at 10 nM of AMG 900 >10 %), 19 cell lines as less sensitive to AMG 900 (lethality at 10 nM of AMG 900 <10 %). Traditional molecular subtypes of breast cancer did not predict for this differential response. There was a weak association between AURKA amplification and response to AMG 900 (response ratio = 2.53, p = 0.09). mRNA expression levels of AURKA, AURKB, and AURKC and baseline protein levels of Aurora kinases A and B did not significantly associate with response. Cell lines with TP53 loss of function mutations (RR = 1.86, p = 0.004) and low baseline p21 protein levels (RR = 2.28, p = 0.0004) were far more likely to be classified as highly sensitive to AMG 900. AMG 900 induced p53 and p21 protein expression in cell lines with wt TP53. AMG 900 caused the accumulation of cells with >4 N DNA content in a majority of cell lines independently of sensitivity and p53 status. AMG 900 induced more pronounced apoptosis in highly sensitive p53-dysfunctional cell lines. We have found that AMG 900 is highly active in breast cancer cell lines and that TP53 loss of function mutations as well as low baseline expression of p21 protein predict strongly for increased sensitivity to this compound in vitro.

  1. Long hydrophilic-and-cationic polymers: a different pathway toward preferential activity against bacterial over mammalian membranes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin; Hu, Kan; Hu, Guantai; Shi, Danyao; Jiang, Yunjiang; Hui, Liwei; Zhu, Rui; Xie, Yuntao; Yang, Lihua

    2014-09-08

    We show that simply converting the hydrophobic moiety of an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) or synthetic mimic of AMPs (SMAMP) into a hydrophilic one could be a different pathway toward membrane-active antimicrobials preferentially acting against bacteria over host cells. Our biostatistical analysis on natural AMPs indicated that shorter AMPs tend to be more hydrophobic, and the hydrophilic-and-cationic mutants of a long AMP experimentally demonstrated certain membrane activity against bacteria. To isolate the effects of antimicrobials' hydrophobicity and systematically examine whether hydrophilic-and-cationic mutants could inherit the membrane activity of their parent AMPs/SMAMPs, we constructed a minimal prototypical system based on methacrylate-based polymer SMAMPs and compared the antibacterial membrane activity and hemolytic toxicity of analogues with and without the hydrophobic moiety. Antibacterial assays showed that the hydrophobic moiety of polymer SMAMPs consistently promoted the antibacterial activity but diminished in effectiveness for long polymers, and the resultant long hydrophilic-and-cationic polymers were also membrane active against bacteria. What distinguished these long mutants from their parent SMAMPs were their drastically reduced hemolytic toxicities and, as a result, strikingly enhanced selectivity. Similar toxicity reduction was observed with the hydrophilic-and-cationic mutants of long AMPs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hydrophilic-and-cationic polymers could offer preferential membrane activity against bacteria over host cells, which may have implications in future antimicrobial development.

  2. Integration between Glycolysis and Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle Flux May Explain Preferential Glycolytic Increase during Brain Activation, Requiring Glutamate.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Leif; Chen, Ye

    2017-01-01

    The 1988 observation by Fox et al. (1988) that brief intense brain activation increases glycolysis (pyruvate formation from glucose) much more than oxidative metabolism has been abundantly confirmed. Specifically glycolytic increase was unexpected because the amount of ATP it generates is much smaller than that formed by subsequent oxidative metabolism of pyruvate. The present article shows that preferential glycolysis can be explained by metabolic processes associated with activation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. The flux in this cycle, which is essential for production of transmitter glutamate and GABA, equals 75% of brain glucose utilization and each turn is associated with utilization of ~1 glucose molecule. About one half of the association between cycle flux and glucose metabolism occurs during neuronal conversion of glutamine to glutamate in a process similar to the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) except that glutamate is supplied from glutamine, not formed from α-ketoglutarate (αKG) as during operation of conventional MAS. Regular MAS function is triggered by one oxidative process in the cytosol during glycolysis causing NAD(+) reduction to NADH. Since NADH cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane (MEM) for oxidation NAD(+) is re-generated by conversion of cytosolic oxaloacetate (OAA) to malate, which enters the mitochondria for oxidation and in a cyclic process regenerates cytosolic OAA. Therefore MAS as well as the "pseudo-MAS" necessary for neuronal glutamate formation can only operate together with cytosolic reduction of NAD(+) to NADH. The major process causing NAD(+) reduction is glycolysis which therefore also must occur during neuronal conversion of glutamine to glutamate and may energize vesicular glutamate uptake which preferentially uses glycolytically derived energy. Another major contributor to the association between glutamate-glutamine cycle and glucose utilization is the need for astrocytic pyruvate to generate glutamate. Although some

  3. Integration between Glycolysis and Glutamate-Glutamine Cycle Flux May Explain Preferential Glycolytic Increase during Brain Activation, Requiring Glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, Leif; Chen, Ye

    2017-01-01

    The 1988 observation by Fox et al. (1988) that brief intense brain activation increases glycolysis (pyruvate formation from glucose) much more than oxidative metabolism has been abundantly confirmed. Specifically glycolytic increase was unexpected because the amount of ATP it generates is much smaller than that formed by subsequent oxidative metabolism of pyruvate. The present article shows that preferential glycolysis can be explained by metabolic processes associated with activation of the glutamate-glutamine cycle. The flux in this cycle, which is essential for production of transmitter glutamate and GABA, equals 75% of brain glucose utilization and each turn is associated with utilization of ~1 glucose molecule. About one half of the association between cycle flux and glucose metabolism occurs during neuronal conversion of glutamine to glutamate in a process similar to the malate-aspartate shuttle (MAS) except that glutamate is supplied from glutamine, not formed from α-ketoglutarate (αKG) as during operation of conventional MAS. Regular MAS function is triggered by one oxidative process in the cytosol during glycolysis causing NAD+ reduction to NADH. Since NADH cannot cross the mitochondrial membrane (MEM) for oxidation NAD+ is re-generated by conversion of cytosolic oxaloacetate (OAA) to malate, which enters the mitochondria for oxidation and in a cyclic process regenerates cytosolic OAA. Therefore MAS as well as the “pseudo-MAS” necessary for neuronal glutamate formation can only operate together with cytosolic reduction of NAD+ to NADH. The major process causing NAD+ reduction is glycolysis which therefore also must occur during neuronal conversion of glutamine to glutamate and may energize vesicular glutamate uptake which preferentially uses glycolytically derived energy. Another major contributor to the association between glutamate-glutamine cycle and glucose utilization is the need for astrocytic pyruvate to generate glutamate. Although some

  4. In vitro evaluation of valproic acid as an inhibitor of human cytochrome P450 isoforms: preferential inhibition of cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9)

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xia; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Kivistö, Kari T; Neuvonen, Pertti J; Backman, Janne T

    2001-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the potency and specificity of valproic acid as an inhibitor of the activity of different human CYP isoforms in liver microsomes. Methods Using pooled human liver microsomes, the effects of valproic acid on seven CYP isoform specific marker reactions were measured: phenacetin O-deethylase (CYP1A2), coumarin 7-hydroxylase (CYP2A6), tolbutamide hydroxylase (CYP2C9), S-mephenytoin 4′-hydroxylase (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan O-demethylase (CYP2D6), chlorzoxazone 6-hydroxylase (CYP2E1) and midazolam 1′-hydroxylase (CYP3A4). Results Valproic acid competitively inhibited CYP2C9 activity with a Ki value of 600 µm. In addition, valproic acid slightly inhibited CYP2C19 activity (Ki = 8553 µm, mixed inhibition) and CYP3A4 activity (Ki = 7975 µm, competitive inhibition). The inhibition of CYP2A6 activity by valproic acid was time-, concentration- and NADPH-dependent (KI = 9150 µm, Kinact=0.048 min−1), consistent with mechanism-based inhibition of CYP2A6. However, minimal inhibition of CYP1A2, CYP2D6 and CYP2E1 activities was observed. Conclusions Valproic acid inhibits the activity of CYP2C9 at clinically relevant concentrations in human liver microsomes. Inhibition of CYP2C9 can explain some of the effects of valproic acid on the pharmacokinetics of other drugs, such as phenytoin. Co-administration of high doses of valproic acid with drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP2C9 may result in significant drug interactions. PMID:11736863

  5. Preferential activation of the p46 isoform of JNK/SAPK in mouse macrophages by TNF alpha.

    PubMed

    Chan, E D; Winston, B W; Jarpe, M B; Wynes, M W; Riches, D W

    1997-11-25

    A pleiotropic cytokine, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), regulates the expression of multiple macrophage gene products and thus contributes a key role in host defense. In this study, we have investigated the specificity and mechanism of activation of members of the c-Jun-NH2-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK) subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in mouse macrophages in response to stimulation with TNF alpha. Exposure of macrophages to TNF alpha stimulated a preferential increase in catalytic activity of the p46 JNK/SAPK isoform compared with the p54 JNK/SAPK isoform as determined by: (i) separation of p46 and p54 JNK/SAPKs by anion exchange liquid chromatography and (ii) selective immunodepletion of the p46 JNK/SAPK from macrophage lysates. To investigate the level of regulation of p46 JNK/SAPK activation, we determined the ability of MKK4/SEK1/JNKK, an upstream regulator of JNK/SAPKs, to phosphorylate recombinant kinase-inactive p46 and p54 JNK/SAPKs. Endogenous MKK4 was able to transphosphorylate both isoforms. In addition, both the p46 and p54 JNK/SAPK isoforms were phosphorylated on their TPY motif in response to TNF alpha stimulation as reflected by immunoblotting with a phospho-specific antibody that recognizes both kinases. Collectively, these results suggest that the level of control of p46 JNK/SAPK activation is distal not only to MKK4 but also to the p54 JNK/SAPK. Preferential isoform activation within the JNK/SAPK subfamily of MAPKs may be an important mechanism through which TNF alpha regulates macrophage phenotypic heterogeneity and differentiation.

  6. The ATPase activity and the functional domain of PotA, a component of the sermidine-preferential uptake system in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Kashiwagi, Keiko; Innami, Akane; Zenda, Risa; Tomitori, Hideyuki; Igarashi, Kazuei

    2002-07-05

    The ATPase activity of PotA, a component of the spermidine-preferential uptake system consisting of PotA, -B, -C, and -D, was studied using purified PotA and a PotABC complex on inside-out membrane vesicles. It was found that PotA can form a dimer by disulfide cross-linking but that each PotA molecule functions independently. When PotA was associated with the membrane proteins PotB and PotC, the K(m) value for ATP increased and PotA became much more sensitive to inhibition by spermidine. It was also shown that spermidine uptake in cells was gradually inhibited in parallel with spermidine accumulation in cells. The results suggest that spermidine functions as a feedback inhibitor of spermidine transport. The function of PotA was analyzed using PotA mutants obtained by random mutagenesis. There are two domains in PotA. The NH2-terminal domain (residues 1-250) contains the ATP binding pocket formed in part by residues Cys26, Phe27, Phe45, Cys54, Leu60, and Leu76, the active center of ATPase that includes Val135 and Asp172, and amino acid residues necessary for the interaction with a second PotA subunit (Cys26) and with PotB (Cys54). The COOH-terminal domain (residues 251-378) of PotA contains a site that regulates ATPase activity and a site involved in the spermidine inhibition of ATPase activity.

  7. Progressive and preferential cellular accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids induced by cholestatic drugs is associated with inhibition of their amidation and sulfation.

    PubMed

    Sharanek, Ahmad; Burban, Audrey; Humbert, Lydie; Guguen-Guillouzo, Christiane; Rainteau, Dominique; Guillouzo, Andre

    2017-09-19

    Drug-induced intrahepatic cholestasis is characterized by cellular accumulation of bile acids (BA) whose mechanisms remain poorly understood. The present study aimed to analyze early and progressive alterations of BA profiles induced by cyclosporine A, chlorpromazine, troglitazone, tolcapone, trovafloxacin and tacrolimus after 4h, 24h and 6 daily treatments of differentiated HepaRG cells. In BA-free medium the potent cholestatic drugs, cyclosporine A, chlorpromazine and troglitazone, reduced endogenous BA synthesis after 24h, while the rarely cholestatic drugs, tolcapone, trovafloxacin and tacrolimus, reduced BA synthesis only after 6 days. In the presence of physiological serum BA concentrations, cyclosporine A, chlorpromazine and troglitazone induced early and preferential cellular accumulation of unconjugated lithocholic, deoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids that increased 8-12- and 47-50-fold after 24h and 6 days respectively. Accumulation of these hydrophobic BAs resulted from strong inhibition of amidation and in addition, for lithocholic acid reduction of its sulfo-conjugation, and was associated with variable alterations of uptake and efflux transporters. Trovafloxacin also caused BA accumulation, especially after 6 days, while tolcapone and tacrolimus were still without effect. However, when exogenous BAs were added to the medium at cholestatic serum concentrations, a 6-day treatment with all drugs resulted in cellular BA accumulation with higher folds of chenodeoxycholic and lithocholic acids. At the tested concentration, tolcapone had the lowest effect. These results bring the first demonstration that major cholestatic drugs can cause preferential and progressive in vitro cellular accumulation of unconjugated toxic hydrophobic BAs, and bring new insights in mechanisms involved in drug-induced cellular accumulation of toxic BAs. The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  8. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, Yijing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-06-01

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis.

  9. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, YiJing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-06-23

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis.

  10. Dynamic protein conformations preferentially drive energy transfer along the active chain of the photosystem II reaction centre

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; Silva, Daniel-Adriano; Zhang, Houdao; Yue, Alexander; Yan, YiJing; Huang, Xuhui

    2014-01-01

    One longstanding puzzle concerning photosystem II, a core component of photosynthesis, is that only one of the two symmetric branches in its reaction centre is active in electron transfer. To investigate the effect of the photosystem II environment on the preferential selection of the energy transfer pathway (a prerequisite for electron transfer), we have constructed an exciton model via extensive molecular dynamics simulations and quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations based on a recent X-ray structure. Our results suggest that it is essential to take into account an ensemble of protein conformations to accurately compute the site energies. We identify the cofactor CLA606 of active chain as the most probable site for the energy excitation. We further pinpoint a number of charged protein residues that collectively lower the CLA606 site energy. Our work provides insights into the understanding of molecular mechanisms of the core machinery of the green-plant photosynthesis. PMID:24954746

  11. Inhibition of endothelial lipase activity by sphingomyelin in the lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Peng; Belikova, Natalia A.; Billheimer, Jeff; Rader, Daniel J.; Hill, John S.; Subbaiah, Papasani V.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of plasma HDL concentration, its activity being inversely proportional to HDL levels. Although it is known that it preferentially acts on HDL, compared to LDL and VLDL, the basis for this specificity is not known. Here we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin, a major phospholipid in lipoproteins is a physiological inhibitor of EL, and that the preference of the enzyme for HDL may be due to low sphingomyelin/ phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) ratio in HDL, compared to other lipoproteins. Using recombinant human EL, we showed that sphingomyelin inhibits the hydrolysis of PtdCho in the liposomes in a concentration-dependent manner. While the enzyme showed lower hydrolysis of LDL PtdCho, compared to HDL PtdCho, this difference disappeared after the degradation of lipoprotein sphingomyelin by bacterial sphingomyelinase. Analysis of molecular species of PtdCho hydrolyzed by EL in the lipoproteins showed that the enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed PtdCho containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as 22:6, 20:5, 20:4 at sn-2 position, generating the corresponding PUFA-lyso PtdCho. This specificity for PUFA-PtdCho species was not observed after depletion of sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinase. These results show that sphingomyelin not only plays a role in regulating EL activity, but also influences its specificity towards PtdCho species. PMID:25167836

  12. Inhibition of endothelial lipase activity by sphingomyelin in the lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Belikova, Natalia A; Billheimer, Jeff; Rader, Daniel J; Hill, John S; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2014-10-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a major determinant of plasma HDL concentration, its activity being inversely proportional to HDL levels. Although it is known that it preferentially acts on HDL compared to LDL and VLDL, the basis for this specificity is not known. Here we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin, a major phospholipid in lipoproteins is a physiological inhibitor of EL, and that the preference of the enzyme for HDL may be due to low sphingomyelin/phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) ratio in HDL, compared to other lipoproteins. Using recombinant human EL, we showed that sphingomyelin inhibits the hydrolysis of PtdCho in the liposomes in a concentration-dependent manner. While the enzyme showed lower hydrolysis of LDL PtdCho, compared to HDL PtdCho, this difference disappeared after the degradation of lipoprotein sphingomyelin by bacterial sphingomyelinase. Analysis of molecular species of PtdCho hydrolyzed by EL in the lipoproteins showed that the enzyme preferentially hydrolyzed PtdCho containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) such as 22:6, 20:5, 20:4 at the sn-2 position, generating the corresponding PUFA-lyso PtdCho. This specificity for PUFA-PtdCho species was not observed after depletion of sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinase. These results show that sphingomyelin not only plays a role in regulating EL activity, but also influences its specificity towards PtdCho species.

  13. Imaging evolutionarily conserved neural networks: preferential activation of the olfactory system by food-related odor.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Praveen; Stolberg, Tara; Sullivanjr, J M; Ferris, Craig F

    2012-04-21

    Rodents routinely forge and rely on hippocampal-dependent spatial memory to guide them to sources of caloric rich food in their environment. Has evolution affected the olfactory system and its connections to the hippocampus and limbic cortex, so rodents have an innate sensitivity to energy rich food and their location? To test this notion, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging in awake rats to observe changes in brain activity in response to four odors: benzaldehyde (almond odor), isoamyl acetate (banana odor), methyl benzoate (rosy odor), and limonene (citrus odor). We chose the almond odor because nuts are high in calories and would be expected to convey greater valance as compared to the other odors. Moreover, the standard food chow is devoid of nuts, so laboratory bred rats would not have any previous exposure to this food. Activation maps derived from computational analysis using a 3D segmented rat MRI atlas were dramatically different between odors. Animals exposed to banana, rosy and citrus odors showed modest activation of the primary olfactory system, hippocampus and limbic cortex. However, animals exposed to almond showed a robust increase in brain activity in the primary olfactory system particularly the main olfactory bulb, anterior olfactory nucleus and tenia tecta. The most significant difference in brain activation between odors was observed in the hippocampus and limbic cortex. These findings show that fMRI can be used to identify neural circuits that have an innate sensitivity to environmental stimuli that may help in an animal's survival.

  14. Preferential PPAR-α activation reduces neuroinflammation, and blocks neurodegeneration in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Esmaeili, Mohammad A.; Yadav, Shilpi; Gupta, Ravi Kr.; Waggoner, Garrett R.; Deloach, Abigail; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Beal, M. Flint; Kiaei, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Neuroinflammation, immune reactivity and mitochondrial abnormalities are considered as causes and/or contributors to neuronal degeneration. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate both inflammatory and multiple other pathways that are implicated in neurodegeneration. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of fenofibrate (Tricor), a pan-PPAR agonist that activates PPAR-α as well as other PPARs. We administered fenofibrate to superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1G93A) mice daily prior to any detectable phenotypes and then animal behavior, pathology and longevity were assessed. Treated animals showed a significant slowing of the progression of disease with weight loss attenuation, enhanced motor performance, delayed onset and survival extension. Histopathological analysis of the spinal cords showed that neuronal loss was significantly attenuated in fenofibrate-treated mice. Mitochondria were preserved as indicated by Cytochrome c immunostaining in the spinal cord, which maybe partly due to increased expression of the PPAR-γ co-activator 1-α. The total mRNA analysis revealed that neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory genes were elevated, while neuroinflammatory genes were down-regulated. This study demonstrates that the activation of PPAR-α action via fenofibrate leads to neuroprotection by both reducing neuroinflammation and protecting mitochondria, which leads to a significant increase in survival in SOD1G93A mice. Therefore, the development of therapeutic strategies to activate PPAR-α as well as other PPARs may lead to new therapeutic agents to slow or halt the progression of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:26604138

  15. The preferentially magnified active nucleus in IRAS F10214+4724 - I. Lens model and spatially resolved radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deane, R. P.; Rawlings, S.; Marshall, P. J.; Heywood, I.; Klöckner, H.-R.; Grainge, K.; Mauch, T.; Serjeant, S.

    2013-03-01

    This is the first paper in a series that presents a multiwavelength analysis of the archetype ultraluminous infrared galaxy IRAS F10214+4724, a gravitationally lensed, starburst/active galactic nucleus at z = 2.3. Here we present a new lens model and spatially resolved radio data, as well as a deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) F160W map. The lens modelling employs a Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm with extended source, forward ray tracing. Using these high-resolution HST, Multi-Element Radio Linked Interferometer Network (MERLIN) and Very Large Array (VLA) maps, the algorithm allows us to constrain the level of distortion to the continuum spectral energy distribution resulting from emission components with differing magnification factors, due to their size and proximity to the caustic. Our lens model finds that the narrow-line region, and by proxy the active nucleus, is preferentially magnified. This supports previous claims that preferential magnification could mask the expected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon spectral features in the Spitzer mid-infrared spectrum which roughly trace the star-forming regions. Furthermore, we show that the arc-to-counter-image flux ratio is not a good estimate of the magnification in this system, despite its common use in the IRAS F10214+4724 literature. Our lens modelling suggests magnifications of μ ˜ 15-20 ± 2 for the HST F814W, MERLIN 1.7 GHz and VLA 8 GHz maps, significantly lower than the canonical values of μ = 50-100 often used for this system. Systematic errors such as the dark matter density slope and colocation of stellar and dark matter centroids dominate the uncertainties in the lens model at the 40 per cent level.

  16. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments.

  17. Activated Allogeneic NK Cells Preferentially Kill Poor Prognosis B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Martínez, Diego; Lanuza, Pilar M.; Gómez, Natalia; Muntasell, Aura; Cisneros, Elisa; Moraru, Manuela; Azaceta, Gemma; Anel, Alberto; Martínez-Lostao, Luis; Villalba, Martin; Palomera, Luis; Vilches, Carlos; García Marco, José A.; Pardo, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Mutational status of TP53 together with expression of wild-type (wt) IGHV represents the most widely accepted biomarkers, establishing a very poor prognosis in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) patients. Adoptive cell therapy using allogeneic HLA-mismatched Natural killer (NK) cells has emerged as an effective and safe alternative in the treatment of acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemias that do not respond to traditional therapies. We have described that allogeneic activated NK cells eliminate hematological cancer cell lines with multidrug resistance acquired by mutations in the apoptotic machinery. This effect depends on the activation protocol, being B-lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) the most effective stimulus to activate NK cells. Here, we have further analyzed the molecular determinants involved in allogeneic NK cell recognition and elimination of B-CLL cells, including the expression of ligands of the main NK cell-activating receptors (NKG2D and NCRs) and HLA mismatch. We present preliminary data suggesting that B-CLL susceptibility significantly correlates with HLA mismatch between NK cell donor and B-CLL patient. Moreover, we show that the sensitivity of B-CLL cells to NK cells depends on the prognosis based on TP53 and IGHV mutational status. Cells from patients with worse prognosis (mutated TP53 and wt IGHV) are the most susceptible to activated NK cells. Hence, B-CLL prognosis may predict the efficacy of allogenic activated NK cells, and, thus, NK cell transfer represents a good alternative to treat poor prognosis B-CLL patients who present a very short life expectancy due to lack of effective treatments. PMID:27833611

  18. Preferential chemotaxis of activated human CD4+ T cells by extracellular cyclophilin A

    PubMed Central

    Damsker, Jesse M.; Bukrinsky, Michael I.; Constant, Stephanie L.

    2010-01-01

    The recruitment and trafficking of leukocytes are essential aspects of the inflammatory process. Although chemokines are thought to be the main regulators of cell trafficking, extracellular cyclophilins have been shown recently to have potent chemoattracting properties for human leukocytes. Cyclophilins are secreted by a variety of cell types and are detected at high levels in tissues with ongoing inflammation. CD147 has been identified as the main signaling receptor for cyclophilin A (CypA) on human leukocytes. It is interesting that the expression of CD147 is elevated on leukocytes from inflamed tissue, suggesting a correlation among the presence of extracellular cyclophilins, CD147 expression, and inflammatory responses. Thus, cyclophilin-CD147 interactions may contribute directly to the recruitment of leukocytes into inflamed tissues. In the current studies, we show that activated human T lymphocytes express elevated levels of CD147, compared with resting T cells and that these activated T cells migrate more readily to CypA than resting cells. Furthermore, we show that unlike resting CD4+ T cells, the cyclophilin-mediated migration of activated T cells does not require interaction with heparan sulfate receptors but instead, is dependent on CD147 interaction alone. Such findings suggest that cyclophilin-CD147 interactions will be most potent when leukocytes are in an activated state, for example, during inflammatory responses. Thus, targeting cyclophilin-CD147 interactions may provide a novel approach for alleviating tissue inflammation. PMID:17540735

  19. Morphine Promotes Astrocyte-Preferential Differentiation of Mouse Hippocampal Progenitor Cells via PKCε-Dependent ERK Activation and TRBP Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Zheng, Hui; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2015-09-01

    Previously we have shown that morphine regulates adult neurogenesis by modulating miR-181a maturation and subsequent hippocampal neural progenitor cell (NPC) lineages. Using NPCs cultured from PKCε or β-arrestin2 knockout mice and the MAPK/ERK kinase inhibitor U0126, we demonstrate that regulation of NPC differentiation via the miR-181a/Prox1/Notch1 pathway exhibits ligand-dependent selectivity. In NPCs, morphine and fentanyl activate ERK via the PKCε- and β-arrestin-dependent pathways, respectively. After fentanyl exposure, the activated phospho-ERK translocates to the nucleus. Conversely, after morphine treatment, phospho-ERK remains in the cytosol and is capable of phosphorylating TAR RNA-binding protein (TRBP), a cofactor of Dicer. This augments Dicer activity and promotes the maturation of miR-181a. Furthermore, using NPCs transfected with wild-type TRBP, SΔA, and SΔD TRBP mutants, we confirmed the crucial role of TRBP phosphorylation in Dicer activity, miR-181a maturation, and finally the morphine-induced astrocyte-preferential differentiation of NPCs. Thus, morphine modulates the lineage-specific differentiation of NPCs by PKCε-dependent ERK activation with subsequent TRBP phosphorylation and miR-181a maturation.

  20. Inhibition of ammonia poisoning by addition of platinum to Ru/α-Al2 O3 for preferential CO oxidation in fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Katsutoshi; Yagi, Sho; Zaitsu, Shuhei; Kitayama, Godai; Kayada, Yuto; Teramura, Kentaro; Takita, Yusaku; Nagaoka, Katsutoshi

    2014-12-01

    In polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) systems, small amounts of ammonia (NH3 ) present in the reformate gas deactivate the supported ruthenium catalysts used for preferential oxidation (PROX) of carbon monoxide (CO). In this study, we investigated how the addition of a small amount of platinum to a Ru/α-Al2 O3 catalyst (Pt/Ru=1:9 w/w) affected the catalyst's PROX activity in both the absence and the presence of NH3 (130 ppm) under conditions mimicking the reformate conditions during steam reforming of natural gas. The activity of undoped Ru/α-Al2 O3 decreased sharply upon addition of NH3 , whereas Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 exhibited excellent PROX activity even in the presence of NH3 . Ruthenium K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra indicated that in the presence of NH3 , some of the ruthenium in the undoped catalyst was oxidized in the presence of NH3 , whereas ruthenium oxidation was not observed with Pt/Ru/α-Al2 O3 . These results suggest that ruthenium oxidation is retarded by the platinum, so that the catalyst shows high activity even in the presence of NH3 .

  1. Stereotype Activation, Inhibition, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Radvansky, Gabriel A.; Copeland, David E.; von Hippel, William

    2009-01-01

    This research explored age-related changes in drawing stereotypic inferences during the comprehension of narrative texts. Previous research suggests that declines in inhibitory function can lead older adults to rely more on stereotypes and be more prejudiced than younger adults, even in the face of a desire to be non-prejudiced. In two experiments reported here, younger and older adults read stories that allowed for stereotypic inferences. Older adults were less likely to inhibit stereotypic inferences as measured by recognition measures and lexical decision times. A third control experiment verified that the results of the lexical decision task were not due to a priori response biases for the specific target words. Overall, older adults were more likely to make and maintain stereotypic inferences than younger adults, potentially causing them to be more prejudiced than younger adults. PMID:20161549

  2. Modest Interference with Actin Dynamics in Primary T Cell Activation by Antigen Presenting Cells Preferentially Affects Lamellal Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Roybal, Kole T.; Mace, Emily M.; Clark, Danielle J.; Leard, Alan D.; Herman, Andrew; Verkade, Paul; Orange, Jordan S.; Wülfing, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic subcellular distributions of signaling system components are critical regulators of cellular signal transduction through their control of molecular interactions. Understanding how signaling activity depends on such distributions and the cellular structures driving them is required for comprehensive insight into signal transduction. In the activation of primary murine T cells by antigen presenting cells (APC) signaling intermediates associate with various subcellular structures, prominently a transient, wide, and actin-associated lamellum extending from an interdigitated T cell:APC interface several micrometers into the T cell. While actin dynamics are well established as general regulators of cellular organization, their role in controlling signaling organization in primary T cell:APC couples and the specific cellular structures driving it is unresolved. Using modest interference with actin dynamics with a low concentration of Jasplakinolide as corroborated by costimulation blockade we show that T cell actin preferentially controls lamellal signaling localization and activity leading downstream to calcium signaling. Lamellal localization repeatedly related to efficient T cell function. This suggests that the transient lamellal actin matrix regulates T cell signaling associations that facilitate T cell activation. PMID:26237588

  3. Controlling activity and selectivity using water in the Au-catalysed preferential oxidation of CO in H2.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Johnny; Whittaker, Todd; Chen, Zhifeng; Pursell, Christopher J; Rioux, Robert M; Chandler, Bert D

    2016-06-01

    Industrial hydrogen production through methane steam reforming exceeds 50 million tons annually and accounts for 2-5% of global energy consumption. The hydrogen product, even after processing by the water-gas shift, still typically contains ∼1% CO, which must be removed for many applications. Methanation (CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O) is an effective solution to this problem, but consumes 5-15% of the generated hydrogen. The preferential oxidation (PROX) of CO with O2 in hydrogen represents a more-efficient solution. Supported gold nanoparticles, with their high CO-oxidation activity and notoriously low hydrogenation activity, have long been examined as PROX catalysts, but have shown disappointingly low activity and selectivity. Here we show that, under the proper conditions, a commercial Au/Al2O3 catalyst can remove CO to below 10 ppm and still maintain an O2-to-CO2 selectivity of 80-90%. The key to maximizing the catalyst activity and selectivity is to carefully control the feed-flow rate and maintain one to two monolayers of water (a key CO-oxidation co-catalyst) on the catalyst surface.

  4. Controlling activity and selectivity using water in the Au-catalysed preferential oxidation of CO in H2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saavedra, Johnny; Whittaker, Todd; Chen, Zhifeng; Pursell, Christopher J.; Rioux, Robert M.; Chandler, Bert D.

    2016-06-01

    Industrial hydrogen production through methane steam reforming exceeds 50 million tons annually and accounts for 2-5% of global energy consumption. The hydrogen product, even after processing by the water-gas shift, still typically contains ˜1% CO, which must be removed for many applications. Methanation (CO + 3H2 → CH4 + H2O) is an effective solution to this problem, but consumes 5-15% of the generated hydrogen. The preferential oxidation (PROX) of CO with O2 in hydrogen represents a more-efficient solution. Supported gold nanoparticles, with their high CO-oxidation activity and notoriously low hydrogenation activity, have long been examined as PROX catalysts, but have shown disappointingly low activity and selectivity. Here we show that, under the proper conditions, a commercial Au/Al2O3 catalyst can remove CO to below 10 ppm and still maintain an O2-to-CO2 selectivity of 80-90%. The key to maximizing the catalyst activity and selectivity is to carefully control the feed-flow rate and maintain one to two monolayers of water (a key CO-oxidation co-catalyst) on the catalyst surface.

  5. Transcriptional activation by mitochondrial transcription factor A involves preferential distortion of promoter DNA

    PubMed Central

    Malarkey, Christopher S.; Bestwick, Megan; Kuhlwilm, Jane E.; Shadel, Gerald S.; Churchill, Mair E. A.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA/TFAM) is a nucleus-encoded, high-mobility-group-box (HMG-box) protein that regulates transcription of the mitochondrial genome by specifically recognizing light-strand and heavy-strand promoters (LSP, HSP1). TFAM also binds mitochondrial DNA in a non-sequence specific (NSS) fashion and facilitates its packaging into nucleoid structures. However, the requirement and contribution of DNA-bending for these two different binding modes has not been addressed in detail, which prompted this comparison of binding and bending properties of TFAM on promoter and non-promoter DNA. Promoter DNA increased the stability of TFAM to a greater degree than non-promoter DNA. However, the thermodynamic properties of DNA binding for TFAM with promoter and non-specific (NS) DNA were similar to each other and to other NSS HMG-box proteins. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer assays showed that TFAM bends promoter DNA to a greater degree than NS DNA. In contrast, TFAM lacking the C-terminal tail distorted both promoter and non-promoter DNA to a significantly reduced degree, corresponding with markedly decreased transcriptional activation capacity at LSP and HSP1 in vitro. Thus, the enhanced bending of promoter DNA imparted by the C-terminal tail is a critical component of the ability of TFAM to activate promoter-specific initiation by the core mitochondrial transcription machinery. PMID:21948790

  6. The left occipitotemporal cortex does not show preferential activity for words.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Alecia C; Petersen, Steven E; Schlaggar, Bradley L

    2012-12-01

    Regions in left occipitotemporal (OT) cortex, including the putative visual word form area, are among the most commonly activated in imaging studies of single-word reading. It remains unclear whether this part of the brain is more precisely characterized as specialized for words and/or letters or contains more general-use visual regions having properties useful for processing word stimuli, among others. In Analysis 1, we found no evidence of greater activity in left OT regions for words or letter strings relative to other high-spatial frequency high-contrast stimuli, including line drawings and Amharic strings (which constitute the Ethiopian writing system). In Analysis 2, we further investigated processing characteristics of OT cortex potentially useful in reading. Analysis 2 showed that a specific part of OT cortex 1) is responsive to visual feature complexity, measured by the number of strokes forming groups of letters or Amharic strings and 2) processes learned combinations of characters, such as those in words and pseudowords, as groups but does not do so in consonant and Amharic strings. Together, these results indicate that while regions of left OT cortex are not specialized for words, at least part of OT cortex has properties particularly useful for processing words and letters.

  7. Activated CD4+ T cells preferentially take up lipid microspheres, but resting cells do not.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, K

    1995-01-01

    Lipid microspheres (LM) used as drug carriers increase the effectiveness and reduce the toxicity of incorporated drugs. The present study is designed to determine whether or not activated T lymphocytes, which were the cells chosen first from the 'inflammatory cells', can take up LM in vitro. LM were labelled with a fluorescent probe, DiI (DiI-LM), to examine the kinetics. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocytes principally took up DiI-LM, while lymphocytes and granulocytes did not. When PBMC were stimulated with immobilized anti-CD3 MoAb and IL-2, cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD16 incorporated DiI-LM. Purified CD4+ T cells, obtained by positive panning selection, were stimulated with this system. They were CD25, CD71, LFA-1-positive, and also showed an ability to take up DiI-LM, which resting cells did not. The findings were confirmed by flow cytometry and quantitative analysis of DiI. Confocal micrographs showed fluorescent granules from the probe in the cytoplasm of stimulated CD4+ T cells after incubation with DiI-LM. These results suggest that immunomodulatory agents incorporated into LM might selectively regulate the function of CD4+ or CD8+ T cells when these are activated. Images Fig. 4 PMID:7882572

  8. Expansion and preferential activation of the CD14(+)CD16(+) monocyte subset during multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chuluundorj, Delgertsetseg; Harding, Scott A; Abernethy, David; La Flamme, Anne Camille

    2014-07-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-driven, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Although many types of immune cells are involved in disease progression, activated monocytes are believed to be one of the first to arrive to the brain and initiate inflammation. However, little is known about how the two main monocyte subsets, CD14(++)CD16(-) and CD14(+)CD16(+), are involved in MS. To understand how the phenotype and responses of these monocyte subsets are altered during MS, total monocytes and the purified monocyte subsets from healthy subjects (n=29) and MS patients (n=20) were characterized ex vivo and stimulated in vitro with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The ex vivo analyses showed that total monocytes from MS patients had significantly elevated levels of CD40, CD86, HLA-DR, CD64 and C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2), and this elevation was most marked on CD16(+) monocytes. In vitro stimulation with LPS led to an increase in CD86, HLA-DR, CD64 and IL-6 production by monocytes from MS patients. Furthermore, in purified cultures, CD14(+) monocytes were found to be the main producers of IL-10 while CD16(+) monocytes produced more IL-12. In monocytes from MS patients, both subsets produced substantially more IL-6, and the production of IL-10 by the CD16(+) subset was also significantly elevated compared with healthy monocytes. Together these findings highlight the important contribution of the CD16(+) monocyte subset in driving inflammatory responses during MS.

  9. Effect of antipsychotic drugs on human liver cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms in vitro: preferential inhibition of CYP2D6.

    PubMed

    Shin, J G; Soukhova, N; Flockhart, D A

    1999-09-01

    The ability of antipsychotic drugs to inhibit the catalytic activity of five cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoforms was compared using in vitro human liver microsomal preparations to evaluate the relative potential of these drugs to inhibit drug metabolism. The apparent kinetic parameters for enzyme inhibition were determined by nonlinear regression analysis of the data. All antipsychotic drugs tested competitively inhibited dextromethorphan O-demethylation, a selective marker for CYP2D6, in a concentration-dependent manner. Thioridazine and perphenazine were the most potent, with IC(50) values (2.7 and 1.5 microM) that were comparable to that of quinidine (0.52 microM). The estimated K(i) values for CYP2D6-catalyzing dextrorphan formation were ranked in the following order: perphenazine (0.8 microM), thioridazine (1.4 microM), chlorpromazine (6.4 microM), haloperidol (7.2 microM), fluphenazine (9.4 microM), risperidone (21.9 microM), clozapine (39.0 microM), and cis-thiothixene (65.0 microM). No remarkable inhibition of other CYP isoforms was observed except for moderate inhibition of CYP1A2-catalyzed phenacetin O-deethylation by fluphenazine (K(i) = 40.2 microM) and perphenazine (K(i) = 65.1). The estimated K(i) values for the inhibition of CYP2C9, 2C19, and 3A were >300 microM in almost all antipsychotics tested. These results suggest that antipsychotic drugs exhibit a striking selectivity for CYP2D6 compared with other CYP isoforms. This may reflect a remarkable commonality of structure between the therapeutic targets for these drugs, the transporters, and metabolic enzymes that distribute and eliminate them. Clinically, coadministration of these medicines with drugs that are primarily metabolized by CYP2D6 may result in significant drug interactions.

  10. High levels of functional endopeptidase 24.11 (CD10) activity on human thymocytes: preferential expression on immature subsets.

    PubMed Central

    Mari, B; Breittmayer, J P; Guerin, S; Belhacene, N; Peyron, J F; Deckert, M; Rossi, B; Auberger, P

    1994-01-01

    Although it is now well established that cells of the immune system express most of the exopeptidases described so far, little information is available concerning the identification and the characterization of the peptidases associated with the surface of human thymocytes. In the present study we have focused on CD10 expression on thymocytes using both FACS and enzymatic analysis. Unfractionated intact human thymocytes were shown to express significant levels of CD10-specific enzymatic activity, as assessed by the hydrolysis of the neutral endopeptidase (NEP) substrate Suc-Ala-Ala-Phe-pNA and of D-Ala2-Leu-enkephalin, a typical NEP substrate. CD10 activity was abolished by specific NEP inhibitors, including thiorphan, retrothiorphan and phosphoramidon. Moreover, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that intact thymocytes and purified NEP hydrolysed thymopentin, a thymic factor known to induce the maturation of prothymocytes into thymocytes. Finally, CD 10/NEP was preferentially associated with CD3- CD3low and immature CD4- CD8- thymocytes. The data demonstrate for the first time that human thymocytes express functional NEP and suggest a role for this enzyme in the maturation of human thymocytes. PMID:7959879

  11. Time-dependent activation of feed-forward inhibition in a looming-sensitive neuron.

    PubMed

    Gabbiani, Fabrizio; Cohen, Ivan; Laurent, Gilles

    2005-09-01

    The lobula giant movement detector (LGMD) is an identified neuron in the locust visual system that responds preferentially to objects approaching on a collision course with the animal. For such looming stimuli, the LGMD firing rate gradually increases, peaks, and decays toward the end of approach. The LGMD receives both excitatory and feed-forward inhibitory inputs on distinct branches of its dendritic tree, but little is known about the contribution of feed-forward inhibition to its response properties. We used picrotoxin, a chloride channel blocker, to selectively block feed-forward inhibition to the LGMD. We then computed differences in firing rate and membrane potential between control and picrotoxin conditions to study the activation of feed-forward inhibition. For looming stimuli, a significant activation of inhibition was observed early, as objects exceeded on average approximately 23 degrees in angular extent at the retina. Inhibition then increased in parallel with excitation over the remainder of approach trials. Experiments in which the final angular size of the approaching objects was systematically varied revealed that the relative activation of excitation and inhibition remains well balanced over most of the course of looming trials. Feed-forward inhibition actively contributed to the termination of the response to approaching objects and was particularly effective for large or slowly moving objects. Suddenly appearing and receding objects activated excitation and feed-forward inhibition nearly simultaneously, in contrast to looming stimuli. Under these conditions, the activation of excitation and feed-forward inhibition was weaker than for approaching objects, suggesting that both are preferentially tuned to approaching objects. These results support a phenomenological model of multiplication within the LGMD and provide new constraints for biophysical models of its responses to looming and receding stimuli.

  12. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid

  13. Preferential Elimination of Older Erythrocytes in Circulation and Depressed Bone Marrow Erythropoietic Activity Contribute to Cadmium Induced Anemia in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sreoshi; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2015-01-01

    Feeding cadmium chloride (50 or 1000 ppm CdCl2 in drinking water, ad libitum) to C57BL/6 mice resulted in a significant and sustained fall in blood erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels that started 4 and 3 weeks after the start of 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium doses respectively. A transient yet significant reticulocytosis occurred during the first 4 weeks of cadmium treatment. Using the recently developed double in vivo biotinylation (DIB) technique, turnover of erythrocyte cohorts of different age groups was simultaneously monitored in control and cadmium treated mice. A significant accumulation of younger erythrocytes and a concomitant decline in the relative proportions of older erythrocytes in circulation was observed in both 50 and 1000 ppm cadmium groups indicating that older erythrocytes were preferentially eliminated in cadmium induced anemia. A significant increase in the erythropoietin levels in plasma was seen in mice exposed to 1000 ppm cadmium. Levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL1A, IL6, TNFα, IFNγ) were however not significantly altered in cadmium treated mice. A significant increase in cellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in older erythrocytes in circulation but not in younger erythrocytes. Erythropoietic activity in the bone marrows and spleens of cadmium treated mice was examined by monitoring the relative proportion of cells belonging to the erythroid line of differentiation in these organs. Erythroid cells in bone marrow declined markedly (about 30%) in mice in the 1000 ppm cadmium group but the decline was not significant in the 50 ppm cadmium group. Cells representing various stages of erythroid differentiation in bone marrow and spleen were enumerated flow cytometrically by double staining with anti-Ter119 and anti-transferrin receptor (CD71) monoclonal antibodies. Decline of erythroid cells was essentially confined to pro-erythroblast and erythroblast-A, along with a concurrent increase in the splenic erythroid

  14. Intracellular ascorbate enhances hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-hydroxylase activity and preferentially suppresses the HIF-1 transcriptional response.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, Caroline; Dachs, Gabi U; Currie, Margaret J; Vissers, Margreet C M

    2014-04-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 drives the transcription of hundreds of genes to support cell survival under conditions of microenvironmental and metabolic stress. HIF-1 is downregulated by iron-containing 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes that require ascorbate as a cofactor. The HIF hydroxylases control both protein stability and the formation of an active transcription complex and, consequently, ascorbate could affect HIF-1α stabilization and/or gene expression, but the relative effect of ascorbate on these separate processes has not been well characterized. In this study we examined the effects of known intracellular ascorbate concentrations on both processes in response to various means of hydroxylase inhibition, including CoCl2, NiCl2, desferrioxamine, dimethyloxalylglycine, and hypoxia. Ascorbate inhibited HIF-1 activity most dramatically with all mechanisms of iron competition. In addition, HIF-1-dependent gene expression was effectively prevented by ascorbate and was inhibited even under conditions that allowed HIF-1α protein stabilization. This suggests that (1) ascorbate acts primarily to stabilize and reduce the iron atom in the hydroxylase active site and (2) the asparagine hydroxylase controlling HIF-1 transcriptional activity is particularly susceptible to fluctuations in intracellular ascorbate. These findings suggest that ascorbate plays a significant role in supporting HIF-hydroxylase function and that it could thereby modulate the cell survival response.

  15. Inhibition of metalloproteinase activity by fruit extracts.

    PubMed

    Tate, Patricia; God, Jason; Bibb, Robert; Lu, Qi; Larcom, Lyndon L

    2004-08-30

    While the metalloproteinase enzymes are essential for development and remodeling of tissues, aberrant over expression of these enzymes contributes to several pathologic conditions. In particular, metalloproteinase over expression in cancer plays a significant role in metastasis by providing a mechanism for invasion and spread. The data presented here indicate that water extracts of raspberries, blackberries and muscadine grapes inhibit the activities of metalloproteinases 2 and 9. This inhibition could contribute to the suppression of carcinogenesis by diets high in fruit content.

  16. Daily intake of β-cryptoxanthin prevents bone loss by preferential disturbance of osteoclastic activation in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kakeru; Okamoto, Maika; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Iezaki, Takashi; Onishi, Yuki; Yoneda, Yukio; Sugiura, Minoru; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2015-09-01

    Although β-cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, has been shown to exert an anabolic effect on bone calcification, little attention has been paid thus far to the precise mechanism of bone remodeling. Daily oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin significantly inhibited osteoclastic activation as well as reduction of bone volume in ovariectomized mice. In vitro studies revealed that β-cryptoxanthin inhibited differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts by repression of the nuclear factor-κB-dependent transcriptional pathway. Our results suggest that supplementation with β-cryptoxanthin would be beneficial for prophylaxis and for therapy of metabolic bone diseases associated with abnormal osteoclast activation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Activin inhibits telomerase activity in cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Katik, Indzi; Mackenzie-Kludas, Charley; Nicholls, Craig; Jiang, Fang-Xu; Zhou, Shufeng; Li, He; Liu, Jun-Ping

    2009-11-27

    Activin is a pleiotropic cytokine with broad tissue distributions. Recent studies demonstrate that activin-A inhibits cancer cell proliferation with unknown mechanisms. In this report, we demonstrate that recombinant activin-A induces telomerase inhibition in cancer cells. In breast and cervical cancer cells, activin-A resulted in telomerase activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Significant inhibition was observed at 10 ng/ml of activin-A, with a near complete inhibition at 80 ng/ml. Consistently, activin-A induced repression of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene, with the hTERT gene to be suppressed by 60-80% within 24 h. In addition, activin-A induced a concomitant increase in Smad3 signaling and decrease of the hTERT gene promoter activity in a concentration-dependent fashion. These data suggest that activin-A triggered telomerase inhibition by down-regulating hTERT gene expression is involved in activin-A-induced inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.

  18. Inhibition of lipase activities by citrus pectin.

    PubMed

    Tsujita, Takahiro; Sumiyosh, Maho; Han, Li-Kun; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsujita, Junji; Okuda, Hiromichi

    2003-10-01

    The oral administration of pectin to rats reduced and delayed the peak plasma triacylglycerol concentration. Pectin inhibited the hydrolysis of trioleoylglycerol emulsified with soybean phosphatidylcholine by pancreatic, carboxylester, and lingual lipases in a concentration-dependent manner. However, the effective concentration of pectin for lingual lipase was 100 times lower than that for pancreatic lipase. Pectin did not inhibit the tributyrin- and p-nitrophenylbutyrate-hydrolyzing activities by pancreatic and carboxylester lipase. When low molecular weight pectin was assayed, pectin at a molecular weight of 90,000 (MW 90) most strongly inhibited three lipase activities. When the effect of pH on pectin inhibition was analyzed using pancreatic lipase, strong inhibition was observed at an acidic pH (below pH 7.0). In the assay system, the pancreatic lipase protein levels in the supernatant and fat layer were estimated by Western blotting with an anti-pancreatic lipase antibody. Pectin reduced the amount of pancreatic lipase protein in the fat layer in a concentration-dependent manner and concomitantly increased that in the supernatant. These results suggest that pectin may interact with emulsified substrates and inhibit the adsorption of lipase to the surface of substrate emulsion.

  19. The anti-tumor drug bleomycin preferentially cleaves at the transcription start sites of actively transcribed genes in human cells.

    PubMed

    Murray, Vincent; Chen, Jon K; Galea, Anne M

    2014-04-01

    The genome-wide pattern of DNA cleavage at transcription start sites (TSSs) for the anti-tumor drug bleomycin was examined in human HeLa cells using next-generation DNA sequencing. It was found that actively transcribed genes were preferentially cleaved compared with non-transcribed genes. The 143,600 identified human TSSs were split into non-transcribed genes (82,596) and transcribed genes (61,004) for HeLa cells. These transcribed genes were further split into quintiles of 12,201 genes comprising the top 20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80, and 80-100 % of expressed genes. The bleomycin cleavage pattern at highly transcribed gene TSSs was greatly enhanced compared with purified DNA and non-transcribed gene TSSs. The top 20 and 20-40 % quintiles had a very similar enhanced cleavage pattern, the 40-60 % quintile was intermediate, while the 60-80 and 80-100 % quintiles were close to the non-transcribed and purified DNA profiles. The pattern of bleomycin enhanced cleavage had peaks that were approximately 200 bp apart, and this indicated that bleomycin was identifying the presence of phased nucleosomes at TSSs. Hence bleomycin can be utilized to detect chromatin structures that are present at actively transcribed genes. In this study, for the first time, the pattern of DNA damage by a clinically utilized cancer chemotherapeutic agent was performed on a human genome-wide scale at the nucleotide level.

  20. Selective anxiolytics: are the actions related to partial "agonist" activity or a preferential affinity for benzodiazepine receptor subtypes?

    PubMed

    Gee, K W; Yamamura, H I

    1983-01-01

    Both pharmacological and biochemical evidence support the existence of BZ receptor subtypes. Determination of the molecular basis of BZ receptor heterogeneity requires additional research. The physiological significance of BZ receptor subtypes is not currently understood. One hypothesis presented to explain the unique pharmacological effects of CL 218872 suggests that CL 218872 has preferential affinity for a BZ receptor subtype (i.e., type I sites) that mediates the anxiolytic effects of the clinically active BZs. An alternative hypothesis has been proposed to account for these observations and is based upon the possibility that CL 218872 may act as a partial agonist at the BZ receptor. The partial agonist theory is supported by behavioral evidence and the relatively small differences in affinity of the BZ receptor subtypes discriminated by CL 218872 at physiological temperatures. In addition, in vivo binding studies suggest that occupancy of type II BZ receptor subtypes (i.e., those with low affinity for CL 218872) is necessary for CL 218872 to produce minimal anticonflict activity (4). Unlike certain other neurotransmitter systems, it is difficult to correlate the heterogeneous binding properties of BZ receptor ligands with their agonist/antagonist potential at BZ receptor. For example, CL 218872 discriminates BZ receptor subtypes and acts as an agonist at the BZ receptor. Beta-carbolines such as PCC also discriminate receptor subtypes, yet they act as antagonists at the BZ receptor. Compounding the complexity, neither the nature nor the existence of an endogenous ligand is known. So, the designation of agonist or antagonist effects is made on a purely functional basis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Inhibition of programmed cell death by cyclosporin A; preferential blocking of cell death induced by signals via TCR/CD3 complex and its mode of action.

    PubMed Central

    Yasutomi, D; Odaka, C; Saito, S; Niizeki, H; Kizaki, H; Tadakuma, T

    1992-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is reported to inhibit programmed cell death. We confirmed this by using T-cell hybridomas which are inducible to programmed cell death by activation with immobilized anti-CD3 antibody or with anti-Thy 1.2 antibody. Cell death and DNA fragmentation, characteristic features of programmed cell death, were almost completely blocked by CsA or FK506. To investigate whether CsA inhibits only the cell death through the signals via the TCR/CD3 complex or all of the programmed cell death induced by various reagents, we further established CD4+8+ thymic lymphomas which result in programmed cell death after activation with calcium ionophore, dexamethasone, cyclic AMP or anti-CD3 antibody. It was revealed that CsA could block only the cell death mediated by the TCR/CD3 complex. For the clarification of the site of action of CsA, Ca2+ influx and endocytosis of receptors after stimulation with anti-CD3 antibody were monitored in the presence of CsA, and no significant effects of CsA were observed. Furthermore, prevention of cell death was examined by adding CsA at various periods of time after initiation of culture. CsA was found to exert its effect even when added after 4 h of cultivation, and the kinetic pattern of suppression was similar to that of the suppressive effect on IL-2 production. These observations indicate that in the events of programmed cell death, the major site of action of CsA will not be the inhibition of the immediate membrane events after activation of the TCR/CD3 complex but rather the interference in the function of molecules that transmit signals between membrane events and the activation of genes in the nucleus. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1383138

  2. Chemical inhibition of nitrification in activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Kelly, R T; Henriques, I D S; Love, N G

    2004-03-20

    Conventional aerobic nitrification was adversely affected by single pulse inputs of six different classes of industrially relevant chemical toxins: an electrophilic solvent (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, CDNB), a heavy metal (cadmium), a hydrophobic chemical (1-octanol), an uncoupling agent (2,4-dinitrophenol, DNP), alkaline pH, and cyanide in its weak metal complexed form. The concentrations of each chemical source that caused 1 5, 25, and 50% respiratory inhibition of a nitrifying mixed liquor during a short-term assay were used to shock sequencing batch reactors containing nitrifying conventional activated sludge. The reactors were monitored for recovery over a period of 30 days or less. All shock conditions inhibited nitrification, but to different degrees. The nitrate generation rate (NGR) of the shocked reactors recovered overtime to control reactor levels and showed that it was a more sensitive indicator of nitrification inhibition than both initial respirometric tests conducted on unexposed biomass and effluent nitrogen species analyses. CDNB had the most severe impact on nitrification, followed by alkaline pH 11, cadmium, cyanide, octanol, and DNP. Based on effluent data, cadmium and octanol primarily inhibited ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) while CDNB, pH 11,and cyanide inhibited both AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB). DNP initially inhibited nitrification but quickly increased the NGR relative to the control and stimulated nitrification after several days in a manner reflective of oxidative uncoupling. The shocked mixed liquor showed trends toward recovery from inhibition for all chemicals tested, but in some cases this reversion was slow. These results contribute to our broader effort to identify relationships between chemical sources and the process effects they induce in activated sludge treatment systems.

  3. Inhibition of aromatase activity by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Jeong, H J; Shin, Y G; Kim, I H; Pezzuto, J M

    1999-06-01

    In searching for potent cancer chemopreventive agents from synthetic or natural products, 28 randomly selected flavonoids were screened for inhibitory effects against partially purified aromatase prepared from human placenta. Over 50% of the flavonoids significantly inhibited aromatase activity, with greatest activity being demonstrated with apigenin (IC50: 0.9 microg/mL), chrysin (IC50: 1.1 microg/mL), and hesperetin (IC50: 1.0 microg/mL).

  4. The Chromatin Regulator BRPF3 Preferentially Activates the HBO1 Acetyltransferase but Is Dispensable for Mouse Development and Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Kezhi; You, Linya; Degerny, Cindy; Ghorbani, Mohammad; Liu, Xin; Chen, Lulu; Li, Lin; Miao, Dengshun; Yang, Xiang-Jiao

    2016-01-01

    To interpret epigenetic information, chromatin readers utilize various protein domains for recognition of DNA and histone modifications. Some readers possess multidomains for modification recognition and are thus multivalent. Bromodomain- and plant homeodomain-linked finger-containing protein 3 (BRPF3) is such a chromatin reader, containing two plant homeodomain-linked fingers, one bromodomain and a PWWP domain. However, its molecular and biological functions remain to be investigated. Here, we report that endogenous BRPF3 preferentially forms a tetrameric complex with HBO1 (also known as KAT7) and two other subunits but not with related acetyltransferases such as MOZ, MORF, TIP60, and MOF (also known as KAT6A, KAT6B, KAT5, and KAT8, respectively). We have also characterized a mutant mouse strain with a lacZ reporter inserted at the Brpf3 locus. Systematic analysis of β-galactosidase activity revealed dynamic spatiotemporal expression of Brpf3 during mouse embryogenesis and high expression in the adult brain and testis. Brpf3 disruption, however, resulted in no obvious gross phenotypes. This is in stark contrast to Brpf1 and Brpf2, whose loss causes lethality at E9.5 and E15.5, respectively. In Brpf3-null mice and embryonic fibroblasts, RT-quantitative PCR uncovered no changes in levels of Brpf1 and Brpf2 transcripts, confirming no compensation from them. These results indicate that BRPF3 forms a functional tetrameric complex with HBO1 but is not required for mouse development and survival, thereby distinguishing BRPF3 from its paralogs, BRPF1 and BRPF2. PMID:26677226

  5. Activation of Src in human breast tumor cell lines: elevated levels of phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially recognizes the Src carboxy terminal negative regulatory tyrosine 530.

    PubMed

    Egan, C; Pang, A; Durda, D; Cheng, H C; Wang, J H; Fujita, D J

    1999-02-04

    Elevated levels of Src kinase activity have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colon and breast cancer. We have analysed four human breast tumor cell lines that exhibit high levels of Src kinase activity, and have determined that these cell lines also exhibit a high level of a phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity that recognizes the Src carboxy-terminal P-Tyr530 negative regulatory site. Total Src kinase activity in these cell lines is elevated as much as 30-fold over activity in normal control cells and specific activity is elevated as much as 5.6-fold. When the breast tumor cells were grown in the presence of the tyrosine phosphatase inhibitor vanadate, Src kinase activity was reduced in all four breast tumor cell lines, suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase which could recognize the Tyr530 negative regulatory site. In fractionated cell extracts from the breast tumor cells, we found elevated levels of a membrane associated tyrosine phosphatase activity that preferentially dephosphorylated a Src family carboxy-terminal phosphopeptide containing the regulatory tyrosine 530 site. Src was hypophosphorylated in vivo at tyrosine 530 in at least two of the tumor cell lines, further suggesting that Src was being activated by a phosphatase in these cells. In preliminary immunoprecipitation and antibody depletion experiments, we were unable to correlate the major portion of this phosphatase activity with several known phosphatases.

