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Sample records for activity profile gap

  1. Gap between active and passive solar heating

    SciTech Connect

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The gap between active and passive solar could hardly be wider. The reasons for this are discussed and advantages to narrowing the gap are analyzed. Ten years of experience in both active and passive systems are reviewed, including costs, frequent problems, performance prediction, performance modeling, monitoring, and cooling concerns. Trends are analyzed, both for solar space heating and for service water heating. A tendency for the active and passive technologies to be converging is observed. Several recommendations for narrowing the gap are presented.

  2. p190RhoGAP has cellular RacGAP activity regulated by a polybasic region.

    PubMed

    Lévay, Magdolna; Bartos, Balázs; Ligeti, Erzsébet

    2013-06-01

    p190RhoGAP is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) known to regulate actin cytoskeleton dynamics by decreasing RhoGTP levels through activation of the intrinsic GTPase activity of Rho. Although the GAP domain of p190RhoGAP stimulates the intrinsic' GTPase activity of several Rho family members (Rho, Rac, Cdc42) under in vitro conditions, p190RhoGAP is generally regarded as a GAP for RhoA in the cell. The cellular RacGAP activity of the protein has not been proven directly. We have previously shown that the in vitro RacGAP and RhoGAP activity of p190RhoGAP was inversely regulated through a polybasic region of the protein. Here we provide evidence that p190RhoGAP shows remarkable GAP activity toward Rac also in the cell. The cellular RacGAP activity of p190RhoGAP requires an intact polybasic region adjacent to the GAP domain whereas the RhoGAP activity is inhibited by the same domain. Our data indicate that through its alternating RacGAP and RhoGAP activity, p190RhoGAP plays a more complex role in the Rac-Rho antagonism than it was realized earlier.

  3. Phospholipases as GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) in plants.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sona

    2016-05-01

    GTPase activity accelerating proteins (GAPs) are key regulators of the G-protein signaling cycle. By facilitating effective hydrolysis of the GTP bound on Gα proteins, GAPs control the timing and amplitude of the signaling cycle and ascertain the availability of the inactive heterotrimer for the next round of activation. Until very recently, the studies of GAPs in plants were focused exclusively on the regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) protein. We now show that phospholipase Dα1 (PLDα1) is also a bona fide GAP in plants and together with the RGS protein controls the level of active Gα protein. PMID:27124090

  4. GAP Activity, but Not Subcellular Targeting, Is Required for Arabidopsis RanGAP Cellular and Developmental Functions[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Boruc, Joanna; Griffis, Anna H.N.; Rodrigo-Peiris, Thushani; Zhou, Xiao; Tilford, Bailey; Van Damme, Daniël; Meier, Iris

    2015-01-01

    The Ran GTPase activating protein (RanGAP) is important to Ran signaling involved in nucleocytoplasmic transport, spindle organization, and postmitotic nuclear assembly. Unlike vertebrate and yeast RanGAP, plant RanGAP has an N-terminal WPP domain, required for nuclear envelope association and several mitotic locations of Arabidopsis thaliana RanGAP1. A double null mutant of the two Arabidopsis RanGAP homologs is gametophyte lethal. Here, we created a series of mutants with various reductions in RanGAP levels by combining a RanGAP1 null allele with different RanGAP2 alleles. As RanGAP level decreases, the severity of developmental phenotypes increases, but nuclear import is unaffected. To dissect whether the GAP activity and/or the subcellular localization of RanGAP are responsible for the observed phenotypes, this series of rangap mutants were transformed with RanGAP1 variants carrying point mutations abolishing the GAP activity and/or the WPP-dependent subcellular localization. The data show that plant development is differentially affected by RanGAP mutant allele combinations of increasing severity and requires the GAP activity of RanGAP, while the subcellular positioning of RanGAP is dispensable. In addition, our results indicate that nucleocytoplasmic trafficking can tolerate both partial depletion of RanGAP and delocalization of RanGAP from the nuclear envelope. PMID:26091693

  5. Quantitative genetic activity graphical profiles for use in chemical evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, M.D.; Stack, H.F.; Garrett, N.E.; Jackson, M.A.

    1990-12-31

    A graphic approach, terms a Genetic Activity Profile (GAP), was developed to display a matrix of data on the genetic and related effects of selected chemical agents. The profiles provide a visual overview of the quantitative (doses) and qualitative (test results) data for each chemical. Either the lowest effective dose or highest ineffective dose is recorded for each agent and bioassay. Up to 200 different test systems are represented across the GAP. Bioassay systems are organized according to the phylogeny of the test organisms and the end points of genetic activity. The methodology for producing and evaluating genetic activity profile was developed in collaboration with the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Data on individual chemicals were compiles by IARC and by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Data are available on 343 compounds selected from volumes 1-53 of the IARC Monographs and on 115 compounds identified as Superfund Priority Substances. Software to display the GAPs on an IBM-compatible personal computer is available from the authors. Structurally similar compounds frequently display qualitatively and quantitatively similar profiles of genetic activity. Through examination of the patterns of GAPs of pairs and groups of chemicals, it is possible to make more informed decisions regarding the selection of test batteries to be used in evaluation of chemical analogs. GAPs provided useful data for development of weight-of-evidence hazard ranking schemes. Also, some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of complex environmental mixtures may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity profiles of component chemicals. The fundamental techniques and computer programs devised for the GAP database may be used to develop similar databases in other disciplines. 36 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Microwave resonant activation in hybrid single-gap/two-gap Josephson tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabello, Steven; Lambert, Joseph G.; Mlack, Jerome; Dai, Wenqing; Li, Qi; Chen, Ke; Cunnane, Daniel; Xi, X. X.; Ramos, Roberto C.

    2016-09-01

    Microwave resonant activation is a powerful, straightforward technique to study classical and quantum systems, experimentally realized in Josephson junction devices cooled to very low temperatures. These devices typically consist of two single-gap superconductors separated by a weak link. We report the results of the first resonant activation experiments on hybrid thin film Josephson junctions consisting of a multi-gap superconductor (MgB2) and a single-gap superconductor (Pb or Sn). We can interpret the plasma frequency in terms of theories both for conventional and hybrid junctions. Using these models, we determine the junction parameters including critical current, resistance, and capacitance and find moderately high quality factors of Q0˜ 100 for these junctions.

  7. Maternal activation of gap genes in the hover fly Episyrphus.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Steffen; Busch, Stephanie E; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A; Meyer, Folker; Domanus, Marc H; Schmidt-Ott, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The metameric organization of the insect body plan is initiated with the activation of gap genes, a set of transcription-factor-encoding genes that are zygotically expressed in broad and partially overlapping domains along the anteroposterior (AP) axis of the early embryo. The spatial pattern of gap gene expression domains along the AP axis is generally conserved, but the maternal genes that regulate their expression are not. Building on the comprehensive knowledge of maternal gap gene activation in Drosophila, we used loss- and gain-of-function experiments in the hover fly Episyrphus balteatus (Syrphidae) to address the question of how the maternal regulation of gap genes evolved. We find that, in Episyrphus, a highly diverged bicoid ortholog is solely responsible for the AP polarity of the embryo. Episyrphus bicoid represses anterior zygotic expression of caudal and activates the anterior and central gap genes orthodenticle, hunchback and Krüppel. In bicoid-deficient Episyrphus embryos, nanos is insufficient to generate morphological asymmetry along the AP axis. Furthermore, we find that torso transiently regulates anterior repression of caudal and is required for the activation of orthodenticle, whereas all posterior gap gene domains of knirps, giant, hunchback, tailless and huckebein depend on caudal. We conclude that all maternal coordinate genes have altered their specific functions during the radiation of higher flies (Cyclorrhapha).

  8. Tunable Bloch Wave Resonances and Bloch Gaps in Uniform Materials with Reconfigurable Boundary Profiles.

    PubMed

    Pogrebnyak, Victor A; Furlani, Edward P

    2016-05-20

    We study wave propagation in uniform materials with periodic boundary profiles and introduce for the first time Bloch resonances and Bloch gaps. Bloch resonances are due to transverse phase matching, i.e., the coupling of two transverse standing waves corresponding to different harmonics. These are distinct from well-known Bragg resonances that result from longitudinal phase matching. We show that Bloch gaps can be engineered over the entire first Brillouin zone up to an infinite wavelength, i.e., k_{x}=0, where k_{x} is the wave number in the direction of propagation. This is in contrast to Bragg gaps that open at a fixed wavelength, twice the period of the structure. Bloch resonances and gaps can be tuned by reconfiguring the boundary profile and we derive analytical expressions that predict these phenomena when the amplitude of the profile is small. The theory is fundamental as it broadly applies to wave phenomena that span the quantum to continuum scale with applications that range from condensed matter to acoustics. We validate the theory experimentally for the electromagnetic field at GHz frequencies. We also discuss potential photonic and electronic applications of the theory such as a white-light distributed feedback laser and a two-dimensional electron gas transistor. PMID:27258880

  9. Tunable Bloch Wave Resonances and Bloch Gaps in Uniform Materials with Reconfigurable Boundary Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogrebnyak, Victor A.; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-05-01

    We study wave propagation in uniform materials with periodic boundary profiles and introduce for the first time Bloch resonances and Bloch gaps. Bloch resonances are due to transverse phase matching, i.e., the coupling of two transverse standing waves corresponding to different harmonics. These are distinct from well-known Bragg resonances that result from longitudinal phase matching. We show that Bloch gaps can be engineered over the entire first Brillouin zone up to an infinite wavelength, i.e., kx=0 , where kx is the wave number in the direction of propagation. This is in contrast to Bragg gaps that open at a fixed wavelength, twice the period of the structure. Bloch resonances and gaps can be tuned by reconfiguring the boundary profile and we derive analytical expressions that predict these phenomena when the amplitude of the profile is small. The theory is fundamental as it broadly applies to wave phenomena that span the quantum to continuum scale with applications that range from condensed matter to acoustics. We validate the theory experimentally for the electromagnetic field at GHz frequencies. We also discuss potential photonic and electronic applications of the theory such as a white-light distributed feedback laser and a two-dimensional electron gas transistor.

  10. Tunable Bloch Wave Resonances and Bloch Gaps in Uniform Materials with Reconfigurable Boundary Profiles.

    PubMed

    Pogrebnyak, Victor A; Furlani, Edward P

    2016-05-20

    We study wave propagation in uniform materials with periodic boundary profiles and introduce for the first time Bloch resonances and Bloch gaps. Bloch resonances are due to transverse phase matching, i.e., the coupling of two transverse standing waves corresponding to different harmonics. These are distinct from well-known Bragg resonances that result from longitudinal phase matching. We show that Bloch gaps can be engineered over the entire first Brillouin zone up to an infinite wavelength, i.e., k_{x}=0, where k_{x} is the wave number in the direction of propagation. This is in contrast to Bragg gaps that open at a fixed wavelength, twice the period of the structure. Bloch resonances and gaps can be tuned by reconfiguring the boundary profile and we derive analytical expressions that predict these phenomena when the amplitude of the profile is small. The theory is fundamental as it broadly applies to wave phenomena that span the quantum to continuum scale with applications that range from condensed matter to acoustics. We validate the theory experimentally for the electromagnetic field at GHz frequencies. We also discuss potential photonic and electronic applications of the theory such as a white-light distributed feedback laser and a two-dimensional electron gas transistor.

  11. Improvement of band gap profile in Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} solar cells through rapid thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D.S.; Yang, J.; Yang, Z.B.; Xu, F.; Du, H.W.; Ma, Z.Q.

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Proper RTA treatment can effectively optimize band gap profile to more expected level. • Inter-diffusion of atoms account for the improvement of the graded band gap profile. • The variation of the band gap profile created an absolute gain in the efficiency by 1.22%. - Abstract: In the paper, the effect of rapid thermal annealing on non-optimal double-graded band gap profiles was investigated by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and capacitance–voltage measurement techniques. Experimental results revealed that proper rapid thermal annealing treatment can effectively improve band gap profile to more optimal level. The annealing treatment could not only reduce the values of front band gap and minimum band gap, but also shift the position of the minimum band gap toward front electrode and enter into space charge region. In addition, the thickness of Cu(InGa)Se{sub 2} thin film decreased by 25 nm after rapid thermal annealing treatment. All of these modifications were attributed to the inter-diffusion of atoms during thermal treatment process. Simultaneously, the variation of the band gap profile created an absolute gain in the efficiency by 1.22%, short-circuit current density by 2.16 mA/cm{sup 2} and filled factor by 3.57%.

  12. 30 CFR 585.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Rue Grants § 585.640 What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)? (a) A GAP describes your proposed... lease or grant. For a ROW grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit your GAP within...

  13. 30 CFR 585.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Rue Grants § 585.640 What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)? (a) A GAP describes your proposed... lease or grant. For a ROW grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit your GAP within...

  14. 30 CFR 285.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 285.640 What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)? (a) A GAP describes your... activities on your lease or grant. For a ROW grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit...

  15. Cortical activity associated with the detection of temporal gaps in tones: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Mitsudo, Takako; Hironaga, Naruhito; Mori, Shuji

    2014-01-01

    We used magnetoencephalogram (MEG) in two experiments to investigate spatio-temporal profiles of brain responses to gaps in tones. Stimuli consisted of leading and trailing markers with gaps between the two markers of 0, 30, or 80 ms. Leading and trailing markers were 300 ms pure tones at 800 or 3200 Hz.Two conditions were examined: the within-frequency (WF) condition in which the leading and trailing markers had identical frequencies, and the between-frequency (BF) condition in which they had different frequencies. Using minimum norm estimates (MNE), we localized the source activations at the time of the peak response to the trailing markers. Results showed that MEG signals in response to 800 and 3200 Hz tones were localized in different regions within the auditory cortex, indicating that the frequency pathways activated by the two markers were spatially represented.The time course of regional activity (RA) was extracted from each localized region for each condition. In Experiment 1, which used a continuous tone for the WF 0-ms stimulus, the N1m amplitude for the trailing marker in the WF condition differed depending on gap duration but not tonal frequency. In contrast, N1m amplitude in BF conditions differed depending on the frequency of the trailing marker. In Experiment 2, in which the 0-ms gap stimulus in the WF condition was made from two markers and included an amplitude reduction in the middle, the amplitude in WF and BF conditions changed depending on frequency, but not gap duration.The difference in temporal characteristics betweenWF and BF conditions could be observed in the RA. PMID:25346672

  16. Traction force dynamics predict gap formation in activated endothelium.

    PubMed

    Valent, Erik T; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P; van Hinsbergh, Victor W M; Hordijk, Peter L

    2016-09-10

    In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, predicts the stimulus-induced formation of intercellular gaps. PMID:27498166

  17. Systematic variations in multi-spectral lidar representations of canopy height profiles and gap probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chasmer, L.; Hopkinson, C.; Gynan, C.; Mahoney, C.; Sitar, M.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne and terrestrial lidar are increasingly used in forest attribute modeling for carbon, ecosystem and resource monitoring. The near infra-red wavelength at 1064nm has been utilised most in airborne applications due to, for example, diode manufacture costs, surface reflectance and eye safety. Foliage reflects well at 1064nm and most of the literature on airborne lidar forest structure is based on data from this wavelength. However, lidar systems also operate at wavelengths further from the visible spectrum (e.g. 1550nm) for eye safety reasons. This corresponds to a water absorption band and can be sensitive to attenuation if surfaces contain moisture. Alternatively, some systems operate in the visible range (e.g. 532nm) for specialised applications requiring simultaneous mapping of terrestrial and bathymetric surfaces. All these wavelengths provide analogous 3D canopy structure reconstructions and thus offer the potential to be combined for spatial comparisons or temporal monitoring. However, a systematic comparison of wavelength-dependent foliage profile and gap probability (index of transmittance) is needed. Here we report on two multispectral lidar missions carried out in 2013 and 2015 over conifer, deciduous and mixed stands in Ontario, Canada. The first used separate lidar sensors acquiring comparable data at three wavelengths, while the second used a single sensor with 3 integrated laser systems. In both cases, wavelenegths sampled were 532nm, 1064nm and 1550nm. The experiment revealed significant differences in proportions of returns at ground level, the vertical foliage distribution and gap probability across wavelengths. Canopy attenuation was greatest at 532nm due to photosynthetic plant tissue absorption. Relative to 1064nm, foliage was systematically undersampled at the 10% to 60% height percentiles at both 1550nm and 532nm (this was confirmed with coincident terrestrial lidar data). When using all returns to calculate gap probability, all

  18. Activities Manual for Florida Language Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Lucie County Public Schools, Ft. Pierce, FL.

    The manual contains suggested activities to develop the language skills assessed by the Florida Language Profile, a screening instrument to help identify young learning disabled children. Three to ten activities are listed for each of the following categories: body parts; right and left; rote counting, naming and identifying numbers, and counting…

  19. Experimental investigation on plasma parameter profiles on a wafer level with reactor gap lengths in an inductively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ju-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook; Kim, Young-Cheol

    2015-07-15

    The gap length effect on plasma parameters is investigated in a planar type inductively coupled plasma at various conditions. The spatial profiles of ion densities and the electron temperatures on the wafer level are measured with a 2D probe array based on the floating harmonic method. At low pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameters rarely changed by various gap lengths, which indicates that nonlocal kinetics are dominant at low pressures. However, at relatively high pressures, the spatial profiles of the plasma parameter changed dramatically. These plasma distribution profile characteristics should be considered for plasma reactor design and processing setup, and can be explained by the diffusion of charged particles and the local kinetics.

  20. The RhoGAP activity of CYK-4/MgcRacGAP functions non-canonically by promoting RhoA activation during cytokinesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Donglei; Glotzer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires activation of the GTPase RhoA. ECT-2, the exchange factor responsible for RhoA activation, is regulated to ensure spatiotemporal control of contractile ring assembly. Centralspindlin, composed of the Rho family GTPase-activating protein (RhoGAP) MgcRacGAP/CYK-4 and the kinesin MKLP1/ZEN-4, is known to activate ECT-2, but the underlying mechanism is not understood. We report that ECT-2-mediated RhoA activation depends on the ability of CYK-4 to localize to the plasma membrane, bind RhoA, and promote GTP hydrolysis by RhoA. Defects resulting from loss of CYK-4 RhoGAP activity can be rescued by activating mutations in ECT-2 or depletion of RGA-3/4, which functions as a conventional RhoGAP for RhoA. Consistent with CYK-4 RhoGAP activity contributing to GEF activation, the catalytic domains of CYK-4 and ECT-2 directly interact. Thus, counterintuitively, CYK-4 RhoGAP activity promotes RhoA activation. We propose that the most active form of the cytokinetic RhoGEF involves complex formation between ECT-2, centralspindlin and RhoA. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08898.001 PMID:26252513

  1. A Stretch of Polybasic Residues Mediates Cdc42 GTPase-activating Protein (CdGAP) Binding to Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-Trisphosphate and Regulates Its GAP Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Karimzadeh, Fereshteh; Primeau, Martin; Mountassif, Driss; Rouiller, Isabelle; Lamarche-Vane, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases are membrane-associated molecular switches involved in the control of a wide range of cellular activities, including cell migration, adhesion, and proliferation. Cdc42 GTPase-activating protein (CdGAP) is a phosphoprotein showing GAP activity toward Rac1 and Cdc42. CdGAP activity is regulated in an adhesion-dependent manner and more recently, we have identified CdGAP as a novel molecular target in signaling and an essential component in the synergistic interaction between TGFβ and Neu/ErbB-2 signaling pathways in breast cancer cells. In this study, we identified a small polybasic region (PBR) preceding the RhoGAP domain that mediates specific binding to negatively charged phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). In vitro reconstitution of membrane vesicles loaded with prenylated Rac1 demonstrates that the PBR is required for full activation of CdGAP in the presence of PI(3,4,5)P3. In fibroblast cells, the expression of CdGAP protein mutants lacking an intact PBR shows a significant reduced ability of the protein mutants to induce cell rounding or to mediate negative effects on cell spreading. Furthermore, an intact PBR is required for CdGAP to inactivate Rac1 signaling into cells, whereas it is not essential in an in vitro context. Altogether, these studies reveal that specific interaction between negatively charged phospholipid PI(3,4,5)P3 and the stretch of polybasic residues preceding the RhoGAP domain regulates CdGAP activity in vivo and is required for its cellular functions. PMID:22518840

  2. The Importance of Physical Activity in Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Laura J.; VanHeest, Jaci L.

    2007-01-01

    The most significant concern within the US educational community is the academic achievement gap. Investigation of the achievement gap reveals that minority students across all levels of education are not meeting the same academic measures as their non-Hispanic White peers. In addition, a disproportionate number of minority children are identified…

  3. Abnormal amygdala activation profile in pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Alexander; Ruf, Matthias; Kief, Christine; Demirakca, Traute; Bailer, Josef; Ende, Gabriele; Henn, Fritz A; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Dressing, Harald

    2008-08-01

    Despite considerable public interest research in neurobiological correlates of pedophilia is scarce. Since amygdala activation is central for emotional valuation, arousal, and salience, we investigated the activation profile of this structure in 10 male subjects with pedophilia (exclusively attracted to boys), all convicted sex-offenders and sentenced to forensic psychiatric treatment along with ten male heterosexual matched controls. We used a sexually non-explicit functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) paradigm with images of men, women, boys or girls randomly embedded in neutral target/non-target geometrical symbols. We applied statistical parametric mapping (SPM2) and SPSS 14 for image processing and analysis. While controls activated significantly less to pictures of children compared to adults, the activation profile was reversed in subjects with pedophilia, who exhibited significantly more activation to children than adults. The highest activation was observed for boys in the patient group, and for women in control participants. Our data show enhanced activation to children's pictures even in an incidental context and suggest the provocative hypothesis that a normally present mechanism for reduced emotional arousal for children relative to adults is reversed in pedophilia, suggesting a neural substrate associated with deviant sexual preference in this condition. More extensive research in this field would be of benefit for both the victims and the offenders.

  4. Effects of microgravity on liposome-reconstituted cardiac gap junction channeling activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claassen, D. E.; Spooner, B. S.

    1989-01-01

    Effects of microgravity on cardiac gap junction channeling activity were investigated aboard NASA zero-gravity aircraft. Liposome-reconstituted gap junctions were assayed for channel function during free-fall, and the data were compared with channeling at 1 g. Control experiments tested for 0 g effects on the structural stability of liposomes, and on the enzyme-substrate signalling system of the assay. The results demonstrate that short periods of microgravity do not perturb reconstituted cardiac gap junction channeling activity.

  5. Concentration profiles near an activated enzyme.

    PubMed

    Park, Soohyung; Agmon, Noam

    2008-09-25

    When a resting enzyme is activated, substrate concentration profile evolves in its vicinity, ultimately tending to steady state. We use modern theories for many-body effects on diffusion-influenced reactions to derive approximate analytical expressions for the steady-state profile and the Laplace transform of the transient concentration profiles. These show excellent agreement with accurate many-particle Brownian-dynamics simulations for the Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The steady-state profile has a hyperbolic dependence on the distance of the substrate from the enzyme, albeit with a prefactor containing the complexity of the many-body effects. These are most conspicuous for the substrate concentration at the surface of the enzyme. It shows an interesting transition as a function of the enzyme turnover rate. When it is high, the contact concentration decays monotonically to steady state. However, for slow turnover it is nonmonotonic, showing a minimum due to reversible substrate binding, then a maximum due to diffusion of new substrate toward the enzyme, and finally decay to steady state. Under certain conditions one can obtain a good estimate for the critical value of the turnover rate constant at the transition.

  6. Line profile asymmetries in chromospherically active stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Robert C.; Bopp, Bernard W.; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Granados, Arno F.; Henry, Gregory W.; Hall, Douglas S.

    1992-01-01

    A powerful, new probe of chromospheric activity, cross-correlation, has been developed and applied to a variety of stars. In this particular application, an entire CCD spectrum of an active star is correlated with the spectrum of a narrow-line, inactive star of similar spectral type and luminosity class. Using a number of strong lines in this manner enables the detection of absorption profile asymmetries at moderate resolution (lambda/Delta lambda about 40,000) and S/N 150:1. This technique has been applied to 14 systems mostly RS CVn's, with 10 not greater than nu sin i not greater than 50 km/s and P not less than 7 d. Distortions were detected for the first time in five systems: Sigma Gem, IM Peg, GX Lib, UV Crb, and Zeta And. Detailed modeling, incorporating both spectral line profiles and broad-band photometry, is applied to Sigma Gem. Profile asymmetries for this star are fitted by two high-latitude spots covering 5 percent of the stellar surface. The derived spot temperature of 3400 K is lower than found in previous studies. In addition, two well-known systems have been studied: HD 199178 and V711 Tau. Polar spots are found on both.

  7. 30 CFR 285.652 - How long do I have to conduct activities under an approved GAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... an approved GAP? 285.652 Section 285.652 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... SHELF Plans and Information Requirements Activities Under An Approved Gap § 285.652 How long do I have to conduct activities under an approved GAP? After MMS approves your GAP, you have: (a) For a...

  8. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment.

  9. Molecular profiling--a tool for addressing emerging gaps in the comparative risk assessment of GMOs.

    PubMed

    Heinemann, Jack A; Kurenbach, Brigitta; Quist, David

    2011-10-01

    Assessing the risks of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) is required by both international agreement and domestic legislation. Many view the use of the "omics" tools for profiling classes of molecules as useful in risk assessment, but no consensus has formed on the need or value of these techniques for assessing the risks of all GMOs. In this and many other cases, experts support case-by-case use of molecular profiling techniques for risk assessment. We review the latest research on the applicability and usefulness of molecular profiling techniques for GMO risk assessment. As more and more kinds of GMOs and traits are developed, broader use of molecular profiling in a risk assessment may be required to supplement the comparative approach to risk assessment. The literature-based discussions on the use of profiling appear to have settled on two findings: 1. profiling techniques are reliable and relevant, at least no less so than other techniques used in risk assessment; and 2. although not required routinely, regulators should be aware of when they are needed. The dismissal of routine molecular profiling may be confusing to regulators who then lack guidance on when molecular profiling might be worthwhile. Molecular profiling is an important way to increase confidence in risk assessments if the profiles are properly designed to address relevant risks and are applied at the correct stage of the assessment. PMID:21624662

  10. Functionally Active Gap Junctions between Connexin 43-Positive Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Glioma Cells.

    PubMed

    Gabashvili, A N; Baklaushev, V P; Grinenko, N F; Levinskii, A B; Mel'nikov, P A; Cherepanov, S A; Chekhonin, V P

    2015-05-01

    The formation of functional gap junctions between mesenchymal stem cells and cells of low-grade rat glioma C6 cells was studied in in vitro experiments. Immunocytochemical analysis with antibodies to connexin 43 extracellular loop 2 showed that mesenchymal stem cells as well as C6 glioma cells express the main astroglial gap junction protein connexin 43. Analysis of migration activity showed that mesenchymal stem cells actively migrate towards C6 glioma cells. During co-culturing, mesenchymal stem cells and glioma C6 form functionally active gap junctions mediating the transport of cytoplasmic dye from glioma cells to mesenchymal stem cells in the opposite direction. Fluorometry showed that the intensity of transport of low-molecular substances through heterologous gap junctions between mesenchymal stem cells and glioma cells is similar to that through homologous gap junctions between glioma cells. This phenomenon can be used for the development of new methods of cell therapy of high-grade gliomas.

  11. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Microbes

    SciTech Connect

    Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-02-01

    Activity-Based Protein Profiling (ABPP) in conjunction with multimodal characterization techniques has yielded impactful findings in microbiology, particularly in pathogen, bioenergy, drug discovery, and environmental research. Using small molecule chemical probes that react irreversibly with specific proteins or protein families in complex systems has provided insights in enzyme functions in central metabolic pathways, drug-protein interactions, and regulatory protein redox, for systems ranging from photoautotrophic cyanobacteria to mycobacteria, and combining live cell or cell extract ABPP with proteomics, molecular biology, modeling, and other techniques has greatly expanded our understanding of these systems. New opportunities for application of ABPP to microbial systems include: enhancing protein annotation, characterizing protein activities in myriad environments, and reveal signal transduction and regulatory mechanisms in microbial systems.

  12. Mapping forest height, foliage height profiles and disturbance characteristics with time series of gap-filled Landsat and ALI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmer, E.; Ruzycki, T. S.; Wunderle, J. M.; Kwit, C.; Ewert, D. N.; Voggesser, S. M.; Brandeis, T. J.

    2011-12-01

    We mapped tropical dry forest height (RMSE = 0.9 m, R2 = 0.84, range 0.6-7 m) and foliage height profiles with a time series of gap-filled Landsat and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery for the island of Eleuthera, The Bahamas. We also mapped disturbance type and age with decision tree classification of the image time series. Having mapped these variables in the context of studies of wintering habitat of an endangered Nearctic-Neotropical migrant bird, the Kirtland's Warbler (Dendroica kirtlandii), we then illustrated relationships between forest vertical structure, disturbance type and counts of forage species important to the Kirtland's Warbler. The ALI imagery and the Landsat time series were both critical to the result for forest height, which the strong relationship of forest height with disturbance type and age facilitated. Also unique to this study was that seven of the eight image time steps were cloud-gap-filled images: mosaics of the clear parts of several cloudy scenes, in which cloud gaps in a reference scene for each time step are filled with image data from alternate scenes. We created each cloud-cleared image, including a virtually seamless ALI image mosaic, with regression tree normalization of the image data that filled cloud gaps. We also illustrated how viewing time series imagery as red-green-blue composites of tasseled cap wetness (RGB wetness composites) aids reference data collection for classifying tropical forest disturbance type and age.

  13. 30 CFR 285.640 - What is a General Activities Plan (GAP)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements General Activities Plan Requirements for Limited Leases, Row Grants, and Rue Grants § 285.640 What... grant or RUE grant issued competitively, you must submit your GAP within 6 months of issuance....

  14. Age- and sex-related differences for electromyography gaps during daily activity and a discrete task.

    PubMed

    Harwood, B; Edwards, D L; Jakobi, J M

    2011-05-01

    Temporal patterns of quiescent electromyography termed 'gaps' were investigated in young and old men and women for a discrete task and daily activity. Gaps in women (1.3±3.2) and old adults (1.5±3.4) were fewer compared with men (4.7±6.7) and young adults (4.6±6.9) for the discrete task (p<0.001). Gap duration was shorter for women (0.1±0.2s) and old adults (0.1±0.3s) compared with men (0.2±0.3s) and young adults (0.2±0.2s) (p<0.01). For daily activity, gap number was similar with age, but gap duration and percentage of total time occupied by gaps were less in old compared with young adults (50%), and in women compared with men (43%) (p<0.001). Results suggest gap activity is sensitive to type and duration of activity and that old adults and women demonstrate less quiescent electromyography than young adults and men.

  15. Physical Activity and the Achievement Gap among Urban Minority Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basch, Charles E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To outline the prevalence and disparities of physical activity among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which low levels of physical activity and fitness adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase physical activity and physical fitness among youth. Methods:…

  16. Activated immune response in an inherited leukodystrophy disease caused by the loss of oligodendrocyte gap junctions.

    PubMed

    Wasseff, Sameh K; Scherer, Steven S

    2015-10-01

    Oligodendrocyte:oligodendrocyte (O:O) gap junction (GJ) coupling is a widespread and essential feature of the CNS, and is mediated by connexin47 (Cx47) and Cx32. Loss of function mutations affecting Cx47 results in a severe leukodystrophy, Pelizeus-Merzbacher-like disease (also known as Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy 2), which can be reproduced in mice lacking both Cx47 and Cx32. Here we report the gene expression profile of the cerebellum--an affected brain region--in mice lacking both Cx47 and Cx32. Of the 43,174 mRNA probes examined, we find decreased expression of 23 probes (corresponding to 23 genes) and increased expression of 545 probes (corresponding to 348 genes). Many of the genes with reduced expression map to oligodendrocytes, and two of them (Fa2h and Ugt8a) are involved in the synthesis of myelin lipids. Many of the genes with increased expression map to lymphocytes and microglia, and involved in leukotrienes/prostaglandins synthesis and chemokines/cytokines interactions and signaling pathways. In accord, immunostaining showed T- and B-cells in the cerebella of mutant mice as well as activated microglia and astrocytes. Thus, in addition to the loss of GJ coupling, there is a prominent immune response in mice lacking both Cx47 and Cx32.

  17. Activated Immune Response in an Inherited Leukodystrophy Disease Caused by the Loss of Oligodendrocyte Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Wasseff, Sameh K.; Scherer, Steven S.