  6. Thalidomide inhibits activation of caspase-1.

    PubMed

    Keller, Martin; Sollberger, Gabriel; Beer, Hans-Dietmar

    2009-11-01

    Thalidomide is an efficient anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic drug, but its therapeutic use is problematic due to a strong teratogenic activity. Nevertheless, thalidomide was approved for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases and certain types of cancer, and it is extensively tested for several other indications. Recently, we demonstrated that active caspase-1, whose activation is dependent on inflammasome complexes, is required for unconventional protein secretion of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1 and of the proangiogenic fibroblast growth factor 2. In this study, we show that pharmacological doses of thalidomide strongly reduced the secretion of both proteins. Thalidomide-treated cells also released less of other leaderless proteins, which require caspase-1 activity for their secretion. In line with these findings, the drug inhibited activation and activity of caspase-1 in cultured cells but not in vitro. The latter finding suggests that the pharmacological activity is exerted by a metabolite of the drug. The anti-inflammatory activity of thalidomide was also mediated via caspase-1 in mice. These findings represent a novel mechanism by which thalidomide exerts its pharmacological activity and suggest that inhibition of the activity of IL-1 might represent a novel strategy to substitute thalidomide.

  7. Resveratrol inhibits polyphosphoinositide metabolism in activated platelets.

    PubMed

    Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Holmsen, Holm; Fukami, Miriam H

    2005-08-15

    The effects of resveratrol (trans-3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) on activation responses and the polyphosphoinositide metabolism in human blood platelets have been studied. Resveratrol partially inhibited secretory responses (liberation of dense granule nucleotides and lysosomal acid hydrolases), microparticle formation and protein phosphorylations induced by thrombin. The effects of resveratrol on phosphoinositide metabolites, phosphatidate (PtdOH), phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns), phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PtdIns-4(5)-P), phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns-4,5-P2), phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4-P2) and phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PtdIns-3,4,5-P3) were monitored in blood platelets prelabelled with [32P]Pi. Resveratrol not only inhibited the marked increase in levels of PtdOH in platelets activated by thrombin (0.1 U/ml) but it decreased the steady state levels of the other polyphosphoinositide metabolites. The distribution of 32P in phosphoinositides in activated platelets was consistent with inhibition of CDP-DAG inositol transferase and a weak inhibition of PtdIns-4(5)-P kinase. These observations show that resveratrol has a profound effect on phospholipids, particularly on polyphosphoinositide metabolism, and may decrease the amount of PtdIns-4,5-P2 available for signalling in these cells.

  8. Beta-carotene preferentially regulates chicken myoblast proliferation withdrawal and differentiation commitment via BCO1 activity and retinoic acid production.

    PubMed

    Praud, C; Al Ahmadieh, S; Voldoire, E; Le Vern, Y; Godet, E; Couroussé, N; Graulet, B; Le Bihan Duval, E; Berri, C; Duclos, M J

    2017-09-15

    The enzyme β-carotene oxygenase 1 (BCO1) catalyzes the breakdown of provitamin A, including beta-carotene (BC), into retinal, prior to its oxidation into retinoic acid (RA). Allelic variation at the BCO1 locus results in differential expression of its mRNA and affects carotenoid metabolism specifically in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential myogenic effect of BC and the underlying mechanisms in chicken myoblasts. BCO1 mRNA was detected in myoblasts derived from chicken satellite cells. Treating these myoblasts with BC led to a significant decrease in BrdU incorporation. This anti-proliferative effect was confirmed by a cell cycle study using flow cytometry. BC also significantly increased the differentiation index, suggesting a positive effect on the commitment of avian myoblasts to myogenic differentiation. Addition of DEAB, a specific inhibitor of RALDH activity, significantly reduced BC anti-proliferative and pro-differentiating effects, suggesting that BC exerted its biological effect on chicken myoblasts through activation of the RA pathway. We also observed that in myoblast showing decreased BCO1 expression consecutive to a natural mutation or to a siRNA treatment, the response to BC was inhibited. Nevertheless, BCO1 siRNA transfection increased expression of BCO2 which inhibited cell proliferation in control and BC treated cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thiomers: Inhibition of cytochrome P450 activity.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Javed; Sakloetsakun, Duangkamon; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of different thiolated polymers (thiomers) on the catalytic activity of CYP450s on one hand and to explore new inhibitors for CYP activity on the other hand. Several thiolated polymers including poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine (PAA-cysteine), chitosan-thioglycolic acid (chitosan-TGA), and thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer along with brij 35, myrj 52 and the well-established CYPP450 inhibitor verapamil were screened for their CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 inhibitory activity, and their IC(50) values were determined. Both enzyme inhibition assays were performed in 96-well microtiter plates. 7-Benzyloxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin (BFC) and 7-hydroxycoumarin (7-HC) were used as fluorescent substrates in order to determine CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity, respectively. All investigated compounds inhibited CYP3A4 as well as CYP2A6 activity. All tested (thiolated) polymers were found to be more potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 than of CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Apart from verapamil that is a known CYP3A4 inhibitor, brij 35 and myrj 52 were explored as potent inhibitors of CYP3A4 and CYP2A6 catalytic activity. Among the tested polymers, the rank order for CYP3A4 inhibition was PAA-cysteine (100 kDa)>brij 35>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>myrj 52>PAA (100 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa). On the other hand, the rank order of CYP2A6 inhibition was brij 35>PAA-cysteine (100kDa)>chitosan-TGA (150 kDa)>PAA (100 kDa)>thiolated PEG-g-PEI copolymer (16 kDa)>PAA-cysteine (450 kDa)>chitosan (150 kDa)>verapamil>PAA (450 kDa)>myrj 52. Thus, this study suggests that (thiolated) polymers display a promising potential to inhibit cytochrome P450s activity and might turn out to be potentially valuable tools for improving the oral bioavailability of actively secreted compounds by avoiding intestinal metabolism.

  10. Aminopeptidase from Brevibacterium linens: activation and inhibition.

    PubMed

    Foissy, H

    1978-04-18

    Activation and inhibition of a purified aminopeptidase from Brevibacterium linens was investigated using L-alpha-leucyl-4-nitroanilide and L-leucyl-L-leucine as substrates. The enzyme was activated by cobalt, provided that the enzyme was preincubated with the metal. Strong inhibitory effects were derived from heavy metals, metal-complexing compounds, reducing agents, the modification of aromatic amino acids, and the presence of hydrophobic substances or certain amino acids in the test mixtures. Supposing that this B. linens aminopeptidase plays a part during surface-ripening of cheeses, possible consequences of specific technological conditions for its activity are discussed.

  11. Metabolically active CD4+ T cells expressing Glut1 and OX40 preferentially harbor HIV during in vitro infection.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Clovis S; Duette, Gabriel A; Wagner, Marc C E; Henstridge, Darren C; Saleh, Suah; Pereira, Candida; Zhou, Jingling; Simar, David; Lewin, Sharon R; Ostrowski, Matias; McCune, Joseph M; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2017-09-11

    High Glut1 surface expression is associated with increased glycolytic activity in activated CD4+ T cells. PI3K activation measured by p-Akt and OX40 is elevated in CD4+Glut1+ T cells from HIV+ subjects. TCR engagement of CD4+Glut1+ T cells from HIV+ subjects demonstrate hyper-responsive PI3K-mTOR signalling. High basal Glut1 and OX40 on CD4+ T cells from combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated HIV+ patients represent a sufficiently metabolically active state permissive for HIV infection in vitro without external stimuli. The majority of CD4+OX40+ T cells express Glut1, thus OX40 rather than Glut1 itself may facilitate HIV infection. Furthermore, infection of CD4+ T cells is limited by p110γ PI3K inhibition. Modulating glucose metabolism may limit cellular activation and prevent residual HIV replication in 'virologically suppressed' cART-treated HIV+ persons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Substitution of Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase small-subunit cysteines by serines can create insensitivity to inhibition by O2 and preferentially damages H2 oxidation over H2 evolution.

    PubMed Central

    McTavish, H; Sayavedra-Soto, L A; Arp, D J

    1995-01-01

    Mutants in which conserved cysteines 294, 297 or 64 and 65 of the Azotobacter vinelandii hydrogenase small subunit were replaced by serines were studied. Cysteines 294 and 297 are homologous to cysteines 246 and 249 of the Desulfovibrio gigas hydrogenase, and these cysteines are ligands to the [3Fe-4S] clusters (A. Volbeda, M.-H. Charon, C. Piras, E. C. Hatchikian, M. Frey, and J. C. Fontecilla-Camps, Nature (London) 373:580-587, 1995). Cysteine 65 is homologous to cysteine 20 of the D. gigas hydrogenase, and this cysteine is a ligand to the proximal [4Fe-4S] cluster. All three mutants retained some hydrogenase activity. All three mutants studied had H2 oxidation-to-H2 evolution activity ratios with whole cells of approximately 1.5, compared with 46 for the wild type. The changes preferentially deplete H2 oxidation activity, while having less effect on evolution. The K64,65C-->S hydrogenase was partially purified and had a specific activity for the evolution reaction that was 22% that of the wild type, while the oxidation-specific activity was 2% that of the wild type. Because cysteine 65 provides a ligand to the proximal [4Fe-4S] cluster, this cluster can be altered without entirely eliminating enzyme activity. Likewise, the detection of H2 evolution and H2 oxidation activities with whole cells and membranes of the K294C-->S and K297C-->S mutants indicates that the [3Fe-4S] cluster can also be altered or possibly eliminated without entirely eliminating enzyme activity. Membranes with K294C-->S or K297C-->S hydrogenase were uninhibited by O2 in H2 oxidation and uninhibited by H2 in H2 evolution. Wild-type membranes and membranes with K64,65C-->S hydrogenase were both sensitive to these inhibitors. These data indicate that the [3Fe-4S] cluster controls the reversible inhibition of hydrogenase activity by O2 or H2. PMID:7608067

  13. Dimethyl sulfoxide inhibits NLRP3 inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Huijeong; Kim, Jeeyoung; Jeung, Eui-Bae; Lee, Geun-Shik

    2014-04-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an amphipathic molecule that is commonly/widely used as a solvent for biological compounds. In addition, DMSO has been studied as a medication for the treatment of inflammation, cystitis, and arthritis. Based on the anti-inflammatory characteristics of DMSO, we elucidated the effects of DMSO on activation of inflammasomes, which are cytoplasmic multi-protein complexes that mediate the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β by activating caspase-1 (Casp1). In the present study, we prove that DMSO attenuated IL-1β maturation, Casp1 activity, and ASC pyroptosome formation via NLRP3 inflammasome activators. Further, NLRC4 and AIM2 inflammasome activity were not affected, suggesting that DMSO is a selective inhibitor of the NLRP3 inflammasomes. The anti-inflammatory effect of DMSO was further confirmed in animal, LPS-endotoxin sepsis and inflammatory bowel disease models. In addition, DMSO inhibited LPS-mediating IL-1s transcription. Taken together, DMSO shows anti-inflammatory characteristics, attenuates NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mediates inhibition of IL-1s transcription.

  14. Na+/K+-ATPase: Activity and inhibition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čolović, M.; Krstić, D.; Krinulović, K.; Momić, T.; Savić, J.; Vujačić, A.; Vasić, V.

    2009-09-01

    The aim of the study was to give an overview of the mechanism of inhibition of Na+/K+-ATPase activity induced by some specific and non specific inhibitors. For this purpose, the effects of some ouabain like compounds (digoxin, gitoxin), noble metals complexes ([PtCl2DMSO2], [AuCl4]-, [PdCl4]2-, [PdCl(dien)]+, [PdCl(Me4dien)]+), transition metal ions (Cu2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Co2+), and heavy metal ions (Hg2+, Pb2+, Cd2+) on the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase from rat synaptic plasma membranes (SPM), porcine cerebral cortex and human erythrocytes were discussed.

  15. An Activation Threshold Model for Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Hayley J.; McMorland, Angus J. C.; Stinear, Cathy M.; Coxon, James P.; Byblow, Winston D.

    2017-01-01

    Reactive response inhibition (RI) is the cancellation of a prepared response when it is no longer appropriate. Selectivity of RI can be examined by cueing the cancellation of one component of a prepared multi-component response. This substantially delays execution of other components. There is debate regarding whether this response delay is due to a selective neural mechanism. Here we propose a computational activation threshold model (ATM) and test it against a classical “horse-race” model using behavioural and neurophysiological data from partial RI experiments. The models comprise both facilitatory and inhibitory processes that compete upstream of motor output regions. Summary statistics (means and standard deviations) of predicted muscular and neurophysiological data were fit in both models to equivalent experimental measures by minimizing a Pearson Chi-square statistic. The ATM best captured behavioural and neurophysiological dynamics of partial RI. The ATM demonstrated that the observed modulation of corticomotor excitability during partial RI can be explained by nonselective inhibition of the prepared response. The inhibition raised the activation threshold to a level that could not be reached by the original response. This was necessarily followed by an additional phase of facilitation representing a secondary activation process in order to reach the new inhibition threshold and initiate the executed component of the response. The ATM offers a mechanistic description of the neural events underlying RI, in which partial movement cancellation results from a nonselective inhibitory event followed by subsequent initiation of a new response. The ATM provides a framework for considering and exploring the neuroanatomical constraints that underlie RI. PMID:28085907

  16. A theory of the transition to critical period plasticity: inhibition selectively suppresses spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Toyoizumi, Taro; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Yazaki-Sugiyama, Yoko; Atapour, Nafiseh; Hensch, Takao K; Miller, Kenneth D

    2013-10-02

    What causes critical periods (CPs) to open? For the best-studied case, ocular dominance plasticity in primary visual cortex in response to monocular deprivation (MD), the maturation of inhibition is necessary and sufficient. How does inhibition open the CP? We present a theory: the transition from pre-CP to CP plasticity arises because inhibition preferentially suppresses responses to spontaneous relative to visually driven input activity, switching learning cues from internal to external sources. This differs from previous proposals in (1) arguing that the CP can open without changes in plasticity mechanisms when activity patterns become more sensitive to sensory experience through circuit development, and (2) explaining not simply a transition from no plasticity to plasticity, but a change in outcome of MD-induced plasticity from pre-CP to CP. More broadly, hierarchical organization of sensory-motor pathways may develop through a cascade of CPs induced as circuit maturation progresses from "lower" to "higher" cortical areas.

  17. Fluoride Does Not Inhibit Enamel Protease Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tye, C.E.; Antone, J.V.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    Fluorosed enamel can be porous, mottled, discolored, hypomineralized, and protein-rich if the enamel matrix is not completely removed. Proteolytic processing by matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP20) and kallikrein-4 (KLK4) is critical for enamel formation, and homozygous mutation of either protease results in hypomineralized, protein-rich enamel. Herein, we demonstrate that the lysosomal proteinase cathepsin K is expressed in the enamel organ in a developmentally defined manner that suggests a role for cathepsin K in degrading re-absorbed enamel matrix proteins. We therefore asked if fluoride directly inhibits the activity of MMP20, KLK4, dipeptidyl peptidase I (DPPI) (an in vitro activator of KLK4), or cathepsin K. Enzyme kinetics were studied with quenched fluorescent peptides with purified enzyme in the presence of 0–10 mM NaF, and data were fit to Michaelis-Menten curves. Increasing concentrations of known inhibitors showed decreases in enzyme activity. However, concentrations of up to 10 mM NaF had no effect on KLK4, MMP20, DPPI, or cathepsin K activity. Our results show that fluoride does not directly inhibit enamel proteolytic activity. PMID:21118795

  18. Kaempferol inhibits thrombosis and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jun-Hui; Park, Se-Eun; Kim, Sung-Jun; Kim, Seung

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate whether kaempferol affects pro-coagulant proteinase activity, fibrin clot formation, blood clot and thrombin (or collagen/epinephrine)-stimulated platelet activation, thrombosis, and coagulation in ICR (Imprinting Control Region) mice and SD (Sprague-Dawley) rats. Kaempferol significantly inhibited the enzymatic activities of thrombin and FXa by 68 ± 1.6% and 52 ± 2.4%, respectively. Kaempferol also inhibited fibrin polymer formation in turbidity. Microscopic analysis was performed using a fluorescent conjugate. Kaempferol completely attenuated phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) 1/2, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PKB (AKT) in thrombin-stimulated platelets and delayed aggregation time (clotting) by 34.6% in an assay of collagen/epinephrine-stimulated platelet activation. Moreover, kaempferol protected against thrombosis development in 3 animal models, including collagen/epinephrine- and thrombin-induced acute thromboembolism models and an FeCl3-induced carotid arterial thrombus model. The ex vivo anticoagulant effect of kaempferol was further confirmed in ICR mice. This study demonstrated that kaempferol may be clinically useful due to its ability to reduce or prevent thrombotic challenge.

  19. Reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference and its inhibition by previous social interaction preferentially affect D1-medium spiny neurons in the accumbens corridor

    PubMed Central

    Prast, Janine M.; Schardl, Aurelia; Schwarzer, Christoph; Dechant, Georg; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    We investigated if counterconditioning with dyadic (i.e., one-to-one) social interaction, a strong inhibitor of the subsequent reacquisition of cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP), differentially modulates the activity of the diverse brain regions oriented along a mediolateral corridor reaching from the interhemispheric sulcus to the anterior commissure, i.e., the nucleus of the vertical limb of the diagonal band, the medial septal nucleus, the major island of Calleja, the intermediate part of the lateral septal nucleus, and the medial accumbens shell and core. We also investigated the involvement of the lateral accumbens core and the dorsal caudate putamen. The anterior cingulate 1 (Cg1) region served as a negative control. Contrary to our expectations, we found that all regions of the accumbens corridor showed increased expression of the early growth response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in rats 2 h after reacquisition of CPP for cocaine after a history of cocaine CPP acquisition and extinction. Previous counterconditioning with dyadic social interaction inhibited both the reacquisition of cocaine CPP and the activation of the whole accumbens corridor. EGR1 activation was predominantly found in dynorphin-labeled cells, i.e., presumably D1 receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-MSNs), with D2-MSNs (immunolabeled with an anti-DRD2 antibody) being less affected. Cholinergic interneurons or GABAergic interneurons positive for parvalbumin, neuropeptide Y or calretinin were not involved in these CPP-related EGR1 changes. Glial cells did not show any EGR1 expression either. The present findings could be of relevance for the therapy of impaired social interaction in substance use disorders, depression, psychosis, and autism spectrum disorders. PMID:25309368

  20. Allosteric inhibition of HIV-1 integrase activity

    PubMed Central

    Engelman, Alan; Kessl, Jacques J.; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 integrase is an important therapeutic target in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), which target the enzyme active site, have witnessed clinical success over the past 5 years, but the generation of drug resistance poses challenges to INSTI-based therapies moving forward. Integrase is a dynamic protein, and its ordered multimerization is critical to enzyme activity. The integrase tetramer, bound to viral DNA, interacts with host LEDGF/p75 protein to tether integration to active genes. Allosteric integrase inhibitors (ALLINIs) that compete with LEDGF/p75 for binding to integrase disrupt integrase assembly with viral DNA and allosterically inhibit enzyme function. ALLINIs display steep dose response curves and synergize with INSTIs ex vivo, highlighting this novel inhibitor class for clinical development. PMID:23647983

  1. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    PubMed

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p < 0.001 was verified. The proteinate sources of OTMs were consistently and significantly less inhibitory than the majority of the other sources, p < 0.05. This was verified for Escherichia coli and Peniophora lycii phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  2. Inhibition of proteasome activity by various fruits and vegetables is associated with cancer cell death.

    PubMed

    Chen, Marina S; Chen, Di; Dou, Q Ping

    2004-01-01

    There is a large amount of scientific evidence showing that fruits and vegetables lower the risk of cancer. However, the responsible molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Our previous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity is associated with cancer cell apoptosis, which may also be the major mechanism responsible for the anticancer effects of green tea polyphenols. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that some fruits and vegetables inhibit tumor cell proteasome activity and that this inhibition contributes to their cancer-preventative activities. We report that the extracts of apple and grape are more potent than onion, tomato and celery in: (i) inhibiting the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity in leukemia Jurkat T cell extract; (ii) accumulating the polyubiquitinated proteins in intact Jurkat T cells; (iii) inducing activation of caspase-3/-7 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase in intact Jurkat T cells; and (iv) inducing the appearance of spherical cells preferentially in prostate cancer PC-3 over the normal NIH 3T3 cell line. We also found that strawberry extract had some effect on Jurkat T cell extract and the prostate PC-3 cell line but not on intact Jurkat T cells. Our findings suggest that the proteasome is a cancer-related molecular target for, at least, the extracts of apple, grape and onion, and that the inhibition of proteasome activity by these fruits or vegetable may contribute to their cancer-preventative effects, although other molecular mechanisms may also be involved.

  3. Milk inhibits the biological activity of ricin.

    PubMed

    Rasooly, Reuven; He, Xiaohua; Friedman, Mendel

    2012-08-10

    Ricin is a highly toxic protein produced by the castor plant Ricinus communis. The toxin is relatively easy to isolate and can be used as a biological weapon. There is great interest in identifying effective inhibitors for ricin. In this study, we demonstrated by three independent assays that a component of reconstituted powdered milk has a high binding affinity to ricin. We discovered that milk can competitively bind to and reduce the amount of toxin available to asialofetuin type II, which is used as a model to study the binding of ricin to galactose cell-surface receptors. Milk also removes ricin bound to the microtiter plate. In parallel experiments, we demonstrated by activity assay and by immuno-PCR that milk can bind competitively to 1 ng/ml ricin, reducing the amount of toxin uptake by the cells, and thus inhibit the biological activity of ricin. The inhibitory effect of milk on ricin activity in Vero cells was at the same level as by anti-ricin antibodies. We also found that (a) milk did not inhibit ricin at concentrations of 10 or 100 ng/ml; (b) autoclaving 10 and 100 ng/ml ricin in DMEM at 121 °C for 30 min completely abolished activity; and (c) milk did not affect the activity of another ribosome inactivating protein, Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), produced by pathogenic Escherichia coli O157:H7. Unlike ricin, which is internalized into the cells via a galactose-binding site, Stx2 is internalized through the cell surface receptor glycolipid globotriasylceramides Gb3 and Gb4. These observations suggest that ricin toxicity may possibly be reduced at room temperature by a widely consumed natural liquid food.

  4. AMPA receptor activation causes preferential mitochondrial Ca²⁺ load and oxidative stress in motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Dinesh C; Tewari, Bhanu P; Singh, Mahendra; Joshi, Preeti G; Joshi, Nanda B

    2015-08-07

    It is well established that motor neurons are highly vulnerable to glutamate induced excitotoxicity. The selective vulnerability of these neurons has been attributed to AMPA receptor mediated excessive rise in cytosolic calcium and consequent mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading. Earlier we have reported that in motor neurons a generic rise in [Ca(2+)]i does not always lead to mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading and membrane depolarization but it occurs upon AMPA receptor activation. The mechanism of such specific mitochondrial involvement upon AMPA receptor activation is not known. The present study examines the mitochondrial Ca(2+) regulation and oxidative stress in spinal cord neurons upon AMPA subtype of glutamate receptor activation. Stimulating the spinal neurons with AMPA exhibited a sharp rise in [Ca(2+)]m in both motor and other spinal neurons that was sustained up to the end of recording time of 30min. The rise in [Ca(2+)]m was substantially higher in motor neurons than in other spinal neurons which could be due to the differential mitochondrial homeostasis in two types of neurons. To examine this possibility, we measured AMPA induced [Ca(2+)]m loading in the presence of mitochondrial inhibitors. In both cell types the AMPA induced [Ca(2+)]m loading was blocked by mitochondrial calcium uniporter blocker ruthenium red. In motor neurons it was also inhibited substantially by CGP37157 and cyclosporine-A, the blockers of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) respectively, whereas no effect of these agents was observed in other spinal neurons. Thus in motor neurons the Ca(2+) sequestration by mitochondria occurs through mitochondrial calcium uniporter as well as due to reversal of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, in contrast the latter pathway does not contribute in other spinal neurons. The ROS formation was inhibited by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor L-NAME in both types of neurons, however the mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor rotenone

  5. Preferential repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage in the transcribed strand of an active human gene is defective in Cockayne syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Leadon, S.A. ); Copper, P.K. )

    1993-11-15

    Cells from patients with Cockayne syndrome (CS), which are sensitive to killing by UV although overall damage removal appears normal, are specifically defective in repair of UV damage in actively transcribe genes. Because several CS strains display cross-sensitivity to killing by ionizing radiation, the authors examined whether ionizing radiation-induced damage in active genes is preferentially repaired by normal cells and whether the radiosensitivity of CS cells can be explained by a defect in this process. They found that ionizing radiation-induced damage was repaired more rapidly in the transcriptionally active metallothionein IIA (MTIIA) gene than in the inactive MTIIB gene or in the genome overall in normal cells as a result of faster repair on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Cells of the radiosensitive CS strain CS1AN are completely defective in this strand-selective repair of ionizing radiation-induced damage, although their overall repair rate appears normal. CS3BE cells, which are intermediate in radiosensitivity, do exhibit more rapid repair of the transcribed strand but at a reduced rate compared to normal cells. Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A cells, which are hypersensitive to UV light because of a defect in the nucleotide excision repair pathway but do not show increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation, preferentially repair ionizing radiation-induced damage on the transcribed strand of MTIIA. Thus, the ability to rapidly repair ionizing radiation-induced damage in actively transcribing genes correlates with cell survival. The results extend the generality of preferential repair in active genes to include damage other than bulky lesions.

  6. Potassium channel activation inhibits proliferation of breast cancer cells by activating a senescence program.

    PubMed

    Lansu, K; Gentile, S

    2013-06-06

    Traditionally the hERG1 potassium channel has been known to have a fundamental role in membrane excitability of several mammalian cells including cardiac myocytes. hERG1 has recently been found to be expressed in non-excitable cancer cells of different histogenesis, but the role of this channel in cancer biology is unknown. Results form recent studies on the effect hERG1 inhibition in some breast cancer cells are controversial as it can lead to apoptosis or protect against cell death. Nevertheless, these data suggest that the hERG1 channel could have an important role in cancer biology. Here we report the effects of hyperstimulation of hERG1 channel in human mammary gland adenocarcinoma-derived cells. Application of the hERG1 activator, the diphenylurea derivative NS1643, inhibits cell proliferation irreversibly. This event is accompanied by a preferential arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase without the occurrence of apoptotic events. Consequently, cells responded to NS1643 by developing a senescence-like phenotype associated with increased protein levels of the tumor suppressors p21 and p16(INK4a) and by a positive β-galactosidase assay. These data suggest that prolonged stimulation of the hERG1 potassium channel may activate a senescence program and offers a compelling opportunity to develop a potential antiproliferative cancer therapy.

  7. Antiausterity agents from Uvaria dac and their preferential cytotoxic activity against human pancreatic cancer cell lines in a nutrient-deprived condition.

    PubMed

    Awale, Suresh; Ueda, Jun-ya; Athikomkulchai, Sirivan; Abdelhamed, Sherif; Yokoyama, Satoru; Saiki, Ikuo; Miyatake, Ryuta

    2012-06-22

    Human pancreatic cancer cell lines are known for their inherent tolerance to nutrition starvation, which enables them to survive under a hypovascular (austerity) tumor microenvironment. The search for agents that preferentially retard the survival of cancer cells under low nutrition conditions (antiausterity agent) is a novel approach to anticancer drug discovery. In this study, it was found that a dichloromethane extract of the stem of Uvaria dac preferentially inhibited PANC-1 human pancreatic cancer cells survival under nutrition-deprived conditions at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. Workup of this bioactive extract led to the discovery of (+)-grandifloracin (8) as a potent antiausterity agent as evaluated in a panel of four human pancreatic cancer cell lines, PANC-1 (PC(50), 14.5 μM), PSN-1 (PC(50), 32.6 μM), MIA PaCa-2 (PC(50), 17.5 μM), and KLM-1 (32.7 μM). (+)-Grandifloracin (8) has been isolated from a natural source for the first time. Its absolute stereochemistry was established by single-crystal X-ray crystallography and circular dichroism spectroscopic analysis. In addition to this, seven other new highly oxygenated cyclohexene derivatives, named uvaridacanes A (1) and B (2), uvaridacols A-D (3, 4, 6, 7), and uvaridapoxide A (5), were also isolated and structurally characterized.

  8. Time course of morphine's effects on adult hippocampal subgranular zone reveals preferential inhibition of cells in S phase of the cell cycle and a subpopulation of immature neurons.

    PubMed

    Arguello, A A; Harburg, G C; Schonborn, J R; Mandyam, C D; Yamaguchi, M; Eisch, A J

    2008-11-11

    Opiates, such as morphine, decrease neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone (SGZ), raising the possibility that decreased neurogenesis contributes to opiate-induced cognitive deficits. However, there is an incomplete understanding of how alterations in cell cycle progression and progenitor maturation contribute to this decrease. The present study examined how morphine regulates progenitor cell cycle, cell death and immature SGZ neurons (experiment 1) as well as the progression of SGZ progenitors through key stages of maturation (experiment 2). In experiment 1, mice received sham or morphine pellets (s.c., 0 and 48 h) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) 2 h prior to sacrifice (24, 72 or 96 h). Morphine decreased both the number of S phase and total cycling cells, as there were fewer cells immunoreactive (IR) for the S phase marker BrdU and the cell cycle marker Ki67. The percentage of Ki67-IR cells that were BrdU-IR was decreased after 24 but not 96 h of morphine, suggesting a disproportionate effect on S phase cells relative to all cycling cells at this time point. Cell death (activated caspase-3 counts) was increased after 24 but not 96 h. In experiment 2, nestin-green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice given BrdU 1 day prior to morphine or sham surgery (0 and 48 h, sacrifice 96 h) had fewer Ki67-IR cells, but no change in BrdU-IR cell number, suggesting that this population of BrdU-IR cells was less sensitive to morphine. Interestingly, examination of key stages of progenitor cell maturation revealed that morphine increased the percent of BrdU-IR cells that were type 2b and decreased the percent that were immature neurons. These data suggest that chronic morphine decreases SGZ neurogenesis by inhibiting dividing cells, particularly those in S phase, and progenitor cell progression to a more mature neuronal stage.

  9. Dopamine D2-like receptor activation wipes out preferential consolidation of high over low reward memories during human sleep.

    PubMed

    Feld, Gordon B; Besedovsky, Luciana; Kaida, Kosuke; Münte, Thomas F; Born, Jan

    2014-10-01

    Memory formation is a selective process in which reward contingencies determine which memory is maintained and which is forgotten. Sleep plays a pivotal role in maintaining information for the long term and has been shown to specifically benefit memories that are associated with reward. Key to memory consolidation during sleep is a neuronal reactivation of newly encoded representations. However, it is unclear whether preferential consolidation of memories associated with reward requires the reactivation of dopaminergic circuitry known to mediate reward effects at encoding. In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, balanced crossover experiment, we show that the dopamine D2-like receptor agonist pramipexole given during sleep wipes out reward contingencies. Before sleep, 16 men learned 160 pictures of landscapes and interiors that were associated with high or low rewards, if they were identified between new stimuli at retrieval 24 hr later. In the placebo condition, the participants retained significantly more pictures that promised a high reward. In the pramipexole condition, this difference was wiped out, and performance for the low reward pictures was as high as that for high reward pictures. Pramipexole did not generally enhance memory consolidation probably because of the fact that the dopaminergic agonist concurrently suppressed both SWS and REM sleep. These results are consistent with the concept that preferential consolidation of reward-associated memories relies on hippocampus-driven reactivation within the dopaminergic reward system during sleep, whereby during sleep reward contingencies are fed back to the hippocampus to strengthen specific memories, possibly, through dopaminergic facilitation of long-term potentiation.

  10. Substructure of skeletal myosin subfragment 1. Preferential destabilization of a domain by methanol and its effect on catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Burke, M; Sivaramakrishnan, M

    1986-09-15

    Evidence is presented that in increasing concentrations of methanol the structure of the subfragment 1 is perturbed in such a way that the Mr = 50,000 central portion of the associated heavy chain is preferentially unfolded. This unfolding is accompanied by the loss in ATPase function where the rate of inactivation can be correlated with the loss in the amount of the Mr = 50,000 fragment generated under standard tryptic digestion conditions. The residual protein appears to be a soluble aggregate of a complex of the Mr = 27,000, 21,000, and light chain with no intact Mr = 50,000 fragment. Tryptic digestions in the presence of MgATP are restricted to the usual linker regions and the Mr = 50,000 fragment is completely protected from attack. Binding of actin to subfragment 1 also results in the protection of the Mr = 50,000 segment and of the Mr = 50,000/21,000 junction from tryptic attack. The data suggest that, in terms of methanolic perturbation, the subfragment 1 appears to be comprised of two domains with differential stability. One domain appears to be the central Mr = 50,000 segment of the heavy chain which is preferentially unfolded by methanol and requires the presence of MgATP or of actin for stabilization. The other domain is more stable and appears to consist of the interacting Mr = 27,000, 21,000, and light chain. The results also suggest that the integrity of the Mr = 50,000 segment is essential for the ATPase function of the protein.

  11. The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevent bone loss through preferential disruption of osteoclastic activation in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomomi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Iezaki, Takashi; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Takamori, Misa; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although naturally occurring polyamines are indispensable for a variety of cellular events in eukaryotic cells, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological significance in bone remodelling to date. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological properties of several natural polyamines on the functionality and integrity of bone in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) and subsequent oral supplementation with either spermidine or spermine for determination of the bone volume together with different parameters regarding bone formation and resorption by histomorphometric analyses in vivo. Pre-osteoclasts were cultured with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), with or without spermidine and spermine to determine cellular maturation by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction in vitro. KEY RESULTS Spermidine or spermine, given in drinking water for 28 days, significantly prevented the increased osteoclast surface/bone surface ratio and the reduced bone volume following OVX in mice. Either spermidine or spermine significantly inhibited the increased number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells in osteoclasts cultured with RANKL in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting cell survival. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevented OVX-induced bone loss through the disruption of differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts, rather than affecting osteoblasts. The supplementation with these natural polyamines could be beneficial for the prophylaxis as well as therapy of metabolic bone diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:22250848

  12. Anticoagulant activity of tissue factor pathway inhibitor in human plasma is preferentially associated with dense subspecies of LDL and HDL and with Lp(a).

    PubMed

    Lesnik, P; Vonica, A; Guérin, M; Moreau, M; Chapman, M J

    1993-07-01

    Human plasma contains a multivalent, Kunitz-type proteinase inhibitor termed tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), which specifically inhibits the action of the factor VII(a)-tissue factor complex in coagulation. In the present study, we examined the distribution and anticoagulant activity of TFPI among plasma lipoprotein subspecies separated by isopycnic density gradient ultracentrifugation; this procedure permitted the simultaneous fractionation of the major lipoprotein classes (very-low-density lipoprotein [VLDL], intermediate-density lipoprotein [IDL], low-density lipoprotein [LDL], high-density lipoprotein [HDL] 2 and 3, and very-high-density lipoprotein [VHDL]). Studies of eight normolipidemic subjects revealed two major lipoprotein carriers of TFPI activity: dense LDL subspecies (d = 1.039 to 1.063 g/mL) and both dense HDL particles and VHDL (d = 1.133 to 1.190 g/mL), representing 33.8% and 35.9%, respectively, of the total lipoprotein-associated TFPI activity in plasma. TFPI activity was also associated with lipoprotein(a) (Lp[a]), whose density distribution (d = 1.044 to 1.100 g/mL) overlapped that of LDL and HDL2; such association was related to Lp(a)'s particle size and phenotype. VLDL, IDL, and LDL1 through LDL3 (d = 1.019 to 1.039 g/mL), HDL2 (d = 1.063 to 1.100 g/mL), and light subfractions of HDL3 (d = 1.100 to 1.167 g/mL) conveyed only 1.8%, 10%, and 18.5%, respectively, of lipoprotein-associated TFPI activity. Such anticoagulant activity was dependent on the presence of TFPI protein. The dense subspecies of HDL3 (d = 1.133 to 1.167 g/mL) with which TFPI was preferentially associated were small, displayed a cholesteryl ester to protein ratio of approximately 0.2, and were deficient in phospholipid (13.6% to 18.3%). HDL subspecies of d = 1.110 to 1.167 g/mL mainly contained the higher relative molecular mass form of TFPI of 41 kD (a form that is known to be covalently associated with apolipoprotein [apo] A-II) and minor bands of the 35- and 52-k

  13. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity by essential oil from Citrus paradisi.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, M; Tougo, H; Ishihara, M

    2001-01-01

    Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity by essential oils of Citrus paradisi (grapefruit pink in USA) was studied. Inhibition of AChE was measured by the colorimetric method. Nootkatone and auraptene were isolated from C. paradisi oil and showed 17-24% inhibition of AChE activity at the concentration of 1.62 microg/mL.

  14. Inhibition of activated protein C by platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Jane, S M; Mitchell, C A; Hau, L; Salem, H H

    1989-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC), an anticoagulant that acts by inactivating Factors Va and VIIIa, is dependent on a suitable surface for its action. In this study we examined the ability of human platelets to provide this surface and support APC-mediated anticoagulant effects. The activity of APC was examined in three systems: the Factor Xa recalcification time of Al(OH)3 adsorbed plasma, studies of thrombin generation in recalcified plasma, and assessment of the rate of inactivation of purified Factor Va. In comparison with phospholipid, intact platelets required significantly greater concentrations of APC to achieve a similar degree of anticoagulation. When washed platelet membranes were substituted for intact platelets, adequate support of APC was observed and the anticoagulant effect was similar to that obtained with phospholipid. Platelet releasate obtained by stimulation of platelets with thrombin and epinephrine contained an inhibitor that interfered with the ability of phospholipid and washed platelet membranes to catalyze the anticoagulant effects of APC. A noncompetitive inhibition was suggested by Dixon plot analysis of the interaction between platelet releasate and APC. The activity of the platelet APC inhibitor was immediate and was not enhanced by heparin, distinguishing it from the circulating protein C inhibitor. The presence of this inhibitor in the platelet and its release with platelet stimulation emphasizes the procoagulant role of this cell. PMID:2910909

  15. Helper T cells against tumor-associated antigens (TAA): preferential induction of helper T cell activities involved in anti-TAA cytotoxic T lymphocyte and antibody responses

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, H.; Yoshioka, T.; Shima, J.; Kosugi, A.; Itoh, K.; Hamaoka, T.

    1986-04-01

    This study establishes assay systems for helper T cell activities assisting cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and antibody responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAA) and demonstrates the existence of TAA that induce preferentially anti-TAA CTL helper and B cell helper T cell activities in two syngeneic tumor models. C3H/HeN mice were immunized to the syngeneic X5563 plasmacytoma or MH135 hepatoma. Spleen cells from these mice were tested for anti-TAA helper T cell activity capable of augmenting anti-trinitrophenyl(TNP) CTL and anti-TNP antibody responses from anti-TNP CTL and B cell precursors (responding cells) by stimulation with TNP-modified X5563 or MH134 tumor cells. The results demonstrate that cultures of responding cells plus 850R X-irradiated tumor-immunized spleen cells (helper cells) failed to enhance anti-TNP CTL or antibody responses when in vitro stimulation was provided by either unmodified tumor cells or TNP-modified syngeneic spleen cells (TNP-self). In contrast, these cultures resulted in appreciable augmentation of anti-TNP CTL or antibody response when stimulated by TNP-modified tumor cells. The results are discussed in the light of cellular mechanisms underlying the preferential anti-TAA immune responses, and the interrelationship between various types of cell functions including CTL- and B cell-help.

  16. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, M.A.; Hoch, M.M.

    1997-06-10

    Method is described for controlling the supply of air to a PROX (PReferential OXidation for CO cleanup) reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference there between correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference. 2 figs.

  17. Stathmin Potentiates Vinflunine and Inhibits Paclitaxel Activity

    PubMed Central

    Malesinski, Soazig; Tsvetkov, Philipp O.; Kruczynski, Anna; Peyrot, Vincent; Devred, François

    2015-01-01

    Cell biology and crystallographic studies have suggested a functional link between stathmin and microtubule targeting agents (MTAs). In a previous study we showed that stathmin increases vinblastine (VLB) binding to tubulin, and that conversely VLB increases stathmin binding to tubulin. This constituted the first biochemical evidence of the direct relationship between stathmin and an antimitotic drug, and revealed a new mechanism of action for VLB. The question remained if the observed interaction was specific for this drug or represented a general phenomenon for all MTAs. In the present study we investigated the binding of recombinant stathmin to purified tubulin in the presence of paclitaxel or another Vinca alkaloid, vinflunine, using Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC). These experiments revealed that stathmin binding to tubulin is increased in the presence of vinflunine, whereas no signal is observed in the presence of paclitaxel. Further investigation using turbidity and co-sedimentation showed that stathmin inhibited paclitaxel microtubule-stabilizing activity. Taken together with the previous study using vinblastine, our results suggest that stathmin can be seen as a modulator of MTA activity and binding to tubulin, providing molecular explanation for multiple previous cellular and in vivo studies showing that stathmin expression level affects MTAs efficiency. PMID:26030092

  18. Caspase activation inhibits proteasome function during apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao-Ming; Butterworth, Michael; MacFarlane, Marion; Dubiel, Wolfgang; Ciechanover, Aaron; Cohen, Gerald M

    2004-04-09

    The ubiquitin/proteasome system regulates protein turnover by degrading polyubiquitinated proteins. To date, all studies on the relationship of apoptosis and the proteasome have emphasized the key role of the proteasome in the regulation of apoptosis, by virtue of its ability to degrade regulatory molecules involved in apoptosis. We now demonstrate how induction of apoptosis may regulate the activity of the proteasome. During apoptosis, caspase activation results in the cleavage of three specific subunits of the 19S regulatory complex of the proteasome: S6' (Rpt5) and S5a (Rpn10), whose role is to recognize polyubiquitinated substrates of the proteasome, and S1 (Rpn2), which with S5a and S2 (Rpn1) holds together the lid and base of the 19S regulatory complex. This caspase-mediated cleavage inhibits the proteasomal degradation of ubiquitin-dependent and -independent cellular substrates, including proapoptotic molecules such as Smac, so facilitating the execution of the apoptotic program by providing a feed-forward amplification loop.

  19. WM130 preferentially inhibits hepatic cancer stem-like cells by suppressing AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ying; Xu, Wei-Heng; Xu, Jing; Hu, Hong-Gang; Wu, Qiu-Ye; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Jun-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is significant for cancer therapy and prevention. In this study, we evaluated WM130, a novel derivative of matrine, for its effect on CSCs using human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, their sphere cells, and sorted EpCAM+ cells. We revealed that WM130 could not only inhibit proliferation and colony formation of HCC cells, but also suppress the expression of some stemness-related genes and up-regulate some mature hepatocyte marker genes, indicating a promotion of differentiation from CSCs to hepatocytes. WM130 also suppressed the proliferation of doxorubicin-resistant hepatoma cells, and markedly reduced the cells with CSC biomarker EpCAM. Moreover, WM130 suppressed HCC spheres, not only primary spheres but also subsequent spheres, indicating an inhibitory effect on self-renewal capability of CSCs. Interestingly, WM130 exhibited a remarkable inhibitory preference on HCC spheres and EpCAM+ cells rather than their parental HCC cells and EpCAM− cells respectively. In vivo, WM130 inhibited HCC xenograft growth, decreased the number of sphere-forming cells, and remarkably decreased the levels of EpCAM mRNA and protein in tumor xenografts. Better inhibitory effect was achieved by WM130 in combination with doxorubicin. Further mechanism study revealed that WM130 inhibited AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that WM130 remarkably inhibits hepatic CSCs, and this effect may via the down-regulation of the AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin pathway. These findings provide a strong rationale for the use of WM130 as a novel drug candidate in HCC therapy. PMID:27783993

  20. FcR-Like 2 Inhibition of B Cell Receptor-Mediated Activation of B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Tanisha A.; Haga, Christopher L.; Ehrhardt, Götz R. A.; Davis, Randall S.; Cooper, Max D.

    2017-01-01

    FcR-like (FCRL) 2 is a transmembrane protein with immunomodulatory potential that is preferentially expressed by memory B cells in humans. It has two consensus ITIMs in addition to a putative ITAM sequence in its cytoplasmic domain. We have confirmed the cellular distribution of FCRL2 and analyzed its functional potential to show that coligation with the BCR leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of its ITIM motifs and subsequent Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-1 recruitment to facilitate inhibition of BCR signaling. Mutational analysis indicates that the tyrosine residues in both inhibitory motifs of FCRL2 are required for complete inhibition of BCR signaling, whereas tyrosines in the putative activation motif are dispensable for signal modulation. These findings suggest a negative immunomodulatory function for FCRL2 in the regulation of memory B cells. PMID:21068405

  1. Endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen, inhibits cloned hERG potassium channels.

    PubMed

    Chae, Yun Ju; Lee, Keon Jin; Lee, Hong Joon; Sung, Ki-Wug; Choi, Jin-Sung; Lee, Eun Hui; Hahn, Sang June

    2015-04-05

    The effects of tamoxifen, and its active metabolite endoxifen (4-hydroxy-N-desmethyl-tamoxifen), on hERG currents stably expressed in HEK cells were investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and an immunoblot assay. Tamoxifen and endoxifen inhibited hERG tail currents at -50mV in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.6μM, respectively. The steady-state activation curve of the hERG currents was shifted to the hyperpolarizing direction in the presence of endoxifen. The voltage-dependent inhibition of hERG currents by endoxifen increased steeply in the voltage range of channel activation. The inhibition by endoxifen displayed a shallow voltage dependence (δ=0.18) in the full activation voltage range. A fast application of endoxifen induced a reversible block of hERG tail currents during repolarization in a concentration-dependent manner, which suggested an interaction with the open state of the channel. Endoxifen also decreased the hERG current elicited by a 5s depolarizing pulse to +60mV to inactivate the hERG currents, suggesting an interaction with the activated (open and/or inactivated) states of the channels. Tamoxifen and endoxifen inhibited the hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner with endoxifen being more potent than tamoxifen. These results indicated that tamoxifen and endoxifen inhibited the hERG current by direct channel blockage and by the disruption of channel trafficking to the plasma membrane in a concentration-dependent manner. A therapeutic concentration of endoxifen inhibited the hERG current by preferentially interacting with the activated (open and/or inactivated) states of the channel.

  2. Platelet Surface-Associated Activation and Secretion-Mediated Inhibition of Coagulation Factor XII

    PubMed Central

    Zakharova, Natalia V.; Artemenko, Elena O.; Podoplelova, Nadezhda A.; Sveshnikova, Anastasia N.; Demina, Irina A.; Ataullakhanov, Fazly I.; Panteleev, Mikhail A.

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation factor XII (fXII) is important for arterial thrombosis, but its physiological activation mechanisms are unclear. In this study, we elucidated the role of platelets and platelet-derived material in fXII activation. FXII activation was only observed upon potent platelet stimulation (with thrombin, collagen-related peptide, or calcium ionophore, but not ADP) accompanied by phosphatidylserine exposure and was localised to the platelet surface. Platelets from three patients with grey platelet syndrome did not activate fXII, which suggests that platelet-associated fXII-activating material might be released from α-granules. FXII was preferentially bound by phosphotidylserine-positive platelets and annexin V abrogated platelet-dependent fXII activation; however, artificial phosphotidylserine/phosphatidylcholine microvesicles did not support fXII activation under the conditions herein. Confocal microscopy using DAPI as a poly-phosphate marker did not reveal poly-phosphates associated with an activated platelet surface. Experimental data for fXII activation indicates an auto-inhibition mechanism (ki/ka = 180 molecules/platelet). Unlike surface-associated fXII activation, platelet secretion inhibited activated fXII (fXIIa), particularly due to a released C1-inhibitor. Platelet surface-associated fXIIa formation triggered contact pathway-dependent clotting in recalcified plasma. Computer modelling suggests that fXIIa inactivation was greatly decreased in thrombi under high blood flow due to inhibitor washout. Combined, the surface-associated fXII activation and its inhibition in solution herein may be regarded as a flow-sensitive regulator that can shift the balance between surface-associated clotting and plasma-dependent inhibition, which may explain the role of fXII at high shear and why fXII is important for thrombosis but negligible in haemostasis. PMID:25688860

  3. An in vitro model for cytogenetic conversion in CML. Interferon-alpha preferentially inhibits the outgrowth of malignant stem cells preserved in long-term culture.

    PubMed Central

    Cornelissen, J J; Ploemacher, R E; Wognum, B W; Borsboom, A; Kluin-Nelemans, H C; Hagemeijer, A; Löwenberg, B

    1998-01-01

    IFN-alpha has been shown to prolong survival in chronic myeloid leukemia patients, but its mechanism of action is still not understood. The human cobblestone area-forming cell (CAFC) assay allows for the measurement of the concentration of normal as well as malignant stem cells, while their progeny can be measured in parallel long-term culture (LTC) in flasks. Using CAFC and LTC assays, we have examined direct effects of IFN-alpha (500; 5,000 IU/ml) on the maintenance and outgrowth of CD34-enriched normal and malignant stem cells, obtained from six patients with an established major cytogenetic response to IFN-alpha and from four nonresponding patients. CAFC concentrations were not affected by IFN-alpha. In contrast, IFN-alpha strongly inhibited the clonogenic output in flask LTC. Nucleated cells (NC) produced in LTC were evaluated by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for the presence of the Philadelphia (Ph) translocation. After 8 wk of LTC, the percentage of Ph+ NCs produced was significantly more inhibited by IFN-alpha in responding patients than in nonresponders. Control LTC without IFN-alpha showed no significant differences of Ph+ NC production between responders and nonresponders. These findings provide the first in vitro model for cytogenetic conversion and suggest that direct antiproliferative effects of IFN-alpha account for the cytogenetic response observed clinically. PMID:9727066

  4. Hyperoxia Inhibits T Cell Activation in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Meissler, J.; Aguayo, E. T.; Globus, R.; Aguado, J.; Candelario, T.

    2013-02-01

    , spleens were removed and the splenocytes were isolated and kept as individual biological samples. We have also examined transcription factors (JASPAR) and pathways of the immune system to help us understand the mechanism of regulation. Results: Our recent mouse immunology experiment aboard STS-131 suggests that the early T cell immune response was inhibited in animals that have been exposed to spaceflight, even 24 hours after return to earth. Moreover, recent experiments in hyperoxic mice show that many of the same genes involved in early T cell activation were altered. Specifically, expression of IL-2Rα, Cxcl2, TNFα, FGF2, LTA and BCL2 genes are dysregulated in mice exposed to hyperoxia. Conclusions: If these hyperoxia-induced changes of gene expression in early T cell activation are additive to the changes seen in the microgravity of spaceflight, there could be an increased infection risk to EVA astronauts, which should be addressed prior to conducting a Mars or other long-term mission.

  5. DNA-like class R inhibitory oligonucleotides (INH-ODNs) preferentially block autoantigen-induced B-cell and dendritic cell activation in vitro and autoantibody production in lupus-prone MRL-Faslpr/lpr mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lenert, Petar; Yasuda, Kei; Busconi, Liliana; Nelson, Patrice; Fleenor, Courtney; Ratnabalasuriar, Radhika S; Nagy, Peter L; Ashman, Robert F; Rifkin, Ian R; Marshak-Rothstein, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Introduction B cells have many different roles in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ranging from autoantigen recognition and processing to effector functions (for example, autoantibody and cytokine secretion). Recent studies have shown that intracellular nucleic acid-sensing receptors, Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR9, play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. Dual engagement of rheumatoid factor-specific AM14 B cells through the B-cell receptor (BCR) and TLR7/9 results in marked proliferation of autoimmune B cells. Thus, strategies to preferentially block innate activation through TLRs in autoimmune B cells may be preferred over non-selective B-cell depletion. Methods We have developed a new generation of DNA-like compounds named class R inhibitory oligonucleotides (INH-ODNs). We tested their effectiveness in autoimmune B cells and interferon-alpha-producing dendritic cells in vitro and in lupus-prone MRL-Faslpr/lpr mice in vivo. Results Class R INH-ODNs have 10- to 30-fold higher inhibitory potency when autoreactive B cells are synergistically activated through the BCR and associated TLR7 or 9 than when stimulation occurs via non-BCR-engaged TLR7/9. Inhibition of TLR9 requires the presence of both CCT and GGG triplets in an INH-ODN, whereas the inhibition of the TLR7 pathway appears to be sequence-independent but dependent on the phosphorothioate backbone. This difference was also observed in the MRL-Faslpr/lpr mice in vivo, where the prototypic class R INH-ODN was more effective in curtailing abnormal autoantibody secretion and prolonging survival. Conclusions The increased potency of class R INH-ODNs for autoreactive B cells and dendritic cells may be beneficial for lupus patients by providing pathway-specific inhibition yet allowing them to generate protective immune response when needed. PMID:19476613

  6. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  7. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material. PMID:27484579

  8. Preferential Nucleation during Polymorphic Transformations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H; Sietsma, J; Offerman, S E

    2016-08-03

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR's) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR's with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller - and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR's. These insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  9. Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through Proteasome Inhibition PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Steven R Schwarze...SUBTITLE Activating Cell Death Ligand Signaling Through 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Proteasome Inhibition 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-08-1-0392 5c...proteasome inhibition can act as an anti-neoplastic agent in vivo by sensitizing cancer cells to cell death ligands in the tumor microenvironment

  10. Obesity and lipid stress inhibit carnitine acetyltransferase activity[S

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Sarah E.; Martin, Ola J.; Noland, Robert C.; Slentz, Dorothy H.; DeBalsi, Karen L.; Ilkayeva, Olga R.; An, Jie; Newgard, Christopher B.; Koves, Timothy R.; Muoio, Deborah M.

    2014-01-01

    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine. Emerging evidence suggests that this enzyme functions as a positive regulator of total body glucose tolerance and muscle activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial enzyme complex that promotes glucose oxidation and is feedback inhibited by acetyl-CoA. Here, we used tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to identify a negative relationship between CrAT activity and muscle content of lipid intermediates. CrAT specific activity was diminished in muscles from obese and diabetic rodents despite increased protein abundance. This reduction in enzyme activity was accompanied by muscle accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCACs) and acyl-CoAs and a decline in the acetylcarnitine/acetyl-CoA ratio. In vitro assays demonstrated that palmitoyl-CoA acts as a direct mixed-model inhibitor of CrAT. Similarly, in primary human myocytes grown in culture, nutritional and genetic manipulations that promoted mitochondrial influx of fatty acids resulted in accumulation of LCACs but a pronounced decrease of CrAT-derived short-chain acylcarnitines. These results suggest that lipid-induced antagonism of CrAT might contribute to decreased PDH activity and glucose disposal in the context of obesity and diabetes. PMID:24395925

  11. Caffeine inhibition of GLUT1 is dependent on the activation state of the transporter.

    PubMed

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Busscher, Brianna M; Wodarek, Jeremy A; Rosette, Kylee A; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Looyenga, Brendan D; Louters, Larry L

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine has been shown to be a robust uncompetitive inhibitor of glucose uptake in erythrocytes. It preferentially binds to the nucleotide-binding site on GLUT1 in its tetrameric form and mimics the inhibitory action of ATP. Here we demonstrate that caffeine is also a dose-dependent, uncompetitive inhibitor of 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) uptake in L929 fibroblasts. The inhibitory effect on 2DG uptake in these cells was reversible with a rapid onset and was additive to the competitive inhibitory effects of glucose itself, confirming that caffeine does not interfere with glucose binding. We also report for the first time that caffeine inhibition was additive to inhibition by curcumin, suggesting distinct binding sites for curcumin and caffeine. In contrast, caffeine inhibition was not additive to that of cytochalasin B, consistent with previous data that reported that these two inhibitors have overlapping binding sites. More importantly, we show that the magnitude of maximal caffeine inhibition in L929 cells is much lower than in erythrocytes (35% compared to 90%). Two epithelial cell lines, HCLE and HK2, have both higher concentrations of GLUT1 and increased basal 2DG uptake (3-4 fold) compared to L929 cells, and subsequently display greater maximal inhibition by caffeine (66-70%). Interestingly, activation of 2DG uptake (3-fold) in L929 cells by glucose deprivation shifted the responsiveness of these cells to caffeine inhibition (35%-70%) without a change in total GLUT1 concentration. These data indicate that the inhibition of caffeine is dependent on the activity state of GLUT1, not merely on the concentration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  12. Anchoring High-Concentration Oxygen Vacancies at Interfaces of CeO(2-x)/Cu toward Enhanced Activity for Preferential CO Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaoqing; Li, Liping; Hu, Wanbiao; Huang, Xinsong; Li, Qi; Xu, Yangsen; Zuo, Ying; Li, Guangshe

    2015-10-21

    Catalysts are urgently needed to remove the residual CO in hydrogen feeds through selective oxidation for large-scale applications of hydrogen proton exchange membrane fuel cells. We herein propose a new methodology that anchors high concentration oxygen vacancies at interface by designing a CeO2-x/Cu hybrid catalyst with enhanced preferential CO oxidation activity. This hybrid catalyst, with more than 6.1% oxygen vacancies fixed at the favorable interfacial sites, displays nearly 100% CO conversion efficiency in H2-rich streams over a broad temperature window from 120 to 210 °C, strikingly 5-fold wider than that of conventional CeO2/Cu (i.e., CeO2 supported on Cu) catalyst. Moreover, the catalyst exhibits a highest cycling stability ever reported, showing no deterioration after five cycling tests, and a super long-time stability beyond 100 h in the simulated operation environment that involves CO2 and H2O. On the basis of an arsenal of characterization techniques, we clearly show that the anchored oxygen vacancies are generated as a consequence of electron donation from metal copper atoms to CeO2 acceptor and the subsequent reverse spillover of oxygen induced by electron transfer in well controlled nanoheterojunction. The anchored oxygen vacancies play a bridging role in electron capture or transfer and drive molecule oxygen into active oxygen species to interact with the CO molecules adsorbed at interfaces, thus leading to an excellent preferential CO oxidation performance. This study opens a window to design a vast number of high-performance metal-oxide hybrid catalysts via the concept of anchoring oxygen vacancies at interfaces.

  13. CD8+ T cells Are Preferentially Activated during Primary Low Dose Leishmania major Infection but Are Completely Dispensable during Secondary Anti-Leishmania Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Okwor, Ifeoma B.; Jia, Ping; Mou, Zhirong; Onyilagha, Chukwunonso; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2014-01-01

    We previously showed that CD8+ T cells are required for optimal primary immunity to low dose Leishmania major infection. However, it is not known whether immunity induced by low dose infection is durable and whether CD8+ T cells contribute to secondary immunity following recovery from low dose infection. Here, we compared primary and secondary immunity to low and high dose L. major infections and assessed the influence of infectious dose on the quality and magnitude of secondary anti-Leishmania immunity. In addition, we investigated the contribution of CD8+ T cells in secondary anti-Leishmania immunity following recovery from low and high dose infections. We found that the early immune response to low and high dose infections were strikingly different: while low dose infection preferentially induced proliferation and effector cytokine production by CD8+ T cells, high dose infection predominantly induced proliferation and cytokine production by CD4+ T cells. This differential activation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by high and low dose infections respectively, was imprinted during in vitro and in vivo recall responses in healed mice. Both low and high dose-infected mice displayed strong infection-induced immunity and were protected against secondary L. major challenge. While depletion of CD4+ cells in mice that healed low and high dose infections abolished resistance to secondary challenge, depletion of CD8+ cells had no effect. Collectively, our results show that although CD8+ T cells are preferentially activated and may contribute to optimal primary anti-Leishmania immunity following low dose infection, they are completely dispensable during secondary immunity. PMID:25412267

  14. The effects of the preferential 5-HT2A agonist psilocybin on prepulse inhibition of startle in healthy human volunteers depend on interstimulus interval.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, Franz X; Csomor, Philipp A; Knappe, Bernhard; Geyer, Mark A; Quednow, Boris B

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenia patients exhibit impairments in prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response. Hallucinogenic 5-HT(2A) receptor agonists are used for animal models of schizophrenia because they mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia in humans and induce PPI deficits in animals. Nevertheless, one report indicates that the 5-HT(2A) receptor agonist psilocybin increases PPI in healthy humans. Hence, we investigated these inconsistent results by assessing the dose-dependent effects of psilocybin on PPI in healthy humans. Sixteen subjects each received placebo or 115, 215, and 315 microg/kg of psilocybin at 4-week intervals in a randomized and counterbalanced order. PPI at 30-, 60-, 120-, 240-, and 2000-ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs) was measured 90 and 165 min after drug intake, coinciding with the peak and post-peak effects of psilocybin. The effects of psilocybin on psychopathological core dimensions and sustained attention were assessed by the Altered States of Consciousness Rating Scale (5D-ASC) and the Frankfurt Attention Inventory (FAIR). Psilocybin dose-dependently reduced PPI at short (30 ms), had no effect at medium (60 ms), and increased PPI at long (120-2000 ms) ISIs, without affecting startle reactivity or habituation. Psilocybin dose-dependently impaired sustained attention and increased all 5D-ASC scores with exception of Auditory Alterations. Moreover, psilocybin-induced impairments in sustained attention performance were positively correlated with reduced PPI at the 30 ms ISI and not with the concomitant increases in PPI observed at long ISIs. These results confirm the psilocybin-induced increase in PPI at long ISIs and reveal that psilocybin also produces a decrease in PPI at short ISIs that is correlated with impaired attention and consistent with deficient PPI in schizophrenia.

  15. Single units in the medial prefrontal cortex with anxiety-related firing patterns are preferentially influenced by ventral hippocampal activity

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Avishek; Topiwala, Mihir A.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and ventral hippocampus (vHPC) functionally interact during innate anxiety tasks. To explore the consequences of this interaction, we examined task-related firing of single units from the mPFC of mice exploring standard and modified versions of the elevated plus maze (EPM), an innate anxiety paradigm. Hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) were simultaneously monitored. The population of mPFC units distinguished between safe and aversive locations within the maze, regardless of the nature of the anxiogenic stimulus. Strikingly, mPFC units with stronger task-related activity were more strongly coupled to theta-frequency activity in the vHPC LFP. Lastly, task-related activity was inversely correlated with behavioral measures of anxiety. These results clarify the role of the vHPC-mPFC circuit in innate anxiety, and underscore how specific inputs may be involved in the generation of behaviorally relevant neural activity within the mPFC. PMID:21903082

  16. Increasing Stability and Activity of Core-Shell Catalysts by Preferential Segregation of Oxide on Edges and Vertexes: Oxygen Reduction on Ti-Au@Pt/C

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.; Wu, L.; Kuttiyiel, K.; Goodman, K. R.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, Y.; Vukmirovic, M. B.; White, M. G.; Sasaki, K.; Adzic, R. R.

    2016-06-30

    We describe a new class of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts having edges and vertexes covered by refractory metal oxide that preferentially segregates onto these catalyst sites. The monolayer shell is deposited on the oxidefree core atoms. The oxide on edges and vertexes induces high catalyst’s stability and activity. The catalyst and synthesis are exemplified by fabrication of Au nanoparticles doped by Ti atoms that segregate as oxide onto low–coordination sites of edges and vertexes. Pt monolayer shell deposited on Au sites has the mass and specific activities for the oxygen reduction reaction about 13 and 5 times higher than those of commercial Pt/C catalysts. The durability tests show no activity loss after 10000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.0V. The superior activity and durability of the Ti-Au@Pt catalyst originate from protective Ti oxide located at the most dissolution-prone edge and vertex sites, and Au-supported active and stable Pt shell.

  17. Increasing Stability and Activity of Core-Shell Catalysts by Preferential Segregation of Oxide on Edges and Vertexes: Oxygen Reduction on Ti-Au@Pt/C

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, J.; Wu, L.; Kuttiyiel, K.; ...

    2016-06-30

    We describe a new class of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts having edges and vertexes covered by refractory metal oxide that preferentially segregates onto these catalyst sites. The monolayer shell is deposited on the oxidefree core atoms. The oxide on edges and vertexes induces high catalyst’s stability and activity. The catalyst and synthesis are exemplified by fabrication of Au nanoparticles doped by Ti atoms that segregate as oxide onto low–coordination sites of edges and vertexes. Pt monolayer shell deposited on Au sites has the mass and specific activities for the oxygen reduction reaction about 13 and 5 times higher than those ofmore » commercial Pt/C catalysts. The durability tests show no activity loss after 10000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.0V. The superior activity and durability of the Ti-Au@Pt catalyst originate from protective Ti oxide located at the most dissolution-prone edge and vertex sites, and Au-supported active and stable Pt shell.« less

  18. Increasing Stability and Activity of Core-Shell Catalysts by Preferential Segregation of Oxide on Edges and Vertexes: Oxygen Reduction on Ti-Au@Pt/C

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, J.; Wu, L.; Kuttiyiel, K.; Goodman, K. R.; Zhang, C.; Zhu, Y.; Vukmirovic, M. B.; White, M. G.; Sasaki, K.; Adzic, R. R.

    2016-06-30

    We describe a new class of core-shell nanoparticle catalysts having edges and vertexes covered by refractory metal oxide that preferentially segregates onto these catalyst sites. The monolayer shell is deposited on the oxidefree core atoms. The oxide on edges and vertexes induces high catalyst’s stability and activity. The catalyst and synthesis are exemplified by fabrication of Au nanoparticles doped by Ti atoms that segregate as oxide onto low–coordination sites of edges and vertexes. Pt monolayer shell deposited on Au sites has the mass and specific activities for the oxygen reduction reaction about 13 and 5 times higher than those of commercial Pt/C catalysts. The durability tests show no activity loss after 10000 potential cycles from 0.6 to 1.0V. The superior activity and durability of the Ti-Au@Pt catalyst originate from protective Ti oxide located at the most dissolution-prone edge and vertex sites, and Au-supported active and stable Pt shell.

  19. Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific IgE antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization.

    PubMed Central

    Raz, E; Tighe, H; Sato, Y; Corr, M; Dudler, J A; Roman, M; Swain, S L; Spiegelberg, H L; Carson, D A

    1996-01-01

    We compared the antigen-specific antibody isotypes and lymphokine secretion by CD4+ T cells in BALB/c mice immunized intradermally with either Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase (beta-gal) or plasmid DNA (pDNA) encoding beta-gal in a cytomegalovirus-based expression vector (pCMV-LacZ). pCMV-LacZ induced mainly IgG2a, whereas beta-gal in saline or alum induced IgG1 and IgE beta-gal-specific antibodies. In addition, splenic CD4+ T helper (Th) cells isolated from pDNA-immunized mice secreted interferon-gamma but not interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-5, whereas Th cells from beta-gal-injected mice secreted IL-4 and IL-5 but not interferon-gamma after in vitro stimulation with antigen. Together these data demonstrate that pDNA immunization induced a T helper type 1 (Th1) response, whereas protein immunization induced a T helper type 2 (Th2) response to the same antigen. Interestingly, priming of mice with pCMV-LacZ prevented IgE antibody formation to a subsequent i.p. beta-gal in alum injection. This effect was antigen-specific, because priming with pCMV-LacZ did not inhibit IgE anti-ovalbumin antibody formation. Most importantly, intradermal immunization with pCMV-LacZ (but not pCMV-OVA) of beta-gal in alum-primed mice caused a 66-75% reduction of the IgE anti-beta-gal titer in 6 weeks. Also, pCMV-LacZ induced specific IgG2a antibody titers and interferon-gamma secretion by Th cells in the beta-gal in alum-primed mice. The data demonstrate that gene immunization induces a Th1 response that dominates over an ongoing protein-induced Th2 response in an antigen-specific manner. This suggests that immunization with pDNA encoding for allergens may provide a novel type of immunotherapy for allergic diseases. PMID:8643542

  20. STAT3 signaling is activated preferentially in tumor-initiating cells in claudin-low models of human breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Tweardy, David J; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Xiaomei; Landua, John; Petrovic, Ivana; Bu, Wen; Roarty, Kevin; Hilsenbeck, Susan G; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T

    2014-10-01

    In breast cancer, a subset of tumor-initiating cells (TIC) or "cancer stem cells" are thought to be responsible for tumor maintenance, treatment resistance, and disease recurrence. While current breast cancer stem cell markers (e.g., CD44(high) /CD24(low/neg) , ALDH positive) have allowed enrichment for such cells, they are not universally expressed and may actually identify distinct TIC subpopulations in the same tumor. Thus, additional markers of functional stem cells are needed. The STAT3 pathway is a critical regulator of the function of normal stem cells, and evidence is accumulating for its important role in breast cancer stem cells. However, due to the lack of a method for separating live cells based on their level of STAT3 activity, it remains unknown whether STAT3 functions in the cancer stem cells themselves, or in surrounding niche cells, or in both. To approach this question, we constructed a series of lentiviral fluorescent (enhanced green fluorescent protein, EGFP) reporters that enabled flow cytometric enrichment of cells differing in STAT3-mediated transcriptional activity, as well as in vivo/in situ localization of STAT3 responsive cells. Using in vivo claudin-low cell line xenograft models of human breast cancer, we found that STAT3 signaling reporter activity (EGFP(+) ) is associated with a subpopulation of cancer cells enriched for mammosphere-forming efficiency, as well as TIC function in limiting dilution transplantation assays compared to negative or unsorted populations. Our results support STAT3 signaling activity as another functional marker for human breast cancer stem cells thus making it an attractive therapeutic target for stem-cell-directed therapy in some breast cancer subtypes. © AlphaMed Press.

  1. Hallucinogenic indoleamines: Preferential action upon presynaptic serotonin receptors.

    PubMed

    Aghajanian, G K; Hailgler, H J

    1975-01-01

    Previously, d-lysergic acid diethylamide was found to have a more powerful inhibitory action upon serotonergic (raphe) neurons than upon neurons in areas receiving an identified serotonergic input (e. g., amygdala, ventral lateral geniculate). In the present studies, using microiontophoretic techniques, the relative potencies of 3 indoleamine hallucinogens, psilocin, DMT, and bufotenine were tested upon 5HT neurons in the raphe (presynaptic neurons) and postsynaptic neurons in the ventral lateral geniculate and amygdala of the rat. Psilocin showed the greatest preferential inhibitory effect upon raphe as compared to postsynaptic neurons. DMT was intermdeiate and bufotenine had the least differential activity. This rank ordering correlates with the relative hallucinogenic potencies of these compounds: psilocin greater than DMT greater than bufotenine. The results support the hypothesis that low doses of indoleamine halluciogens act preferentially upon presynaptic serotonin receptors to inhibit raphe neurons, thus releasing postsynaptic neurons from a tonic inhibitory serotonergic influence.

  2. Low dose ultraviolet B-irradiated Langerhans cells preferentially activate CD4+ cells of the T helper 2 subset

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, J.C.; Cruz, P.D. Jr.; Bergstresser, P.R.; Tigelaar, R.E. )

    1990-10-01

    UVB radiation distorts the Ag-presenting function of epidermal Langerhans cells (LC); this has been shown for the presentation of soluble Ag to primed T cells in vitro and for the initiation of delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo, such as contact hypersensitivity (CH). Previous work has also demonstrated UVB-induced suppression of CH to be mediated ultimately by T cells. Two subsets of CD4+ Th cells, Th1 and Th2, have been identified, based on their cytokine production and functional activities. In particular, Th1 mediate delayed-type hypersensitivity, whereas Th2 do not. To investigate whether the perturbation of LC function induced by UVB radiation leads to a differential activation of these subsets of CD4+ cells, we examined the capacity of unirradiated and irradiated (200 J/m2) APC from adult BALB/c mice to present keyhole limpet hemocyanin to Ag-specific, H2d-restricted Th1 and Th2 cell lines. Four sources of APC were utilized: epidermal cells (EC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia+ EC (LC), flow microfluorometry-purified Ia- EC, and splenic adherent cells (SAC). Unirradiated EC, LC, and SAC, but not Ia-EC, presented keyhole limpet hemocyanin to both Th1 and Th2. Irradiated EC and LC lost their ability to stimulate Th1, but retained fully their capacity to stimulate Th2. On the other hand, irradiated SAC were unable to induce proliferation of either Th1 or Th2. These findings indicate that suppression of CH mediated by UVB-irradiated LC may result from an alteration of the ratio and/or activity of Th1 and Th2 cells normally generated during the induction of such responses.

  3. Controlled CO preferential oxidation

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark A.; Hoch, Martin M.

    1997-01-01

    Method for controlling the supply of air to a PROX reactor for the preferential oxidation in the presence of hydrogen wherein the concentration of the hydrogen entering and exiting the PROX reactor is monitored, the difference therebetween correlated to the amount of air needed to minimize such difference, and based thereon the air supply to the PROX reactor adjusted to provide such amount and minimize such difference.

  4. Adiporedoxin suppresses endothelial activation via inhibiting MAPK and NF-κB signaling

    PubMed Central

    He, Hui; Guo, Fang; Li, Yong; Saaoud, Fatma; Kimmis, Brooks D.; Sandhu, Jeena; Fan, Michelle; Maulik, Dev; Lessner, Susan; Papasian, Christopher J.; Fan, Daping; Jiang, Zhisheng; Fu, Mingui

    2016-01-01

    Adiporedoxin (Adrx) is a recently discovered redox regulatory protein that is preferentially expressed in adipose tissue and plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism via its modulation of adipocyte protein secretion. We here report that Adrx suppresses endothelial cell activation via inhibiting MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways. Adrx is constitutively expressed in human vascular endothelial cells, and significantly induced by a variety of stimuli such as TNFα, IL-1β, H2O2 and OxLDL. Overexpression of Adrx significantly attenuated TNFα-induced expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, and thus reduced monocyte adherence to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Conversely, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Adrx increased TNFα-induced expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adherence to HUVECs. Furthermore, forced expression of Adrx decreased TNFα-induced activation of ERK1/2, JNK, p38 and IKKs in HUVECs. Adrx mutant in the CXXC motif that lost its anti-redox activity is less efficient than the wild-type Adrx, suggesting that Adrx-mediated inhibition of endothelial activation is partially dependent on its antioxidant activity. Finally, Adrx expression was markedly increased in human atheroma compared with normal tissue from the same carotid arteries. These results suggest that Adrx is an endogenous inhibitor of endothelial activation, and might be a therapeutic target for vascular inflammatory diseases. PMID:27941911

  5. Synthesis by microwave irradiation of a substituted benzoxazine parallel library with preferential relaxant activity for guinea pig trachealis.

    PubMed

    Caliendo, Giuseppe; Perissutti, Elisa; Santagada, Vincenzo; Fiorino, Ferdinando; Severino, Beatrice; Cirillo, Donatella; di Villa Bianca, Roberta d'Emmanuele; Lippolis, Laura; Pinto, Aldo; Sorrentino, Raffaella

    2004-10-01

    An efficient, facile, and practical parallel combinatorial synthesis of substituted-benzoxazines under microwave irradiation was described. The procedure involved the use of a microwave oven especially designed for organic synthesis suitable for parallel synthesis of solution libraries. A demonstration 19-membered library of substituted N,N-dimethyl- and N-methyl-benzoxazine amide derivatives, structurally related to the potassium channel opener cromakalim, was generated by both conventional and microwave procedures, achieving a reduction from 7 h to 30-36 min in library generation time for the microwave approach. All the synthesized compounds were tested using the in vitro models of rat aorta and guinea pig trachea rings pre-contracted with phenylephrine and carbachol, respectively. All N,N-dimethyl amide derivatives showed a relaxant activity higher on guinea pig trachea rings than on rat aorta rings.

  6. A newly uncovered group of distantly related lysine methyltransferases preferentially interact with molecular chaperones to regulate their activity.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Philippe; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Faubert, Denis; Blanchette, Mathieu; Coulombe, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Methylation is a post-translational modification that can affect numerous features of proteins, notably cellular localization, turnover, activity, and molecular interactions. Recent genome-wide analyses have considerably extended the list of human genes encoding putative methyltransferases. Studies on protein methyltransferases have revealed that the regulatory function of methylation is not limited to epigenetics, with many non-histone substrates now being discovered. We present here our findings on a novel family of distantly related putative methyltransferases. Affinity purification coupled to mass spectrometry shows a marked preference for these proteins to associate with various chaperones. Based on the spectral data, we were able to identify methylation sites in substrates, notably trimethylation of K135 of KIN/Kin17, K561 of HSPA8/Hsc70 as well as corresponding lysine residues in other Hsp70 isoforms, and K315 of VCP/p97. All modification sites were subsequently confirmed in vitro. In the case of VCP, methylation by METTL21D was stimulated by the addition of the UBX cofactor ASPSCR1, which we show directly interacts with the methyltransferase. This stimulatory effect was lost when we used VCP mutants (R155H, R159G, and R191Q) known to cause Inclusion Body Myopathy with Paget's disease of bone and Fronto-temporal Dementia (IBMPFD) and/or familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Lysine 315 falls in proximity to the Walker B motif of VCP's first ATPase/D1 domain. Our results indicate that methylation of this site negatively impacts its ATPase activity. Overall, this report uncovers a new role for protein methylation as a regulatory pathway for molecular chaperones and defines a novel regulatory mechanism for the chaperone VCP, whose deregulation is causative of degenerative neuromuscular diseases.

  7. Antipneumococcal activity of neuraminidase inhibiting artocarpin.

    PubMed

    Walther, E; Richter, M; Xu, Z; Kramer, C; von Grafenstein, S; Kirchmair, J; Grienke, U; Rollinger, J M; Liedl, K R; Slevogt, H; Sauerbrei, A; Saluz, H P; Pfister, W; Schmidtke, M

    2015-05-01

    Streptococcus (S.) pneumoniae is a major cause of secondary bacterial pneumonia during influenza epidemics. Neuraminidase (NA) is a virulence factor of both pneumococci and influenza viruses. Bacterial neuraminidases (NAs) are structurally related to viral NA and susceptible to oseltamivir, an inhibitor designed to target viral NA. This prompted us to evaluate the antipneumococcal potential of two NA inhibiting natural compounds, the diarylheptanoid katsumadain A and the isoprenylated flavone artocarpin. Chemiluminescence, fluorescence-, and hemagglutination-based enzyme assays were applied to determine the inhibitory efficiency (IC(50) value) of the tested compounds towards pneumococcal NAs. The mechanism of inhibition was studied via enzyme kinetics with recombinant NanA NA. Unlike oseltamivir, which competes with the natural substrate of NA, artocarpin exhibits a mixed-type inhibition with a Ki value of 9.70 μM. Remarkably, artocarpin was the only NA inhibitor (NAI) for which an inhibitory effect on pneumococcal growth (MIC: 0.99-5.75 μM) and biofilm formation (MBIC: 1.15-2.97 μM) was observable. In addition, we discovered that the bactericidal effect of artocarpin can reduce the viability of pneumococci by a factor of >1000, without obvious harm to lung epithelial cells. This renders artocarpin a promising natural product for further investigations.

  8. Achilles, a New Family of Transcriptionally Active Retrotransposons from the Olive Fruit Fly, with Y Chromosome Preferential Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Tsoumani, Konstantina T.; Drosopoulou, Elena; Bourtzis, Kostas; Gariou-Papalexiou, Aggeliki; Mavragani-Tsipidou, Penelope; Zacharopoulou, Antigone; Mathiopoulos, Kostas D.

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosomes have many unusual features relative to autosomes. The in depth exploration of their structure will improve our understanding of their origin and divergence (degeneration) as well as the evolution of genetic sex determination pathways which, most often are attributed to them. In Tephritids, the structure of Y chromosome, where the male-determining factor M is localized, is largely unexplored and limited data concerning its sequence content and evolution are available. In order to get insight into the structure and organization of the Y chromosome of the major olive insect pest, the olive fly Bactrocera oleae, we characterized sequences from a Pulse Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE)-isolated Y chromosome. Here, we report the discovery of the first olive fly LTR retrotransposon with increased presence on the Y chromosome. The element belongs to the BEL-Pao superfamily, however, its sequence comparison with the other members of the superfamily suggests that it constitutes a new family that we termed Achilles. Its ~7.5 kb sequence consists of the 5’LTR, the 5’non-coding sequence and the open reading frame (ORF), which encodes the polyprotein Gag-Pol. In situ hybridization to the B. oleae polytene chromosomes showed that Achilles is distributed in discrete bands dispersed on all five autosomes, in all centromeric regions and in the granular heterochromatic network corresponding to the mitotic sex chromosomes. The between sexes comparison revealed a variation in Achilles copy number, with male flies possessing 5–10 copies more than female (CI range: 18–38 and 12–33 copies respectively per genome). The examination of its transcriptional activity demonstrated the presence of at least one intact active copy in the genome, showing a differential level of expression between sexes as well as during embryonic development. The higher expression was detected in male germline tissues (testes). Moreover, the presence of Achilles-like elements in different

  9. A sesquiterpene lactone from a medicinal herb inhibits proinflammatory activity of TNF-α by inhibiting ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Hua, Yaping; Wang, Dan; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Yuan; Zhu, Junsheng; Jin, Huizi; Li, Honglin; Hu, Zhenlin; Zhang, Weidong

    2014-10-23

    UbcH5 is the key ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme catalyzing ubiquitination during TNF-α-triggered NF-κB activation. Here, we identified an herb-derived sesquiterpene lactone compound IJ-5 as a preferential inhibitor of UbcH5 and explored its therapeutic value in inflammatory and autoimmune disease models. IJ-5 suppresses TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory gene transcription by inhibiting the ubiquitination of receptor-interacting protein 1 and NF-κB essential modifier, which is essential to IκB kinase activation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that IJ-5 preferentially binds to and inactivates UbcH5 by forming a covalent adduct with its active site cysteine and thereby preventing ubiquitin conjugation to UbcH5. In preclinical models, pretreatment of IJ-5 exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-α- and D-galactosamine-induced hepatitis and collagen-induced arthritis. These findings highlight the potential of UbcH5 as a therapeutic target for anti-TNF-α interventions and provide an interesting lead compound for the development of new anti-inflammation agents.

  10. Multitasking water-soluble synthetic G-quartets: from preferential RNA-quadruplex interaction to biocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Haudecoeur, Romain; Stefan, Loic; Monchaud, David

    2013-09-16

    Natural G-quartets, a cyclic and coplanar array of four guanine residues held together through a Watson-Crick/Hoogsteen hydrogen-bond network, have received recently much attention due to their involvement in G-quadruplex DNA, an alternative higher-order DNA structure strongly suspected to play important roles in key cellular events. Besides this, synthetic G-quartets (SQ), which artificially mimic native G-quartets, have also been widely studied for their involvement in nanotechnological applications (i.e., nanowires, artificial ion channels, etc.). In contrast, intramolecular synthetic G-quartets (iSQ), also named template-assembled synthetic G-quartets (TASQ), have been more sparingly investigated, despite a technological potential just as interesting. Herein, we report on a particular iSQ named (PNA) DOTASQ, which demonstrates very interesting properties in terms of DNA and RNA interaction (notably its selective recognition of quadruplexes according to a bioinspired process) and catalytic activities, through its ability to perform peroxidase-like hemin-mediated oxidations either in an autonomous fashion (i.e., as pre-catalyst for TASQzyme reactions) or in conjunction with quadruplex DNA (i.e., as enhancing agents for DNAzyme processes). These results provide a solid scientific basis for TASQ to be used as multitasking tools for bionanotechnological applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Preferential Activation of the Hedgehog Pathway by Epigenetic Modulations in HPV Negative HNSCC Identified with Meta-Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J.; Markovic, Ana; Danilova, Ludmila V.; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Cope, Leslie; Chung, Christine H.; Ochs, Michael F.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely divided into two groups based on their etiology, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and –negative. Global DNA methylation changes are known to drive oncogene and tumor suppressor expression in primary HNSCC of both types. However, significant heterogeneity in DNA methylation within the groups results in different transcriptional profiles and clinical outcomes. We applied a meta-pathway analysis to link gene expression changes to DNA methylation in distinguishing HNSCC subtypes. This approach isolated specific epigenetic changes controlling expression in HPV− HNSCC that distinguish it from HPV+ HNSCC. Analysis of genes identified Hedgehog pathway activation specific to HPV− HNSCC. We confirmed that GLI1, the primary Hedgehog target, showed higher expression in tumors compared to normal samples with HPV− tumors having the highest GLI1 expression, suggesting that increased expression of GLI1 is a potential driver in HPV− HNSCC. Our algorithm for integration of DNA methylation and gene expression can infer biologically significant molecular pathways that may be exploited as therapeutics targets. Our results suggest that therapeutics targeting the Hedgehog pathway may be of benefit in HPV− HNSCC. Similar integrative analysis of high-throughput coupled DNA methylation and expression datasets may yield novel insights into deregulated pathways in other cancers. PMID:24223768

  12. Preferential activation of the hedgehog pathway by epigenetic modulations in HPV negative HNSCC identified with meta-pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Elana J; Markovic, Ana; Danilova, Ludmila V; Gaykalova, Daria A; Cope, Leslie; Chung, Christine H; Ochs, Michael F; Califano, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely divided into two groups based on their etiology, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative. Global DNA methylation changes are known to drive oncogene and tumor suppressor expression in primary HNSCC of both types. However, significant heterogeneity in DNA methylation within the groups results in different transcriptional profiles and clinical outcomes. We applied a meta-pathway analysis to link gene expression changes to DNA methylation in distinguishing HNSCC subtypes. This approach isolated specific epigenetic changes controlling expression in HPV- HNSCC that distinguish it from HPV+ HNSCC. Analysis of genes identified Hedgehog pathway activation specific to HPV- HNSCC. We confirmed that GLI1, the primary Hedgehog target, showed higher expression in tumors compared to normal samples with HPV- tumors having the highest GLI1 expression, suggesting that increased expression of GLI1 is a potential driver in HPV- HNSCC. Our algorithm for integration of DNA methylation and gene expression can infer biologically significant molecular pathways that may be exploited as therapeutics targets. Our results suggest that therapeutics targeting the Hedgehog pathway may be of benefit in HPV- HNSCC. Similar integrative analysis of high-throughput coupled DNA methylation and expression datasets may yield novel insights into deregulated pathways in other cancers.

  13. Surface modification of nanocrystalline anatase with CTAB in the acidic condition and its effects on photocatalytic activity and preferential growth of TiO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yichun; Wang, Wenxin; Jing, Liqiang; Song, Shu; Shi, Xin; Xue, Lianpeng; Fu, Honggang

    2010-10-01

    The nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2, which was synthesized by a sol-hydrothermal process in advance, has successfully modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in the acidic condition as well as in the basic condition. On the basis of the measurements of infrared spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the resulting TiO 2, together with the phase-transfer experiments, it is suggested that the modification mechanism in the acidic condition is closely related to Br -. Interestingly, compared with un-modified TiO 2, the modified TiO 2 exhibits high photocatalytic activity for degrading Rhodamine B (RhB) solution, especially for that modified in the acid. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of modified TiO 2 in the acid is attributed to the role that the Br - can easily capture photo-induced holes and then form active Br, consequently effectively inducing photocatalytic oxidation reactions, based on the surface photovoltage responses of the resulting TiO 2. After that, a one-pot sol-hydrothermal route at the temperature as low as 80 °C is developed to directly synthesize CTAB-modified nanocrystalline TiO 2 with a little preferred growth along <0 0 1> direction, which can be easily dispersed in the organic system and possess good photocatalytic performance. This work provides a feasible strategy to further improve the photocatalytic performance of nanocrystalline anatase and to synthesize TiO 2 nanocrystals with preferential growth.

  14. Chromatic pupil responses: preferential activation of the melanopsin-mediated versus outer photoreceptor-mediated pupil light reflex.

    PubMed

    Kardon, Randy; Anderson, Susan C; Damarjian, Tina G; Grace, Elizabeth M; Stone, Edwin; Kawasaki, Aki

    2009-08-01

    To weight the rod-, cone-, and melanopsin-mediated activation of the retinal ganglion cells, which drive the pupil light reflex by varying the light stimulus wavelength, intensity, and duration. Experimental study. Forty-three subjects with normal eyes and 3 patients with neuroretinal visual loss. A novel stimulus paradigm was developed using either a long wavelength (red) or short wavelength (blue) light given as a continuous Ganzfeld stimulus with stepwise increases over a 2 log-unit range. The pupillary movement before, during, and after the light stimulus was recorded in real time with an infrared illuminated video camera. The percent pupil contraction of the transient and sustained pupil response to a low- (1 cd/m(2)), medium- (10 cd/m(2)), and high-intensity (100 cd/m(2)) red- and blue-light stimulus was calculated for 1 eye of each subject. From the 43 normal eyes, median and 25th, 75th, 5th, and 95th percentile values were obtained for each stimulus condition. In normal eyes at lower intensities, blue light evoked much greater pupil responses compared with red light when matched for photopic luminance. The transient pupil contraction was generally greater than the sustained contraction, and this disparity was greatest at the lowest light intensity and least apparent with bright (100 cd/m(2)) blue light. A patient with primarily rod dysfunction (nonrecordable scotopic electroretinogram) showed significantly reduced pupil responses to blue light at lower intensities. A patient with achromatopsia and an almost normal visual field showed selective reduction of the pupil response to red-light stimulation. A patient with ganglion cell dysfunction owing to anterior ischemic optic neuropathy demonstrated global loss of pupil responses to red and blue light in the affected eye. Pupil responses that differ as a function of light intensity and wavelength support the hypothesis that selected stimulus conditions can produce pupil responses that reflect phototransduction

  15. Circulating Th1-Cell-type Tfh Cells that Exhibit Impaired B Cell Help Are Preferentially Activated during Acute Malaria in Children.

    PubMed

    Obeng-Adjei, Nyamekye; Portugal, Silvia; Tran, Tuan M; Yazew, Takele B; Skinner, Jeff; Li, Shanping; Jain, Aarti; Felgner, Philip L; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Kayentao, Kassoum; Ongoiba, Aissata; Traore, Boubacar; Crompton, Peter D

    2015-10-13

    Malaria-specific antibody responses are short lived in children, leaving them susceptible to repeated bouts of febrile malaria. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this apparent immune deficiency are poorly understood. Recently, T follicular helper (Tfh) cells have been shown to play a critical role in generating long-lived antibody responses. We show that Malian children have resting PD-1(+)CXCR5(+)CD4(+) Tfh cells in circulation that resemble germinal center Tfh cells phenotypically and functionally. Within this population, PD-1(+)CXCR5(+)CXCR3(-) Tfh cells are superior to Th1-polarized PD-1(+)CXCR5(+)CXCR3(+) Tfh cells in helping B cells. Longitudinally, we observed that malaria drives Th1 cytokine responses, and accordingly, the less-functional Th1-polarized Tfh subset was preferentially activated and its activation did not correlate with antibody responses. These data provide insights into the Tfh cell biology underlying suboptimal antibody responses to malaria in children and suggest that vaccine strategies that promote CXCR3(-) Tfh cell responses may improve malaria vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Activation of rheumatoid factor-specific B cells is antigen dependent and occurs preferentially outside of germinal centers in the lupus-prone NZM2410 mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sang, Allison; Niu, Haitao; Cullen, Jaime; Choi, Seung Chul; Zheng, Ying Yi; Wang, Haowei; Shlomchik, Mark J; Morel, Laurence

    2014-08-15

    AM14 rheumatoid factor (RF) B cells in the MRL/lpr mice are activated by dual BCR and TLR7/9 ligation and differentiate into plasmablasts via an extrafollicular (EF) route. It was not known whether this mechanism of activation of RF B cells applied to other lupus-prone mouse models. We investigated the mechanisms by which RF B cells break tolerance in the NZM2410-derived B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) strain in comparison with C57BL/6 (B6) controls, each expressing the AM14 H chain transgene in the presence or absence of the IgG2a(a) autoantigen. The TC, but not B6, genetic background promotes the differentiation of RF B cells into Ab-forming cells (AFCs) in the presence of the autoantigen. Activated RF B cells preferentially differentiated into plasmablasts in EF zones. Contrary to the MRL/lpr strain, TC RF B cells were also located within germinal centers, but only the formation of EF foci was positively correlated with the production of RF AFCs. Immunization of young TC.AM14 H chain transgenic mice with IgG2a(a) anti-chromatin immune complexes (ICs) activated RF B cells in a BCR- and TLR9-dependent manner. However, these IC immunizations did not result in the production of RF AFCs. These results show that RF B cells break tolerance with the same general mechanisms in the TC and the MRL/lpr lupus-prone genetic backgrounds, namely the dual activation of the BCR and TLR9 pathways. There are also distinct differences, such as the presence of RF B cells in GCs and the requirement of chronic IgG2a(a) anti-chromatin ICs for full differentiation of RF AFCs. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Inspiratory neurons that are activated when inspiration is inhibited behaviorally.

    PubMed

    Orem, J

    1987-12-29

    Respiration can be automatic or controlled behaviorally. Behavioral control in the cat occurs, at least in part, through control of the brainstem respiratory neurons that constitute the automatic system. Thus, when inspiration is inhibited behaviorally, inspiratory neurons in the medulla are inactivated. Reported herein are data on inspiratory cells, located in both the dorsal and ventral respiratory groups, that were activated when other inspiratory cells there were inhibited behaviorally. During spontaneous breathing, their activity showed much variability unattributable to the respiratory cycle--indicating that they receive a considerable non-respiratory input. These cells might act as the interface through which behavioral inhibition of inspiration occurs.

  18. RETINAL GUANYLYL CYCLASE ISOZYME 1 IS THE PREFERENTIAL IN VIVO TARGET FOR CONSTITUTIVELY ACTIVE GCAP1 MUTANTS CAUSING CONGENITAL DEGENERATION OF PHOTORECEPTORS

    PubMed Central

    Olshevskaya, Elena V.; Peshenko, Igor V.; Savchenko, Andrey B.; Dizhoor, Alexander M.

    2012-01-01

    Two calcium-sensitive guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAP1 and GCAP2) activate cGMP synthesis in photoreceptor by retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase isozymes (RetGC1 and RetGC2) to expedite recovery, but calcium-insensitive constitutively active GCAP1 mutants cause photoreceptor degeneration in human patients and in transgenic mice. Although GCAP1 and GCAP2 can both activate RetGC1 and RetGC2 in vitro, we find that GCAP1 selectively regulates RetGC1 in vivo. Furthermore, elimination of RetGC1 but not RetGC2 isozyme reverses abnormal calcium sensitivity of cGMP synthesis and rescues mouse rods in transgenic mice expressing GCAP1 mutants causing photoreceptor disease. Rods expressing mutant GCAP1 not only survive in the absence of RetGC1, but also remain functional, albeit with reduced electroretinography (ERG) amplitudes typical of RetGC1−/− genotype. The rod ERG recovery from a strong flash, only slightly affected in both RetGC1−/− and RetGC2−/− mice, becomes very slow in RetGC1−/− but not RetGC2−/− mice when GCAP2 is not available to provide Ca2+ feedback to the remaining RetGC isozyme. The intrinsic biochemical properties of RetGC and GCAP determined in vitro do not explain the observed phenomena. Instead, our results argue that there must be a cellular mechanism that limits GCAP1 access to RetGC2 and makes RetGC1 isozyme a preferential target for the disease-causing GCAP1 mutants. A more general conclusion from our findings is that non-discriminatory interactions between homologous effector enzymes and their regulatory proteins permitted by their intrinsic biochemical properties can be effectively restricted in a living photoreceptor. PMID:22623665

  19. B-cell receptor activation inhibits AID expression through calmodulin inhibition of E-proteins.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Jannek; Sveshnikova, Natalia; Wallenius, Anders; Baradaran, Sanna; Saarikettu, Juha; Grundström, Thomas

    2008-01-29

    Upon encountering antigens, B-lymphocytes can adapt to produce a highly specific and potent antibody response. Somatic hypermutation, which introduces point mutations in the variable regions of antibody genes, can increase the affinity for antigen, and antibody effector functions can be altered by class switch recombination (CSR), which changes the expressed constant region exons. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the mutagenic antibody diversification enzyme that is essential for both somatic hypermutation and CSR. The mutagenic AID enzyme has to be tightly controlled. Here, we show that engagement of the membrane-bound antibodies of the B-cell receptor (BCR), which signals that good antibody affinity has been reached, inhibits AID gene expression and that calcium (Ca(2+)) signaling is essential for this inhibition. Moreover, we show that overexpression of the Ca(2+) sensor protein calmodulin inhibits AID gene expression, and that the transcription factor E2A is required for regulation of the AID gene by the BCR. E2A mutated in the binding site for calmodulin, and thus showing calmodulin-resistant DNA binding, makes AID expression resistant to the inhibition through BCR activation. Thus, BCR activation inhibits AID gene expression through Ca(2+)/calmodulin inhibition of E2A.

  20. Inhibition of apple polyphenol oxidase activity by sodium chlorite.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shengmin; Luo, Yaguang; Feng, Hao

    2006-05-17

    Sodium chlorite (SC) was shown to have strong efficacy both as a sanitizer to reduce microbial growth on produce and as a browning inhibitor on fresh-cut apples in previous experiments. This study was undertaken to investigate the inhibitory effect of SC on polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the associated mechanisms. The experiment showed that SC had a strong inhibition of apple PPO. The extent of inhibition was influenced by SC concentration and pH. Inhibition was most prominent at pH 4.5, at which approximately 30% of enzyme activity was lost in the presence of 10 mM SC, followed closely by that at pH 4.0 with a 26% reduction in PPO activity. The inhibition mode was determined using Dixon and Lineweaver-Burk plots, which established SC to be a mixed inhibitor of apple PPO for the oxidation of catechol. Preincubation of PPO with 8 mM SC for 8 min caused a maximum of 46% activity reduction compared to noninhibited control. However, preincubation of SC with catechol for 8 min resulted in no additional loss of PPO activity. These findings provide further evidence that the inhibition of PPO activity by SC is due to the inhibition of the enzyme itself rather than removal of the substrate.

  1. Complement Activation and Inhibition in Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Jukema, Gerrolt N.; Nibbering, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Complement activation is needed to restore tissue injury; however, inappropriate activation of complement, as seen in chronic wounds can cause cell death and enhance inflammation, thus contributing to further injury and impaired wound healing. Therefore, attenuation of complement activation by specific inhibitors is considered as an innovative wound care strategy. Currently, the effects of several complement inhibitors, for example, the C3 inhibitor compstatin and several C1 and C5 inhibitors, are under investigation in patients with complement-mediated diseases. Although (pre)clinical research into the effects of these complement inhibitors on wound healing is limited, available data indicate that reduction of complement activation can improve wound healing. Moreover, medicine may take advantage of safe and effective agents that are produced by various microorganisms, symbionts, for example, medicinal maggots, and plants to attenuate complement activation. To conclude, for the development of new wound care strategies, (pre)clinical studies into the roles of complement and the effects of application of complement inhibitors in wound healing are required. PMID:23346185

  2. Discovery of 1-[3-(1-methyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-5-oxo-5H-benzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-7-yl]-N-(pyridin-2-ylmethyl)methanesulfonamide (MK-8033): A Specific c-Met/Ron dual kinase inhibitor with preferential affinity for the activated state of c-Met.

    PubMed

    Northrup, Alan B; Katcher, Matthew H; Altman, Michael D; Chenard, Melissa; Daniels, Matthew H; Deshmukh, Sujal V; Falcone, Danielle; Guerin, David J; Hatch, Harold; Li, Chaomin; Lu, Wei; Lutterbach, Bart; Allison, Timothy J; Patel, Sangita B; Reilly, John F; Reutershan, Michael; Rickert, Keith W; Rosenstein, Craig; Soisson, Stephen M; Szewczak, Alexander A; Walker, Deborah; Wilson, Kevin; Young, Jonathan R; Pan, Bo-Sheng; Dinsmore, Christopher J

    2013-03-28

    This report documents the first example of a specific inhibitor of protein kinases with preferential binding to the activated kinase conformation: 5H-benzo[4,5]cyclohepta[1,2-b]pyridin-5-one 11r (MK-8033), a dual c-Met/Ron inhibitor under investigation as a treatment for cancer. The design of 11r was based on the desire to reduce time-dependent inhibition of CYP3A4 (TDI) by members of this structural class. A novel two-step protocol for the synthesis of benzylic sulfonamides was developed to access 11r and analogues. We provide a rationale for the observed selectivity based on X-ray crystallographic evidence and discuss selectivity trends with additional examples. Importantly, 11r provides full inhibition of tumor growth in a c-Met amplified (GTL-16) subcutaneous tumor xenograft model and may have an advantage over inactive form kinase inhibitors due to equal potency against a panel of oncogenic activating mutations of c-Met in contrast to c-Met inhibitors without preferential binding to the active kinase conformation.

  3. Oxidative stress inhibits calpain activity in situ.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, R P; Johnson, G V

    1998-05-22

    In this study, the effects of oxidative stress on calpain-mediated proteolysis and calpain I autolysis in situ were examined. Calpain activity was stimulated in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin. Calpain-mediated proteolysis of the membrane-permeable fluorescent substrate N-succinyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-valyl-L-tyrosine-7-amido-4-methylcouma rin, as well as the endogenous protein substrates microtubule-associated protein 2, tau and spectrin, was measured. Oxidative stress, induced by addition of either doxorubicin or 2-mercaptopyridine N-oxide, resulted in a significant decrease in the extent of ionophore-stimulated calpain activity of both the fluorescent compound and the endogenous substrates compared with control, normoxic conditions. Addition of glutathione ethyl ester, as well as other antioxidants, resulted in the retention/recovery of calpain activity, indicating that oxidation-induced calpain inactivation was preventable/reversible. The rate of autolytic conversion of the large subunit of calpain I from 80 to 78 to 76 kDa was decreased during oxidative stress; however, the extent of calpain autolysis was not altered. These data indicate that oxidative stress may reversibly inactivate calpain I in vivo.

  4. Interneuron-mediated inhibition synchronizes neuronal activity during slow oscillation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jen-Yung; Chauvette, Sylvain; Skorheim, Steven; Timofeev, Igor; Bazhenov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    The signature of slow-wave sleep in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is large-amplitude fluctuation of the field potential, which reflects synchronous alternation of activity and silence across cortical neurons. While initiation of the active cortical states during sleep slow oscillation has been intensively studied, the biological mechanisms which drive the network transition from an active state to silence remain poorly understood. In the current study, using a combination of in vivo electrophysiology and thalamocortical network simulation, we explored the impact of intrinsic and synaptic inhibition on state transition during sleep slow oscillation. We found that in normal physiological conditions, synaptic inhibition controls the duration and the synchrony of active state termination. The decline of interneuron-mediated inhibition led to asynchronous downward transition across the cortical network and broke the regular slow oscillation pattern. Furthermore, in both in vivo experiment and computational modelling, we revealed that when the level of synaptic inhibition was reduced significantly, it led to a recovery of synchronized oscillations in the form of seizure-like bursting activity. In this condition, the fast active state termination was mediated by intrinsic hyperpolarizing conductances. Our study highlights the significance of both intrinsic and synaptic inhibition in manipulating sleep slow rhythms. PMID:22641778

  5. Preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-03

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and therefore nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. As a result, these insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.

  6. Preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations

    DOE PAGES

    Sharma, H.; Sietsma, J.; Offerman, S. E.

    2016-08-03

    Polymorphism is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one phase or crystal structure. Polymorphism may occur in metals, alloys, ceramics, minerals, polymers, and pharmaceutical substances. Unresolved are the conditions for preferential nucleation during polymorphic transformations in which structural relationships or special crystallographic orientation relationships (OR’s) form between the nucleus and surrounding matrix grains. We measured in-situ and simultaneously the nucleation rates of grains that have zero, one, two, three and four special OR’s with the surrounding parent grains. These experiments show a trend in which the activation energy for nucleation becomes smaller – and thereforemore » nucleation more probable - with increasing number of special OR’s. As a result, these insights contribute to steering the processing of polymorphic materials with tailored properties, since preferential nucleation affects which crystal structure forms, the average grain size and texture of the material, and thereby - to a large extent - the final properties of the material.« less

  7. Use it or Lose It: Tonic Activity of Slow Motoneurons Promotes Their Survival and Preferentially Increases Slow Fiber-Type Groupings in Muscles of Old Lifelong Recreational Sportsmen

    PubMed Central

    Mosole, Simone; Carraro, Ugo; Kern, Helmut; Loefler, Stefan; Zampieri, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    , i.e., on the slow motoneurons. The preferential reinnervation that follows along decades of increased activity maintains neuron and myofibers. All together the results open interesting perspectives for applications of FES and electroceuticals for rejuvenation of aged muscles to delay functional decline and loss of independence that are unavoidable burdens of advanced aging. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01679977 PMID:28078066

  8. Pharmacokinetics and derivation of an anticancer dosing regimen for PAC-1, a preferential small molecule activator of procaspase-3, in healthy dogs.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Pamela W; Schmit, Joanna M; Peterson, Quinn P; West, Diana C; Hsu, Danny C; Novotny, Chris J; Dirikolu, Levent; Churchwell, Mona I; Doerge, Daniel R; Garrett, Laura D; Hergenrother, Paul J; Fan, Timothy M

    2011-10-01

    PAC-1 is a preferential small molecule activator of procaspase-3 and has potential to become a novel and effective anticancer agent. The rational development of PAC-1 for translational oncologic applications would be advanced by coupling relevant in vitro cytotoxicity studies with pharmacokinetic investigations conducted in large mammalian models possessing similar metabolism and physiology as people. In the present study, we investigated whether concentrations and exposure durations of PAC-1 that induce cytotoxicity in lymphoma cell lines in vitro can be achievable in healthy dogs through a constant rate infusion (CRI) intravenous delivery strategy. Time- and dose-dependent procaspase-3 activation by PAC-1 with subsequent cytotoxicity was determined in a panel of B-cell lymphoma cells in vitro. The pharmacokinetics of PAC-1 administered orally or intravenously was studied in 6 healthy dogs using a crossover design. The feasibility of maintaining steady state plasma concentration of PAC-1 for 24 or 48 h that paralleled in vitro cytotoxic concentrations was investigated in 4 healthy dogs. In vitro, PAC-1 induced apoptosis in lymphoma cell lines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The oral bioavailability of PAC-1 was relatively low and highly variable (17.8 ± 9.5%). The achievement and maintenance of predicted PAC-1 cytotoxic concentrations in normal dogs was safely attained via intravenous CRI lasting for 24 or 48 h in duration. Using the dog as a large mammalian model, PAC-1 can be safely administered as an intravenous CRI while achieving predicted in vitro cytotoxic concentrations.

  9. Reward anticipation enhances brain activation during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Rosell-Negre, Patricia; Bustamante, Juan Carlos; Fuentes-Claramonte, Paola; Costumero, Víctor; Benabarre, Sergio; Barros-Loscertales, Alfonso

    2014-06-01

    The chance to achieve a reward starts up the required neurobehavioral mechanisms to adapt our thoughts and actions in order to accomplish our objective. However, reward does not equally reinforce everybody but depends on interindividual motivational dispositions. Thus, immediate reward contingencies can modulate the cognitive process required for goal achievement, while individual differences in personality can affect this modulation. We aimed to test the interaction between inhibition-related brain response and motivational processing in a stop signal task by reward anticipation and whether individual differences in sensitivity to reward (SR) modulate such interaction. We analyzed the cognitive-motivational interaction between the brain pattern activation of the regions involved in correct and incorrect response inhibition and the association between such brain activations and SR scores. We also analyzed the behavioral effects of reward on both reaction times for the "go" trials before and after correct and incorrect inhibition in order to test error prediction performance and postinhibition adjustment. Our results show enhanced activation during response inhibition under reward contingencies in frontal, parietal, and subcortical areas. Moreover, activation of the right insula and the left putamen positively correlates with the SR scores. Finally, the possibility of reward outcome affects not only response inhibition performance (e.g., reducing stop signal reaction time), but also error prediction performance and postinhibition adjustment. Therefore, reward contingencies improve behavioral performance and enhance brain activation during response inhibition, and SR is related to brain activation. Our results suggest the conditions and factors that subserve cognitive control strategies in cognitive motivational interactions during response inhibition.

  10. Discovery of selective inhibitors of Glutaminase-2, which inhibit mTORC1, activate autophagy and inhibit proliferation in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ih-Shen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Lee, Chih-Hao; Lee, Jinq-chyi; Kumar, Chidambaram Ramesh; Qiu, Ya-Qi; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2014-01-01

    Glutaminase, which converts glutamine to glutamate, is involved in Warburg effect in cancer cells. Two human glutaminase genes have been identified, GLS (GLS1) and GLS2. Two alternative transcripts arise from each glutaminase gene: first, the kidney isoform (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC) for GLS; and, second, the liver isoform (LGA) and glutaminase B (GAB) for GLS2. While GLS1 is considered as a cancer therapeutic target, the potential role of GLS2 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we discovered a series of alkyl benzoquinones that preferentially inhibit glutaminase B isoform (GAB, GLS2) rather than the kidney isoform of glutaminase (KGA, GLS1). We identified amino acid residues in an allosteric binding pocket responsible for the selectivity. Treatment with the alkyl benzoquinones decreased intracellular glutaminase activity and glutamate levels. GLS2 inhibition by either alkyl benzoquinones or GLS2 siRNA reduced carcinoma cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation, and induced autophagy via AMPK mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Our findings demonstrate amino acid sequences for selective inhibition of glutaminase isozymes and validate GLS2 as a potential anti-cancer target. PMID:25026281

  11. Discovery of selective inhibitors of Glutaminase-2, which inhibit mTORC1, activate autophagy and inhibit proliferation in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yue-Zhi; Yang, Cheng-Wei; Chang, Hsin-Yu; Hsu, Hsing-Yu; Chen, Ih-Shen; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Lee, Chih-Hao; Lee, Jinq-chyi; Kumar, Chidambaram Ramesh; Qiu, Ya-Qi; Chao, Yu-Sheng; Lee, Shiow-Ju

    2014-08-15

    Glutaminase, which converts glutamine to glutamate, is involved in Warburg effect in cancer cells. Two human glutaminase genes have been identified, GLS (GLS1) and GLS2. Two alternative transcripts arise from each glutaminase gene: first, the kidney isoform (KGA) and glutaminase C (GAC) for GLS; and, second, the liver isoform (LGA) and glutaminase B (GAB) for GLS2. While GLS1 is considered as a cancer therapeutic target, the potential role of GLS2 in cancer remains unclear. Here, we discovered a series of alkyl benzoquinones that preferentially inhibit glutaminase B isoform (GAB, GLS2) rather than the kidney isoform of glutaminase (KGA, GLS1). We identified amino acid residues in an allosteric binding pocket responsible for the selectivity. Treatment with the alkyl benzoquinones decreased intracellular glutaminase activity and glutamate levels. GLS2 inhibition by either alkyl benzoquinones or GLS2 siRNA reduced carcinoma cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation, and induced autophagy via AMPK mediated mTORC1 inhibition. Our findings demonstrate amino acid sequences for selective inhibition of glutaminase isozymes and validate GLS2 as a potential anti-cancer target.

  12. Thyroid peroxidase activity is inhibited by amino acids.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, D P; Ferreira, A C; Coelho, S M; Moraes, J M; Camacho, M A; Rosenthal, D

    2000-03-01

    Normal in vitro thyroid peroxidase (TPO) iodide oxidation activity was completely inhibited by a hydrolyzed TPO preparation (0.15 mg/ml) or hydrolyzed bovine serum albumin (BSA, 0.2 mg/ml). A pancreatic hydrolysate of casein (trypticase peptone, 0.1 mg/ml) and some amino acids (cysteine, tryptophan and methionine, 50 microM each) also inhibited the TPO iodide oxidation reaction completely, whereas casamino acids (0.1 mg/ml), and tyrosine, phenylalanine and histidine (50 microM each) inhibited the TPO reaction by 54% or less. A pancreatic digest of gelatin (0.1 mg/ml) or any other amino acid (50 microM) tested did not significantly decrease TPO activity. The amino acids that impair iodide oxidation also inhibit the TPO albumin iodination activity. The inhibitory amino acids contain side chains with either sulfur atoms (cysteine and methionine) or aromatic rings (tyrosine, tryptophan, histidine and phenylalanine). Among the amino acids tested, only cysteine affected the TPO guaiacol oxidation reaction, producing a transient inhibition at 25 or 50 microM. The iodide oxidation inhibitory activity of cysteine, methionine and tryptophan was reversed by increasing iodide concentrations from 12 to 18 mM, while no such effect was observed when the cofactor (H2O2) concentration was increased. The inhibitory substances might interfere with the enzyme activity by competing with its normal substrates for their binding sites, binding to the free substrates or reducing their oxidized form.

  13. Nuclear localization of Lyn tyrosine kinase mediated by inhibition of its kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Kikuko; Nakayama, Yuji; Togashi, Yuuki; Obata, Yuuki; Kuga, Takahisa; Kasahara, Kousuke; Fukumoto, Yasunori; Yamaguchi, Naoto

    2008-11-01

    Src-family kinases, cytoplasmic enzymes that participate in various signaling events, are found at not only the plasma membrane but also subcellular compartments, such as the nucleus, the Golgi apparatus and late endosomes/lysosomes. Lyn, a member of the Src-family kinases, is known to play a role in DNA damage response and cell cycle control in the nucleus. However, it is still unclear how the localization of Lyn to the nucleus is regulated. Here, we investigated the mechanism of the distribution of Lyn between the cytoplasm and the nucleus in epitheloid HeLa cells and hematopoietic THP-1 cells. Lyn was definitely detected in purified nuclei by immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analyses. Nuclear accumulation of Lyn was enhanced upon treatment of cells with leptomycin B (LMB), an inhibitor of Crm1-mediated nuclear export. Moreover, Lyn mutants lacking the sites for lipid modification were highly accumulated in the nucleus upon LMB treatment. Intriguingly, inhibition of the kinase activity of Lyn by SU6656, Csk overexpression, or point mutation in the ATP-binding site induced an increase in nuclear Lyn levels. These results suggest that Lyn being imported into and rapidly exported from the nucleus preferentially accumulates in the nucleus by inhibition of the kinase activity and lipid modification.

  14. Inhibition of existing denitrification enzyme activity by chloramphenicol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, M.H.; Smith, R.L.; Macalady, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chloramphenicol completely inhibited the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in acetylene-block incubations with (i) sediments from a nitrate-contaminated aquifer and (ii) a continuous culture of denitrifying groundwater bacteria. Control flasks with no antibiotic produced significant amounts of nitrous oxide in the same time period. Amendment with chloramphenicol after nitrous oxide production had begun resulted in a significant decrease in the rate of nitrous oxide production. Chloramphenicol also decreased (>50%) the activity of existing denitrification enzymes in pure cultures of Pseudomonas denitrificans that were harvested during log- phase growth and maintained for 2 weeks in a starvation medium lacking electron donor. Short-term time courses of nitrate consumption and nitrous oxide production in the presence of acetylene with P. denitrificans undergoing carbon starvation were performed under optimal conditions designed to mimic denitrification enzyme activity assays used with soils. Time courses were linear for both chloramphenicol and control flasks, and rate estimates for the two treatments were significantly different at the 95% confidence level. Complete or partial inhibition of existing enzyme activity is not consistent with the current understanding of the mode of action of chloramphenicol or current practice, in which the compound is frequently employed to inhibit de novo protein synthesis during the course of microbial activity assays. The results of this study demonstrate that chloramphenicol amendment can inhibit the activity of existing denitrification enzymes and suggest that caution is needed in the design and interpretation of denitrification activity assays in which chloramphenicol is used to prevent new protein synthesis.

  15. Hili inhibits HIV replication in activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Peterlin, B Matija; Liu, Pingyang; Wang, Xiaoyun; Cary, Daniele; Shao, Wei; Leoz, Marie; Hong, Tian; Pan, Tao; Fujinaga, Koh

    2017-03-22

    Piwil proteins restrict the replication of mobile genetic elements in the germline. They are also expressed in many transformed cell lines. In this report, we discovered that the human piwil 2 (hili) can also inhibit HIV replication, especially in activated CD4+ T cells that are the preferred target cells for this virus in the infected host. Although resting cells did not express hili, it was rapidly induced following T cell activation. In these cells and transformed cell lines, depletion of hili increased levels of viral proteins and new viral particles. Further studies revealed that hili binds to tRNA. Some of them represent rare tRNA species, whose codons are over-represented in the viral genome. Targeting tRNA(Arg)(UCU) with an antisense oligonucleotide replicated effects of hili and also inhibited HIV replication. Finally, hili also inhibited the retrotransposition of the endogenous intracysternal A particle (IAP) by a similar mechanism. Thus, hili joins a list of host proteins that inhibit the replication of HIV and other mobile genetic elements.IMPORTANCE Piwil proteins inhibit the movement of mobile genetic elements in the germline. In their absence, sperm does not form and male mice are sterile. This inhibition is thought to occur via small piRNAs. However, in some species and in human somatic cells, piwil proteins bind primarily to tRNA. In this report, we demonstrate that human piwil proteins, especially hili, not only bind to select tRNA species that include rare tRNAs, but also inhibit HIV replication. Importantly, T cell activation induces the expression of hili in CD4+ T cells. Since hili also inhibited the movement of an endogenous retrovirus (IAP), our finding shed new light on this intracellular resistance to exogenous and endogenous retroviruses as well as other mobile genetic elements.

  16. The transcriptionally active amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain is preferentially produced from the 695 isoform of APP in a {beta}-secretase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Belyaev, Nikolai D; Kellett, Katherine A B; Beckett, Caroline; Makova, Natalia Z; Revett, Timothy J; Nalivaeva, Natalia N; Hooper, Nigel M; Turner, Anthony J

    2010-12-31

    Amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases generates several biologically active products, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). AICD regulates transcription of several neuronal genes, especially the Aβ-degrading enzyme, neprilysin (NEP). APP exists in several alternatively spliced isoforms, APP(695), APP(751), and APP(770). We have examined whether each isoform can contribute to AICD generation and hence up-regulation of NEP expression. Using SH-SY5Y neuronal cells stably expressing each of the APP isoforms, we observed that only APP(695) up-regulated nuclear AICD levels (9-fold) and NEP expression (6-fold). Increased NEP expression was abolished by a β- or γ-secretase inhibitor but not an α-secretase inhibitor. This correlated with a marked increase in both Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) in APP(695) cells as compared with APP(751) or APP(770) cells. Similar phenomena were observed in Neuro2a but not HEK293 cells. SH-SY5Y cells expressing the Swedish mutant of APP(695) also showed an increase in Aβ levels and NEP expression as compared with wild-type APP(695) cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that AICD was associated with the NEP promoter in APP(695), Neuro2a, and APP(Swe) cells but not APP(751) nor APP(770) cells where AICD was replaced by histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). AICD occupancy of the NEP promoter was replaced by HDAC1 after treatment of the APP(695) cells with a β- but not an α-secretase inhibitor. The increased AICD and NEP levels were significantly reduced in cholesterol-depleted APP(695) cells. In conclusion, Aβ and functional AICD appear to be preferentially synthesized through β-secretase action on APP(695).