    2015-01-01

    Oligodendrocyte:oligodendrocyte (O:O) gap junction (GJ) coupling is a widespread and essential feature of the CNS, and is mediated by connexin47 (Cx47) and Cx32. Loss of function mutations affecting Cx47 results in a severe leukodystrophy, Pelizeus-Merzbacher-like disease (also known as Hypomyelinating Leukodystrophy 2), which can be reproduced in mice lacking both Cx47 and Cx32. Here we report the gene expression profile of the cerebellum – an affected brain region – in mice lacking both Cx47 and Cx32. Of the 43,174 mRNA probes examined, we find decreased expression of 23 probes (corresponding to 23 genes) and increased expression of 545 probes (corresponding to 348 genes). Many of the genes with reduced expression map to oligodendrocytes, and two of them (Fa2h and Ugt8a) are involved in the synthesis of myelin lipids. Many of the genes with increased expression map to microglia and lymphocytes, and to leukotriene/prostaglandin synthesis and chemokine/cytokine pathways. In accord, immunostaining showed activated microglia and astrocytes, as well as T- and B-cells in the cerebella of mutant mice. Thus, in addition to the loss of GJ coupling, there is a prominent immune response in mice lacking both Cx47 and Cx32. PMID:26051537

  18. SU-E-T-232: Micro Diamonds - Determination of Their Lateral Response Function Via Gap-Beam Dose Profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Poppinga, D; Looe, H; Chofor, N; Schoenfeld, A; Fischer, J; Meyners, J; Delfs, B; Stelljes, T; Poppe, B; Verona, C; Verona-Rinati, G; Marinelli, M; Harder, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is the measurement of the lateral response function of microDiamonds by comparison with radiochromic film dose measurement. In this study a TM60019 microDiamond (PTW Freiburg, Germany) and a prototype synthetic diamond detector with smaller sensitive volume were investigated. Methods: Two lead blocks were positioned below the gantry head of an Elekta Synergy accelerator using a gantry mount. Between the blocks two sheets of paper were fixed. The water phantom was positioned below the gantry mount, so that the block to water distance was 20 cm. The gap beam profile was measured at 5 cm water depth by radiochromic EBT3 film and diamond detectors. The film was fixed on a RW3 plate, moved by the step motor system of the phantom and digitized by an Epson 10000XL scanner using the red color channel. Results: The lateral response of the prototype diamond detector is comparable to that of film measurements, i.e. has negligible width. This corresponds to the small detector volume of the prototype detector. In contrast to this the FWHM values of the gap-beam dose profiles measured with the TM60019 detector are somewhat larger, which corresponds to the larger sensitive detector volume. Conclusion: This study has illustrated the high spatial resolution of the diamond detectors. In comparison with filmmeasured narrow-beam dose profiles, the TM60019 has a spatial resolution function of about 2 mm FWHM, whereas the FWHM for the prototype is practically negligible. However due to the low signal caused by the small sensitive volume, measurements with the prototype in clinical routine are a challenge. On the other hand the TM60019 is a good compromise between detector volume and signal output and thus a well suited detector for most clinically relevant small field situations.

  19. Mind the gap: the minimal detectable separation distance between two objects during active electrolocation.

    PubMed

    Fechler, K; Holtkamp, D; Neusel, G; Sanguinetti-Scheck, J I; Budelli, R; von der Emde, G

    2012-12-01

    In a food-rewarded two-alternative forced-choice procedure, it was determined how well the weakly electric elephantnose fish Gnathonemus petersii can sense gaps between two objects, some of which were placed in front of complex backgrounds. The results show that at close distances, G. petersii is able to detect gaps between two small metal cubes (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm) down to a width of c. 1·5 mm. When larger objects (3 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm) were used, gaps with a width of 2-3 mm could still be detected. Discrimination performance was better (c. 1 mm gap size) when the objects were placed in front of a moving background consisting of plastic stripes or plant leaves, indicating that movement in the environment plays an important role for object identification. In addition, the smallest gap size that could be detected at increasing distances was determined. A linear relationship between object distance and gap size existed. Minimal detectable gap sizes increased from c. 1·5 mm at a distance of 1 cm, to 20 mm at a distance of 7 cm. Measurements and simulations of the electric stimuli occurring during gap detection revealed that the electric images of two close objects influence each other and superimpose. A large gap of 20 mm between two objects induced two clearly separated peaks in the electric image, while a 2 mm gap caused just a slight indentation in the image. Therefore, the fusion of electric images limits spatial resolution during active electrolocation. Relative movements either between the fish and the objects or between object and background might improve spatial resolution by accentuating the fine details of the electric images. PMID:23252738

  20. Unequal on top: Gender profiling and the income gap among high earner male and female professionals.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Jennifer; Dobrev, Stanislav D

    2015-09-01

    We develop a comprehensive, multi-level model of income inequality between high earner men and women during the early career stages. We argue that young women are routinely subjected to "gender profiling" by employers-women's potential contribution to the organization is interpreted through the lens of social stereotypes and cultural norms that attribute to them weaker labor market commitment than men. We investigate two specific mechanisms that arise from this profiling and lead to income inequality: First, women have diminished access to resources and advancement opportunities within the firm which results in lower returns to tenure for women than for men. Second, external mobility is greatly beneficial for men but much less so for women because it reinforces the image of weak commitment. Salary regressions of early career history data of young MBA alumni of a prestigious U.S. business school accord with our conjectures. PMID:26188437

  1. Geomorphology, active duplexing, and earthquakes within the Central Himalayan seismic gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, K. D.; Sandiford, M.; Rajendran, C. C.; Rajendran, K.

    2013-12-01

    The ~500 km long 'Central Himalayan seismic gap' of northwest India, is the largest section of the Himalaya that has not experienced a very large earthquake (Mw > 7.0) in the past 200-500 years. The slip deficit associated with this seismic quiescence has led many to suggest that the region is overdue for a great earthquake (Mw >8), an event which could be potentially devastating given the region's high population (>10 million). Despite the recognition that the region is under considerable seismic risk, the geometry of active fault structures that could potentially fail during large earthquakes remains poorly defined. This has arisen, to a certain extent, because moderate earthquakes, such as the Mw 6.3 1999 event near the city of Chamoli and the Mw 7.0 1991 earthquake near Uttarkashi (responsible for ~1000 deaths), have not produced obvious surface ruptures and do not appear to coincide with surficially mapped faults. We present new geomorphic and river longitudinal profile data that define a prominent ~400 km long distinctive geomorphic transition at the base of the high Himalaya in the seismic gap, defined as a sharp dividing line north of which there are significant increases in normalized river steepness (ksn), hillslope angles, and local relief. We interpret the morphologic changes across the geomorphic boundary to be produced due to a northward increase in rock uplift rate, given that the boundary cross-cuts mapped structures and lithologic contacts, yet coincides exactly with: 1) the axial trace of the geophysically-imaged ramp-flat transition in the Main Himalayan Thrust, 2) significant northward increases in instrumentally-recorded seismicity, and 3) an order of magnitude change in published Ar-Ar bedrock cooling ages. The available datasets suggest that such an increase in rock uplift rate is best explained by a ~400 km long by ~50 km wide active duplex along the Main Himalayan Thrust ramp, with the leading edge of the duplex giving rise to the

  2. EMF Monitoring—Concepts, Activities, Gaps and Options

    PubMed Central

    Dürrenberger, Gregor; Fröhlich, Jürg; Röösli, Martin; Mattsson, Mats-Olof

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) is a cause of concern for many people. The topic will likely remain for the foreseeable future on the scientific and political agenda, since emissions continue to change in characteristics and levels due to new infrastructure deployments, smart environments and novel wireless devices. Until now, systematic and coordinated efforts to monitor EMF exposure are rare. Furthermore, virtually nothing is known about personal exposure levels. This lack of knowledge is detrimental for any evidence-based risk, exposure and health policy, management and communication. The main objective of the paper is to review the current state of EMF exposure monitoring activities in Europe, to comment on the scientific challenges and deficiencies, and to describe appropriate strategies and tools for EMF exposure assessment and monitoring to be used to support epidemiological health research and to help policy makers, administrators, industry and consumer representatives to base their decisions and communication activities on facts and data. PMID:25216256

  3. Low profile, highly configurable, current sharing paralleled wide band gap power device power module

    DOEpatents

    McPherson, Brice; Killeen, Peter D.; Lostetter, Alex; Shaw, Robert; Passmore, Brandon; Hornberger, Jared; Berry, Tony M

    2016-08-23

    A power module with multiple equalized parallel power paths supporting multiple parallel bare die power devices constructed with low inductance equalized current paths for even current sharing and clean switching events. Wide low profile power contacts provide low inductance, short current paths, and large conductor cross section area provides for massive current carrying. An internal gate & source kelvin interconnection substrate is provided with individual ballast resistors and simple bolted construction. Gate drive connectors are provided on either left or right size of the module. The module is configurable as half bridge, full bridge, common source, and common drain topologies.

  4. cDNA cloning and chromosomal mapping of a novel human GAP (GAP1M), GTPase-activating protein of Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Shaowei; Nakamura, Shun; Hattori, Seisuke

    1996-08-01

    We have previously isolated a novel Ras GTPase-activating protein (Ras GAP), Gapl{sup m}, from rat brain. Gap1{sup m} is considered to be a negative regulator of the Ras signaling pathways, like other Ras GAPs, neurofibromin, which is a gene product of the neurofibromatosis type I gene, and p120GAP. In this study we have isolated a human cDNA of this Gap and mapped the gene. The gene encodes a protein of 853 amino acids that shows 89% sequence identity to rat Gapl{sup m}. The human gene was mapped to chromosome 3 by PCR analysis on a panel of human-mouse hybrid cells. FISH analysis refined the location of the gene further to 3q22-q23. 11 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Fleming, P.; Zhang, Y. C.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Scholbrook, A.; Aho, J.; Buckspan, A.; Pao, L.; Singhvi, V.; Tuohy, A.; Pourbeik, P.; Brooks, D.; Bhatt, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a comprehensive study undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, and the University of Colorado to understand how the contribution of wind power providing active power control (APC) can benefit the total power system economics, increase revenue streams, improve the reliability and security of the power system, and provide superior and efficient response while reducing any structural and loading impacts that may reduce the life of the wind turbine or its components. The study includes power system simulations, control simulations, and actual field tests using turbines at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The study focuses on synthetic inertial control, primary frequency control, and automatic generation control, and analyzes timeframes ranging from milliseconds to minutes to the lifetime of wind turbines, locational scope ranging from components of turbines to large wind plants to entire synchronous interconnections, and additional topics ranging from economics to power system engineering to control design.

  6. Luminous and Dark Matter Profiles from Galaxies to Clusters: Bridging the Gap with Group-scale Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, Andrew B.; Ellis, Richard S.; Treu, Tommaso

    2015-11-01

    Observations of strong gravitational lensing, stellar kinematics, and larger-scale tracers enable accurate measures of the distribution of dark matter (DM) and baryons in massive early-type galaxies (ETGs). While such techniques have been applied to galaxy-scale and cluster-scale lenses, the paucity of intermediate-mass systems with high-quality data has precluded a uniform analysis of mass-dependent trends. With the aim of bridging this gap, we present new observations and analyses of 10 group-scale lenses at < z> =0.36, characterized by Einstein radii {θ }{{Ein}}=2\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5-5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1 and a mean halo mass of {M}200={10}14.0 {M}⊙ . We measure a mean concentration c200 = 5.0 ± 0.8 consistent with unmodified cold dark matter halos. By combining our data with other lens samples, we analyze the mass structure of ETGs in 1013 {M}⊙ -1015 {M}⊙ halos using homogeneous techniques. We show that the slope of the total density profile γtot within the effective radius depends on the stellar surface density, as demonstrated previously, but also on the halo mass. We analyze these trends using halo occupation models and resolved stellar kinematics with the goal of testing the universality of the DM profile. Whereas the central galaxies of clusters require a shallow inner DM density profile, group-scale lenses are consistent with a Navarro-Frenk-White profile or one that is slightly contracted. The largest uncertainties arise from the sample size and likely radial gradients in stellar populations. We conclude that the net effect of baryons on the DM distribution may not be universal, but more likely varies with halo mass due to underlying trends in star formation efficiency and assembly history.

  7. Probing the GTPase cycle with real-time NMR: GAP and GEF activities in cell extracts.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher B; Meiri, David; Smith, Matthew J; Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T; Gasmi-Seabrook, Geneviève M C; Rottapel, Robert; Stambolic, Vuk; Ikura, Mitsuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The Ras superfamily of small GTPases is a large family of switch-like proteins that control diverse cellular functions, and their deregulation is associated with multiple disease processes. When bound to GTP they adopt a conformation that interacts with effector proteins, whereas the GDP-bound state is generally biologically inactive. GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) promote hydrolysis of GTP, thus impeding the biological activity of GTPases, whereas guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) promote exchange of GDP for GTP and activate GTPase proteins. A number of methods have been developed to assay GTPase nucleotide hydrolysis and exchange, as well as the activity of GAPs and GEFs. The kinetics of these reactions are often studied with purified proteins and fluorescent nucleotide analogs, which have been shown to non-specifically impact hydrolysis and exchange. Most GAPs and GEFs are large multidomain proteins subject to complex regulation that is challenging to reconstitute in vitro. In cells, the activities of full-length GAPs or GEFs are typically assayed indirectly on the basis of nucleotide loading of the cognate GTPase, or by exploiting their interaction with effector proteins. Here, we describe a recently developed real-time NMR method to assay kinetics of nucleotide exchange and hydrolysis reactions by direct monitoring of nucleotide-dependent structural changes in an isotopically labeled GTPase. The unambiguous readout of this method makes it possible to precisely measure GAP and GEF activities from extracts of mammalian cells, enabling studies of their catalytic and regulatory mechanisms. We present examples of NMR-based assays of full-length GAPs and GEFs overexpressed in mammalian cells.

  8. Tum/RacGAP functions as a switch activating the Pav/kinesin-6 motor.

    PubMed

    Tao, Li; Fasulo, Barbara; Warecki, Brandt; Sullivan, William

    2016-01-01

    Centralspindlin is essential for central spindle and cleavage furrow formation. Drosophila centralspindlin consists of a kinesin-6 motor (Pav/kinesin-6) and a GTPase-activating protein (Tum/RacGAP). Centralspindlin localization to the central spindle is mediated by Pav/kinesin-6. While Tum/RacGAP has well-documented scaffolding functions, whether it influences Pav/kinesin-6 function is less well-explored. Here we demonstrate that both Pav/kinesin-6 and the centralspindlin complex (co-expressed Pav/Tum) have strong microtubule bundling activity. Centralspindlin also has robust plus-end-directed motility. In contrast, Pav/kinesin-6 alone cannot move microtubules. However, the addition of Tum/RacGAP or a 65 amino acid Tum/RacGAP fragment to Pav/kinesin-6 restores microtubule motility. Further, ATPase assays reveal that microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity of centralspindlin is seven times higher than that of Pav/kinesin-6. These findings are supported by in vivo studies demonstrating that in Tum/RacGAP-depleted S2 Drosophila cells, Pav/kinesin-6 exhibits severely reduced localization to the central spindle and an abnormal concentration at the centrosomes. PMID:27091402

  9. Tum/RacGAP functions as a switch activating the Pav/kinesin-6 motor

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Li; Fasulo, Barbara; Warecki, Brandt; Sullivan, William

    2016-01-01

    Centralspindlin is essential for central spindle and cleavage furrow formation. Drosophila centralspindlin consists of a kinesin-6 motor (Pav/kinesin-6) and a GTPase-activating protein (Tum/RacGAP). Centralspindlin localization to the central spindle is mediated by Pav/kinesin-6. While Tum/RacGAP has well-documented scaffolding functions, whether it influences Pav/kinesin-6 function is less well-explored. Here we demonstrate that both Pav/kinesin-6 and the centralspindlin complex (co-expressed Pav/Tum) have strong microtubule bundling activity. Centralspindlin also has robust plus-end-directed motility. In contrast, Pav/kinesin-6 alone cannot move microtubules. However, the addition of Tum/RacGAP or a 65 amino acid Tum/RacGAP fragment to Pav/kinesin-6 restores microtubule motility. Further, ATPase assays reveal that microtubule-stimulated ATPase activity of centralspindlin is seven times higher than that of Pav/kinesin-6. These findings are supported by in vivo studies demonstrating that in Tum/RacGAP-depleted S2 Drosophila cells, Pav/kinesin-6 exhibits severely reduced localization to the central spindle and an abnormal concentration at the centrosomes. PMID:27091402

  10. Reference ranges of electrolyte and anion gap on the Beckman E4A, Beckman Synchron CX5, Nova CRT, and Nova Stat Profile Ultra.

    PubMed

    Lolekha, P H; Vanavanan, S; Teerakarnjana, N; Chaichanajarernkul, U

    2001-05-01

    The widespread use of ion-selective electrode causes the reference range of the anion gap (AG) to be lowered from 8-16 to 3-11 mmol/l. The use of the outdated reference range (8-16 mmol/l) leads to the misinterpretation of the value of the anion gap. To interpret the anion gap accurately, one must use an analyzer-specific reference range. This study established the reference ranges of the electrolyte and anion gap in four ion-selective electrode analyzers. We collected clotted and lithium-heparinized blood from 124 healthy volunteers. We determined the electrolyte in the Beckman E4A (serum), Beckman Synchron CX5 (serum), and Nova CRT (serum and plasma). The anion gap was calculated from the formula: [Na(+)-(Cl(-)+HCO3(-))]. Blood sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were determined using the Nova Stat Profile Ultra. We used the plasma chloride from the Nova CRT to calculate the value of the anion gap in the Nova Stat Profile Ultra. We established the reference ranges using the non-parametric percentile estimation method. Accuracy and precision of the electrolyte performances obtained from all analyzers were acceptable. Reference values of serum and plasma sodium, potassium, and chloride were similar in all analyzers. The value of blood sodium obtained from the Nova Stat Profile Ultra was slightly higher than the values for the serum and plasma sodium obtained from the other analyzers. The bicarbonate ranges obtained from the Nova analyzers were higher than the values obtained from the Beckman analyzers. For the anion gap, the reference ranges in this study were low but similar to other studies (3-11 mmol/l) using ion-selective electrode. However, our reference ranges were lower than the previous reference ranges obtained from the continuous-flow analyzer (8-16 or 9-18 mmol/l) incorporated with flame photometry and colorimetry techniques. PMID:11369341

  11. A Novel 96well-formatted Micro-gap Plate Enabling Drug Response Profiling on Primary Tumour Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei-Yuan; Hsiung, Lo-Chang; Wang, Chen-Ho; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Lin, Ching-Hung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Wo, Andrew M.

    2015-04-01

    Drug-based treatments are the most widely used interventions for cancer management. Personalized drug response profiling remains inherently challenging with low cell count harvested from tumour sample. We present a 96well-formatted microfluidic plate with built-in micro-gap that preserves up to 99.2% of cells during multiple assay/wash operation and only 9,000 cells needed for a single reagent test (i.e. 1,000 cells per test spot x 3 selected concentration x triplication), enabling drug screening and compatibility with conventional automated workstations. Results with MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines showed that no statistical significance was found in dose-response between the device and conventional 96-well plate control. Primary tumour samples from breast cancer patients tested in the device also showed good IC50 prediction. With drug screening of primary cancer cells must consider a wide range of scenarios, e.g. suspended/attached cell types and rare/abundant cell availability, the device enables high throughput screening even for suspended cells with low cell count since the signature microfluidic cell-trapping feature ensures cell preservation in a multiple solution exchange protocol.

  12. Abstinence from cocaine-self-administration activates the nELAV/GAP -43 pathway in the hippocampus: A stress-related effect?

    PubMed

    Pascale, Alessia; Osera, Cecilia; Moro, Federico; Di Clemente, Angelo; Giannotti, Giuseppe; Caffino, Lucia; Govoni, Stefano; Fumagalli, Fabio; Cervo, Luigi

    2016-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that nELAV/GAP-43 pathway is pivotal for learning and its hippocampal expression is up-regulated by acute stress following repeated cocaine administration. We therefore hypothesized that abstinence-induced stress may sustain nELAV/GAP-43 pathway during early abstinence following 2 weeks of cocaine self-administration. We found that contingent, but not non-contingent, cocaine exposure selectively increases hippocampal nELAV, but not GAP-43, expression immediately after the last self-administration session, an effect that wanes after 24 h and that comes back 7 days later when nELAV activation becomes associated with increased expression of GAP-43, an effect again observed only in animals self-administering the psychostimulant. Such effect is specific for nELAV since the ubiquitous ELAV/HuR is unchanged. This nELAV profile suggests that its initial transient alteration is perhaps related to the daily administration of cocaine, while the increase in the nELAV/GAP-43 pathway following a week of abstinence may reflect the activation of this cascade as a target of stressful conditions associated with drug-related memories. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26850084

  13. Dual-function sRNA encoded peptide SR1P modulates moonlighting activity of B. subtilis GapA

    PubMed Central

    Gimpel, Matthias; Brantl, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT SR1 is a dual-function sRNA from B. subtilis that acts as a base-pairing regulatory RNA and as a peptide-encoding mRNA. Both functions of SR1 are highly conserved. Previously, we uncovered that the SR1 encoded peptide SR1P binds the glycolytic enzyme GapA resulting in stabilization of gapA mRNA. Here, we demonstrate that GapA interacts with RNases Y and J1, and this interaction was RNA-independent. About 1% of GapA molecules purified from B. subtilis carry RNase J1 and about 2% RNase Y. In contrast to the GapA/RNase Y interaction, the GapA/RNaseJ1 interaction was stronger in the presence of SR1P. GapA/SR1P-J1/Y displayed in vitro RNase activity on known RNase J1 substrates. Moreover, the RNase J1 substrate SR5 has altered half-lives in a ΔgapA strain and a Δsr1 strain, suggesting in vivo functions of the GapA/SR1P/J1 interaction. Our results demonstrate that the metabolic enzyme GapA moonlights in recruiting RNases while GapA bound SR1P promotes binding of RNase J1 and enhances its activity. PMID:27449348

  14. Exploring the Gap for Effective Extension of Professional Active Life in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Will; Afsarmanesh, Hamideh; Msanjila, Simon S.; Playfoot, Jim

    Extending Professional Active Life (ePAL [2]) of elder people in Europe is affected by a number of factors in the market and society, which have the potential to either positively and negatively influence it. Current practices indicate that the European society, while started to act on this subject, is still slow to recognize the rationale behind and importance of fully supporting the extension of active professional life of seniors. Similarly, the capacity of the service sector to fully support the involvement of seniors in economical activities is at present limited, given the huge number of these seniors in different countries who need to be mobilized. This paper seeks to highlight the identified gaps related to effective mechanisms by which Europe can support its willing senior professionals to remain active. The study on gap identification addresses relevant technological, social, and organizational factors and external influences which have the potential to impact successful future life of elderly population. It also presents the methodology that is applied in our study to identify and analyze the gaps between the current practices in this area, the so-called baseline [2], and the desired future for this area as inspired in the ePAL vision [1] addressed in other research.

  15. Mathematical modeling of gap junction coupling and electrical activity in human β-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loppini, Alessandro; Braun, Matthias; Filippi, Simonetta; Gram Pedersen, Morten

    2015-12-01

    Coordinated insulin secretion is controlled by electrical coupling of pancreatic β-cells due to connexin-36 gap junctions. Gap junction coupling not only synchronizes the heterogeneous β-cell population, but can also modify the electrical behavior of the cells. These phenomena have been widely studied with mathematical models based on data from mouse β-cells. However, it is now known that human β-cell electrophysiology shows important differences to its rodent counterpart, and although human pancreatic islets express connexin-36 and show evidence of β-cell coupling, these aspects have been little investigated in human β-cells. Here we investigate theoretically, the gap junction coupling strength required for synchronizing electrical activity in a small cluster of cells simulated with a recent mathematical model of human β-cell electrophysiology. We find a lower limit for the coupling strength of approximately 20 pS (i.e., normalized to cell size, ˜2 pS pF-1) below which spiking electrical activity is asynchronous. To confront this theoretical lower bound with data, we use our model to estimate from an experimental patch clamp recording that the coupling strength is approximately 100-200 pS (10-20 pS pF-1), similar to previous estimates in mouse β-cells. We then investigate the role of gap junction coupling in synchronizing and modifying other forms of electrical activity in human β-cell clusters. We find that electrical coupling can prolong the period of rapid bursting electrical activity, and synchronize metabolically driven slow bursting, in particular when the metabolic oscillators are in phase. Our results show that realistic coupling conductances are sufficient to promote synchrony in small clusters of human β-cells as observed experimentally, and provide motivation for further detailed studies of electrical coupling in human pancreatic islets.

  16. Comparison of Metalloproteinase Protein and Activity Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Giricz, Orsi; Lauer, Janelle L.; Fields, Gregg B.

    2010-01-01

    Proteolytic enzymes play fundamental roles in many biological processes. Members of the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family have been shown to take part in processes crucial in disease progression. The present study used the ExcelArray Human MMP/TIMP Array to quantify MMP and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) production in the lysates and media of 14 cancer and one normal cell line. The overall patterns were very similar in terms of which MMPs and TIMPs were secreted in the media versus associated with the cells in the individual samples. However, more MMP was found in the media, both in amount and in variety. TIMP-1 was produced in all cell lines. MMP activity assays with three different FRET substrates were then utilized to determine if protein production correlated with function for the WM-266-4 and BJ cell lines. Metalloproteinase activity was observed for both cell lines with a general MMP substrate (Knight SSP), consistent with protein production data. However, although both cell lines promoted the hydrolysis of a more selective MMP substrate (NFF-3), metalloproteinase activity was only confirmed in the BJ cell line. The use of inhibitors to confirm metalloproteinase activities pointed to the strengths and weaknesses of in situ FRET substrate assays. PMID:20920458

  17. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  18. A Profile of Latino School-Based Extracurricular Activity Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peguero, Anthony A.

    2010-01-01

    Participation in school-based extracurricular activities influences educational success. Thus, it is important to depict a profile of school-based extracurricular activity involvement for a Latino student population that is marginalized in schools. This research uses the Educational Longitudinal Study of 2002 and logistic regression analyses to…

  19. Lunar seismic profiling experiment natural activity study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duennebier, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lunar Seismic Experiment Natural Activity Study has provided a unique opportunity to study the high frequency (4-20 Hz) portion to the seismic spectrum on the moon. The data obtained from the LSPE was studied to evaluate the origin and importance of the process that generates thermal moonquakes and the characteristics of the seismic scattering zone at the lunar surface. The detection of thermal moonquakes by the LSPE array made it possible to locate the sources of many events and determine that they are definitely not generated by astronaut activities but are the result of a natural process on the moon. The propagation of seismic waves in the near-surface layers was studied in a qualitative manner. In the absence of an adequate theoretical model for the propagation of seismic waves in the moon, it is not possible to assign a depth for the scattering layer. The LSPE data does define several parameters which must be satisfied by any model developed in the future.

  20. DLC1 Activation Requires Lipid Interaction through a Polybasic Region Preceding the RhoGAP Domain

    PubMed Central

    Erlmann, Patrik; Schmid, Simone; Horenkamp, Florian A.; Geyer, Matthias; Pomorski, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Deleted in Liver Cancer 1 (DLC1) is a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) with specificity for RhoA, RhoB, and RhoC that is frequently deleted in various tumor types. By inactivating these small GTPases, DLC1 controls actin cytoskeletal remodeling and biological processes such as cell migration and proliferation. Here we provide evidence that DLC1 binds to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) through a previously unrecognized polybasic region (PBR) adjacent to its RhoGAP domain. Importantly, PI(4,5)P2-containing membranes are shown to stimulate DLC1 GAP activity in vitro. In living cells, a DLC1 mutant lacking an intact PBR inactivated Rho signaling less efficiently and was severely compromised in suppressing cell spreading, directed migration, and proliferation. We therefore propose that PI(4,5)P2 is an important cofactor in DLC1 regulation in vivo and that the PBR is essential for the cellular functions of the protein. PMID:19710422

  1. Reduced expression of SynGAP, a neuronal GTPase-activating protein, enhances capsaicin-induced peripheral sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Duarte, Djane Braz; Duan, Jian-Hong; Nicol, Grant D.; Vasko, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Synaptic GTPase-activating protein (SynGAP) is a neuronal-specific Ras/Rap-GAP that increases the hydrolysis rate of GTP to GDP, converting Ras/Rap from the active into the inactive form. The Ras protein family modulates a wide range of cellular pathways including those involved in sensitization of sensory neurons. Since GAPs regulate Ras activity, SynGAP might be an important regulator of peripheral sensitization and pain. Therefore, we evaluated excitability, stimulus-evoked release of the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and nociception from wild-type (WT) mice and those with a heterozygous mutation of the SynGAP gene (SynGAP+/−). Our results demonstrate that SynGAP is expressed in primary afferent sensory neurons and that the capsaicin-stimulated CGRP release from spinal cord slices was two-fold higher from SynGAP+/− mice than that observed from WT mouse tissue, consistent with an increase in expression of the capsaicin receptor, transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1), in SynGAP+/− dorsal root ganglia. However, there was no difference between the two genotypes in potassium-stimulated release of CGRP, the number of action potentials generated by a ramp of depolarizing current, or mechanical hypernociception elicited by intraplantar injection of capsaicin. In contrast, capsaicin-induced thermal hypernociception occurred at lower doses of capsaicin and had a longer duration in SynGAP+/− mice than WT mice. These results provide the first evidence that SynGAP is an important regulator of neuropeptide release from primary sensory neurons and can modulate capsaicin-induced hypernociception, demonstrating the importance of GAP regulation in signaling pathways that play a role in peripheral sensitization. PMID:21525372

  2. Increased structure and active learning reduce the achievement gap in introductory biology.

    PubMed

    Haak, David C; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Pitre, Emile; Freeman, Scott

    2011-06-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics instructors have been charged with improving the performance and retention of students from diverse backgrounds. To date, programs that close the achievement gap between students from disadvantaged versus nondisadvantaged educational backgrounds have required extensive extramural funding. We show that a highly structured course design, based on daily and weekly practice with problem-solving, data analysis, and other higher-order cognitive skills, improved the performance of all students in a college-level introductory biology class and reduced the achievement gap between disadvantaged and nondisadvantaged students--without increased expenditures. These results support the Carnegie Hall hypothesis: Intensive practice, via active-learning exercises, has a disproportionate benefit for capable but poorly prepared students.

  3. Gap Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  4. Genetic activity profiles in the testing and evaluation of chemical mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Waters, M.D.; Claxton, L.D.; Stack, H.F.; Brady, A.L.; Graedel, T.E. )

    1990-01-01

    Some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of a complex environmental mixture may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity of its component chemicals. The expanded Genetic Activity Profile (GAP) data base provides a computer-generated graphic representation of genetic bioassay data as a function of dose of the substance tested. In addition, the Atmospheric Chemical Compound (ACC) data-base contains information on chemical structures, properties, detection methods, and sources of chemicals found in ambient air. Using the combined data bases, the quantity of an individual chemical present within a mixture or fraction of a mixture may be related to the quantity (lowest effective dose, LED) of the chemical, by itself, required to demonstrate a positive response in one or more genetic bioassays. 19 references.

  5. A WXW motif is required for the anticancer activity of the TAT-RasGAP317-326 peptide.

    PubMed

    Barras, David; Chevalier, Nadja; Zoete, Vincent; Dempsey, Rosemary; Lapouge, Karine; Olayioye, Monilola A; Michielin, Olivier; Widmann, Christian

    2014-08-22

    TAT-RasGAP317-326, a cell-permeable 10-amino acid-long peptide derived from the N2 fragment of p120 Ras GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), sensitizes tumor cells to apoptosis induced by various anticancer therapies. This RasGAP-derived peptide, by targeting the deleted in liver cancer-1 (DLC1) tumor suppressor, also hampers cell migration and invasion by promoting cell adherence and by inhibiting cell movement. Here, we systematically investigated the role of each amino acid within the RasGAP317-326 sequence for the anticancer activities of TAT-RasGAP317-326. We report here that the first three amino acids of this sequence, tryptophan, methionine, and tryptophan (WMW), are necessary and sufficient to sensitize cancer cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis and to reduce cell migration. The WMW motif was found to be critical for the binding of fragment N2 to DLC1. These results define the interaction mode between the active anticancer sequence of RasGAP and DLC1. This knowledge will facilitate the design of small molecules bearing the tumor-sensitizing and antimetastatic activities of TAT-RasGAP317-326.

  6. Increased visible-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 via band gap manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennington, Ashley Marie

    Hydrogen gas is a clean burning fuel that has potential applications in stationary and mobile power generation and energy storage, but is commercially produced from non-renewable fossil natural gas. Using renewable biomass as the hydrocarbon feed instead could provide sustainable and carbon-neutral hydrogen. We focus on photocatalytic oxidation and reforming of methanol over modified titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles to produce hydrogen gas. Methanol is used as a model for biomass sugars. By using a photocatalyst, we aim to circumvent the high energy cost of carrying out endothermic reactions at commercial scale. TiO2 is a semiconductor metal oxide of particular interest in photocatalysis due to its photoactivity under ultraviolet illumination and its stability under catalytic reaction conditions. However, TiO2 primarily absorbs ultraviolet light, with little absorption of visible light. While an effective band gap for absorbance of photons from visible light is 1.7 eV, TiO2 polymorphs rutile and anatase, have band gaps of 3.03 eV and 3.20 eV respectively, which indicate ultraviolet light. As most of incident solar radiation is visible light, we hypothesize that decreasing the band gap of TiO2 will increase the efficiency of TiO2 as a visible-light active photocatalyst. We propose to modify the band gap of TiO2 by manipulating the catalyst structure and composition via metal nanoparticle deposition and heteroatom doping in order to more efficiently utilize solar radiation. Of the metal-modified Degussa P25 TiO2 samples (P25), the copper and nickel modified samples, 1%Cu/P25 and 1%Ni/P25 yielded the lowest band gap of 3.05 eV each. A difference of 0.22 eV from the unmodified P25. Under visible light illumination 1%Ni/P25 and 1%Pt/P25 had the highest conversion of methanol of 9.9% and 9.6%, respectively.

  7. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  8. Gap Junctions Contribute to the Regulation of Walking-Like Activity in the Adult Mudpuppy (Necturus Maculatus).