  17. The Transcriptionally Active Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Intracellular Domain Is Preferentially Produced from the 695 Isoform of APP in a β-Secretase-dependent Pathway*♦

    PubMed Central

    Belyaev, Nikolai D.; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Beckett, Caroline; Makova, Natalia Z.; Revett, Timothy J.; Nalivaeva, Natalia N.; Hooper, Nigel M.; Turner, Anthony J.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β- and γ-secretases generates several biologically active products, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and the APP intracellular domain (AICD). AICD regulates transcription of several neuronal genes, especially the Aβ-degrading enzyme, neprilysin (NEP). APP exists in several alternatively spliced isoforms, APP695, APP751, and APP770. We have examined whether each isoform can contribute to AICD generation and hence up-regulation of NEP expression. Using SH-SY5Y neuronal cells stably expressing each of the APP isoforms, we observed that only APP695 up-regulated nuclear AICD levels (9-fold) and NEP expression (6-fold). Increased NEP expression was abolished by a β- or γ-secretase inhibitor but not an α-secretase inhibitor. This correlated with a marked increase in both Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 in APP695 cells as compared with APP751 or APP770 cells. Similar phenomena were observed in Neuro2a but not HEK293 cells. SH-SY5Y cells expressing the Swedish mutant of APP695 also showed an increase in Aβ levels and NEP expression as compared with wild-type APP695 cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that AICD was associated with the NEP promoter in APP695, Neuro2a, and APPSwe cells but not APP751 nor APP770 cells where AICD was replaced by histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). AICD occupancy of the NEP promoter was replaced by HDAC1 after treatment of the APP695 cells with a β- but not an α-secretase inhibitor. The increased AICD and NEP levels were significantly reduced in cholesterol-depleted APP695 cells. In conclusion, Aβ and functional AICD appear to be preferentially synthesized through β-secretase action on APP695. PMID:20961856

  18. Inhibition of Proteasome Activity Induces Formation of Alternative Proteasome Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Welk, Vanessa; Coux, Olivier; Kleene, Vera; Abeza, Claire; Trümbach, Dietrich; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2016-01-01

    The proteasome is an intracellular protease complex consisting of the 20S catalytic core and its associated regulators, including the 19S complex, PA28αβ, PA28γ, PA200, and PI31. Inhibition of the proteasome induces autoregulatory de novo formation of 20S and 26S proteasome complexes. Formation of alternative proteasome complexes, however, has not been investigated so far. We here show that catalytic proteasome inhibition results in fast recruitment of PA28γ and PA200 to 20S and 26S proteasomes within 2–6 h. Rapid formation of alternative proteasome complexes did not involve transcriptional activation of PA28γ and PA200 but rather recruitment of preexisting activators to 20S and 26S proteasome complexes. Recruitment of proteasomal activators depended on the extent of active site inhibition of the proteasome with inhibition of β5 active sites being sufficient for inducing recruitment. Moreover, specific inhibition of 26S proteasome activity via siRNA-mediated knockdown of the 19S subunit RPN6 induced recruitment of only PA200 to 20S proteasomes, whereas PA28γ was not mobilized. Here, formation of alternative PA200 complexes involved transcriptional activation of the activator. Alternative proteasome complexes persisted when cells had regained proteasome activity after pulse exposure to proteasome inhibitors. Knockdown of PA28γ sensitized cells to proteasome inhibitor-mediated growth arrest. Thus, formation of alternative proteasome complexes appears to be a formerly unrecognized but integral part of the cellular response to impaired proteasome function and altered proteostasis. PMID:27129254

  19. Inhibition of rab5 GTPase activity stimulates membrane fusion in endocytosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stenmark, H; Parton, R G; Steele-Mortimer, O; Lütcke, A; Gruenberg, J; Zerial, M

    1994-01-01

    Small GTPases of the rab family control distinct steps of intracellular transport. The function of their GTPase activity is not completely understood. To investigate the role of the nucleotide state of rab5 in the early endocytic pathway, the effects of two mutants with opposing biochemical properties were tested. The Q79L mutant of rab5, analogous with the activating Q61L mutant of p21-ras, was found to have a strongly decreased intrinsic GTPase activity and was, unlike wild-type rab5, found mainly in the GTP-bound form in vivo. Expression of this protein in BHK and HeLa cells led to a dramatic change in cell morphology, with the appearance of unusually large early endocytic structures, considerably larger than those formed upon overexpression of wild-type rab5. An increased rate of transferrin internalization was observed in these cells, whereas recycling was inhibited. Cytosol containing rab5 Q79L stimulated homotypic early endosome fusion in vitro, even though it contained only a small amount of the isoprenylated protein. A different mutant, rab5 S34N, was found, like the inhibitory p21-ras S17N mutant, to have a preferential affinity for GDP. Overexpression of rab5 S34N induced the accumulation of very small endocytic profile and inhibited transferrin endocytosis. This protein inhibited fusion between early endosomes in vitro. The opposite effects of the rab5 Q79L and S34N mutants suggest that rab5:GTP is required prior to membrane fusion, whereas GTP hydrolysis by rab5 occurs after membrane fusion and functions to inactivate the protein. Images PMID:8137813

  20. Lactate dehydrogenase activity is inhibited by methylmalonate in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saad, Laura O; Mirandola, Sandra R; Maciel, Evelise N; Castilho, Roger F

    2006-04-01

    Methylmalonic acidemia (MMAemia) is an inherited metabolic disorder of branched amino acid and odd-chain fatty acid metabolism, involving a defect in the conversion of methylmalonyl-coenzyme A to succinyl-coenzyme A. Systemic and neurological manifestations in this disease are thought to be associated with the accumulation of methylmalonate (MMA) in tissues and biological fluids with consequent impairment of energy metabolism and oxidative stress. In the present work we studied the effect of MMA and two other inhibitors of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex II (malonate and 3-nitropropionate) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in tissue homogenates from adult rats. MMA potently inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in liver and brain homogenates as well as in a purified bovine heart LDH preparation. LDH was about one order of magnitude less sensitive to inhibition by MMA when catalyzing the conversion of pyruvate to lactate. Kinetic studies on the inhibition of brain LDH indicated that MMA inhibits this enzyme competitively with lactate as a substrate (K (i)=3.02+/-0.59 mM). Malonate and 3-nitropropionate also strongly inhibited LDH-catalyzed conversion of lactate to pyruvate in brain homogenates, while no inhibition was observed by succinate or propionate, when present in concentrations of up to 25 mM. We propose that inhibition of the lactate/pyruvate conversion by MMA contributes to lactate accumulation in blood, metabolic acidemia and inhibition of gluconeogenesis observed in patients with MMAemia. Moreover, the inhibition of LDH in the central nervous system may also impair the lactate shuttle between astrocytes and neurons, compromising neuronal energy metabolism.

  1. The serotonin receptor agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine facilitates noradrenaline release from rat spinal cord slices and inhibits monoamine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Reimann, W; Schneider, F

    1993-03-01

    1. The influences of the purported serotonergic agonist 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (MeODMT) on noradrenaline release and metabolism were investigated in a rat spinal cord release model and a monoamine oxidase (MAO) assay. 2. MeODMT inhibited the basal outflow of tritium from rat spinal cord slices preincubated with [3H]noradrenaline and enhanced the electrically-evoked overflow. 3. Effects on basal outflow were not observed, when monoamine oxidase (MAO) was inhibited by pargyline. Effects on the evoked overflow were not observed in the presence of metitepine or phentolamine. 4. Preferential inhibition by MeODMT of MAO A-type enzyme activity was found in a direct assay. 5. The results provide evidence for two different effects by which MeODMT reinforces noradrenergic neurotransmission in the rat spinal cord: facilitation of stimulation-evoked noradrenaline release and inhibition of noradrenaline metabolism by MAO inhibition.

  2. Retrocyclin inhibits Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm formation and toxin activity.

    PubMed

    Hooven, Thomas A; Randis, Tara M; Hymes, Saul R; Rampersaud, Ryan; Ratner, Adam J

    2012-12-01

    Retrocyclins are cyclic antimicrobial peptides that have been shown to be both broadly active and safe in animal models. RC-101, a synthetic retrocyclin, targets important human pathogens and is a candidate vaginal microbicide. Its activity against microbes associated with bacterial vaginosis is unknown. We investigated the effect of RC-101 on toxin activity, bacterial growth and biofilm formation of Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro. RC-101 potently inhibits the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin, the Gardnerella vaginalis toxin, on both erythrocytes and nucleated cells. RC-101 lacks inhibitory activity against planktonic G. vaginalis but markedly decreases biofilm formation. These dual properties, toxin inhibition and biofilm retardation, justify further exploration of RC-101 as a candidate agent for bacterial vaginosis prevention.

  3. Retrocyclin inhibits Gardnerella vaginalis biofilm formation and toxin activity

    PubMed Central

    Hooven, Thomas A.; Randis, Tara M.; Hymes, Saul R.; Rampersaud, Ryan; Ratner, Adam J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Retrocyclins are cyclic antimicrobial peptides that have been shown to be both broadly active and safe in animal models. RC-101, a synthetic retrocyclin, targets important human pathogens and is a candidate vaginal microbicide. Its activity against microbes associated with bacterial vaginosis is unknown. Methods We investigated the effect of RC-101 on toxin activity, bacterial growth and biofilm formation of Gardnerella vaginalis in vitro. Results RC-101 potently inhibits the cytolytic activity of vaginolysin, the Gardnerella vaginalis toxin, on both erythrocytes and nucleated cells. RC-101 lacks inhibitory activity against planktonic G. vaginalis but markedly decreases biofilm formation. Conclusions These dual properties, toxin inhibition and biofilm retardation, justify further exploration of RC-101 as a candidate agent for bacterial vaginosis prevention. PMID:22855857

  4. Thrombomodulin inhibits the activation of eosinophils and mast cells.

    PubMed

    Roeen, Ziaurahman; Toda, Masaaki; D'Alessandro-Gabazza, Corina N; Onishi, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Yasuma, Taro; Urawa, Masahito; Taguchi, Osamu; Gabazza, Esteban C

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils and mast cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma. Activation of both cells leads to the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in the airway of asthmatic patients. Recently, we have shown that inhaled thrombomodulin inhibits allergic bronchial asthma in a mouse model. In the present study, we hypothesize that thrombomodulin can inhibit the activation of eosinophils and mast cells. The effect of thrombomodulin on the activation and release of inflammatory mediators from eosinophils and mast cells was evaluated. Thrombomodulin inhibited the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis, upregulation of CD11b and degranulation of eosinophils. Treatment with thrombomodulin also significantly suppressed the degranulation and synthesis of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in eosinophils and mast cells. Mice treated with a low-dose of inhaled thrombomodulin have decreased number of eosinophils and activated mast cells and Th2 cytokines in the lungs compared to untreated mice. The results of this study suggest that thrombomodulin may modulate allergic responses by inhibiting the activation of both eosinophils and mast cells.

  5. Protein kinase C activators inhibit capillary endothelial cell growth

    SciTech Connect

    Doctrow, S.R.

    1986-05-01

    Phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binds specifically to bovine capillary endothelial (BCE) cells (K/sub d/ = 8nM) and inhibits the proliferation (K/sub 50/ = 6 +/- 4 nM). Under similar conditions, PDBu does not inhibit the growth of bovine aortic endothelial or smooth muscle cells. PDBu markedly attenuates the response of BCE cells to purified human hepatoma-derived growth factor which, in the absence of PDBu, stimulates BCE cell growth by about 3-fold. Several observations suggest that the inhibition of BCE cell growth by PDBu is mediated by protein kinase C: (1) different phorbol compounds inhibit BCE cell growth according to the relative potencies as protein kinase C activators (12-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate > PDBu >> phorbol 12,13-diacetate >>>..beta..-phorbol; ..cap alpha..-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate). (2) Specific binding of PDBu to BCE cells is displaced by sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol (diC/sub 8/), a protein kinase C activator and an analog of the putative second messenger activating this kinase in vivo. The weak protein kinase C activator, sn-1,2-dibutyrylglycerol, does not affect PDBu binding. (3) A cytosolic extract from BCE cells contains a Ca/sup 2 +//phosphatidylserine-dependent kinase that is activated by diC/sub 8/ and PDBu, but not by ..beta..-phorbol. These results support a role for protein kinase C in suppressing capillary endothelial cell growth and may therefore have implications in the intracellular regulation of angiogenesis.

  6. Thyrsiferol Inhibits Mitochondrial Respiration and HIF-1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi, Fakhri; Falkenberg, Miriam; Ioannou, Efstathia; Roussis, Vassilios; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G.

    2010-01-01

    The cytotoxic marine red algal metabolite thyrsiferol (1) was found to inhibit hypoxia-induced hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation in T47D human breast tumor cells (66% inhibition at 3 μM). Compound 1 also suppressed hypoxic induction of HIF-1 target genes (VEGF, GLUT-1) at the mRNA level, and displayed tumor cell line-selective time-dependent inhibition of cell viability/proliferation. Mechanistic studies revealed that 1 selectively suppressed mitochondrial respiration at Complex I (IC50 3 μM). Thyrsiferol represents a prototypical, structurally unique electron transport chain inhibitor. The apparent rotenone-like activity may contribute to the observed cytotoxicity of 1 and play an important role in Laurencia chemical defense. PMID:21785662

  7. Inhibition of monoamine oxidase activity by antidepressants and mood stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Fisar, Zdenek; Hroudová, Jana; Raboch, Jirí

    2010-01-01

    Monoamine oxidase (MAO), the enzyme responsible for metabolism of monoamine neurotransmitters, has an important role in the brain development and function, and MAO inhibitors have a range of potential therapeutic uses. We investigated systematically in vitro effects of pharmacologically different antidepressants and mood stabilizers on MAO activity. Effects of drugs on the activity of MAO were measured in crude mitochondrial fraction isolated from cortex of pig brain, when radiolabeled serotonin (for MAO-A) or phenylethylamine (for MAO-B) was used as substrate. The several antidepressants and mood stabilizers were compared with effects of well known MAO inhibitors such as moclobemide, iproniazid, pargyline, and clorgyline. In general, the effect of tested drugs was found to be inhibitory. The half maximal inhibitory concentration, parameters of enzyme kinetic, and mechanism of inhibition were determined. MAO-A was inhibited by the following drugs: pargyline > clorgyline > iproniazid > fluoxetine > desipramine > amitriptyline > imipramine > citalopram > venlafaxine > reboxetine > olanzapine > mirtazapine > tianeptine > moclobemide, cocaine > lithium, valproate. MAO-B was inhibited by the following drugs: pargyline > clorgyline > iproniazid > fluoxetine > venlafaxine > amitriptyline > olanzapine > citalopram > desipramine > reboxetine > imipramine > tianeptine > mirtazapine, cocaine > moclobemide, lithium, valproate. The mechanism of inhibition of MAOs by several antidepressants was found various. It was concluded that MAO activity is acutely affected by pharmacologically different antidepressants at relatively high drug concentrations; this effect is inhibitory. There are differences both in inhibitory potency and in mechanism of inhibition between both several drugs and the two MAO isoforms. While MAO inhibition is not primary biochemical effect related to their therapeutic action, it can be supposed that decrease of MAO activity may be concerned in some effects of

  8. Inhibition of Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Activates Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Wengrod, Jordan; Martin, Leenus; Wang, Ding; Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela; Dietz, Harry C.

    2013-01-01

    Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an mRNA surveillance mechanism which rapidly degrades select cytoplasmic mRNAs. We and others have shown that NMD is a dynamically regulated process inhibited by amino acid deprivation, hypoxia, and other cellular stresses commonly generated by the tumor microenvironment. This inhibition of NMD can result in the accumulation of misfolded, mutated, and aggregated proteins, but how cells adapt to these aberrant proteins is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of NMD activates autophagy, an established protein surveillance mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, the hyperactivation of NMD blunts the induction of autophagy in response to a variety of cellular stresses. The regulation of autophagy by NMD is due, in part, to stabilization of the documented NMD target ATF4. NMD inhibition increases intracellular amino acids, a hallmark of autophagy, and the concomitant inhibition of autophagy and NMD, either molecularly or pharmacologically, leads to synergistic cell death. Together these studies indicate that autophagy is an adaptive response to NMD inhibition and uncover a novel relationship between an mRNA surveillance system and a protein surveillance system, with important implications for the treatment of cancer. PMID:23508110

  9. Inhibition of nonsense-mediated RNA decay activates autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wengrod, Jordan; Martin, Leenus; Wang, Ding; Frischmeyer-Guerrerio, Pamela; Dietz, Harry C; Gardner, Lawrence B

    2013-06-01

    Nonsense-mediated RNA decay (NMD) is an mRNA surveillance mechanism which rapidly degrades select cytoplasmic mRNAs. We and others have shown that NMD is a dynamically regulated process inhibited by amino acid deprivation, hypoxia, and other cellular stresses commonly generated by the tumor microenvironment. This inhibition of NMD can result in the accumulation of misfolded, mutated, and aggregated proteins, but how cells adapt to these aberrant proteins is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the inhibition of NMD activates autophagy, an established protein surveillance mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo. Conversely, the hyperactivation of NMD blunts the induction of autophagy in response to a variety of cellular stresses. The regulation of autophagy by NMD is due, in part, to stabilization of the documented NMD target ATF4. NMD inhibition increases intracellular amino acids, a hallmark of autophagy, and the concomitant inhibition of autophagy and NMD, either molecularly or pharmacologically, leads to synergistic cell death. Together these studies indicate that autophagy is an adaptive response to NMD inhibition and uncover a novel relationship between an mRNA surveillance system and a protein surveillance system, with important implications for the treatment of cancer.

  10. Scutellarein Reduces Inflammatory Responses by Inhibiting Src Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Nak Yoon

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoids are plant pigments that have been demonstrated to exert various pharmacological effects including anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-bacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the molecular mechanisms in terms of exact target proteins of flavonoids are not fully elucidated yet. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of scutellarein (SCT), a flavonoid isolated from Erigeron breviscapus, Clerodendrum phlomidis and Oroxylum indicum Vent that have been traditionally used to treat various inflammatory diseases in China and Brazil. For this purpose, a nitric oxide (NO) assay, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), nuclear fractionation, immunoblot analysis, a kinase assay, and an overexpression strategy were employed. Scutellarein significantly inhibited NO production in a dose-dependent manner and reduced the mRNA expression levels of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, SCT also dampened nuclear factor (NF)-κB-driven expression of a luciferase reporter gene upon transfection of a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) construct into Human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK 293) cells; similarly, NF-κ B nuclear translocation was inhibited by SCT. Moreover, the phosphorylation levels of various upstream signaling enzymes involved in NF-κB activation were decreased by SCT treatment in LPS-treated RAW264.7 cells. Finally, SCT strongly inhibited Src kinase activity and also inhibited the autophosphorylation of overexpressed Src. Therefore, our data suggest that SCT can block the inflammatory response by directly inhibiting Src kinase activity linked to NF-κB activation. PMID:26330757

  11. Characterization of a pollen-preferential gene OSIAGP from rice (Oryza sativa L. subspecies indica) coding for an arabinogalactan protein homologue, and analysis of its promoter activity during pollen development and pollen tube growth.

    PubMed

    Anand, Saurabh; Tyagi, Akhilesh K

    2010-06-01

    During differential screening of inflorescence-specific cDNA libraries from Oryza sativa indica, an arabinogalactan protein (OSIAGP) cDNA (586 bp) expressing preferentially in the inflorescence has been isolated. It encodes an arabinogalactan protein of 59 amino acids (6.4 kDa) with a transmembrane domain and a secretory domain at the N terminus. The protein shows homology with AGP23 from Arabidopsis, and its homologue in japonica rice is located on chromosome 6. OSIAGP transcripts also accumulate in shoots and roots of rice seedling grown in the dark, but light represses expression of the gene. Analysis of a genomic clone of OSIAGP revealed that its promoter contains several pollen-specificity and light-regulatory elements. The promoter confers pollen-preferential activity on gus, starting from the release of microspores to anther dehiscence in transgenic tobacco, and is also active during pollen tube growth. Analysis of pollen preferential activity of the promoter in the transgenic rice system revealed that even the approximately 300 bp fragment has activity in pollen and the anther wall and further deletion down to approximately 100 bp completely abolishes this activity, which is consistent with in-silico analysis of the promoter. Arabinogalactan proteins have been shown to be involved in the cell elongation process. The homology of OSIAGP with AGP23 and the fact that seedling growth in the dark and pollen tube growth are events based on cell elongation strengthen the possibility of OSIAGP performing a similar function.

  12. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to…

  13. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to…

  14. Inhibition of catalase activity in vitro by diesel exhaust particles.

    PubMed

    Mori, Y; Murakami, S; Sagae, T; Hayashi, H; Sakata, M; Sagai, M; Kumagai, Y

    1996-02-09

    The effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the activity of catalase, an intracellular antioxidant, was investigated because H2O2 is a cytotoxic oxidant, and catalase released from alveolar cells is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung. DEP inhibited the activity of bovine liver catalase dose-dependently, to 25-30% of its original value. The inhibition of catalase by DEP was observed only in the presence of anions such as Cl-,Br-, or thiocyanate. Other anions, such as CH3COO- or SO4-, and cations such as K+, Na+, Mg2+, or Fe2+, did not affect the activity of catalase, even in the presence of DEP extract. Catalase from guinea pig alveolar cells and catalase from red blood cells were also inhibited by DEP extracts, as was catalase from bovine liver. These results suggest that DEP taken up in the lung and located on alveolar spaces might cause cell injury by inhibiting the activity of catalase in epithelial lining fluid, enhancing the toxicity of H2O2 generated from cells in addition to that of O2- generated by the chemical reaction of DEP with oxygen.

  15. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  16. Oxymatrine inhibits microglia activation via HSP60-TLR4 signaling.

    PubMed

    Ding, Feijia; Li, Yunhong; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Shuting; Wang, Yin

    2016-11-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens, which has broad anti-inflammatory, antitumor and immunosuppressant actions. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has recently been shown to have an important role in autoimmune reactions. The present study aimed to investigate whether OMT exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting microglial activation and examined the role of HSP60 in this process. Western blot analysis and ELISA showed that OMT decreased the expression and release of HSP60 by LPS-activated BV2 cells. The expression of heat shock factor 1, the transcription factor of HSP60, was also suppressed by OMT. Extracellular HSP60 has been previously indicated to induce microglial apoptosis through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 pathway. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that LPS treatment induced apoptosis of BV2 cells, which was inhibited by OMT in parallel with inhibition of LPS-induced expression of TLR-4. Furthermore, OMT was shown to suppress the levels of myeloid differentiation factor (MYD)88, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. In light of these results, it was concluded that OMT may exert its neuroprotective effects via HSP60/TLR-4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathways to inhibit microglial activation. OMT may therefore offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglial activation.

  17. Oxymatrine inhibits microglia activation via HSP60-TLR4 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Feijia; Li, Yunhong; Hou, Xiaolin; Zhang, Rui; Hu, Shuting; Wang, Yin

    2016-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is an alkaloid extracted from Sophora flavescens, which has broad anti-inflammatory, antitumor and immunosuppressant actions. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have remained elusive. Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) has recently been shown to have an important role in autoimmune reactions. The present study aimed to investigate whether OMT exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting microglial activation and examined the role of HSP60 in this process. Western blot analysis and ELISA showed that OMT decreased the expression and release of HSP60 by LPS-activated BV2 cells. The expression of heat shock factor 1, the transcription factor of HSP60, was also suppressed by OMT. Extracellular HSP60 has been previously indicated to induce microglial apoptosis through the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 pathway. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that LPS treatment induced apoptosis of BV2 cells, which was inhibited by OMT in parallel with inhibition of LPS-induced expression of TLR-4. Furthermore, OMT was shown to suppress the levels of myeloid differentiation factor (MYD)88, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, caspase-3, inducible nitric oxide synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6. In light of these results, it was concluded that OMT may exert its neuroprotective effects via HSP60/TLR-4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathways to inhibit microglial activation. OMT may therefore offer substantial therapeutic potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases associated with microglial activation. PMID:27882228

  18. ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ARSENICALS INHIBIT THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE ACTIVITY IN CULTURED RAT HEPATOCYTES.

    S. Lin1, L. M. Del Razo1, M. Styblo1, C. Wang2, W. R. Cullen2, and D.J. Thomas3. 1Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC; 2Univ. British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3National Health and En...

  19. Inhibition of catalase activity in vitro by diesel exhaust particles

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, Yoki; Murakami, Sumika; Sagae, Toshiyuki

    1996-02-09

    The effect of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on the activity of catalase, an intracellular anti-oxidant, was investigated because H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is a cytotoxic oxidant, and catalase released from alveolar cells is an important antioxidant in the epithelial lining fluid in the lung. DEP inhibited the activity of bovine liver catalase dose-dependently, to 25-30% of its original value. The inhibition of catalase by DEP was observed only in the presence of anions such as Cl{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, or thiocyanate. Other anions, such as CH{sub 3}COO{sup {minus}} or SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, and cations such as K{sup +}, Na{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, or Fe{sup 2+}, did not affect the activity of catalase, even in the presence of DEP extract. Catalase from guinea pig alveolar cells and catalase from red blood cells were also inhibited by DEP extracts, as was catalase from bovine liver. These results suggest that DEP taken up in the lung and located on alveolar spaces might cause cell injury by inhibiting the activity of catalase in epithelial lining fluid, enhancing the toxicity of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated from cells in addition to that of O{sub 2}{sup {minus}} generated by the chemical reaction of DEP with oxygen. 10 refs., 6 figs.

  20. Cyanate-mediated inhibition of neutrophil myeloperoxidase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Qian, M; Eaton, J W; Wolff, S P

    1997-01-01

    Cyanate (CNO-) forms spontaneously in solutions containing urea, and is present in urine and the body fluids of uraemic patients. We have explored the possibility that CNO- might be one of the unknown substances responsible for the reported impairment, by urine and uraemic plasma, of neutrophil oxidative metabolism (especially as measured by luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence). Luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence generated by human neutrophils derives predominantly from the activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) which produces hypochlorous acid from H2O2 and Cl-. We hypothesized that CNO- (which resembles the 'pseudohalide' thiocyanate, an alternative substrate for MPO) might somehow interfere with the activity of MPO. In support of this, we find: (i) CNO- inhibits both peroxidative and halogenating activities of MPO and also inhibits the enzyme within intact human neutrophils; (ii) the inhibition is H2O2-dependent, irreversible, accompanied by covalent addition of [14C]CNO- (or a carbon-containing fragment thereof) to the enzyme; (iii) CNO- also inhibits Cl-/H2O2/MPO-mediated bacterial killing. Impairment of this arm of neutrophil bactericidal activity by CNO- formed from urea may be one factor in the risk of urinary-tract infection associated with urinary stasis and perhaps in the generalized increase in susceptibility to infection in uraemic patients. PMID:9337863

  1. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1

    PubMed Central

    Gunnink, Leesha K.; Alabi, Ola D.; Kuiper, Benjamin D.; Gunnink, Stephen M.; Schuiteman, Sam J.; Strohbehn, Lauren E.; Hamilton, Kathryn E.; Wrobel, Kathryn E.; Louters, Larry L.

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin’s inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. PMID:27039889

  2. Curcumin directly inhibits the transport activity of GLUT1.

    PubMed

    Gunnink, Leesha K; Alabi, Ola D; Kuiper, Benjamin D; Gunnink, Stephen M; Schuiteman, Sam J; Strohbehn, Lauren E; Hamilton, Kathryn E; Wrobel, Kathryn E; Louters, Larry L

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a major ingredient in turmeric, has a long history of medicinal applications in a wide array of maladies including treatment for diabetes and cancer. Seemingly counterintuitive to the documented hypoglycemic effects of curcumin, however, a recent report indicates that curcumin directly inhibits glucose uptake in adipocytes. The major glucose transporter in adipocytes is GLUT4. Therefore, this study investigates the effects of curcumin in cell lines where the major transporter is GLUT1. We report that curcumin has an immediate inhibitory effect on basal glucose uptake in L929 fibroblast cells with a maximum inhibition of 80% achieved at 75 μM curcumin. Curcumin also blocks activation of glucose uptake by azide, glucose deprivation, hydroxylamine, or phenylarsine oxide. Inhibition does not increase with exposure time and the inhibitory effects reverse within an hour. Inhibition does not appear to involve a reaction between curcumin and the thiol side chain of a cysteine residue since neither prior treatment of cells with iodoacetamide nor curcumin with cysteine alters curcumin's inhibitory effects. Curcumin is a mixed inhibitor reducing the Vmax of 2DG transport by about half with little effect on the Km. The inhibitory effects of curcumin are not additive to the effects of cytochalasin B and 75 μM curcumin actually reduces specific cytochalasin B binding by 80%. Taken together, the data suggest that curcumin binds directly to GLUT1 at a site that overlaps with the cytochalasin B binding site and thereby inhibits glucose transport. A direct inhibition of GLUT proteins in intestinal epithelial cells would likely reduce absorption of dietary glucose and contribute to a hypoglycemic effect of curcumin. Also, inhibition of GLUT1 activity might compromise cancer cells that overexpress GLUT1 and be another possible mechanism for the documented anticancer effects of curcumin. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Tac-beta1 inhibits FAK activation and Src signaling.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Allison L; Jones, Christopher W; LaFlamme, Susan E

    2008-03-28

    The binding of integrins to extracellular matrix triggers signals that promote cell spreading. We previously demonstrated that expression of the integrin beta1 cytoplasmic domain in the context of a chimeric transmembrane receptor with the Tac subunit of the interleukin-2 receptor (Tac-beta1) inhibits cell spreading. To study the mechanism whereby Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, we examined the effect of Tac-beta1 on early signaling events following integrin engagement namely FAK and Src signaling. We infected primary fibroblasts with adenoviruses expressing Tac or Tac-beta1 and found that Tac-beta1 prevented FAK activation by inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397. In contrast, Src activation was maintained, as phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-419 and Tyr-530 were not responsive to expression of Tac-beta1. Importantly, adhesion-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the Src substrates p130Cas and paxillin was inhibited, indicating that Src signaling was blocked by Tac-beta1. These Src-dependent signaling events were found to require FAK signaling. Our results suggest that Tac-beta1 inhibits cell spreading, at least in part, by preventing the phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-397 and the assembly of signaling complexes necessary for phosphorylation of p130Cas and other downstream effectors.

  4. Inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by androgens.

    PubMed

    Dohanich, G P; Clemens, L G

    1983-12-01

    Experiments to determine the potential of androgen to inhibit estrogen-activated female sexual behavior in rats were conducted. Treatment with either testosterone propionate (0.8 or 1.6 mg/day) or dihydrotestosterone propionate (0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/day) significantly reduced the incidence of lordosis in ovariectomized females receiving estradiol benzoate (1 microgram/day). A similar suppression of estrogen-activated lordosis by testosterone was observed in castrated male rats. Flutamide, an androgen-receptor blocker, prevented the inhibition of lordosis by testosterone in females, indicating that the interaction of testosterone or a metabolite with an androgen receptor may be an important feature of this inhibition. Furthermore, the ability of dihydrotestosterone to inhibit lordosis at lower doses than testosterone suggests that the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone may also be necessary. These experiments demonstrate the potential of testosterone to inhibit the occurrence of female sexual behavior in rats, in contrast to its established facilitative effect on this behavior.

  5. Irregular activity arises as a natural consequence of synaptic inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Terman, D.; Rubin, J. E.; Diekman, C. O.

    2013-12-15

    Irregular neuronal activity is observed in a variety of brain regions and states. This work illustrates a novel mechanism by which irregular activity naturally emerges in two-cell neuronal networks featuring coupling by synaptic inhibition. We introduce a one-dimensional map that captures the irregular activity occurring in our simulations of conductance-based differential equations and mathematically analyze the instability of fixed points corresponding to synchronous and antiphase spiking for this map. We find that the irregular solutions that arise exhibit expansion, contraction, and folding in phase space, as expected in chaotic dynamics. Our analysis shows that these features are produced from the interplay of synaptic inhibition with sodium, potassium, and leak currents in a conductance-based framework and provides precise conditions on parameters that ensure that irregular activity will occur. In particular, the temporal details of spiking dynamics must be present for a model to exhibit this irregularity mechanism and must be considered analytically to capture these effects.

  6. Cutting edge: inhibition of T cell activation by TIM-2.

    PubMed

    Knickelbein, Jared E; de Souza, Anjali J; Tosti, Richard; Narayan, Preeti; Kane, Lawrence P

    2006-10-15

    T cell Ig and mucin domain protein 2 (TIM-2) has been shown to regulate T cell activation in vitro and T cell-mediated disease in vivo. However, it is still not clear whether TIM-2 acts mainly to augment T cell function or to inhibit it. We have directly examined the function of TIM-2 in murine and human T cell lines. Our results indicate that expression of TIM-2 significantly impairs the induction of NFAT and AP-1 transcriptional reporters by not only TCR ligation but also by the pharmacological stimuli PMA and ionomycin. This does not appear to be due to a general effect on cell viability, and the block in NFAT activation can be bypassed by expression of activated alleles of Ras or calcineurin, or MEK kinase, in the case of AP-1. Thus, our data are consistent with a model whereby TIM-2 inhibits T cell activation.

  7. Nucleosomes Inhibit Cas9 Endonuclease Activity in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Hinz, John M; Laughery, Marian F; Wyrick, John J

    2015-12-08

    During Cas9 genome editing in eukaryotic cells, the bacterial Cas9 enzyme cleaves DNA targets within chromatin. To understand how chromatin affects Cas9 targeting, we characterized Cas9 activity on nucleosome substrates in vitro. We find that Cas9 endonuclease activity is strongly inhibited when its target site is located within the nucleosome core. In contrast, the nucleosome structure does not affect Cas9 activity at a target site within the adjacent linker DNA. Analysis of target sites that partially overlap with the nucleosome edge indicates that the accessibility of the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) is the critical determinant of Cas9 activity on a nucleosome.

  8. Pyrithione, a zinc ionophore, inhibits NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, C H; Kim, J H; Moon, S J; Chung, K C; Hsu, C Y; Seo, J T; Ahn, Y S

    1999-06-16

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) suppresses NF-kappaB activity and exhibits cytotoxic effects in bovine cerebral endothelial cells (BCECs), and we have previously reported that these PDTC effects were accompanied by an increase in intracellular zinc levels. To further explore the role of zinc in the modulation of NF-kappaB activation, we studied the effect of pyrithione, a zinc ionophore, on NF-kappaB activation in BCECs. Pyrithione inhibited NF-kappaB activity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Ca-EDTA, but not Zn-EDTA, prevented pyrithione inhibition of NF-kappaB activity. Pyrithione increased the intracellular zinc level within 15 min. This effect was also abolished by Ca-EDTA, but not by Zn-EDTA. The potency of pyrithione on NF-kappaB inhibition and zinc influx was approximately one order of magnitude more potent than PDTC. These findings establish the regulatory role of intracellular zinc levels on NF-kappaB activity in BCECs.

  9. Inhibition of thyroid type 1 deiodinase activity by flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A C F; Lisboa, P C; Oliveira, K J; Lima, L P; Barros, I A; Carvalho, D P

    2002-07-01

    Some dietary flavonoids inhibit thyroperoxidase and hepatic deiodinase activity, indicating that these compounds could be classified as anti-thyroid agents. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of various flavonoids on thyroid type 1 iodothyronine deiodinase activity (D1). D1 activity was measured in murine thyroid microsome fractions by the release of 125I from 125I-reverse T3. D1 activity was significantly inhibited by all the flavonoids tested; however, the inhibitory potencies on thyroid D1 activity differed greatly among them. A 50% inhibition of D1 activity (IC(50)) was obtained at 11 microM baicalein, 13 microM quercetin, 17 microM catechin, 55 microM morin, 68 microM rutin, 70 microM fisetin, 72 microM kaempferol and 77 microM biochanin A. Our data reinforce the concept that dietary flavonoids might behave as antithyroid agents, and possibly their chronic consumption could alter thyroid function.

  10. Strenuous physical exercise inhibits granulocyte activation induced by high altitude.

    PubMed

    Choukèr, Alexander; Demetz, Florian; Martignoni, André; Smith, Leslie; Setzer, Florian; Bauer, Andreas; Hölzl, Joseph; Peter, Klaus; Christ, Frank; Thiel, Manfred

    2005-02-01

    To test the hypothesis of whether strenuous physical exercise inhibits neutrophils that can get activated by hypobaric hypoxia, we analyzed the effects of both high altitude and strenuous exercise alone and in combination on potentially cytotoxic functions of granulocytes in healthy volunteers (n = 12 men; average age 27.6 yr; range 24-38 yr). To this end, a field study was prospectively performed with an open-labeled within-subject design comprising three protocols. Protocol I (high altitude) involved a helicopter ascent, overnight stay at 3,196 m, and descent on the following day. Protocol II (physical exercise) involved hiking below an altitude of 2,100 m with repetitive ascents amounting to a total ascent to that of protocol III. Protocol III (combination of physical exercise and high altitude) involved climbing from 1,416 to 3,196 m, stay overnight, and descent on the following day. In protocol I, number of granulocytes did not change, but potentially cytotoxic functions of cells (CD18 expression and superoxide production) were early and significantly upregulated. In protocol II, subjects developed granulocytosis, but functions of cells were inhibited. In protocol III, granulocytosis occurred at higher values than those observed under protocol II. Potentially cytotoxic functions of cells, however, were strongly inhibited again. In conclusion, high altitude alone, even moderate in extent, can activate potentially cytotoxic functions of circulating granulocytes. Strenuous physical exercise strongly inhibits this activation, which may give protection from an otherwise inflammatory injury.

  11. Relationship Between Physical Activity, Adiposity, and Attentional Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Baumgartner, Nicholas W; Walk, Anne Dm; Edwards, Caitlyn G; Covello, Alicia R; Chojnacki, Morgan R; Reeser, Ginger E; Taylor, Andrew M; Holscher, Hannah D; Khan, Naiman A

    2017-09-05

    Physical inactivity and excess adiposity are thought to be detrimental to physical and cognitive health. However, implications of these interrelated health factors are rarely examined together, consequently, little is known regarding the concomitant contribution of physical activity and adiposity to cognition. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical linear regressions were conducted among a sample of adults between 25-45 years (N= 65). Attentional inhibition was assessed using an Eriksen Flanker task. Whole body adiposity (%Fat) was assessed using Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Daily percent time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (%MVPA) was monitored using an accelerometer. After adjusting for significant covariates, %MVPA was a positive predictor of accuracy in the incongruent task (β = 0.31, P = 0.03). Individuals who engaged in greater %MVPA exhibited superior attentional inhibition. Additionally, there was an interaction effect of %Fat and %MVPA on attentional inhibition (β = 0.45, P = 0.04). The positive influence of MVPA on cognitive control persists following the adjustment of significant covariates and adiposity. Additionally, interactive effects between %Fat and %MVPA suggest that individuals with lower activity and greater adiposity exhibited poorer attentional inhibition. These findings have relevance for public health given the elevated rates of physical inactivity and obesity.

  12. Progressive neuronal activation accompanies epileptogenesis caused by hippocampal glutamine synthetase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Albright, Benjamin; Dhaher, Roni; Wang, Helen; Harb, Roa; Lee, Tih-Shih W; Zaveri, Hitten; Eid, Tore

    2017-02-01

    Loss of glutamine synthetase (GS) in hippocampal astrocytes has been implicated in the causation of human mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). However, the mechanism by which the deficiency in GS leads to epilepsy is incompletely understood. Here we ask how hippocampal GS inhibition affects seizure phenotype and neuronal activation during epilepsy development (epileptogenesis). Epileptogenesis was induced by infusing the irreversible GS blocker methionine sulfoximine (MSO) unilaterally into the hippocampal formation of rats. We then used continuous video-intracranial electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring and c-Fos immunohistochemistry to determine the type of seizures and spatial distribution of neuronal activation early (1-5days postinfusion) and late (16-43days postinfusion) in epileptogenesis. Early in epileptogenesis, seizures were preferentially mild (stage 1-2), activating neurons in the entorhinal-hippocampal area, the basolateral amygdala, the piriform cortex, the midline thalamus, and the anterior olfactory area. Late in epileptogenesis, the seizures were generally more severe (stages 4-5) with neuronal activation extending to the neocortex, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the mediodorsal thalamu\\s, and the central nucleus of the amygdala. Our findings demonstrate that inhibition of GS focally in the hippocampal formation triggers a process of epileptogenesis characterized by gradual worsening of seizure severity and involvement of progressively larger neuronal populations over a period of several weeks. Knowledge about the underlying mechanism of epileptogenesis is important because such knowledge may result in more specific and efficacious treatments of MTLE by moving away from large and poorly specific surgical resections to highly targeted surgical or pharmacological interventions of the epileptogenic process.

  13. AMDE-1 Is a Dual Function Chemical for Autophagy Activation and Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Yang, Zuolong; Vollmer, Laura L.; Gao, Ying; Fu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Cui; Chen, Xiaoyun; Liu, Peiqing; Vogt, Andreas; Yin, Xiao-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy is the process by which cytosolic components and organelles are delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Autophagy plays important roles in cellular homeostasis and disease pathogenesis. Small chemical molecules that can modulate autophagy activity may have pharmacological value for treating diseases. Using a GFP-LC3-based high content screening assay we identified a novel chemical that is able to modulate autophagy at both initiation and degradation levels. This molecule, termed as Autophagy Modulator with Dual Effect-1 (AMDE-1), triggered autophagy in an Atg5-dependent manner, recruiting Atg16 to the pre-autophagosomal site and causing LC3 lipidation. AMDE-1 induced autophagy through the activation of AMPK, which inactivated mTORC1 and activated ULK1. AMDE-1did not affect MAP kinase, JNK or oxidative stress signaling for autophagy induction. Surprisingly, treatment with AMDE-1 resulted in impairment in autophagic flux and inhibition of long-lived protein degradation. This inhibition was correlated with a reduction in lysosomal degradation capacity but not with autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Further analysis indicated that AMDE-1 caused a reduction in lysosome acidity and lysosomal proteolytic activity, suggesting that it suppressed general lysosome function. AMDE-1 thus also impaired endocytosis-mediated EGF receptor degradation. The dual effects of AMDE-1 on autophagy induction and lysosomal degradation suggested that its net effect would likely lead to autophagic stress and lysosome dysfunction, and therefore cell death. Indeed, AMDE-1 triggered necroptosis and was preferentially cytotoxic to cancer cells. In conclusion, this study identified a new class of autophagy modulators with dual effects, which can be explored for potential uses in cancer therapy. PMID:25894744

  14. Meningococcal surface fibril (Msf) binds to activated vitronectin and inhibits the terminal complement pathway to increase serum resistance.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Natalie J; Hill, Darryl J; Borodina, Elena; Sessions, Richard B; Devos, Nathalie I; Feron, Christiane M; Poolman, Jan T; Virji, Mumtaz

    2011-12-01

    Complement evasion is an important survival strategy of Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) during colonization and infection. Previously, we have shown that Nm Opc binds to serum vitronectin to inhibit complement-mediated killing. In this study, we demonstrate meningococcal interactions with vitronectin via a novel adhesin, Msf (meningococcal surface fibril, previously NhhA or Hsf). As with Opc, Msf binds preferentially to activated vitronectin (aVn), engaging at its N-terminal region but the C-terminal heparin binding domain may also participate. However, unlike Opc, the latter binding is not heparin-mediated. By binding to aVn, Msf or Opc can impart serum resistance, which is further increased in coexpressers, a phenomenon dependent on serum aVn concentrations. The survival fitness of aVn-binding derivatives was evident from mixed population studies, in which msf/opc mutants were preferentially depleted. In addition, using vitronectin peptides to block Msf-aVn interactions, aVn-induced inhibition of lytic C5b-9 formation and of serum killing could be reversed. As Msf-encoding gene is ubiquitous in the meningococcal strains examined and is expressed in vivo, serum resistance via Msf may be of significance to meningococcal pathogenesis. The data imply that vitronectin binding may be an important strategy for the in vivo survival of Nm for which the bacterium has evolved redundant mechanisms.

  15. Differential Modulation of Intracortical Inhibition in Human Motor Cortex during Selective Activation of an Intrinsic Hand Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zoghi, Maryam; Pearce, Sophie L; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2003-01-01

    Paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess the effectiveness of intracortical inhibition (ICI) acting on corticospinal neurons controlling three intrinsic hand muscles in humans. We hypothesised that the suppression of ICI with selective activation of a muscle would be restricted to corticospinal neurons controlling the muscle targeted for activation. Surface EMG was recorded from abductor pollicis brevis (APB), first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles of the left hand. Subjects were tested at rest and during weak selective activation of APB or ADM, while they attempted to keep the other muscles relaxed using visual feedback. Paired-pulse TMS was applied with a circular coil oriented to produce antero-posterior (AP) current flow in the right motor cortex (to preferentially evoke I3 waves in corticospinal neurons) and with postero-anterior (PA) currents (to preferentially evoke I1 waves). Paired-pulse TMS was less effective in suppressing the muscle evoked potential (MEP) when the muscle was targeted for selective activation, with both AP and PA stimulation. The mechanism for this includes effects on late I waves, as it was evident with a weak AP test TMS pulse that elicited negligible I1 waves in corticospinal neurons. ICI circuits activated by TMS, which exert their effects on late I waves but do not affect I1 waves, are strongly implicated in this modulation. With AP stimulation, paired-pulse inhibition was not significantly altered for corticospinal neurons controlling other muscles of the same hand which were required to be inactive during the selective activation task. This differential modulation was not seen with PA stimulation, which preferentially activates I1 waves and evokes a MEP that is less influenced by ICI. The observations with AP stimulation suggest that selective activation of a hand muscle is accompanied by a selective suppression of ICI effects on the corticospinal neurons controlling

  16. Linalool inhibits cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation by inhibiting NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianqun; Xu, Hai; Wu, Jun; Qu, Changfa; Sun, Fenglin; Xu, Shidong

    2015-12-01

    Linalool, a natural compound that exists in the essential oils of several aromatic plants species, has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects. However, the effects of linalool on cigarette smoke (CS)-induced acute lung inflammation have not been reported. In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of linalool on CS-induced acute lung inflammation in mice. Linalool was given i.p. to mice 2h before CS exposure daily for five consecutive days. The numbers of macrophages and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. The production of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 were detected by ELISA. The expression of NF-κB was detected by Western blotting. Our results showed that treatment of linalool significantly attenuated CS-induced lung inflammation, coupled with inhibited the infiltration of inflammatory cells and TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, IL-8 and MCP-1 production. Meanwhile, treatment of linalool inhibited CS-induced lung MPO activity and pathological changes. Furthermore, linalool suppressed CS-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that linalool protected against CS-induced lung inflammation through inhibiting CS-induced NF-κB activation.

  17. Sesquiterpenes inhibiting the microglial activation from Laurus nobilis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongqiang; Xie, Chunfeng; Wang, Hao; Jin, Da-Qing; Li, Shen; Wang, Meicheng; Ren, Quanhui; Xu, Jing; Ohizumi, Yasushi; Guo, Yuanqiang

    2014-05-21

    The inhibitory reagents to inhibit the activation of microglial cells may be potentially useful for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The leaves of the plant Laurus nobilis belonging to the family Lauraceae, namely, bay leaves, have been used as a popular spice, and their extract showed moderate inhibition on microglial activation. A further phytochemical investigation of the leaves led to the isolation of two new (1, 2) and eight known (3-10) sesquiterpenes. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, HMBC, (1)H-(1)H COSY, and NOESY) spectroscopic data analyses and Chem3D modeling. The following biological studies disclosed that these isolated compounds showed inhibitory activities on LPS-induced microglial activation. The results of our phytochemical investigation, including two new sesquiterpenes (1 and 2) and the first report of two compounds (3 and 4) from this species, further revealed the chemical composition of bay leaves as a popular spice, and the biological studies implied that bay leaves, containing bioactive substances with the inhibition of microglial activation, were potentially beneficial to human health.

  18. Chlorhexidine inhibits the activity of dental cysteine cathepsins.

    PubMed

    Scaffa, P M C; Vidal, C M P; Barros, N; Gesteira, T F; Carmona, A K; Breschi, L; Pashley, D H; Tjäderhane, L; Tersariol, I L S; Nascimento, F D; Carrilho, M R

    2012-04-01

    The co-expression of MMPs and cysteine cathepsins in the human dentin-pulp complex indicates that both classes of enzymes can contribute to the endogenous proteolytic activity of dentin. Chlorhexidine (CHX) is an efficient inhibitor of MMP activity. This study investigated whether CHX could also inhibit cysteine cathepsins present in dentin. The inhibitory profile of CHX on the activity of dentin-extracted and recombinant cysteine cathepsins (B, K, and L) was monitored in fluorogenic substrates. The rate of substrate hydrolysis was spectrofluorimetrically measured, and inhibitory constants were calculated. Molecular docking was performed to predict the binding affinity between CHX and cysteine cathepsins. The results showed that CHX inhibited the proteolytic activity of dentin-extracted cysteine cathepsins in a dose-dependent manner. The proteolytic activity of human recombinant cathepsins was also inhibited by CHX. Molecular docking analysis suggested that CHX strongly interacts with the subsites S2 to S2' of cysteine cathepsins B, K, and L in a very similar manner. Taken together, these results clearly showed that CHX is a potent inhibitor of the cysteine cathepsins-proteolytic enzymes present in the dentin-pulp complex.

  19. The antileishmanial activity of xanthohumol is mediated by mitochondrial inhibition.

    PubMed

    Monzote, Lianet; Lackova, Alexandra; Staniek, Katrin; Steinbauer, Silvia; Pichler, Gerald; Jäger, Walter; Gille, Lars

    2016-12-12

    Xanthohumol (Xan) is a natural constituent of human nutrition. Little is known about its actions on leishmanial parasites and their mitochondria as putative target. Therefore, we determined the antileishmanial activity of Xan and resveratrol (Res, as alternative compound with antileishmanial activity) with respect to mitochondria in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes/amastigotes (LaP/LaA) in comparison with their activity in peritoneal macrophages from mouse (PMM) and macrophage cell line J774A.1 (J774). Mechanistic studies were conducted in Leishmania tarentolae promastigotes (LtP) and mitochondrial fractions isolated from LtP. Xan and Res demonstrated antileishmanial activity in LaA [half inhibitory concentration (IC50): Xan 7 µ m, Res 14 µ m]; while they had less influence on the viability of PMM (IC50: Xan 70 µ m, Res >438 µ m). In contrast to Res, Xan strongly inhibited oxygen consumption in Leishmania (LtP) but not in J774 cells. This was based on the inhibition of the mitochondrial electron transfer complex II/III by Xan, which was less pronounced with Res. Neither Xan nor Res increased mitochondrial superoxide release in LtP, while both decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential in LtP. Bioenergetic studies showed that LtP mitochondria have no spare respiratory capacity in contrast to mitochondria in J774 cells and can therefore much less adapt to stress by mitochondrial inhibitors, such as Xan. These data show that Xan may have antileishmanial activity, which is mediated by mitochondrial inhibition.

  20. Microglia-inhibiting activity of Parkinson's disease drug amantadine.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Heon; Lee, Ho-Won; Hwang, Jaegyu; Kim, Jaehong; Lee, Min-Jeong; Han, Hyung-Soo; Lee, Won-Ha; Suk, Kyoungho

    2012-09-01

    Amantadine is currently used as an antiviral and an antiparkinsonian drug. Although the drug is known to bind a viral proton channel protein, the mechanism of action in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains to be determined. This study investigated whether the drug has an inhibitory effect on microglial activation and neuroinflammation, which have been implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative processes. Using cultured microglial cells, it was demonstrated that the drug inhibited inflammatory activation of microglia and a signaling pathway that governs the microglial activation. The drug reduced the expression and production of proinflammatory mediators in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglia cells. The microglia-inhibiting activity of amantadine was also demonstrated in a microglia/neuron coculture and animal models of neuroinflammation and Parkinson's disease. Collectively, our results suggest that amantadine may act on microglia in the central nervous system to inhibit their inflammatory activation, thereby attenuating neuroinflammation. These results provide a molecular basis of the glia-targeted mechanism of action for amantadine.

  1. On the role of phosphatidylethanolamine in the inhibition of activated protein C activity by antiphospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, M D; Triplett, D T; Comp, P C; Esmon, N L; Esmon, C T

    1995-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is an important membrane component for supporting activated protein C anticoagulant activity but has little influence on prothrombin activation. This difference constitutes a potential mechanism for selective inhibition of the protein C anticoagulant pathway by lupus anticoagulants and/or antiphospholipid antibodies. In this study, we demonstrate that the presence of PE augments lupus anticoagulant activity. In the plasma of some patients with lupus anticoagulants, activated protein C anticoagulant activity is more potently inhibited than prothrombin activation. As a result, in the presence of activated protein C and PE, these patient plasmas clot faster than normal plasma. Patients with minimal lupus anticoagulant activity are identified whose plasma potently inhibits activated protein C anticoagulant activity. This process is also PE dependent. In three patient plasmas, these phenomena are shown to be due to immunoglobulins. The PE requirement in the expression of activated protein C anticoagulant activity and the PE dependence of some antiphospholipid antibodies provide a mechanistic basis for the selective inhibition of the protein C pathway. Inhibition of activated protein C function may be a common mechanism contributing to increased thrombotic risk in certain patients with antiphospholipid antibodies. PMID:7814631

  2. Quercetin protects against atherosclerosis by inhibiting dendritic cell activation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Weiqun; Wang, Wenting; Wang, Dongliang; Ling, Wenhua

    2017-09-01

    Quercetin is a typical flavonol with atheroprotective effects, but the effect of quercetin on dendritic cell (DC) maturation in relation to atherosclerosis has not yet been clearly defined. Thus, we investigated whether quercetin can inhibit DC maturation and evaluated its potential value in atherosclerosis progression in ApoE(-/-) mice. Quercetin consumption inhibited DC activation, inflammatory response and suppressed the progression of atherosclerosis in ApoE(-/-) mice. Subsequently, quercetin treatment inhibited the phenotypic and functional maturation of DCs, as evidenced not only by downregulation of CD80, CD86, MHC-II, IL-6 and IL-12 but also by a reduction in the ability to stimulate T cell allogeneic proliferation. Finally, an in vitro study demonstrated that quercetin inhibited DC maturation via upregulation of Dabs, which then downregulated the Src/PI3K/Akt-NF-κB-inflammatory pathways. Our data indicate that quercetin attenuates atherosclerosis progression by regulating DC activation via Dab2 protein expression. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Antisense activity detection by inhibition of fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Hess, M L; DiPaolo, J A; Alvarez-Salas, L M

    2004-01-01

    Use of antisense nucleic acids to modulate expression of particular genes is a promising approach to the therapy of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16)-associated cervical cancer. Understandably, evaluation of the in vivo performance of synthetic antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (AS-ODNs) or ribozymes is of ultimate importance to development of effective antisense tools. Here we report the use of a bacterial reporter system based on the inhibition of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to measure the interaction of AS-ODNs with HPV-16 target nt 410-445, using variants of the green fluorescent protein (GFP). An optimal FRET-producing pair was selected with GFP as the donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) as the acceptor molecule. Hybridization of AS-ODNs with a chimaeric mRNA containing the antisense target site flanked by GFP variants resulted in the inhibition of the FRET effect. Use of different linkers suggested that the amino acid content of the linker has no significant effect on FRET effect. Antisense accessibility, tested by RNaseH assays with phosphorothioated target-specific and mutant AS-ODNs, suggested a specific effect on the chimaeric mRNA. FRET inhibition measurements correlated with the presence of truncated proteins confirming true antisense activity over the target. Therefore, FRET inhibition may be used for the direct measurement of AS-ODNs activity in vivo. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-10-26

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD.

  5. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD. PMID:26499517

  6. Luteolin, a flavonoid, inhibits AP-1 activation by basophils

    SciTech Connect

    Hirano, Toru; Higa, Shinji; Arimitsu, Junsuke; Naka, Tetsuji; Ogata, Atsushi; Shima, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Minoru; Yamadori, Tomoki; Ohkawara, Tomoharu; Kuwabara, Yusuke; Kawai, Mari; Matsuda, Hisashi; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Maezaki, Naoyoshi; Tanaka, Tetsuaki; Kawase, Ichiro; Tanaka, Toshio . E-mail: ttanak@imed3.med.osaka-u.ac.jp

    2006-02-03

    Flavonoids including luteolin, apigenin, and fisetin are inhibitors of IL-4 synthesis and CD40 ligand expression by basophils. This study was done to search for compounds with greater inhibitory activity of IL-4 expression and to clarify the molecular mechanisms through which flavonoids inhibit their expression. Of the 37 flavonoids and related compounds examined, ayanin, luteolin, and apigenin were the strongest inhibitors of IL-4 production by purified basophils in response to anti-IgE antibody plus IL-3. Luteolin did not suppress Syk or Lyn phosphorylation in basophils, nor did suppress p54/46 SAPK/JNK, p38 MAPK, and p44/42 MAPK activation by a basophilic cell line, KU812 cells, stimulated with A23187 and PMA. However, luteolin did inhibit phosphorylation of c-Jun and DNA binding activity of AP-1 in nuclear lysates from stimulated KU812 cells. These results provide a fundamental structure of flavonoids for IL-4 inhibition and demonstrate a novel action of flavonoids that suppresses the activation of AP-1.

  7. Immune complexes inhibit interleukin-1 secretion and inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Janczy, John R.; Ciraci, Ceren; Haasken, Stefanie; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Olivier, Alicia K.; Cassel, Suzanne L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) immune complexes have been shown to modify immune responses driven by antigen presenting cells in either a pro- or anti-inflammatory direction depending upon the context of stimulation. However, the ability of immune complexes to modulate the inflammasome-dependent innate immune response is unknown. Here we show that IgG immune complexes suppress IL-1α and IL-1β secretion through inhibition of inflammasome activation. The mechanism by which this inhibition occurs is via immune complex ligation of activating Fcγ receptors (FcγR), resulting in prevention of both activation and assembly of the inflammasome complex in response to NLRP3, NLRC4, or AIM2 agonists. In vivo, administration of antigen in the form of an immune complex during priming of the immune response inhibited resultant adaptive immune responses in a NLRP3 dependent model of allergic airway disease. Our data reveal an unexpected mechanism regulating CD4+ T cell differentiation, whereby immune complexes suppress inflammasome activation and the generation of IL-1α and IL-1β from antigen presenting cells, which are critical for the antigen-driven differentiation of CD4+ T cells. PMID:25320279

  8. Immune complexes inhibit IL-1 secretion and inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Janczy, John R; Ciraci, Ceren; Haasken, Stefanie; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Olivier, Alicia K; Cassel, Suzanne L; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S

    2014-11-15

    IgG immune complexes have been shown to modify immune responses driven by APCs in either a pro- or anti-inflammatory direction depending upon the context of stimulation. However, the ability of immune complexes to modulate the inflammasome-dependent innate immune response is unknown. In this study, we show that IgG immune complexes suppress IL-1α and IL-1β secretion through inhibition of inflammasome activation. The mechanism by which this inhibition occurs is via immune complex ligation of activating FcγRs, resulting in prevention of both activation and assembly of the inflammasome complex in response to nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat (NLR) P3, NLRC4, or AIM2 agonists. In vivo, administration of Ag in the form of an immune complex during priming of the immune response inhibited resultant adaptive immune responses in an NLRP3-dependent model of allergic airway disease. Our data reveal an unexpected mechanism regulating CD4(+) T cell differentiation, by which immune complexes suppress inflammasome activation and the generation of IL-1α and IL-1β from APCs, which are critical for the Ag-driven differentiation of CD4(+) T cells.

  9. Complement activity and pharmacological inhibition in cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Théroux, Pierre; Martel, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    While complement is the most important component of humoral autoimmunity, and inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis, relatively few studies have looked at complement implications in atherosclerosis and its complications. C-reactive protein is a marker of inflammation and is also involved in atherosclerosis; it activates complement and colocalizes with activated complement proteins within the infarcting myocardium and the active atherosclerotic plaques. As new agents capable of modulating complement activity are being developed, new targets for the management of atherosclerosis are emerging that are related to autoimmunity and inflammation. The present paper reviews the putative roles of the various complement activation pathways in the development of atherosclerosis, in ST segment elevation and non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, and in coronary artery bypass graft surgery. It also provides a perspective on new therapeutic interventions being developed to modulate complement activity. These interventions include the C1 esterase inhibitor, which may be consumed in some inflammatory states resulting in the loss of one of the mechanisms inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways; TP10, a recombinant protein of the soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) which inhibits the C3 and C5 convertases of the common pathway by binding C3b and C4b; a truncated version of the soluble complement receptor type 1 CRI lacking the C4b binding site which selectively inhibits the alternative pathway; and pexelizumab, a monoclonal antibody selectively blocking C5 to prevent the activation of the terminal pathway that is involved in excessive inflammation and autoimmune responses. PMID:16498508

  10. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle.

    PubMed

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-02-01

    In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen) and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (U.K., Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the U.S.A., Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  11. Ginseng inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and heart failure via NHE-1 inhibition and attenuation of calcineurin activation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Juan; Gan, Xiaohong Tracey; Haist, James V; Rajapurohitam, Venkatesh; Zeidan, Asad; Faruq, Nazo Said; Karmazyn, Morris

    2011-01-01

    Ginseng is a medicinal plant used widely in Asia that has gained popularity in the West during the past decade. Increasing evidence suggests a therapeutic role for ginseng in the cardiovascular system. The pharmacological properties of ginseng are mainly attributed to ginsenosides, the principal bioactive constituents in ginseng. The present study was carried out to determine whether ginseng exerts a direct antihypertrophic effect in cultured cardiomyocytes and whether it modifies the heart failure process in vivo. Moreover, we determined the potential underlying mechanisms for these actions. Experiments were performed on cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes as well as adult rats subjected to coronary artery ligation (CAL). Treatment of cardiomyocytes with the α(1) adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (PE) for 24 hours produced a marked hypertrophic effect as evidenced by significantly increased cell surface area and ANP gene expression. These effects were attenuated by ginseng in a concentration-dependent manner with a complete inhibition of hypertrophy at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. Phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy was associated with increased gene and protein expression of the Na(+)-H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE-1), increased NHE-1 activity, increased intracellular concentrations of Na(+) and Ca(2+), enhanced calcineurin activity, increased translocation of NFAT3 into nuclei, and GATA-4 activation, all of which were significantly inhibited by ginseng. Upregulation of these systems was also evident in rats subjected to 4 weeks of CAL. However, animals treated with ginseng demonstrated markedly reduced hemodynamic and hypertrophic responses, which were accompanied by attenuation of upregulation of NHE-1 and calcineurin activity. Taken together, our results demonstrate a robust antihypertrophic and antiremodeling effect of ginseng, which is mediated by inhibition of NHE-1-dependent calcineurin activation.

  12. PARP-1 inhibition increases mitochondrial metabolism through SIRT1 activation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Péter; Canto, Carles; Oudart, Hughes; Brunyánszki, Attila; Cen, Yana; Thomas, Charles; Yamamoto, Hiroyasu; Huber, Aline; Kiss, Borbála; Houtkooper, Riekelt H.; Schoonjans, Kristina; Schreiber, Valérie; Sauve, Anthony A.; Murcia, Josiane Menissier-de; Auwerx, Johan

    2011-01-01

    Summary SIRT1 regulates energy homeostasis by controlling the acetylation status and activity of a number of enzymes and transcriptional regulators. The fact that NAD+ levels control SIRT1 activity confers a hypothetical basis for the design of new strategies to activate SIRT1 by increasing NAD+ availability. Here we show that the deletion of the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) gene, encoding a major NAD+-consuming enzyme, increases NAD+ content and SIRT1 activity in brown adipose tissue and muscle. PARP-1−/− mice phenocopied many aspects of SIRT1 activation, such as a higher mitochondrial content, increased energy expenditure, and protection against metabolic disease. Also, the pharmacologic inhibition of PARP in vitro and in vivo increased NAD+ content, SIRT1 activity and enhanced oxidative metabolism. These data show how PARP-1 inhibition has strong metabolic implications through the modulation of SIRT1 activity, a property that not only could be useful in the management of metabolic diseases but also of cancer. PMID:21459330

  13. Some heterocyclic thione derivatives exhibit anticoccidial activity by inhibiting glycosidases.

    PubMed

    Balbaa, Mahmoud; Abd El-Hady, Neama; Taha, Nabil; El Ashry, El Sayed H

    2012-01-01

    Coccidiosis is one of the most common parasitic diseases affecting many species of domestic animals. This disease has a major economic significance and the search for new compounds having anticoccidial activity is of great importance. In this article, different levels of protection from coccidian infection by Eimeria stiedae were developed in rabbits by treatment with compounds incorporating the skeleton of thiourea. These compounds include 4,5-diphenylimidazole-2-thione (1), 4,5-Diphenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (2) and 5-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol (3) compared to the anticoccidial drug toltrazuril as a reference compound. Compounds 1-3 inhibit coccidiosis-induced activity of α-glucosidase. The protection from coccidial infection by compound 1 was higher than that shown for compounds 2 and 3. These data suggest that diazole and triazole thione derivatives have a mimetic effect for anticoccidial drugs through their inhibition of glycosidases.

  14. Emergent patterns from probabilistic generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kabla, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The combination of laterally activating and inhibiting feedbacks is well known to spontaneously generate spatial organization. It was introduced by Gierer and Meinhardt as an extension of Turing's great insight that two reacting and diffusing chemicals can spontaneously drive spatial morphogenesis per se. In this study, we develop an accessible nonlinear and discrete probabilistic model to study simple generalizations of lateral activation and inhibition. By doing so, we identify a range of modes of morphogenesis beyond the familiar Turing-type modes; notably, beyond stripes, hexagonal nets, pores and labyrinths, we identify labyrinthine highways, Kagome lattices, gyrating labyrinths and multi-colour travelling waves and spirals. The results are discussed within the context of Turing's original motivating interest: the mechanisms which underpin the morphogenesis of living organisms. PMID:27170648

  15. Spillover-mediated feedforward-inhibition functionally segregates interneuron activity

    PubMed Central

    Coddington, Luke T.; Rudolph, Stephanie; Lune, Patrick Vande; Overstreet-Wadiche, Linda; Wadiche, Jacques I.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter spillover represents a form of neural transmission not restricted to morphologically defined synaptic connections. Communication between climbing fibers (CFs) and molecular layer interneurons (MLIs) in the cerebellum is mediated exclusively by glutamate spillover. Here, we show how CF stimulation functionally segregates MLIs based on their location relative to glutamate release. Excitation of MLIs that reside within the domain of spillover diffusion coordinates inhibition of MLIs outside the diffusion limit. CF excitation of MLIs is dependent on extrasynaptic NMDA receptors that enhance the spatial and temporal spread of CF signaling. Activity mediated by functionally segregated MLIs converges onto neighboring Purkinje cells (PCs) to generate a long-lasting biphasic change in inhibition. These data demonstrate how glutamate release from single CFs modulates excitability of neighboring PCs, thus expanding the influence of CFs on cerebellar cortical activity in a manner not predicted by anatomical connectivity. PMID:23707614

  16. Licochalcones extracted from Glycyrrhiza inflata inhibit platelet aggregation accompanied by inhibition of COX-1 activity.

    PubMed

    Okuda-Tanino, Asa; Sugawara, Daiki; Tashiro, Takumi; Iwashita, Masaya; Obara, Yutaro; Moriya, Takahiro; Tsushima, Chisato; Saigusa, Daisuke; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ishii, Kuniaki; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2017-01-01

    Licochalcones extracted from Glycyrrhiza inflata are known to have a variety of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor activities, but their action on platelet aggregation has not yet been reported. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of licochalcones on platelet aggregation. Collagen and U46619, a thromboxane A2 receptor agonist, caused rabbit platelet aggregation, which was reversed by pretreatment with licochalcones A, C and D in concentration-dependent manners. Among these compounds, licochalcone A caused the most potent inhibitory effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. However, the licochalcones showed marginal inhibitory effects on thrombin or ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In addition to rabbit platelets, licochalcone A attenuated collagen-induced aggregation in human platelets. Because licochalcone A also inhibited arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and production of thromboxane A2 induced by collagen in intact platelets, we further examined the direct interaction of licochalcone A with cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. As expected, licochalcone A caused an inhibitory effect on both COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro. Regarding the effect of licochalcone A on COX-1 enzyme reaction kinetics, although licochalcone A showed a stronger inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis induced by lower concentrations of arachidonic acid, Vmax values in the presence or absence of licochalcone A were comparable, suggesting that it competes with arachidonic acid at the same binding site on COX-1. These results suggest that licochalcones inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation accompanied by inhibition of COX-1 activity.

  17. Licochalcones extracted from Glycyrrhiza inflata inhibit platelet aggregation accompanied by inhibition of COX-1 activity

    PubMed Central

    Okuda-Tanino, Asa; Sugawara, Daiki; Tashiro, Takumi; Iwashita, Masaya; Obara, Yutaro; Moriya, Takahiro; Tsushima, Chisato; Saigusa, Daisuke; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Ishii, Kuniaki; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2017-01-01

    Licochalcones extracted from Glycyrrhiza inflata are known to have a variety of biological properties such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-tumor activities, but their action on platelet aggregation has not yet been reported. Therefore, in this study we investigated the effects of licochalcones on platelet aggregation. Collagen and U46619, a thromboxane A2 receptor agonist, caused rabbit platelet aggregation, which was reversed by pretreatment with licochalcones A, C and D in concentration-dependent manners. Among these compounds, licochalcone A caused the most potent inhibitory effect on collagen-induced platelet aggregation. However, the licochalcones showed marginal inhibitory effects on thrombin or ADP-induced platelet aggregation. In addition to rabbit platelets, licochalcone A attenuated collagen-induced aggregation in human platelets. Because licochalcone A also inhibited arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation and production of thromboxane A2 induced by collagen in intact platelets, we further examined the direct interaction of licochalcone A with cyclooxygenase (COX)-1. As expected, licochalcone A caused an inhibitory effect on both COX-1 and COX-2 in vitro. Regarding the effect of licochalcone A on COX-1 enzyme reaction kinetics, although licochalcone A showed a stronger inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis induced by lower concentrations of arachidonic acid, Vmax values in the presence or absence of licochalcone A were comparable, suggesting that it competes with arachidonic acid at the same binding site on COX-1. These results suggest that licochalcones inhibit collagen-induced platelet aggregation accompanied by inhibition of COX-1 activity. PMID:28282426

  18. Natural language processing using spreading activation and lateral inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Pollack, J.

    1982-08-01

    The knowledge needed to process natural language comes from many sources. While the knowledge itself may be broken up modularly, into knowledge of syntax, semantics, etc., the actual processing should be completely integrated. This form of processing is not easily amenable to the type of processing done by serial von Neumann computers. This work in progress is an investigation of the use of a highly parallel, spreading activation and lateral inhibition network as a mechanism for integrated natural language processing.

  19. Artemisinin Inhibits Chloroplast Electron Transport Activity: Mode of Action

    PubMed Central

    Bharati, Adyasha; Kar, Monaranjan; Sabat, Surendra Chandra

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo), behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the QB; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth. PMID:22719995

  20. Flavonoid inhibition of aromatase enzyme activity in human preadipocytes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D R; Kurzer, M S

    1993-09-01

    Eleven flavonoid compounds were compared with aminoglutethimide (AG), a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor, for their abilities to inhibit aromatase enzyme activity in a human preadipocyte cell culture system. Flavonoids exerting no effect on aromatase activity were catechin, daidzein, equol, genistein, beta-naphthoflavone (BNF), quercetin and rutin. The synthetic flavonoid, alpha-naphthoflavone (ANF), was the most potent aromatase inhibitor, with an I50 value of 0.5 microM. Three naturally-occurring flavonoids, chrysin, flavone, and genistein 4'-methyl ether (Biochanin A) showed I50 values of 4.6, 68, and 113 microM, respectively, while AG showed an I50 value of 7.4 microM. Kinetic analyses showed that both AG and the flavonoids acted as competitive inhibitors of aromatase. The Ki values, indicating the effectiveness of inhibition, were 0.2, 2.4, 2.4, 22, and 49 microM, for ANF, AG, chrysin, flavone, and Biochanin A, respectively. Chrysin, the most potent of the naturally-occurring flavonoids, was similar in potency and effectiveness to AG, a pharmaceutical aromatase inhibitor used clinically in cases of estrogen-dependent carcinoma. These data suggest that flavonoid inhibition of peripheral aromatase activity may contribute to the observed cancer-preventive hormonal effects of plant-based diets.

  1. Activation and inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 by monovalent cations.

    PubMed

    Gantt, Stephanie L; Joseph, Caleb G; Fierke, Carol A

    2010-02-26

    The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze hydrolysis of acetyl groups from acetyllysine side chains and are targets of cancer therapeutics. Two bound monovalent cations (MVCs) of unknown function have been previously observed in crystal structures of HDAC8; site 1 is near the active site, whereas site 2 is located > 20 A from the catalytic metal ion. Here we demonstrate that one bound MVC activates catalytic activity (K(1/2) = 3.4 mM for K(+)), whereas the second, weaker-binding MVC (K(1/2) = 26 mM for K(+)) decreases catalytic activity by 11-fold. The weaker binding MVC also enhances the affinity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid by 5-fold. The site 1 MVC is coordinated by the side chain of Asp-176 that also forms a hydrogen bond with His-142, one of two histidines important for catalytic activity. The D176A and H142A mutants each increase the K(1/2) for potassium inhibition by > or = 40-fold, demonstrating that the inhibitory cation binds to site 1. Furthermore, the MVC inhibition is mediated by His-142, suggesting that this residue is protonated for maximal HDAC8 activity. Therefore, His-142 functions either as an electrostatic catalyst or a general acid. The activating MVC binds in the distal site and causes a time-dependent increase in activity, suggesting that the site 2 MVC stabilizes an active conformation of the enzyme. Sodium binds more weakly to both sites and activates HDAC8 to a lesser extent than potassium. Therefore, it is likely that potassium is the predominant MVC bound to HDAC8 in vivo.

  2. Nitric oxide inhibition of adenylyl cyclase type 6 activity is dependent upon lipid rafts and caveolin signaling complexes.

    PubMed

    Ostrom, Rennolds S; Bundey, Richard A; Insel, Paul A

    2004-05-07

    Several cell types, including cardiac myocytes and vascular endothelial cells, produce nitric oxide (NO) via both constitutive and inducible isoforms of NO synthase. NO attenuates cardiac contractility and contributes to contractile dysfunction in heart failure, although the precise molecular mechanisms for these effects are poorly defined. Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms type 5 and 6, which are preferentially expressed in cardiac myocytes, may be inhibited via a direct nitrosylation by NO. Because endothelial NO synthase (eNOS and NOS3), beta-adrenergic (betaAR) receptors, and AC6 all can localize in lipid raft/caveolin-rich microdomains, we sought to understand the role of lipid rafts in organizing components of betaAR-G(s)-AC signal transduction together with eNOS. Using neonatal rat cardiac myocytes, we found that disruption of lipid rafts with beta-cyclodextrin inhibited forskolin-stimulated AC activity and cAMP production, eliminated caveolin-3-eNOS interaction, and increased NO production. betaAR- and G(s)-mediated activation of AC activity were inhibited by beta-cyclodextrin treatment, but prostanoid receptor-stimulated AC activity, which appears to occur outside caveolin-rich microdomains, was unaffected unless eNOS was overexpressed and lipid rafts were disrupted. An NO donor, SNAP, inhibited basal and forskolin-stimulated cAMP production in both native cardiac myocytes and cardiac myocytes and pulmonary artery endothelial cells engineered to overexpress AC6. These effects of SNAP were independent of guanylyl cyclase activity and were mimicked by overexpression of eNOS. The juxtaposition of eNOS with betaAR and AC types 5 and 6 results in selective regulation of betaAR by eNOS activity in lipid raft domains over other G(s)-coupled receptors localized in nonraft domains. Thus co-localization of multiple signaling components in lipid rafts provides key spatial regulation of AC activity.

  3. Constituents of Brazilian red propolis and their preferential cytotoxic activity against human pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cell line in nutrient-deprived condition.

    PubMed

    Awale, Suresh; Li, Feng; Onozuka, Hiroko; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Tezuka, Yasuhiro; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2008-01-01

    Human pancreatic cancer cells such as PANC-1 are known to exhibit marked tolerance to nutrition starvation that enables them to survive for prolonged period of time even under extremely nutrient-deprived conditions. Thus, elimination of this tolerance to nutrition starvation is regarded as a novel approach in anticancer drug development. In this study, the MeOH soluble extract of Brazilian red propolis was found to kill 100% PANC-1 cells preferentially in the nutrient-deprived condition at the concentration of 10 microg/mL. Further phytochemical investigation led to the isolation of 43 compounds including three new compounds, (6aS,11aS)-6a-ethoxymedicarpan (1), 2-(2',4'-dihydroxyphenyl)-3-methyl-6-methoxybenzofuran (2), and 2,6-dihydroxy-2-[(4-hydroxyphenyl)methyl]-3-benzofuranone (3). Among them, (6aR,11aR)-3,8-dihydroxy-9-methoxypterocarpan (21, DMPC) displayed the most potent 100% preferential cytotoxicity (PC(100)) at the concentration of 12.5 microM. Further study on the mode of cell death induced by DMPC against PANC-1 cells indicated that killing process was not accompanied by DNA fragmentation, rather through a nonapoptotic pathway accompanied by necrotic-type morphological changes.

  4. Menthol Inhibits Detrusor Contractility Independently of TRPM8 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Filho, Antonio Celso Saragossa; Shah, Ajay; Augusto, Taize Machado; Barbosa, Guilherme Oliveira; Leiria, Luiz Osorio; de Carvalho, Hernandes Faustino; Antunes, Edson; Grant, Andrew Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Agonists such as icilin and menthol can activate the cool temperature-sensitive ion channel TRPM8. However, biological responses to menthol may occur independently of TRPM8 activation. In the rodent urinary bladder, menthol facilitates the micturition reflex but inhibits muscarinic contractions of the detrusor smooth muscle. The site(s) of TRPM8 expression in the bladder are controversial. In this study we investigated the regulation of bladder contractility in vitro by menthol. Bladder strips from wild type and TRPM8 knockout male mice (25–30 g) were dissected free and mounted in organ baths. Isometric contractions to carbachol (1 nM–30 µM), CaCl2 (1 µM to 100 mM) and electrical field stimulation (EFS; 8, 16, 32 Hz) were measured. Strips from both groups contracted similarly in response to both carbachol and EFS. Menthol (300 µM) or nifedipine (1 µM) inhibited carbachol and EFS-induced contractions in both wild type and TRPM8 knockout bladder strips. Incubation with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (1 µM), replacement of extracellular sodium with the impermeant cation N-Methyl-D-Glucamine, incubation with a cocktail of potassium channel inhibitors (100 nM charybdotoxin, 1 µM apamin, 10 µM glibenclamide and 1 µM tetraethylammonium) or removal of the urothelium did not affect the inhibitory actions of menthol. Contraction to CaCl2 was markedly inhibited by either menthol or nifedipine. In cultured bladder smooth muscle cells, menthol or nifedipine abrogated the carbachol or KCl-induced increases in [Ca2+]i. Intravesical administration of menthol increased voiding frequency while decreasing peak voiding pressure. We conclude that menthol inhibits muscarinic bladder contractions through blockade of L-type calcium channels, independently of TRPM8 activation. PMID:25375115

  5. Inhibition of polyphenol oxidases activity by various dipeptides.

    PubMed

    Girelli, Anna M; Mattei, Enrico; Messina, Antonella; Tarola, Anna M

    2004-05-19

    In an effort to develop natural and nontoxic inhibitors on the activity of mushroom polyphenol oxidase (PPO) the effect of various glycyl-dipeptides (GlyAsp, GlyGly, GlyHis, GlyLeu, GlyLys, GlyPhe, GlyPro, GlyTyr) was investigated. The inhibition study with dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) as substrate is based on separation of the enzymatic reaction components by reversed phase HPLC and the UV detection of the dopachrome formed. The results have evidenced that several of tested dipeptides inhibited PPO activity in the range of 20-40% while GlyPro and GlyLeu had no effect. The study has also permitted the characterization of the following kinetic pattern: a linear-mixed-type mechanism for GlyAsp, GlyGly, GlyLys, and GlyPhe and a hyperbolic-mixed-type for GlyTyr. It was not possible to identify the inhibition mechanism for GlyHis, although it affects PPO activity. In addition the effects of GlyAsp, GlyLys and GlyHis were evaluated for lessening the browning of fresh Golden Delicious apple and Irish White Skinned potato. The effectiveness of such inhibitors was determined by the difference between the colors observed in the dipeptide-treated sample and the controls using the color space CIE-Lab system. The % browning inhibition on potato (20-50%) was greater than of apple (20-30%) by the all tested dipeptides. Only GlyLys presented the significant value of 50%.

  6. Emotion potentiates response activation and inhibition in masked priming

    PubMed Central

    Bocanegra, Bruno R.; Zeelenberg, René

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that emotion can have 2-fold effects on perception. At the object-level, emotional stimuli benefit from a stimulus-specific boost in visual attention at the relative expense of competing stimuli. At the visual feature-level, recent findings indicate that emotion may inhibit the processing of small visual details and facilitate the processing of coarse visual features. In the present study, we investigated whether emotion can boost the activation and inhibition of automatic motor responses that are generated prior to overt perception. To investigate this, we tested whether an emotional cue affects covert motor responses in a masked priming task. We used a masked priming paradigm in which participants responded to target arrows that were preceded by invisible congruent or incongruent prime arrows. In the standard paradigm, participants react faster, and commit fewer errors responding to the directionality of target arrows, when they are preceded by congruent vs. incongruent masked prime arrows (positive congruency effect, PCE). However, as prime-target SOAs increase, this effect reverses (negative congruency effect, NCE). These findings have been explained as evidence for an initial activation and a subsequent inhibition of a partial response elicited by the masked prime arrow. Our results show that the presentation of fearful face cues, compared to neutral face cues, increased the size of both the PCE and NCE, despite the fact that the primes were invisible. This is the first demonstration that emotion prepares an individual's visuomotor system for automatic activation and inhibition of motor responses in the absence of visual awareness. PMID:23162447

  7. Inhibition of Neuroinflammation in LPS-Activated Microglia by Cryptolepine

    PubMed Central

    Olajide, Olumayokun A.; Bhatia, Harsharan S.; de Oliveira, Antonio C. P.; Wright, Colin W.; Fiebich, Bernd L.

    2013-01-01

    Cryptolepine, an indoloquinoline alkaloid in Cryptolepis sanguinolenta, has anti-inflammatory property. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of cryptolepine on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- induced neuroinflammation in rat microglia and its potential mechanisms. Microglial activation was induced by stimulation with LPS, and the effects of cryptolepine pretreatment on microglial activation and production of proinflammatory mediators, PGE2/COX-2, microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase and nitric oxide/iNOS were investigated. We further elucidated the role of Nuclear Factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinases in the antiinflammatory actions of cryptolepine in LPS-stimulated microglia. Our results showed that cryptolepine significantly inhibited LPS-induced production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), nitric oxide, and PGE2. Protein and mRNA levels of COX-2 and iNOS were also attenuated by cryptolepine. Further experiments on intracellular signalling mechanisms show that IκB-independent inhibition of NF-κB nuclear translocation contributes to the anti-neuroinflammatory actions of cryptolepine. Results also show that cryptolepine inhibited LPS-induced p38 and MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation in the microglia. Cell viability experiments revealed that cryptolepine (2.5 and 5 μM) did not produce cytotoxicity in microglia. Taken together, our results suggest that cryptolepine inhibits LPS-induced microglial inflammation by partial targeting of NF-κB signalling and attenuation of p38/MAPKAPK2. PMID:23737832

  8. Reduced brain activation in violent adolescents during response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yi; Mei, Yi; Du, XiaoXia; Xie, Bin; Shao, Yang

    2016-02-18

    Deficits in inhibitory control have been linked to aggression and violent behaviour. This study aimed to observe whether violent adolescents show different brain activation patterns during response inhibition and to ascertain the roles these brain regions play. A self-report method and modified overt aggression scale (MOAS) were used to evaluate violent behaviour. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 22 violent adolescents and 17 matched healthy subjects aged 12 to 18 years. While scanning, a go/no-go task was performed. Between-group comparisons revealed that activation in the bilateral middle and superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus, and right orbitofrontal area (BA11) regions were significantly reduced in the violent group compared with the control group. Meanwhile, the violent group had more widespread activation in the prefrontal cortex than that observed in the control group. Activation of the prefrontal cortex in the violent group was widespread but lacking in focus, failing to produce intensive activation in some functionally related regions during response inhibition.

  9. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 inhibits adipogenic gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Deng Jianbei; Hua Kunjie; Caveney, Erica J.; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Harp, Joyce B. . E-mail: jharp@unc.edu

    2006-01-20

    Protein inhibitor of activated STAT3 (PIAS3), a cytokine-induced repressor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and a modulator of a broad array of nuclear proteins, is expressed in white adipose tissue, but its role in adipogenesis is not known. Here, we determined that PIAS3 was constitutively expressed in 3T3-L1 cells at all stages of adipogenesis. However, it translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm 4 days after induction of differentiation by isobutylmethylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin (MDI). In ob/ob mice, PIAS3 expression was increased in white adipose tissue depots compared to lean mice and was found in the cytoplasm of adipocytes. Overexpression of PIAS3 in differentiating preadipocytes, which localized primarily to the nucleus, inhibited mRNA level gene expression of adipogenic transcription factors C/EBP{alpha} and PPAR{gamma}, as well as their downstream target genes aP2 and adiponectin. PIAS3 also inhibited C/EBP{alpha} promoter activation mediated specifically by insulin, but not dexamethasone or isobutylmethylxanthine. Taken together, these data suggest that PIAS3 may play an inhibitory role in adipogenesis by modulating insulin-activated transcriptional activation events. Increased PIAS3 expression in adipose tissue may play a role in the metabolic disturbances of obesity.

  10. Oxidative stress inhibition and oxidant activity by fibrous clays.

    PubMed

    Cervini-Silva, Javiera; Nieto-Camacho, Antonio; Gómez-Vidales, Virginia

    2015-09-01

    Fibrous clays (sepiolite, palygorskite) are produced at 1.2m tonnes per year and have a wide range of industrial applications needing to replace long-fibre length asbestos. However, information on the beneficial effects of fibrous clays on health remains scarce. This paper reports on the effect of sepiolite (Vallecas, Spain) and palygorskite (Torrejón El Rubio, Spain) on cell damage via oxidative stress (determined as the progress of lipid peroxidation, LP). The extent of LP was assessed using the Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances assay. The oxidant activity by fibrous clays was quantified using Electron-Paramagnetic Resonance. Sepiolite and palygorskite inhibited LP, whereby corresponding IC50 values were 6557±1024 and 4250±289μgmL(-1). As evidenced by dose-response experiments LP inhibition by palygorskite was surface-controlled. Fibrous clay surfaces did not stabilize HO species, except for suspensions containing 5000μgmL(-1). A strong oxidant (or weak anti-oxidant) activity favours the inhibition of LP by fibrous clays. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical inhibition of the histone acetyltransferase activity in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Aquea, Felipe; Timmermann, Tania; Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel

    2017-01-29

    Chemical inhibition of chromatin regulators provides an effective approach to investigate the roles of chromatin modifications in plant and animals. In this work, chemical inhibition of the Arabidopsis histone acetyltransferase activity by γ-butyrolactone (MB-3), the inhibitor of the catalytic activity of mammalian GENERAL CONTROL NON-REPRESSIBLE 5 (GCN5) is evaluated. Arabidopsis seedlings were germinated in LS medium supplemented with different concentrations of MB-3, and inhibition in the root length and yellowed leaves were observed. The yellowed leaves phenotype of the plants grown in 100 μM of MB-3 was reverted when plants were additionally treated with 1 μM of TSA, a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Using an immunoblot assay with specific antibodies revealed a reduction of H3K14 acetylation levels at 3 and 24 h post-treatment. At 24 h post-treatment a reduction of H3K9 acetylation levels was observed. Targets of GCN5 related to stress were downregulated at 3 h post-treatment but no change was observed in target genes related to developmental transition. Our results indicate that MB-3 is a chemical inhibitor of the histone acetyltransferase in Arabidopsis and suggest that this inhibitor could function in other plants species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Activity inhibition on municipal activated sludge by single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parise, Alex; Thakor, Harshrajsinh; Zhang, Xiaoqi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the respiratory activity inhibition of activated sludge used in a typical wastewater treatment plant by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) with different length and functionality. Four types of SWCNTs were evaluated: short, functionalized short, long, and functionalized long. Based on the effective concentration (EC50) values obtained, we determined that functionalized SWCNTs resulted in a higher microbial respiratory inhibition than non-functionalized nanotubes, and long SWCNTs gave a higher microbial respiratory inhibition than their short counterparts. Among the four types of SWCNTs studied, functionalized long exhibited the highest respiration inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy imaging indicates that the long SWCNTs dispersed more favorably after sonication than the short variety. The findings demonstrated that the toxicity of CNTs (exhibited by respiratory inhibition) is related to their physical properties; the length and functionality of SWCNTs affected the toxicity of SWCNTs in a mixed-cultured biologic system.

  13. [Metabolism inhibition stimulates, metabolism activation inhibits cancerogenic activity of ortho-aminoazotoluene in mouse liver].

    PubMed

    Kaledin, V I; Il'nitskaia, S I

    2011-01-01

    Pentachlorophenol, an inhibitor of metabolic activation of aminoazo dyes was administered to suckling mice prior to o-aminoazotoluene (OAT). It was followed by formation of numerous preneoplastic nodules and tumors in the lungs and liver. At the same time, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxine treatment decreased their number in the liver while slightly increasing them in the lung. A possible mechanism of aminoazo dye carcinogenicity is suggested.

  14. Inhibition of Stat1-mediated gene activation by PIAS1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Liao, Jiayu; Rao, Xiaoping; Kushner, Steven A.; Chung, Chan D.; Chang, David D.; Shuai, Ke

    1998-01-01

    STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins are latent cytoplasmic transcription factors that become activated by tyrosine phosphorylation in response to cytokine stimulation. Tyrosine phosphorylated STATs dimerize and translocate into the nucleus to activate specific genes. Different members of the STAT protein family have distinct functions in cytokine signaling. Biochemical and genetic analysis has demonstrated that Stat1 is essential for gene activation in response to interferon stimulation. Although progress has been made toward understanding STAT activation, little is known about how STAT signals are down-regulated. We report here the isolation of a family of PIAS (protein inhibitor of activated STAT) proteins. PIAS1, but not other PIAS proteins, blocked the DNA binding activity of Stat1 and inhibited Stat1-mediated gene activation in response to interferon. Coimmunoprecipitation analysis showed that PIAS1 was associated with Stat1 but not Stat2 or Stat3 after ligand stimulation. The in vivo PIAS1–Stat1 interaction requires phosphorylation of Stat1 on Tyr-701. These results identify PIAS1 as a specific inhibitor of Stat1-mediated gene activation and suggest that there may exist a specific PIAS inhibitor in every STAT signaling pathway. PMID:9724754

  15. Inhibition of converting enzyme activity by acute hypoxia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Stalcup, S A; Lipset, J S; Legant, P M; Leuenberger, P J; Mellins, R B

    1979-02-01

    We studied the effect of a change in oxygen tension on converting enzyme activity in anesthetized, paralyzed, catheterized dogs ventilated with room air, 100% O2, and hypoxic gas mixtures. Bradykinin was continuously infused into the femoral vein and simultaneous samples drawn from the pulmonary artery and left atrium; bradykinin was extracted into ethanol and measured by radioimmunoassay. Clearance of bradykinin by lung converting enzyme decreased from 96% at PaO2 levels above 95 Torr to 0% below 26 Torr. Inhibition of enzyme activity was rapid in onset (less than 2 min), closely correlated with PaO2 (r = 0.92, P less than 0.001), and reversible within 2 min after return to room air breathing. Converting enzyme activity of the systemic vascular bed was also inhibited by hypoxia; kininase I activity was unaffected by oxygen tension. Although arterial bradykinin concentrations in the range of 0.5 ng/ml produced hypotension in normoxic animals, elevations to 30 ng/ml had no hypotensive effect in hypoxic dogs. During acute hypoxia, venous bradykinin will pass through the lung unmetabolized, and local levels of angiotensin II and bradykinin will vary in vascular beds with different oxygen tensions, providing a finely-graded mechanism for blood flow regulation.

  16. Small molecule activation of NOTCH signaling inhibits acute myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qi; Jiang, Jue; Zhan, Guanqun; Yan, Wanyao; Huang, Liang; Hu, Yufeng; Su, Hexiu; Tong, Qingyi; Yue, Ming; Li, Hua; Yao, Guangmin; Zhang, Yonghui; Liu, Hudan

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant activation of the NOTCH signaling pathway is crucial for the onset and progression of T cell leukemia. Yet recent studies also suggest a tumor suppressive role of NOTCH signaling in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and reactivation of this pathway offers an attractive opportunity for anti-AML therapies. N-methylhemeanthidine chloride (NMHC) is a novel Amaryllidaceae alkaloid that we previously isolated from Zephyranthes candida, exhibiting inhibitory activities in a variety of cancer cells, particularly those from AML. Here, we report NMHC not only selectively inhibits AML cell proliferation in vitro but also hampers tumor development in a human AML xenograft model. Genome-wide gene expression profiling reveals that NMHC activates the NOTCH signaling. Combination of NMHC and recombinant human NOTCH ligand DLL4 achieves a remarkable synergistic effect on NOTCH activation. Moreover, pre-inhibition of NOTCH by overexpression of dominant negative MAML alleviates NMHC-mediated cytotoxicity in AML. Further mechanistic analysis using structure-based molecular modeling as well as biochemical assays demonstrates that NMHC docks in the hydrophobic cavity within the NOTCH1 negative regulatory region (NRR), thus promoting NOTCH1 proteolytic cleavage. Our findings thus establish NMHC as a potential NOTCH agonist that holds great promises for future development as a novel agent beneficial to patients with AML. PMID:27211848

  17. Grafting MAP peptide to dental polymer inhibits MMP-8 activity.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Namrata; Settle, Jenifer K; Ye, Qiang; Berrie, Cindy L; Spencer, Paulette; Laurence, Jennifer S

    2015-02-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a class of zinc and calcium-dependent endopeptidases responsible for degrading extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Their activity is critical for both normal biological function and pathological processes (Dejonckheere et al., Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 2011;22:73-81). In dental restorations, the release and subsequent acid activation of MMPs contributes to premature failure. In particular, MMP-8 accelerates degradation by cleaving the collagen matrix within the dentin substrate in incompletely infiltrated aged bonded dentin (Buzalaf et al., Adv Dent Res 2012;24:72-76), hastening the need for replacement of restorations. Therefore, development of a dental adhesive that better resists MMP-8 activity is of significant interest. We hypothesize that modification of the polymer surface with an inhibitor would disable MMP-8 activity. Here, we identify the metal abstraction peptide (MAP) as an inhibitor of MMP-8 and demonstrate that tethering MAP to methacrylate polymers effectively inhibits catalysis. Our findings indicate complete inhibition of MMP-8 is achievable using a grafting approach. This strategy has potential to improve longevity of dental adhesives and other polymers and enable rational design of a new generation of biocompatible materials.

  18. Solubilized placental membrane protein inhibits insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Strout, H.V. Jr.; Slater, E.E.

    1987-05-01

    Regulation of insulin receptor (IR) tyrosine kinase (TK) activity may be important in modulating insulin action. Utilizing an assay which measures IR phosphorylation of angiotensin II (AII), the authors investigated whether fractions of TX-100 solubilized human placental membranes inhibited IR dependent AII phosphorylation. Autophosphorylated IR was incubated with membrane fractions before the addition of AII, and kinase inhibition measured by the loss of TSP incorporated in AII. An inhibitory activity was detected which was dose, time, and temperature dependent. The inhibitor was purified 200-fold by sequential chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin, DEAE, and hydroxyapatite. This inhibitory activity was found to correlate with an 80 KD protein which was electroeluted from preparative slab gels and rabbit antiserum raised. Incubation of membrane fractions with antiserum before the IRTK assay immunoprecipitated the inhibitor. Protein immunoblots of crude or purified fractions revealed only the 80 KD protein. Since IR autophosphorylation is crucial to IRTK activity, the authors investigated the state of IR autophosphorylation after treatment with inhibitor; no change was detected by phosphoamino acid analysis.

  19. Inhibition of cholinesterase activity by azinphos-methyl in two freshwater invertebrates: Biomphalaria glabrata and Lumbriculus variegatus.

    PubMed

    Kristoff, Gisela; Guerrero, Noemi Verrengia; de D'Angelo, Ana María Pechén; Cochón, Adriana C

    2006-05-15

    In this study, some biochemical features and the extent of inhibition induced by the organophosphorous pesticide azinphos-methyl on the cholinesterase (ChE) activity present in whole soft tissue of two freshwater invertebrate species, the gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata and the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were investigated. Both invertebrate organisms presented marked differences in ChE activity, type of enzymes and subcellular location. Acetylthiocholine was the substrate preferred by B. glabrata ChE. The enzyme activity was located preferentially in the supernatant of 11,000 x g centrifugation and was inhibited by increasing concentrations of substrate but not by iso-OMPA. Results showed that there were progressive inhibitions of the enzyme activity, with values 21%, 59%, 72%, 76%, and 82% lower than the control at levels of 1, 10, 50, 100 and 1000 microM of eserine, respectively. In contrast, L. variegatus ChE activity was distributed both in the supernatant and pellet fractions, with values approximately 6 and 20 times higher than B. glabrata, respectively. Studies with butyrylthiocholine and iso-OMPA suggested that about 72% of the activity corresponded to butyrylcholinesterase. A strong enzyme inhibition (88-94%) was found at low eserine concentrations (1-10 microM). ChE activity from L. variegatus and B. glabrata was inhibited by in vivo exposure to azinphos-methyl suggesting that both species can form the oxon derivative of this pesticide. However, both invertebrate species showed a very different susceptibility to the insecticide. The NOEC and EIC50 values were 500 and 1000 times lower for L. variegatus than for B. glabrata, reflecting that the oligochaetes were much more sensitive organisms. A different pattern was also observed for the recovery of the enzymatic activity when the organisms were transferred to clean water. The recuperation process was faster for the oligochaetes than for the gastropods. Mortality was not observed in either of the

  20. Shigella IpaH0722 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Effector Targets TRAF2 to Inhibit PKC–NF-κB Activity in Invaded Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945

  1. DMSO inhibits human platelet activation through cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. A novel agent for drug eluting stents?

    PubMed

    Asmis, Lars; Tanner, Felix C; Sudano, Isabella; Lüscher, Thomas F; Camici, Giovanni G

    2010-01-22

    DMSO is routinely infused together with hematopoietic cells in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy and was recently found to inhibit smooth muscle cells proliferation and arterial thrombus formation in the mouse by preventing tissue factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade. This study was designed to investigate whether DMSO prevents platelet activation and thus, whether it may represent an interesting agent to be used on drug eluting stents. Human venous blood from healthy volunteers was collected in citrated tubes and platelet activation was studied by cone and platelet analyzer (CPA) and rapid-platelet-function-assay (RPFA). CPA analysis showed that DMSO-treated platelets exhibit a lower adherence in response to shear stress (-15.54+/-0.9427%, n=5, P<0.0001 versus control). Additionally, aggregometry studies revealed that DMSO-treated, arachidonate-stimulated platelets had an increased lag phase (18.0%+/-4.031, n=9, P=0.0004 versus control) as well as a decreased maximal aggregation (-6.388+/-2.212%, n=6, P=0.0162 versus control). Inhibitory action of DMSO could be rescued by exogenous thromboxane A2 and was mediated, at least in part, by COX-1 inhibition. Clinically relevant concentrations of DMSO impair platelet activation by a thromboxane A2-dependent, COX-1-mediated effect. This finding may be crucial for the previously reported anti-thrombotic property displayed by DMSO. Our findings support a role for DMSO as a novel drug to prevent not only proliferation, but also thrombotic complications of drug eluting stents. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DMSO inhibits human platelet activation through cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition. A novel agent for drug eluting stents?

    SciTech Connect

    Asmis, Lars; Tanner, Felix C.; Sudano, Isabella; Luescher, Thomas F.; Camici, Giovanni G.

    2010-01-22

    Background: DMSO is routinely infused together with hematopoietic cells in patients undergoing myeloablative therapy and was recently found to inhibit smooth muscle cells proliferation and arterial thrombus formation in the mouse by preventing tissue factor (TF), a key activator of the coagulation cascade. This study was designed to investigate whether DMSO prevents platelet activation and thus, whether it may represent an interesting agent to be used on drug eluting stents. Methods and results: Human venous blood from healthy volunteers was collected in citrated tubes and platelet activation was studied by cone and platelet analyzer (CPA) and rapid-platelet-function-assay (RPFA). CPA analysis showed that DMSO-treated platelets exhibit a lower adherence in response to shear stress (-15.54 {+-} 0.9427%, n = 5, P < 0.0001 versus control). Additionally, aggregometry studies revealed that DMSO-treated, arachidonate-stimulated platelets had an increased lag phase (18.0% {+-} 4.031, n = 9, P = 0.0004 versus control) as well as a decreased maximal aggregation (-6.388 {+-} 2.212%, n = 6, P = 0.0162 versus control). Inhibitory action of DMSO could be rescued by exogenous thromboxane A2 and was mediated, at least in part, by COX-1 inhibition. Conclusions: Clinically relevant concentrations of DMSO impair platelet activation by a thromboxane A2-dependent, COX-1-mediated effect. This finding may be crucial for the previously reported anti-thrombotic property displayed by DMSO. Our findings support a role for DMSO as a novel drug to prevent not only proliferation, but also thrombotic complications of drug eluting stents.

  3. Antioedematogenic activity, acetylcholinesterase inhibition and antimicrobial properties of Jacaranda oxyphylla.

    PubMed

    Pereira, V V; Silva, R R; Dos Santos, M H; Dias, D F; Moreira, M E C; Takahashi, J A

    2016-09-01

    Jacaranda oxyphylla Cham. (Bignoniaceae) is a shrub found in the Brazilian cerrado and used in folk medicine to treat microbial infections. The aim of this study was to carry out a phytochemical screening and evaluate antioedematogenic, antimicrobial and antiacetylcholinesterase properties of J. oxyphylla crude extracts. All extracts analysed showed presence of terpenoids, which are potentially active chemical substances. A high AChE inhibitory activity for hexane extract from leaves and for the extracts from twigs was found. Ethanol extract from leaves of J. oxyphylla showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. This extract was also effective in inhibiting the stages of inflammation evaluated. Biological investigation and phytochemical screening of J. oxyphylla extracts provided additional evidence of its traditional medicinal value.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase inhibition: a review of anti-tumour activity.

    PubMed

    Brown, P D; Giavazzi, R

    1995-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases are a homologous family of proteolytic enzymes. Collectively, these proteinases are capable of degrading all components of the extracellular matrix, including proteolytically resistant fibrillar collagens. Extracellular matrices constitute the principal barrier to tumour growth and spread, and there is now experimental evidence that malignant tumours utilise matrix metalloproteinases to overcome this barrier. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases may therefore be of therapeutic value in the treatment of metastatic disease. This review describes the activity of matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors (MMPIs), in experimental tumour models and in phase I/II clinical studies. Studies with MMPIs in vitro have shown that these agents are not cytotoxic but can inhibit the degradation of extracellular matrix by tumour cells. In experimental tumour models in vivo, MMPI treatment caused inhibition of tumour growth and metastatic spread in both rodent syngeneic and human xenograft models. MMPIs have also been shown to inhibit angiogenesis, a process essential for the rapid growth of most malignancies. MMPI therapy has the potential to arrest tumour growth and spread. As a non-cytotoxic 'tumourostatic' approach it may offer an ideal complement to surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy in the successful long-term treatment of metastatic disease.

  5. Betulin inhibits lung carcinoma proliferation through activation of AMPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian-Dong; Zhang, Yi-Jie; Han, Ji-Chang

    2014-11-01

    Betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β, 28-diol) is an abundant, naturally occurring triterpene. It is commonly isolated from the bark of birch trees and forms up to 30% of the dry weight of the extractive. In the present study, we revealed its antiproliferative effects and mechanisms using two lung carcinoma cells (A549 and NCI-292). By 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation assays, we found that betulin could efficiently inhibit cell growth and proliferation. Besides, several key genes of cell-cycle regulators were also affected by betulin treatment. At the molecular level, our results demonstrated that treatment with betulin was also associated with activation of AMP kinase and inhibition of mTOR/p70S6K/pS6 signaling in these cells. In agreement, inhibition of AMPK signaling largely reversed the antiproliferative roles of betulin. Taken together, these data provide evidence for a mechanism that may contribute to the antineoplastic effects of betulin and justify further work to explore its potential roles in lung cancer prevention and treatment.

  6. Inhibition of autophagy enhances the anticancer activity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jun; Huang, Zhihai; Wu, Hao; Zhou, Wei; Jin, Peipei; Wei, Pengfei; Zhang, Yunjiao; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Jiqian; Xu, Jing; Hu, Yi; Wang, Yanhong; Li, Yajuan; Gu, Ning; Wen, Longping

    2014-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are cytotoxic to cancer cells and possess excellent potential as an antitumor agent. A variety of nanoparticles have been shown to induce autophagy, a critical cellular degradation process, and the elevated autophagy in most of these situations promotes cell death. Whether Ag NPs can induce autophagy and how it might affect the anticancer activity of Ag NPs has not been reported. Here we show that Ag NPs induced autophagy in cancer cells by activating the PtdIns3K signaling pathway. The autophagy induced by Ag NPs was characterized by enhanced autophagosome formation, normal cargo degradation, and no disruption of lysosomal function. Consistent with these properties, the autophagy induced by Ag NPs promoted cell survival, as inhibition of autophagy by either chemical inhibitors or ATG5 siRNA enhanced Ag NPs-elicited cancer cell killing. We further demonstrated that wortmannin, a widely used inhibitor of autophagy, significantly enhanced the antitumor effect of Ag NPs in the B16 mouse melanoma cell model. Our results revealed a novel biological activity of Ag NPs in inducing cytoprotective autophagy, and inhibition of autophagy may be a useful strategy for improving the efficacy of Ag NPs in anticancer therapy.

  7. CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101 preferentially inhibit drug-bound CCR5 infection and restore drug sensitivity of Maraviroc-resistant HIV-1 in primary cells

    SciTech Connect

    Latinovic, Olga; Reitz, Marvin; Le, Nhut M.; Foulke, James S.; Faetkenheuer, Gerd; Lehmann, Clara; Redfield, Robert R.; Heredia, Alonso

    2011-03-01

    R5 HIV-1 strains resistant to the CCR5 antagonist Maraviroc (MVC) can use drug-bound CCR5. We demonstrate that MVC-resistant HIV-1 exhibits delayed kinetics of coreceptor engagement and fusion during drug-bound versus free CCR5 infection of cell lines. Antibodies directed against the second extracellular loop (ECL2) of CCR5 had greater antiviral activity against MVC-bound compared to MVC-free CCR5 infection. However, in PBMCs, only ECL2 CCR5 antibodies HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, inhibited infection by MVC resistant HIV-1 more potently with MVC-bound than with free CCR5. In addition, HGS004 and HGS101, but not 2D7, restored the antiviral activity of MVC against resistant virus in PBMCs. In flow cytometric studies, CCR5 binding by the HGS mAbs, but not by 2D7, was increased when PBMCs were treated with MVC, suggesting MVC increases exposure of the relevant epitope. Thus, HGS004 and HGS101 have antiviral mechanisms distinct from 2D7 and could help overcome MVC resistance.

  8. Zeno inhibition of polarization rotation in an optically active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalo, Isabel; Porras, Miguel A.; Luis, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experiment in which the rotation of the polarization of light propagating in an optically active water solution of D-fructose tends to be inhibited by frequent monitoring whether the polarization remains unchanged. This is an example of the Zeno effect that has remarkable pedagogical interest because of its conceptual simplicity, easy implementation, low cost, and because the same the Zeno effect holds at classical and quantum levels. An added value is the demonstration of the Zeno effect beyond typical idealized assumptions in a practical setting with real polarizers.

  9. Behavioral inspiratory inhibition: inactivated and activated respiratory cells.

    PubMed

    Orem, J

    1989-11-01

    = 0.27 +/- 0.03, mean +/- SE). 4) The latency of their activation in response to the task averaged 58 +/- 2.7 (SE) ms and was significantly shorter than the latency of inactivation of the high eta 2-valued inspiratory cells. 5) This activation was intense and prolonged. 6. It is hypothesized that the activated cells integrate nonrespiratory and respiratory inputs and act to inhibit other respiratory cells during the behavioral inhibition of inspiration.

  10. Cell-permeable ceramides preferentially inhibit coated vesicle formation and exocytosis in Chinese hamster ovary compared with Madin-Darby canine kidney cells by preventing the membrane association of ADP-ribosylation factor.

    PubMed Central

    Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Hobman, Tom C; Dewald, Jay; Garbutt, Michael; Brindley, David N

    2002-01-01

    Differential effects of acetyl(C2-) ceramide (N-acetylsphingosine) were studied on coated vesicle formation from Golgi-enriched membranes of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C2-ceramide blocked the translocation of ADP-ribosylation factor-1 (ARF-1) and protein kinase C-alpha (PKC-alpha) to the membranes from CHO cells, but not those of MDCK cells. Consequently, C2-ceramide blocked the stimulation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) by the cytosol and guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) in membranes from CHO cells. Basal specific activity of PLD1 and the concentration of ARF-1 were 3-4 times higher in Golgi-enriched membranes from MDCK cells compared with CHO cells. Moreover, PLD1 activity in MDCK cells was stimulated less by cytosol and GTP[S]. PLD2 was not detectable in the Golgi-enriched membranes. Incubation of intact CHO cells or their Golgi-enriched membranes with C2-ceramide also inhibited COP1 vesicle formation by membranes from CHO, but not MDCK, cells. Specificity was demonstrated, since dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect on ARF-1 translocation, PLD1 activation or vesicle formation in membranes from both cell types. C2-ceramide also decreased the secretion of virus-like particles to a greater extent in CHO compared with MDCK cells, whereas dihydro-C2-ceramide had no significant effect. The results demonstrate a biological effect of C2-ceramide in CHO cells by decreasing ARF-1 and PKC-alpha binding to Golgi-enriched membranes, thereby preventing COP1 vesicle formation. PMID:11802796

  11. Norepinephrine inhibits the migratory activity of pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Stock, Anna-Maria; Powe, Desmond G; Hahn, Stephan A; Troost, Gabriele; Niggemann, Bernd; Zänker, Kurt S; Entschladen, Frank

    2013-07-15

    We have shown previously that norepinephrine induces migratory activity of tumour cells from breast, colon and prostate tissue via activation of beta-2 adrenergic receptors. Consequently, this effect can be inhibited pharmacologically by clinically established beta-blockers. Tumour cell migration is a prerequisite for metastasis formation, and accordingly we and others have shown that breast cancer patients, which take beta-blockers due to hypertension, have reduced metastasis formation and increased survival probability as compared to patients without hypertension or using other anti-hypertensive medication. Unlike the aforementioned tumour cells, pancreatic cancer cells show a reduced migratory activity upon norepinephrine treatment. By means of our three-dimensional, collagen-based cell migration assay, we have investigated the signal transduction pathways involved in this phenomenon. We have found that this conflicting effect of norepinephrine on pancreatic cancer cells is due to an imbalanced activation of the two pathways that usually mediate a pro-migratory effect of norepinephrine in other tumour cell types. Firstly, the inhibitory effect results from activation of a pathway which causes a strong increase of the secondary cell signalling molecule, cAMP. In addition, activation of phospholipase C gamma and the downstream protein kinase C alpha were shown to be already activated in pancreatic cancer cells and cannot be further activated by norepinephrine. We hypothesize that this constitutive activation of the phospholipase C gamma pathway is due to a cross-talk with receptor tyrosine kinase signalling, and this might also deliver an explanation for the unusual high spontaneous migratory activity of pancreatic cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Local Anesthetic Inhibits Hyperpolarization-Activated Cationic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Qing-tao; Xia, Zhong-yuan; Liu, Jin; Bayliss, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Systemic administration of local anesthetics has beneficial perioperative properties and an anesthetic-sparing and antiarrhythmic effect, although the detailed mechanisms of these actions remain unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a local anesthetic, lidocaine, on hyperpolarization-activated and cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels that contribute to the pacemaker currents in rhythmically oscillating cells of the heart and brain. Voltage-clamp recordings were used to examine the properties of cloned HCN subunit currents expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells under control condition and lidocaine administration. Lidocaine inhibited HCN1, HCN2, HCN1-HCN2, and HCN4 channel currents at 100 μM in both oocytes and/or HEK 293 cells; it caused a decrease in both tonic and maximal current (∼30–50% inhibition) and slowed current activation kinetics for all subunits. In addition, lidocaine evoked a hyperpolarizing shift in half-activation voltage (ΔV1/2 of ∼−10 to −14 mV), but only for HCN1 and HCN1-HCN2 channels. By fitting concentration-response data to logistic functions, we estimated half-maximal (EC50) concentrations of lidocaine of ∼30 to 40 μM for the shift in V1/2 observed with HCN1 and HCN1-HCN2; for inhibition of current amplitude, calculated EC50 values were ∼50 to 70 μM for HCN1, HCN2, and HCN1-HCN2 channels. A lidocaine metabolite, monoethylglycinexylidide (100 μM), had similar inhibitory actions on HCN channels. These results indicate that lidocaine potently inhibits HCN channel subunits in dose-dependent manner over a concentration range relevant for systemic application. The ability of local anesthetics to modulate Ih in central neurons may contribute to central nervous system depression, whereas effects on If in cardiac pacemaker cells may contribute to the antiarrhythmic and/or cardiovascular toxic action. PMID:21303986

  13. Amiloride inhibits rat mucosal ornithine decarboxylase activity and DNA synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich-Baker, M.G.; Wang, P.; Fitzpatrick, L.; Johnson, L.R. )

    1988-03-01

    Refeeding fasted rats induces a dramatic trophic response in gastrointestinal mucosa and is associated with elevations in both rate of DNA synthesis and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity. The signal for these increases is unknown. Amiloride prevents cell alkalinization by blocking Na{sup +}-H{sup +} exchange at apical epithelial cell membranes. In study 1, rats were fasted 48 h, treated with amiloride (0.5 to 500 mg/kg), and refed for 4 h. Refeeding increased ODC activities in the jejunal mucosa (X8) and liver (X19) but not in the oxyntic gland mucosa. In the jejunum, but not the liver, the activation of ODC was completely abolished by 100 mg/kg amiloride. In study 2, the rate of DNA synthesis was determine by measuring the rate of ({sup 3}H)thymidine incorporation 16 h after refeeding. Refeeding resulted in significantly increased rates of DNA synthesis over fasted levels, and amiloride at 100 mg/kg significantly reduced the elevations in the jejenum and liver. In conclusion, amiloride inhibits the postprandial increases in jejunal ODC activity and DNA synthesis in the jejunum and liver. The results indicate that (1) the Na{sup +}-H{sup +} antiport is essential to the increased ODC activity in the jejunum and liver after a meal and (2) increases in DNA synthesis and their suppression by amiloride are not necessary linked to ODC activity.

  14. Angiopoietin1 Inhibits Mast Cell Activation and Protects against Anaphylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng-Tao; Liu, Yi-Nan; He, Qi-Hua; Xiao, Jun-Jun; Bai, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Since morbidity and mortality rates of anaphylaxis diseases have been increasing year by year, how to prevent and manage these diseases effectively has become an important issue. Mast cells play a central regulatory role in allergic diseases. Angiopoietin1 (Ang-1) exhibits anti-inflammatory properties by inhibiting vascular permeability, leukocyte migration and cytokine production. However, Ang-1's function in mast cell activation and anaphylaxis diseases is unknown. The results of our study suggest that Ang-1 decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines production of mast cells by suppressing IκB phosphorylation and NF-κB nuclear translocation. Ang-1 also strongly inhibited compound 48/80 induced and FcεRI-mediated mast cells degranulation by decreasing intracellular calcium levels in vitro. In vivo lentivirus-mediated delivery of Ang-1 in mice exhibited alleviated leakage in IgE-dependent passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA). Furthermore, exogenous Ang-1 intervention treatment prevented mice from compound 48/80-induced mesentery mast cell degranulation, attenuated increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines, relieved lung injury, and improved survival in anaphylaxis shock. The results of our study reveal, for the first time, the important role of Ang-1 in the activation of mast cells, and identify a therapeutic effect of Ang-1 on anaphylaxis diseases. PMID:24586553

  15. Fast Inhibition of Glutamate-Activated Currents by Caffeine

    PubMed Central

    Vyleta, Nicholas P.; Smith, Stephen M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Caffeine stimulates calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) in many cell types. In neurons, caffeine stimulates CICR presynaptically and thus modulates neurotransmitter release. Methodology/Principal Findings Using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique we found that caffeine (20 mM) reversibly increased the frequency and decreased the amplitude of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) in neocortical neurons. The increase in mEPSC frequency is consistent with a presynaptic mechanism. Caffeine also reduced exogenously applied glutamate-activated currents, confirming a separate postsynaptic action. This inhibition developed in tens of milliseconds, consistent with block of channel currents. Caffeine (20 mM) did not reduce currents activated by exogenous NMDA, indicating that caffeine block is specific to non-NMDA type glutamate receptors. Conclusions/Significance Caffeine-induced inhibition of mEPSC amplitude occurs through postsynaptic block of non-NMDA type ionotropic glutamate receptors. Caffeine thus has both pre and postsynaptic sites of action at excitatory synapses. PMID:18781199

  16. Caerulomycin A Suppresses Immunity by Inhibiting T Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Khatri, Neeraj; Vohra, Rakesh M.; Jolly, Ravinder S.; Agrewala, Javed N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Caerulomycin A (CaeA) is a known antifungal and antibiotic agent. Further, CaeA is reported to induce the expansion of regulatory T cell and prolongs the survival of skin allografts in mouse model of transplantation. In the current study, CaeA was purified and characterized from a novel species of actinomycetes, Actinoalloteichus spitiensis. The CaeA was identified for its novel immunosuppressive property by inhibiting in vitro and in vivo function of T cells. Methods Isolation, purification and characterization of CaeA were performed using High Performance Flash Chromatography (HPFC), NMR and mass spectrometry techniques. In vitro and in vivo T cell studies were conducted in mice using flowcytometry, ELISA and thymidine-[methyl-3H] incorporation. Results CaeA significantly suppressed T cell activation and IFN-γ secretion. Further, it inhibited the T cells function at G1 phase of cell cycle. No apoptosis was noticed by CaeA at a concentration responsible for inducing T cell retardation. Furthermore, the change in the function of B cells but not macrophages was observed. The CaeA as well exhibited substantial inhibitory activity in vivo. Conclusion This study describes for the first time novel in vitro and in vivo immunosuppressive function of CaeA on T cells and B cells. CaeA has enough potential to act as a future immunosuppressive drug. PMID:25286329

  17. Ramiprilate inhibits functional matrix metalloproteinase activity in Crohn's disease fistulas.

    PubMed

    Efsen, Eva; Saermark, Torben; Hansen, Alastair; Bruun, Eywin; Brynskov, Jørn

    2011-09-01

    effect on MMP activity. Increased functional MMP activity, notably MMP-3 and -9, is present in Crohn's fistulas and may be inhibited by ramiprilate, a widely available ACE inhibitor.