    PubMed

    Lavrov, Igor; Fox, Lyle; Shen, Jun; Han, Yingchun; Cheng, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    Although gap junctions are widely expressed in the developing central nervous system, the role of electrical coupling of neurons and glial cells via gap junctions in the spinal cord in adults is largely unknown. We investigated whether gap junctions are expressed in the mature spinal cord of the mudpuppy and tested the effects of applying gap junction blocker on the walking-like activity induced by NMDA or glutamate in an in vitro mudpuppy preparation. We found that glial and neural cells in the mudpuppy spinal cord expressed different types of connexins that include connexin 32 (Cx32), connexin 36 (Cx36), connexin 37 (Cx37), and connexin 43 (Cx43). Application of a battery of gap junction blockers from three different structural classes (carbenexolone, flufenamic acid, and long chain alcohols) substantially and consistently altered the locomotor-like activity in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, these blockers did not significantly change the amplitude of the dorsal root reflex, indicating that gap junction blockers did not inhibit neuronal excitability nonselectively in the spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggest that gap junctions play a significant modulatory role in the spinal neural networks responsible for the generation of walking-like activity in the adult mudpuppy. PMID:27023006

  9. Electroacoustic absorbers: bridging the gap between shunt loudspeakers and active sound absorption.

    PubMed

    Lissek, Hervé; Boulandet, Romain; Fleury, Romain

    2011-05-01

    The acoustic impedance at the diaphragm of an electroacoustic transducer can be varied using a range of basic electrical control strategies, amongst which are electrical shunt circuits. These passive shunt techniques are compared to active acoustic feedback techniques for controlling the acoustic impedance of an electroacoustic transducer. The formulation of feedback-based acoustic impedance control reveals formal analogies with shunt strategies, and highlights an original method for synthesizing electric networks ("shunts") with positive or negative components, bridging the gap between passive and active acoustic impedance control. This paper describes the theory unifying all these passive and active acoustic impedance control strategies, introducing the concept of electroacoustic absorbers. The equivalence between shunts and active control is first formalized through the introduction of a one-degree-of-freedom acoustic resonator accounting for both electric shunts and acoustic feedbacks. Conversely, electric networks mimicking the performances of active feedback techniques are introduced, identifying shunts with active impedance control. Simulated acoustic performances are presented, with an emphasis on formal analogies between the different control techniques. Examples of electric shunts are proposed for active sound absorption. Experimental assessments are then presented, and the paper concludes with a general discussion on the concept and potential improvements.

  10. Electroacoustic absorbers: bridging the gap between shunt loudspeakers and active sound absorption.

    PubMed

    Lissek, Hervé; Boulandet, Romain; Fleury, Romain

    2011-05-01

    The acoustic impedance at the diaphragm of an electroacoustic transducer can be varied using a range of basic electrical control strategies, amongst which are electrical shunt circuits. These passive shunt techniques are compared to active acoustic feedback techniques for controlling the acoustic impedance of an electroacoustic transducer. The formulation of feedback-based acoustic impedance control reveals formal analogies with shunt strategies, and highlights an original method for synthesizing electric networks ("shunts") with positive or negative components, bridging the gap between passive and active acoustic impedance control. This paper describes the theory unifying all these passive and active acoustic impedance control strategies, introducing the concept of electroacoustic absorbers. The equivalence between shunts and active control is first formalized through the introduction of a one-degree-of-freedom acoustic resonator accounting for both electric shunts and acoustic feedbacks. Conversely, electric networks mimicking the performances of active feedback techniques are introduced, identifying shunts with active impedance control. Simulated acoustic performances are presented, with an emphasis on formal analogies between the different control techniques. Examples of electric shunts are proposed for active sound absorption. Experimental assessments are then presented, and the paper concludes with a general discussion on the concept and potential improvements. PMID:21568400

  11. Distinct Metal Isoforms Underlie Promiscuous Activity Profiles of Metalloenzymes.

    PubMed

    Baier, Florian; Chen, John; Solomonson, Matthew; Strynadka, Natalie C J; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko

    2015-07-17

    Within a superfamily, functionally diverged metalloenzymes often favor different metals as cofactors for catalysis. One hypothesis is that incorporation of alternative metals expands the catalytic repertoire of metalloenzymes and provides evolutionary springboards toward new catalytic functions. However, there is little experimental evidence that incorporation of alternative metals changes the activity profile of metalloenzymes. Here, we systematically investigate how metals alter the activity profiles of five functionally diverged enzymes of the metallo-β-lactamase (MBL) superfamily. Each enzyme was reconstituted in vitro with six different metals, Cd(2+), Co(2+), Fe(2+), Mn(2+), Ni(2+), and Zn(2+), and assayed against eight catalytically distinct hydrolytic reactions (representing native functions of MBL enzymes). We reveal that each enzyme metal isoform has a significantly different activity level for native and promiscuous reactions. Moreover, metal preferences for native versus promiscuous activities are not correlated and, in some cases, are mutually exclusive; only particular metal isoforms disclose cryptic promiscuous activities but often at the expense of the native activity. For example, the L1 B3 β-lactamase displays a 1000-fold catalytic preference for Zn(2+) over Ni(2+) for its native activity but exhibits promiscuous thioester, phosphodiester, phosphotriester, and lactonase activity only with Ni(2+). Furthermore, we find that the five MBL enzymes exist as an ensemble of various metal isoforms in vivo, and this heterogeneity results in an expanded activity profile compared to a single metal isoform. Our study suggests that promiscuous activities of metalloenzymes can stem from an ensemble of metal isoforms in the cell, which could facilitate the functional divergence of metalloenzymes.

  12. Antiorthostatic suspension stimulates profiles of macrophage activation in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. S.; Bates, R. A.; Koebel, D. A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    The antiorthostatic suspension model simulates certain physiological effects of spaceflight. We have previously reported BDF1 mice suspended by the tail in the antiorthostatic orientation for 4 days express high levels of resistance to virulent Listeria monocytogenesinfection. In the present study, we examined whether the increased resistance to this organism correlates with profiles of macrophage activation, given the role of the macrophage in killing this pathogen in vivo. We infected BDF1 mice with a lethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes on day 4 of antiorthostatic suspension and 24 h later constructed profiles of macrophage activation. Viable listeria could not be detected in mice suspended in the antiorthostatic orientation 24 h after infection. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the numbers of granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes in the spleen of infected mice were not significantly altered as a result of antiorthostatic suspension. Splenocytes from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice produced increased titers of IL-1. Serum levels of neopterin, a nucleotide metabolite secreted by activated macrophages, were enhanced in mice infected during antiorthostatic suspension, but not in antiorthostatically suspended naive mice. Splenic macrophages from mice infected on day 4 of suspension produced enhanced levels of lysozyme. In contrast to the results from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice, macrophages from antiorthostatically suspended uninfected mice did not express enhanced bactericidal activities. The collective results indicate that antiorthostatic suspension can stimulate profiles of macrophage activation which correlate with increased resistance to infection by certain classes of pathogenic bacteria.

  13. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera

    PubMed Central

    Hatzios, Stavroula K.; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A.; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T.; Davis, Brigid M.; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K.

    2016-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human cholera stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, while genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance and binding of an intestinal lectin—intelectin—to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialogue in an animal model of infection. PMID:26900865

  14. Block of gap junctions eliminates aberrant activity and restores light responses during retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Toychiev, Abduqodir H; Ivanova, Elena; Yee, Christopher W; Sagdullaev, Botir T

    2013-08-28

    Retinal degeneration leads to progressive photoreceptor cell death, resulting in vision loss. Subsequently, inner retinal neurons develop aberrant synaptic activity, compounding visual impairment. In retinal ganglion cells, light responses driven by surviving photoreceptors are obscured by elevated levels of aberrant spiking activity. Here, we demonstrate in rd10 mice that targeting disruptive neuronal circuitry with a gap junction antagonist can significantly reduce excessive spiking. This treatment increases the sensitivity of the degenerated retina to light stimuli driven by residual photoreceptors. Additionally, this enhances signal transmission from inner retinal neurons to ganglion cells, potentially allowing the retinal network to preserve the fidelity of signals either from prosthetic electronic devices, or from cells optogenetically modified to transduce light. Thus, targeting maladaptive changes to the retina allows for treatments to use existing neuronal tissue to restore light sensitivity, and to augment existing strategies to replace lost photoreceptors. PMID:23986234

  15. Block of Gap Junctions Eliminates Aberrant Activity and Restores Light Responses during Retinal Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Toychiev, Abduqodir H.; Ivanova, Elena; Yee, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Retinal degeneration leads to progressive photoreceptor cell death, resulting in vision loss. Subsequently, inner retinal neurons develop aberrant synaptic activity, compounding visual impairment. In retinal ganglion cells, light responses driven by surviving photoreceptors are obscured by elevated levels of aberrant spiking activity. Here, we demonstrate in rd10 mice that targeting disruptive neuronal circuitry with a gap junction antagonist can significantly reduce excessive spiking. This treatment increases the sensitivity of the degenerated retina to light stimuli driven by residual photoreceptors. Additionally, this enhances signal transmission from inner retinal neurons to ganglion cells, potentially allowing the retinal network to preserve the fidelity of signals either from prosthetic electronic devices, or from cells optogenetically modified to transduce light. Thus, targeting maladaptive changes to the retina allows for treatments to use existing neuronal tissue to restore light sensitivity, and to augment existing strategies to replace lost photoreceptors. PMID:23986234

  16. Impurity profile tracking for active pharmaceutical ingredients: case reports.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lili; Mao, Bing; Reamer, Robert; Novak, Tom; Ge, Zhihong

    2007-06-28

    Tracking the impurity profile of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is a very important task for all stages of drug development. A systematic approach for tracking impurity profile of API is described. Various real pharmaceutical applications are presented through successful examples of impurity profile tracking for three different novel APIs. These include MK-0969, an M3 antagonist; MK-0677, an oral-active growth hormone secretagogue and API-A, a cathepsin K inhibitor. A general strategy including selection of a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) impurity profile method based on screening various stationary phases and changing the pH of the mobile phase and elucidation of impurity structures through the utilization of LC-MS, preparative-LC and NMR is demonstrated. A series of studies were conducted on the peak purity check by using the LC-UV diode-array and LC-MS detections. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the evaluation of peak purity are discussed. PMID:17142001

  17. A more accurate profile of Achyrocline satureioides hypocholesterolemic activity.

    PubMed

    Espiña, Débora Corrêa; Carvalho, Fabiano Barbosa; Zanini, Daniela; Schlemmer, Josiane Bizzi; Coracini, Juliane Dors; Rubin, Maribel Antonello; Morsch, Vera Maria; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Leal, Daniela Bitencourt Rosa; Baiotto, Cléia Rosani; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto dos Santos

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the aqueous extract (AE) of Achyrocline satureioides on serum lipid profile, liver oxidative profile and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity of rats submitted to a hyperlipidic diet. The animals were divided into four groups: control (C), AE 10% (A(10)), hyperlipidic (H) and hyperlipidic/AE 10% (HA(10)). In serum, we measured the levels of total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG). In liver homogenates, we measured the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, the carbonyl proteins, the non-protein thiols (NPSHs) and the activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT) and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase. We observed a significant increase in the TC and LDL levels in the H group. A. satureioides prevented these effects, decreased the TG levels in the HA(10) group and increased the NPSH levels in the A(10) and HA(10) groups. The H group showed an increase in the carbonyl protein level and a decrease in CAT and Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activities. With the use of this model, results show that increased levels of lipids are related to a redox imbalance in the liver, which is also related to the inhibition of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase activity, and that chronic administration of the AE of A. satureioides is capable of changing this profile.

  18. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition. PMID:25264672

  19. Activity profile of high-level Australian lacrosse players.

    PubMed

    Polley, Chris S; Cormack, Stuart J; Gabbett, Tim J; Polglaze, Ted

    2015-01-01

    Despite lacrosse being one of the fastest growing team sports in the world, there is a paucity of information detailing the activity profile of high-level players. Microtechnology systems (global positioning systems and accelerometers) provide the opportunity to obtain detailed information on the activity profile in lacrosse. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the activity profile of lacrosse match-play using microtechnology. Activity profile variables assessed relative to minutes of playing time included relative distance (meter per minute), distance spent standing (0-0.1 m·min), walking (0.2-1.7 m·min), jogging (1.8-3.2 m·min), running (3.3-5.6 m·min), sprinting (≥5.7 m·min), number of high, moderate, low accelerations and decelerations, and player load (PL per minute), calculated as the square root of the sum of the squared instantaneous rate of change in acceleration in 3 vectors (medio-lateral, anterior-posterior, and vertical). Activity was recorded from 14 lacrosse players over 4 matches during a national tournament. Players were separated into positions of attack, midfield, or defense. Differences (effect size [ES] ± 90% confidence interval) between positions and periods of play were considered likely positive when there was ≥75% likelihood of the difference exceeding an ES threshold of 0.2. Midfielders had likely covered higher (mean ± SD) meters per minute (100 ± 11) compared with attackers (87 ± 14; ES = 0.89 ± 1.04) and defenders (79 ± 14; ES = 1.54 ± 0.94) and more moderate and high accelerations and decelerations. Almost all variables across positions were reduced in quarter 4 compared with quarter 1. Coaches should accommodate for positional differences when preparing lacrosse players for competition.

  20. No More Profiling in the Classroom: A Midsize Urban School District's Efforts to Close the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Evans, Leticia Victoria

    2010-01-01

    For approximately a third of this decade, a mid-size urban school district took a bold step in its continuing efforts to battle what has been a persistent problem plaguing this Nation's education system for decades or possibly for as long as it has existed--the achievement gap between students of color and their White peers. The district has…

  1. Development of Active Gas-Gap Heat Switch for Double-Stage Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishisaki, Y.; Henmi, K.; Akamatsu, H.; Enoki, T.; Ohashi, T.; Hoshino, A.; Shinozaki, K.; Matsuo, H.; Okada, N.; Oshima, T.

    2012-06-01

    We designed and fabricated an active gas-gap heat switch (AGGHS), which ON/OFF the heat conduction between the 1st stage (0.05-2 K) and the 2nd stage (1-4 K) of a double-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (DADR). Our design geometrically separates two components which dominates the ON or OFF performance, and achieved heat conductivity of 6 mW/K (ON) or 4 μW/K (OFF) at 2 K. The ON/OFF is controlled by a heater attached to the charcoal box to adsorb/deadsorb 4He gas inside. We introduced the AGGHS to the DADR and successfully cooled the detector stage down to 60 mK, working properly more than a year.

  2. Genome Alteration Print (GAP): a tool to visualize and mine complex cancer genomic profiles obtained by SNP arrays.

    PubMed

    Popova, Tatiana; Manié, Elodie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Rigaill, Guillem; Barillot, Emmanuel; Stern, Marc Henri

    2009-01-01

    We describe a method for automatic detection of absolute segmental copy numbers and genotype status in complex cancer genome profiles measured with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays. The method is based on pattern recognition of segmented and smoothed copy number and allelic imbalance profiles. Assignments were verified by DNA indexes of primary tumors and karyotypes of cell lines. The method performs well even for poor-quality data, low tumor content, and highly rearranged tumor genomes.

  3. Actively Closing the Gap? Social Class, Organized Activities, and Academic Achievement in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…

  4. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M.; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain. PMID:26528139

  5. FilGAP, a Rac-specific Rho GTPase-activating protein, is a novel prognostic factor for follicular lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Hashimura, Miki; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Ohta, Yasutaka; Saegusa, Makoto

    2015-06-01

    FilGAP, a Rho GTPase-activating protein (GAP), acts as a mediator of Rho/ROCK (Rho-associated protein kinase)-dependent amoeboid movement, and its knockdown results in Rac-driven mesenchymal morphology. Herein, we focus on the possible roles of FilGAP expression in normal and malignant lymphocytes. Eighty-three cases of follicular lymphoma (FL), 84 of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), and 25 of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL), as well as 10 of normal lymph nodes, were immunohistochemically investigated. In normal lymph nodes, FilGAP immunoreactivity was significantly higher in lymphocytes in the mantle zone as compared to those in the germinal center and paracortical areas. In contrast, the expression levels of both cytoplasmic and perinuclear Rac1 were significantly lower in the germinal center as compared to paracortical regions, suggesting that changes in the FilGAP/Rac axis may occur in B-cell lineages. In malignant lymphomas, FilGAP expression was significantly higher in B-cell lymphomas than PTCL, and the immunohistochemical scores were positively correlated with cytoplasmic Rac1 scores in FL and DLBCL, but not in PTCL. Patients with FL and germinal center B-cell-like (GCB)-type DLBCL showing high FilGAP scores had poor overall survival rates as compared to the low-score patients. Moreover, multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that a high FilGAP score was a significant and independent unfavorable prognostic factor in FL, but not in DLBCL. In conclusion, FilGAP may contribute to change in cell motility of B-lymphocytes. In addition, its expression appears to be useful for predicting the behavior of B-cell lymphoma, in particular FL. PMID:25641953

  6. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells.

    PubMed

    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M; Matarredona, Esperanza R; Sáez, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain.

  7. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts. PMID:24054243

  8. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activity in selected seeds and sprouts.

    PubMed

    Pająk, Paulina; Socha, Robert; Gałkowska, Dorota; Rożnowski, Jacek; Fortuna, Teresa

    2014-01-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of germination on the phenolic acids and flavonoids profile, as well as antioxidant activity (AA), in selected edible seeds of mung beans, radish, broccoli and sunflower. Germination increased the total phenolic (TP) and flavonoid (TF) levels, as well as the AA of the seeds, and influenced the profile of free and bound phenolic compounds. Among the samples, mung bean was characterised by lowest levels of TP and TF, as well as AA, evaluated using ABTS, DPPH and FRAP assays. Sunflower and radish sprouts were the most rich in phenolic compounds. Insignificant amounts of free phenolic acids were found in the free phenolic acid fraction; alkaline hydrolysis of the seeds and sprouts extracts provided the majority of the phenolic acids. The amounts of free and bound flavonoids were inconsiderable both for seeds and sprouts.

  9. Phosphorylation of synaptic GTPase-activating protein (synGAP) by Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) alters the ratio of its GAP activity toward Ras and Rap GTPases.

    PubMed

    Walkup, Ward G; Washburn, Lorraine; Sweredoski, Michael J; Carlisle, Holly J; Graham, Robert L; Hess, Sonja; Kennedy, Mary B

    2015-02-20

    synGAP is a neuron-specific Ras and Rap GTPase-activating protein (GAP) found in high concentrations in the postsynaptic density (PSD) fraction from the mammalian forebrain. We have previously shown that, in situ in the PSD fraction or in recombinant form in Sf9 cell membranes, synGAP is phosphorylated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII), another prominent component of the PSD. Here, we show that recombinant synGAP (r-synGAP), lacking 102 residues at the N terminus, can be purified in soluble form and is phosphorylated by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) as well as by CaMKII. Phosphorylation of r-synGAP by CaMKII increases its HRas GAP activity by 25% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 76%. Conversely, phosphorylation by CDK5 increases r-synGAP's HRas GAP activity by 98% and its Rap1 GAP activity by 20%. Thus, phosphorylation by both kinases increases synGAP activity; CaMKII shifts the relative GAP activity toward inactivation of Rap1, and CDK5 shifts the relative activity toward inactivation of HRas. GAP activity toward Rap2 is not altered by phosphorylation by either kinase. CDK5 phosphorylates synGAP primarily at two sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802. Phosphorylation at Ser-773 inhibits r-synGAP activity, and phosphorylation at Ser-802 increases it. However, the net effect of concurrent phosphorylation of both sites, Ser-773 and Ser-802, is an increase in GAP activity. synGAP is phosphorylated at Ser-773 and Ser-802 in the PSD fraction, and its phosphorylation by CDK5 and CaMKII is differentially regulated by activation of NMDA-type glutamate receptors in cultured neurons.

  10. Geodynamics of the Dead Sea Fault: Do active faulting and past earthquakes determine the seismic gaps?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2014-05-01

    The ~1000-km-long North-South trending Dead Sea transform fault (DSF) presents structural discontinuities and includes segments that experienced large earthquakes (Mw>7) in historical times. The Wadi Araba and Jordan Valley, the Lebanese restraining bend, the Missyaf and Ghab fault segments in Syria and the Ziyaret Fault segment in Turkey display geometrical complexities made of step overs, restraining and releasing bends that may constitute major obstacles to earthquake rupture propagation. Using active tectonics, GPS measurements and paleoseismology we investigate the kinematics and long-term/short term slip rates along the DSF. Tectonic geomorphology with paleoseismic trenching and archeoseismic investigations indicate repeated faulting events and left-lateral slip rate ranging from 4 mm/yr in the southern fault section to 6 mm/yr in the northern fault section. Except for the northernmost DSF section, these estimates of fault slip rate are consistent with GPS measurements that show 4 to 5 mm/yr deformation rate across the plate boundary. However, recent GPS results showing ~2.5 mm/yr velocity rate of the northern DSF appears to be quite different than the ~6 mm/yr paleoseismic slip rate. The kinematic modeling that combines GPS and seismotectonic results implies a complex geodynamic pattern where the DSF transforms the Cyprus arc subduction zone into transpressive tectonics on the East Anatolian fault. The timing of past earthquake ruptures shows the occurrence of seismic sequences and a southward migration of large earthquakes, with the existence of major seismic gaps along strike. In this paper, we discuss the role of the DSF in the regional geodynamics and its implication on the identification of seismic gaps.

  11. Chemoproteomic profiling of host and pathogen enzymes active in cholera.

    PubMed

    Hatzios, Stavroula K; Abel, Sören; Martell, Julianne; Hubbard, Troy; Sasabe, Jumpei; Munera, Diana; Clark, Lars; Bachovchin, Daniel A; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T; Davis, Brigid M; Weerapana, Eranthie; Waldor, Matthew K

    2016-04-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemoproteomic tool for detecting active enzymes in complex biological systems. We used ABPP to identify secreted bacterial and host serine hydrolases that are active in animals infected with the cholera pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Four V. cholerae proteases were consistently active in infected rabbits, and one, VC0157 (renamed IvaP), was also active in human choleric stool. Inactivation of IvaP influenced the activity of other secreted V. cholerae and rabbit enzymes in vivo, and genetic disruption of all four proteases increased the abundance of intelectin, an intestinal lectin, and its binding to V. cholerae in infected rabbits. Intelectin also bound to other enteric bacterial pathogens, suggesting that it may constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism of bacterial surveillance in the intestine that is inhibited by pathogen-secreted proteases. Our work demonstrates the power of activity-based proteomics to reveal host-pathogen enzymatic dialog in an animal model of infection. PMID:26900865

  12. Kinase activity profiling of gram-negative pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Arie J; Diks, Sander H; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Van Der Poll, Tom; Wieland, Catharina W

    2011-01-01

    Pneumonia is a severe disease with high morbidity and mortality. A major causative pathogen is the Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella (K.) pneumoniae. Kinases play an integral role in the transduction of intracellular signaling cascades and regulate a diverse array of biological processes essential to immune cells. The current study explored signal transduction events during murine Gram-negative pneumonia using a systems biology approach. Kinase activity arrays enable the analysis of 1,024 consensus sequences of protein kinase substrates. Using a kinase activity array on whole lung lysates, cellular kinase activities were determined in a mouse model of K. pneumoniae pneumonia. Notable kinase activities also were validated with phospho-specific Western blots. On the basis of the profiling data, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling via p42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p42) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38) and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) activity were reduced during infection, whereas v-src sarcoma (Schmidt-Ruppin A-2) viral oncogene homolog (avian) (SRC) activity generally was enhanced. AKT signaling was represented in both metabolic and inflammatory (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 [MKK], apoptosis signal-regulating kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 5 [ASK] and v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 [b-RAF]) context. This study reaffirms the importance of classic inflammation pathways, such as MAPK and TGFβ signaling and reveals less known involvement of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β), AKT and SRC signaling cassettes in pneumonia.

  13. Evaluation of the genetic activity profiles of 65 pesticides

    SciTech Connect

    Garrett, N.E.; Stack, H.F.; Waters, M.D.

    1986-01-01

    This report focuses on the quantitative profiles of genetic activity produced by 65 pesticides and efforts to classify them according to their genotoxic effects and chemical structures. Three main categories may be distinguished based on the qualitative results: Category 1 pesticides were active in most of the in vitro and in vivo assays employed. These nine compounds include the structurally similar organophosphate insecticides, acephate, demeton, monocrotophos, and trichlorfon; the phthalimid fungicide analogues, captan and folpet; and the thiocarbamate herbicide analogues, dialiate, sulfallate and triallate. The 26 Category 2 compounds demonstrated fewer positive results and may be subdivided into two parts, one of which contains 12 halogenated aromatic or heterocyclic ring compounds, including the phenoxy herbicides, 2,4-D, 2,4-DB, and 2,4,5-T. The remaining part of Category 2 (14 compounds) consists of structurally similar organophosphate insecticides, azinphos-methyl, crotoxyphos, disulfoton, methyl parathion; three similar ethylenebisdithiocarbamate fungicides, maneb, mancozeb, and zineb; three similar pyrethroid insecticides, allethrin, chrysanthemic acid, and ethy chrysanthemate; and four structurally diverse compounds, cacodylic acid, dinoseb, sec-butylamine and benomyl. The third category of 30 pesticides gave negative results in all tests and represents structurally diverse compounds. Using the computerized profile matching methodology, from 2080 possible pairwise chemical combinations of the 65 pesticides, 20 statistically significant pairs were selected.

  14. Analysis of communicative behaviour: profiling roles and activities.

    PubMed

    Sørby, Inger Dybdahl; Nytrø, Oystein

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss how profiles of communicative behaviour can be used to present and analyse information about role activity recorded through structured observation of specific situations. The role activities are encoded as distinctive speech acts. Example profiles resulting from the analysis of three clinicians' communicative behaviour during pre-rounds meetings and ward rounds are given. The examples are based on an observational study performed at a Norwegian university hospital. One fifth-year medical student spent 20 days in two different hospital wards, following 7 physicians from one to seven days each. The observer recorded data from several ward situations such as pre-rounds meetings, ward rounds, and discharge situations. The data was recorded by means of an observation form consisting of a mixture of codes and free-text fields. The data has been post-processed by associating each event with one communicative act. The approach is an efficient and useful means for studying clinicians' information and communication patterns in hospital wards, which can serve as an important tool in the design of new clinical information systems.

  15. Assessment of the chemosensitizing activity of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in childhood cancers.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Nadja; Gross, Nicole; Widmann, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Although current anti-cancer protocols are reasonably effective, treatment-associated long-term side effects, induced by lack of specificity of the anti-cancer procedures, remain a challenging problem in pediatric oncology. TAT-RasGAP317-326 is a RasGAP-derived cell-permeable peptide that acts as a sensitizer to various anti-cancer treatments in adult tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in several childhood cancer cell lines. The RasGAP-derived peptide-induced cell death was analyzed in several neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma and leukemia cell lines (as well as in normal lymphocytes). Cell death was evaluated using flow cytometry methods in the absence or in the presence of the peptide in combination with various genotoxins used in the clinics (4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin). All tested pediatric tumors, in response to at least one genotoxin, were sensitized by TAT-RasGAP317-326. The RasGAP-derived peptide did not increase cell death of normal lymphocytes, alone or in combination with the majority of the tested chemotherapies. Consequently, TAT-RasGAP317-326 may benefit children with tumors by increasing the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies notably by allowing reductions in anti-cancer drug dosage and the associated drug-induced side effects.

  16. Prolyl oligopeptidase binds to GAP-43 and functions without its peptidase activity.

    PubMed

    Di Daniel, Elena; Glover, Colin P; Grot, Emma; Chan, Man K; Sanderson, Thirza H; White, Julia H; Ellis, Catherine L; Gallagher, Kathleen T; Uney, James; Thomas, Julia; Maycox, Peter R; Mudge, Anne W

    2009-07-01

    Inhibitors of the enzyme prolyl oligopeptidase (PO) improve performance in rodent learning and memory tasks. PO inhibitors are also implicated in the action of drugs used to treat bipolar disorder: they reverse the effects of three mood stabilizers on the dynamic behaviour of neuronal growth cones. PO cleaves prolyl bonds in short peptides, suggesting that neuropeptides might be its brain substrates. PO is located in the cytosol, however, where it would not contact neuropeptides. Here, we show that mice with a targeted PO null-mutation have altered growth cone dynamics. The wild-type phenotype is restored by PO cDNAs encoding either native or a catalytically-dead enzyme. In addition, we show that PO binds to the growth-associated protein GAP-43, which is a key regulator of synaptic plasticity. Taken together, our results show that peptidase activity is not required for PO function in neurons and suggest that PO instead acts by binding to cytosolic proteins that control growth cone and synaptic function.

  17. Sample storage for soil enzyme activity and bacterial community profiles.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, K; Rita, H; Simpanen, S; Mikkonen, A; Niemi, R M

    2010-04-01

    Storage of samples is often an unavoidable step in environmental data collection, since available analytical capacity seldom permits immediate processing of large sample sets needed for representative data. In microbiological soil studies, sample pretreatments may have a strong influence on measurement results, and thus careful consideration is required in the selection of storage conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of prolonged (up to 16 weeks) frozen or air-dried storage for divergent soil materials. The samples selected to this study were mineral soil (clay loam) from an agricultural field, humus from a pine forest and compost from a municipal sewage sludge composting field. The measured microbiological parameters included functional profiling with ten different hydrolysing enzyme activities determined by artificial fluorogenic substrates, and structural profiling with bacterial 16S rDNA community fingerprints by amplicon length heterogeneity analysis (LH-PCR). Storage of samples affected the observed fluorescence intensity of the enzyme assay's fluorophor standards dissolved in soil suspension. The impact was highly dependent on the soil matrix and storage method, making it important to use separate standardisation for each combination of matrix type, storage method and time. Freezing proved to be a better storage method than air-drying for all the matrices and enzyme activities studied. The effect of freezing on the enzyme activities was small (<20%) in clay loam and forest humus and moderate (generally 20-30%) in compost. The most dramatic decreases (>50%) in activity were observed in compost after air-drying. The bacterial LH-PCR community fingerprints were unaffected by frozen storage in all matrices. The effect of storage treatments was tested using a new statistical method based on showing similarity rather than difference of results.

  18. Efficient Gap Repair Catalyzed In Vitro by an Intrinsic DNA Polymerase Activity of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase

    PubMed Central

    Acel, Andrea; Udashkin, Brian E.; Wainberg, Mark A.; Faust, Emmanuel A.

    1998-01-01

    Cleavage and DNA joining reactions, carried out by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) integrase, are necessary to effect the covalent insertion of HIV-1 DNA into the host genome. For the integration of HIV-1 DNA into the cellular genome to be completed, short gaps flanking the integrated proviral DNA must be repaired. It has been widely assumed that host cell DNA repair enzymes are involved. Here we report that HIV-1 integrase multimers possess an intrinsic DNA-dependent DNA polymerase activity. The activity was characterized by its dependence on Mg2+, resistance to N-ethylmaleimide, and inhibition by 3′-azido-2′,3′-dideoxythymidine-5′-triphosphate, coumermycin A1, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate. The enzyme efficiently utilized poly(dA)-oligo(dT) or self-annealing oligonucleotides as a template primer but displayed relatively low activity with gapped calf thymus DNA and no activity with poly(dA) or poly(rA)-oligo(dT). A monoclonal antibody binding specifically to an epitope comprised of amino acids 264 to 273 near the C terminus of HIV-1 integrase severely inhibited the DNA polymerase activity. A deletion of 50 amino acids at the C terminus of integrase drastically altered the gel filtration properties of the DNA polymerase, although the level of activity was unaffected by this mutation. The DNA polymerase efficiently extended a hairpin DNA primer up to 19 nucleotides on a T20 DNA template, although addition of the last nucleotide occurred infrequently or not at all. The ability of integrase to repair gaps in DNA was also investigated. We designed a series of gapped molecules containing a single-stranded region flanked by a duplex U5 viral arm on one side and by a duplex nonviral arm on the other side. Molecules varied structurally depending on the size of the gap (one, two, five, or seven nucleotides), their content of T’s or C’s in the single-stranded region, whether the CA dinucleotide in the viral arm had been replaced with a nonviral

  19. Teachers' instructional goals for science practice: Identifying knowledge gaps using cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrar, Cynthia Hamen

    In AP Biology, the course goal, with respect to scientific acts and reasoning, has recently shifted toward a reform goal of science practice, where the goal is for students to have a scientific perspective that views science as a practice of a community rather than a body of knowledge. Given this recent shift, this study is interested in the gaps that may exist between an individual teacher's instructional goal and the goals of the AP Biology course. A Cultural-Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) methodology and perspective is used to analyze four teachers' knowledge, practice, and learning. Teachers have content knowledge for teaching, a form of knowledge that is unique for teaching called specialized content knowledge. This specialized content knowledge (SCK) defines their instructional goals, the student outcomes they ultimately aim to achieve with their students. The study employs a cultural-historical continuum of scientific acts and reasoning, which represents the development of the AP Biology goal over time, to study gaps in their instructional goal. The study also analyzes the contradictions within their teaching practice and how teachers address those contradictions to shift their instructional practice and learn. The findings suggest that teachers have different interpretations of the AP Biology goals of science practice, placing their instructional goal at different points along the continuum. Based on the location of their instructional goal, different micro-communities of teachers exist along the continuum, comprised of teachers with a shared goal, language, and culture of their AP Biology teaching. The in-depth study of one teacher's AP Biology teaching, using a CHAT perspective, provides a means for studying the mechanisms that connect SCK to classroom actions and ultimately to instructional practice. CHAT also reveals the nature and importance of contradictions or cognitive dissonance in teacher learning and the types of support teachers need to

  20. 30 CFR 585.657 - What must I do upon completion of approved activities under my GAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities under my GAP? 585.657 Section 585.657 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... must submit your decommissioning application as provided in §§ 585.905 and 585.906. Cable and...