  18. Goniothalamin enhances the ATPase activity of the molecular chaperone Hsp90 but inhibits its chaperone activity.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuhei; Ohtaki, Aguru; Jantan, Ibrahim; Yohda, Masafumi; Nakamoto, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    Hsp90 is an ATP-dependent molecular chaperone that is involved in important cellular pathways such as signal transduction pathways. It is a potential cancer drug target because it plays a critical role for stabilization and activation of oncoproteins. Thus, small molecule compounds that control the Hsp90 function are useful to elucidate potential lead compounds against cancer. We studied effect of a naturally occurring styryl-lactone goniothalamin on the activity of Hsp90. Although many drugs targeting Hsp90 inhibit the ATPase activity of Hsp90, goniothalamin enhanced rather than inhibited the ATPase activity of a cyanobacterial Hsp90 (HtpG) and a yeast Hsp90. It increased both K(m) and k(cat) of the Hsp90s. Domain competition assays and tryptophan fluorescence measurements with various truncated derivatives of HtpG indicated that goniothalamin binds to the N-terminal domain of HtpG. Goniothalamin did not influence on the interaction of HtpG with a non-native protein or the anti-aggregation activity of HtpG significantly. However, it inhibited the activity of HtpG that assists refolding of a non-native protein in cooperation with the Hsp70 chaperone system. This is the first report to show that a small molecule that binds to the N-terminal domain of Hsp90 activates its ATPase activity, while inhibiting the chaperone function of Hsp90.

  19. Assessment of preferential cleavage of an actively transcribed retroviral hybrid gene in murine cells by deoxyribonuclease I, bleomycin, neocarzinostatin, or ionizing radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Beckmann, R.P.; Agostino, M.J.; McHugh, M.M.; Sigmund, R.D.; Beerman, T.A.

    1987-08-25

    Preferential cleavage induced by bleomycin, neocarzinostatin, or ionizing radiation in a transcribed cellular gene was evaluated through comparisons with deoxyribonuclease I. The glucocorticoid-inducible LTL gene previously described served as the specific DNA target. A Southern blot analysis was used to specifically assess cleavage of the LTL gene in nuclei isolated from cells either treated or untreated with the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Hypersensitivity of the gene to bleomycin or neocarzinostatin, which paralleled deoxyribonuclease I hypersensitivity, was evident only in nuclei isolated from dexamethasone-treated cells. Like deoxyribonuclease I, sites of dexamethasone-inducible drug hypersensitivity were coincident with the binding region for the glucocorticoid receptor found within the regulatory sequences of the LTL gene. In contrast, no hypersensitivity to ionizing radiation was evident. Although bleomycin and neocarzinostatin showed qualitatively similar preferences for the threshold LTL gene, quantitative evaluations of damage to total cellular DNA by filter elution showed that the relative specificity of bleomycin for the hypersensitive region was much less than that of either deoxyribonuclease I or neocarzinostatin.

  20. Arcuate neuropeptide Y inhibits sympathetic nerve activity via multiple neuropathways.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhigang; Madden, Christopher J; Brooks, Virginia L

    2017-06-30

    Obesity increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) via activation of proopiomelanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ArcN), and this action requires simultaneous withdrawal of tonic neuropeptide Y (NPY) sympathoinhibition. However, the sites and neurocircuitry by which NPY decreases SNA are unclear. Here, using designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) to selectively activate or inhibit ArcN NPY neurons expressing agouti-related peptide (AgRP) in mice, we have demonstrated that this neuronal population tonically suppresses splanchnic SNA (SSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate via projections to the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH). First, we found that ArcN NPY/AgRP fibers closely appose PVN and DMH presympathetic neurons. Second, nanoinjections of NPY or an NPY receptor Y1 (NPY1R) antagonist into PVN or DMH decreased or increased SSNA, respectively. Third, blockade of DMH NPY1R reversed the sympathoinhibition elicited by selective, DREADD-mediated activation of ArcN NPY/AgRP neurons. Finally, stimulation of ArcN NPY/AgRP terminal fields in the PVN and DMH decreased SSNA. Considering that chronic obesity decreases ArcN NPY content, we propose that the ArcN NPY neuropathway to the PVN and DMH is pivotal in obesity-induced elevations in SNA.

  1. Obesity and lipid stress inhibit carnitine acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Sarah E; Martin, Ola J; Noland, Robert C; Slentz, Dorothy H; DeBalsi, Karen L; Ilkayeva, Olga R; An, Jie; Newgard, Christopher B; Koves, Timothy R; Muoio, Deborah M

    2014-04-01

    Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of acetyl-CoA and acetylcarnitine. Emerging evidence suggests that this enzyme functions as a positive regulator of total body glucose tolerance and muscle activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a mitochondrial enzyme complex that promotes glucose oxidation and is feedback inhibited by acetyl-CoA. Here, we used tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolic profiling to identify a negative relationship between CrAT activity and muscle content of lipid intermediates. CrAT specific activity was diminished in muscles from obese and diabetic rodents despite increased protein abundance. This reduction in enzyme activity was accompanied by muscle accumulation of long-chain acylcarnitines (LCACs) and acyl-CoAs and a decline in the acetylcarnitine/acetyl-CoA ratio. In vitro assays demonstrated that palmitoyl-CoA acts as a direct mixed-model inhibitor of CrAT. Similarly, in primary human myocytes grown in culture, nutritional and genetic manipulations that promoted mitochondrial influx of fatty acids resulted in accumulation of LCACs but a pronounced decrease of CrAT-derived short-chain acylcarnitines. These results suggest that lipid-induced antagonism of CrAT might contribute to decreased PDH activity and glucose disposal in the context of obesity and diabetes.

  2. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; El-Mahdy, Areej M.; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1–V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  3. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides.

    PubMed

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-02-10

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P] from the plasma membrane through Ca(2+)-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Activation of TRPV1 channels inhibits mechanosensitive Piezo channel activity by depleting membrane phosphoinositides

    PubMed Central

    Borbiro, Istvan; Badheka, Doreen; Rohacs, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    Capsaicin is an activator of the heat-sensitive TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1) ion channels and has been used as a local analgesic. We found that activation of TRPV1 channels with capsaicin either in dorsal root ganglion neurons or in a heterologous expression system inhibited the mechanosensitive Piezo1 and Piezo2 channels by depleting phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] and its precursor PI(4)P from the plasma membrane through Ca2+-induced phospholipase Cδ (PLCδ) activation. Experiments with chemically inducible phosphoinositide phosphatases and receptor-induced activation of PLCβ indicated that inhibition of Piezo channels required depletion of both PI(4)P and PI(4,5)P2. The mechanically activated current amplitudes decreased substantially in the excised inside-out configuration, where the membrane patch containing Piezo1 channels is removed from the cell. PI(4,5)P2 and PI(4)P applied to these excised patches inhibited this decrease. Thus, we concluded that Piezo channel activity requires the presence of phosphoinositides, and the combined depletion of PI(4,5)P2 or PI(4)P reduces channel activity. In addition to revealing a role for distinct membrane lipids in mechanosensitive ion channel regulation, these data suggest that inhibition of Piezo2 channels may contribute to the analgesic effect of capsaicin. PMID:25670203

  5. Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan, inhibits MAP kinases and AP-1 activation via potent MKK inhibition: the role in TNF-alpha inhibition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Min Kyung; Jang, Young Pyo; Kim, Young Choong; Kim, Sang Geon

    2004-10-01

    Arctigenin, naturally occurring in Bardanae fructus, Saussurea medusa, Arctium lappa L., Torreya nucifera and Ipomea cairica, is a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Previously, we showed that arctigenin potently inhibited the induction of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which involved suppression of NF-kappaB activation. In the present study, we examined the effects of arctigenin on mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation in Raw264.7 cells and MAP kinase kinase (MKK) activity. The effect of arctigenin on activator protein-1 (AP-1) activation was also studied in association with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression. Immunoblot analysis showed that arctigenin inhibited phosphorylation of MAP kinases ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK and their activities in Raw264.7 cells treated with LPS. Arctigenin potently inhibited the activity of MKK1 in vitro with the IC(50) value of 1 nM. Gel shift and reporter gene analyses revealed that arctigenin inhibited LPS-inducible AP-1 binding to the AP-1 consensus oligonucleotide and AP-1-mediated reporter gene expression. In view of the potential role of AP-1 in the induction of TNF-alpha, we next examined the inhibitory effects of arctigenin on the expression of TNF-alpha. Arctigenin blocked TNF-alpha production and decreased the level of TNF-alpha mRNA in the cells exposed to LPS. These results showed that arctigenin inhibited activation of MAP kinases including ERK1/2, p38 kinase and JNK through the inhibition of MKK activities, leading to AP-1 inactivation, which might, at least in part, contribute to the inhibition of TNF-alpha production.

  6. Nitric oxide activates hypoglossal motoneurons by cGMP-dependent inhibition of TASK channels and cGMP-independent activation of HCN channels

    PubMed Central

    Wenker, Ian C.; Benoit, Justin P.; Chen, Xinnian; Liu, Hattie; Horner, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule that regulates numerous physiological processes, including activity of respiratory motoneurons. However, molecular mechanism(s) underlying NO modulation of motoneurons remain obscure. Here, we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro recording techniques to examine NO modulation of motoneurons in the hypoglossal motor nucleus (HMN). Microperfusion of diethylamine (DEA; an NO donor) into the HMN of anesthetized adult rats increased genioglossus muscle activity. In the brain slice, whole cell current-clamp recordings from hypoglossal motoneurons showed that exposure to DEA depolarized membrane potential and increased responsiveness to depolarizing current injections. Under voltage-clamp conditions, we found that NO inhibited a Ba2+-sensitive background K+ conductance and activated a Cs+-sensitive hyperpolarization-activated inward current (Ih). When Ih was blocked with Cs+ or ZD-7288, the NO-sensitive K+ conductance exhibited properties similar to TWIK-related acid-sensitive K+ (TASK) channels, i.e., voltage independent, resistant to tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine but inhibited by methanandamide. The soluble guanylyl cyclase blocker 1H-(1,2,4)oxadiazole(4,3-a)quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) and the PKG blocker KT-5823 both decreased NO modulation of this TASK-like conductance. To characterize modulation of Ih in relative isolation, we tested effects of NO in the presence of Ba2+ to block TASK channels. Under these conditions, NO activated both the instantaneous (Iinst) and time-dependent (Iss) components of Ih. Interestingly, at more hyperpolarized potentials NO preferentially increased Iinst. The effects of NO on Ih were retained in the presence of ODQ and blocked by the cysteine-specific oxidant N-ethylmaleimide. These results suggest that NO activates hypoglossal motoneurons by cGMP-dependent inhibition of a TASK-like current and S-nitrosylation-dependent activation of Ih. PMID:22131386

  7. Mitraphylline inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated activation of primary human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Fernandez-Arche, Angeles; de la Puerta, Rocío; Quilez, Ana M; Muriana, Francisco J G; Garcia-Gimenez, Maria Dolores; Bermudez, Beatriz

    2016-02-15

    Mitraphylline (MTP) is the major pentacyclic oxindolic alkaloid presented in Uncaria tomentosa. It has traditionally been used to treat disorders including arthritis, heart disease, cancer, and other inflammatory diseases. However, the specific role of MTP is still not clear, with more comprehensivestudies, our understanding of this ancient herbal medicine will continue growing. Some studies provided its ability to inhibit proinflamatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, through NF-κB-dependent mechanism. TNF-α primes neutrophils and modulates phagocytic and oxidative burst activities in inflammatory processes. Since, neutrophils represent the most abundant pool of leukocytes in human blood and play a crucial role in inflammation, we aimed to determine the ability of MTP to modulate neutrophil activation and differentially regulate inflammatory-related cytokines. To determine the mechanism of action of MTP, we investigated the effects on LPS-activated human primary neutrophils responses including activation surface markers by FACS and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, measured by real time PCR and ELISA. Treatment with MTP reduced the LPS-dependent activation effects. Activated neutrophils (CD16(+)CD62L(-)) diminished after MTP administration. Moreover, proinflamatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 or IL-8) expression and secretion were concomitantly reduced, similar to basal control conditions. Taken together, our results demonstrate that MTP is able to elicit an anti-inflammatory response that modulates neutrophil activation contributing to the attenuation of inflammatory episodes. Further studies are need to characterize the mechanism by which MTP can affect this pathway that could provide a means to develop MTP as new candidate for inflammatory disease therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Activation and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase isoforms by forskolin analogs.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Cibele; Papa, Dan; Hübner, Melanie; Mou, Tung-Chung; Lushington, Gerald H; Seifert, Roland

    2008-04-01

    Adenylyl cyclase (AC) isoforms 1 to 9 are differentially expressed in tissues and constitute an interesting drug target. ACs 1 to 8 are activated by the diterpene, forskolin (FS). It is unfortunate that there is a paucity of AC isoform-selective activators. To develop such compounds, an understanding of the structure/activity relationships of diterpenes is necessary. Therefore, we examined the effects of FS and nine FS analogs on ACs 1, 2, and 5 expressed in Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells. Diterpenes showed the highest potencies at AC1 and the lowest potencies at AC2. We identified full agonists, partial agonists, antagonists, and inverse agonists, i.e., diterpenes that reduced basal AC activity. Each AC isoform exhibited a distinct pharmacological profile. AC2 showed the highest basal activity of all AC isoforms and highest sensitivity to inverse agonistic effects of 1-deoxy-forskolin, 7-deacetyl-1,9-dideoxy-forskolin, and, particularly, BODIPY-forskolin. In contrast, BODIPY-forskolin acted as partial agonist at the other ACs. 1-Deoxy-forskolin analogs were devoid of agonistic activity at ACs but antagonized the effects of FS in a mixed competitive/noncompetitive manner. At purified catalytic AC subunits, BODIPY-forskolin acted as weak partial agonist/strong partial antagonist. Molecular modeling revealed that the BODIPY group rotates promiscuously outside of the FS-binding site. Collectively, ACs are not uniformly activated and inhibited by FS and FS analogs, demonstrating the feasibility to design isoform-selective FS analogs. The two- and multiple-state models, originally developed to conceptualize ligand effects at G-protein-coupled receptors, can be applied to ACs to explain certain experimental data.

  9. Berberine inhibits PTP1B activity and mimics insulin action.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunhua; Zhang, Yuebo; Huang, Cheng

    2010-07-02

    Type 2 diabetes patients show defects in insulin signal transduction that include lack of insulin receptor, decrease in insulin stimulated receptor tyrosine kinase activity and receptor-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRSs). A small molecule that could target insulin signaling would be of significant advantage in the treatment of diabetes. Berberine (BBR) has recently been shown to lower blood glucose levels and to improve insulin resistance in db/db mice partly through the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and induction of phosphorylation of insulin receptor (IR). However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here we report that BBR mimics insulin action by increasing glucose uptake ability by 3T3-L1 adipocytes and L6 myocytes in an insulin-independent manner, inhibiting phosphatase activity of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and increasing phosphorylation of IR, IRS1 and Akt in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In diabetic mice, BBR lowers hyperglycemia and improves impaired glucose tolerance, but does not increase insulin release and synthesis. The results suggest that BBR represents a different class of anti-hyperglycemic agents.

  10. Homocysteine injures vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting mitochondrial activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fengyong; Qi, Xiujing; Gao, Zheng; Yang, Xingju; Zheng, Xingfeng; Duan, Chonghao; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of homocysteine (Hcy) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and the associated molecular mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hcy contents were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry using Annexin-V staining. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity was assessed with an enzyme activity assay, and the expression levels of COX 17 were determined by western blot analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured using a microplate reader with a fluorescence probe. The results demonstrated that, compared with the control group, the serum Hcy levels were significantly elevated in the PE group, suggesting that Hcy may be an indicator for PE. Following treatment with Hcy, the apoptosis rate was markedly elevated in HUVECs. Moreover, Hcy decreased COX activity and downregulated the expression of COX 17 in HUVECs. Furthermore, Hcy increased the ROS levels in these endothelial cells. However, all the above-mentioned physiopathological changes induced by Hcy in HUVECs could be restored by folic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Hcy inhibited COX activity, downregulated COX 17 expression, increased intracellular ROS levels and enhanced apoptosis in endothelial cells. PMID:27698720

  11. Inhibition of bacterial activity in acid mine drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurdeep; Bhatnagar, Miss Mridula

    1988-12-01

    Acid mine drainage water give rise to rapid growth and activity of an iron- and sulphur- oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidians which greatly accelerate acid producing reactions by oxidation of pyrite material associated with coal and adjoining strata. The role of this bacterium in production of acid mine drainage is described. This study presents the data which demonstrate the inhibitory effect of certain organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate, quarternary ammonium compounds on the growth of the acidophilic aerobic autotroph Thiobacillus ferrooxidians. In each experiment, 10 milli-litres of laboratory developed culture of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians was added to 250 milli-litres Erlenmeyer flask containing 90 milli-litres of 9-k media supplemented with FeSO4 7H2O and organic compounds at various concentrations. Control experiments were also carried out. The treated and untreated (control) samples analysed at various time intervals for Ferrous Iron and pH levels. Results from this investigation showed that some organic acids, sodium benzoate, sodium lauryl sulphate and quarternary ammonium compounds at low concentration (10-2 M, 10-50 ppm concentration levels) are effective bactericides and able to inhibit and reduce the Ferrous Iron oxidation and acidity formation by inhibiting the growth of Thiobacillus ferrooxidians is also discussed and presented

  12. The inhibition of proinsulin-processing endopeptidase activities by active-site-directed peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, C J; Zumbrunn, A; Bailyes, E M; Shaw, E; Hutton, J C

    1989-01-01

    Inhibitor studies were performed on the two endopeptidase activities involved in proinsulin conversion in isolated insulin secretory granules [Davidson, Rhodes & Hutton (1988) Nature (London) 333, 93-96]. The active-site-directed peptides L-alanyl-L-arginyl-L-arginylmethyldimethylsulphonium and L-alanyl-L-lysyl-L-arginylmethyldimethylsulphonium inhibited these activities in accordance with the observed cleavage pattern, suggesting that the primary amino acid sequence of the dibasic site was an important determinant of the endopeptidase substrate specificities. PMID:2649090

  13. Investigating biological activity spectrum for novel quinoline analogues 2: hydroxyquinolinecarboxamides with photosynthesis-inhibiting activity.

    PubMed

    Musiol, Robert; Tabak, Dominik; Niedbala, Halina; Podeszwa, Barbara; Jampilek, Josef; Kralova, Katarina; Dohnal, Jiri; Finster, Jacek; Mencel, Agnieszka; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2008-04-15

    Two series of amides based on quinoline scaffold were designed and synthesized in search of photosynthesis inhibitors. The compounds were tested for their photosynthesis-inhibiting activity against Spinacia oleracea L. and Chlorella vulgaris Beij. The compounds lipophilicity was determined by the RP-HPLC method. Several compounds showed biological activity similar or even higher than that of the standard (DCMU). The structure-activity relationships are discussed.

  14. Polarized notum activation at wounds inhibits Wnt function to promote planarian head regeneration.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Christian P; Reddien, Peter W

    2011-05-13

    Regeneration requires initiation of programs tailored to the identity of missing parts. Head-versus-tail regeneration in planarians presents a paradigm for study of this phenomenon. After injury, Wnt signaling promotes tail regeneration. We report that wounding elicits expression of the Wnt inhibitor notum preferentially at anterior-facing wounds. This expression asymmetry occurs at essentially any wound, even if the anterior pole is intact. Inhibition of notum with RNA interference (RNAi) causes regeneration of an anterior-facing tail instead of a head, and double-RNAi experiments indicate that notum inhibits Wnt signaling to promote head regeneration. notum expression is itself controlled by Wnt signaling, suggesting that regulation of feedback inhibition controls the binary head-tail regeneration outcome. We conclude that local detection of wound orientation with respect to tissue axes results in distinct signaling environments that initiate appropriate regeneration responses.

  15. MIF family members cooperatively inhibit p53 expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Brock, Stephanie E; Rendon, Beatriz E; Xin, Dan; Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Mitchell, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 is induced by genotoxic stress in both normal and transformed cells and serves to transcriptionally coordinate cell cycle checkpoint control and programmed cell death responses. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is an autocrine and paracrine acting cytokine/growth factor that promotes lung adenocarcinoma cell motility, anchorage-independence and neo-angiogenic potential. Several recent studies indicate that the only known homolog of MIF, D-dopachrome tautomerase (D-DT - also referred to as MIF-2), has functionally redundant activities with MIF and cooperatively promotes MIF-dependent pro-tumorigenic phenotypes. We now report that MIF and D-DT synergistically inhibit steady state p53 phosphorylation, stabilization and transcriptional activity in human lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. The combined loss of MIF and D-DT by siRNA leads to dramatically reduced cell cycle progression, anchorage independence, focus formation and increased programmed cell death when compared to individual loss of MIF or D-DT. Importantly, p53 mutant and p53 null lung adenocarcinoma cell lines were only nominally rescued from the cell growth effects of MIF/D-DT combined deficiency suggesting only a minor role for p53 in these transformed cell growth phenotypes. Finally, increased p53 activation was found to be independent of aberrantly activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) that occurs in response to MIF/D-DT-deficiency but is dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS) that mediate aberrant AMPK activation in these cells. Combined, these findings suggest that both p53 wildtype and mutant human lung adenocarcinoma tumors rely on MIF family members for maximal cell growth and survival.

  16. Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits neutrophil activation following permanent cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng-Yi; Kao, Tsung-Kuei; Chen, Wen-Ying; Ou, Yen-Chuan; Li, Jian-Ri; Liao, Su-Lan; Raung, Shue-Ling; Chen, Chun-Jung

    2015-07-31

    Experimental studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) against ischemic stroke and highlighted its crucial role in anti-inflammatory activity. This study provides evidence of an alternative target for TMP and sheds light on the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action against ischemic brain injury. We report a global inhibitory effect of TMP on inflammatory cell intracerebral activation and infiltration in a rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia. The results of immunohistochemistry, enzymatic assay, flow cytometric analysis, and cytological analysis revealed that intraperitoneal TMP administration reduced neuronal loss, macrophage/microglia activation, brain parenchyma infiltrative neutrophils, and circulating neutrophils after cerebral ischemia. Biochemical studies of cultured neutrophils further demonstrated that TMP attenuated neutrophil migration, endothelium adhesion, spontaneous nitric oxide (NO) production, and stimuli-activated NO production after cerebral ischemia. In parallel with these anti-neutrophil phenomena, TMP also attenuated the activities of ischemia-induced inflammation-associated signaling molecules, including plasma high-mobility group box-1 protein (HMGB1) and neutrophil toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Another finding in this study was that the anti-neutrophil effect of TMP was accompanied by a further elevated expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in neutrophils after cerebral ischemia. Taken together, our results suggest that both the promotion of endogenous anti-inflammatory defense capacity and the attenuation of pro-inflammatory responses via targeting of circulating neutrophils by elevating Nrf2/HO-1 expression and inhibiting HMGB1/TLR4, Akt, and ERK signaling might actively contribute to TMP-mediated neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia.

  17. Preferential concentration of particles by turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squires, Kyle D.; Eaton, John K.

    1991-01-01

    Direct numerical simulation of isotropic turbulence was used to investigate the effect of turbulence on the concentration fields of heavy particles. The hydrodynamic field was computed using 64-cubed points, and a statistically stationary flow was obtained by forcing the low-wave-number components of the velocity field. The particles used in the simulations were time advanced according to Stokes drag law and were also assumed to be much more dense than the fluid. Properties of the particle cloud were obtained by following the trajectories of 1,000,000 particles through the simulated flow fields. Three values of the ratio of the particle time constant to large-scale turbulence time scale were used in the simulations: 0.075, 0.15, and 0.52. The simulations show that the particles collect preferentially in regions of low vorticity and high strain rate. This preferential collection was most pronounced for particles with the instantaneous number density as much as 25 times the mean value. The fact that dense particles collect in regions of low vorticity and high strain in turn implies that turbulence may actually inhibit rather than enhance mixing of particles.

  18. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Darin C; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K K; McElwee, Kevin J; Cheng, Kimberly M

    2015-09-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51×faster), ostrich oil (1.46×faster), and rhea oil (1.64×faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35×slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions.

  19. Ratite oils promote keratinocyte cell growth and inhibit leukocyte activation

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Darin C.; Leung, Gigi; Wang, Eddy; Ma, Sam; Lo, Blanche K. K.; McElwee, Kevin J.; Cheng, Kimberly M.

    2015-01-01

    Traditionally, native Australian aborigines have used emu oil for the treatment of inflammation and to accelerate wound healing. Studies on mice suggest that topically applied emu oil may have anti-inflammatory properties and may promote wound healing. We investigated the effects of ratite oils (6 emu, 3 ostrich, 1 rhea) on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) in vitro by culturing the cells in media with oil concentrations of 0%, 0.5%, and 1.0%. Peking duck, tea tree, and olive oils were used as comparative controls. The same oils at 0.5% concentration were evaluated for their influence on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) survival over 48 hr and their ability to inhibit IFNγ production in PBMCs activated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA) in ELISpot assays. Compared to no oil control, significantly shorter population doubling time durations were observed for HaCaT cells cultured in emu oil (1.51 × faster), ostrich oil (1.46 × faster), and rhea oil (1.64 × faster). Tea tree oil demonstrated significant antiproliferative activity and olive oil significantly prolonged (1.35 × slower) cell population doubling time. In contrast, almost all oils, particularly tea tree oil, significantly reduced PBMC viability. Different oils had different levels of inhibitory effect on IFNγ production with individual emu, ostrich, rhea, and duck oil samples conferring full inhibition. This preliminary investigation suggests that emu oil might promote wound healing by accelerating the growth rate of keratinocytes. Combined with anti-inflammatory properties, ratite oil may serve as a useful component in bandages and ointments for the treatment of wounds and inflammatory skin conditions. PMID:26217022

  20. The Ability To Activate and Inhibit Speeded Responses: Separate Developmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Band, Guido P. H.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Overtoom, Carin C. E.; Verbaten, Marinus N.

    2000-01-01

    Compared 5-, 8-, and 11-year-olds and young adults on 6 speeded performance tasks, 4 requiring an inhibition of response activation. Analyzed reaction and inhibition times; found support for hypothesis of generalized developmental changes in response activation, but revealed less pronounced development of inhibition. Concluded that a nonselective…

  1. Inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity stimulates macroautophagy☆

    PubMed Central

    Manzoni, Claudia; Mamais, Adamantios; Dihanich, Sybille; Abeti, Rosella; Soutar, Marc P.M.; Plun-Favreau, Helene; Giunti, Paola; Tooze, Sharon A.; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Lewis, Patrick A.

    2013-01-01

    Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 (LRRK2) is one of the most important genetic contributors to Parkinson's disease. LRRK2 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, including macroautophagy. To test whether LRRK2 has a role in regulating autophagy, a specific inhibitor of the kinase activity of LRRK2 was applied to human neuroglioma cells and downstream readouts of autophagy examined. The resulting data demonstrate that inhibition of LRRK2 kinase activity stimulates macroautophagy in the absence of any alteration in the translational targets of mTORC1, suggesting that LRRK2 regulates autophagic vesicle formation independent of canonical mTORC1 signaling. This study represents the first pharmacological dissection of the role LRRK2 plays in the autophagy/lysosomal pathway, emphasizing the importance of this pathway as a marker for LRRK2 physiological function. Moreover it highlights the need to dissect autophagy and lysosomal activities in the context of LRRK2 related pathologies with the final aim of understanding their aetiology and identifying specific targets for disease modifying therapies in patients. PMID:23916833

  2. Notch Inhibits Yorkie Activity in Drosophila Wing Discs

    PubMed Central

    Djiane, Alexandre; Zaessinger, Sophie; Babaoğlan, A. Burcu; Bray, Sarah J.

    2014-01-01

    During development, tissues and organs must coordinate growth and patterning so they reach the right size and shape. During larval stages, a dramatic increase in size and cell number of Drosophila wing imaginal discs is controlled by the action of several signaling pathways. Complex cross-talk between these pathways also pattern these discs to specify different regions with different fates and growth potentials. We show that the Notch signaling pathway is both required and sufficient to inhibit the activity of Yorkie (Yki), the Salvador/Warts/Hippo (SWH) pathway terminal transcription activator, but only in the central regions of the wing disc, where the TEAD factor and Yki partner Scalloped (Sd) is expressed. We show that this cross-talk between the Notch and SWH pathways is mediated, at least in part, by the Notch target and Sd partner Vestigial (Vg). We propose that, by altering the ratios between Yki, Sd and Vg, Notch pathway activation restricts the effects of Yki mediated transcription, therefore contributing to define a zone of low proliferation in the central wing discs. PMID:25157415

  3. Nicotinamide mononucleotide inhibits JNK activation to reverse Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhiwen; Yang, Wenhao; Gao, Zhiqiang; Jia, Peng

    2017-04-24

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomers have been accepted as major neurotoxic agents in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD). It has been shown that the activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is related with the decline of Aβ toxicity in AD. Nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), the important precursor of NAD+, is produced during the reaction of nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt). This study aimed to figure out the potential therapeutic effects of NMN and its underlying mechanisms in APPswe/PS1dE9 (AD-Tg) mice. We found that NMN gave rise to a substantial improvement in behavioral measures of cognitive impairments compared to control AD-Tg mice. In addition, NMN treatment significantly decreased β-amyloid production, amyloid plaque burden, synaptic loss, and inflammatory responses in transgenic animals. Mechanistically, NMN effectively controlled JNK activation. Furthermore, NMN potently progressed nonamyloidogenic amyloid precursor protein (APP) and suppressed amyloidogenic APP by mediating the expression of APP cleavage secretase in AD-Tg mice. Based on our findings, it was suggested that NMN substantially decreases multiple AD-associated pathological characteristically at least partially by the inhibition of JNK activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chlorogenic Acid Inhibits Human Platelet Activation and Thrombus Formation

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Caballero, Julio; Alarcón, Marcelo; Rojas, Armando; Palomo, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Background Chlorogenic acid is a potent phenolic antioxidant. However, its effect on platelet aggregation, a critical factor in arterial thrombosis, remains unclear. Consequently, chlorogenic acid-action mechanisms in preventing platelet activation and thrombus formation were examined. Methods and Results Chlorogenic acid in a dose-dependent manner (0.1 to 1 mmol/L) inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, arachidonic acid and TRAP-6, and diminished platelet firm adhesion/aggregation and platelet-leukocyte interactions under flow conditions. At these concentrations chlorogenic acid significantly decreased platelet inflammatory mediators (sP-selectin, sCD40L, CCL5 and IL-1β) and increased intraplatelet cAMP levels/PKA activation. Interestingly, SQ22536 (an adenylate cyclase inhibitor) and ZM241385 (a potent A2A receptor antagonist) attenuated the antiplatelet effect of chlorogenic acid. Chlorogenic acid is compatible to the active site of the adenosine A2A receptor as revealed through molecular modeling. In addition, chlorogenic acid had a significantly lower effect on mouse bleeding time when compared to the same dose of aspirin. Conclusions Antiplatelet and antithrombotic effects of chlorogenic acid are associated with the A2A receptor/adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway. PMID:24598787

  5. Cinnamon effectively inhibits the activity of leukemia stem cells.

    PubMed

    Guan, X; Su, M C; Zhao, R B; Ouyang, H M; Dong, X D; Hu, P; Pei, Q; Lu, J; Li, Z F; Zhang, C R; Yang, T-H

    2016-08-19

    Cinnamon is the main component of Sanyangxuedai, which is one of the effective traditional Chinese medicines for treating malignancies. Leukemia is a prevalent malignant disease that Sanyangxuedai has been used to treat. Although successful in several studies, there is a lack of solid evidence as to why Sanyangxuedai has an effect on leukemia, and little is known about the underlying mechanisms. In this study, the active ingredients of cinnamon were isolated, purified, and identified. The transwell transport pool formed with the Caco-2 cell model was used to filter the active ingredients of cinnamon by simulating the gastrointestinal barrier in vitro. Moreover, the cell morphology, cell cycle status, apoptosis status, and antigenic variation of the cell surface antigens were observed and measured in K562 cells after treatment with the active ingredients of cinnamon. Our results showed that 50-75 μM was a safe concentration of cinnamon extract for treatment of K562 cells for 72 h. The cinnamon extract caused growth inhibition of K562 cells. Cinnamon extract seemed to arrest the cells at the G1 stage and increased the apoptosis rate significantly. Interestingly, cinnamon extract treatment upregulated the expression of erythroid and myeloid differentiation antigens and downregulated that of the megakaryocytic differentiation antigens in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that cinnamon extract from Sanyangxuedai may be effective for treating leukemia.

  6. Activated protein C inhibits neutrophil extracellular trap formation in vitro and activation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Healy, Laura D; Puy, Cristina; Fernández, José A; Mitrugno, Annachiara; Keshari, Ravi S; Taku, Nyiawung A; Chu, Tiffany T; Xu, Xiao; Gruber, András; Lupu, Florea; Griffin, John H; McCarty, Owen J T

    2017-04-13

    Activated protein C (APC) is a multi-functional serine protease with anticoagulant, cytoprotective, and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition to the cytoprotective effects of APC on endothelial cells, podocytes, and neurons, APC cleaves and detoxifies extracellular histones, a major component of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). NETs promote pathogen clearance but also can lead to thrombosis; the pathways that negatively regulate NETosis are largely unknown. Thus, we studied whether APC is capable of directly inhibiting NETosis via receptor-mediated cell signaling mechanisms. Here, by quantifying extracellular DNA or myeloperoxidase, we demonstrate that APC binds human leukocytes and prevents activated platelet supernatant or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) from inducing NETosis. Of note, APC proteolytic activity was required for inhibiting NETosis. Moreover, antibodies against the neutrophil receptors endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR), protease activated receptor 3 (PAR3), and macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) blocked APC inhibition of NETosis. Select mutations in the Gla and protease domains of recombinant APC caused a loss of NETosis. Interestingly, pretreatment of neutrophils with APC prior to induction of NETosis inhibited platelet adhesion to NETs. Lastly, in a non-human primate model of E. coli-induced sepsis, pre-treatment of animals with APC abrogated release of myeloperoxidase from neutrophils, a marker of neutrophil activation. These findings suggest that the anti-inflammatory function of APC at therapeutic concentrations may include the inhibition of NETosis in an EPCR-, PAR3-, and Mac-1-dependent manner, providing additional mechanistic insight into the diverse functions of neutrophils and APC in disease states including sepsis.

  7. Preferential Interactions and the Effect of Protein PEGylation

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Louise Stenstrup; Thulstrup, Peter W.; Kasimova, Marina R.; van de Weert, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background PEGylation is a strategy used by the pharmaceutical industry to prolong systemic circulation of protein drugs, whereas formulation excipients are used for stabilization of proteins during storage. Here we investigate the role of PEGylation in protein stabilization by formulation excipients that preferentially interact with the protein. Methodology/Principal Findings The model protein hen egg white lysozyme was doubly PEGylated on two lysines with 5 kDa linear PEGs (mPEG-succinimidyl valerate, MW 5000) and studied in the absence and presence of preferentially excluded sucrose and preferentially bound guanine hydrochloride. Structural characterization by far- and near-UV circular dichroism spectroscopy was supplemented by investigation of protein thermal stability with the use of differential scanning calorimetry, far and near-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. It was found that PEGylated lysozyme was stabilized by the preferentially excluded excipient and destabilized by the preferentially bound excipient in a similar manner as lysozyme. However, compared to lysozyme in all cases the melting transition was lower by up to a few degrees and the calorimetric melting enthalpy was decreased to half the value for PEGylated lysozyme. The ratio between calorimetric and van’t Hoff enthalpy suggests that our PEGylated lysozyme is a dimer. Conclusion/Significance The PEGylated model protein displayed similar stability responses to the addition of preferentially active excipients. This suggests that formulation principles using preferentially interacting excipients are similar for PEGylated and non-PEGylated proteins. PMID:26230338

  8. Fyn phosphorylates AMPK to inhibit AMPK activity and AMP-dependent activation of autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Eijiro; Okada, Shuichi; Bastie, Claire C.; Vatish, Manu; Nakajima, Yasuyo; Shibusawa, Ryo; Ozawa, Atsushi; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Yamada, Masanobu

    2016-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that proto-oncogene Fyn decreased energy expenditure and increased metabolic phenotypes. Also Fyn decreased autophagy-mediated muscle mass by directly inhibiting LKB1 and stimulating STAT3 activities, respectively. AMPK, a downstream target of LKB1, was recently identified as a key molecule controlling autophagy. Here we identified that Fyn phosphorylates the α subunit of AMPK on Y436 and inhibits AMPK enzymatic activity without altering the assembly state of the AMPK heterotrimeric complex. As pro-inflammatory mediators are reported modulators of the autophagy processes, treatment with the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα resulted in 1) increased Fyn activity 2) stimulated Fyn-dependent AMPKα tyrosine phosphorylation and 3) decreased AICAR-dependent AMPK activation. Importantly, TNFα induced inhibition of autophagy was not observed when AMPKα was mutated on Y436. 4) These data demonstrate that Fyn plays an important role in relaying the effects of TNFα on autophagy and apoptosis via phosphorylation and inhibition of AMPK. PMID:27626315

  9. Phorbol ester stimulates secretory activity while inhibiting receptor-activated aminopyrine uptake by gastric glands

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.R.; Chew, C.S.

    1986-03-05

    Both cyclic AMP-dependent and -independent secretagogues stimulate pepsinogen release, respiration and H/sup +/ secretory activity (AP uptake) in rabbit gastric glands. 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (T), a diacyglycerol analog, activates protein kinase C (PKC) and stimulates secretion in many systems. T stimulated respiration and pepsinogen release by glands and increased AP uptake by both glands and purified parietal cells. However, T reduced AP uptake by glands stimulated with carbachol (C) or histamine (H) with an apparent IC/sub 50/ of 1 nM. Preincubation with T for 30 min produced maximum inhibition which was not reversed by removal of T. T accelerated the decline of the transient C peak while the late steady state response to H was most inhibited. H-stimulated AP uptake was also inhibited by 50 ..mu..g/ml 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, a reported PKC activator, but not by the inactive phorbol, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol-12,13-didecanoate. In contrast, T potentiated AP uptake by glands stimulated with submaximal doses of dibutyryl cyclic AMP. These results suggest inhibition by T is a specific effect of PKC activators. The differing effects of T on secretion indicators may result from a dual action of T on receptor and post-receptor intracellular events.

  10. Nitric oxide released from activated platelets inhibits platelet recruitment.

    PubMed Central

    Freedman, J E; Loscalzo, J; Barnard, M R; Alpert, C; Keaney, J F; Michelson, A D

    1997-01-01

    Vessel injury and thrombus formation are the cause of most ischemic coronary syndromes and, in this setting, activated platelets stimulate platelet recruitment to the growing thrombus. Recently, a constitutive nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been identified in human platelets. To further define the capacity of platelets to produce nitric oxide (NO), as well as to study the role of this NO in platelet recruitment, we adapted a NO-selective microelectrode for use in a standard platelet aggregometer, thereby permitting simultaneous measurement of platelet aggregation and NO production. Treatment of platelets with the NO synthase inhibitor -NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), reduced NO production by 92+/-8% in response to 5 microM ADP compared to control but increased aggregation by only 15+/-2%. In contrast, L-NAME had a more pronounced effect on platelet recruitment as evidenced by a 35+/-5% increase in the extent of aggregation, a 33+/-3% decrease in cyclic GMP content, and a 31+/-5% increase in serotonin release from a second recruitable population of platelets added to stimulated platelets at the peak of NO production. To study platelet recruitment accurately, we developed an assay that monitors two platelet populations simultaneously. Nonbiotinylated platelets were incubated with L-NAME or vehicle and activated with ADP. At peak NO production, biotinylated platelets were added. As measured by three-color flow cytometry, there was a 56+/-11% increase in the number of P selectin- positive platelets in the nonbiotinylated population treated with L-NAME as compared to control. When biotinylated platelets were added to the L-NAME-treated nonbiotinylated population, the number of P selectin positive biotinylated plate-lets increased by 180+/-32% as compared to biotinylated platelets added to the control. In summary, stimulated platelets produce NO that modestly inhibits platelet activation but markedly inhibits additional platelet recruitment. These data suggest

  11. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Kheradpezhouh, E; Barritt, G J; Rychkov, G Y

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca(2+) entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca(2+)]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels.

  12. Curcumin inhibits activation of TRPM2 channels in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kheradpezhouh, E.; Barritt, G.J.; Rychkov, G.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a hallmark of many liver diseases including viral and drug-induced hepatitis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. One of the consequences of oxidative stress in the liver is deregulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, resulting in a sustained elevation of the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) in hepatocytes, which leads to irreversible cellular damage. Recently it has been shown that liver damage induced by paracetamol and subsequent oxidative stress is, in large part, mediated by Ca2+ entry through Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) channels. Involvement of TRPM2 channels in hepatocellular damage induced by oxidative stress makes TRPM2 a potential therapeutic target for treatment of a range of oxidative stress-related liver diseases. We report here the identification of curcumin ((1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), a natural plant-derived polyphenol in turmeric spice, as a novel inhibitor of TRPM2 channel. Presence of 5 µM curcumin in the incubation medium prevented the H2O2- and paracetamol-induced [Ca2+]c rise in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, in patch clamping experiments incubation of hepatocytes with curcumin inhibited activation of TRPM2 current by intracellular ADPR with IC50 of approximately 50 nM. These findings enhance understanding of the actions of curcumin and suggest that the known hepatoprotective properties of curcumin are, at least in part, mediated through inhibition of TRPM2 channels. PMID:26609559

  13. Honokiol inhibits androgen receptor activity in prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Eun-Ryeong; Karlsson, A Isabella; Bonner, Michael Y; Arbiser, Jack L; Singh, Shivendra V

    2014-04-01

    We have shown previously that honokiol (HNK), a bioactive component of the medicinal plant Magnolia officinalis, inhibits growth of human prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. However, the effect of HNK on androgen receptor (AR) signaling has not been studied. LNCaP, C4-2, and TRAMP-C1 cells were used for various assays. Trypan blue dye exclusion assay or clonogenic assay was performed for determination of cell viability. The effects of HNK and/or its analogs on protein levels of AR and its target gene product prostate specific antigen (PSA) were determined by western blotting. RNA interference of p53 was achieved by transient transfection. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed for mRNA expression of AR. Nuclear level of AR was visualized by microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by DNA fragmentation assay or flow cytometry after Annexin V-propidium iodide staining. HNK and its dichloroacetate analog (HDCA) were relatively more effective in suppressing cell viability and AR protein level than honokiol epoxide or biseugenol. Nuclear translocation of AR stimulated by a synthetic androgen (R1881) was markedly suppressed in the presence of HNK. Downregulation of AR protein resulting from HNK exposure was attributable to transcriptional repression as well as proteasomal degradation. HNK-mediated suppression of AR protein was maintained in LNCaP cells after knockdown of p53 protein. HNK-induced apoptosis was not affected by R1881 treatment. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, that HNK inhibits activity of AR in prostate cancer cells regardless of the p53 status. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Acylthiourea, acylurea, and acylguanidine derivatives with potent hedgehog inhibiting activity.

    PubMed

    Solinas, Antonio; Faure, Hélène; Roudaut, Hermine; Traiffort, Elisabeth; Schoenfelder, Angèle; Mann, André; Manetti, Fabrizio; Taddei, Maurizio; Ruat, Martial

    2012-02-23

    The Smoothened (Smo) receptor is the major transducer of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. On the basis of the structure of the acylthiourea Smo antagonist (MRT-10), a number of different series of analogous compounds were prepared by ligand-based structural optimization. The acylthioureas, originally identified as actives, were converted into the corresponding acylureas or acylguanidines. In each series, similar structural trends delivered potent compounds with IC(50) values in the nanomolar range with respect to the inhibition of the Hh signaling pathway in various cell-based assays and of BODIPY-cyclopamine binding to human Smo. The similarity of their biological activities, in spite of discrete structural differences, may reveal the existence of hydrogen-bonding interactions between the ligands and the receptor pocket. Biological potency of compounds 61, 72, and 86 (MRT-83) were comparable to those of the clinical candidate GDC-0449. These findings suggest that these original molecules will help delineate Smo and Hh functions and can be developed as potential anticancer agents.

  15. Role of intracortical inhibition in selective hand muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Stinear, Cathy M; Byblow, Winston D

    2003-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that intracortical inhibition (ICI) plays an important role in shaping the output from primary motor cortex (M1). This study explored the muscle specificity and temporal modulation of ICI during the performance of a phasic index finger flexion task. Fifteen subjects were asked to rest their dominant hand on a computer mouse and depress the mouse button using their index finger in time with a 1-Hz auditory metronome, while keeping the rest of their hand as relaxed as possible. Responses to single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor pollicis brevis (APB) muscles while subjects were at rest and during "on" and "off" phases of the task. For FDI during the on phase, motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and pretrigger EMG increased and ICI decreased, as expected. This pattern of modulation was also observed for APB in seven subjects. The remaining eight subjects demonstrated a decrease in MEP amplitude and increase in ICI for APB during the on phase. This was associated with significantly less APB activation during the on phase. These findings suggest that an increase in ICI and decrease in corticospinal excitability can prevent unwanted muscle activation in a muscle-specific, temporally modulated manner.

  16. SUMOylation inhibits FOXM1 activity and delays mitotic transition

    PubMed Central

    Myatt, S S; Kongsema, M; Man, C W-Y; Kelly, D J; Gomes, A R; Khongkow, P; Karunarathna, U; Zona, S; Langer, J K; Dunsby, C W; Coombes, R C; French, P M; Brosens, J J; Lam, E W-F

    2014-01-01

    The forkhead box transcription factor FOXM1 is an essential effector of G2/M-phase transition, mitosis and the DNA damage response. As such, it is frequently deregulated during tumorigenesis. Here we report that FOXM1 is dynamically modified by SUMO1 but not by SUMO2/3 at multiple sites. We show that FOXM1 SUMOylation is enhanced in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in response to treatment with epirubicin and mitotic inhibitors. Mutation of five consensus conjugation motifs yielded a SUMOylation-deficient mutant FOXM1. Conversely, fusion of the E2 ligase Ubc9 to FOXM1 generated an auto-SUMOylating mutant (FOXM1-Ubc9). Analysis of wild-type FOXM1 and mutants revealed that SUMOylation inhibits FOXM1 activity, promotes translocation to the cytoplasm and enhances APC/Cdh1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation. Further, expression of the SUMOylation-deficient mutant enhanced cell proliferation compared with wild-type FOXM1, whereas the FOXM1-Ubc9 fusion protein resulted in persistent cyclin B1 expression and slowed the time from mitotic entry to exit. In summary, our findings suggest that SUMOylation attenuates FOXM1 activity and causes mitotic delay in cytotoxic drug response. PMID:24362530

  17. Incomplete inhibition by eculizumab: mechanistic evidence for residual C5 activity during strong complement activation.

    PubMed

    Harder, Markus J; Kuhn, Nadine; Schrezenmeier, Hubert; Höchsmann, Britta; von Zabern, Inge; Weinstock, Christof; Simmet, Thomas; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D; Skerra, Arne; Anliker, Markus; Schmidt, Christoph Q

    2017-02-23

    Eculizumab inhibits the terminal, lytic pathway of complement by blocking the activation of the complement protein C5 and shows remarkable clinical benefits in certain complement-mediated diseases. However, several reports suggest that activation of C5 is not always completely suppressed in patients even under excess of eculizumab over C5, indicating that residual C5 activity may derogate the drug's therapeutic benefit under certain conditions. By using eculizumab and the tick-derived C5 inhibitor coversin, we determined conditions ex vivo in which C5 inhibition is incomplete. The degree of such residual lytic activity depended on the strength of the complement activator and the resulting surface density of the complement activation product C3b, which autoamplifies via the alternative pathway (AP) amplification loop. We show that at high C3b densities required for binding and activation of C5, both inhibitors reduce but do not abolish this interaction. The decrease of C5 binding to C3b clusters in the presence of C5 inhibitors correlated with the levels of residual hemolysis. However, by employing different C5 inhibitors simultaneously, residual hemolytic activity could be abolished. The importance of AP-produced C3b clusters for C5 activation in the presence of eculizumab was corroborated by the finding that residual hemolysis after forceful activation of the classical pathway could be reduced by blocking the AP. By providing insights into C5 activation and inhibition, our study delivers the rationale for the clinically observed phenomenon of residual terminal pathway activity under eculizumab treatment with important implications for anti-C5 therapy in general.

  18. Hepatocyte growth factor preferentially activates the anti-inflammatory arm of NF-κB signaling to induce A20 and protect renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from inflammation.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Cleide G; Maccariello, Elizabeth R; Wilson, Szuhuei Wu; Putheti, Prabhakar; Daniel, Soizic; Damrauer, Scott M; Peterson, Clayton R; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Ferran, Christiane

    2012-04-01

    Inflammation induces the NF-κB dependent protein A20 in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC), which secondarily contains inflammation by shutting down NF-κB activation. We surmised that inducing A20 without engaging the pro-inflammatory arm of NF-κB could improve outcomes in kidney disease. We showed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases A20 mRNA and protein levels in RPTEC without causing inflammation. Upregulation of A20 by HGF was NF-κB/RelA dependent as it was abolished by overexpressing IκBα or silencing p65/RelA. Unlike TNFα, HGF caused minimal IκBα and p65/RelA phosphorylation, with moderate IκBα degradation. Upstream, HGF led to robust and sustained AKT activation, which was required for p65 phosphorylation and A20 upregulation. While HGF treatment of RPTEC significantly increased A20 mRNA, it failed to induce NF-κB dependent, pro-inflammatory MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 mRNA. This indicates that HGF preferentially upregulates protective (A20) over pro-inflammatory NF-κB dependent genes. Upregulation of A20 supported the anti-inflammatory effects of HGF in RPTEC. HGF pretreatment significantly attenuated TNFα-mediated increase of ICAM-1, a finding partially reversed by silencing A20. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that HGF activates an AKT-p65/RelA pathway to preferentially induce A20 but not inflammatory molecules. This could be highly desirable in acute and chronic renal injury where A20-based anti-inflammatory therapies are beneficial. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Hepatocyte Growth Factor preferentially activates the anti-inflammatory arm of NF-κB signaling to induce A20 and protect renal proximal tubular epithelial cells from inflammation

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Cleide G.; Maccariello, Elizabeth R.; Wilson, Szuhuei Wu; Putheti, Prabhakar; Daniel, Soizic; Damrauer, Scott M.; Peterson, Clayton; Siracuse, Jeffrey J.; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Ferran, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation induces the NF-κB dependent protein A20 in human renal proximal tubular epithelial cells (RPTEC), which secondarily contains inflammation by shutting down NF-κB activation. We surmised that inducing A20 without engaging the pro-inflammatory arm of NF-κB could improve outcomes in kidney disease. We showed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) increases A20 mRNA and protein levels in RPTEC without causing inflammation. Upregulation of A20 by HGF was NF-κB/RelA dependent as it was abolished by overexpressing IκBα or silencing p65/RelA. Unlike TNFα, HGF caused minimal IκBα and p65/RelA phosphorylation, with moderate IκBα degradation. Upstream, HGF led to robust and sustained AKT activation, which was required for p65 phosphorylation and A20 upregulation. While HGF treatment of RPTEC significantly increased A20 mRNA, it failed to induce NF-κB dependent, pro-inflammatory MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 mRNA. This indicates that HGF preferentially upregulates protective (A20) over pro-inflammatory NF-κB dependent genes. Upregulation of A20 supported the anti-inflammatory effects of HGF in RPTEC. HGF pretreatment significantly attenuated TNFα-mediated increase of ICAM-1, a finding partially reversed by silencing A20. In conclusion, this is the first demonstration that HGF activates an AKT-p65/RelA pathway to preferentially induce A20 but not inflammatory molecules. This could be highly desirable in acute and chronic renal injury where A20-based anti-inflammatory therapies are beneficial. PMID:21618526

  20. Inhibition of thrombin formation by active site mutated (S360A) activated protein C.

    PubMed

    Nicolaes, Gerry A F; Bock, Paul E; Segers, Kenneth; Wildhagen, Karin C A A; Dahlbäck, Björn; Rosing, Jan

    2010-07-23

    Activated protein C (APC) down-regulates thrombin formation through proteolytic inactivation of factor Va (FVa) by cleavage at Arg(506) and Arg(306) and of factor VIIIa (FVIIIa) by cleavage at Arg(336) and Arg(562). To study substrate recognition by APC, active site-mutated APC (APC(S360A)) was used, which lacks proteolytic activity but exhibits anticoagulant activity. Experiments in model systems and in plasma show that APC(S360A), and not its zymogen protein C(S360A), expresses anticoagulant activities by competing with activated coagulation factors X and IX for binding to FVa and FVIIIa, respectively. APC(S360A) bound to FVa with a K(D) of 0.11 +/- 0.05 nm and competed with active site-labeled Oregon Green activated coagulation factor X for binding to FVa. The binding of APC(S360A) to FVa was not affected by protein S but was inhibited by prothrombin. APC(S360A) binding to FVa was critically dependent upon the presence of Arg(506) and not Arg(306) and additionally required an active site accessible to substrates. Inhibition of FVIIIa activity by APC(S360A) was >100-fold less efficient than inhibition of FVa. Our results show that despite exosite interactions near the Arg(506) cleavage site, binding of APC(S360A) to FVa is almost completely dependent on Arg(506) interacting with APC(S360A) to form a nonproductive Michaelis complex. Because docking of APC to FVa and FVIIIa constitutes the first step in the inactivation of the cofactors, we hypothesize that the observed anticoagulant activity may be important for in vivo regulation of thrombin formation.

  1. Telephone assessment of behavioral inhibition and activation systems.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Meza, Alejandra; Suárez, David; Caseras, Xavier; Haro, Josep Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Torrubia, Rafael

    2009-04-01

    The activity of behavioral inhibition and activation systems (BIS and BAS) has been related to several mental disorders. The availability of a validated questionnaire to assess BIS and BAS over the telephone could aid research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the procedural validity of telephone administration of the sensitivity to punishment/sensitivity to reward questionnaire (SPSRQ) as a measure of BIS and BAS activity (by means of its two scales: the sensitivity to punishment [SP] scale and the sensitivity to reward [SR] scale). A total of 231 participants were assessed with the SPSRQ twice (over the telephone and in a self-administered format). Intraclass correlation coefficients and kappa indices were calculated. Additionally, possible differences between the mean scores obtained with the two assessment procedures and internal consistency were explored. Telephone and self-assessment of BIS and BAS, by means of the SPSRQ, provided similar results, supporting the procedural validity of telephone administration. A slight but statistically significant tendency (estimated betha = 0.62; 95% CI, 0.33-0.92; p<0.001) toward lower scores was observed for the telephone-administered SP scale and for the interaction "first or second assessment/telephone or self-administered SPSRQ" for the SR scale (p=0.023). The results of the present study support the reliability of telephone assessment of BIS and BAS by means of the SPSRQ. Copyright © 2009 Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría and Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría Biológica. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation and Inhibition of TMEM16A Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca2+-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+, and discovered that Mg2+ competes with Ca2+ in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore–as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions–appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1. PMID:24489780

  3. Activation and inhibition of TMEM16A calcium-activated chloride channels.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yu-Li; Kuan, Ai-Seon; Chen, Tsung-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCC) encoded by family members of transmembrane proteins of unknown function 16 (TMEM16) have recently been intensely studied for functional properties as well as their physiological roles as chloride channels in various tissues. One technical hurdle in studying these channels is the well-known channel rundown that frequently impairs the precision of electrophysiological measurements for the channels. Using experimental protocols that employ fast-solution exchange, we circumvented the problem of channel rundown by normalizing the Ca(2+)-induced current to the maximally-activated current obtained within a time period in which the channel rundown was negligible. We characterized the activation of the TMEM16A-encoded CaCC (also called ANO1) by Ca(2+), Sr(2+), and Ba(2+), and discovered that Mg(2+) competes with Ca(2+) in binding to the divalent-cation binding site without activating the channel. We also studied the permeability of the ANO1 pore for various anions and found that the anion occupancy in the pore-as revealed by the permeability ratios of these anions-appeared to be inversely correlated with the apparent affinity of the ANO1 inhibition by niflumic acid (NFA). On the other hand, the NFA inhibition was neither affected by the degree of the channel activation nor influenced by the types of divalent cations used for the channel activation. These results suggest that the NFA inhibition of ANO1 is likely mediated by altering the pore function but not through changing the channel gating. Our study provides a precise characterization of ANO1 and documents factors that can affect divalent cation activation and NFA inhibition of ANO1.

  4. Inhibition of histone deacetylase activity increases chromosomal instability by the aberrant regulation of mitotic checkpoint activation.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Jin; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Jeon, Ae-Hwa; Kim, So-Jung; Jang, Kyung-Lib; Sung, Young-Chul; Kim, Chang-Min; Lee, Chang-Woo

    2003-06-19

    Histone modification through acetylation and deacetylation is a key process in transcription, DNA replication, and chromosome segregation. During mitosis, histones are highly acetylated and chromatin is condensed. Here, we investigate the mechanistic involvement of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity in the regulation of mitotic checkpoint activation. Inhibition of HDAC activity was found to cause the improper kinetochore localization of the mitotic checkpoint proteins, and to prolong mitotic arrest, and thus to lead to chromosomal instability due to aberrant exit from the mitotic cell cycle arrest. In addition, treatment with HDAC inhibitor attenuated the activations of p38 and ERK kinases, and increased the expression levels of cIAP-1, suggesting that the observed increased adaptation and chromosomal instability induced by inhibiting HDAC activity might be directly connected with the activations of cell survival and/or antiapoptotic signals. Moreover, the treatment of cells with mitotic defects with HDAC inhibitor increased their susceptibility to chromosomal instability. These results support the notion that HDAC activity plays an important role in the regulation of mitotic checkpoint activation, and thus the aberrant control of HDAC activity contributes to chromosomal instability.