  1. 30 CFR 285.657 - What must I do upon completion of approved activities under my GAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... activities under my GAP? 285.657 Section 285.657 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING... of this part. You must submit your decommissioning application as provided in §§ 285.905 and...

  2. 30 CFR 585.657 - What must I do upon completion of approved activities under my GAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities under my GAP? 585.657 Section 585.657 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... must submit your decommissioning application as provided in §§ 585.905 and 585.906. Cable and...

  3. 30 CFR 585.657 - What must I do upon completion of approved activities under my GAP?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities under my GAP? 585.657 Section 585.657 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ALTERNATE USES OF EXISTING FACILITIES ON THE OUTER... must submit your decommissioning application as provided in §§ 585.905 and 585.906. Cable and...

  4. Enhancing catalytic activity by narrowing local energy gaps--X-ray studies of a manganese water oxidation catalyst.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jie; Khan, Munirah; Singh, Archana; Suljoti, Edlira; Spiccia, Leone; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-03-01

    Changes in the local electronic structure of the Mn 3d orbitals of a Mn catalyst derived from a dinuclear Mn(III) complex during the water oxidation cycle were investigated ex situ by X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) analyses. Detailed information about the Mn 3d orbitals, especially the local HOMO-LUMO gap on Mn sites revealed by RIXS analyses, indicated that the enhancement in catalytic activity (water oxidation) originated from the narrowing of the local HOMO-LUMO gap when electrical voltage and visible light illumination were applied simultaneously to the Mn catalytic system.

  5. Interpretation of pH-activity profiles for acid-base catalysis from molecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Dissanayake, Thakshila; Swails, Jason M; Harris, Michael E; Roitberg, Adrian E; York, Darrin M

    2015-02-17

    The measurement of reaction rate as a function of pH provides essential information about mechanism. These rates are sensitive to the pK(a) values of amino acids directly involved in catalysis that are often shifted by the enzyme active site environment. Experimentally observed pH-rate profiles are usually interpreted using simple kinetic models that allow estimation of "apparent pK(a)" values of presumed general acid and base catalysts. One of the underlying assumptions in these models is that the protonation states are uncorrelated. In this work, we introduce the use of constant pH molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent (CpHMD) with replica exchange in the pH-dimension (pH-REMD) as a tool to aid in the interpretation of pH-activity data of enzymes and to test the validity of different kinetic models. We apply the methods to RNase A, a prototype acid-base catalyst, to predict the macroscopic and microscopic pK(a) values, as well as the shape of the pH-rate profile. Results for apo and cCMP-bound RNase A agree well with available experimental data and suggest that deprotonation of the general acid and protonation of the general base are not strongly coupled in transphosphorylation and hydrolysis steps. Stronger coupling, however, is predicted for the Lys41 and His119 protonation states in apo RNase A, leading to the requirement for a microscopic kinetic model. This type of analysis may be important for other catalytic systems where the active forms of the implicated general acid and base are oppositely charged and more highly correlated. These results suggest a new way for CpHMD/pH-REMD simulations to bridge the gap with experiments to provide a molecular-level interpretation of pH-activity data in studies of enzyme mechanisms.

  6. Circadian neuron feedback controls the Drosophila sleep--activity profile.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fang; Yu, Junwei; Jung, Hyung Jae; Abruzzi, Katharine C; Luo, Weifei; Griffith, Leslie C; Rosbash, Michael

    2016-08-18

    Little is known about the ability of Drosophila circadian neurons to promote sleep. Here we show, using optogenetic manipulation and video recording, that a subset of dorsal clock neurons (DN1s) are potent sleep-promoting cells that release glutamate to directly inhibit key pacemaker neurons. The pacemakers promote morning arousal by activating these DN1s, implying that a late-day feedback circuit drives midday siesta and night-time sleep. To investigate more plastic aspects of the sleep program, we used a calcium assay to monitor and compare the real-time activity of DN1 neurons in freely behaving males and females. Our results revealed that DN1 neurons were more active in males than in females, consistent with the finding that male flies sleep more during the day. DN1 activity is also enhanced by elevated temperature, consistent with the ability of higher temperatures to increase sleep. These new approaches indicate that DN1s have a major effect on the fly sleep-wake profile and integrate environmental information with the circadian molecular program. PMID:27479324

  7. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    PubMed

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia. PMID:27641607

  8. Phytochemical profile and biological activity of Juglans regia.

    PubMed

    Panth, Nisha; Paudel, Keshav Raj; Karki, Rajendra

    2016-09-01

    Juglans regia Linn. (Juglandaceae), popularly known as English or Persian walnut, is a valuable medicinal plant with a potency to cure various diseases in traditional medicine. Since ancient time, different local ethnic groups have used various part of J. regia for a wide array of ailments including helminthiasis, diarrhea, sinusitis, stomach ache, arthritis, asthma, eczema, scrofula, skin disorders, diabetes mellitus, anorexia, thyroid dysfunction, cancer and infectious diseases. Biological activities of J. regia have been reported in several peer review journals and scientific attention is increasing. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on plant description, ethnobotanical use, toxicity, phytochemical profile, pharmacology, clinical studies and current research prospective of the J. regia. Currently, there is an immense interest on isolation/identification of active constituents from walnut and screening those active compounds for pharmacological activities. In addition, researchers are performing clinical trials as well as screening various solvent extracts or fractions of J. regia in several animal diseases models to identify promising therapeutic benefits. In the present work, we review the latest information based on published scientific investigations of J. regia.

  9. DEPTH CONTINUOUS HYDRAULIC CONDUCTIVITY PROFILING USING AN ACTIVE SOURCE PENETROMETER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Elsworth, D.

    2009-12-01

    A method is developed to recover depth-continuous hydraulic conductivity profiles of an unconsolidated saturated aquifer using an active source penetrometer, the Hydraulic Profiling Tool (HPT). The tool yields estimates of K through continuous injection of fluid in the subsurface from a small port on the probe shaft while controlled measurements of net applied fluid pressure required to maintain a specified flow rate (typically 350 mL/min) are recorded. The tool gathers these data of flow rate and measured applied pressure during halted and constant-rate penetration (typically 2cm/sec) of the probe. The analysis is developed in two parts, first to explore the interplay between advective effects controlled by penetration rate and secondly flow volume effects controlled by the targeted flow rate. These two effects are analyzed through their respective influence on the measured applied pressure response in ΔP/σv’-Q/ΔP space, which shows a linear relationship for the flow rate to applied pressure response when Q/ΔP > 1 and when Q/ΔP < 1 the response tends towards an asymptotic limit representing soil failure limits as ΔP/σv’ > 1. The analysis shows that penetration rate does not significantly influence the applied pressure response at the tested penetration rates (0 ≤ U(cm/s)≤ 4). The targeted applied flow rate does however influence the applied pressure response as flow rates less than ~300 mL/min show a scattering of the data in ΔP/σv’-Q/ΔP space, where above 300 mL/min the data begins to form a linear response. A targeted flow rate of QT = 400mL/min is suggested as a suitable flow rate based on this analysis. Measurements of hydraulic conductivity are then obtained for the HPT data through the derivation of an equation based on a recast form of Darcy’s law where considerations of the flow geometry as K = (QHPT/ΔP)(δw/πΦ). K profiles obtained for the HPT system are then compared against K profiles obtained from an independent method (PSU

  10. Genetic activity profiles--application in assessing potential carcinogenicity of complex environmental mixtures.

    PubMed

    Waters, M D; Claxton, L D; Stack, H F; Graedel, T E

    1990-01-01

    Some knowledge of the potential genetic activity of a complex environmental mixture may be gained from an assessment of the genetic activity of its component chemicals. The expanded genetic activity profile (GAP) data-base provides a computer-generated graphic representation of genetic bioassay data as a function of dose of the substance tested. In addition, the atmospheric chemical compound (ACC) data-base contains information on chemical structures, properties, detection methods and sources of chemicals found in ambient air. Using the combined data-bases, information on the quantity of an individual chemical present within a mixture or fraction of a mixture may be related to the quantity (lowest effective dose; LED) of the chemical required to demonstrate a positive response in one or more genetic bioassays. Alternatively, quantitative information on the carcinogenic potency of each individual compound (TD50 value) may be related to the quantity present in the mixture or mixture fraction and used to calculate the percent human exposure dose/rodent potency dose (HERP) for the chemical. Using an additivity assumption, a conservative estimate of potential carcinogenic hazard for the mixture may be calculated based on the HERP indices for its chemical components. This conceptual approach is limited by the relatively small number of chemicals identified in complex mixtures for which genetic toxicology and animal cancer data exist.

  11. Influence of Saline on Temperature Profile of Laser Lithotripsy Activation

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Igor N.; Donalisio da Silva, Rodrigo; Gustafson, Diedra; Sehrt, David; Kim, Fernando J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: We established an ex vivo model to evaluate the temperature profile of the ureter during laser lithotripsy, the influence of irrigation on temperature, and thermal spread during lithotripsy with the holmium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Ho:YAG) laser. Materials and Methods: Two ex vivo models of Ovis aries urinary tract and human calcium oxalate calculi were used. The Open Ureteral Model was opened longitudinally to measure the thermal profile of the urothelium. On the Clinical Model, anterograde ureteroscopy was performed in an intact urinary system. Temperatures were measured on the external portion of the ureter and the urothelium during lithotripsy and intentional perforation. The lithotripsy group (n=20) was divided into irrigated (n=10) and nonirrigated (n=10), which were compared for thermal spread length and values during laser activation. The intentional perforation group (n=10) was evaluated under saline flow. The Ho:YAG laser with a 365 μm laser fiber and power at 10W was used (1J/Pulse at 10 Hz). Infrared Fluke Ti55 Thermal Imager was used for evaluation. Maximum temperature values were recorded and compared. Results: On the Clinical Model, the external ureteral wall obtained a temperature of 37.4°C±2.5° and 49.5°C±2.3° (P=0.003) and in the Open Ureteral Model, 49.7°C and 112.4°C with and without irrigation, respectively (P<0.05). The thermal spread along the external ureter wall was not statically significant with or without irrigation (P=0.065). During intentional perforation, differences in temperatures were found between groups (opened with and without irrigation): 81.8°±8.8° and 145.0°±15.0°, respectively (P<0.005). Conclusion: There is an increase in the external ureteral temperature during laser activation, but ureteral thermal values decreased when saline flow was applied. Ureter thermal spread showed no difference between irrigated and nonirrigated subgroups. This is the first laser lithotripsy thermography study

  12. Activity based chemical proteomics: profiling proteases as drug targets.

    PubMed

    Heal, William Percy; Wickramasinghe, Sasala Roshinie; Tate, Edward William

    2008-09-01

    The pivotal role of proteases in many diseases has generated considerable interest in their basic biology, and in the potential to target them for chemotherapy. Although fundamental to the initiation and progression of diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis and malaria, in many cases their precise role remains unknown. Activity-based chemical proteomics-an emerging field involving a combination of organic synthesis, biochemistry, cell biology, biophysics and bioinformatics-allows the detection, visualisation and activity quantification of whole families or selected sub-sets of proteases based upon their substrate specificity. This approach can be applied for drug target/lead identification and validation, the fundamentals of drug discovery. The activity-based probes discussed in this review contain three key features; a 'warhead' (binds irreversibly but selectively to the active site), a 'tag' (allowing enzyme 'handling', with a combination of fluorescent, affinity and/or radio labels), and a linker region between warhead and tag. From the design and synthesis of the linker arise some of the latest developments discussed here; not only can the physical properties (e.g., solubility, localisation) of the probe be tuned, but the inclusion of a cleavable moiety allows selective removal of tagged enzyme from affinity beads etc. The design and synthesis of recently reported probes is discussed, including modular assembly of highly versatile probes via solid phase synthesis. Recent applications of activity-based protein profiling to specific proteases (serine, threonine, cysteine and metalloproteases) are reviewed as are demonstrations of their use in the study of disease function in cancer and malaria.

  13. Activation of L-type calcium channels is required for gap junction-mediated intercellular calcium signaling in osteoblastic cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, Niklas Rye; Teilmann, Stefan Cuoni; Henriksen, Zanne; Civitelli, Roberto; Sorensen, Ole Helmer; Steinberg, Thomas H.

    2003-01-01

    The propagation of mechanically induced intercellular calcium waves (ICW) among osteoblastic cells occurs both by activation of P2Y (purinergic) receptors by extracellular nucleotides, resulting in "fast" ICW, and by gap junctional communication in cells that express connexin43 (Cx43), resulting in "slow" ICW. Human osteoblastic cells transmit intercellular calcium signals by both of these mechanisms. In the current studies we have examined the mechanism of slow gap junction-dependent ICW in osteoblastic cells. In ROS rat osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW were inhibited by removal of extracellular calcium, plasma membrane depolarization by high extracellular potassium, and the L-type voltage-operated calcium channel inhibitor, nifedipine. In contrast, all these treatments enhanced the spread of P2 receptor-mediated ICW in UMR rat osteoblastic cells. Using UMR cells transfected to express Cx43 (UMR/Cx43) we confirmed that nifedipine sensitivity of ICW required Cx43 expression. In human osteoblastic cells, gap junction-dependent ICW also required activation of L-type calcium channels and influx of extracellular calcium.

  14. The Pollino Seismic Sequence: Activated Graben Structures in a Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rößler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Bindi, Dino; Cesca, Simone; Hainzl, Sebatian; Maccaferri, Francesco; Rivalta, Eleonora; Woith, Heiko; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (Southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalogue, with no M>5.5 earthquakes during the last centuries. In historical times several swarm-like seismic sequences occurred in the area including two intense swarms within the past two decades. The most energetic one started in 2010 and has been still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on 25 October. The range hosts a number of opposing normal faults forming a graben-like structure. Their rheology and their interactions are unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is necessary to assess the tectonics and the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have jointly monitored the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Based on this installation, we located more than 16,000 local earthquakes that occurred between November 2012 and September 2014. Here we investigate quantitatively all the phases of the seismic sequence starting from January 2010. Event locations along with moment tensor inversion constrain spatially the structures activated by the swarm and the migration pattern of the seismicity. The seismicity forms clusters concentrated within the southern part of the MB and along the Pollino Fault linking MB and CF. Most earthquakes are confined to the upper 10 km of the crust in an area of ~15x15 km2. However, sparse seismicity at depths between 15 and 20 km and moderate seismicity further north with deepening hypocenters also exist. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic; only the northern part has experienced micro-seismicity. The spatial distribution is however more complex than the major tectonic structures

  15. Progressive loss of RacGAP1/ogre activity has sequential effects on cytokinesis and zebrafish development.

    PubMed

    Warga, Rachel M; Wicklund, April; Webster, Sarah E; Kane, Donald A

    2016-10-15

    RacGAP1 is one of the two components of the centralspindlin complex essential for orchestrating cytokinesis in all animal cells. We report here that the early arrest mutant ogre is a maternal and zygotic loss of function mutation in the zebrafish homolog of racgap1. Like the other model organisms in which racgap1 is mutated, cells in the mutant stop dividing. In vivo cell recordings reveal that gradual loss of wild-type RacGAP1 leads progressively from a failure of abscission, then to cleavage furrow ingression, and finally complete absence of furrow formation. Despite the lack of cytokinesis, gross patterning occurs overtly normally in ogre mutants and cells continue to cycle slowly, some even attaining four or eight nuclei. Many multinucleate cells differentiate and survive, but the majority of cells enter apoptosis that we demonstrate is due to cumulative rounds of defective cytokinesis. Investigation of the cells that differentiate in the mutant indicate that RacGAP1 is also needed for long-term survival of motoneurons and the cytoskeletal organization of sensory axons. We conclude that while RacGAP1 function is crucial for cytokinesis and its activity at different levels controls different aspects of cytokinesis, these defects have occluded other critical roles of this interesting protein.

  16. Active flow control for a blunt trailing edge profiled body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naghib Lahouti, Arash

    Flow in the wake of nominally two-dimensional bluff bodies is dominated by vortex shedding, beyond a very small threshold Reynolds number. Vortex shedding poses challenges in the design of structures, due to its adverse effects such as cyclic aerodynamic loads and fatigue. The wake vortices are often accompanied by large- and small-scale secondary instabilities, which manifest as dislocations in the primary wake vortices, and/or pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices, depending on the dominant instability mode(s), which in turn depends on the profile geometry and Reynolds number. The secondary instabilities interact with the wake vortices through several mechanisms. Therefore, manipulation of the secondary instabilities can be used as a means to alter the wake vortices, in order to reduce their adverse effects. In the present study, flow in the wake of a blunt trailing edge profiled body, composed of an elliptical leading edge and a rectangular trailing edge, has been studied at Reynolds numbers ranging from Re(d) = 500 to 2150 where d is thickness of the body, to identify the secondary instabilities. Various tools, including numerical simulations, Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF), and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) have been used for this study. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) has been applied to analyze the velocity field data. The results indicate the existence of small-scale instabilities with a spanwise wavelength of 2.0d to 2.5d in the near wake. The mechanism of the instability is similar to the Mode-A instability of a circular cylinder; however, it displays features that are specific to the blunt trailing edge profiled body. An active three-dimensional flow control mechanism based on the small-scale instabilities has been designed and evaluated. The mechanism comprises a series of trailing edge injection ports, with a spanwise spacing equal to the wavelength of the small-scale instabilities. Following preliminary evaluation of the control

  17. Rho/RacGAPs

    PubMed Central

    Csépányi-Kömi, Roland; Lévay, Magdolna; Ligeti, Erzsébet

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory proteins such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) determine the activity of small GTPases. In the Rho/Rac family, the number of GEFs and GAPs largely exceeds the number of small GTPases, raising the question of specific or overlapping functions. In our recent study we investigated the first time ARHGAP25 at the protein level, determined its activity as RacGAP and showed its involvement in phagocytosis. With the discovery of ARHGAP25, the number of RacGAPs described in phagocytes is increased to six. We provide data that indicate the specific functions of selected Rho/RacGAPs and we show an example of differential regulation of a Rho/Rac family GAP by different kinases. We propose that the abundance of Rho/Rac family GAPs is an important element of the fine spatiotemporal regulation of diverse cellular functions. PMID:22751505

  18. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  19. Substrate-Competitive Activity-Based Profiling of Ester Prodrug Activating Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hao; Majmudar, Jaimeen D; Davda, Dahvid; Ghanakota, Phani; Kim, Ki H; Carlson, Heather A; Showalter, Hollis D; Martin, Brent R; Amidon, Gordon L

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanistic basis of prodrug delivery and activation is critical for establishing species-specific prodrug sensitivities necessary for evaluating preclinical animal models and potential drug-drug interactions. Despite significant adoption of prodrug methodologies for enhanced pharmacokinetics, functional annotation of prodrug activating enzymes is laborious and often unaddressed. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) describes an emerging chemoproteomic approach to assay active site occupancy within a mechanistically similar enzyme class in native proteomes. The serine hydrolase enzyme family is broadly reactive with reporter-linked fluorophosphonates, which have shown to provide a mechanism-based covalent labeling strategy to assay the activation state and active site occupancy of cellular serine amidases, esterases, and thioesterases. Here we describe a modified ABPP approach using direct substrate competition to identify activating enzymes for an ethyl ester prodrug, the influenza neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir. Substrate-competitive ABPP analysis identified carboxylesterase 1 (CES1) as an oseltamivir-activating enzyme in intestinal cell homogenates. Saturating concentrations of oseltamivir lead to a four-fold reduction in the observed rate constant for CES1 inactivation by fluorophosphonates. WWL50, a reported carbamate inhibitor of mouse CES1, blocked oseltamivir hydrolysis activity in human cell homogenates, confirming CES1 is the primary prodrug activating enzyme for oseltamivir in human liver and intestinal cell lines. The related carbamate inhibitor WWL79 inhibited mouse but not human CES1, providing a series of probes for analyzing prodrug activation mechanisms in different preclinical models. Overall, we present a substrate-competitive activity-based profiling approach for broadly surveying candidate prodrug hydrolyzing enzymes and outline the kinetic parameters for activating enzyme discovery, ester prodrug design, and

  20. Rotation and magnetic activity of the Hertzsprung-gap giant 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strassmeier, K. G.; Granzer, T.; Kopf, M.; Weber, M.; Küker, M.; Reegen, P.; Rice, J. B.; Matthews, J. M.; Kuschnig, R.; Rowe, J. F.; Guenther, D. B.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Rucinski, S. M.; Sasselov, D.; Weiss, W. W.

    2010-09-01

    Context. The single rapidly-rotating G0 giant 31 Comae has been a puzzle because of the absence of photometric variability despite its strong chromospheric and coronal emissions. As a Hertzsprung-gap giant, it is expected to be at the stage of rearranging its moment of inertia, hence likely also its dynamo action, which could possibly be linked with its missing photospheric activity. Aims: Our aim is to detect photospheric activity, obtain the rotation period, and use it for a first Doppler image of the star's surface. Its morphology could be related to the evolutionary status. Methods: We carried out high-precision, white-light photometry with the MOST satellite, ground-based Strömgren photometry with automated telescopes, and high-resolution optical echelle spectroscopy with the new STELLA robotic facility. Results: The MOST data reveal, for the first time, light variations with a full amplitude of 5 mmag and an average photometric period of 6.80 ± 0.06 days. Radial-velocity variations with a full amplitude of 270 m s-1 and a period of 6.76 ± 0.02 days were detected from our STELLA spectra, which we also interpret as due to stellar rotation. The two-year constancy of the average radial velocity of +0.10 ± 0.33 km s-1 confirms the star's single status, as well as the membership in the cluster Melotte 111. A spectrum synthesis gives Teff = 5660 ± 42 K, log g = 3.51 ± 0.09, and [Fe/H] = -0.15 ± 0.03, which together with the revised Hipparcos distance, suggests a mass of 2.6 ± 0.1 M_⊙ and an age of ≈540 Myr. The surface lithium abundance is measured to be nearly primordial. A detection of a strong He i absorption line indicates nonradiative heating processes in the atmosphere. Our Doppler images show a large, asymmetric polar spot, cooler than Teff by ≈1600 K, and several small low-to-mid latitude features that are warmer by ≈300-400 K and are possibly of chromospheric origin. We computed the convective turnover time for 31 Com as a function of depth

  1. Evolving Hox Activity Profiles Govern Diversity in Locomotor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Heekyung; Mazzoni, Esteban O.; Soshnikova, Natalia; Hanley, Olivia; Venkatesh, Byrappa; Duboule, Denis; Dasen, Jeremy S.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The emergence of limb-driven locomotor behaviors was a key event in the evolution of vertebrates and fostered the transition from aquatic to terrestrial life. We show that the generation of limb-projecting lateral motor column (LMC) neurons in mice relies on a transcriptional autoregulatory module initiated via transient activity of multiple genes within the HoxA and HoxC clusters. Repression of this module at thoracic levels restricts expression of LMC determinants, thus dictating LMC position relative to the limbs. This suppression is mediated by a key regulatory domain that is specifically found in the Hoxc9 proteins of appendage-bearing vertebrates. The profile of Hoxc9 expression inversely correlates with LMC position in land vertebrates, and likely accounts for the absence of LMC neurons in limbless species such as snakes. Thus, modulation of both Hoxc9 protein function and Hoxc9 gene expression likely contributed to evolutionary transitions between undulatory and ambulatory motor circuit connectivity programs. PMID:24746670

  2. Proteomic profile of Aspergillus flavus in response to water activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Zhong, Hong; Han, Xiaoyun; Guo, Zhenni; Yang, Weiqiang; Liu, Yongfeng; Yang, Kunlong; Zhuang, Zhenhong; Wang, Shihua

    2015-03-01

    Aspergillus flavus, a common contaminant of crops and stored grains, can produce aflatoxins that are harmful to humans and other animals. Water activity (aw) is one of the key factors influencing both fungal growth and mycotoxin production. In this study, we used the isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) technique to investigate the effect of aw on the proteomic profile of A. flavus. A total of 3566 proteins were identified, of which 837 were differentially expressed in response to variations in aw. Among these 837 proteins, 403 were over-expressed at 0.99 aw, whereas 434 proteins were over-expressed at 0.93 aw. According to Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, the secretion of extracellular hydrolases increased as aw was raised, suggesting that extracellular hydrolases may play a critical role in induction of aflatoxin biosynthesis. On the basis of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) categorizations, we identified an exportin protein, KapK, that may down-regulate aflatoxin biosynthesis by changing the location of NirA. Finally, we considered the role of two osmotic stress-related proteins (Sln1 and Glo1) in the Hog1 pathway and investigated the expression patterns of proteins related to aflatoxin biosynthesis. The data uncovered in this study are critical for understanding the effect of water stress on toxin production and for the development of strategies to control toxin contamination of agricultural products.

  3. Illustrating the Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity Using Gibbs Energy Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearne, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    Gibbs energy profiles provide students with a visual representation of the energy changes that occur during enzyme catalysis, making such profiles useful as teaching and learning tools. Traditional kinetic topics, such as the effect of pH on enzyme activity, are often not discussed in terms of Gibbs energy profiles. Herein, the symbolism of Gibbs…

  4. P120-GAP associated with syndecan-2 to function as an active switch signal for Src upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-W.; Chen, C.-L.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-04-15

    BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus were applied to reveal a complex of p120-GAP/syndecan-2 being highly expressed upon transformation. Of interest, most of the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was localized at caveolae, a membrane microdomain enriched with caveolin-1. To confirm the molecular interaction between syndecan-2 and p120-GAP, we further purified p120-GAP protein from mouse brains by using an affinity column of HiTrap-RACK1 and expressed mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein and mouse syndecan-2-encoded fusion protein in bacteria. We report molecular affinities exist between p120-GAP and RACK1, syndecan-2 and RACK1 as well as p120-GAP and syndecan-2. The selective affinity between p120-GAP and syndecan-2 was found to be sufficient to detach RACK1. The p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was demonstrated to keep Src tyrosine kinase in an activated form. On the other hand, the syndecan-2/RACK1 complex was found to have Src in an inactivated form. These data indicate that the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex at caveolae could provide a docking site for Src to transmit tyrosine signaling, implying that syndecan-2/p120-GAP functions as a tumor promoter upon transformation with oncogenic ras of shrimp P. japonicus.

  5. Validity and Calibration of the Youth Activity Profile

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to calibrate and cross-validate the Youth Activity Profile (YAP), a self-report tool designed to capture physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in youth. Methods Eight schools in the Midwest part of the U.S. were involved and a total of 291 participants from grades 4–12 agreed to wear an accelerometer (SWA Armband) and complete the YAP in two separate weeks (5–7 days apart). Individual YAP items capture PA behavior during specific segments of the week and these items were combined with temporally matched estimates of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary time from the SWA to enable calibration. Quantile regression procedures yielded YAP prediction algorithms that estimated MVPA at School, MVPA at Out-of-School, MVPA on Weekend, as well as time spent in SB. The YAP estimates of time spent in MVPA and SB were cross-validated using Pearson product correlations and limits of agreement, as indicative of individual error and, equivalence testing techniques as indicative of group-level error. Result Following calibration, the correlations between YAP and SWA estimates of MVPA were low to moderate (rrange = .19 to .58) and individual-level YAP estimates of MVPA ranged from -134.9% to +110.0% of SWA MVPA values. Differences between aggregated YAP and SWA MVPA ranged from -3.4 to 21.7 minutes of MVPA at the group-level and predicted YAP MVPA estimates were within 15%, 20%, and 30%, of values from the SWA for the School, Out-of-School, and Weekend time periods, respectively. Estimates of time spent in SB were highly correlated with each other (r = .75). The individual estimates of SB ranged from -54.0% to +44.0% of SWA sedentary time, and the aggregated group-level estimates differed by 49.7 minutes (within 10% of the SWA aggregated estimates). Conclusions This study provides preliminary evidence that the calibration procedures enabled the YAP to provide estimates of MVPA and SB that approximated values from an

  6. Persistent activity in a cortical-to-subcortical circuit: bridging the temporal gap in trace eyelid conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Kalmbach, Brian; Chitwood, Raymond A.; Mauk, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We have addressed the source and nature of the persistent neural activity that bridges the stimulus-free gap between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and unconditioned stimulus (US) during trace eyelid conditioning. Previous work has demonstrated that this persistent activity is necessary for trace eyelid conditioning: CS-elicited activity in mossy fiber inputs to the cerebellum does not extend into the stimulus-free trace interval, which precludes the cerebellar learning that mediates conditioned response expression. In behaving rabbits we used in vivo recordings from a region of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that is necessary for trace eyelid conditioning to test the hypothesis that neurons there generate activity that persists beyond CS offset. These recordings revealed two patterns of activity during the trace interval that would enable cerebellar learning. Activity in some cells began during the tone CS and persisted to overlap with the US, whereas in other cells, activity began during the stimulus-free trace interval. Injection of anterograde tracers into this same region of mPFC revealed dense labeling in the pontine nuclei, where recordings also revealed tone-evoked persistent activity during trace conditioning. These data suggest a corticopontine pathway that provides an input to the cerebellum during trace conditioning trials that bridges the temporal gap between the CS and US to engage cerebellar learning. As such, trace eyelid conditioning represents a well-characterized and experimentally tractable system that can facilitate mechanistic analyses of cortical persistent activity and how it is used by downstream brain structures to influence behavior. PMID:21957220

  7. Pyrethroid Activity-Based Probes for Profiling Cytochrome P450 Activities Associated with Insecticide Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ismail, Hanafy M.; O'Neill, Paul M.; Hong, David; Finn, Robert; Henderson, Colin; Wright, Aaron T.; Cravatt, Benjamin; Hemingway, Janet; Paine, Mark J.

    2014-01-18

    Pyrethroid insecticides are used to control a diverse spectrum of diseases spread by arthropods. We have developed a suite of pyrethroid mimetic activity based probes (PyABPs) to selectively label and identify P450s associated with pyrethroid metabolism. The probes were screened against pyrethroid metabolizing and non-metabolizing mosquito P450s, as well as rodent microsomes to measure labeling specificity, plus CPR and b5 knockout mouse livers to validate P450 activation and establish the role for b5 in probe activation. Using a deltamethrin mimetic PyABP we were able to profile active enzymes in rat liver microsomes and identify pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes in the target tissue. The most reactive enzyme was a P450, CYP2C11, which is known to metabolize deltamethrin. Furthermore, several other pyrethroid metabolizers were identified (CYPs 2C6, 3A4, 2C13 and 2D1) along with related detoxification enzymes, notably UDP-g’s 2B1 - 5, suggesting a network of associated pyrethroid metabolizing enzymes, or ‘pyrethrome’. Considering the central role that P450s play in metabolizing insecticides, we anticipate that PyABPs will aid the identification and profiling of P450s associated with insecticide pharmacology in a wide range of species, improving understanding of P450-insecticide interactions and aiding the development of new tools for disease control.

  8. The RhoGAP Activity of Myosin IXB Is Critical for Osteoclast Podosome Patterning, Motility, and Resorptive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    McMichael, Brooke K.; Scherer, Katharine F.; Franklin, Nicole C.; Lee, Beth S.

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts are large, multinucleated cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage that generate specialized substrate adhesion complexes to facilitate their function as bone-degrading cells. The patterning and function of these actin-based complexes, podosomes and sealing zones, are regulated by the small GTPase Rho. Myosin IXB (Myo9b) is a unique actin-based motor protein that contains a RhoGAP domain, which, like other RhoGAPs, is inhibitory to Rho signaling. In this study, Myo9b is shown to be expressed in osteoclasts and act as a critical regulator of podosome patterning and osteoclast function. SiRNA-mediated knockdown of Myo9b results in increased activity of Rho but not Rac in osteoclasts. Knockdown in osteoclasts on glass results in altered podosome patterning and decreased motility, and this effect is reversed by addition of a Rho inhibitor. SiRNA-mediated suppression of Myo9b expression in osteoclasts on bone results in a dramatic loss of resorptive capacity even though sealing zones appear normal. This loss of resorption is also reversible with addition of a Rho inhibitor. Cells with diminished Myo9b levels display mislocalization and suppressed activation of Src, a tyrosine kinase with critical effects on osteoclast actin cytoskeletal rearrangement and function. In addition, siRNA-treated cells display poorly formed microtubule networks and a lack of tubulin acetylation, a marker of microtubule stability. However, short-term addition of TNFα to cells with suppressed Myo9b levels overcomes or circumvents these defects and causes increased sealing zone size and resorptive capacity. These results indicate that the RhoGAP activity of Myo9b plays a key role in regulating the actin-based structures necessary for osteoclast motility and resorption, and confirms that Myo9b can act as a motorized signaling molecule that links Rho signaling to the dynamic actin cytoskeleton. PMID:24466350

  9. Semiconductors for high temperature active devices: silicon, GaAs, and GaP. [For use in geothermal wells

    SciTech Connect

    Coquat, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper reviews developments during the past three years in the area of high-temperature active semiconductor devices for use at 275/sup 0/C in instrumentation needed to characterize geothermal resources. Surveys of silicon bipolar, MOS, and JFET devices operated at high temperature and development work on high temperature silicon CMOS logic and DI analog circuits are reviewed. The initial results of developmental work on GaAs and GaP diodes are discussed. These efforts have identified several promising devices for high temperature applications; however, further development is required to resolve such problems as excessive leakage currents, metallization degradation, device stability, and long term aging.

  10. Dependence of mobility on density of gap states in organics by GAMEaS-gate modulated activation energy spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    So, Woo-young; Lang, David V.; Butko, Vladimir Y.; Chi, Xiaoliu; Lashley, Jason C.; Ramirez, Arthur P.

    2008-09-01

    We develop a broadly applicable transport-based technique, gate modulated activation energy spectroscopy (GAMEaS), for determining the density of states (DOS) in an energy gap. GAMEaS is applied to field-effect transistors (FETs) made from different single crystal oligomer semiconductors. We find that there are two distinct types of band tails, deep and shallow, depending on the crystallization process. The exponential band tails of the localized DOS are characterized by their slope with the highest mobility FETs having a value of 29 eV-1 close to 1/kBT at 300 K.

  11. A New Activity of Anti-HIV and Anti-tumor Protein GAP31: DNA Adenosine Glycosidase – Structural and Modeling Insight into its Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.; Huang, P; Zhang, D; Sun, Y; Chen, H; Zhang, J; Huang, P; Kong, X; Lee-Huang, S

    2010-01-01

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  12. A new activity of anti-HIV and anti-tumor protein GAP31: DNA adenosine glycosidase - Structural and modeling insight into its functions

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hui-Guang; Huang, Philip L.; Zhang, Dawei; Sun, Yongtao; Chen, Hao-Chia; Zhang, John; Huang, Paul L.; Kong, Xiang-Peng; Lee-Huang, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    We report here the high-resolution atomic structures of GAP31 crystallized in the presence of HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotides systematically designed to examine the adenosine glycosidase activity of this anti-HIV and anti-tumor plant protein. Structural analysis and molecular modeling lead to several novel findings. First, adenine is bound at the active site in the crystal structures of GAP31 to HIV-LTR duplex DNA with 5' overhanging adenosine ends, such as the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA but not to DNA duplex with blunt ends. Second, the active site pocket of GAP31 is ideally suited to accommodate the 5' overhanging adenosine of the 3'-processed HIV-LTR DNA and the active site residues are positioned to perform the adenosine glycosidase activity. Third, GAP31 also removes the 5'-end adenine from single-stranded HIV-LTR DNA oligonucleotide as well as any exposed adenosine, including that of single nucleotide dAMP but not from AMP. Fourth, GAP31 does not de-purinate guanosine from di-nucleotide GT. These results suggest that GAP31 has DNA adenosine glycosidase activity against accessible adenosine. This activity is distinct from the generally known RNA N-glycosidase activity toward the 28S rRNA. It may be an alternative function that contributes to the antiviral and anti-tumor activities of GAP31. These results provide molecular insights consistent with the anti-HIV mechanisms of GAP31 in its inhibition on the integration of viral DNA into the host genome by HIV-integrase as well as irreversible topological relaxation of the supercoiled viral DNA.

  13. OSCILLATING FLUID FLOW ACTIVATION OF GAP JUNCTION HEMICHANNELS INDUCES ATP RELEASE FROM MLO-Y4 OSTEOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Genetos, Damian C.; Kephart, Curtis J.; Zhang, Yue; Yellowley, Clare E.; Donahue, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Mechanical loads are required for optimal bone mass. One mechanism whereby mechanical loads are transduced into localized cellular signals is strain-induced fluid flow through lacunae and canaliculi of bone. Gap junctions (GJ) between osteocytes and osteoblasts provides a mechanism whereby flow-induced signals are detected by osteocytes and transduced to osteoblasts. We have demonstrated the importance of GJ and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in intracellular calcium and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) increases in response to flow. Unapposed connexons, or hemichannels, are themselves functional and may constitute a novel mechanotransduction mechanism. Using MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts and MLO-Y4 osteocytes, we examined the time course and mechanism of hemichannel activation in response to fluid flow, the composition of the hemichannels, and the role of hemichannels in flow-induced ATP release. We demonstrate that fluid flow activates hemichannels in MLO-Y4, but not MC3T3-E1, through a mechanism involving protein kinase C, which induces ATP and PGE2 release. PMID:17301958

  14. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined? PMID:24149994

  15. Relationships between physical education students' motivational profiles, enjoyment, state anxiety, and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students' enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key pointsTWO MOTIVATIONAL PROFILES WERE REVEALED: 1) the "High motivation profile", in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the "Low motivation profile", in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation.The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile.Moreover, the representatives of the "High motivation profile "experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the "Low motivation profile"These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined?

  16. The pharmacological profile of auranofin, an orally active gold compound.

    PubMed

    Walz, D T; DiMartino, M J; Griswold, D E

    1983-01-01

    Auranofin (AF; ' Ridaura '), an oral chrysotherapeutic agent, parenteral gold sodium thiomalate (GST) and gold thioglucose (GTG) were evaluated in order to compare their preclinical profiles. AF was found to be more effective than GST and GTG in suppressing inflammation and stimulating cell-mediated immunity. In contrast to GST, AF inhibited cellular release of lysosomal enzymes, antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, production of antibodies in adjuvant arthritic rats, and antibodies involved in cytotoxicity reactions. In pharmacokinetic studies, plasma gold in rats following AF administration, exhibited greater cell association than after GST administration. In conclusion, the pharmacological profile of AF is markedly different from those of GST and GTG and this suggests potential for improvements in chrysotherapy. PMID:6426049

  17. 3BP-1, an SH3 domain binding protein, has GAP activity for Rac and inhibits growth factor-induced membrane ruffling in fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Cicchetti, P; Ridley, A J; Zheng, Y; Cerione, R A; Baltimore, D

    1995-01-01

    The SH3 binding protein, 3BP-1, was originally cloned as a partial cDNA from an expression library using the Abl SH3 domain as a probe. In addition to an SH3 binding domain, 3BP-1 displayed homology to a class of GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) active against Rac and Rho proteins. We report here a full length cDNA of 3BP-1 which extends the homology to GAP proteins previously noted. 3BP-1 functions in vitro as a GAP with a specificity for Rac-related G proteins. Microinjection of the 3BP-1 protein into serum-starved fibroblasts produces an inhibition of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-induced membrane ruffling mediated by Rac. Co-injection of 3BP-1 with an activated Rac mutant that is unresponsive to GAPs, counter-acts this inhibition. 3BP-1 does not show in vitro activity towards Rho and, in agreement with this finding, microinjection of 3BP-1 into fibroblasts has no effect on lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)-induced stress fiber assembly mediated by Rho. Thus 3BP-1 is a new and specific Rac GAP that can act in cells to counter Rac-mediated membrane ruffling. How its SH3 binding site interacts with its GAP activity remains to be understood. Images PMID:7621827

  18. A Belief-Behavior Gap? Exploring Religiosity and Sexual Activity among High School Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Kathleen Cobb; Scott-Jones, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Religiosity, sexual activity, and contraception were examined via questionnaires and interviews in a diverse sample of 118 high school seniors. The majority reported religion to be important; importance and frequency ratings declined from private (e.g., prayer) to public (e.g., group activities) components of religion. Most were sexually active…

  19. Beyond the Gap Fill: Dynamic Activities for Song in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzutti, Nico

    2014-01-01

    This author presents variable and stimulating activities using songs to encourage students to connect with language. Seven dynamic activities include Song Pictures, Re-order It, Matching Meanings, Changing the Text, Song Strip Connections, Song Cards, and Pair Watching. All are outlined to facilitate their use, and many have added extensions and…

  20. Narrowing Participation Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hand, Victoria; Kirtley, Karmen; Matassa, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Shrinking the achievement gap in mathematics is a tall order. One way to approach this challenge is to think about how the achievement gap manifests itself in the classroom and take concrete action. For example, opportunities to participate in activities that involve mathematical reasoning and argumentation in a safe and supportive manner are…

  1. Decreasing the singlet-triplet gap for thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules by structural modification on the donor fragment: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jian-zhong; Lin, Li-li; Wang, Chuan-kui

    2016-05-01

    The small energy gap between singlet excitons (S) and triplet excitons (T) of organic molecules is a dominant condition for high efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF). In this study, influence of modification in donor groups of a series of molecules on their geometries, S-T energy gaps, and photophysical properties, is investigated based on first-principles calculations. Investigation shows that, as the electron donating ability is increased, both S-T energy gap and overlap between the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) are decreased. This work provides strategy for designing high efficient and multi-color TADF devices.

  2. The DNA methylation profile of activated human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Butler, Rondi; Hsuang, George; Eliot, Melissa; Kim, Stephanie; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Siegel, Derick; Houseman, E Andres; Kelsey, Karl T

    2016-05-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are now recognized to exhibit characteristics akin to cells of the adaptive immune system. The generation of adaptive memory is linked to epigenetic reprogramming including alterations in DNA methylation. The study herein found reproducible genome wide DNA methylation changes associated with human NK cell activation. Activation led predominately to CpG hypomethylation (81% of significant loci). Bioinformatics analysis confirmed that non-coding and gene-associated differentially methylated sites (DMS) are enriched for immune related functions (i.e., immune cell activation). Known DNA methylation-regulated immune loci were also identified in activated NK cells (e.g., TNFA, LTA, IL13, CSF2). Twenty-one loci were designated high priority and further investigated as potential markers of NK activation. BHLHE40 was identified as a viable candidate for which a droplet digital PCR assay for demethylation was developed. The assay revealed high demethylation in activated NK cells and low demethylation in naïve NK, T- and B-cells. We conclude the NK cell methylome is plastic with potential for remodeling. The differentially methylated region signature of activated NKs revealed similarities with T cell activation, but also provided unique biomarker candidates of NK activation, which could be useful in epigenome-wide association studies to interrogate the role of NK subtypes in global methylation changes associated with exposures and/or disease states. PMID:26967308

  3. Listening Cloze Meets Info-Gap: A Hybrid Activity to Exploit Listening Materials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Juan Pablo Zúñiga

    2015-01-01

    In twenty-first-century language teaching, the class should be student-centered and provide learners with skills that empower them in real-life situations. In this regard, it is commonly said that practice makes perfect. It therefore makes sense for teachers to ask themselves how much their listening activities demand from students and to evaluate…

  4. Gap-junctional channel and hemichannel activity of two recently identified connexin 26 mutants associated with deafness.

    PubMed

    Dalamon, Viviana; Fiori, Mariana C; Figueroa, Vania A; Oliva, Carolina A; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Gonzalez, Wendy; Canan, Jonathan; Elgoyhen, Ana B; Altenberg, Guillermo A; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2016-05-01

    Gap-junction channels (GJCs) are formed by head-to-head association of two hemichannels (HCs, connexin hexamers). HCs and GJCs are permeable to ions and hydrophilic molecules of up to Mr ~1 kDa. Hearing impairment of genetic origin is common, and mutations of connexin 26 (Cx26) are its major cause. We recently identified two novel Cx26 mutations in hearing-impaired subjects, L10P and G109V. L10P forms functional GJCs with slightly altered voltage dependence and HCs with decrease ATP/cationic dye selectivity. G109V does not form functional GJCs, but forms functional HCs with enhanced extracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity and subtle alterations in voltage dependence and ATP/cationic dye selectivity. Deafness associated with G109V could result from decreased GJCs activity, whereas deafness associated to L10P may have a more complex mechanism that involves changes in HC permeability. PMID:26769242

  5. Gap-junctional channel and hemichannel activity of two recently identified connexin 26 mutants associated with deafness.

    PubMed

    Dalamon, Viviana; Fiori, Mariana C; Figueroa, Vania A; Oliva, Carolina A; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Gonzalez, Wendy; Canan, Jonathan; Elgoyhen, Ana B; Altenberg, Guillermo A; Retamal, Mauricio A

    2016-05-01

    Gap-junction channels (GJCs) are formed by head-to-head association of two hemichannels (HCs, connexin hexamers). HCs and GJCs are permeable to ions and hydrophilic molecules of up to Mr ~1 kDa. Hearing impairment of genetic origin is common, and mutations of connexin 26 (Cx26) are its major cause. We recently identified two novel Cx26 mutations in hearing-impaired subjects, L10P and G109V. L10P forms functional GJCs with slightly altered voltage dependence and HCs with decrease ATP/cationic dye selectivity. G109V does not form functional GJCs, but forms functional HCs with enhanced extracellular Ca(2+) sensitivity and subtle alterations in voltage dependence and ATP/cationic dye selectivity. Deafness associated with G109V could result from decreased GJCs activity, whereas deafness associated to L10P may have a more complex mechanism that involves changes in HC permeability.

  6. Micro-profiles of activated sludge floc determined using microelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Li, Baikun; Bishop, Paul L

    2004-03-01

    The microbial activity within activated sludge floc is a key factor in the performance of the activated sludge process. In this study, the microenvironment of activated sludge flocs from two wastewater treatment plants (Mill Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant and Muddy Creek Wastewater Treatment Plant, with aeration tank influent CODs of 60-120 and 15-35 mg/L, respectively) were studied by using microelectrodes. Due to microbial oxygen utilization, the aerobic region in the activated sludge floc was limited to the surface layer (0.1-0.2mm) of the sludge aggregate at the Mill Creek plant. The presence of an anoxic zone inside the sludge floc under aerobic conditions was confirmed in this study. When the dissolved oxygen (DO) in the bulk liquid was higher than 4.0mg/L, the anoxic zone inside the activated sludge floc disappeared, which is helpful for biodegradation. At the Muddy Creek plant, with its lower wastewater pollutant concentrations, the redox potential and DO inside the sludge aggregates were higher than those at the Mill Creek plant. The contaminant concentration in the bulk wastewater correlates with the oxygen utilization rate, which directly influences the oxygen penetration inside the activated sludge floc, and results in redox potential changes within the floc. The measured microprofiles revealed the continuous decrease of nitrate concentration inside the activated sludge floc, even though significant nitrification was observed in the bulk wastewater. The oxygen consumption and nitrification rate analyses reveal that the increase of ammonia flux under aerobic conditions correlates with nitrification. Due to the metabolic mechanisms of the microorganisms in activated sludge floc, which varies from one treatment plant to another, the oxygen flux inside the sludge floc changes accordingly.

  7. The determinants of alpha-amylase pH-activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J E; Borchert, T V; Vriend, G

    2001-07-01

    The glycosyl hydrolases present a large family of enzymes that are of great significance for industry. Consequently, there is considerable interest in engineering the enzymes in this family for optimal performance under a range of very diverse conditions. Until recently, tailoring glycosyl hydrolases for specific industrial processes mainly involved stability engineering, but lately there has also been considerable interest in engineering their pH-activity profiles. We mutated four neutral residues (N190, F290, N326 and Q360) in the chimeric Bacillus Ba2 alpha-amylase to both charged and neutral amino acids. The results show that the pH-activity profile of the Ba2 alpha-amylase can be changed by inserting charged residues close to the active site. The changes in the pH-activity profile for these neutral --> charged mutations do not, however, correlate with the predictions from calculations of the p K(a) values of the active site residues. More surprisingly, the neutral --> neutral mutations change the pH-activity profile as much as the neutral --> charged mutations. From these results, it is concluded that factors other than electrostatics, presumably the dynamic aspects of the active site, are important for the shape of the pH-activity profiles of the alpha-amylases. PMID:11522925

  8. Neuropeptides stimulate human osteoblast activity and promote gap junctional intercellular communication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenhui; Zhang, Xuemin; Shi, Shushan; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-06-01

    Neuropeptides released from the skeletal nerve fibers have neurotransmitter and immunoregulatory roles; they exert paracrine biological effects on bone cells present close to the nerve endings expressing these signaling molecules. The aims of this study were a systematic investigation of the effects of the neuropeptides substance P (SP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), Neuropeptide Y (NPY) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) on the cell viability and function of the human osteoblasts, and comparing their difference in the role of regulating bone formation. Cultures of normal human osteoblasts were treated with SP, CGRP, VIP, NPY or TH at three concentrations. We found that each of the five neuropeptides induced increases in cell viability of human osteoblasts. The stimulatory action of NPY was the highest, followed by VIP, SP and TH, while CGRP had the lowest stimulatory effect. The viability index of osteoblasts was inversely associated with the concentration of neuropeptides, and positively with the time of exposure. Moreover, the five neuropeptides increased the ALP activity and osteocalcin to different extents in a dose-dependent manner. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly promoted by neuropeptides. The results demonstrated that neuropeptides released from skeletal nerve endings after a stimulus appeared to be able to induce the proliferation and activity of osteoblasts via enhancing GJIC between cells, and further influence the bone formation. These findings may contribute toward a better understanding of the neural influence on bone remodeling and improving treatments related to bone diseases.

  9. Mining functional relationships in feature subspaces from gene expression profiles and drug activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lei; Guo, Tao; Sun, Zhirong

    2002-04-10

    In an effort to determine putative functional relationships between gene expression patterns and drug activity patterns of 60 human cancer cell lines, a novel method was developed to discover local associations within cell line subsets. The association of drug-gene pairs is an explorative way of discovering gene markers that predict clinical tumor sensitivity to therapy. Nine drug-gene networks were discovered, as well as dozens of gene-gene and drug-drug networks. Three drug-gene networks with well studied members were discussed and the literature shows that hypothetical functional relationships exist. Therefore, this method enables the gathering of new information beyond global associations.

  10. Experimental demonstration of line-width modulation in plasmonic lithography using a solid immersion lens-based active nano-gap control

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Won-Sup; Kim, Taeseob; Choi, Guk-Jong; Lim, Geon; Joe, Hang-Eun; Gang, Myeong-Gu; Min, Byung-Kwon; Park, No-Cheol; Moon, Hyungbae; Kim, Do-Hyung; Park, Young-Pil

    2015-02-02

    Plasmonic lithography has been used in nanofabrication because of its utility beyond the diffraction limit. The resolution of plasmonic lithography depends on the nano-gap between the nanoaperture and the photoresist surface—changing the gap distance can modulate the line-width of the pattern. In this letter, we demonstrate solid-immersion lens based active non-contact plasmonic lithography, applying a range of gap conditions to modulate the line-width of the pattern. Using a solid-immersion lens-based near-field control system, the nano-gap between the exit surface of the nanoaperture and the media can be actively modulated and maintained to within a few nanometers. The line-widths of the recorded patterns using 15- and 5-nm gaps were 47 and 19.5 nm, respectively, which matched closely the calculated full-width at half-maximum. From these results, we conclude that changing the nano-gap within a solid-immersion lens-based plasmonic head results in varying line-width patterns.

  11. Anti-inflammatory activity and chemical profile of Galphimia glauca.

    PubMed

    González-Cortazar, Manasés; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique; Marquina, Silvia; Alvarez, Laura; Tortoriello, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Galphimia glauca, commonly known as "flor de estrella", is a plant species used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of different diseases that have an acute or chronic inflammatory process in common. Aerial parts of this plant contain nor-seco-triterpenoids with anxiolytic properties, which have been denominated galphimines. Other compounds identified in the plant are tetragalloyl-quinic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin, which are able to inhibit the bronchial obstruction induced by platelet-activating factor. The objective of this work was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of crude extracts from G. glauca and, by means of bioguided chemical separation, to identify the compounds responsible for this pharmacological activity. n-Hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts showed an important anti-inflammatory effect. Chemical separation of the active methanol extract allowed us to identify the nor-seco-triterpenes galphimine-A (1) and galphimine-E (3) as the anti-inflammatory principles. Analysis of structure-activity relationships evidenced that the presence of an oxygenated function in C6 is absolutely necessary to show activity. In this work, the isolation and structural elucidation of two new nor-seco-triterpenes denominated as galphimine-K (4) and galphimine-L (5), together with different alkanes, fatty acids, as well as three flavonoids (17-19), are described, to our knowledge for the first time, from Galphimia glauca.

  12. Garlic sprouting is associated with increased antioxidant activity and concomitant changes in the metabolite profile.

    PubMed

    Zakarova, Alexandra; Seo, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyang Yeon; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Shin, Jung-Hye; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Choong Hwan; Kim, Jong-Sang

    2014-02-26

    Although garlic (Allium sativum) has been extensively studied for its health benefits, sprouted garlic has received little attention. We hypothesized that sprouting garlic would stimulate the production of various phytochemicals that improve health. Ethanolic extracts from garlic sprouted for different periods had variable antioxidant activities when assessed with in vitro assays, including the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity assay and the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Extracts from garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity, whereas extracts from raw garlic had relatively low antioxidant activity. Furthermore, sprouting changed the metabolite profile of garlic: the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 5-6 days was distinct from the metabolite profile of garlic sprouted for 0-4 days, which is consistent with the finding that garlic sprouted for 5 days had the highest antioxidant activity. Therefore, sprouting may be a useful way to improve the antioxidant potential of garlic.

  13. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of extracts from peanut parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represent approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were det...

  14. Beach Profiles and Transects. Ocean Related Curriculum Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Claire

    The ocean affects all of our lives. Therefore, awareness of and information about the interconnections between humans and oceans are prerequisites to making sound decisions for the future. Project ORCA (Ocean Related Curriculum Activities) has developed interdisciplinary curriculum materials designed to meet the needs of students and teachers…

  15. Fitness Profiles and Activity Patterns of Entering College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Edgar F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Entering college students were evaluated for performance on maximal oxygen consumption, body composition, muscle endurance, muscle strength, and joint flexibility tests to determine the relationship of physical activity patterns to fitness levels. Results supported previous research indicating reduced fitness levels in young adults. (SM)

  16. Reproductive profile of physically active men after exhaustive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Vaamonde, D; Da Silva, M E; Poblador, M S; Lancho, J L

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study on non-professional (recreational) athletes was two-fold: 1) to determine if endurance exercise (EE) routinely used by professional athletes would produce reproductive changes in the general population, and 2) to assess reversion. Short-term exhaustive endurance exercise (EEE) can produce alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis with subsequent fertility changes. Sixteen healthy adult male volunteers were divided into experimental (8) and control (8) groups for the exercise period. A cycloergometer provided EEE for a period of 2 weeks. The experimental group exercised four times a week; controls were without EEE. The hormonal and seminological profiles of all subjects were evaluated. Two weeks of EEE produced hormonal and seminological values in the experimental group that were statistically different from their own pre-treatment values (FSH: 3.33 +/- 1.7; LH: 3.73 +/- 1.36; sperm concentration/ml: 42.50 +/- 29.46; type a velocity: 25.23 +/- 10.9; type d velocity: 46.18 +/- 15.81; % of normal forms: 10.42 +/- 1.97) as well as from the pre- and post-treatment control group values. The measured parameters almost returned to pre-treatment levels in the experimental group 2 - 3 days after EEE ended. From this study we concluded that when subjected to EEE, individuals drawn from a recreational exercising life style experienced changes similar to those observed in studies done with athletes, and short-term EEE induced a reversible alteration to the HPG axis.

  17. Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kodali, Vamsi; Littke, Matthew H.; Tilton, Susan C.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Shi, Liang; Frevert, Charles W.; Wang, Wei; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-08-27

    Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pretreatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pretreatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pretreatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from an M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNFα production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Finally, nanotoxicology screening

  18. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-04-17

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food.

  19. Chilean prosopis mesocarp flour: phenolic profiling and antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo; Quispe, Cristina; Soriano, Maria Del Pilar C; Theoduloz, Cristina; Jiménez-Aspée, Felipe; Pérez, Maria Jorgelina; Cuello, Ana Soledad; Isla, Maria Inés

    2015-01-01

    In South America, the mesocarp flour of Prosopis species plays a prominent role as a food resource in arid areas. The aim of this work was the characterization of the phenolic antioxidants occurring in the pod mesocarp flour of Chilean Prosopis. Samples were collected in the Copiapo, Huasco and Elqui valleys from the north of Chile. The samples of P. chilensis flour exhibited a total phenolic content ranging between 0.82-2.57 g gallic acid equivalents/100 g fresh flour weight. The highest antioxidant activity, measured by the DPPH assay, was observed for samples from the Huasco valley. HPLC-MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of eight anthocyanins and 13 phenolic compounds including flavonol glycosides, C-glycosyl flavones and ellagic acid derivatives. The antioxidant activity and the phenolic composition in the flour suggest that this ancient South American resource may have potential as a functional food. PMID:25898415

  20. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry.

  1. Actuation profiles to form Zernike shapes with a thermal active mirror.

    PubMed

    Saathof, Rudolf; Schutten, Gerrit Jan M; Spronck, Jo W; Munnig Schmidt, Robert H

    2015-01-15

    In EUV lithography, the absorption of EUV light causes wavefront distortion that deteriorates the imaging process. An adaptive optics system has been developed ["Adaptive optics to counteract thermal aberrations," Ph.D. thesis (TU Delft, 2013)] to correct for this distortion using an active mirror (AM). This AM is thermally actuated by absorbing an irradiance profile exposed by a projector onto the AM. Due to thermal conductivity and bimorph-like deformation of the AM, the relation between actuation profile and actuated shape is not trivial. Therefore, this Letter describes how actuation profiles are obtained to generate Zernike shapes. These actuation profiles have been obtained by a finite-element-based optimization procedure. Furthermore, these actuation profiles are exposed to the AM, and the resulting deformations are measured. This Letter shows actuated Zernike shapes with purities higher than 0.9 for most actuation profiles. In addition, superimposed actuation profiles resulted in superimposed Zernike shapes, showing linearity needed to apply modal wavefront correction. Therefore, this approach can be used to obtain actuation profiles for this AM concept, which can be used for highly precise wavefront correction. PMID:25679845

  2. A new nano-structured Ni(II) Schiff base complex: synthesis, characterization, optical band gaps, and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashad, M. M.; Hassan, A. M.; Nassar, A. M.; Ibrahim, N. M.; Mourtada, A.

    2014-05-01

    New Ni(II) Schiff base complexes [{Ni(L)(H2O)Cl} where HL = 2-((pyridin-3-ylmethylene)amino)phenol] have been synthesized using the reflux and sonochemical methods. The nickel oxide NiO nanopowder was obtained from the metal complexes after calcination at 650 °C for 2 h. The Schiff base complexes and NiO powders were characterized in detail. The HL and its metal complexes were depicted high activity towards microorganism and breast carcinoma cells. The inhibitory activity against breast carcinoma (MCF-7) were detected with IC50 = 5.5, 12.5 and 9.6 for HL, complex (1) and complex (2), respectively. The optical band gap energy was 3.6, 3.0 and 2.37 eV for Ni complexes (1), (2) and NiO, respectively. The microstructure of the formed NiO powders appeared as cubic-like structure. Furthermore, magnetic properties of NiO sample were identified and paramagnetic property was found at a room temperature. The saturation magnetization and coercive force for the NiO sample were 0.47 emu/g and 42.68 Oe, respectively.

  3. Urban Adolescents' Out-of-School Activity Profiles: Associations with Youth, Family, and School Transition Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedersen, Sara

    2005-01-01

    This study applied individual growth trajectory analyses and person-oriented analysis to identify common profiles of out-of-school activity engagement trajectories among racially and ethnically diverse inner city teens (N = 1,430). On average, teens exhibited declining trajectories of participation in school-based and team sports activities and…

  4. Phenolic and carotenoid profiles and antiproliferative activity of foxtail millet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li Zhen; Liu, Rui Hai

    2015-05-01

    Commonly consumed foxtail millet varieties Jingu28 and Jingu34 were compared in terms of phytochemical composition, antioxidant property, and antiproliferative activity. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) was evaluated based on HepG2 cell cultivation. Antiproliferative properties against HepG2 and MDA cell were assayed by methylene blue assay. Total phenolic content (TPC) was 78.79 and 114.22 mg gallic acid equiv/100 g DW in Jingu28 and Jingu34. Both varieties contained ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid, syringic acid. Xanthophylls and zeaxanthin were also detected. Peroxyl radical scavenging capacity of the foxtail millet were 228.13 (Jingu28) and 355.03 (Jingu34) μmol of vitamin C equiv/100 g, respectively. CAA values of the foxtail millet varieties ranged from 1.52 to 8.97 μmol quercetin equiv/100 g DW. The proliferation of MDA and HepG2 cancer cells were significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent manner after exposure to Jingu28 and Jingu34 extractions. PMID:25529711

  5. Enzyme Activity Profiles during Fruit Development in Tomato Cultivars and Solanum pennellii1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Steinhauser, Marie-Caroline; Steinhauser, Dirk; Koehl, Karin; Carrari, Fernando; Gibon, Yves; Fernie, Alisdair R.; Stitt, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes interact to generate metabolic networks. The activities of more than 22 enzymes from central metabolism were profiled during the development of fruit of the modern tomato cultivar Solanum lycopersicum ‘M82’ and its wild relative Solanum pennellii (LA0716). In S. pennellii, the mature fruit remains green and contains lower sugar and higher organic acid levels. These genotypes are the parents of a widely used near introgression line population. Enzymes were also profiled in a second cultivar, S. lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’, for which data sets for the developmental changes of metabolites and transcripts are available. Whereas most enzyme activities declined during fruit development in the modern S. lycopersicum cultivars, they remained high or even increased in S. pennellii, especially enzymes required for organic acid synthesis. The enzyme profiles were sufficiently characteristic to allow stages of development and cultivars and the wild species to be distinguished by principal component analysis and clustering. Many enzymes showed coordinated changes during fruit development of a given genotype. Comparison of the correlation matrices revealed a large overlap between the two modern cultivars and considerable overlap with S. pennellii, indicating that despite the very different development responses, some basic modules are retained. Comparison of enzyme activity, metabolite profiles, and transcript profiles in S. lycopersicum ‘Moneymaker’ revealed remarkably little connectivity between the developmental changes of transcripts and enzymes and even less between enzymes and metabolites. We discuss the concept that the metabolite profile is an emergent property that is generated by complex network interactions. PMID:20335402

  6. A Case Study of After-School Activities in One School That Is Making Progress in Closing the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shugerman, Susan Robin

    2013-01-01

    Closing the achievement gap has been a national conversation for several decades and a priority for educators and researchers. By looking closely at one school which is showing exceptional success with closing the achievement gap for low income students and English language learners, this study seeks to understand how school personnel and parents…

  7. Synaptotagmin-like protein 1 interacts with the GTPase-activating protein Rap1GAP2 and regulates dense granule secretion in platelets.

    PubMed

    Neumüller, Olga; Hoffmeister, Meike; Babica, Jan; Prelle, Carola; Gegenbauer, Kristina; Smolenski, Albert P

    2009-08-13

    The small guanine-nucleotide-binding protein Rap1 plays a key role in platelet aggregation and hemostasis, and we recently identified Rap1GAP2 as the only GTPase-activating protein of Rap1 in platelets. In search of Rap1GAP2-associated proteins, we performed yeast-2-hybrid screening and found synaptotagmin-like protein 1 (Slp1) as a new binding partner. We confirmed the interaction of Rap1GAP2 and Slp1 in transfected COS-1 and HeLa cells and at endogenous level in human platelets. Mapping studies showed that Rap1GAP2 binds through amino acids T524-K525-X-T527 within its C-terminus to the C2A domain of Slp1. Slp1 contains a Rab27-binding domain, and we demonstrate that Rap1GAP2, Slp1, and Rab27 form a trimeric complex in transfected cells and in platelets. Purified Slp1 dose-dependently decreased dense granule secretion in streptolysin-O-permeabilized platelets stimulated with calcium or guanosine 5'-O-[gamma-thio] triphosphate. The isolated C2A domain of Slp1 had a stimulatory effect on granule secretion and reversed the inhibitory effect of full-length Slp1. Purified Rap1GAP2 augmented dense granule secretion of permeabilized platelets, whereas deletion of the Slp1-binding TKXT motif abolished the effect of Rap1GAP2. We conclude that Slp1 inhibits dense granule secretion in platelets and that Rap1GAP2 modulates secretion by binding to Slp1. PMID:19528539

  8. Comparative activity profiles of Thielavia terrestris and Trichoderma reesei cellulases

    SciTech Connect

    Tuse, D.; Mason, B.J.; Skinner, W.A.

    1980-10-01

    The successful utilization of cellulosic materials depends on the development of economically feasible processes for the literation of low molecular weight soluble products from the polymers. These soluble products, such as hexoses and pentoses, can then be utilized as substrates for the microbial or chemical product of fuels, food, and chemical feedstocks. In the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose, one of the major roadblocks to the development of commercially attractive processes has been the instability of the cellulase complex. It is desirable, for example, to operate the conversion systems at elevated temperatures, but environments with high thermal energy can significantly shorten enzyme half life. The authors have isolated a strain of the fungus Thielavia terrestris that possesses a complete cellulase system, and its enzymes were found to have remarkable thermal stability. The author presents a comparison of the activities of the T. terrestris enzymes with those of Trichoderma reesei.

  9. Alkaloid profiling and anticholinesterase activity of South American Lycopodiaceae species.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Eduardo Luis; Ortega, María Gabriela; de Loreto Bordignon, Sérgio; Apel, Miriam Anders; Henriques, Amélia Teresinha; Cabrera, José Luis

    2013-02-01

    The alkaloid extracts of four Huperzia and one Lycopodiella species, from Brazilian habitats, were tested for their in vitro anticholinesterase activities. IC(50) values showed a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibition for H. reflexa (0.11 ± 0.05 μg/mL), followed by H. quadrifariata (2.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL), H. acerosa (5.5 ± 0.9 μg/mL), H. heterocarpon (25.6 ± 2.7 μg/mL) and L. cernua (42.6 ± 1.5 μg/mL). A lower inhibition of butyrylcholinesterase was observed for all species with the exception of H. heterocarpon (8.3 ± 0.9 μg/mL), whose alkaloid extract presented a selectivity for pseudocholinesterase. Moreover, the chemical study of the bioactive extracts performed by GC-MS, revealed the presence of a number of Lycopodium alkaloids belonging to the lycopodane, flabellidane and cernuane groups. Surprisingly, the potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors huperzines A and B were not detected in the extracts, suggesting that other alkaloids may be responsible for such an effect. PMID:22117191

  10. Activated sludge pilot plant: comparison between experimental and predicted concentration profiles using three different modelling approaches.