  5. Protease activity, localization and inhibition in the human hair follicle

    PubMed Central

    Bhogal, R K; Mouser, P E; Higgins, C A; Turner, G A

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective In humans, the process of hair shedding, referred to as exogen, is believed to occur independently of the other hair cycle phases. Although the actual mechanisms involved in hair shedding are not fully known, it has been hypothesized that the processes leading to the final step of hair shedding may be driven by proteases and/or protease inhibitor activity. In this study, we investigated the presence of proteases and protease activity in naturally shed human hairs and assessed enzyme inhibition activity of test materials. Methods We measured enzyme activity using a fluorescence-based assay and protein localization by indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC). We also developed an ex vivo skin model for measuring the force required to pull hair fibres from skin. Results Our data demonstrate the presence of protease activity in the tissue material surrounding club roots. We also demonstrated the localization of specific serine protease protein expression in human hair follicle by IHC. These data provide evidence demonstrating the presence of proteases around the hair club roots, which may play a role during exogen. We further tested the hypothesis that a novel protease inhibitor system (combination of Trichogen® and climbazole) could inhibit protease activity in hair fibre club root extracts collected from a range of ethnic groups (UK, Brazil, China, first-generation Mexicans in the USA, Thailand and Turkey) in both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this combination is capable of increasing the force required to remove hair in an ex vivo skin model system. Conclusion These studies indicate the presence of proteolytic activity in the tissue surrounding the human hair club root and show that it is possible to inhibit this activity with a combination of Trichogen® and climbazole. This technology may have potential to reduce excessive hair shedding. Résumé Objectif Chez l'homme, le processus de perte de cheveux, désigné comme exog

  6. Activated Kupffer cells inhibit insulin sensitivity in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Tencerova, Michaela; Aouadi, Myriam; Vangala, Pranitha; Nicoloro, Sarah M.; Yawe, Joseph C.; Cohen, Jessica L.; Shen, Yuefei; Garcia-Menendez, Lorena; Pedersen, David J.; Gallagher-Dorval, Karen; Perugini, Richard A.; Gupta, Olga T.; Czech, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity promotes insulin resistance associated with liver inflammation, elevated glucose production, and type 2 diabetes. Although insulin resistance is attenuated in genetic mouse models that suppress systemic inflammation, it is not clear whether local resident macrophages in liver, denoted Kupffer cells (KCs), directly contribute to this syndrome. We addressed this question by selectively silencing the expression of the master regulator of inflammation, NF-κB, in KCs in obese mice. We used glucan-encapsulated small interfering RNA particles (GeRPs) that selectively silence gene expression in macrophages in vivo. Following intravenous injections, GeRPs containing siRNA against p65 of the NF-κB complex caused loss of NF-κB p65 expression in KCs without disrupting NF-κB in hepatocytes or macrophages in other tissues. Silencing of NF-κB expression in KCs in obese mice decreased cytokine secretion and improved insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance without affecting hepatic lipid accumulation. Importantly, GeRPs had no detectable toxic effect. Thus, KCs are key contributors to hepatic insulin resistance in obesity and a potential therapeutic target for metabolic disease.—Tencerova, M., Aouadi, M., Vangala, P., Nicoloro, S. M., Yawe, J. C., Cohen, J. L., Shen, Y., Garcia-Menendez, L., Pedersen, D. J., Gallagher-Dorval, K., Perugini, R. A., Gupta, O. T., Czech, M. P. Activated Kupffer cells inhibit insulin sensitivity in obese mice. PMID:25805830

  7. Phlorotannins from Alaskan Seaweed Inhibit Carbolytic Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kellogg, Joshua; Grace, Mary H.; Lila, Mary Ann

    2014-01-01

    Global incidence of type 2 diabetes has escalated over the past few decades, necessitating a continued search for natural sources of enzyme inhibitors to offset postprandial hyperglycemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate coastal Alaskan seaweed inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, two carbolytic enzymes involved in serum glucose regulation. Of the six species initially screened, the brown seaweeds Fucus distichus and Alaria marginata possessed the strongest inhibitory effects. F. distichus fractions were potent mixed-mode inhibitors of α-glucosidase and α-amylase, with IC50 values of 0.89 and 13.9 μg/mL, respectively; significantly more efficacious than the pharmaceutical acarbose (IC50 of 112.0 and 137.8 μg/mL, respectively). The activity of F. distichus fractions was associated with phlorotannin oligomers. Normal-phase liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (NPLC-MS) was employed to characterize individual oligomers. Accurate masses and fragmentation patterns confirmed the presence of fucophloroethol structures with degrees of polymerization from 3 to 18 monomer units. These findings suggest that coastal Alaskan seaweeds are sources of α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory phlorotannins, and thus have potential to limit the release of sugar from carbohydrates and thus alleviate postprandial hyperglycemia. PMID:25341030

  8. Inhibition mechanism of Tb(III) on horseradish peroxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaofen; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-10-01

    The inhibition mechanism of Tb(III) on horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in vitro was discussed. The results from MALDI-TOF/MS and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that Tb(III) mainly interacts with the O-containing groups of the amides in the polypeptide chains of the HRP molecules and forms the complex of Tb(III)-HRP, and, in the complex, the molar ratio Tb(III)/HRP is 2 : 1. The results from CD and atomic force microscopy (AFM) indicated that the coordination effect between Tb(III) and HRP can lead to the conformation change in the HRP molecule, in which the contents of alpha-helix and beta-sheet conformation in the peptide of the HRP molecules is decreased, and the content of the random coil conformation is increased. Meanwhile, the coordination effect also leads to the decrease in the content of inter- and intrapeptide-chain H-bonds in the HRP molecules, resulting in the HRP molecular looseness and/or aggregation. Thus, the conformation change in the HRP molecules can significantly decrease the electrochemical reaction of HRP and its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2.

  9. Grapefruit juice inhibits the metabolic activation of clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Holmberg, M T; Tornio, A; Neuvonen, M; Neuvonen, P J; Backman, J T; Niemi, M

    2014-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, including CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, participate in the bioactivation of clopidogrel. Grapefruit juice constituents potently inactivate intestinal CYP3A4 and have been shown to inhibit CYP2C19 as well. In a randomized crossover study, 14 healthy volunteers ingested 200 ml of grapefruit juice or water three times daily for 3 days. On day 3, they ingested a single 600-mg dose of clopidogrel. Grapefruit juice reduced the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of the active metabolite of clopidogrel to 13% of the control (range 11-17%, P < 0.001) and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to 3 h to 14% (range 12-17%, P < 0.001) of the control, but it had no significant effect on the parent clopidogrel. Moreover, grapefruit juice markedly decreased the platelet-inhibitory effect of clopidogrel, as assessed with the VerifyNow P2Y12 test in two of the participants. In conclusion, concomitant use of grapefruit juice may impair the efficacy of clopidogrel. Therefore, the use of grapefruit juice is best avoided during clopidogrel therapy.

  10. Prepulse inhibition modulation by contextual conditioning of dopaminergic activity.

    PubMed

    Mena, Auxiliadora; De la Casa, Luis G

    2013-09-01

    When a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with a drug, an association is established between them that can induce two different responses: either an opponent response that counteracts the effect of the drug, or a response that is similar to that induced by the drug. In this paper, we focus on the analysis of the associations that can be established between the contextual cues and the administration of dopamine agonists or antagonists. Our hypothesis suggests that repeated administration of drugs that modulate dopaminergic activity in the presence of a specific context leads to the establishment of an association that subsequently results in a conditioned response to the context that is similar to that induced by the drug. To test this hypothesis, we conducted two experiments that revealed that contextual cues acquired the property to modulate pre-pulse inhibition by prior pairings of such context with the dopamine antagonist haloperidol (Experiment 1), and with the dopamine agonist d-amphetamine (Experiment 2). The implications of these results are discussed both at a theoretical level, and attending to the possibilities that could involve the use of context cues for the therapeutic administration of dopaminergic drugs.

  11. Preferential Amplification of Pathogenic Sequences.

    PubMed

    Ge, Fang; Parker, Jayme; Chul Choi, Sang; Layer, Mark; Ross, Katherine; Jilly, Bernard; Chen, Jack

    2015-06-11

    The application of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology in the diagnosis of human pathogens is hindered by the fact that pathogenic sequences, especially viral, are often scarce in human clinical specimens. This known disproportion leads to the requirement of subsequent deep sequencing and extensive bioinformatics analysis. Here we report a method we called "Preferential Amplification of Pathogenic Sequences (PATHseq)" that can be used to greatly enrich pathogenic sequences. Using a computer program, we developed 8-, 9-, and 10-mer oligonucleotides called "non-human primers" that do not match the most abundant human transcripts, but instead selectively match transcripts of human pathogens. Instead of using random primers in the construction of cDNA libraries, the PATHseq method recruits these short non-human primers, which in turn, preferentially amplifies non-human, presumably pathogenic sequences. Using this method, we were able to enrich pathogenic sequences up to 200-fold in the final sequencing library. This method does not require prior knowledge of the pathogen or assumption of the infection; therefore, it provides a fast and sequence-independent approach for detection and identification of human viruses and other pathogens. The PATHseq method, coupled with NGS technology, can be broadly used in identification of known human pathogens and discovery of new pathogens.

  12. Oligonucleotide facilitators may inhibit or activate a hammerhead ribozyme.

    PubMed Central

    Jankowsky, E; Schwenzer, B

    1996-01-01

    Facilitators are oligonucleotides capable of affecting hammerhead ribozyme activity by interacting with the substrate at the termini of the ribozyme. Facilitator effects were determined in vitro using a system consisting of a ribozyme with 7 nucleotides in every stem sequence and two substrates with inverted facilitator binding sequences. The effects of 9mer and 12mer RNA as well as DNA facilitators which bind either adjacent to the 3'- or 5'-end of the ribozyme were investigated. A kinetic model was developed which allows determination of the apparent dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex from single turnover reactions. We observed a decreased dissociation constant of the ribozyme-substrate complex due to facilitator addition corresponding to an additional stabilization energy of delta delta G=-1.7 kcal/mol with 3'-end facilitators. The cleavage rate constant was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators. Values for Km were slightly lowered by all facilitators and kcat was increased by 3'-end facilitators and decreased by 5'-end facilitators in our system. Generally the facilitator effects increased with the length of the facilitators and RNA provided greater effects than DNA of the same sequence. Results suggest facilitator influences on several steps of the hammerhead reaction, substrate association, cleavage and dissociation of products. Moreover, these effects are dependent in different manners on ribozyme and substrate concentration. This leads to the conclusion that there is a concentration dependence whether activation or inhibition is caused by facilitators. Conclusions are drawn with regard to the design of hammerhead ribozyme facilitator systems. PMID:8602353

  13. Sinomenine inhibits microglial activation by Aβ and confers neuroprotection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Neuroinflammation is an important contributor to the development of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Thus, there is a keen interest in identifying compounds, especially from herbal sources, that can inhibit neuroinflammation. Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a major component of the amyloid plaques present in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. Here, we examined whether sinomenine, present in a Chinese medicinal plant, prevents oligomeric Aβ-induced microglial activation and confers protection against neurotoxicity. Methods Oligomeric amyloid-β was prepared from Aβ(1-42). Intracellular reactive oxygen species production was determined using the dye 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescin diacetate. Nitric oxide level was assessed using the Griess reagent. Flow cytometry was used to examine the levels of inflammatory molecules. BV2-conditioned medium was used to treat hippocampal cell line (HT22) and primary hippocampal cells in indirect toxicity experiments. Toxicity was assessed using MTT reduction and TUNEL assays. Results We found that sinomenine prevents the oligomeric Aβ-induced increase in levels of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide in BV2 microglial cells. In addition, sinomenine reduces levels of Aβ-induced inflammatory molecules. Furthermore, sinomenine protects hippocampal HT22 cells as well as primary hippocampal cells from indirect toxicity mediated by Aβ-treated microglial cells, but has no effect on Aβ-induced direct toxicity to HT22 cells. Finally, we found that conditioned medium from Aβ-treated BV2 cells contains increased levels of nitric oxide and inflammatory molecules, but the levels of these molecules are reduced by sinomenine. Conclusions Sinomenine prevents oligomeric Aβ-induced microglial activation, and confers protection against indirect neurotoxicity to hippocampal cells. These results raise the possibility that sinomenine may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's diseases as

  14. Over-inhibition of Corticostriatal Activity following Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wengang; Nitulescu, Ioana; Lewis, Justin S.; Lemos, Julia C.; Bamford, Ian J.; Posielski, Natasza M.; Storey, Granville P; Phillips, Paul E. M.; Bamford, Nigel S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) can cause persistent neuropsychological and motor abnormalities in affected children, but the physiological consequences of PCE remain unclear. Conclusions drawn from clinical studies can sometimes be confounded by poly-substance abuse and nutritional deprivation. However, existing observations suggest that cocaine exposure in utero, as in adults, increases synaptic dopamine and promotes enduring dopamine-dependent plasticity at striatal synapses, altering behaviors and basal ganglia function. Methods We used a combination of behavioral measures, electrophysiology, optical imaging, and biochemical and electrochemical recordings to examine corticostriatal activity in adolescent mice exposed to cocaine in utero. Results We show that PCE caused abnormal dopamine-dependent behaviors, including heightened excitation following stress and blunted locomotor augmentation to repeated treatment with amphetamine. These abnormal behaviors were consistent with abnormal GABA interneuron function, which promoted a reversible depression in corticostriatal activity. PCE hyperpolarized and reduced tonic GABA currents in both fast-spiking and PLTS-type GABA interneurons to increase tonic inhibition at GABAB receptors on presynaptic corticostriatal terminals. While D2 receptors paradoxically increased glutamate release following PCE, normal corticostriatal modulation by dopamine was reestablished with a GABAAR antagonist. Interpretation The dynamic alterations at corticostriatal synapses that occur in response to PCE parallel the reported effects of repeated psychostimulants in mature animals, but differ in being specifically generated through GABA. Our results indicate that approaches which normalize GABA and D2 receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity may be useful for treating the behavioral effects of PCE and other developmental disorders that are generated through abnormal GABAergic signaling. PMID:23225132

  15. Preferential activation of primary C-H bonds in the reactions of small alkanes with the diatomic MgO(+*) cation.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Detlef; Roithová, Jana; Alikhani, Esmail; Kwapien, Karolina; Sauer, Joachim

    2010-04-06

    The C-H bond activation of small alkanes by the gaseous MgO(+*) cation is probed by mass spectrometric means. In addition to H-atom abstraction from methane, the MgO(+*) cation reacts with ethane, propane, n- and iso-butane through several pathways, which can all be assigned to the occurrence of initial C-H bond activations. Specifically, the formal C-C bond cleavages observed are assigned to C-H bond activation as the first step, followed by cleavage of a beta-C-C bond concomitant with release of the corresponding alkyl radical. Kinetic modeling of the observed product distributions reveals a high preference of MgO(+*) for the attack of primary C-H bonds. This feature represents a notable distinction of the main-group metal oxide MgO(+*) from various transition-metal oxide cations, which show a clear preference for the attack of secondary C-H bonds. The results of complementary theoretical calculations indicate that the C-H bond activation of larger alkanes by the MgO(+*) cation is subject to pronounced kinetic control.

  16. Rapid access to cyclopentadiene derivatives through gold-catalyzed cycloisomerization of ynamides with cyclopropenes by preferential activation of alkenes over alkynes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xing; Zhu, Lei; Lin, Meijun; Chen, Jianxin; Huang, Xueliang

    2017-03-17

    In this communication, gold-catalyzed intermolecular cycloisomerization of cyclopropenes and ynamides is investigated. The current transformation displayed an activation priority of double bonds over triple bonds by the cationic gold catalyst, giving the corresponding cyclopentadienes in good to excellent yields. Additionally, this protocol can be expanded to a one-pot two-step procedure for the synthesis of substituted cyclopentanones.

  17. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ inhibits vascular calcification by upregulating Klotho

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jun; Hao, Lirong

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. One of the key symptoms is the calcification of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which is induced by dysregulated mineral metabolism with high circulating levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and calcium. Klotho, which was originally identified as an aging suppressor gene, has been shown to be associated with vascular calcification. Since Klotho was recently identified as a target for nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, the present study aimed to determine whether PPARγ regulates VSMC calcification through modulating the expression levels of Klotho. It was demonstrated that the expression of PPARγ was downregulated during Pi-induced VSMC calcification. In addition, treatment with PPARγ agonists inhibited the calcification and enhanced the expression of Klotho in VSMCs in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Of note, loss of Klotho expression by RNA interference abolished the ability of PPARγ activation to inhibit VSMC calcification. Furthermore, activation of Klotho as well as PPARγ inhibited the expression of Pi transporter 1/2 and reduced Pi influx into VSMCs. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that PPARγ regulates VSMC calcification through activating Klotho.

  18. Activation of AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibits the Proliferation of Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peyton, Kelly J.; Liu, Xiao-ming; Yu, Yajie; Yates, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionary conserved energy-sensing enzyme that regulates cell metabolism. Emerging evidence indicates that AMPK also plays an important role in modulating endothelial cell function. In the present study, we investigated whether AMPK modulates endothelial cell growth. Treatment of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells with the AMPK activators 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-d-ribofuranoside (AICAR), 6,7-dihydro-4-hydroxy-3-(2′-hydroxy[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-yl)-6-oxo-thieno[2,3-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile (A-769662), or metformin inhibited cell proliferation and DNA synthesis. The antiproliferative action of AICAR was largely prevented by the adenosine kinase inhibitor 5′-iodotubercidin and mimicked by infecting endothelial cells with an adenovirus expressing constitutively active AMPK. In contrast, pharmacological blockade of endothelial nitric oxide synthase or heme oxygenase-1 activity failed to reverse the inhibition of endothelial cell growth by AICAR. Flow cytometry experiments revealed that pharmacological activation of AMPK arrested endothelial cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle, and this was associated with increases in p53 phosphorylation and p53, p21, and p27 protein expression and decreases in cyclin A protein expression and retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. In addition, silencing p21 and p27 expression partially restored the mitogenic response of AMPK-activated cells. Finally, activation of AMPK by AICAR blocked the migration of endothelial cells after scrape injury and stimulated tube formation by endothelial cells plated onto Matrigel-coated plates. In conclusion, these studies demonstrate that AMPK activation inhibits endothelial cell proliferation by elevating p21 and p27 expression. In addition, they show that AMPK regulates endothelial cell migration and differentiation and identify AMPK as an attractive therapeutic target in treating diseases associated with aberrant

  19. Odorants with Multiple Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups and Other Odorants with High Water Solubility Preferentially Activate Posterior Olfactory Bulb Glomeruli

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Arguello, Spart; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    In past studies in which we mapped 2-deoxyglucose uptake evoked by systematically different odorant chemicals across the entire rat olfactory bulb, glomerular responses could be related to each odorant's particular oxygen-containing functional group. In the present study, we tested whether aliphatic odorants containing two such functional groups (esters, ketones, acids, alcohols, and ethers) would stimulate the combination of glomerular regions that are associated with each of the functional groups separately, or whether they would evoke unique responses in different regions of the bulb. We found that these very highly water-soluble molecules rarely evoked activity in the regions responding to the individual functional groups; instead, they activated posterior glomeruli located about halfway between the dorsal and ventral extremes in both the lateral and the medial aspects of the bulb. Additional highly water-soluble odorants, including very small molecules with single oxygenic groups, also strongly stimulated these posterior regions, resulting in a statistically significant correlation between posterior 2-deoxyglucose uptake and molecular properties associated with water solubility. By showing that highly water-soluble odorants stimulate a part of the bulb associated with peripheral and ventral regions of the epithelium, our results challenge a prevalent notion that such odorants would activate class I odorant receptors located in zone 1 of the olfactory epithelium, which projects to the dorsal aspect of the bulb. PMID:17366613

  20. Inhibition and oxygen activation in copper amine oxidases.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Eric M; Dooley, David M

    2015-05-19

    Copper-containing amine oxidases (CuAOs) use both copper and 2,4,5-trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone (TPQ) to catalyze the oxidative deamination of primary amines. The CuAO active site is highly conserved and comprised of TPQ and a mononuclear type II copper center that exhibits five-coordinate, distorted square pyramidal coordination geometry with histidine ligands and equatorially and axially bound water in the oxidized, resting state. The active site is buried within the protein, and CuAOs from various sources display remarkable diversity with respect to the composition of the active site channel and cofactor accessibility. Structural and mechanistic factors that influence substrate preference and inhibitor sensitivity and selectivity have been defined. This Account summarizes the strategies used to design selective CuAO inhibitors based on active site channel characteristics, leading to either enhanced steric fits or the trapping of reactive electrophilic products. These findings provide a framework to support the future development of candidate molecules aimed at minimizing the negative side effects associated with drugs containing amine functionalities. This is vital given the existence of human diamine oxidase and vascular adhesion protein-1, which have distinct amine substrate preferences and are associated with different metabolic processes. Inhibition of these enzymes by antifungal or antiprotozoal agents, as well as classic monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors, may contribute to the adverse side effects associated with drug treatment. These observations provide a rationale for the limited clinical value associated with certain amine-containing pharmaceuticals and emphasize the need for more selective AO inhibitors. This Account also discusses the novel roles of copper and TPQ in the chemistry of O2 activation and substrate oxidation. Reduced CuAOs exist in a redox equilibrium between the Cu(II)-TPQAMQ (aminoquinol) and Cu(I)-TPQSQ (semiquinone). Elucidating

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation inhibits progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Dharmaraj, Neeraja; Brayman, Melissa J; Carson, Daniel D

    2010-07-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein abundantly expressed on nearly all epithelial tissues and overexpressed by many cancer cells. Previous studies from our lab showed that progesterone receptor (PR)B is a strong stimulator of MUC1 gene expression. It is reported that liganded peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) stimulates Muc1 expression in murine trophoblast. Here, we demonstrate that although the PPARgamma ligand, rosiglitazone, stimulates the murine Muc1 promoter in HEC1A, a human uterine epithelial cell line, rosiglitazone alone, has no significant effect on basal human MUC1 promoter activity. In fact, rosiglitazone treatment antagonizes progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 promoter activity and protein expression in two human uterine epithelial cell lines and T47D human breast cancer cells. This response is antagonized by the PPARgamma antagonist, GW9662, as well as a dominant-negative form of PPARgamma, demonstrating the response is mediated by PPARgamma. Additional studies indicate that PPARgamma activation does not change PR binding to the MUC1 promoter but generally antagonizes progesterone activity by stimulating PRB degradation and inhibiting progesterone-induced PRB phosphorylation. Collectively, these studies indicate that PPARgamma activation inhibits PRB activity through both acute (phosphorylation) and long-term (PRB degradation) pathways.

  2. Antibody inhibition of protein activity in starfish oocytes.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Eiichi; Hara, Masatoshi; Kishimoto, Takeo

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies are widely utilized in cell and molecule biology for immunoblots, immunostaining, immunoprecipitation, immunoaffinity purification, and immunoassay. Some antibodies can be used for in vivo inhibition experiments. These antibodies bind to their target molecules and neutralize their functions, providing functional information in the study of their biological role. Here, we describe our methods for obtaining inhibitory antibodies against desired proteins. We then describe in the starfish oocyte system how to inhibit a target protein, even in the nucleus, by injection of antibody into the cytoplasm, and how to evaluate antibody inhibition of cell cycle regulators in small numbers of oocytes.

  3. Local anesthetics inhibit tissue factor expression in activated monocytes via inhibition of tissue factor mRNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Ki Jun; Ahn, Wonsik; Han, Kyou-Sup; Kim, Hyun Kyung

    2011-01-01

    Local anesthetics have been reported to have anticoagulant properties, but the mechanisms responsible for this action are poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the in vitro effects of 3 local anesthetics--lidocaine, ropivacaine, and bupivacaine--on the tissue factor expression by monocytes. Monocytes from peripheral blood were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence or absence of local anesthetics. All 3 local anesthetics inhibited the expression of tissue factor antigen and tissue factor activity in LPS-stimulated monocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced tissue factor messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in endothelial cells and a monocytic cell line. None of the 3 drugs induced apoptosis or affected the viability of monocytes. Our findings that local anesthetics inhibited the tissue factor induction in activated monocytes by inhibiting tissue factor mRNA level may demonstrate the feasibility of using local anesthetics in hypercoagulable and inflammatory conditions.

  4. The preferential binding of a sensory organ specific odorant binding protein of the alfalfa plant bug Adelphocoris lineolatus AlinOBP10 to biologically active host plant volatiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Gu, Shao-Hua; Xiao, Hai-Jun; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Guo, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Ze-Wen; Zhang, Yong-Jun

    2013-09-01

    Semiochemicals such as sex pheromones and plant volatiles are crucial components of insect mating systems and host plant localization. In the olfactory signal transduction pathway, odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are important elements that function in the first step of the pathway by carrying hydrophobic semiochemicals across the sensillum lymph to the olfactory receptors (ORs). In this study, we examined the binding affinities of semiochemicals to AlinOBP10, a putative OBP from the alfalfa plant bug, Adelphocoris lineolatus, that we demonstrate is expressed mainly in sensory organs. We then characterized the biological activities of the high affinity semiochemicals by measuring their electrophysiological activities in antennae and behavioral responses in the plant bug. AlinOBP10 displayed weak binding affinities to two major putative pheromone components, hexyl butyrate and (E)-2-hexenyl butyrate. In contrast, AlinOBP10 exhibited higher binding affinities to six host plant volatiles, namely myrcene, β-pinene, β-ionone, 3-hexanone, (E)-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol. The biological activities of these six putative ligands were further studied in electroantennogram recordings and Y-tube olfactometer trials. The three compounds, (E)-2-hexenal, 1-hexanol, and 3-hexanone elicited strong electrophysiological responses, but elicited distinct behaviors. While 3-hexanone was attractive to female adults, (E)-2-hexenal and 1-hexanol were significant repellents. Although a weak electrophysiological response was elicited with β-pinene, it was a strong repellent. These results demonstrate that AlinOBP10 can interact with attractants, as well as repellents, with some specificity toward plant volatiles over sex pheromones.

  5. The occ1 gene is preferentially expressed in the primary visual cortex in an activity-dependent manner: a pattern of gene expression related to the cytoarchitectonic area in adult macaque neocortex.

    PubMed

    Tochitani, S; Liang, F; Watakabe, A; Hashikawa, T; Yamamori, T

    2001-01-01

    Marker molecules to visualize specific subsets of neurons are useful for studying the functional organization of the neocortex. One approach to identify such molecular markers is to examine the differences in molecular properties among morphologically and physiologically distinct neuronal cell types. We used differential display to compare mRNA expression in the anatomically and functionally distinct areas of the adult macaque neocortex. We found that a gene, designated occ1, was preferentially transcribed in the posterior region of the neocortex, especially in area 17. Complete sequence analysis revealed that occ1 encodes a macaque homolog of a secretable protein, TSC-36/follistatin-related protein (FRP). In situ hybridization histochemistry confirmed the characteristic neocortical expression pattern of occ1 and showed that occ1 transcription is high in layers II, III, IVA and IVC of area 17. In addition, occ1 transcription was observed selectively in cells of the magnocellular layers in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN). Dual labeling immunohistochemistry showed that the occ1-positive neurons in area 17 include both gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-positive aspiny inhibitory cells and the alpha-subunit of type II calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII alpha)-positive spiny excitatory cells. With brief periods of monocular deprivation, the occ1 mRNA level decreased markedly in deprived ocular dominance columns of area 17. From this we conclude that the expression of occ1 mRNA is present in a subset of neurons that are preferentially localized in particular laminae of area 17 and consist of various morphological and physiological neuronal types, and, furthermore, occ1 transcription is subject to visually driven activity-dependent regulation.

  6. Fatty acyl-CoA inhibition of beta-hydroxy-beta-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Faas, F H; Carter, W J; Wynn, J O

    1978-11-22

    The influence of the fatty acyl-CoA thioesters on rat liver microsomal hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity was tested in vitro to determine if the previously demonstrated inhibition of [14C]acetate incorporation into cholesterol is due to inhibition of this rate limiting step in cholesterol synthesis. The polyunsaturated fatty acyl-CoA thioesters caused the greatest inhibition of enzyme activity, 50 micron arachidonoyl-CoA inhibiting 67% and 5 micron inhibiting 22%. 50 micron linoleoyl-CoA inhibited 56% with the more saturated thioesters causing less inhibition. 50--100 micron free fatty acids, free CoA, cholesterol esters, phospholipids, carnitine derivatives, prostaglandins and non-specific detergents caused little or no inhibition of enzyme activity. Kinetic studies revealed the inhibition to be noncompetitive with respect to hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA with a Ki for arachidonoyl CoA of 3.10 micron. Fatty acyl-CoA inhibition of in vitro cholesterol synthesis is due to inhibition of hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity. Variation in intracellular concentrations of fatty acyl-CoA thioesters may signficantly alter cholesterol synthesis.

  7. Preclinical activity of MBM-5 in gastrointestinal cancer by inhibiting NEK2 kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mengli; Zhu, Tong; Jiang, Tongtong; Frett, Brendan; Hu, Wenhao; Li, Hong-yu; Ma, Mingliang; Zhang, Xiongwen

    2016-01-01

    NEK2 is a conserved mitotic regulator critical for cell cycle progression. Aberrant expression of NEK2 has been found in a variety of human cancers, making it an attractive molecular target for the design of novel anticancer therapeutics. In the present study, we have identified a novel compound MBM-5, which was found to bind to NEK2 with high affinity by docking simulations study. MBM-5 potently inhibited NEK2 kinase activity in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. MBM-5 also suppressed cellular NEK2 kinase activity, as evidenced by the decreased phosphorylation of its substrate Hec1 on S165 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. This inhibition impeded mitotic progression by inducing chromosome segregation defects and cytokinesis failure; therefore leading to accumulation of cells with ≥4N DNA content, which finally underwent apoptosis. More importantly, MBM-5 treatment effectively suppressed the tumor growth of human gastric and colorectal cancer cells xenografts. Taken together, we demonstrated that MBM-5 effectively inhibited the kinase activity of NEK2 and showed a potential application in anti-cancer treatment regimens. PMID:27764815

  8. Genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin inhibit adipocyte differentiation process via activating AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jin-Taek; Park, In-Ja; Shin, Jang-In; Lee, Yun Kyoung; Lee, Seong Kyu; Baik, Haing Woon; Ha, Joohun; Park, Ock Jin

    2005-12-16

    Phytochemicals such as soy isoflavone genistein have been reported to possess therapeutic effects for obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, the molecular basis of selective phytochemicals with emphasis on their ability to control intracellular signaling cascades of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis was investigated. Recently, the evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase, AMPK, emerges as a possible target molecule of anti-obesity. Hypothalamic AMPK was found to integrate nutritional and hormonal signals modulating feeding behavior and energy expenditure. We have investigated the effects of genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin on adipocyte differentiation in relation to AMPK activation in 3T3-L1 cells. Genistein (20-200muM) significantly inhibited the process of adipocyte differentiation and led to apoptosis of mature adipocytes. Genistein, EGCG, and capsaicin stimulated the intracellular ROS release, which activated AMPK rapidly. We suggest that AMPK is a novel and critical component of both inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and apoptosis of mature adipocytes by genistein or EGCG or capsaicin further implying AMPK as a prime target of obesity control.

  9. Inhibition of neutrophil activation by alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Costello, M J; Gewurz, H; Siegel, J N

    1984-01-01

    We report that alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), a naturally occurring human plasma protein and acute phase reactant of uncertain biological function, inhibits human neutrophil aggregation and superoxide anion generation induced by a variety of stimuli including zymosan treated serum, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and phorbol myristate acetate. Inhibition was transient, directly proportional to the glycoprotein concentration and inversely proportional to the concentration of the stimulus added. Desialyzation, resulting in the removal of a substantial portion of the molecule's negative charge, did not alter the effectiveness of AAG. Removal of the penultimate galactose residues from desialyzed AAG resulted in a slight but significant reversal of inhibition, suggesting that the heteropolysaccharide units of AAG may be important for inhibition of cellular function. We therefore suggest that the acute phase glycoprotein AAG may be a significant modulator of neutrophil as well as platelet and lymphocyte function during inflammation. PMID:6321072

  10. Information filtering via preferential diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  11. Information filtering via preferential diffusion.

    PubMed

    Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Weiping

    2011-06-01

    Recommender systems have shown great potential in addressing the information overload problem, namely helping users in finding interesting and relevant objects within a huge information space. Some physical dynamics, including the heat conduction process and mass or energy diffusion on networks, have recently found applications in personalized recommendation. Most of the previous studies focus overwhelmingly on recommendation accuracy as the only important factor, while overlooking the significance of diversity and novelty that indeed provide the vitality of the system. In this paper, we propose a recommendation algorithm based on the preferential diffusion process on a user-object bipartite network. Numerical analyses on two benchmark data sets, MovieLens and Netflix, indicate that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods. Specifically, it can not only provide more accurate recommendations, but also generate more diverse and novel recommendations by accurately recommending unpopular objects.

  12. The Satiety Signaling Neuropeptide Perisulfakinin Inhibits the Activity of Central Neurons Promoting General Activity

    PubMed Central

    Wicher, Dieter; Derst, Christian; Gautier, Hélène; Lapied, Bruno; Heinemann, Stefan H.; Agricola, Hans-Jürgen

    2007-01-01

    The metabolic state is one of the determinants of the general activity level. Satiety is related to resting or sleep whereas hunger correlates to wakefulness and activity. The counterpart to the mammalian satiety signal cholecystokinin (CCK) in insects are the sulfakinins. The aim of this study was to resolve the mechanism by which the antifeedant activity of perisulfakinin (PSK) in Periplaneta americana is mediated. We identified the sources of PSK which is used both as hormone and as paracrine messenger. PSK is found in the neurohemal organ of the brain and in nerve endings throughout the central nervous system. To correlate the distributions of PSK and its receptor (PSKR), we cloned the gene coding for PSKR and provide evidence for its expression within the nervous system. It occurs only in a few neurons, among them are the dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons which release octopamine thereby regulating the general level of activity. Application of PSK to DUM neurons attenuated the spiking frequency (EC50=11pM) due to reduction of a pacemaker Ca2+ current through cAMP-inhibited pTRPγ channels. PSK increased the intracellular cAMP level while decreasing the intracellular Ca2+ concentration in DUM neurons. Thus, the satiety signal conferred by PSK acts antagonistically to the hunger signal, provided by the adipokinetic hormone (AKH): PSK depresses the electrical activity of DUM neurons by inhibiting the pTRPγ channel that is activated by AKH under conditions of food shortage. PMID:18946521

  13. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits calcium-activated potassium channels in rat pituitary tumour cells.

    PubMed Central

    Shipston, M J; Armstrong, D L

    1996-01-01

    1. The regulation of large-conductance, calcium- and voltage-dependent potassium (BK) channels by protein kinase C (PKC) was investigated in clonal rat anterior pituitary cells (GH4C1), which were voltage clamped at -40 mV in a physiological potassium gradient through amphotericin-perforated patches. 2. Maximal activation of PKC by 100 nM phorbol 12, 13-dibutyrate (PdBu) almost completely inhibited the voltage-activated outward current through BK channels. In contrast PdBu had no significant effect on the residual outward current after block of BK channels with 2 mM TEA or 30 nM charybdotoxin. In single-channel recordings from cell-attached patches, PdBu reduced the open probability of BK channels more than eightfold with no significant effect on mean open lifetime or unitary conductance. 3. The effects of PdBu on BK channels were not mimicked by the 4 alpha-isomer, which does not activate PKC, and were blocked almost completely by 25 microM chelerythrine, a specific, noncompetitive PKC inhibitor. 4. PdBu had no significant effect on the amplitude of the pharmacologically isolated, high voltage-activated calcium current. 5. Inhibition of BK channel activity by PKC provides the first molecular mechanism linking hormonal activation of phospholipase C to sustained excitability in pituitary cells. PMID:8799890

  14. Buprofezin inhibits acetylcholinesterase activity in B-biotype Bemisia tabaci.

    PubMed

    Cottage, Emma L A; Gunning, Robin V

    2006-01-01

    B-biotype Bemisia tabaci is a severe insect pest worldwide in many ornamental, agricultural, and horticultural industries. Control of this insect is hampered by resistance to many acetylcholinesterase (AChE)-inhibiting insecticides, such as organophosphates and carbamates. Consequently, insect growth regulators such as buprofezin, which act by inhibiting chitin synthesis, are being investigated for use against B-biotype B. tabaci in Australia. This study discusses the effects of buprofezin on B. tabaciAChE.

  15. Annexin A1 Preferentially Predicts Poor Prognosis of Basal-Like Breast Cancer Patients by Activating mTOR-S6 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Anjana; Ganesan, Nivetha; Tachibana, Kazunoshin; Rajapakshe, Kimal; Albarracin, Constance T.; Gunaratne, Preethi H.; Coarfa, Cristian; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is an anti-inflammatory protein reported to play a role in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and to be deregulated in breast cancer. The exact role of annexin A1 in the biology of breast cancer remains unclear. We hypothesized that the annexin A1 plays an oncogenic role in basal subtype of breast cancer by modulating key growth pathway(s). Methods By mining the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-Breast Cancer dataset and manipulating annexin A1 levels in breast cancer cell lines, we studied the role of annexin A1 in breast cancer and underlying signaling pathways. Results Our in-silico analysis of TCGA-breast cancer dataset demonstrated that annexin A1 mRNA expression is higher in basal subtype compared to luminal and HER2 subtypes. Within the basal subtype, patients show significantly poorer overall survival associated with higher expression of annexin A1. In both TCGA patient samples and cell lines, annexin A1 levels were significantly higher in basal-like breast cancer than luminal and Her2/neu-positive breast cancer. Stable annexin A1 knockdown in TNBC cell lines suppressed the mTOR-S6 pathway likely through activation of AMPK but had no impact on the MAPK, c-Met, and EGFR pathways. In a cell migration assay, annexin A1-depleted TNBC cells showed delayed migration as compared to wild-type cells, which could be responsible for poor patient prognosis in basal like breast cancers that are known to express higher annexin A1. Conclusions Our data suggest that annexin A1 is prognostic only in patients with basal like breast cancer. This appears to be in part due to the role of annexin A1 in activating mTOR-pS6 pathway. PMID:26000884

  16. Inhibition of the activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) by peripheral blood cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ratnoff, O D; Emanuelson, M M; Ziats, N P

    1987-01-01

    Suspensions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), monocytes, T or B lymphocytes, platelets or granulocytes, and cell-depleted supernatant fluids of these suspensions inhibited activation of Hageman factor (HF, Factor XII) by ellagic acid, a property not shared by erythrocytes. PBMC also inhibited HF activation by glass or sulfatides. Contaminating platelets may have contributed to inhibition by PBMC. Elaboration of agents inhibiting HF activation required metabolically active cells. The inhibitor(s) in PBMC supernates were not identified with known agents, but had properties of a nonenzymatic protein. PBMC supernates did not contain fibrinogen, nor alter the thrombin, prothrombin, or partial thromboplastin times of normal plasma, amidolysis by activated plasma thromboplastin antecedent (Factor XIa) or activated Stuart factor (Factor Xa) or esterolysis by C1 (C1 esterase); they inhibited plasmin minimally. These experiments suggest that peripheral blood cells may impede intravascular coagulation. Whether this property helps maintain the fluidity of blood is unclear. PMID:3498741

  17. Endothelial-dependent vasodilators preferentially increase subendocardial blood flow

    SciTech Connect

    Pelc, L.R.; Gross, G.J.; Warltier, D.C.

    1986-03-05

    Interference with arachidonic acid metabolism on the effect of acetylcholine (Ach) or arachidonic acid (AA) to preferentially increase subendocardial perfusion was investigated in anesthetized dogs. Hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow (MBF (ml/min/g):radioactive microspheres) and the left ventricular transmural distribution of flow (endo/epi) were measured. Intracoronary infusion of Ach (10 ..mu..g/min) and AA (585 ..mu..g/min) significantly (P < .05*) increased myocardial perfusion and selectively redistributed flow to the subendocardium (increased endo/epi) without changes in systemic hemodynamics. Inhibition of phospholipase A/sub 2/ by quinacrine (Q; 600 ..mu..g/min, ic) attenuated the increase in myocardial perfusion produced by Ach but not by AA and inhibited the redistribution of flow to the subendocardium. The present results suggest that endothelium-dependent vasodilators produce a preferential increase in subendocardial perfusion via a product of AA metabolism.

  18. The urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (UPAR) is preferentially induced by nerve growth factor in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells and is required for NGF-driven differentiation.

    PubMed

    Farias-Eisner, R; Vician, L; Silver, A; Reddy, S; Rabbani, S A; Herschman, H R

    2000-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF)-driven differentiation of PC12 pheochromocytoma cells is a well studied model used both to identify molecular, biochemical, and physiological correlates of neurotrophin-driven neuronal differentiation and to determine the causal nature of specific events in this differentiation process. Although epidermal growth factor (EGF) elicits many of the same early biochemical and molecular changes in PC12 cells observed in response to NGF, EGF does not induce molecular or morphological differentiation of PC12 cells. The identification of genes whose expression is differentially regulated by NGF versus EGF in PC12 cells has, therefore, been considered a source of potential insight into the molecular specificity of neurotrophin-driven neuronal differentiation. A "second generation" representational difference analysis procedure now identifies the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (UPAR) as a gene that is much more extensively induced by NGF than by EGF in PC12 cells. Both an antisense oligonucleotide for the UPAR mRNA and an antibody directed against UPAR protein block NGF-induced morphological and biochemical differentiation of PC12 cells; NGF-induced UPAR expression is required for subsequent NGF-driven differentiation.

  19. Active sites over CuO/CeO2 and inverse CeO2/CuO catalysts for preferential CO oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shanghong; Wang, Yan; Ding, Suping; Sattler, Jesper J. H. B.; Borodina, Elena; Zhang, Lu; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Su, Haiquan

    2014-06-01

    A series of CuO/CeO2 and inverse CeO2/CuO catalysts are prepared by the surfactant-templated method and characterized via XRD, HRTEM, H2-TPR, SEM, XPS, in situ XRD, in situ UV-Vis and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. It is found that there are two kinds of surface sites in the CuO-CeO2 system, including CuO surface sites for CO chemisorption and CeO2 surface sites with oxygen vacancies for oxygen sorption. The active sites for CO oxidation are located on the contact interface of two-kind surface sites and the lattice oxygen can make a significant contribution to the CO-PROX reaction. The resistance to H2O and CO2 is related to BET surface area, the crystallite sizes of CuO and the reduction behavior of catalysts. The Ce4Cu4 and Ce4Cu1 catalysts exhibit the best resistance against H2O and CO2.

  20. Inhibition of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) Activity by constituents of Schisandra chinensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Hui; Cui, Li; An, Li-Bin; Li, Wen-Tao; Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Dong, Pei-Pei; Wu, Xue; Wang, Li-Xuan; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sun, Xiao-Yu; Zhao, De-Wei

    2015-10-01

    Structure-activity relationship for the inhibition of Schisandra chinensis's ingredients toward (Uridine-Diphosphate) UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) activity was performed in the present study. In vitro incubation system was employed to screen the inhibition capability of S. chinensis's ingredients, and in silico molecular docking method was carried out to explain possible mechanisms. At 100 μM of compounds, the activity of UGTs was inhibited by less than 90% by schisandrol A, schisandrol B, schisandrin, schisandrin C, schisantherin A, gomisin D, and gomisin G. Schisandrin A exerted strong inhibition toward UGT1A1 and UGT1A3, with the residual activity to be 7.9% and 0% of control activity. Schisanhenol exhibited strong inhibition toward UGT2B7, with the residual activity to be 7.9% of control activity. Gomisin J of 100 μM inhibited 91.8% and 93.1% of activity of UGT1A1 and UGT1A9, respectively. Molecular docking prediction indicated different hydrogen bonds interaction resulted in the different inhibition potential induced by subtle structure alteration among schisandrin A, schisandrin, and schisandrin C toward UGT1A1 and UGT1A3: schisandrin A > schisandrin > schisandrin C. The detailed inhibition kinetic evaluation showed the strong inhibition of gomisin J toward UGT1A9 with the inhibition kinetic parameter (Ki ) to be 0.7 μM. Based on the concentrations of gomisin J in the plasma of the rats given with S. chinensis, high herb-drug interaction existed between S. chinensis and drugs mainly undergoing UGT1A9-mediated metabolism. In conclusion, in silico-in vitro method was used to give the inhibition information and possible inhibition mechanism for S. chinensis's components toward UGTs, which guide the clinical application of S. chinensis.

  1. Romidepsin reduces histone deacetylase activity, induces acetylation of histones, inhibits proliferation, and activates apoptosis in immortalized epithelial endometriotic cells.

    PubMed

    Imesch, Patrick; Fink, Daniel; Fedier, André

    2010-12-01

    Romidepsin inhibited HDAC activity, produced acetylation of the histone proteins, up-regulated p21, and down-regulated cyclins B1 and D1, resulting in proliferation inhibition and apoptosis activation in 11z immortalized epithelial endometriotic cells. Our findings provide evidence that endometriotic cells are sensitive to the epigenetic effects of romidepsin and suggest that endometriosis may be therapeutically targeted by romidepsin.

  2. Low molecular weight heparins prevent thrombin-induced thrombo-embolism in mice despite low anti-thrombin activity. Evidence that the inhibition of feed-back activation of thrombin generation confers safety advantages over direct thrombin inhibition.

    PubMed

    Momi, S; Nasimi, M; Colucci, M; Nenci, G G; Gresele, P

    2001-03-01

    Thrombin-induced thromboembolism in mice is a model in which the feed-back clotting activation produced by the injected enzyme greatly contributes to fibrin accumulation in lungs and to mortality. Using this model we have previously shown that activated human protein C (aPC), by interrupting endogenous clotting activation at a high level (factors Va and VIIIa), prevents mortality inducing only a minor hemostatic impairment. With the same model we have now compared the antithrombotic and prohemorrhagic effects of two low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), reviparin and tinzaparin, which are expected to inhibit preferentially the positive feed-back triggered by thrombin (anti Xa activity), with those of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and PEG-hirudin, which inhibit mainly or exclusively thrombin activity (anti IIa activity). Pulmonary thromboembolism was induced in mice by i.v. injection of bovine thrombin (1,000U/kg). Drugs (from 0.12 to 1.2 mg/kg) were given as bolus injection 2 min prior to thrombin challenge and mortality was assessed within 15 min. The bleeding time was assessed by a tail tip transection model. Activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), thrombin clotting time (TcT), fibrinogen assay and anti Xa activity determination were performed in citrated plasma from saline- or drug-treated animals. All drugs protected mice from thrombin-induced mortality in a dose-dependent way. At comparable antithrombotic dosages, the anti IIa activity generated in plasma (assessed by TcT) was highest with UFH, intermediate with tinzaparin and very low with reviparin. Accordingly, the fibrinogen drop, which is caused mainly by the injected thrombin, was prevented by the heparins to an extent that was fairly well related to their anti IIa activity. aPTT and bleeding time, used as measures of hemorrhagic risk, were markedly more prolonged by UFH than by reviparin. Tinzaparin, instead, had an intermediate effect. Interestingly, PEG-hirudin, at equipotent antithrombotic

  3. PTEN inhibits PREX2-catalyzed activation of RAC1 to restrain tumor cell invasion.

    PubMed

    Mense, Sarah M; Barrows, Douglas; Hodakoski, Cindy; Steinbach, Nicole; Schoenfeld, David; Su, William; Hopkins, Benjamin D; Su, Tao; Fine, Barry; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Parsons, Ramon

    2015-03-31

    The tumor suppressor PTEN restrains cell migration and invasion by a mechanism that is independent of inhibition of the PI3K pathway and decreased activation of the kinase AKT. PREX2, a widely distributed GEF that activates the GTPase RAC1, binds to and inhibits PTEN. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts and breast cancer cell lines to show that PTEN suppresses cell migration and invasion by blocking PREX2 activity. In addition to metabolizing the phosphoinositide PIP₃, PTEN inhibited PREX2-induced invasion by a mechanism that required the tail domain of PTEN, but not its lipid phosphatase activity. Fluorescent nucleotide exchange assays revealed that PTEN inhibited the GEF activity of PREX2 toward RAC1. PREX2 is a frequently mutated GEF in cancer, and examination of human tumor data showed that PREX2 mutation was associated with high PTEN expression. Therefore, we tested whether cancer-derived somatic PREX2 mutants, which accelerate tumor formation of immortalized melanocytes, were inhibited by PTEN. The three stably expressed, somatic PREX2 cancer mutants that we tested were resistant to PTEN-mediated inhibition of invasion but retained the ability to inhibit the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN. In vitro analysis showed that PTEN did not block the GEF activity of two PREX2 cancer mutants and had a reduced binding affinity for the third. Thus, PTEN antagonized migration and invasion by restraining PREX2 GEF activity, and PREX2 mutants are likely selected in cancer to escape PTEN-mediated inhibition of invasion.

  4. Immune-suppressive activity of punicalagin via inhibition of NFAT activation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Ik; Kim, Byoung-Soo; Kim, Kyoung-Shin; Lee, Samkeun; Shin, Kwang-Soo; Lim, Jong-Soon

    2008-07-11

    Since T cell activation is central to the development of autoimmune diseases, we screened a natural product library comprising 1400 samples of medicinal herbal extracts, to identify compounds that suppress T cell activity. Punicalagin (PCG) isolated from the fruit of Punica granatum was identified as a potent immune suppressant, based on its inhibitory action on the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). PCG downregulated the mRNA and soluble protein expression of interleukin-2 from anti-CD3/anti-CD28-stimulated murine splenic CD4+ T cells and suppressed mixed leukocytes reaction (MLR) without exhibiting cytotoxicity to the cells. In vivo, the PCG treatment inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced chronic ear edema in mice and decreased CD3+ T cell infiltration of the inflamed tissue. These results suggest that PCG could be a potential candidate for the therapeutics of various immune pathologies.

  5. Activation of Ice Recrystallization Inhibition Activity of Poly(vinyl alcohol) using a Supramolecular Trigger†

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Daniel J.; Congdon, Thomas R.; Gibson, Matthew I.

    2016-01-01

    Antifreeze (glyco)proteins (AF(G)Ps) have potent ice recrystallisation inhibition (IRI) activity – a desirable phenomenon in applications such as cryopreservation, frozen food and more. In Nature AF(G)P activity is regulated by protein expression levels in response to an environmental stimulus; temperature. However, this level of regulation is not possible in synthetic systems. Here, a synthetic macromolecular mimic is introduced, using supramolecular assembly to regulate activity. Catechol-terminated poly(vinyl alcohol) was synthesised by RAFT polymerization. Upon addition of Fe3+, larger supramolecular star polymers form by assembly with two or three catechols. This increase in molecular weight effectively ‘switches on’ the IRI activity and is the first example of external control over the function of AFP mimetics. This provides a simple but elegant solution to the challenge of external control of AFP-mimetic function. PMID:28003855

  6. Depalmitoylation preferentially downregulates AMPA induced Ca2+ signaling and neurotoxicity in motor neurons.

    PubMed

    Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Mehta, Bhupesh; Singh, Mahendra; Tewari, Bhanu P; Joshi, Preeti G; Joshi, Nanda B

    2013-09-05

    Excessive activation of AMPA receptor has been implicated in motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, it is not clear why motor neurons are preferentially sensitive to AMPA receptor mediated excessive [Ca(2+)]i rise and excitotoxicity. In the present study we examined whether palmitoylation regulates Ca(2+) permeability of AMPA receptor and excitotoxicity in cultured spinal cord neurons. We adapted chronic 2-bromopalmitate (2-BrP) treatment to achieve depalmitoylation and examined its effect on the cytotoxicity in spinal cord neurons exposed to AMPA. The change in AMPA induced signaling and cytotoxicity in motor neurons and other spinal neurons under identical conditions of exposure to AMPA was studied. 2-BrP treatment inhibited AMPA induced rise in [Ca(2+)]i and cytotoxicity in both types of neurons but the degree of inhibition was significantly higher in motor neurons as compared to other spinal neurons. The AMPA induced [Na(+)]i rise was moderately affected in both type of neurons on depalmitoylation. Depalmitoylation reduced the expression levels of AMPA receptor subunits (GluR1 and GluR2) and also PSD-95 but stargazin levels remained unaffected. Our results demonstrate that 2-BrP attenuates AMPA receptor activated Ca(2+) signaling and cytotoxicity preferentially in motor neurons and suggest that AMPA receptor modulation by depalmitoylation could play a significant role in preventing motor neuron degeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of rabbit gastric glucosamine synthetase activity by Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+.

    PubMed

    Fujita, T; Sakuma, S; Takahashi, K; Bohtani, Y; Nishida, H; Fujimoto, Y

    1997-05-01

    The effects of Fe2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ on the activity of glucosamine synthetase, the rate-limiting enzyme of mucus synthesis, in rabbit gastric corporal mucosa were examined. Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ inhibited the glucosamine synthetase activity at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 microM (Cu2+, 8-98% inhibition; Zn2+, 10-99% inhibition; Se4+, 32-89% inhibition). The inhibitory effects of these three ions were much stronger than that of UDP-N-acetylglúcosamine known as a representative inhibitor of the glucosamine synthetase activity (10 microM, 52% inhibition). Fe2+ had no significant effect on the glucosamine synthetase activity up to 100 microM. These results suggest that Cu2+, Zn2+ and Se4+ can be potent inhibitors of gastric glucosamine synthetase activity.

  8. Apple Polyphenol Phloretin Inhibits Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth via Inhibition of the Type 2 Glucose Transporter and Activation of p53-Mediated Signaling.

    PubMed

    Lin, Sheng-Tsai; Tu, Shih-Hsin; Yang, Po-Sheng; Hsu, Sung-Po; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Ho, Chi-Tang; Wu, Chih-Hsiung; Lai, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Ming-Yao; Chen, Li-Ching

    2016-09-14

    Glucose transporters (GLUTs) are required for glucose uptake in malignant cells, and they can be used as molecular targets for cancer therapy. An RT-PCR analysis was performed to investigate the mRNA levels of 14 subtypes of GLUTs in human colorectal cancer (COLO 205 and HT-29) and normal (FHC) cells. RT-PCR (n = 27) was used to assess the differences in paired tissue samples (tumor vs normal) isolated from colorectal cancer patients. GLUT2 was detected in all tested cells. The average GLUT2 mRNA level in 12 of 27 (44.4%) cases was 2.4-fold higher in tumor compared to normal tissues (*, p = 0.027). Higher GLUT2 mRNA expression was preferentially detected in advanced-stage tumors (stage 0 vs 3 = 16.38-fold, 95% CI = 9.22-26.54-fold; *, p = 0.029). The apple polyphenol phloretin (Ph) and siRNA methods were used to inhibit GLUT2 protein expression. Ph (0-100 μM, for 24 h) induced COLO 205 cell growth cycle arrest in a p53-dependent manner, which was confirmed by pretreatment of the cells with a p53-specific dominant negative expression vector. Hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6), which was previously reported to be a transcription factor that activates GLUT2 and p53, was also induced by Ph (0-100 μM, for 24 h). The antitumor effect of Ph (25 mg/kg or DMSO twice a week for 6 weeks) was demonstrated in vivo using BALB/c nude mice bearing COLO 205 tumor xenografts. In conclusion, targeting GLUT2 could potentially suppress colorectal tumor cell invasiveness.

  9. Selective and potent Akt inhibition triggers anti-myeloma activities and enhances fatal endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Naoya; Hideshima, Teru; Shimomura, Toshiyasu; Suzuki, Rikio; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Rizq, Ola; Kikuchi, Shohei; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Cottini, Francesca; Jakubikova, Jana; Cirstea, Diana; Gorgun, Gullu; Minami, Jiro; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Richardson, Paul G; Utsugi, Teruhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2014-08-15

    The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. However, efficacy of selective and potent Akt inhibition has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we, therefore, examined the biologic impact of selective and potent Akt inhibition by a novel allosteric inhibitor TAS-117. TAS-117 induced significant growth inhibition, associated with downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), selectively in MM cell lines with high baseline p-Akt. Cytotoxicity of TAS-117 was also observed in patient MM cells, but not in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, TAS-117 induced significant cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of BM stromal cells, associated with inhibition of IL6 secretion. Oral administration of TAS-117 significantly inhibited human MM cell growth in murine xenograft models. TAS-117 triggered apoptosis and autophagy, as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response with minimal expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a fatal ER stress marker. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity, associated with increased CHOP and PARP cleavage and blockade of bortezomib-induced p-Akt, suggesting that TAS-117 augments bortezomib-induced ER stress and apoptotic signaling. Carfilzomib-induced cytotoxicity was similarly enhanced by TAS-117. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity in vivo, associated with prolonged host survival. Our results show that selective and potent Akt inhibition by TAS-117 triggers anti-MM activities in vitro and in vivo, as well as enhances cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition, providing the preclinical framework for clinical evaluation of selective Akt inhibitors, alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in MM. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. Barbiturates directly inhibit the calmodulin/calcineurin complex: a novel mechanism of inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells.

    PubMed

    Humar, Matjaz; Pischke, Soeren E; Loop, Torsten; Hoetzel, Alexander; Schmidt, Rene; Klaas, Christoph; Pahl, Heike L; Geiger, Klaus K; Pannen, Benedikt H J

    2004-02-01

    Barbiturates are frequently used for the treatment of intracranial hypertension after brain injury but their application is associated with a profound increase in the infection rate. The mechanism of barbiturate-induced failure of protective immunity is still unknown. We provide evidence that nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT), an essential transcription factor in T cell activation, is a target of barbiturate-mediated immunosuppression in human T lymphocytes. Treatment of primary CD3+ lymphocytes with barbiturates inhibited the PMA and ionomycin induced increase in DNA binding of NFAT, whereas the activity of other transcription factors, such as Oct-1, SP-1, or the cAMP response element-binding protein, remained unaffected. Moreover, barbiturates suppressed the expression of a luciferase reporter gene under control of NFAT (stably transfected Jurkat T cells), and of the cytokine genes interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma that contain functional binding motifs for NFAT within their regulatory promotor domains (human peripheral blood CD3+ lymphocytes). Neither GABA receptor-initiated signaling nor direct interactions of barbiturates with nuclear proteins affected the activity of NFAT. In contrast, barbiturates suppressed the calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation of NFAT in intact T cells and also inhibited the enzymatic activity of calcineurin in a cell-free system, excluding upstream regulation. Thus, our results demonstrate a novel mechanism of direct inhibition of the calcineurin/calmodulin complex that may explain some of the known immunosuppressive effects associated with barbiturate treatment.