    PubMed

    Le Moullec, Y; Potier, O; Gentric, C; Leclerc, J P

    2011-05-01

    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of an activated sludge channel pilot plant. Concentration profiles of oxygen, COD, NO(3) and NH(4) have been measured for several operating conditions. These profiles have been compared to the simulated ones with three different modelling approaches, namely a systemic approach, CFD and compartmental modelling. For these three approaches, the kinetics model was the ASM-1 model (Henze et al., 2001). The three approaches allowed a reasonable simulation of all the concentration profiles except for ammonium for which the simulations results were far from the experimental ones. The analysis of the results showed that the role of the kinetics model is of primary importance for the prediction of activated sludge reactors performance. The fact that existing kinetics parameters in the literature have been determined by parametric optimisation using a systemic model limits the reliability of the prediction of local concentrations and of the local design of activated sludge reactors. PMID:21489593

  11. Relationships Between Physical Education Students’ Motivational Profiles, Enjoyment, State Anxiety, and Self-Reported Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze motivational profiles based on the self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan, 2000) and how these profiles are related to physical education students’ enjoyment, state anxiety, and physical activity. The participants, 429 sixth grade students (girls = 216; boys = 213) completed SMS, Sport Enjoyment Scale, PESAS, and Physical Activity Scale. Cluster analyses identified two motivational profiles: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first cluster enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active. The results revealed that students may be motivated towards physical education lessons both intrinsically and extrinsically, and still experience enjoyment in physical education. Key points Two motivational profiles were revealed: 1) the “High motivation profile”, in which the students had high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation, and 2) the “Low motivation profile”, in which the students had low intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and low levels of amotivation. The students in the first profile enjoyed physical education more and were physically more active than the students in the second profile. Moreover, the representatives of the “High motivation profile ”experienced greater anxiety toward physical education than the representatives of the “Low motivation profile” These findings raised an interesting question whether students engaging in physical education benefit more from the presence of both self-determined and non-self-determined forms of motivation, or are the benefits higher if students are primarily self-determined? PMID:24149994

  12. Gap Resolution

    2009-06-16

    With the continued improvements of next generation DNA sequencing technologies and their advantages over traditional Sanger sequencing, the Joint Genome Institute (JGI) has modified its sequencing pipeline to take advantage of the benefits of such technologies. Currently, standard 454 Titanium, paired end 454 Titanium, and Illumina GAll data are generated for all microbial projects and then assembled using draft assemblies at a much greater throughput than before. However, it also presents us with new challenges.more » In addition to the increased throughput, we also have to deal with a larger number of gaps in the Newbler genome assemblies. Gaps in these assemblies are usually caused by repeats (Newbler collapses repeat copies into individual contigs, thus creating gaps), strong secondary structures, and artifacts of the PCR process (specific to 454 paired end libraries). Some gaps in draft assemblies can be resolved merely by adding back the collapsed data from repeats. To expedite gap closure and assembly improvement on large numbers of these assemblies, we developed software to address this issue.« less

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oklahoma, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oklahoma for 2010. Oklahoma made progress in narrowing achievement gaps for most major subgroups on the End-of-Instruction (EOI) test in Algebra I. Trends in achievement gaps could not be determined for other grades in math, or for any grades in reading, because the state…

  14. Synthesis, characterization, optical band gap, in vitro antimicrobial activity and DNA cleavage studies of some metal complexes of pyridyl thiosemicarbazone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; El-Gammal, O. A.; Bedier, R. A.

    2013-03-01

    A new series of Cr(III), Mn(II), Ni(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) complexes of Schiff-bases derived from the condensation of 4-(2-pyridyl)-3-thiosemicarbazide and pyruvic acid (H2PTP) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. Schiff-base exhibit thiol-thione tautomerism wherein sulfur plays an important role in the coordination. The coordination possibility of the Schiff-bases towards metal ions have been proposed in the light of elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-vis, 1H NMR and 13C NMR), magnetic and thermal studies. IR spectra show that H2PTP is coordinated to the metal ions in a mononegative tridentate manner except in Cr(III) complex in which the ligand exhibits mononegative bidentate manner. The parameters total energy, binding energy, isolated atomic energy, electronic energy, heat of formation, dipole moment, HOMO and LUMO were calculated for the ligand and its complexes. Furthermore, the kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using the Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Also, the optical band gap (Eg) of the metal complexes has been calculated. The optical transition energy (Eg) is direct and equals 3.20, 3.27 and 3.26 eV for Cr, Mn and Ni complexes, respectively. The synthesized ligand, in comparison to its metal complexes is screened for its antibacterial activity against the bacterial species, Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeuroginosa and Escherichia coli. The results show that the metal complexes be more potent in activity antibacterial than the parent Shciff base ligand towards one or more bacterial species. Finally, the biochemical studies showed that, Mn complex have powerful and complete degradation effect on DNA.

  15. Application of activity-based protein profiling to study enzyme function in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Galmozzi, Andrea; Dominguez, Eduardo; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Saez, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is a chemical proteomics approach that utilizes small-molecule probes to determine the functional state of enzymes directly in native systems. ABPP probes selectively label active enzymes, but not their inactive forms, facilitating the characterization of changes in enzyme activity that occur without alterations in protein levels. ABPP can be a tool superior to conventional gene expression and proteomic profiling methods to discover new enzymes active in adipocytes and to detect differences in the activity of characterized enzymes that may be associated with disorders of adipose tissue function. ABPP probes have been developed that react selectively with most members of specific enzyme classes. Here, using as an example the serine hydrolase family that includes many enzymes with critical roles in adipocyte physiology, we describe methods to apply ABPP analysis to the study of adipocyte enzymatic pathways.

  16. A self-sacrifice template route to iodine modified BiOIO3: band gap engineering and highly boosted visible-light active photoreactivity.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jingwen; Huang, Hongwei; Yu, Shixin; Dong, Fan; Zhang, Yihe

    2016-03-21

    The development of high-performance visible-light photocatalysts with a tunable band gap has great significance for enabling wide-band-gap (WBG) semiconductors visible-light sensitive activity and precisely tailoring their optical properties and photocatalytic performance. In this work we demonstrate the continuously adjustable band gap and visible-light photocatalysis activation of WBG BiOIO3via iodine surface modification. The iodine modified BiOIO3 was developed through a facile in situ reduction route by applying BiOIO3 as the self-sacrifice template and glucose as the reducing agent. By manipulating the glucose concentration, the band gap of the as-prepared modified BiOIO3 could be orderly narrowed by generation of the impurity or defect energy level close to the conduction band, thus endowing it with a visible light activity. The photocatalytic assessments uncovered that, in contrast to pristine BiOIO3, the modified BiOIO3 presents significantly boosted photocatalytic properties for the degradation of both liquid and gaseous contaminants, including Rhodamine B (RhB), methyl orange (MO), and ppb-level NO under visible light. Additionally, the band structure evolution as well as photocatalysis mechanism triggered by the iodine surface modification is investigated in detail. This study not only provides a novel iodine surface-modified BiOIO3 for environmental application, but also provides a facile and general way to develop highly efficient visible-light photocatalysts.

  17. Continuous Water Vapor Profiles from Operational Ground-Based Active and Passive Remote Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, D. D.; Feltz, W. F.; Ferrare, R. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program's Southern Great Plains Cloud and Radiation Testbed site central facility near Lamont, Oklahoma, offers unique operational water vapor profiling capabilities, including active and passive remote sensors as well as traditional in situ radiosonde measurements. Remote sensing technologies include an automated Raman lidar and an automated Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI), which are able to retrieve water vapor profiles operationally through the lower troposphere throughout the diurnal cycle. Comparisons of these two water vapor remote sensing methods to each other and to radiosondes over an 8-month period are presented and discussed, highlighting the accuracy and limitations of each method. Additionally, the AERI is able to retrieve profiles of temperature while the Raman lidar is able to retrieve aerosol extinction profiles operationally. These data, coupled with hourly wind profiles from a 915-MHz wind profiler, provide complete specification of the state of the atmosphere in noncloudy skies. Several case studies illustrate the utility of these high temporal resolution measurements in the characterization of mesoscale features within a 3-day time period in which passage of a dryline, warm air advection, and cold front occurred.

  18. Automated Structure-Activity Relationship Mining: Connecting Chemical Structure to Biological Profiles.

    PubMed

    Wawer, Mathias J; Jaramillo, David E; Dančík, Vlado; Fass, Daniel M; Haggarty, Stephen J; Shamji, Alykhan F; Wagner, Bridget K; Schreiber, Stuart L; Clemons, Paul A

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of small molecules is important for developing probes and novel therapeutic agents in chemical biology and drug discovery. Increasingly, multiplexed small-molecule profiling assays allow simultaneous measurement of many biological response parameters for the same compound (e.g., expression levels for many genes or binding constants against many proteins). Although such methods promise to capture SARs with high granularity, few computational methods are available to support SAR analyses of high-dimensional compound activity profiles. Many of these methods are not generally applicable or reduce the activity space to scalar summary statistics before establishing SARs. In this article, we present a versatile computational method that automatically extracts interpretable SAR rules from high-dimensional profiling data. The rules connect chemical structural features of compounds to patterns in their biological activity profiles. We applied our method to data from novel cell-based gene-expression and imaging assays collected on more than 30,000 small molecules. Based on the rules identified for this data set, we prioritized groups of compounds for further study, including a novel set of putative histone deacetylase inhibitors.

  19. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood pressure profile in Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Wasim A; Patel, Minal C; Singh, S K

    2011-01-01

    The current study was conducted to determine how physical activity level and physical fitness affects the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents so as to help in developing preventive strategies for the local population as ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of hypertension. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 485 Gujarati Indian adolescent boys and girls of age group 16-19 years. Physical activity level was assessed using Johnson Space Center/NASA Physical Activity Rating Scale and VO2 max was used to assess the physical fitness. Body composition was assessed in terms of Body Mass Index, Fat Mass Index and Waist Circumference. Blood Pressure was measured by oscillometry. One-way ANOVA was used to study if any significant differences (P<0.05) existed in the blood pressure profile between the high, moderate and low physical activity groups. Pearson's correlation coefficient was determined to assess the relationship between VO2 max and blood pressure profile. In girls, physical activity level was not found to have a significant effect on the blood pressure profile. In boys, systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity Group as compared to Low Physical Activity Group. PVO2 max was found to have a significant negative correlationship with SBP, DBP and MAP in girls and a significant negative correlationship with SBP, PP and MAP in boys. It could thus be concluded that a better physical fitness rather than a higher physical activity level could keep the blood pressure in check in the Gujarati Indian adolescents.

  20. Adolescents' physical activity in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular sport by motivational profiles.

    PubMed

    Mayorga-Vega, Daniel; Viciana, Jesús

    2014-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the differences in adolescents´ objective physical activity levels and perceived effort in physical education, school recess, and extra-curricular organized sport by motivational profiles in physical education. A sample of 102 students 11-16 yr. old completed a self-report questionnaire assessing self-determined motivation toward physical education. Subsequently, students' objective physical activity levels (steps/min., METs, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity) and perceived effort were evaluated for each situation. Cluster analysis identified a two-cluster structure: "Moderate motivation toward physical education profile" and "High motivation toward physical education profile." Adolescents in the second cluster had higher physical activity and perceived effort values than adolescents in the first cluster, except for METs and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in extra-curricular sport. These results support the importance of physical education teachers who should promote self-determined motivation toward physical education so that students can reach the recommended physical activity levels.

  1. Investigating the active hydrothermal field of Kolumbo Volcano using CTD profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleni Christopoulou, Maria; Mertzimekis, Theo; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Papanikolaou, Dimitrios; Carey, Steve

    2014-05-01

    The submarine Kolumbo volcano NE of Santorini Island and the unique active hydrothermal vent field on its crater field (depth ~ 500 m) have been recently explored in multiple cruises aboard E/V Nautilus. ROV explorations showed the existence of extensive vent activity and almost completely absence of vent-specific macrofauna. Gas discharges have been found to be 99%-rich in CO2, which is sequestered at the bottom of the crater due to a special combination of physicochemical and geomorphological factors. The dynamic conditions existing along the water column in the crater have been studied in detail by means of temperature, salinity and conductivity depth profiles for the first time. CTD sensors aboard the ROV Hercules were employed to record anomalies in those parameters in an attempt to investigate several active and inactive vent locations. Temporal CTD monitoring inside and outside of the crater was carried out over a period of two years. Direct comparison between the vent field and locations outside the main cone, where no hydrothermal activity is known to exist, showed completely different characteristics. CTD profiles above the active vent field (NNE side) are correlated to Kolumbo's cone morphology. The profiles suggest the existence of four distinct zones of physicochemical properties in the water column. The layer directly above the chimneys exhibit gas discharges highly enriched in CO2. Continuous gas motoring is essential to identify the onset of geological hazards in the region.

  2. Activity profiling of vacuolar processing enzymes reveals a role for VPE during oomycete infection.

    PubMed

    Misas-Villamil, Johana C; Toenges, Gerrit; Kolodziejek, Izabella; Sadaghiani, Amir M; Kaschani, Farnusch; Colby, Thomas; Bogyo, Matthew; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2013-02-01

    Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) are important cysteine proteases that are implicated in the maturation of seed storage proteins, and programmed cell death during plant-microbe interactions and development. Here, we introduce a specific, cell-permeable, activity-based probe for VPEs. This probe is highly specific for all four Arabidopsis VPEs, and labeling is activity-dependent, as illustrated by sensitivity for inhibitors, pH and reducing agents. We show that the probe can be used for in vivo imaging and displays multiple active isoforms of VPEs in various tissues and in both monocot and dicot plant species. Thus, VPE activity profiling is a robust, simple and powerful tool for plant research for a wide range of applications. Using VPE activity profiling, we discovered that VPE activity is increased during infection with the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa). The enhanced VPE activity is host-derived and EDS1-independent. Sporulation of Hpa is reduced on vpe mutant plants, demonstrating a role for VPE during compatible interactions that is presumably independent of programmed cell death. Our data indicate that, as an obligate biotroph, Hpa takes advantage of increased VPE activity in the host, e.g. to mediate protein turnover and nutrient release.

  3. Comparative analysis of click chemistry mediated activity-based protein profiling in cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yinliang; Yang, Xiaomeng; Verhelst, Steven H L

    2013-01-01

    Activity-based protein profiling uses chemical probes that covalently attach to active enzyme targets. Probes with conventional tags have disadvantages, such as limited cell permeability or steric hindrance around the reactive group. A tandem labeling strategy with click chemistry is now widely used to study enzyme targets in situ and in vivo. Herein, the probes are reacted in live cells, whereas the ensuing detection by click chemistry takes place in cell lysates. We here make a comparison of the efficiency of the activity-based tandem labeling strategy by using Cu(I)-catalyzed and strain-promoted click chemistry, different ligands and different lysis conditions. PMID:24126377

  4. Hierarchical active factors to band gap and nonlinear optical response in Ag-containing quaternary-chalcogenide compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jun-ben; Mamat, Mamatrishat; Pan, Shilie; Yang, Zhihua

    2016-07-01

    In this research work, Ag-containing quaternary-chalcogenide compounds KAg2TS4 (T=P, Sb) (I-II) and RbAg2SbS4 (III) have been studied by means of Density Functional Theory as potential IR nonlinear optical materials. The origin of wide band gap, different optical anisotropy and large SHG response is explained via a combination of density of states, electronic density difference and bond population analysis. It is indicated that the different covalent interaction behavior of P-S and Sb-S bonds dominates the band gap and birefringence. Specifically, the Ag-containing chalcogenide compound KAg2PS4 possesses wide band gap and SHG response comparable with that of AgGaS2. By exploring the origin of the band gap and NLO response for compounds KAg2TS4 (T=P, Sb), we found the determination factor to the properties is different, especially the roles of Ag-d orbitals and bonding behavior of P-S or Sb-S. Thus, the compounds KAg2TS4 (T=P, Sb) and RbAg2SbS4 can be used in infrared (IR) region.

  5. Fluorescent profiling of modular biosynthetic enzymes by complementary metabolic and activity based probes.

    PubMed

    Meier, Jordan L; Mercer, Andrew C; Burkart, Michael D

    2008-04-23

    The study of the enzymes responsible for natural product biosynthesis has proven a valuable source of new enzymatic activities and been applied to a number of biotechnology applications. Protein profiling could prove highly complementary to genetics based approaches by allowing us to understand the activity, transcriptional control, and post-translational modification of these enzymes in their native and dynamic proteomic environments. Here we present a method for the fluorescent profiling of PKS, NRPS, and FAS multidomain modular synthases in their whole proteomes using complementary metabolic and activity based probes. After first examining the reactivity of these activity based probes with a variety of purified recombinant PKS, NRPS, and FAS enzymes in vitro, we apply this duel labeling strategy to the analysis of modular synthases in a human breast cancer cell line and two strains of the natural product producer Bacillus subtilis. Collectively, these studies demonstrate that complementary protein profiling approaches can prove highly useful in the identification and assignment of inhibitor specificity and domain structure of these modular biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:18376827

  6. Activity-based protein profiling identifies a host enzyme, carboxylesterase 1, which is differentially active during hepatitis C virus replication.

    PubMed

    Blais, David R; Lyn, Rodney K; Joyce, Michael A; Rouleau, Yanouchka; Steenbergen, Rineke; Barsby, Nicola; Zhu, Lin-Fu; Pegoraro, Adrian F; Stolow, Albert; Tyrrell, David L; Pezacki, John Paul

    2010-08-13

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) relies on many interactions with host cell proteins for propagation. Successful HCV infection also requires enzymatic activity of host cell enzymes for key post-translational modifications. To identify such enzymes, we have applied activity-based protein profiling to examine the activity of serine hydrolases during HCV replication. Profiling of hydrolases in Huh7 cells replicating HCV identified CES1 (carboxylesterase 1) as a differentially active enzyme. CES1 is an endogenous liver protein involved in processing of triglycerides and cholesterol. We observe that CES1 expression and activity were altered in the presence of HCV. The knockdown of CES1 with siRNA resulted in lower levels of HCV replication, and up-regulation of CES1 was observed to favor HCV propagation, implying an important role for this host cell protein. Experiments in HCV JFH1-infected cells suggest that CES1 facilitates HCV release because less intracellular HCV core protein was observed, whereas HCV titers remained high. CES1 activity was observed to increase the size and density of lipid droplets, which are necessary for the maturation of very low density lipoproteins, one of the likely vehicles for HCV release. In transgenic mice containing human-mouse chimeric livers, HCV infection also correlates with higher levels of endogenous CES1, providing further evidence that CES1 has an important role in HCV propagation. PMID:20530478

  7. STEMMING the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahler, Jim; Valentine, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    America has a gap when it comes to youth pursuing science and technology careers. In an effort to improve the knowledge and application of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), after-school programs can work in conjunction with formal in-school curriculum to improve science education. One organization that actively addresses this…

  8. Cytokinin and Auxin Display Distinct but Interconnected Distribution and Signaling Profiles to Stimulate Cambial Activity.

    PubMed

    Immanen, Juha; Nieminen, Kaisa; Smolander, Olli-Pekka; Kojima, Mikiko; Alonso Serra, Juan; Koskinen, Patrik; Zhang, Jing; Elo, Annakaisa; Mähönen, Ari Pekka; Street, Nathaniel; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P; Paulin, Lars; Auvinen, Petri; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Helariutta, Ykä

    2016-08-01

    Despite the crucial roles of phytohormones in plant development, comparison of the exact distribution profiles of different hormones within plant meristems has thus far remained scarce. Vascular cambium, a wide lateral meristem with an extensive developmental zonation, provides an optimal system for hormonal and genetic profiling. By taking advantage of this spatial resolution, we show here that two major phytohormones, cytokinin and auxin, display different yet partially overlapping distribution profiles across the cambium. In contrast to auxin, which has its highest concentration in the actively dividing cambial cells, cytokinins peak in the developing phloem tissue of a Populus trichocarpa stem. Gene expression patterns of cytokinin biosynthetic and signaling genes coincided with this hormonal gradient. To explore the functional significance of cytokinin signaling for cambial development, we engineered transgenic Populus tremula × tremuloides trees with an elevated cytokinin biosynthesis level. Confirming that cytokinins function as major regulators of cambial activity, these trees displayed stimulated cambial cell division activity resulting in dramatically increased (up to 80% in dry weight) production of the lignocellulosic trunk biomass. To connect the increased growth to hormonal status, we analyzed the hormone distribution and genome-wide gene expression profiles in unprecedentedly high resolution across the cambial zone. Interestingly, in addition to showing an elevated cambial cytokinin content and signaling level, the cambial auxin concentration and auxin-responsive gene expression were also increased in the transgenic trees. Our results indicate that cytokinin signaling specifies meristematic activity through a graded distribution that influences the amplitude of the cambial auxin gradient. PMID:27426519

  9. Active Uplift At The Taiwan Belt Front Revealed By River Profiles:the Hsiaomei Anticline Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, R.-F.; Angelier, J.; Hu, J.-C.; Deffontaines, B.; Tsai, H.

    A river profile may reveal tectonic deformation through comparison with a smoothed theoretical function based on simple assumptions, provided that its relationships with the erosion-accumulation phenomena have been deciphered. The Taiwan orogeny re- sults from the collision between the Luzon volcanic arc of the Philippine Sea plate and the Chinese continental margin of the Eurasian plate. As an active collision zone between the Luzon arc and the China continental margin, the Taiwan mountain belt, particularly its south-central part, is undergoing strong crustal shortening and rapid uplift. In the central part of the island, rock uplift rates are matched by erosion rates calculated from sediment yields and exhumation rates. In the foothills of southwestern Taiwan we focus on the longitudinal profiles of twelve rivers near Chiayi area. Based on the fit with mathematical functions, we characterize a significant positive anomaly in terms of shape, amplitude and location. River data from 1/5,000 topographic maps were used to define a set of parameters related to the classical exponential equation of the longitudinal profiles. We obtained an accepted fit for a set of 5-7 parameters of the polynomial exponent, that is, a degree 4-6. The anomaly is spatially consistent and does not show correlation with variations in erosional-depositional phenomena, including variations in lithology of the rock formations. The anomaly thus reflects tectonic uplift, in good agreement with other sources of information, including the GPS data that indicate active E-W shortening of about 1 cm/yr in this area. The posi- tive anomaly detected in ten river profiles diminishes and vanishes in the northernmost and southernmost river profiles. It reflects continuing folding and uplift within an ellip- tic area elongated N-S, which corresponds to the present-day growth of the Hsiaomei anticline at the front of Taiwan belt.

  10. Analytical methodology for the profiling and characterization of androgen receptor active compounds in human placenta.

    PubMed

    Indiveri, Paolo; Horwood, Julia; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Arrebola, Juan P; Olea, Nicolas; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2014-08-01

    The exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals during foetal development has been proposed to cause reproductive dysfunctions in the neonate or later life. In order to support such studies, an analytical method was developed to profile the receptor mediated (anti)androgenic activities present in extracts of placenta samples. Placenta samples from women giving birth to healthy male neonates were extracted and fractionated by HPLC. Fractions containing androgen receptor (AR) activity were detected using an in vitro yeast-based human androgen receptor transcription screen. GC-MS analyses of receptor active fractions resulted in detection of chemical contaminants including antimicrobial and cosmetic compounds which exhibited AR antagonist activity in the yeast screen, and endogenously derived steroids which contributed to both the agonist and antagonistic activity in the samples. The bioassay-directed fractionation methodology developed in this study revealed the potential to identify mixtures of chemical contaminants that should be investigated for potential effects on the reproductive system.

  11. Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid profile of starry flounder Platichthys stellatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Zhidong; Wang, Jiying; Qiao, Hongjin; Li, Peiyu; Zhang, Limin; Xia, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Ontogenetic changes in digestive enzyme activities and the amino acid (AA) profile of starry flounder, Platichthys stellatus, were investigated and limiting amino acids were estimated compared with the essential AA profile between larvae and live food to clarify starry flounder larval nutritional requirements. Larvae were collected at the egg stage and 0, 2, 4, 7, 12, 17, 24 days after hatching (DAH) for analysis. Larvae grew from 1.91 mm at hatching to 12.13 mm at 24 DAH. Trypsin and chymotrypsin activities changed slightly by 4 DAH and then increased significantly 4 DAH. Pepsin activity increased sharply beginning 17 DAH. Lipase activity increased significantly 4 DAH and increased progressively with larval growth. Amylase activity was also detected in newly hatched larvae and increased 7 DAH followed by a gradual decrease. High free amino acid (FAA) content was detected in starry flounder eggs (110.72 mg/g dry weight). Total FAA content dropped to 43.29 mg/g in 4-DAH larvae and then decreased gradually to 13.74 mg/g in 24-DAH larvae. Most FAAs (except lysine and methionine) decreased >50% in 4-DAH larvae compared with those in eggs and then decreased to the lowest values in 24-DAH larvae. Changes in the protein amino acid (PAA) profile were much milder than those observed for FAAs. Most PAAs increased gradually during larval development, except lysine and phenylalanine. The percentages of free threonine, valine, isoleucine, and leucine decreased until the end of the trial, whereas the protein forms of these four AAs followed the opposite trend. A comparison of the essential AA composition of live food (rotifers, Artemia nauplii, and Artemia metanauplii) and larvae suggested that methionine was potentially the first limiting AA. These results may help develop starry flounder larviculture methods by solving the AA imbalance in live food. Moreover, the increased digestive enzyme activities indicate the possibility of introducing artificial compound feed.

  12. Profiling Kinase Activity during Hepatitis C Virus Replication Using a Wortmannin Probe.

    PubMed

    Desrochers, Geneviève F; Sherratt, Allison R; Blais, David R; Nasheri, Neda; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Goto, Natalie K; Pezacki, John Paul

    2015-09-11

    To complete its life cycle, the hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces changes to numerous aspects of its host cell. As kinases act as regulators of many pathways utilized by HCV, they are likely enzyme targets for virally induced inhibition or activation. Herein, we used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which allows for the identification of active enzymes in complex protein samples and the quantification of their activity, to identify kinases that displayed differential activity in HCV-expressing cells. We utilized an ABPP probe, wortmannin-yne, based on the kinase inhibitor wortmannin, which contains a pendant alkyne group for bioconjugation using bioorthogonal chemistry. We observed changes in the activity of kinases involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, apoptosis pathways, and cell cycle control. These results establish changes to the active kinome, as reported by wortmannin-yne, in the proteome of human hepatoma cells actively replicating HCV. The observed changes include kinase activity that affect viral entry, replication, assembly, and secretion, implying that HCV is regulating the pathways that it uses for its life cycle through modulation of the active kinome. PMID:27617927

  13. 802.16e System Profile for NASA Extra-Vehicular Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Chelmins, David T.; Nguyen, Hung D.; Downey, Joseph A.; Finn, Gregory G.; Cagley, Richard E.; Bakula, Casey J.

    2009-01-01

    This report identifies an 802.16e system profile that is applicable to a lunar surface wireless network, and specifically for meeting extra-vehicular activity (EVA) data flow requirements. EVA suit communication needs are addressed. Design-driving operational scenarios are considered. These scenarios are then used to identify a configuration of the 802.16e system (system profile) that meets EVA requirements, but also aim to make the radio realizable within EVA constraints. Limitations of this system configuration are highlighted. An overview and development status is presented by Toyon Research Corporation concerning the development of an 802.16e compatible modem under NASA s Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Program. This modem is based on the recommended system profile developed as part of this report. Last, a path forward is outlined that presents an evolvable solution for the EVA radio system and lunar surface radio networks. This solution is based on a custom link layer, and 802.16e compliant physical layer compliant to the identified system profile, and a later progression to a fully interoperable 802.16e system.

  14. Differences in activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic speckle patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Miquet, E. E.; Otero, I.; Rodríguez, D.; Darias, J. G.; Combarro, A. M.; Contreras, O. R.

    2013-02-01

    We outline the main differences in the activity profile of bacterial cultures studied by dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle) patterns. The activity is detected in two sorts of culture mediums. The optical setup and the experimental procedure are presented. The experimentally obtained images are processed by the temporal difference method and a qualitative assessment is made with the time history of speckle patterns of the sample. The main differences are studied after changing the culture medium composition. We conclude that the EC medium is suitable to detect the E. coli bacterial presence in early hours and that Mueller Hinton agar delays some additional hours to make possible the assessment of bacteria in time.

  15. Gaps-in-noise detection and gender identification from noise-vocoded vowel segments: Comparing performance of active musicians to non-musicians.

    PubMed

    Donai, Jeremy J; Jennings, Mariah B

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated performance on a gender identification and temporal resolution task among active musicians and age-matched non-musicians. Brief duration (i.e., 50 and 100 ms) vowel segments produced by four adult male and four adult female speakers were spectro-temporally degraded using various parameters and presented to both groups for gender identification. Gap detection thresholds were measured using the gaps-in-noise (GIN) test. Contrary to the stated hypothesis, a significant difference in gender identification was not observed between the musician and non-musician listeners. A significant difference, however, was observed on the temporal resolution task, with the musician group achieving approximately 2 ms shorter gap detection thresholds on the GIN test compared to the non-musician counterparts. These results provide evidence supporting the potential benefits of musical training on temporal processing abilities, which have implications for the processing of speech in degraded listening environments and the enhanced processing of the fine-grained temporal aspects of the speech signal. The results also support the GIN test as an instrument sensitive to temporal processing differences among active musicians and non-musicians. PMID:27250197

  16. Enhanced detection of hydraulically active fractures by temperature profiling in lined heated bedrock boreholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pehme, P. E.; Parker, B. L.; Cherry, J. A.; Molson, J. W.; Greenhouse, J. P.

    2013-03-01

    SummaryThe effectiveness of borehole profiling using a temperature probe for identifying hydraulically active fractures in rock has improved due to the combination of two advances: improved temperature sensors, with resolution on the order of 0.001 °C, and temperature profiling within water inflated flexible impermeable liners used to temporarily seal boreholes from hydraulic cross-connection. The open-hole cross-connection effects dissipate after inflation, so that both the groundwater flow regime and the temperature distribution return to the ambient (background) condition. This paper introduces a third advancement: the use of an electrical heating cable that quickly increases the temperature of the entire static water column within the lined hole and thus places the entire borehole and its immediate vicinity into thermal disequilibrium with the broader rock mass. After heating for 4-6 h, profiling is conducted several times over a 24 h period as the temperature returns to background conditions. This procedure, referred to as the Active Line Source (ALS) method, offers two key improvements over prior methods. First, there is no depth limit for detection of fractures with flow. Second, both identification and qualitative comparison of evidence for ambient groundwater flow in fractures is improved throughout the entire test interval. The benefits of the ALS method are demonstrated by comparing results from two boreholes tested to depths of 90 and 120 m in a dolostone aquifer used for municipal water supply and in which most groundwater flow occurs in fractures. Temperature logging in the lined holes shows many fractures in the heterothermic zone both with and without heating, but only the ALS method shows many hydraulically active fractures in the deeper homothermic portion of the hole. The identification of discrete groundwater flow at many depths is supported by additional evidence concerning fracture occurrence, including continuous core visual inspection

  17. Activity Profile and Energy Expenditure Among Active Older Adults, British Columbia, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Maureen C.; Chase, Jocelyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Time spent by young adults in moderate to vigorous activity predicts daily caloric expenditure. In contrast, caloric expenditure among older adults is best predicted by time spent in light activity. We examined highly active older adults to examine the biggest contributors to energy expenditure in this population. Methods Fifty-four community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or older (mean, 71.4 y) were enrolled in this cross-sectional observational study. All were members of the Whistler Senior Ski Team, and all met current American guidelines for physical activity. Activity levels (sedentary, light, and moderate to vigorous) were recorded by accelerometers worn continuously for 7 days. Caloric expenditure was measured using accelerometry, galvanic skin response, skin temperature, and heat flux. Significant variables were entered into a stepwise multivariate linear model consisting of activity level, age, and sex. Results The average (standard deviation [SD]) daily nonlying sedentary time was 564 (92) minutes (9.4 [1.5] h) per day. The main predictors of higher caloric expenditure were time spent in moderate to vigorous activity (standardized β = 0.42 [SE, 0.08]; P < .001) and male sex (standardized β = 1.34 [SE, 0.16]; P < .001). A model consisting of only moderate to vigorous physical activity and sex explained 68% of the variation in caloric expenditure. An increase in moderate to vigorous physical activity by 1 minute per day was associated with an additional 16 kcal expended in physical activity. Conclusion The relationship between activity intensity and caloric expenditure in athletic seniors is similar to that observed in young adults. Active older adults still spend a substantial proportion of the day engaged in sedentary behaviors. PMID:26182147

  18. Active Learning Strategies for Phenotypic Profiling of High-Content Screens.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kevin; Horvath, Peter

    2014-06-01

    High-content screening is a powerful method to discover new drugs and carry out basic biological research. Increasingly, high-content screens have come to rely on supervised machine learning (SML) to perform automatic phenotypic classification as an essential step of the analysis. However, this comes at a cost, namely, the labeled examples required to train the predictive model. Classification performance increases with the number of labeled examples, and because labeling examples demands time from an expert, the training process represents a significant time investment. Active learning strategies attempt to overcome this bottleneck by presenting the most relevant examples to the annotator, thereby achieving high accuracy while minimizing the cost of obtaining labeled data. In this article, we investigate the impact of active learning on single-cell-based phenotype recognition, using data from three large-scale RNA interference high-content screens representing diverse phenotypic profiling problems. We consider several combinations of active learning strategies and popular SML methods. Our results show that active learning significantly reduces the time cost and can be used to reveal the same phenotypic targets identified using SML. We also identify combinations of active learning strategies and SML methods which perform better than others on the phenotypic profiling problems we studied.

  19. The gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate protects against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity by inhibiting cytochrome P450 enzymes and c-jun N-terminal kinase activation

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kuo; Williams, C. David; McGill, Mitchell R.; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Vinken, Mathieu; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2013-12-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the leading cause of acute liver failure in the US. Although many aspects of the mechanism are known, recent publications suggest that gap junctions composed of connexin32 function as critical intercellular communication channels which transfer cytotoxic mediators into neighboring hepatocytes and aggravate liver injury. However, these studies did not consider off-target effects of reagents used in these experiments, especially the gap junction inhibitor 2-aminoethoxy-diphenyl-borate (2-APB). In order to assess the mechanisms of protection of 2-APB in vivo, male C56Bl/6 mice were treated with 400 mg/kg APAP to cause extensive liver injury. This injury was prevented when animals were co-treated with 20 mg/kg 2-APB and was attenuated when 2-APB was administered 1.5 h after APAP. However, the protection was completely lost when 2-APB was given 4–6 h after APAP. Measurement of protein adducts and c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation indicated that 2-APB reduced both protein binding and JNK activation, which correlated with hepatoprotection. Although some of the protection was due to the solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), in vitro experiments clearly demonstrated that 2-APB directly inhibits cytochrome P450 activities. In addition, JNK activation induced by phorone and tert-butylhydroperoxide in vivo was inhibited by 2-APB. The effects against APAP toxicity in vivo were reproduced in primary cultured hepatocytes without use of DMSO and in the absence of functional gap junctions. We conclude that the protective effect of 2-APB was caused by inhibition of metabolic activation of APAP and inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway and not by blocking connexin32-based gap junctions. - Highlights: • 2-APB protected against APAP-induced liver injury in mice in vivo and in vitro • 2-APB protected by inhibiting APAP metabolic activation and JNK signaling pathway • DMSO inhibited APAP metabolic activation as the solvent of 2-APB

  20. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts. PMID:27664697

  1. Yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of Ziziphus jujube Mill. in response to different fertilization treatments.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Sen; Gao, Qing-Han; Kjelgren, Roger Keith; Guo, Xu-Dan; Wang, Min

    2013-01-01

    Increasing demand for more jujube (Ziziphus jujube Mill.) production requires understanding the specific fertilization needs of jujube trees. This study was conducted to compare fruit yields, phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of jujube in response to different fertilizers. Application of organic fertilizer appeared to enhance the phenolics and antioxidant activity accumulation of jujubes, compared to conventional fertilized jujubes. Amongst inorganic fertilizers, supplemental potassium as an individual nutrient improved the accumulation of phenolics in jujubes. Our results demonstrate that phenolics levels and antioxidant activity of jujube can be manipulated through fertilizer management and tracked by following proanthocyanidin concentrations. In a practical production context, the combination of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers such as more supplemental individual potassium, and less supplemental individual nitrogen and phosphorus, might be the best management combination for achieving higher phenolic concentration, stronger antioxidant activity and a good harvest. PMID:24084012

  2. Comparison of phytochemical profiles, antioxidant and cellular antioxidant activities of different varieties of blueberry (Vaccinium spp.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Huailing; Guo, Xinbo; Hu, Xiaodan; Li, Tong; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai

    2017-02-15

    Numerous reports have demonstrated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is beneficial for the human health. Blueberries, in particular, are rich in phytochemicals including free and bound forming. Phytochemical profiles of 14 varieties of blueberry were compared in this study. 12 compounds were analyzed and had significant changes in blueberry fruits. Total antioxidant activities in different blueberry varieties varied about 2.6times by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, and 2times by peroxyl radical scavenging capacity (PSC) assay. The cellular antioxidant activities (CAA) in different varieties varied about 3.9times without phosphate buffer saline (PBS) wash, and 4.7times with PBS wash by CAA assay. Blueberry extracts had potent antiproliferative activities against HepG2 human liver cancer cells, indicating the potential protective benefits associated with their use as functional foods. The anti-proliferative activity was observed to be dose-dependent in blueberry extracts.

  3. Omani propolis: chemical profiling, antibacterial activity and new propolis plant sources

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous honeybee product having a long history of application in many countries as a traditional remedy for treating wounds, burns, soar throat, stomach disorders, etc. It has been proved to possess beneficial biological effects, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, cytotoxic, antiulcer, and many others. Bees gather propolis from diverse resinous plant parts and in different phytogeographic regions its chemical composition might vary significantly. In this article we report the results of the first study on the chemical profiles of propolis from Oman, its plant origin and antibacterial activity. Results The chemical profiles of Omani propolis extracts were obtained by GC-MS analysis after silylation. Over 50 individual compounds were identified in the samples, belonging to different compound types: sugars, polyols, hydroxy acids, fatty acids, cardanols and cardols, anacardic acids, flavan derivatives, triterpenes, prenylated flavanones and chalcones. The profiles were dissimilar from other known propolis types. They demonstrate that although Oman is not a large country, the plant sources of propolis vary significantly, even in the same apiary and the same season. Based on chemical profiles, and isolation and identification of major marker compounds (new propolis constituents), new plant sources of propolis were found: Azadiracta indica (neem tree) and Acacia spp. (most probably A. nilotica). The ethanol extracts of the studied propolis samples demonstrated activity against S. aureus (MIC < 100 μg. mL-1) and E. coli (MIC < 380 μg. mL-1). Conclusion Omani propolis is different form the known propolis types and demonstrates significant chemical diversity. Its most important plant source is the resin of Azadirachta indica, and as a result its typical components are С5-prenyl flavanones. Other plant sources have been identified, too, playing some role in resin collection by bees in Oman: Acacia spp

  4. Detecting protein complexes from active protein interaction networks constructed with dynamic gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Protein interaction networks (PINs) are known to be useful to detect protein complexes. However, most available PINs are static, which cannot reflect the dynamic changes in real networks. At present, some researchers have tried to construct dynamic networks by incorporating time-course (dynamic) gene expression data with PINs. However, the inevitable background noise exists in the gene expression array, which could degrade the quality of dynamic networkds. Therefore, it is needed to filter out contaminated gene expression data before further data integration and analysis. Results Firstly, we adopt a dynamic model-based method to filter noisy data from dynamic expression profiles. Then a new method is proposed for identifying active proteins from dynamic gene expression profiles. An active protein at a time point is defined as the protein the expression level of whose corresponding gene at that time point is higher than a threshold determined by a standard variance involved threshold function. Furthermore, a noise-filtered active protein interaction network (NF-APIN) is constructed. To demonstrate the efficiency of our method, we detect protein complexes from the NF-APIN, compared with those from other dynamic PINs. Conclusion A dynamic model based method can effectively filter out noises in dynamic gene expression data. Our method to compute a threshold for determining the active time points of noise-filtered genes can make the dynamic construction more accuracy and provide a high quality framework for network analysis, such as protein complex prediction. PMID:24565281

  5. Platelet Lipidomic Profiling: Novel Insight into Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Activity and Its Role in Human Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew T; Matafonov, Anton; Lindsley, Craig W; Hamm, Heidi E

    2015-09-15

    With a newer, more selective and efficacious cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) inhibitor available, we revisited the role of cPLA2α activity in platelet activation and discovered that a component of platelet signaling, even larger than previously appreciated, relies on this enzyme. In a whole blood shear-based flow chamber assay, giripladib, a cPLA2α inhibitor, reduced platelet adhesion and accumulation on collagen. Moreover, giripladib differentially affected P-selectin expression and GPIIbIIIa activation depending on the agonist employed. While protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet activation was unaffected by giripladib, the levels of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 had no effect on PAR-, GPVI-, or puriniergic receptor-mediated platelet activation, suggesting that another eicosanoid produced downstream of arachidonic acid liberation by cPLA2α was responsible for this large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation. In parallel, we profiled PAR-mediated changes in glycerophospholipid (GPL) mass with and without giripladib to better understand cPLA2α-mediated lipid metabolism. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) demonstrated the largest consumption of mass during thrombin stimulation. Additionally, we confirm phosphatidylinositol as a major substrate of cPLA2α. A comparison of PAR1- and PAR4-induced metabolism revealed the consumption of more putative arachidonyl-PE species downstream of PAR1 activation. Instead of enhanced cPLA2α activity and therefore more arachidonic acid liberation downstream of PAR4, these results indicate the major role that cPLA2α activity plays in platelet function and suggest that a novel eicosanoid is produced in response to platelet activation that represents a large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated responses.

  6. Platelet Lipidomic Profiling: Novel Insight into Cytosolic Phospholipase A2α Activity and Its Role in Human Platelet Activation.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew T; Matafonov, Anton; Lindsley, Craig W; Hamm, Heidi E

    2015-09-15

    With a newer, more selective and efficacious cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) inhibitor available, we revisited the role of cPLA2α activity in platelet activation and discovered that a component of platelet signaling, even larger than previously appreciated, relies on this enzyme. In a whole blood shear-based flow chamber assay, giripladib, a cPLA2α inhibitor, reduced platelet adhesion and accumulation on collagen. Moreover, giripladib differentially affected P-selectin expression and GPIIbIIIa activation depending on the agonist employed. While protease-activated receptor 1 (PAR1)-mediated platelet activation was unaffected by giripladib, the levels of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist SQ29548 had no effect on PAR-, GPVI-, or puriniergic receptor-mediated platelet activation, suggesting that another eicosanoid produced downstream of arachidonic acid liberation by cPLA2α was responsible for this large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated platelet activation. In parallel, we profiled PAR-mediated changes in glycerophospholipid (GPL) mass with and without giripladib to better understand cPLA2α-mediated lipid metabolism. Phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) demonstrated the largest consumption of mass during thrombin stimulation. Additionally, we confirm phosphatidylinositol as a major substrate of cPLA2α. A comparison of PAR1- and PAR4-induced metabolism revealed the consumption of more putative arachidonyl-PE species downstream of PAR1 activation. Instead of enhanced cPLA2α activity and therefore more arachidonic acid liberation downstream of PAR4, these results indicate the major role that cPLA2α activity plays in platelet function and suggest that a novel eicosanoid is produced in response to platelet activation that represents a large component of PAR4- and GPVI-mediated responses. PMID:26295742

  7. Temporal behaviour profiles of Mus musculus in nature are affected by population activity.

    PubMed

    Robbers, Yuri; Koster, Eva A S; Krijbolder, Doortje I; Ruijs, Amanda; van Berloo, Sander; Meijer, Johanna H

    2015-02-01

    Animals have circadian clocks that govern their activity pattern, resulting in 24h rhythms in physiology and behaviour. Under laboratory conditions, light is the major external signal that affects temporal patterns in behaviour, and Mus musculus is strictly nocturnal in its behaviour. In the present study we questioned whether under natural conditions, environmental factors other than light affect the temporal profile of mice. In order to test this, we investigated the activity patterns of free-ranging M. musculus in a natural habitat, using sensors and a camera integrated into a recording unit that the mice could freely enter and leave. Our data show that mice have seasonal fluctuations in activity duration (6.7±0.82 h in summer, 11.3±1.80 h in winter). Furthermore, although primarily nocturnal, wild mice also exhibit daytime activity from spring until late autumn. A multivariate analysis revealed that the major factor correlating with increased daytime activity was population activity, defined as the number of visits to the recording site. Day length had a small but significant effect. Further analysis revealed that the relative population activity (compared to the past couple of days) is a better predictor of daytime activity than absolute population activity. Light intensity and temperature did not have a significant effect on daytime activity. The amount of variance explained by external factors is 51.9%, leaving surprisingly little unexplained variance that might be attributed to the internal clock. Our data further indicate that mice determine population activity by comparing a given night with the preceding 2-7 nights, a time frame suggesting a role for olfactory cues. We conclude that relative population activity is a major factor controlling the temporal activity patterns of M. musculus in an unrestricted natural population.

  8. Postnatal developmental changes in activation profiles of the respiratory neuronal network in the rat ventral medulla

    PubMed Central

    Oku, Yoshitaka; Masumiya, Haruko; Okada, Yasumasa

    2007-01-01

    Two putative respiratory rhythm generators (RRGs), the para-facial respiratory group (pFRG) and the pre-Bötzinger complex (preBötC), have been identified in the neonatal rodent brainstem. To elucidate their functional roles during the neonatal period, we evaluated developmental changes of these RRGs by optical imaging using a voltage-sensitive dye. Optical signals, recorded from the ventral medulla of brainstem–spinal cord preparations of neonatal (P0–P4) rats (n = 44), were analysed by a cross correlation method. With development during the first few postnatal days, the respiratory-related activity in the pFRG reduced and shifted from a preinspiratory (P0–P1) to an inspiratory (P2–P4) pattern, whereas preBötC activity remained unchanged. The μ-opioid agonist [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4),Gly(5)-ol]-enkephalin (DAMGO) augmented preinspiratory activity in the pFRG, while the μ-opioid antagonist naloxone induced changes in spatiotemporal activation profiles that closely mimicked the developmental changes. These results are consistent with the recently proposed hypothesis by Janczewski and Feldman that the pFRG is activated to compensate for the depression of the preBötC by perinatal opiate surge. We conclude that significant reorganization of the respiratory neuronal network, characterized by a reduction of preinspiratory activity in the pFRG, occurs at P1–P2 in rats. The changes in spatiotemporal activation profiles of the pFRG neurones may reflect changes in the mode of coupling of the two respiratory rhythm generators. PMID:17884928

  9. Determination of Antiproliferative Activities of Volatile Contents and HPLC Profiles of Dicranum scoparium (Dicranaceae, Bryophyta).

    PubMed

    Abay, Gökhan; Altun, Muhammed; Koldaş, Serkan; Tüfekçi, Ali Rıza; Demirtas, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anticancer activities and phytochemical profiles of Dicranum scoparium against HeLa cell lines. The bio-guided fractionation studies of dichloromethane extract have high antiproliferative activities. Fractions 7, 9, 19, 20 are rich source of unsaturated fatty acids, and- in the case of Fr-19 may improve the antiproliferative activities as well as increase the unsaturated fatty acid content. The effect of proliferative activities in hexane extract can be attributed to the saturated fatty acid composition of D. scoparium. The Fr-9 exhibited strong antiproliferative activity at concentrations of 100 and 50 μg mL(-1) compared to 5-FU. The fractions of 7, 9, 19 and 20 from dichloromethane extracts exhibited antiproliferative activities at a concentration of 100 μg mL(-1). The HPLC-TOF/MS studies gave nine compounds from the most active fraction of dichloromethane at concentrations of 250 and 100 μg mL(-1). The lower activities were obtained from the fractions including steroid derivatives.

  10. Connexin37 forms high conductance gap junction channels with subconductance state activity and selective dye and ionic permeabilities.

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, R D; Wang, H Z; Beyer, E C; Ramanan, S V; Brink, P R

    1994-01-01

    Gap junctions are thought to mediate the direct intercellular coupling of adjacent cells by the open-closed gating of an aqueous pore permeable to ions and molecules of up to 1 kDa or 10-14 A in diameter. We symmetrically altered the ionic composition or asymmetrically added 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-CF, M(r) = 376), a fluorescent tracer, to pairs of connexin37-transfected mouse neuro2A cells to examine the ionic and dye permeability of human connexin37 channels. We demonstrate that the 300-pS channel formed by connexin37 has an effective relative anion/cation permeability ratio of 0.43, directly converts to at least one intermediate (63 pS) subconductance state, and that 6-CF dye transfer is accompanied by a 24% decrease in unitary channel conductance. These observations favor a new interpretation of the gap junction pore consistent with direct ion-channel interactions or electrostatic charge effects common to more conventional multistate ion channels. These results have distinct implications about the different forms of intercellular signaling (cationic, ionic, and/or biochemical) that can occur depending on the expression and conformation of the connexin channel proteins. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 PMID:7521227

  11. Sustained mitogen-activated protein kinase activation reprograms defense metabolism and phosphoprotein profile in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Lassowskat, Ines; Böttcher, Christoph; Eschen-Lippold, Lennart; Scheel, Dierk; Lee, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) target a variety of protein substrates to regulate cellular signaling processes in eukaryotes. In plants, the number of identified MAPK substrates that control plant defense responses is still limited. Here, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants with an inducible system to simulate in vivo activation of two stress-activated MAPKs, MPK3, and MPK6. Metabolome analysis revealed that this artificial MPK3/6 activation (without any exposure to pathogens or other stresses) is sufficient to drive the production of major defense-related metabolites, including various camalexin, indole glucosinolate and agmatine derivatives. An accompanying (phospho)proteome analysis led to detection of hundreds of potential phosphoproteins downstream of MPK3/6 activation. Besides known MAPK substrates, many candidates on this list possess typical MAPK-targeted phosphosites and in many cases, the corresponding phosphopeptides were detected by mass spectrometry. Notably, several of these putative phosphoproteins have been reported to be associated with the biosynthesis of antimicrobial defense substances (e.g., WRKY transcription factors and proteins encoded by the genes from the “PEN” pathway required for penetration resistance to filamentous pathogens). Thus, this work provides an inventory of candidate phosphoproteins, including putative direct MAPK substrates, for future analysis of MAPK-mediated defense control. (Proteomics data are available with the identifier PXD001252 via ProteomeXchange, http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org). PMID:25368622

  12. Rights of animals, perceptions of science, and political activism: profile of American animal rights activities.

    PubMed

    Jamison, W V; Lunch, W M

    1992-01-01

    This article reports original research examining characteristics of the active followers of the American animal rights movement. Typical respondents were Caucasian, highly educated urban professional women approximately thirty years old with a median income of $33,000 (1989). Most activists think of themselves as Democrats or as Independents, and have moderate to liberal political views. They were often suspicious of science and made no distinction between basic and applied science, or public versus private animal-based research. The research suggests that animal rights activism is part of a symbolic manifestation of egalitarian social and political views concerning scientific and technological change.

  13. Screening and HPLC-Based Activity Profiling for New Antiprotozoal Leads from European Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Stefanie; Thomi, Semira; Kaiser, Marcel; Hamburger, Matthias; Adams, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Based on a survey of remedies used in Renaissance Europe to treat malaria, we prepared and screened a library of 254 extracts from 61 plants for antiplasmodial activity in vitro. HPLC-based activity profiling was performed for targeted identification of active constituents in extracts. One of the most remarkable results was the identification of onopordopicrin, a germacranolide sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Arctium nemorosum as a potent inhibitor of P. falciparum with an IC50 of 6.9 μM. It was tested similarly against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, the parasite which causes African sleeping sickness. With an IC50 of 0.37 μM, onopordopicrin was one of the most potent natural products reported so far. Cytotoxicity was determined against rat myoblast L6 cells (IC50: 3.06). PMID:22396915

  14. Design and synthesis of an activity-based protein profiling probe derived from cinnamic hydroxamic acid.

    PubMed

    Ai, Teng; Qiu, Li; Xie, Jiashu; Geraghty, Robert J; Chen, Liqiang

    2016-02-15

    In our continued effort to discover new anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) agents, we validated the anti-replicon activity of compound 1, a potent and selective anti-HCV hydroxamic acid recently reported by us. Generally favorable physicochemical and in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) properties exhibited by 1 made it an ideal parent compound from which activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) probe 3 was designed and synthesized. Evaluation of probe 3 revealed that it possessed necessary anti-HCV activity and selectivity. Therefore, we have successfully obtained compound 3 as a suitable ABPP probe to identify potential molecular targets of compound 1. Probe 3 and its improved analogs are expected to join a growing list of ABPP probes that have made important contributions to not only the studies of biochemical and cellular functions but also discovery of selective inhibitors of protein targets.

  15. Profile and antioxidant activity of phenolic extracts from 10 crabapples (Malus wild species).

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Shi, Junling; Wang, Kun

    2014-01-22

    Phenolic products are highly demanded by the food and cosmetics industries and consumers due to their high antioxidant activities. To evaluate the potential of crabapples (Malus wild species) in preparing phenolic extracts, fruits of 10 crabapples grown in China were separately extracted with 80% (v/v) ethanol and ethyl acetate and the phenolic profiles, polyphenol (PC) and flavonoid contents (FC), and antioxidant activities of the extracts were analyzed. Chlorogenic acid, (-)-epicatechin, rutin, hyperin, and phlorizin appeared as the major phenolic compounds in all phenolic extracts. Ethanol extracts had PC of 302.83-1265.94 mg GAE/100g and FC of 352.45-2351.74 mg RE/100g, being 4.17 and 4.49 times those obtained in ethyl acetate extracts and much higher than those previously reported in apples. Malus wild species appeared as rich sources of phenolic compounds with high antioxidant activity, especially when high chlorogenic acid and rutin contents are emphasized.

  16. Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and palynological analysis of stingless bee honey from Amazonas, Northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Isnandia Andréa Almeida; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Queiroz, Neide; Magnani, Marciane; de Novais, Jaílson Santos; Soledade, Luiz Edmundo Bastos; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Souza, Antonia Lucia; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia

    2013-12-15

    In this study honey samples produced by Melipona (Michmelia) seminigra merrillae, collected in seven counties distributed in the central and southern region of Amazonas state in Brazil, were analysed for their botanical origin, content and profile of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-two pollen types were identified. The total phenolic content ranged from 17 to 66 mg GAE/g of extract; the highest contents were found in honeys produced from pollen types such as Clidemia and Myrcia. The antioxidant activity was higher in the samples that contained higher quantities of phenolic compounds. In relation to the antibacterial activity, samples CAD3, CAD4 and SAD3 presented the best results. Fourteen phenolic compounds were determined. Among them, we identified the flavonoid taxifolin, which has not previously been described in honeys from stingless bees, and we report the identification of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time.

  17. High-intensity activity profiles of elite soccer players at different performance levels.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Paul S; Di Mascio, Michele; Peart, Dan; Olsen, Peter; Sheldon, Bill

    2010-09-01

    The aims of the study were to (a) determine the high-intensity activity patterns of soccer players at different performance levels and playing positions, (b) investigate temporary and end game fatigue in elite domestic and international soccer matches, and (c) quantify acceleration and maximal running speed profiles of elite soccer players. Elite domestic (n = 100) and international (n = 10) soccer players were analyzed using a multicamera computerized tracking system. No differences were found for high-intensity running distance (2,520 +/- 678 vs. 2,745 +/- 332 m), mean recovery time (67 +/- 15 vs. 71 +/- 26 seconds), or maximal running speed (7.76 +/- 0.31 vs. 7.66 +/- 0.34 mxs-1). The distance covered in high-intensity running irrespective of playing level was 18% lower (p < 0.05) in the last than in the first 15-minute period of the game (391 +/- 117 vs. 478 +/- 141 m). The decline in high-intensity running immediately after the most intense 5-minute period was similar between international (222 +/- 33 vs. 109 +/- 37 m or 51% decline) and elite domestic (243 +/- 81 vs. 114 +/- 51 m or 53% decline) players. Wide midfielders, central midfielders, fullbacks, and attackers covered a greater (p < 0.01) distance in high-intensity running than central defenders (3,243 +/- 625, 2,949 +/- 435, 2,806 +/- 408, 2,618 +/- 745 vs. 2,034 +/- 284 m). Results demonstrate that high-intensity running is reduced during various periods of elite soccer matches, and high-intensity activity profiles and fatigue patterns are similar between international and elite domestic players but vary markedly between playing positions. These data provide valuable information to the fitness coach regarding the high-intensity active profile of elite soccer players that could be used to develop soccer-specific training drills.

  18. Physical activity profiles and selected muscular fitness variables in English schoolchildren: A north-south divide?

    PubMed

    Ingle, Lee; Stephenson, Ashlie; Sandercock, Gavin R

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to compare and contrast habitual physical activity (PA) profiles and muscular fitness in schoolchildren from northern and southern regions of England. Data were collected from two secondary schools in the north east (NE) of England. The study procedures followed methods employed by the East of England Healthy Hearts Study in 10-16-year-old boys and girls based in the south east (SE) region of England and data were compared. Habitual physical activity (PAQ-A), vertical jump test, and hand-grip (HG) strength were assessed. We converted raw scores from all assessments to age- and sex-normalised z-scores. We recruited 597 children (58% boys) in the NE and compared findings to 597 age- and sex-matched boys and girls from the SE. Boys in the SE had significantly stronger HG scores, jumped higher, were more powerful (mean peak power: 2131 W vs. 1782 W; P < 0.0001), and reported being more physically active (mean PAQ-A: 2.9 vs. 2.5; P < 0.0001) than their male counterparts in the NE. In girls, the opposite trend was evident. Girls from the NE of England had a higher HG score, jumped higher, and were more powerful (mean peak power: 2114 W vs. 1839 W; P < .0001) than their peers from the SE. Regional variations in the habitual PA profiles and muscular fitness of schoolchildren from the SE and NE of England do exist. The systematic surveillance of children's PA and fitness profiles throughout England would help identify regional inequalities on a larger scale.

  19. Community Level Physiological Profiles (CLPP), Characterization and Microbial Activity of Soil Amended with Dairy Sewage Sludge

    PubMed Central

    Frąc, Magdalena; Oszust, Karolina; Lipiec, Jerzy

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of organic amendment applications compared to mineral fertilization on soil microbial activity and functional diversity. The field experiment was set up on a soil classified as an Eutric Cambisol developed from loess (South-East Poland). Two doses of both dairy sewage sludge (20 Mg·ha−1 and 26 Mg·ha−1) and of mineral fertilizers containing the same amount of nutrients were applied. The same soil without any amendment was used as a control. The soil under undisturbed native vegetation was also included in the study as a representative background sample. The functional diversity (catabolic potential) was assessed using such indices as Average Well Color Development (AWCD), Richness (R) and Shannon–Weaver index (H). These indices were calculated, following the community level physiological profiling (CLPP) using Biolog Eco Plates. Soil dehydrogenase and respiratory activity were also evaluated. The indices were sensitive enough to reveal changes in community level physiological profiles due to treatment effects. It was shown that dairy sewage amended soil was characterized by greater AWCD, R, H and dehydrogenase and respiratory activity as compared to control or mineral fertilized soil. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to depict the differences of the soil bacterial functional diversity between the treatments. PMID:22737006

  20. [Morbidity profile and the standard of access to health services for elderly practitioners of physical activities].

    PubMed

    Virtuoso, Janeisa Franck; Mazo, Giovana Zarpellon; Menezes, Enaiane Cristina; Cardoso, Adilson Sant'Ana; Dias, Roges Ghidini; Balbé, Giovane Pereira

    2012-01-01

    The morbidity profile and access to health services of 132 women and 33 men, with average age of 69.1 ± 6 years--all practitioners of physical activities was--analyzed. A questionnaire for the socio-demographic profile, physical activity involved, self-referred morbidity and access to health services was applied. In the analysis, descriptive and inferencial statistics were used, with a significance level of 5%. Most of the sample was 60-69 years old (55.7%), practicing water aerobics (52.7%) and had high blood pressure (48.4%). The women aged 60 to 69 years (p <0.05) and 70 to 79 years (p <0.05) had at least one chronic disease. The indicators of access to health services were similar between genders (p> 0.05). The younger-aged men went more often to a doctor during the last year than the younger-aged women (p <0.05). In the other age brackets, feminine hegemony was maintained, with significant difference for 70 to 79 year-old females (p <0.05). Most of the elderly sought their private doctor (33.3%) or a health center (27.8 %). The main problems of the health services were medication (64.8%) and delays in scheduling consultations (48.4%). It was noted that the elderly are worried about preventive healthcare, which can be linked to the benefits of the practice of physical activity. PMID:22218536

  1. Core microbial functional activities in ocean environments revealed by global metagenomic profiling analyses.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Ari J S; Siam, Rania; Setubal, João C; Moustafa, Ahmed; Sayed, Ahmed; Chambergo, Felipe S; Dawe, Adam S; Ghazy, Mohamed A; Sharaf, Hazem; Ouf, Amged; Alam, Intikhab; Abdel-Haleem, Alyaa M; Lehvaslaiho, Heikki; Ramadan, Eman; Antunes, André; Stingl, Ulrich; Archer, John A C; Jankovic, Boris R; Sogin, Mitchell; Bajic, Vladimir B; El-Dorry, Hamza

    2014-01-01

    Metagenomics-based functional profiling analysis is an effective means of gaining deeper insight into the composition of marine microbial populations and developing a better understanding of the interplay between the functional genome content of microbial communities and abiotic factors. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of 24 datasets covering surface and depth-related environments at 11 sites around the world's oceans. The complete datasets comprises approximately 12 million sequences, totaling 5,358 Mb. Based on profiling patterns of Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COGs) of proteins, a core set of reference photic and aphotic depth-related COGs, and a collection of COGs that are associated with extreme oxygen limitation were defined. Their inferred functions were utilized as indicators to characterize the distribution of light- and oxygen-related biological activities in marine environments. The results reveal that, while light level in the water column is a major determinant of phenotypic adaptation in marine microorganisms, oxygen concentration in the aphotic zone has a significant impact only in extremely hypoxic waters. Phylogenetic profiling of the reference photic/aphotic gene sets revealed a greater variety of source organisms in the aphotic zone, although the majority of individual photic and aphotic depth-related COGs are assigned to the same taxa across the different sites. This increase in phylogenetic and functional diversity of the core aphotic related COGs most probably reflects selection for the utilization of a broad range of alternate energy sources in the absence of light.

  2. Proteome profile and biological activity of caprine, bovine and human milk fat globules.

    PubMed

    Spertino, Stefano; Cipriani, Valentina; De Angelis, Chiara; Giuffrida, Maria Gabriella; Marsano, Francesco; Cavaletto, Maria

    2012-04-01

    Upon combining bidimensional electrophoresis with monodimensional separation, a more comprehensive analysis of the milk fat globule membrane has been obtained. The proteomic profile of caprine milk fat globules revealed the presence of butyrophilin, lactadherin and perilipin as the major proteins, they were also associated to bovine and human milk fat globule membranes. Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase has been detected only in monodimensional gels. Biological activity of milk fat globules has been evaluated in Caco2-cells, as a representative model of the intestinal barrier. The increase of cell viability was indicative of a potential nutraceutical role for the whole milk fat globule, suggesting a possible employment in milk formula preparation.

  3. Design of Peptide and Peptidomimetic Ligands with Novel Pharmacological Activity Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Hruby, Victor J.; Cai, Minying

    2016-01-01

    Peptide hormones and neurotransmitters are of central importance in most aspects of intercellular communication and are involved in virtually all degenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss physicochemical approaches to the design of novel peptide and peptidomimetic agonists, antagonists, inverse agonists, and related compounds that have unique biological activity profiles, reduced toxic side effects, and, if desired, the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier. Designing ligands for specific biological and medical needs is emphasized, as is the close collaboration of chemists and biologists to maximize the chances for success. Special emphasis is placed on the use of conformational (φ-ψ space) and topographical (χ space) considerations in design. PMID:23294313

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Idaho, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Idaho for 2010. Idaho showed improvement in reading and math in grade 8 at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for Latino and white students, low income students, and boys and girls. The state has also made progress in narrowing achievement gaps between Latino and white…

  5. Simultaneous improvement of emission color, singlet-triplet energy gap, and quantum efficiency of blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent emitters using a 1-carbazolylcarbazole based donor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mounggon; Choi, Jeong Min; Lee, Jun Yeob

    2016-08-21

    Blue thermally activated delayed fluorescent (TADF) emitters having 1-carbazolylcarbazole based donor moieties were developed to resolve the low quantum efficiency and large singlet-triplet energy splitting issues of the linker free TADF emitters. Investigation of the 1-carbazolylcarbazole derived donors as the donor units of two blue TADF emitters in comparison with 3-carbazolylcarbazole demonstrated that the 1-carbazolylcarbazole based donors increased the triplet energy, decreased the singlet-triplet energy gap, blue-shifted the emission color, and enhanced the quantum efficiency of the blue TADF devices.

  6. Future body mass index modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC). To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables) to BMI change/year (dependent variable). Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving)/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)+19.73 (84.44+total fat g)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving))*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P < 0.0001). DCCT/EDIC formula for four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.898 (102.2+protein g per serving)*4/(2,297+kilocalories per serving)+1.063 (264.2+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,297+ kilocalories per serving)–13.19 (24.29+dietary fiber g per serving)/ (2,297+kilocalories per serving)+ 0.973 (74.59+(total fat g per serving–PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,297+kilocalories per serving))*85.82–68.11 (n=1,055, R2=0.03, P < 0.0001). (FAO/WHO+ DCCT/EDIC formula forecasts averaged correlated strongly with published food group profiling findings except for potatoes and

  7. In vitro mutation analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana small GTP-binding proteins and detection of GAP-like activities in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Anai, T; Matsui, M; Nomura, N; Ishizaki, R; Uchimiya, H

    1994-06-13

    Previously, we have reported the molecular cloning of ara genes encoding a small GTP-binding protein from Arabidopsis thaliana. The criterion based on amino acid sequences suggest that such an ara gene family can be classified to be of the YPT/rab type. To examine the biochemical properties of ARA proteins, several deletions and point mutations were introduced into ara cDNAs. Mutant proteins were expressed in E. coli as GST-chimeric molecules and analyzed in terms of their GTP-binding or GTP-hydrolysing ability in vitro. The results indicate that four conserved amino acid sequence regions of ARA proteins are necessary for GTP-binding. A point mutation of Asn at position 72 for ARA-2, or 71 for ARA-4, to Ile decreased GTP-binding and a point mutation of Gln at position 126 for ARA-2, or 125 for ARA-4, to Leu suppressed GTP-hydrolysis activity. Furthermore, certain factors associated with the membrane fraction accelerated GTPase activities of ARA proteins, suggesting the presence of GTPase activating protein(s) (GAP(s)) in the vesicular transport system of higher plant cells.