  11. Iron Inhibits Activation-induced Cytidine Deaminase Enzymatic Activity and Modulates Immunoglobulin Class Switch DNA Recombination*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guideng; Pone, Egest J.; Tran, Daniel C.; Patel, Pina J.; Dao, Lisa; Xu, Zhenming; Casali, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Immunoglobulin (Ig) class switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM) are critical for the maturation of the antibody response. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates CSR and SHM by deaminating deoxycytidines (dCs) in switch (S) and V(D)J region DNA, respectively, to generate deoxyuracils (dUs). Processing of dUs by uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG) yields abasic sites, which are excised by apurinic/apyrimidinic endonucleases, eventually generating double strand DNA breaks, the obligatory intermediates of CSR. Here, we found that the bivalent iron ion (Fe2+, ferrous) suppressed CSR, leading to decreased number of switched B cells, decreased postrecombination Iμ-CH transcripts, and reduced titers of secreted class-switched IgG1, IgG3, and IgA antibodies, without alterations in critical CSR factors, such as AID, 14-3-3γ, or PTIP, or in general germline IH-S-CH transcription. Fe2+ did not affect B cell proliferation or plasmacytoid differentiation. Rather, it inhibited AID-mediated dC deamination in a dose-dependent fashion. The inhibition of intrinsic AID enzymatic activity by Fe2+ was specific, as shown by lack of inhibition of AID-mediated dC deamination by other bivalent metal ions, such as Zn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, or Ni2+, and the inability of Fe2+ to inhibit UNG-mediated dU excision. Overall, our findings have outlined a novel role of iron in modulating a B cell differentiation process that is critical to the generation of effective antibody responses to microbial pathogens and tumoral cells. They also suggest a possible role of iron in dampening AID-dependent autoimmunity and neoplastic transformation. PMID:22556412

  12. Semipurification and ice recrystallization inhibition activity of ice-active substances associated with Antarctic photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J A; Fritsen, C H

    2001-08-01

    Ice-active substances (IASs), i.e., macromolecular substances that modify the shape of growing ice crystals, were previously found to be associated with various terrestrial and aquatic photosynthetic organisms from Antarctica, but their chemical nature and function are unknown. In this study, we used the ice-binding properties of the IASs to semipurify IASs from a cyanobacterial mat, a eukaryotic green alga (Prasiola sp.), and a moss (Bryum sp.) and examined the ice recrystallization inhibition (RI) activities of the semipure materials. The semipure materials contain both protein and carbohydrate in which the carbohydrate accounted for 73, 52, and 37%, respectively, of the total carbohydrate + protein. The IASs had RI activity at concentrations of 1.4, 0.05, and 0.01 microg ml-1, respectively. RI activity was greatly reduced by heat treatment, suggesting that the IASs inhibit recrystallization through a specific interaction with ice. These results raise the possibility that the IASs increase freezing tolerance of their respective organisms by preventing the recrystallization of ice. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science.

  13. Neutrophil maturation rate determines the effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 1 inhibition on neutrophil serine protease activity

    PubMed Central

    Wikell, C; Clifton, S; Shearer, J; Benjamin, A; Peters, S A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Neutrophil serine proteases (NSPs) are activated by dipeptidyl peptidase 1 (DPP1) during neutrophil maturation. The effects of neutrophil turnover rate on NSP activity following DPP1 inhibition was studied in a rat pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model. Experimental Approach Rats were treated with a DPP1 inhibitor twice daily for up to 14 days; NSP activity was measured in onset or recovery studies, and an indirect response model was fitted to the data to estimate the turnover rate of the response. Key Results Maximum NSP inhibition was achieved after 8 days of treatment and a reduction of around 75% NSP activity was achieved at 75% in vitro DPP1 inhibition. Both the rate of inhibition and recovery of NSP activity were consistent with a neutrophil turnover rate of between 4–6 days. Using human neutrophil turnover rate, it is predicted that maximum NSP inhibition following DPP1 inhibition takes around 20 days in human. Conclusions and Implications Following inhibition of DPP1 in the rat, the NSP activity was determined by the amount of DPP1 inhibition and the turnover of neutrophils and is thus supportive of the role of neutrophil maturation in the activation of NSPs. Clinical trials to monitor the effect of a DPP1 inhibitor on NSPs should take into account the delay in maximal response on the one hand as well as the potential delay in a return to baseline NSP levels following cessation of treatment. PMID:27186823

  14. Dihydroartemisinin inhibits catabolism in rat chondrocytes by activating autophagy via inhibition of the NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Li-Bo; Meng, De-Hua; Lee, Soo-Min; Liu, Shu-Hao; Xu, Qin-Tong; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a disease with inflammatory and catabolic imbalance in cartilage. Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a natural and safe anti-malarial agent, has been reported to inhibit inflammation, but its effects on chondrocytes have yet to be elucidated. We investigated the effects of DHA on catabolism in chondrocytes. Viability of SD rats chondrocytes was analyzed. Autophagy levels were determined via expression of autophagic markers LC3 and ATG5, GFP-LC3 analysis, acridine orange staining, and electron microscopy. ATG5 siRNA induced autophagic inhibition. Catabolic gene and chemokine expression was evaluated using qPCR. The NF-κB inhibitor SM7368 and p65 over-expression were used to analyze the role of NF-κB pathway in autophagic activation. A concentration of 1 μM DHA without cytotoxicity increased LC3-II and ATG5 levels as well as autophagosomal numbers in chondrocytes. DHA inhibited TNF-α-induced expression of MMP-3 and -9, ADAMTS5, CCL-2 and -5, and CXCL1, which was reversed by autophagic inhibition. TNF-α-stimulated nuclear translocation and degradation of the p65 and IκBα proteins, respectively, were attenuated in DHA-treated chondrocytes. NF-κB inhibition activated autophagy in TNF-α-treated chondrocytes, but p65 over-expression reduced the autophagic response to DHA. These results indicate that DHA might suppress the levels of catabolic and inflammatory factors in chondrocytes by promoting autophagy via NF-κB pathway inhibition. PMID:27941926

  15. Activation of rheumatoid factor-specific B cells is antigen-dependent and occurs preferentially outside of germinal centers in the lupus-prone NZM2410 mouse model1

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Allison; Niu, Haitao; Cullen, Jaime; Choi, Seung Chul; Zheng, Ying Yi; Wang, Haowei; Shlomchik, Mark J.; Morel, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    AM14 rheumatoid factor (RF) B cells in the MRL/lpr mice are activated by dual BCR and TLR7/9 ligation and differentiate into plasmablasts via an extrafollicular (EF) route. It was not known whether this mechanism of activation of RF B cells applied to other lupus-prone mouse models. We investigated the mechanisms by which RF B cells break tolerance in the NZM2410-derived B6.Sle1.Sle2.Sle3 (TC) strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6) controls, each expressing the AM14 HC transgene (tg) in the presence or absence of the IgG2aa autoAg. The TC, but not B6, genetic background promotes the differentiation of RF B cells into Ab-forming cells (AFCs) in the presence of the autoAg. Activated RF B cells preferentially differentiated into plasmablasts in EF zones. Contrary to the MRL/lpr strain, TC RF B cells were also located within germinal centers (GC), but only the formation of EF foci was positively correlated with the production of RF AFCs. Immunization of young TC.AM14 HC tg mice with IgG2aa anti-chromatin immune complexes (IC) activated RF B cells in a BCR and TLR9-dependent manner. However, these IC immunizations did not result in the production of RF AFCs. These results show that RF B cells break tolerance with the same general mechanisms in the TC and the MRL/lpr lupus-prone genetic backgrounds, namely the dual activation of the BCR and TLR9 pathways. There are also distinct differences, such as the presence of RF B cells in GCs and the requirement of chronic IgG2aa anti-chromatin ICs for full differentiation of RF AFCs. PMID:25015835

  16. Intramuscular ketorolac inhibits activation of rat peripheral NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Cairns, Brian E; Dong, Xu-Dong; Wong, Hayes; Svensson, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) diclofenac has local anesthetic-like and peripheral N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist characteristics when administered at higher concentrations to masticatory muscle. It is not known if the ability to inhibit NMDA receptors is unique to diclofenac or shared by other NSAIDs. This study was undertaken to determine whether intramuscular injection of ketorolac or naproxen at concentrations that do not induce local anesthetic-like effects could attenuate jaw-closer muscle nociceptor discharge in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. It was found that ketorolac (5 mM) inhibited hypertonic saline-evoked nociceptor discharge, which suggests that at this concentration, ketorolac has local anesthetic-like properties. A lower concentration of ketorolac (0.5 mM), which did not affect hypertonic saline-evoked discharge, did inhibit nociceptor discharge evoked by NMDA. In contrast, naproxen (5 mM) did not alter hypertonic saline- or NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge. Subsequent experiments revealed that ketorolac (0.5 mM) had no effect on nociceptor discharge evoked by αβ-methylene ATP, 5-hydroxytryptamine, or AMPA. The inhibitory effect of ketorolac did not appear to be related to cyclooxygenase inhibition, because the concentration of prostaglandin E(2) in the masticatory muscles 10 min after injection of either NSAID was not significantly decreased. The present study indicates that in vivo, ketorolac, but not naproxen, can antagonize NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge similarly to diclofenac. We speculate that structural similarities between ketorolac and diclofenac could account for the ability of these NSAIDs to inhibit NMDA-evoked nociceptor discharge. These properties may partly explain the analgesic effect of intramuscularly injected ketorolac in the clinic.

  17. Structure-activity relationships of C-terminal tri- and tetrapeptide fragments that inhibit gastrin activity.

    PubMed

    Martinez, J; Bali, J P; Magous, R; Laur, J; Lignon, M F; Briet, C; Nisato, D; Castro, B

    1985-03-01

    A series of tri- and tetrapeptide derivatives, analogues of the gastrin C-terminal region with no phenylalanine residue, were synthesized. These peptides were tested for their ability to inhibit gastrin-stimulated acid secretion in vivo as well as binding of [125I]-(Nle11)-HG-13 to gastric mucosal cell receptors in vitro. Most of the peptides tested exhibited gastrin antagonist activity in vivo and in vitro. Most active derivatives were 20-30 times more potent than the well-known gastrin antagonist derivatives proglumide and benzotript and had 20-200 times more binding affinity. The smallest fragment exhibiting antagonist activity was the tripeptide Boc-L-tryptophyl-L-methionyl-L-aspartic acid amide.

  18. Cyanide does more to inhibit heme enzymes, than merely serving as an active-site ligand

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Abhinav; Venkatachalam, Avanthika; Gideon, Daniel Andrew; Manoj, Kelath Murali

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • Cyanide (CN) is a well-studied toxic principle, known to inhibit heme-enzymes. • Inhibition is supposed to result from CN binding at the active site as a ligand. • Diverse heme enzymes’ CN inhibition profiles challenge prevailing mechanism. • Poor binding efficiency of CN at low enzyme concentrations and ligand pressures. • CN-based diffusible radicals cause ‘non-productive electron transfers’ (inhibition). - Abstract: The toxicity of cyanide is hitherto attributed to its ability to bind to heme proteins’ active site and thereby inhibit their activity. It is shown herein that the long-held interpretation is inadequate to explain several observations in heme-enzyme reaction systems. Generation of cyanide-based diffusible radicals in heme-enzyme reaction milieu could shunt electron transfers (by non-active site processes), and thus be detrimental to the efficiency of oxidative outcomes.

  19. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B

    SciTech Connect

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; Borba, Ana Rita; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A.; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B. F.; Quail, Peter H.; Margarida Oliveira, M.; Saibo, Nelson J. M.

    2015-12-28

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein–DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressor activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. Additionally, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a phytochrome interacting factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. Our results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Finally, although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses.

  20. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B

    DOE PAGES

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; ...

    2015-12-28

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein–DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressormore » activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. Additionally, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a phytochrome interacting factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. Our results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Finally, although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses.« less

  1. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of phytochrome B.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, André M; Figueiredo, Duarte D; Tepperman, James; Borba, Ana Rita; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B F; Quail, Peter H; Margarida Oliveira, M; Saibo, Nelson J M

    2016-02-01

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a yeast one-hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein-DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressor activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. In addition, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a phytochrome interacting factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. All together, these results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses.

  2. Rice phytochrome-interacting factor protein OsPIF14 represses OsDREB1B gene expression through an extended N-box and interacts preferentially with the active form of Phytochrome B

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, André M.; Figueiredo, Duarte D.; Tepperman, James; Borba, Ana Rita; Lourenço, Tiago; Abreu, Isabel A.; Ouwerkerk, Pieter B.F.; Quail, Peter H.; Oliveira, M. Margarida; Saibo, Nelson J. M.

    2016-01-01

    DREB1/CBF genes, known as major regulators of plant stress responses, are rapidly and transiently induced by low temperatures. Using a Yeast one Hybrid screening, we identified a putative Phytochrome-Interacting bHLH Factor (OsPIF14), as binding to the OsDREB1B promoter. bHLH proteins are able to bind to hexameric E-box (CANNTG) or N-box (CACG(A/C)G) motifs, depending on transcriptional activity. We have shown that OsPIF14 binds to the OsDREB1B promoter through two N-boxes and that the flanking regions of the hexameric core are essential for protein-DNA interaction and stability. We also showed that OsPIF14 down-regulates OsDREB1B gene expression in rice protoplasts, corroborating the OsPIF14 repressor activity observed in the transactivation assays using Arabidopsis protoplasts. In addition, we showed that OsPIF14 is indeed a Phytochrome Interacting Factor, which preferentially binds to the active form (Pfr) of rice phytochrome B. This raises the possibility that OsPIF14 activity might be modulated by light. However, we did not observe any regulation of the OsDREB1B gene expression by light under control conditions. Moreover, OsPIF14 gene expression was shown to be modulated by different treatments, such as drought, salt, cold and ABA. Interestingly, OsPIF14 showed also a specific cold-induced alternative splicing. All together, these results suggest the possibility that OsPIF14 is involved in cross-talk between light and stress signaling through interaction with the OsDREB1B promoter. Although in the absence of stress, OsDREB1B gene expression was not regulated by light, given previous reports, it remains possible that OsPIF14 has a role in light modulation of stress responses. PMID:26732823

  3. Reversal of androgen inhibition of estrogen-activated sexual behavior by cholinergic agents.

    PubMed

    Dohanich, G P; Cada, D A

    1989-12-01

    Androgens have been found to inhibit lordosis activated by estrogen treatment of ovariectomized female rats. In the present experiments, dihydrotestosterone propionate (200 micrograms for 3 days) inhibited the incidence of lordosis in ovariectomized females treated with estradiol benzoate (1 microgram for 3 days). This inhibition of lordosis was reversed 15 min after bilateral intraventricular infusion of physostigmine (10 micrograms/cannula), an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, or carbachol (0.5 microgram/cannula), a cholinergic receptor agonist. This reversal of inhibition appears to be mediated by cholinergic muscarinic receptors since pretreatment with scopolamine (4 mg/kg, ip), a muscarinic receptor blocker, prevented the reversal of androgen inhibition by physostigmine. These results indicate that androgens may inhibit estrogen-activated lordosis through interference with central cholinergic muscarinic mechanisms.

  4. EPAC activation inhibits acetaldehyde-induced activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cell via Rap1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yang, Feng; Wu, Xiaojuan; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation represents an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF). Previous studies have demonstrated that the rat HSCs could be significantly activated after exposure to 200 μmol/L acetaldehyde for 48 h, and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathways were also dramatically upregulated in activated HSCs isolated from alcoholic fibrotic rat liver. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the small Ras-like GTPases Rap, and is being considered as a vital mediator of cAMP signaling in parallel with the principal cAMP target protein kinase A (PKA). Our data showed that both cAMP/PKA and cAMP/EPAC signaling pathways were involved in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Acetaldehyde could reduce the expression of EPAC1 while enhancing the expression of EPAC2. The cAMP analog Me-cAMP, which stimulates the EPAC/Rap1 pathway, could significantly decrease the proliferation and collagen synthesis of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Furthermore, depletion of EPAC2, but not EPAC1, prevented the activation of HSC measured as the production of α-SMA and collagen type I and III, indicating that EPAC1 appears to have protective effects on acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Curiously, activation of PKA or EPAC perhaps has opposite effects on the synthesis of collagen and α-SMA: EPAC activation by Me-cAMP increased the levels of GTP-bound (activated) Rap1 while PKA activation by Phe-cAMP had no significant effects on such binding. These results suggested that EPAC activation could inhibit the activation and proliferation of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs via Rap1.

  5. Inhibition of Rac1 Activity in the Hippocampus Impairs the Forgetting of Contextual Fear Memory.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lizhu; Mao, Rongrong; Zhou, Qixin; Yang, Yuexiong; Cao, Jun; Ding, Yuqiang; Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Xia; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Lin

    2016-03-01

    Fear is crucial for survival, whereas hypermnesia of fear can be detrimental. Inhibition of the Rac GTPase is recently reported to impair the forgetting of initially acquired memory in Drosophila. Here, we investigated whether inhibition of Rac1 activity in rat hippocampus could contribute to the hypermnesia of contextual fear. We found that spaced but not massed training of contextual fear conditioning caused inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus and heightened contextual fear. Furthermore, intrahippocampal injection of the Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 heightened contextual fear in massed training, while Rac1 activator CN04-A weakened contextual fear in spaced training rats. Our study firstly demonstrates that contextual fear memory in rats is actively regulated by Rac1 activity in the hippocampus, which suggests that the forgetting impairment of traumatic events in posttraumatic stress disorder may be contributed to the pathological inhibition of Rac1 activity in the hippocampus.

  6. Inhibition of ATPase activity of Escherichia coli ATP synthase by polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Dadi, Prasanna K; Ahmad, Mubeen; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2009-07-01

    We have studied the inhibitory effect of five polyphenols namely, resveratrol, piceatannol, quercetin, quercetrin, and quercetin-3-beta-D glucoside on Escherichia coli ATP synthase. Recently published X-ray crystal structures of bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase inhibited by resveratrol, piceatannol, and quercetin, suggest that these compounds bind in a hydrophobic pocket between the gamma-subunit C-terminal tip and the hydrophobic inside of the surrounding annulus in a region critical for rotation of the gamma-subunit. Herein, we show that resveratrol, piceatannol, quercetin, quercetrin, or quercetin-3-beta-d glucoside all inhibit E. coli ATP synthase but to different degrees. Whereas piceatannol inhibited ATPase essentially completely ( approximately 0 residual activity), inhibition by other compounds was partial with approximately 20% residual activity by quercetin, approximately 50% residual activity by quercetin-3-beta-D glucoside, and approximately 60% residual activity by quercetrin or resveratrol. Piceatannol was the most potent inhibitor (IC(50) approximately 14 microM) followed by quercetin (IC(50) approximately 33 microM), quercetin-3-beta-D glucoside (IC(50) approximately 71 microM), resveratrol (IC(50) approximately 94 microM), quercitrin (IC(50) approximately 120 microM). Inhibition was identical in both F(1)F(o) membrane preparations as well as in isolated purified F(1). In all cases inhibition was reversible. Interestingly, resveratrol and piceatannol inhibited both ATPase and ATP synthesis whereas quercetin, quercetrin or quercetin-3-beta-d glucoside inhibited only ATPase activity and not ATP synthesis.

  7. The SARS coronavirus papain like protease can inhibit IRF3 at a post activation step that requires deubiquitination activity.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Krystal; Schäfer, Alexandra; Pham, Alissa; Frieman, Matthew

    2014-12-07

    The outcome of a viral infection is regulated by complex interactions of viral and host factors. SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) engages and regulates several innate immune response pathways during infection. We have previously shown that the SARS-CoV Papain-like Protease (PLpro) inhibits type I interferon (IFN) by inhibiting IRF3 phosphorylation thereby blocking downstream Interferon induction. This finding prompted us to identify other potential mechanisms of inhibition of PLpro on IFN induction. We have used plasmids expressing PLpro and IRF3 including an IRF3 mutant that is constitutively active, called IRF3(5D). In these experiments we utilize transfections, chromatin immunoprecipitation, Electro-mobility Shift Assays (EMSA) and protein localization to identify where IRF3 and IRF3(5D) are inhibited by PLpro. Here we show that PLpro also inhibits IRF3 activation at a step after phosphorylation and that this inhibition is dependent on the de-ubiquitination (DUB) activity of PLpro. We found that PLpro is able to block the type I IFN induction of a constitutively active IRF3, but does not inhibit IRF3 dimerization, nuclear localization or DNA binding. However, inhibition of PLpro's DUB activity by mutagenesis blocked the IRF3 inhibition activity of PLpro, suggesting a role for IRF3 ubiquitination in induction of a type I IFN innate immune response. These results demonstrate an additional mechanism that PLpro is able to inhibit IRF3 signaling. These data suggest novel innate immune antagonism activities of PLpro that may contribute to SARS-CoV pathogenesis.

  8. Inhibition of the activation of Hageman factor (factor XII) by platelet factor 4.

    PubMed

    Dumenco, L L; Everson, B; Culp, L A; Ratnoff, O D

    1988-09-01

    Platelet factor 4 is a polypeptide constituent of platelet alpha granules that is released during platelet aggregation and inhibits heparin-mediated reactions. Hageman factor (factor XII) is a plasma proenzyme that, when activated by certain negatively charged agents, initiates clotting via the intrinsic pathway of thrombin formation. In earlier studies using crude systems, platelet factor 4 inhibited activation of Hageman factor by dextran sulfate or cerebrosides, but not activation of Hageman factor by kaolin or ellagic acid. In the present study we examined the mechanisms of inhibition by platelet factor 4, using purified reagents. Platelet factor 4 inhibited activation of Hageman factor by ellagic acid, as measured by amidolysis of a synthetic substrate of activated Hageman factor, an effect inhibited by heparin or by an anti-platelet factor 4 antiserum. Coating glass tubes with platelet factor 4 before addition of normal plasma significantly lengthened the partial thromboplastin time of normal plasma. In addition, the clot-promoting properties of kaolin were inhibited by its prior exposure to platelet factor 4. Thus, the inhibitory properties of platelet factor 4 directed against the activation of Hageman factor were confirmed in a purified system. In this purified system, in contrast to earlier studies using crude systems, platelet factor 4 inhibited activation of Hageman factor by glass, ellagic acid, or kaolin.

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-γ Activation Inhibits Tumor Metastasis by Antagonizing Smad3 Mediated Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Reka, Ajaya Kumar; Kurapati, Himabindu; Narala, Venkata R; Bommer, Guido; Chen, Jun; Standiford, Theodore J.; Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.

    2011-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was shown to confer tumor cells with abilities essential for metastasis, including migratory phenotype, invasiveness, and resistance to apoptosis, evading immune surveillance and tumor stem cell traits. Therefore, inhibition of EMT can be an important therapeutic strategy to inhibit tumor metastasis. Here we demonstrate that activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) -γ inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT in lung cancer cells and prevents metastasis by antagonizing Smad3 function. Activation of PPAR-γ by synthetic ligands (Troglitazone and Rosiglitazone) or by a constitutively-active form of PPAR-γ prevents TGF-β-induced loss of E-cadherin expression and inhibited the induction of mesenchymal markers (vimentin, N-cadherin, fibronectin) and MMPs. Consistently, activation of PPAR-γ also inhibited EMT-induced migration and invasion of lung cancer cells. Furthermore, effects of PPAR-γ ligands were attenuated by siRNA mediated knockdown of PPAR-γ, indicating that the ligand induced responses are PPAR-γ dependent. Selective knockdown of Smad2 and Smad3 by siRNA demonstrated that TGF-β-induced EMT is Smad3 dependent in lung cancer cells. Activation of PPAR-γ inhibits TGF-β-induced Smad transcriptional activity but had no effect on the phosphorylation or nuclear translocation of Smads. Consistently PPAR-γ activation prevented TGF-ß-induced transcriptional repression of E-cadherin promoter and inhibited transcriptional activation of N-cadherin promoter. Finally, treatment of mice with troglitazone or knockdown of Smad3 in tumor cells both significantly inhibited TGF-β-induced experimental metastasis in Scid-Beige mice. Together, with the low toxicity profile of PPAR-γ ligands, our data demonstrates that these ligands may serve as potential therapeutic agents to inhibit metastasis. PMID:21159608

  10. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase inhibits ER stress and renal fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyosang; Moon, Soo Young; Kim, Joon-Seok; Baek, Chung Hee; Kim, Miyeon; Min, Ji Yeon; Lee, Sang Koo

    2015-02-01

    It has been suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress facilitates fibrotic remodeling. Therefore, modulation of ER stress may serve as one of the possible therapeutic approaches to renal fibrosis. We examined whether and how activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) suppressed ER stress induced by chemical ER stress inducers [tunicamycin (TM) and thapsigargin (TG)] and also nonchemical inducers in tubular HK-2 cells. We further investigated the in vivo effects of AMPK on ER stress and renal fibrosis. Western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, small interfering (si)RNA experiments, and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Metformin (the best known clinical activator of AMPK) suppressed TM- or TG-induced ER stress, as shown by the inhibition of TM- or TG-induced upregulation of glucose-related protein (GRP)78 and phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor-2α through induction of heme oxygenase-1. Metformin inhibited TM- or TG-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transitions as well. Compound C (AMPK inhibitor) blocked the effect of metformin, and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1β riboside (another AMPK activator) exerted the same effects as metformin. Transfection with siRNA targeting AMPK blocked the effect of metformin. Consistent with the results of cell culture experiments, metformin reduced renal cortical GRP78 expression and increased heme oxygenase-1 expression in a mouse model of ER stress-induced acute kidney injury by TM. Activation of AMPK also suppressed ER stress by transforming growth factor-β, ANG II, aldosterone, and high glucose. Furthermore, metformin reduced GRP78 expression and renal fibrosis in a mouse model of unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, AMPK may serve as a promising therapeutic target through reducing ER stress and renal fibrosis.

  11. There Is No Free Won’t: Antecedent Brain Activity Predicts Decisions to Inhibit

    PubMed Central

    Filevich, Elisa; Kühn, Simone; Haggard, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Inhibition of prepotent action is an important aspect of self-control, particularly in social contexts. Action inhibition and its neural bases have been extensively studied. However, the neural precursors of free decisions to inhibit have hardly been studied. We asked participants to freely choose to either make a rapid key press in response to a visual cue, or to transiently inhibit action, and briefly delay responding. The task required a behavioural response on each trial, so trials involving inhibition could be distinguished from those without inhibition as those showing slower reaction times. We used this criterion to classify free-choice trials as either rapid or inhibited/delayed. For 13 participants, we measured the mean amplitude of the ERP activity at electrode Cz in three subsequent 50 ms time windows prior to the onset of the signal that either instructed to respond or inhibit, or gave participants a free choice. In two of these 50 ms time windows (−150 to −100, and −100 to −50 ms relative to action onset), the amplitude of prestimulus ERP differed between trials where participants ”freely” chose whether to inhibit or to respond rapidly. Larger prestimulus ERP amplitudes were associated with trials in which participants decided to act rapidly as compared to trials in which they decided to delay their responses. Last-moment decisions to inhibit or delay may depend on unconscious preparatory neural activity. PMID:23418420

  12. Preferential Re-Replication of Drosophila Heterochromatin in the Absence of Geminin

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Queying; MacAlpine, David M.

    2010-01-01

    To ensure genomic integrity, the genome must be duplicated exactly once per cell cycle. Disruption of replication licensing mechanisms may lead to re-replication and genomic instability. Cdt1, also known as Double-parked (Dup) in Drosophila, is a key regulator of the assembly of the pre-replicative complex (pre-RC) and its activity is strictly limited to G1 by multiple mechanisms including Cul4-Ddb1 mediated proteolysis and inhibition by geminin. We assayed the genomic consequences of disregulating the replication licensing mechanisms by RNAi depletion of geminin. We found that not all origins of replication were sensitive to geminin depletion and that heterochromatic sequences were preferentially re-replicated in the absence of licensing mechanisms. The preferential re-activation of heterochromatic origins of replication was unexpected because these are typically the last sequences to be duplicated in a normal cell cycle. We found that the re-replication of heterochromatin was regulated not at the level of pre-RC activation, but rather by the formation of the pre-RC. Unlike the global assembly of the pre-RC that occurs throughout the genome in G1, in the absence of geminin, limited pre-RC assembly was restricted to the heterochromatin by elevated cyclin A-CDK activity. These results suggest that there are chromatin and cell cycle specific controls that regulate the re-assembly of the pre-RC outside of G1. PMID:20838463

  13. DNA intercalator korkormicin A preferentially kills tumor cells expressing wild type p53.

    PubMed

    Kitagaki, Jirouta; Yang, Yili

    2011-10-14

    Korkormicin A belongs to a family of nature-produced cyclic depsipeptides. It has potent antitumor activity against both leukemia cell P388 and carcinoma cell M109. To further explore its potential as a cancer therapeutic, the mechanism of its antitumor activity was investigated. We found that korkormicin A can bind to DNA through intercalation. It also induces p53 phosphorylation, which leads to inhibition of p53 degradation and activation of p53-dependent transcription. Furthermore, korkormicin A preferentially induces apoptosis in transformed cells retaining wild type p53. As it has been shown that p53 usually induces apoptosis in transformed cells, but only growth arrest in untransformed cells, these results indicate that korkormicin A is a potential antitumor agent for cancers with wild type p53. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Mechanisms of Rose Bengal inhibition on SecA ATPase and ion channel activities.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Ying-Hsin; Huang, Ying-Ju; Jin, Jin-Shan; Yu, Liyan; Yang, Hsiuchin; Jiang, Chun; Wang, Binghe; Tai, Phang C

    2014-11-14

    SecA is an essential protein possessing ATPase activity in bacterial protein translocation for which Rose Bengal (RB) is the first reported sub-micromolar inhibitor in ATPase activity and protein translocation. Here, we examined the mechanisms of inhibition on various forms of SecA ATPase by conventional enzymatic assays, and by monitoring the SecA-dependent channel activity in the semi-physiological system in cells. We build on the previous observation that SecA with liposomes form active protein-conducting channels in the oocytes. Such ion channel activity is enhanced by purified Escherichia coli SecYEG-SecDF·YajC liposome complexes. Inhibition by RB could be monitored, providing correlation of in vitro activity and intact cell functionality. In this work, we found the intrinsic SecA ATPase is inhibited by RB competitively at low ATP concentration, and non-competitively at high ATP concentrations while the translocation ATPase with precursors and SecYEG is inhibited non-competitively by RB. The Inhibition by RB on SecA channel activity in the oocytes with exogenous ATP-Mg(2+), mimicking translocation ATPase activity, is also non-competitive. The non-competitive inhibition on channel activity has also been observed with SecA from other bacteria which otherwise would be difficult to examine without the cognate precursors and membranes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Quasi-chemical theory of cosolvent hydrophobic preferential interactions.

    PubMed

    Priya, M Hamsa; Merchant, Safir; Asthagiri, Dilip; Paulaitis, Michael E

    2012-06-07

    Cosolvent hydrophobic preferential interactions with methane in aqueous methanol solutions are evaluated on the basis of the solute excess chemical potential derived from molecular simulations using the quasi-chemical (QC) theory generalization of the potential distribution theorem (PDT). We find that the methane-methanol preferential interaction parameter derived from QC theory quantitatively captures the favorable solvation of methane in methanol solutions in terms of important local solute-solvent (water and methanol) intermolecular interactions within a defined inner shell around the solute, and nonlocal solute interactions with solvent molecules outside this inner shell. Moreover, a unique inner shell can be defined such that the preferential interaction parameter is derived exclusively from the free energy of cavity formation in the aqueous cosolvent solution without the solute, where this cavity corresponds to the specified inner shell, and the mean interaction or binding energy of the solute with solvent molecules outside this inner shell. This inner-shell definition leads to a description of solute-cosolvent preferential interactions in which the molecular details of those interactions are derived from the effect of cosolvent on cavity statistics in the aqueous cosolvent solution alone. The finding suggests that solution thermodynamic behavior beyond steric exclusion (macromolecular crowding) contribute to the molecular mechanisms by which cosolvent preferential interactions influence protein stability and activity.

  16. Inhibition of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of cholera toxin by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine.

    PubMed

    Bitonti, A J

    1984-04-30

    ADP-ribosylation by cholera toxin of the guanine nucleotide binding regulatory protein (Gs) of rat liver membrane adenylate cyclase was inhibited by 0.1-1 mM MDL 12330A or 0.1-1 mM chlorpromazine. Basal as well as cholera toxin activated adenylate cyclase activity in liver membranes was also inhibited by the two drugs. NAD glycohydrolase activity and self-ADP-ribosylation of cholera toxin were also inhibited by MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine. These effects of MDL 12330A and chlorpromazine may be related to their effects on cholera toxin-induced fluid secretion in vivo.

  17. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preferential scheduling. 700.14 Section 700.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  18. 15 CFR 700.14 - Preferential scheduling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preferential scheduling. 700.14 Section 700.14 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued... DEFENSE PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Industrial Priorities § 700.14 Preferential scheduling. (a) A...

  19. Kinetics studies on the inhibition mechanism of pancreatic α-amylase by glycoconjugated 1H-1,2,3-triazoles: a new class of inhibitors with hypoglycemiant activity.

    PubMed

    Senger, Mario Roberto; Gomes, Lucas da Costa Andrade; Ferreira, Sabrina Baptista; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Ferreira, Vitor Francisco; Silva, Floriano Paes

    2012-07-23

    Glycoconjugated 1H-1,2,3-triazoles (GCTs) comprise a new class of glycosidase inhibitors that are under investigation as promising therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, few kinetics studies have been performed to clarify the mode of inhibition of GCTs with their target glycosidases. Our group has previously shown that some methyl-β-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-1,2,3-triazoles that inhibit baker's yeast maltase were also able to reduce post-prandial glucose levels in normal rats. We hypothesized that this hypoglycemiant activity was attributable to inhibition of mammalian α-glucosidases involved in sugar metabolism, such as pancreatic α-amylase. Hence, the aim of this work was to test a series of 26 GCTs on porcine pancreatic α-amylase (PPA) and to characterize their inhibition mechanisms. Six GCTs, all ribofuranosyl-derived GCTs, significantly inhibited PPA, with IC(50) values in the middle to high micromolar range. Our results also demonstrated that ribofuranosyl-derived GCTs are reversible, noncompetitive inhibitors when using 2-chloro-4-nitrophenyl-α-D-maltotrioside as a substrate. E/ES affinity ratios (α) ranged from 0.3 to 1.1, with the majority of ribofuranosyl-derived GCTs preferentially forming stable ternary ESI complexes. Competition assays with acarbose showed that ribofuranosyl-derived GCTs bind to PPA in a mutually exclusive fashion. The data presented here show that pancreatic α-amylase is one of the possible molecular targets in the pharmacological activity of ribofuranosyl-derived GCTs. Our results also provide important mechanistic insight that can be of major help to develop this new class of synthetic small molecules into more potent compounds with anti-diabetic activity through rational drug design.

  20. Polygonum cuspidatum and Its Active Components Inhibit Replication of the Influenza Virus through Toll-Like Receptor 9-Induced Interferon Beta Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chao-jen; Lin, Hui-Ju; Chen, Ter-Hsin; Hsu, Yu-An; Liu, Chin-San; Hwang, Guang-Yuh; Wan, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Influenza virus infection is a global public health issue. The effectiveness of antiviral therapies for influenza has been limited by the emergence of drug-resistant viral strains. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify novel antiviral therapies. Here we tested the effects of 300 traditional Chinese medicines on the replication of various influenza virus strains in a lung cell line, A549, using an influenza-specific luciferase reporter assay. Of the traditional medicines tested, Polygonum cuspidatum (PC) and its active components, resveratrol and emodin, were found to attenuate influenza viral replication in A549 cells. Furthermore, they preferentially inhibited the replication of influenza A virus, including clinical strains isolated in 2009 and 2011 in Taiwan and the laboratory strain A/WSN/33 (H1N1). In addition to inhibiting the expression of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase, PC, emodin, and resveratrol also increased the expression of interferon beta (IFN-β) through Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Moreover, the anti-viral activity of IFN-β or resveratrol was reduced when the A549 cells were treated with neutralizing anti-IFN-β antibodies or a TLR9 inhibitor, suggesting that IFN-β likely acts synergistically with resveratrol to inhibit H1N1 replication. This potential antiviral mechanism, involving direct inhibition of virus replication and simultaneous activation of the host immune response, has not been previously described for a single antiviral molecule. In conclusion, our data support the use of PC, resveratrol or emodin for inhibiting influenza virus replication directly and via TLR-9–induced IFN-β production. PMID:25658356

  1. Preferential urn model and nongrowing complex networks.

    PubMed

    Ohkubo, Jun; Yasuda, Muneki; Tanaka, Kazuyuki

    2005-12-01

    A preferential urn model, which is based on the concept "the rich get richer," is proposed. From a relationship between a nongrowing model for complex networks and the preferential urn model in regard to degree distributions, it is revealed that a fitness parameter in the nongrowing model is interpreted as an inverse local temperature in the preferential urn model. Furthermore, it is clarified that the preferential urn model with randomness generates a fat-tailed occupation distribution; the concept of the local temperature enables us to understand the fat-tailed occupation distribution intuitively. Since the preferential urn model is a simple stochastic model, it can be applied to research on not only the nongrowing complex networks, but also many other fields such as econophysics and social sciences.

  2. Evidence for anti-apoptotic roles of proteasome activator 28γ via inhibiting caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Moncsek, Anja; Gruner, Melanie; Meyer, Hannes; Lehmann, Andrea; Kloetzel, Peter-Michael; Stohwasser, Ralf

    2015-09-01

    Proteasome activator PA28γ (REGγ, Ki antigen) has recently been demonstrated to display anti-apoptotic properties via enhancing Mdm2-p53 interaction, thereby facilitating ubiquitination and down-regulation of the tumor suppressor p53. In this study we demonstrate a correlation between cellular PA28γ levels and the sensitivity of cells towards apoptosis in different cellular contexts thereby confirming a role of proteasome activator PA28γ as an anti-apoptotic regulator. We investigated the anti-apoptotic role of PA28γ upon UV-C stimulation in B8 mouse fibroblasts stably overexpressing the PA28γ-encoding PSME3 gene and upon butyrate-induced apoptosis in human HT29 adenocarcinoma cells with silenced PSME3 gene. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that PA28γ has a strong influence on different apoptotic hallmarks, especially p53 phosphorylation and caspase activation. In detail, PA28γ and effector caspases mutually restrict each other. PA28γ is a caspase substrate, if PA28γ levels are low. In contrast, PA28γ overexpression reduces caspase activities, including the caspase-dependent processing of PA28γ. Furthermore, overexpression of PA28γ resulted in a nuclear accumulation of transcriptional active p53. In summary, our findings indicate that even in a p53-dominated cellular context, pro-apoptotic signaling might be overcome by PA28γ-mediated caspase inhibition.

  3. Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels.

    PubMed

    Smith, M Ryan; Vayalil, Praveen K; Zhou, Fen; Benavides, Gloria A; Beggs, Reena R; Golzarian, Hafez; Nijampatnam, Bhavitavya; Oliver, Patsy G; Smith, Robin A J; Murphy, Michael P; Velu, Sadanandan E; Landar, Aimee

    2016-08-01

    Many cancer cells follow an aberrant metabolic program to maintain energy for rapid cell proliferation. Metabolic reprogramming often involves the upregulation of glutaminolysis to generate reducing equivalents for the electron transport chain and amino acids for protein synthesis. Critical enzymes involved in metabolism possess a reactive thiolate group, which can be modified by certain oxidants. In the current study, we show that modification of mitochondrial protein thiols by a model compound, iodobutyl triphenylphosphonium (IBTP), decreased mitochondrial metabolism and ATP in MDA-MB 231 (MB231) breast adenocarcinoma cells up to 6 days after an initial 24h treatment. Mitochondrial thiol modification also depressed oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in a dose-dependent manner to a greater extent than a non-thiol modifying analog, suggesting that thiol reactivity is an important factor in the inhibition of cancer cell metabolism. In non-tumorigenic MCF-10A cells, IBTP also decreased OCR; however the extracellular acidification rate was significantly increased at all but the highest concentration (10µM) of IBTP indicating that thiol modification can have significantly different effects on bioenergetics in tumorigenic versus non-tumorigenic cells. ATP and other adenonucleotide levels were also decreased by thiol modification up to 6 days post-treatment, indicating a decreased overall energetic state in MB231 cells. Cellular proliferation of MB231 cells was also inhibited up to 6 days post-treatment with little change to cell viability. Targeted metabolomic analyses revealed that thiol modification caused depletion of both Krebs cycle and glutaminolysis intermediates. Further experiments revealed that the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, aconitase, was attenuated in response to thiol modification. Additionally, the inhibition of glutaminolysis corresponded to decreased glutaminase C (GAC) protein levels, although other protein levels were unaffected. This study

  4. Decavanadate inhibits the cell-free activation of neutrophil NADPH oxidase without affecting tyrosine phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Okamura, N; Sakai, T; Nishimura, Y; Sakai, M; Araki, S; Yamaguchi, M; Ishibashi, S

    1999-08-01

    NADPH oxidase was activated by arachidonate in a cell-free system consisting of membrane and cytosol fractions prepared from guinea pig neutrophils. Vanadate apparently inhibited the NADPH oxidase activity in the cell-free system (IC50=2 microM) without phosphotyrosine accumulation. The pH dependency and stability of the inhibitory effect observed for vanadate solution indicated that decavanadate, an isopolyanion of vanadate, was responsible for the inhibition. Pervanadate (vanadyl hydroperoxide) also inhibited the oxidase activity but at a higher concentration (IC50=0.2 mM). Decavanadate lowered the Vmax but did not affect the Km value of NADPH oxidase for NADPH. Decavanadate inhibited the activation process of NADPH oxidase but not the oxidase activity itself. Decavanadate-pretreatment of membrane and cytosol fractions irreversibly decreased the abilities of both fractions to activate NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system. Translocation of p47-phox, one of the cytosolic activation factors of NADPH oxidase, from cytosol to membrane, was little affected by decavanadate. These results suggest that decavanadate inhibits the activation of NADPH oxidase in the cell-free system without affecting the phosphotyrosine phosphatase, and that decavanadate can bind to both the membrane and cytosolic activation factors when they are in a dormant state, but not to the active oxidase complex.

  5. Potent inhibition by star fruit of human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Muneaki; Fujita, Ken-ichi; Ogikubo, Tetsuya; Yamasaki, Keishi; Iwakiri, Tomomi; Okumura, Manabu; Kodama, Hirofumi; Arimori, Kazuhiko

    2004-06-01

    There has been very limited information on the capacities of tropical fruits to inhibit human cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity. Thus, the inhibitory effects of tropical fruits on midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity of CYP3A in human liver microsomes were evaluated. Eight tropical fruits such as common papaw, dragon fruit, kiwi fruit, mango, passion fruit, pomegranate, rambutan, and star fruit were tested. We also examined the inhibition of CYP3A activity by grapefruit (white) and Valencia orange as controls. The juice of star fruit showed the most potent inhibition of CYP3A. The addition of a star fruit juice (5.0%, v/v) resulted in the almost complete inhibition of midazolam 1'-hydroxylase activity (residual activity of 0.1%). In the case of grape-fruit, the residual activity was 14.7%. The inhibition depended on the amount of fruit juice added to the incubation mixture (0.2-6.0%, v/v). The elongation of the preincubation period of a juice from star fruit (1.25 or 2.5%, v/v) with the microsomal fraction did not alter the CYP3A inhibition, suggesting that the star fruit did not contain a mechanism-based inhibitor. Thus, we discovered filtered extracts of star fruit juice to be inhibitors of human CYP3A activity in vitro.

  6. CORRELATIONS OF PESTICIDE-INDUCED CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND MOTOR ACTIVITY CHANGES IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are primarily due to overstimulation of the cholinergic system. Lowered motor activity levels represent a sensitive endpoint with which to monitor functional changes in laboratory animals exposed to ...

  7. Na+, K+-activated-ATPase inhibition in rainbow trout: A site for organochlorine pesticide toxicity?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Paul W.; Wedemeyer, Gary A.

    1971-01-01

    1. The Na+, K+-activated, Mg2+-dependent-ATPase enzyme system in a heavy microsomal fraction of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) brain was inhibited in vitro by chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides.2. T50 (concentration at 50 per cent inhibition) values for dicofol, endosulfan and DDT were 5 × 10−6, 3 × 10−5 and 1 × 10−4 M respectively. Similar inhibition by these pesticides occurred in kidney and gill ATPase preparations.3. An unexpected finding was a failure of the classic inhibitor, ouabain, to block the Na+, K+-activated component of ATPase activity in the gill.4. It is suggested that inhibition of ATPase activity may be a causal factor in the toxic effects of organochlorine pesticides in fishes.

  8. CORRELATIONS OF PESTICIDE-INDUCED CHOLINESTERASE INHIBITION AND MOTOR ACTIVITY CHANGES IN ADULT RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acute neurobehavioral effects of acetylcholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides are primarily due to overstimulation of the cholinergic system. Lowered motor activity levels represent a sensitive endpoint with which to monitor functional changes in laboratory animals exposed to ...

  9. Capsaicin Inhibits Dimethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatic Fibrosis by Inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad Pathway via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Activation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Jin, Sun Woo; Choi, Chul Yung; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Lee, Gi Ho; Kim, Yong An; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2017-01-18

    Capsaicin (CPS) exerts many pharmacological effects, but any possible influence on liver fibrosis remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of CPS on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) and TGF-β1-induced liver fibrosis in rats and hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). CPS inhibited DMN-induced hepatotoxicity, NF-κB activation, and collagen accumulation. CPS also suppressed the DMN-induced increases in α-SMA, collagen type I, MMP-2, and TNF-α. In addition, CPS inhibited DMN-induced TGF-β1 expression (from 2.3 ± 0.1 to 1.0 ± 0.1) and Smad2/3 phosphorylation (from 1.5 ± 0.1 to 1.1 ± 0.1 and from 1.6 ± 0.1 to 1.1 ± 0.1, respectively) by activating Smad7 expression (from 0.1 ± 0.0 to 0.9 ± 0.1) via PPAR-γ induction (from 0.2 ± 0.0 to 0.8 ± 0.0) (p < 0.05). Furthermore, in HSCs, CPS inhibited the TGF-β1-induced increases in α-SMA and collagen type I expression, via PPAR-γ activation. These results indicate that CPS can ameliorate hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting the TGF-β1/Smad pathway via PPAR-γ activation.

  10. Therapeutic inhibition of Jak activity inhibits progression of gastrointestinal tumors in mice.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Emma; Buchert, Michael; Putoczki, Tracy; Thiem, Stefan; Farid, Ryan; Elzer, Joachim; Huszar, Dennis; Waring, Paul M; Phesse, Toby J; Ernst, Matthias

    2014-02-01

    Aberrant activation of the latent transcription factor STAT3 and its downstream targets is a common feature of epithelial-derived human cancers, including those of the gastrointestinal tract. Mouse models of gastrointestinal malignancy implicate Stat3 as a key mediator of inflammatory-driven tumorigenesis, in which its cytokine/gp130/Janus kinase (Jak)-dependent activation provides a functional link through which the microenvironment sustains tumor promotion. Although therapeutic targeting of STAT3 is highly desirable, such molecules are not available for immediate clinical assessment. Here, we investigated whether the small-molecule Jak1/2 inhibitor AZD1480 confers therapeutic benefits in two mouse models of inflammation-associated gastrointestinal cancer, which are strictly dependent of excessive Stat3 activation. We confirm genetically that Cre-mediated, tumor cell-specific reduction of Stat3 expression arrests the growth of intestinal-type gastric tumors in gp130(F/F) mice. We find that systemic administration of AZD1480 readily replicates this effect, which is associated with reduced Stat3 activation and correlates with diminished tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Likewise, AZD1480 therapy also conferred a cytostatic effect on established tumors in a colitis-associated colon cancer model in wild-type mice. As predicted from our genetic observations in gp130(F/F) mice, the therapeutic effect of AZD1480 remains fully reversible upon cessation of compound administration. Collectively, our results provide the first evidence that pharmacologic targeting of excessively activated wild-type Jak kinases affords therapeutic suppression of inflammation-associated gastrointestinal cancers progression in vivo.

  11. Inhibition of human natural killer cell activity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, B K; Kharazmi, A

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to examine the effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease (AP) and elastase (Ela) on human natural killer (NK) cell activity in vitro. AP and Ela were found to inhibit NK cell function. Addition of alpha interferon and interleukin-2 did not abolish this inhibition of NK cell activity. Adhesion of effector to target cells was studied in a single-cell agarose assay of monocyte-depleted NK-cell-enriched cell populations. AP and Ela were shown to inhibit effector/target cell conjugate formation. Furthermore, AP and Ela inhibited the binding of the monoclonal antibody Leu-11, which reacts with the Fc receptor of NK cells. The inhibition of NK cell binding to the target cell by P. aeruginosa proteases is most likely due to proteolytic cleavage of the surface receptors involved in the binding of the effector cell to the target cell. PMID:3030937

  12. Tamoxifen and its active metabolites inhibit dopamine transporter function independently of the estrogen receptors.

    PubMed

    Mikelman, Sarah R; Guptaroy, Bipasha; Gnegy, Margaret E

    2017-04-01

    As one of the primary mechanisms by which dopamine signaling is regulated, the dopamine transporter (DAT) is an attractive pharmacological target for the treatment of diseases based in dopaminergic dysfunction. In this work we demonstrate for the first time that the commonly prescribed breast cancer therapeutic tamoxifen and its major metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen and endoxifen, inhibit DAT function. Tamoxifen inhibits [(3) H]dopamine uptake into human DAT (hDAT)-N2A cells via an uncompetitive or mixed mechanism. Endoxifen, an active metabolite of tamoxifen, asymmetrically inhibits DAT function in hDAT-N2A cells, showing a preference for the inhibition of amphetamine-stimulated dopamine efflux as compared to dopamine uptake. Importantly, we demonstrate that the effects of tamoxifen and its metabolites on the DAT occur independently of its activity as selective estrogen receptor modulators. This work suggests that tamoxifen is inhibiting DAT function through a previously unidentified mechanism. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  13. Inhibition of activity of the protease from bovine leukemia virus.

    PubMed

    Ménard, A; Leonard, R; Llido, S; Geoffre, S; Picard, P; Berteau, F; Precigoux, G; Hospital, M; Guillemain, B

    1994-06-13

    In view of the close similarity between bovine leukemia virus (BLV) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) we investigated the possibility of developing specific inhibitors of the proteases of these retroviruses using the purified enzyme from BLV. We tested the ability of this protease to specifically cleave various short oligopeptide substrates containing cleavage sites of BLV and HTLV-I proteases, as well as a recombinant BLV Gag precursor. The best substrate, a synthetic decapeptide bearing the natural cleavage site between the matrix and the capsid proteins of BLV Gag precursor polyprotein, was used to develop an inhibition assay. We determined the relative inhibitory effect of synthetic Gag precursor-like peptides in which the cleavable site was replaced by a non-hydrolyzable moiety. The encouraging inhibitory effect of these compounds indicates that potent non-peptidic inhibitors for retroviral proteases are not unattainable.

  14. Mitochondrial activation by inhibition of PDKII suppresses HIF1a signaling and angiogenesis in cancer.

    PubMed

    Sutendra, G; Dromparis, P; Kinnaird, A; Stenson, T H; Haromy, A; Parker, J M R; McMurtry, M S; Michelakis, E D

    2013-03-28

    Most solid tumors are characterized by a metabolic shift from glucose oxidation to glycolysis, in part due to actively suppressed mitochondrial function, a state that favors resistance to apoptosis. Suppressed mitochondrial function may also contribute to the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) and angiogenesis. We have previously shown that the inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) dichloroacetate (DCA) activates glucose oxidation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. We hypothesized that DCA will also reverse the 'pseudohypoxic' mitochondrial signals that lead to HIF1α activation in cancer, even in the absence of hypoxia and inhibit cancer angiogenesis. We show that inhibition of PDKII inhibits HIF1α in cancer cells using several techniques, including HIF1α luciferase reporter assays. Using pharmacologic and molecular approaches that suppress the prolyl-hydroxylase (PHD)-mediated inhibition of HIF1α, we show that DCA inhibits HIF1α by both a PHD-dependent mechanism (that involves a DCA-induced increase in the production of mitochondria-derived α-ketoglutarate) and a PHD-independent mechanism, involving activation of p53 via mitochondrial-derived H(2)O(2), as well as activation of GSK3β. Effective inhibition of HIF1α is shown by a decrease in the expression of several HIF1α regulated gene products as well as inhibition of angiogenesis in vitro in matrigel assays. More importantly, in rat xenotransplant models of non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer, we show effective inhibition of angiogenesis and tumor perfusion in vivo, assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, nuclear imaging techniques and histology. This work suggests that mitochondria-targeting metabolic modulators that increase pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, in addition to the recently described pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects, suppress angiogenesis as well, normalizing the pseudo-hypoxic signals that lead to normoxic HIF1

  15. PTEN inhibits PREX2-catalyzed activation of RAC1 to restrain tumor cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mense, Sarah M.; Barrows, Douglas; Hodakoski, Cindy; Steinbach, Nicole; Schoenfeld, David; Su, William; Hopkins, Benjamin D.; Su, Tao; Fine, Barry; Hibshoosh, Hanina; Parsons, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The tumor suppressor PTEN restrains cell migration and invasion by a mechanism that is independent of inhibition of the PI3K pathway and decreased activation of the kinase AKT. PREX2, a widely distributed GEF that activates the GTPase RAC1, binds to and inhibits PTEN. We used mouse embryonic fibroblasts and breast cancer cell lines to show that PTEN suppresses cell migration and invasion by blocking PREX2 activity. In addition to metabolizing the phosphoinositide PIP3, PTEN inhibited PREX2-induced invasion by a mechanism that required the tail domain of PTEN, but not its lipid phosphatase activity. Fluorescent nucleotide exchange assays revealed that PTEN inhibited the GEF activity of PREX2 toward RAC1. PREX2 is a frequently mutated GEF in cancer, and examination of human tumor data showed that PREX2 mutation was associated with high PTEN expression. Therefore, we tested whether cancer-derived somatic PREX2 mutants, which accelerate tumor formation of immortalized melanocytes, were inhibited by PTEN. The three stably expressed, somatic PREX2 cancer mutants that we tested were resistant to PTEN-mediated inhibition of invasion but retained the ability to inhibit the lipid phosphatase activity of PTEN. In vitro analysis showed that PTEN did not block the GEF activity of two PREX2 cancer mutants and had a reduced binding affinity for the third. Thus, PTEN antagonized migration and invasion by restraining PREX2 GEF activity, and PREX2 mutants are likely selected in cancer to escape PTEN-mediated inhibition of invasion. PMID:25829446

  16. Human neutrophil leukocyte elastase activity is inhibited by Phenol Red

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Neutrophil elastase (NE) activity in urine, sputum and nasal mucous is used as an indicator of inflammation due to viral or bacterial infection. However, bovine nasal mucous neutrophils collected, lysed and stored in Dulbecco's minimal medium containing Phenol Red, showed no NE activity with methox...

  17. Cyclic-GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits the Ras/Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Suhasini, M; Li, H; Lohmann, S M; Boss, G R; Pilz, R B

    1998-12-01

    Agents which increase the intracellular cyclic GMP (cGMP) concentration and cGMP analogs inhibit cell growth in several different cell types, but it is not known which of the intracellular target proteins of cGMP is (are) responsible for the growth-suppressive effects of cGMP. Using baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells, which are deficient in cGMP-dependent protein kinase (G-kinase), we show that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)guanosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate and 8-bromoguanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibit cell growth in cells stably transfected with a G-kinase Ibeta expression vector but not in untransfected cells or in cells transfected with a catalytically inactive G-kinase. We found that the cGMP analogs inhibited epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase and nuclear translocation of MAP kinase in G-kinase-expressing cells but not in G-kinase-deficient cells. Ras activation by EGF was not impaired in G-kinase-expressing cells treated with cGMP analogs. We show that activation of G-kinase inhibited c-Raf kinase activation and that G-kinase phosphorylated c-Raf kinase on Ser43, both in vitro and in vivo; phosphorylation of c-Raf kinase on Ser43 uncouples the Ras-Raf kinase interaction. A mutant c-Raf kinase with an Ala substitution for Ser43 was insensitive to inhibition by cGMP and G-kinase, and expression of this mutant kinase protected cells from inhibition of EGF-induced MAP kinase activity by cGMP and G-kinase, suggesting that Ser43 in c-Raf is the major target for regulation by G-kinase. Similarly, B-Raf kinase was not inhibited by G-kinase; the Ser43 phosphorylation site of c-Raf is not conserved in B-Raf. Activation of G-kinase induced MAP kinase phosphatase 1 expression, but this occurred later than the inhibition of MAP kinase activation. Thus, in BHK cells, inhibition of cell growth by cGMP analogs is strictly dependent on G-kinase and G-kinase activation inhibits the Ras/MAP kinase pathway (i) by

  18. Phenobarbital indirectly activates the constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR) by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mutoh, Shingo; Sobhany, Mack; Moore, Rick; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr52, which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr38 by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR. PMID:23652203

  19. Phenobarbital indirectly activates the constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR) by inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Mutoh, Shingo; Sobhany, Mack; Moore, Rick; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee; Sueyoshi, Tatsuya; Negishi, Masahiko

    2013-05-07

    Phenobarbital is a central nervous system depressant that also indirectly activates nuclear receptor constitutive active androstane receptor (CAR), which promotes drug and energy metabolism, as well as cell growth (and death), in the liver. We found that phenobarbital activated CAR by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Phenobarbital bound to EGFR and potently inhibited the binding of EGF, which prevented the activation of EGFR. This abrogation of EGFR signaling induced the dephosphorylation of receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) at Tyr(52), which then promoted the dephosphorylation of CAR at Thr(38) by the catalytic core subunit of protein phosphatase 2A. The findings demonstrated that the phenobarbital-induced mechanism of CAR dephosphorylation and activation is mediated through its direct interaction with and inhibition of EGFR.

  20. Berberine regulates AMP-activated protein kinase signaling pathways and inhibits colon tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Hua, Baojin; Saud, Shakir M; Lin, Hongsheng; Hou, Wei; Matter, Matthias S; Jia, Libin; Colburn, Nancy H; Young, Matthew R

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer, a leading cause of cancer death, has been linked to inflammation and obesity. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetes and anti-tumor properties. In the azoxymethane initiated and dextran sulfate sodium (AOM/DSS) promoted colorectal carcinogenesis mouse model, berberine treated mice showed a 60% reduction in tumor number (P = 0.009), a 48% reduction in tumors <2 mm, (P = 0.05); 94% reduction in tumors 2-4 mm, (P = 0.001), and 100% reduction in tumors >4 mm (P = 0.02) compared to vehicle treated mice. Berberine also decreased AOM/DSS induced Ki-67 and COX-2 expression. In vitro analysis showed that in addition to its anti-proliferation activity, berberine also induced apoptosis in colorectal cancer cell lines. Berberine activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major regulator of metabolic pathways, and inhibited mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a downstream target of AMPK. Furthermore, 4E-binding protein-1 and p70 ribosomal S6 kinases, downstream targets of mTOR, were down regulated by berberine treatment. Berberine did not affect Liver kinase B1 (LKB1) activity or the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Berberine inhibited Nuclear Factor kappa-B (NF-κB) activity, reduced the expression of cyclin D1 and survivin, induced phosphorylation of p53 and increased caspase-3 cleavage in vitro. Berberine inhibition of mTOR activity and p53 phosphorylation was found to be AMPK dependent, while inhibition NF-κB was AMPK independent. In vivo, berberine also activated AMPK, inhibited mTOR and p65 phosphorylation and activated caspase-3 cleavage. Our data suggests that berberine suppresses colon epithelial proliferation and tumorigenesis via AMPK dependent inhibition of mTOR activity and AMPK independent inhibition of NF-κB.