  8. MgcRacGAP restricts active RhoA at the cytokinetic furrow and both RhoA and Rac1 at cell–cell junctions in epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Breznau, Elaina B.; Semack, Ansley C.; Higashi, Tomohito; Miller, Ann L.

    2015-01-01

    Localized activation of Rho GTPases is essential for multiple cellular functions, including cytokinesis and formation and maintenance of cell–cell junctions. Although MgcRacGAP (Mgc) is required for spatially confined RhoA-GTP at the equatorial cortex of dividing cells, both the target specificity of Mgc's GAP activity and the involvement of phosphorylation of Mgc at Ser-386 are controversial. In addition, Mgc's function at cell–cell junctions remains unclear. Here, using gastrula-stage Xenopus laevis embryos as a model system, we examine Mgc's role in regulating localized RhoA-GTP and Rac1-GTP in the intact vertebrate epithelium. We show that Mgc's GAP activity spatially restricts accumulation of both RhoA-GTP and Rac1-GTP in epithelial cells—RhoA at the cleavage furrow and RhoA and Rac1 at cell–cell junctions. Phosphorylation at Ser-386 does not switch the specificity of Mgc's GAP activity and is not required for successful cytokinesis. Furthermore, Mgc regulates adherens junction but not tight junction structure, and the ability to regulate adherens junctions is dependent on GAP activity and signaling via the RhoA pathway. Together these results indicate that Mgc's GAP activity down-regulates the active populations of RhoA and Rac1 at localized regions of epithelial cells and is necessary for successful cytokinesis and cell–cell junction structure. PMID:25947135

  9. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Frelinger, Andrew L.; Gerrits, Anja J.; Garner, Allen L.; Torres, Andrew S.; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A.; Berny-Lang, Michelle A.; Carmichael, Sabrina L.; Neculaes, V. Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. Aims To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. Methods PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. Results PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the

  10. Age-related muscle activation profiles and joint stiffness regulation in repetitive hopping.

    PubMed

    Hoffrén, Merja; Ishikawa, Masaki; Rantalainen, Timo; Avela, Janne; Komi, Paavo V

    2011-06-01

    It is well documented that increasing effort during exercise is characterized by an increase in electromyographic activity of the relevant muscles. How aging influences this relationship is a matter of great interest. In the present study, nine young and 24 elderly subjects did repetitive hopping with maximal effort as well as with 50%, 65%, 75% and 90% intensities. During hopping joint kinematics were measured together with electromyographic activity (EMG) from the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and tibialis anterior muscles. The results showed that agonist activation increased in both age groups with increasing intensity. The highest jumping efficiency (EMG ratio of the braking phase to the push off-phase activation) was achieved with moderate hopping intensities (65-75%) in both the young and in the elderly. Age-comparison showed that elderly subjects had high agonist preactivation but thereafter lower activation during the braking phase. Antagonist coactivation was minimal and did not show age- or intensity-specificity. The elderly had more flexed knees at the instant of ground contact. When intensity increased, the elderly also plantarflexed their ankles more before ground contact. Ankle joint stiffness was lower in elderly subjects only in high hopping intensities (90% and Max). These results confirm that age-specific agonist muscle activation profiles exist during hopping even when exercise intensities are matched on the relative scale. The results suggest further that the elderly can adjust their reduced neuromuscular capacity to match the demands set by different exercise intensities.

  11. 'Dopamine-first' mechanism enables the rational engineering of the norcoclaurine synthase aldehyde activity profile.

    PubMed

    Lichman, Benjamin R; Gershater, Markus C; Lamming, Eleanor D; Pesnot, Thomas; Sula, Altin; Keep, Nicholas H; Hailes, Helen C; Ward, John M

    2015-03-01

    Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) (EC 4.2.1.78) catalyzes the Pictet-Spengler condensation of dopamine and an aldehyde, forming a substituted (S)-tetrahydroisoquinoline, a pharmaceutically important moiety. This unique activity has led to NCS being used for both in vitro biocatalysis and in vivo recombinant metabolism. Future engineering of NCS activity to enable the synthesis of diverse tetrahydroisoquinolines is dependent on an understanding of the NCS mechanism and kinetics. We assess two proposed mechanisms for NCS activity: (a) one based on the holo X-ray crystal structure and (b) the 'dopamine-first' mechanism based on computational docking. Thalictrum flavum NCS variant activities support the dopamine-first mechanism. Suppression of the non-enzymatic background reaction reveals novel kinetic parameters for NCS, showing it to act with low catalytic efficiency. This kinetic behaviour can account for the ineffectiveness of recombinant NCS in in vivo systems, and also suggests NCS may have an in planta role as a metabolic gatekeeper. The amino acid substitution L76A, situated in the proposed aldehyde binding site, results in the alteration of the enzyme's aldehyde activity profile. This both verifies the dopamine-first mechanism and demonstrates the potential for the rational engineering of NCS activity. PMID:25620686

  12. ‘Dopamine-first’ mechanism enables the rational engineering of the norcoclaurine synthase aldehyde activity profile

    PubMed Central

    Lichman, Benjamin R; Gershater, Markus C; Lamming, Eleanor D; Pesnot, Thomas; Sula, Altin; Keep, Nicholas H; Hailes, Helen C; Ward, John M

    2015-01-01

    Norcoclaurine synthase (NCS) (EC 4.2.1.78) catalyzes the Pictet–Spengler condensation of dopamine and an aldehyde, forming a substituted (S)-tetrahydroisoquinoline, a pharmaceutically important moiety. This unique activity has led to NCS being used for both in vitro biocatalysis and in vivo recombinant metabolism. Future engineering of NCS activity to enable the synthesis of diverse tetrahydroisoquinolines is dependent on an understanding of the NCS mechanism and kinetics. We assess two proposed mechanisms for NCS activity: (a) one based on the holo X-ray crystal structure and (b) the ‘dopamine-first’ mechanism based on computational docking. Thalictrum flavum NCS variant activities support the dopamine-first mechanism. Suppression of the non-enzymatic background reaction reveals novel kinetic parameters for NCS, showing it to act with low catalytic efficiency. This kinetic behaviour can account for the ineffectiveness of recombinant NCS in in vivo systems, and also suggests NCS may have an in planta role as a metabolic gatekeeper. The amino acid substitution L76A, situated in the proposed aldehyde binding site, results in the alteration of the enzyme's aldehyde activity profile. This both verifies the dopamine-first mechanism and demonstrates the potential for the rational engineering of NCS activity. PMID:25620686

  13. An exposure:activity profiling method for interpreting high-throughput screening data for estrogenic activity--proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Becker, Richard A; Friedman, Katie Paul; Simon, Ted W; Marty, M Sue; Patlewicz, Grace; Rowlands, J Craig

    2015-04-01

    Rapid high throughput in vitro screening (HTS) assays are now available for characterizing dose-responses in assays that have been selected for their sensitivity in detecting estrogen-related endpoints. For example, EPA's ToxCast™ program recently released endocrine assay results for more than 1800 substances and the interagency Tox21 consortium is in the process of releasing data for approximately 10,000 chemicals. But such activity measurements alone fall short for the purposes of priority setting or screening because the relevant exposure context is not considered. Here, we extend the method of exposure:activity profiling by calculating the exposure:activity ratios (EARs) using human exposure estimates and AC50 values for a range of chemicals tested in a suite of seven estrogenic assays in ToxCast™ and Tox21. To provide additional context, relative estrogenic exposure:activity quotients (REEAQ) were derived by comparing chemical-specific EARs to the EAR of the ubiquitous dietary phytoestrogen, genistein (GEN). Although the activity of a substance in HTS-endocrine assays is not a measure of health hazard or risk, understanding how such a dose compares to human exposures provides a valuable additional metric that can be used in decision-making; substances with small EARs and REEAQs would indicate low priority for further endocrine screening or testing. PMID:25656492

  14. Antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity and metabolic profiling of juices obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Rosa, Antonella; Montoro, Paola; Fenu, Maurizio Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo

    2016-05-15

    Juices obtained from cold-pressed saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products were evaluated as a potential source of compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Floral by-products were split in two batches for extraction 24 and 48h after flower harvesting, respectively. The in vitro anti-oxidant activity of these extracts was tested using the FRAP and DPPH assays, and two biological models of lipid oxidation (activity in preventing cholesterol degradation and protection against Cu(2+)-mediated degradation of the liposomal unsaturated fatty acids). The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The results show that extracts obtained 48h post-harvest contained higher levels of total polar phenols and had the highest antioxidant activity in all of the performed assays. The LC-DAD and LC-ESI-(HR)MS(n) metabolic profiles showed high levels of kaempferol derivatives and anthocyanins. This study suggests that juices from saffron floral by-products could potentially be used to develop new products for the food and health industry. PMID:26775939

  15. Antioxidant activity, cytotoxic activity and metabolic profiling of juices obtained from saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products.

    PubMed

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Rosa, Antonella; Montoro, Paola; Fenu, Maurizio Antonio; Pizza, Cosimo

    2016-05-15

    Juices obtained from cold-pressed saffron (Crocus sativus L.) floral by-products were evaluated as a potential source of compounds with antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Floral by-products were split in two batches for extraction 24 and 48h after flower harvesting, respectively. The in vitro anti-oxidant activity of these extracts was tested using the FRAP and DPPH assays, and two biological models of lipid oxidation (activity in preventing cholesterol degradation and protection against Cu(2+)-mediated degradation of the liposomal unsaturated fatty acids). The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the MTT assay. The results show that extracts obtained 48h post-harvest contained higher levels of total polar phenols and had the highest antioxidant activity in all of the performed assays. The LC-DAD and LC-ESI-(HR)MS(n) metabolic profiles showed high levels of kaempferol derivatives and anthocyanins. This study suggests that juices from saffron floral by-products could potentially be used to develop new products for the food and health industry.

  16. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  17. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  18. Electromyographic Patterns during Golf Swing: Activation Sequence Profiling and Prediction of Shot Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Verikas, Antanas; Vaiciukynas, Evaldas; Gelzinis, Adas; Parker, James; Olsson, M. Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes muscle activity, recorded in an eight-channel electromyographic (EMG) signal stream, during the golf swing using a 7-iron club and exploits information extracted from EMG dynamics to predict the success of the resulting shot. Muscles of the arm and shoulder on both the left and right sides, namely flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, rhomboideus and trapezius, are considered for 15 golf players (∼5 shots each). The method using Gaussian filtering is outlined for EMG onset time estimation in each channel and activation sequence profiling. Shots of each player revealed a persistent pattern of muscle activation. Profiles were plotted and insights with respect to player effectiveness were provided. Inspection of EMG dynamics revealed a pair of highest peaks in each channel as the hallmark of golf swing, and a custom application of peak detection for automatic extraction of swing segment was introduced. Various EMG features, encompassing 22 feature sets, were constructed. Feature sets were used individually and also in decision-level fusion for the prediction of shot effectiveness. The prediction of the target attribute, such as club head speed or ball carry distance, was investigated using random forest as the learner in detection and regression tasks. Detection evaluates the personal effectiveness of a shot with respect to the player-specific average, whereas regression estimates the value of target attribute, using EMG features as predictors. Fusion after decision optimization provided the best results: the equal error rate in detection was 24.3% for the speed and 31.7% for the distance; the mean absolute percentage error in regression was 3.2% for the speed and 6.4% for the distance. Proposed EMG feature sets were found to be useful, especially when used in combination. Rankings of feature sets indicated statistics for muscle activity in both the left and right body sides, correlation-based analysis of EMG dynamics and features

  19. Inner workings of thrombolites: spatial gradients of metabolic activity as revealed by metatranscriptome profiling

    PubMed Central

    Mobberley, J. M.; Khodadad, C. L. M.; Visscher, P. T.; Reid, R. P.; Hagan, P.; Foster, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Microbialites are sedimentary deposits formed by the metabolic interactions of microbes and their environment. These lithifying microbial communities represent one of the oldest ecosystems on Earth, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of these communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses to characterize the spatial organization of the thrombolites of Highborne Cay, The Bahamas, an actively forming microbialite system. At midday, there were differences in gene expression throughout the spatial profile of the thrombolitic mat with a high abundance of transcripts encoding genes required for photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and exopolymeric substance production in the upper three mm of the mat. Transcripts associated with denitrification and sulfate reduction were in low abundance throughout the depth profile, suggesting these metabolisms were less active during midday. Comparative metagenomics of the Bahamian thrombolites with other known microbialite ecosystems from across the globe revealed that, despite many shared core pathways, the thrombolites represented genetically distinct communities. This study represents the first time the metatranscriptome of living microbialite has been characterized and offers a new molecular perspective on those microbial metabolisms, and their underlying genetic pathways, that influence the mechanisms of carbonate precipitation in lithifying microbial mat ecosystems. PMID:26213359

  20. Inner workings of thrombolites: spatial gradients of metabolic activity as revealed by metatranscriptome profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mobberley, J. M.; Khodadad, C. L. M.; Visscher, P. T.; Reid, R. P.; Hagan, P.; Foster, J. S.

    2015-07-01

    Microbialites are sedimentary deposits formed by the metabolic interactions of microbes and their environment. These lithifying microbial communities represent one of the oldest ecosystems on Earth, yet the molecular mechanisms underlying the function of these communities are poorly understood. In this study, we used comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses to characterize the spatial organization of the thrombolites of Highborne Cay, The Bahamas, an actively forming microbialite system. At midday, there were differences in gene expression throughout the spatial profile of the thrombolitic mat with a high abundance of transcripts encoding genes required for photosynthesis, nitrogen fixation and exopolymeric substance production in the upper three mm of the mat. Transcripts associated with denitrification and sulfate reduction were in low abundance throughout the depth profile, suggesting these metabolisms were less active during midday. Comparative metagenomics of the Bahamian thrombolites with other known microbialite ecosystems from across the globe revealed that, despite many shared core pathways, the thrombolites represented genetically distinct communities. This study represents the first time the metatranscriptome of living microbialite has been characterized and offers a new molecular perspective on those microbial metabolisms, and their underlying genetic pathways, that influence the mechanisms of carbonate precipitation in lithifying microbial mat ecosystems.

  1. Presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma: ultrastructural characteristics, protein profile and enzymatic activity.

    PubMed

    Polisca, A; Troisi, A; Minelli, A; Bellezza, I; Fontbonne, A; Zelli, R

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to verify the presence of membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma by means of transmission electron microscopy and to identify protein profile and some of the enzymatic activities associated with these particles. The transmission electron microscopy observations showed the existence of different sized vesicular membranous structures of more or less spherical shape. These vesicles were surrounded by single-, double- or multiple-layered laminar membranes. The vesicle diameters ranged from 16.3 to 387.4 nm, with a mean of 116.5 ± 70.7 nm. Enzyme activity determinations showed the presence of dipeptilpeptidase IV, aminopeptidase, alkaline and acid phosphatase. To our knowledge, this is the first report that identifies and characterizes the membranous vesicles in cat seminal plasma. However, further studies are necessary to identify the exact site of production of these membranous vesicles in the cat male genital tract and to determine their specific roles in the reproductive events of this species.

  2. Activity profiling of aminopeptidases in cell lysates using a fluorogenic substrate library.

    PubMed

    Byzia, Anna; Szeffler, Agata; Kalinowski, Leszek; Drag, Marcin

    2016-03-01

    Aminopeptidases are exopeptidases that process peptide bonds at the N-terminus of protein substrates, and they are involved in controlling several metabolic pathways. Due to their involvement in diseases such as cancer or rheumatoid arthritis, their presence can also be used as a predictive biomarker. Here, we used a library of fluorogenic substrates containing natural and unnatural amino acids to reliably measure the aminopeptidase N (APN) activity in cell lysates obtained from human, pig and rat kidneys. We compared our results to the substrate specificity profile of isolated APN. Our data strongly support the observation that fluorogenic substrates can be successfully used to identify aminopeptidases and to measure their activity in cell lysates. Moreover, in contrast to assays using single substrates, which can result in overlapping specificity due to cleavage by several aminopeptidases, our library fingerprint can provide information about single enzymes.

  3. Modulation of Activity Profiles for Largazole-Based HDAC Inhibitors through Alteration of Prodrug Properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Largazole is a potent and class I-selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor purified from marine cyanobacteria and was demonstrated to possess antitumor activity. Largazole employs a unique prodrug strategy, via a thioester moiety, to liberate the bioactive species largazole thiol. Here we report alternate prodrug strategies to modulate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics profiles of new largazole-based compounds. The in vitro effects of largazole analogues on cancer cell proliferation and enzymatic activities of purified HDACs were comparable to the natural product. However, in vitro and in vivo histone hyperacetylation in HCT116 cells and implanted tumors, respectively, showed differences, particularly in the onset of action and oral bioavailability. These results indicate that, by employing a different approach to disguise the “warhead” moiety, the functional consequence of these prodrugs can be significantly modulated. Our data corroborate the role of the pharmacokinetic properties of this class of compounds to elicit the desired and timely functional response. PMID:25147612

  4. Prediction of Response to Preoperative Chemoradiotherapy in Rectal Cancer by Multiplex Kinase Activity Profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Folkvord, Sigurd; Flatmark, Kjersti; Dueland, Svein

    2010-10-01

    Purpose: Tumor response of rectal cancer to preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) varies considerably. In experimental tumor models and clinical radiotherapy, activity of particular subsets of kinase signaling pathways seems to predict radiation response. This study aimed to determine whether tumor kinase activity profiles might predict tumor response to preoperative CRT in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Methods and Materials: Sixty-seven LARC patients were treated with a CRT regimen consisting of radiotherapy, fluorouracil, and, where possible, oxaliplatin. Pretreatment tumor biopsy specimens were analyzed using microarrays with kinase substrates, and the resulting substrate phosphorylation patterns were correlated with tumor response to preoperative treatment as assessed by histomorphologic tumor regression grade (TRG). A predictive model for TRG scores from phosphosubstrate signatures was obtained by partial-least-squares discriminant analysis. Prediction performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation and use of an independent test set. Results: In the patient population, 73% and 15% were scored as good responders (TRG 1-2) or intermediate responders (TRG 3), whereas 12% were assessed as poor responders (TRG 4-5). In a subset of 7 poor responders and 12 good responders, treatment outcome was correctly predicted for 95%. Application of the prediction model on the remaining patient samples resulted in correct prediction for 85%. Phosphosubstrate signatures generated by poor-responding tumors indicated high kinase activity, which was inhibited by the kinase inhibitor sunitinib, and several discriminating phosphosubstrates represented proteins derived from signaling pathways implicated in radioresistance. Conclusions: Multiplex kinase activity profiling may identify functional biomarkers predictive of tumor response to preoperative CRT in LARC.

  5. Antioxidant activity of some Moroccan marine microalgae: Pufa profiles, carotenoids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane

    2015-12-10

    In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants.

  6. Exploration of the antiplatelet activity profile of betulinic acid on human platelets.

    PubMed

    Tzakos, Andreas G; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tsoumani, Maria; Kyriakou, Eleni; Hwa, John; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2012-07-18

    Betulinic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpene acid, presents a diverse mode of biological actions including antiretroviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The potency of betulinic acid as an inhibitor of human platelet activation was evaluated, and its antiplatelet profile against in vitro platelet aggregation, induced by several platelet agonists (adenosine diphosphate, thrombin receptor activator peptide-14, and arachidonic acid), was explored. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the effect of betulinic acid on P-selectin membrane expression and PAC-1 binding to activated platelets. Betulinic acid potently inhibits platelet aggregation and also reduced PAC-1 binding and the membrane expression of P-selectin. Principal component analysis was used to screen, on the chemical property space, for potential common pharmacophores of betulinic acid with approved antithrombotic drugs. A common pharmacophore was defined between the NMR-derived structure of betulinic acid and prostacyclin agonists (PGI2), and the importance of its carboxylate group in its antiplatelet activity was determined. The present results indicate that betulinic acid has potential use as an antithrombotic compound and suggest that the mechanism underlying the antiplatelet effects of betulinic acid is similar to that of the PGI2 receptor agonists, a hypothesis that deserves further investigation. PMID:22720759

  7. Tuning the biological activity profile of antibacterial polymers via subunit substitution pattern.

    PubMed

    Liu, Runhui; Chen, Xinyu; Chakraborty, Saswata; Lemke, Justin J; Hayouka, Zvi; Chow, Clara; Welch, Rodney A; Weisblum, Bernard; Masters, Kristyn S; Gellman, Samuel H

    2014-03-19

    Binary nylon-3 copolymers containing cationic and hydrophobic subunits can mimic the biological properties of host-defense peptides, but relationships between composition and activity are not yet well understood for these materials. Hydrophobic subunits in previously studied examples have been limited mostly to cycloalkane-derived structures, with cyclohexyl proving to be particularly promising. The present study evaluates alternative hydrophobic subunits that are isomeric or nearly isomeric with the cyclohexyl example; each has four sp(3) carbons in the side chains. The results show that varying the substitution pattern of the hydrophobic subunit leads to relatively small changes in antibacterial activity but causes significant changes in hemolytic activity. We hypothesize that these differences in biological activity profile arise, at least in part, from variations among the conformational propensities of the hydrophobic subunits. The α,α,β,β-tetramethyl unit is optimal among the subunits we have examined, providing copolymers with potent antibacterial activity and excellent prokaryote vs eukaryote selectivity. Bacteria do not readily develop resistance to the new antibacterial nylon-3 copolymers. These findings suggest that variation in subunit conformational properties could be generally valuable in the development of synthetic polymers for biological applications. PMID:24601599

  8. Antioxidant activity of some Moroccan marine microalgae: Pufa profiles, carotenoids and phenolic content.

    PubMed

    Maadane, Amal; Merghoub, Nawal; Ainane, Tarik; El Arroussi, Hicham; Benhima, Redouane; Amzazi, Saaid; Bakri, Youssef; Wahby, Imane

    2015-12-10

    In order to promote Moroccan natural resources, this study aims to evaluate the potential of microalgae isolated from Moroccan coastlines, as new source of natural antioxidants. Different extracts (ethanolic, ethanol/water and aqueous) obtained from 9 microalgae strains were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical-scavenging assay. The highest antioxidant potentials were obtained in Dunalliela sp., Tetraselmis sp. and Nannochloropsis gaditana extracts. The obtained results indicate that ethanol extract of all microalgae strains exhibit higher antioxidant activity, when compared to water and ethanol/water extracts. Therefore, total phenolic and carotenoid content measurement were performed in active ethanol extracts. The PUFA profiles of ethanol extracts were also determined by GC/MS analysis. The studied microalgae strains displayed high PUFA content ranging from 12.9 to 76.9 %, total carotenoids content varied from 1.9 and 10.8mg/g of extract and total polyphenol content varied from 8.1 to 32.0mg Gallic acid Equivalent/g of extract weight. The correlation between the antioxidant capacities and the phenolic content and the carotenoids content were found to be insignificant, indicating that these compounds might not be major contributor to the antioxidant activity of these microalgae. The microalgae extracts exerting the high antioxidant activity are potential new source of natural antioxidants. PMID:26113214

  9. Exploration of the antiplatelet activity profile of betulinic acid on human platelets.

    PubMed

    Tzakos, Andreas G; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tsoumani, Maria; Kyriakou, Eleni; Hwa, John; Rodrigues, Francisco A; Tselepis, Alexandros D

    2012-07-18

    Betulinic acid, a natural pentacyclic triterpene acid, presents a diverse mode of biological actions including antiretroviral, antibacterial, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory activities. The potency of betulinic acid as an inhibitor of human platelet activation was evaluated, and its antiplatelet profile against in vitro platelet aggregation, induced by several platelet agonists (adenosine diphosphate, thrombin receptor activator peptide-14, and arachidonic acid), was explored. Flow cytometric analysis was performed to examine the effect of betulinic acid on P-selectin membrane expression and PAC-1 binding to activated platelets. Betulinic acid potently inhibits platelet aggregation and also reduced PAC-1 binding and the membrane expression of P-selectin. Principal component analysis was used to screen, on the chemical property space, for potential common pharmacophores of betulinic acid with approved antithrombotic drugs. A common pharmacophore was defined between the NMR-derived structure of betulinic acid and prostacyclin agonists (PGI2), and the importance of its carboxylate group in its antiplatelet activity was determined. The present results indicate that betulinic acid has potential use as an antithrombotic compound and suggest that the mechanism underlying the antiplatelet effects of betulinic acid is similar to that of the PGI2 receptor agonists, a hypothesis that deserves further investigation.

  10. Oocyte-derived BMP15 but not GDF9 down-regulates connexin43 expression and decreases gap junction intercellular communication activity in immortalized human granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsun-Ming; Cheng, Jung-Chien; Taylor, Elizabeth; Leung, Peter C K

    2014-05-01

    In the ovary, connexin-coupled gap junctions in granulosa cells play crucial roles in follicular and oocyte development as well as in corpus luteum formation. Our previous work has shown that theca cell-derived bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)4 and BMP7 decrease gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) activity via the down-regulation of connexin43 (Cx43) expression in immortalized human granulosa cells. However, the effects of oocyte-derived growth factors on Cx43 expression remain to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of oocyte-derived growth differentiation factor (GDF)9 and BMP15 on the expression of Cx43 in a human granulosa cell line, SVOG. We also examined the effect relative to GJIC activity and investigated the potential mechanisms of action. In SVOG cells, treatment with BMP15 but not GDF9 significantly decreased Cx43 mRNA and protein levels and GJIC activity. These suppressive effects, along with the induction of Smad1/5/8 phosphorylation, were attenuated by co-treatment with a BMP type I receptor inhibitor, dorsomorphin. Furthermore, knockdown of the central component of the transforming growth factor-β superfamily signaling pathway, Smad4, using small interfering RNA reversed the suppressive effects of BMP15 on Cx43 expression and GJIC activity. The suppressive effects of BMP15 on Cx43 expression were further confirmed in primary human granulosa-lutein cells obtained from infertile patients undergoing an in vitro fertilization procedure. These findings suggest that oocyte-derived BMP15 decreases GJIC activity between human granulosa cells by down-regulating Cx43 expression, most likely via a Smad-dependent signaling pathway.

  11. Active faults in the deformation zone off Noto Peninsula, Japan, revealed by high- resolution seismic profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, T.; Okamura, Y.; Murakami, F.; Kimura, H.; Ikehara, K.

    2008-12-01

    Recently, a lot of earthquakes occur in Japan. The deformation zone which many faults and folds have concentrated exists on the Japan Sea side of Japan. The 2007 Noto Hanto Earthquake (MJMA 6.9) and 2007 Chuetsu-oki Earthquake (MJMA 6.8) were caused by activity of parts of faults in this deformation zone. The Noto Hanto Earthquake occurred on 25 March, 2007 under the northwestern coast of Noto Peninsula, Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan. This earthquake is located in Quaternary deformation zone that is continued from northern margin of Noto Peninsula to southeast direction (Okamura, 2007a). National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST) carried out high-resolution seismic survey using Boomer and 12 channels short streamer cable in the northern part off Noto Peninsula, in order to clarify distribution and activities of active faults in the deformation zone. A twelve channels short streamer cable with 2.5 meter channel spacing developed by AIST and private corporation is designed to get high resolution seismic profiles in shallow sea area. The multi-channel system is possible to equip on a small fishing boat, because the data acquisition system is based on PC and the length of the cable is short and easy to handle. Moreover, because the channel spacing is short, this cable is very effective for a high- resolution seismic profiling survey in the shallow sea, and seismic data obtained by multi-channel cable can be improved by velocity analysis and CDP stack. In the northern part off Noto Peninsula, seismic profiles depicting geologic structure up to 100 meters deep under sea floor were obtained. The most remarkable reflection surface recognized in the seismic profiles is erosion surface at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In the western part, sediments about 30 meters (40 msec) thick cover the erosional surface that is distributed under the shelf shallower than 100m in depth and the sediments thin toward offshore and east. Flexures like deformation in

  12. Depth profiles of bacterioplankton assemblages and their activities in the Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celussi, Mauro; Cataletto, Bruno; Fonda Umani, Serena; Del Negro, Paola

    2009-12-01

    The identification of bacterial community structure has led, since the beginning of the 1990s, to the idea that bacterioplankton populations are stratified in the water column and that diverse lineages with mostly unknown phenotypes dominate marine microbial communities. The diversity of depth-related assemblages is also reflected in their patterns of activities, as bacteria affiliated to different groups can express different activities in a given ecosystem. We analysed bacterial assemblages (DGGE fingerprinting) and their activities (prokaryotic carbon production, protease, phosphatase, chitinase, beta-glucosidase and lipase activities) in two areas in the Ross Sea, differing mainly in their productivity regime: two stations are located in the Terra Nova Bay polynya area (highly productive during summer) and two close to Cape Adare (low phytoplankton biomass and activity). At every station a pronounced stratification of bacterial assemblages was identified, highlighting epipelagic communities differing substantially from the mesopelagic and the bathypelagic communities. Multivariate analysis suggested that pressure and indirectly light-affected variables (i.e. oxygen and fluorescence) had a great effect on the bacterial communities outcompeting the possible influences of temperature and dissolved organic carbon concentration. Generally activities decreased with depth even though a signal of the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) at one of the northern stations corresponded to an increase in some of the degradative activities, generating some 'hot spots' in the profile. We also found that similar assemblages express similar metabolic requirements reflected in analogous patterns of activity (similar degradative potential and leucine uptake rate). Furthermore, the presence of eukaryotic chloroplasts' 16S rDNA in deep samples highlighted how in some cases the dense surface-water formation (in this case High Salinity Shelf Water—HSSW) and downwelling can affect, at least

  13. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Olson, William S.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated using both simulated and airborne data. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite multi-frequency active and passive observations. These observations are characterized by various spatial and sampling resolutions. This makes the retrieval problem mathematically more difficult and ill-determined because the quality of information decreases with decreasing resolution. A model that, given reflectivity profiles and a small set of parameters (including the cloud water content, the intercept drop size distribution, and a variable describing the frozen hydrometeor properties), simulates high-resolution brightness temperatures is used. The high-resolution simulated brightness temperatures are convolved at the real sensor resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is used to minimize the differences between simulated and observed brightness temperatures. The retrieval technique is investigated using cloud model synthetic and airborne data from the Fourth Convection And Moisture Experiment. Simulated high-resolution brightness temperatures and reflectivities and airborne observation strong are convolved at the resolution of the TRMM instruments and retrievals are performed and analyzed relative to the reference data used in observations synthesis. An illustration of the possible use of the technique in satellite rainfall estimation is presented through an application to TRMM data. The study suggests improvements in combined active and passive retrievals even when the instruments resolutions are significantly different. Future work needs to better quantify the retrievals performance, especially in connection with satellite applications, and the uncertainty of the models used in retrieval.

  14. Full Spectrum of LPS Activation in Alveolar Macrophages of Healthy Volunteers by Whole Transcriptomic Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yutong; Zhao, Jing; Donahoe, Michael P.; Barge, Suchitra; Horne, William T.; Kolls, Jay K.; McVerry, Bryan J.; Birukova, Anastasiya; Tighe, Robert M.; Foster, W. Michael; Hollingsworth, John; Ray, Anuradha; Mallampalli, Rama; Ray, Prabir; Lee, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in understanding macrophage activation, little is known regarding how human alveolar macrophages in health calibrate its transcriptional response to canonical TLR4 activation. In this study, we examined the full spectrum of LPS activation and determined whether the transcriptomic profile of human alveolar macrophages is distinguished by a TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF)-dominant type I interferon signature. Bronchoalveolar lavage macrophages were obtained from healthy volunteers, stimulated in the presence or absence of ultrapure LPS in vitro, and whole transcriptomic profiling was performed by RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). LPS induced a robust type I interferon transcriptional response and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted interferon regulatory factor (IRF)7 as the top upstream regulator of 89 known gene targets. Ubiquitin-specific peptidase (USP)-18, a negative regulator of interferon α/β responses, was among the top up-regulated genes in addition to IL10 and USP41, a novel gene with no known biological function but with high sequence homology to USP18. We determined whether IRF-7 and USP-18 can influence downstream macrophage effector cytokine production such as IL-10. We show that IRF-7 siRNA knockdown enhanced LPS-induced IL-10 production in human monocyte-derived macrophages, and USP-18 overexpression attenuated LPS-induced production of IL-10 in RAW264.7 cells. Quantitative PCR confirmed upregulation of USP18, USP41, IL10, and IRF7. An independent cohort confirmed LPS induction of USP41 and IL10 genes. These results suggest that IRF-7 and predicted downstream target USP18, both elements of a type I interferon gene signature identified by RNA-Seq, may serve to fine-tune early cytokine response by calibrating IL-10 production in human alveolar macrophages. PMID:27434537

  15. Selective androgen receptor modulator activity of a steroidal antiandrogen TSAA-291 and its cofactor recruitment profile.

    PubMed

    Hikichi, Yukiko; Yamaoka, Masuo; Kusaka, Masami; Hara, Takahito

    2015-10-15

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) specifically bind to the androgen receptor and exert agonistic or antagonistic effects on target organs. In this study, we investigated the SARM activity of TSAA-291, previously known as a steroidal antiandrogen, in mice because TSAA-291 was found to possess partial androgen receptor agonist activity in reporter assays. In addition, to clarify the mechanism underlying its tissue selectivity, we performed comprehensive cofactor recruitment analysis of androgen receptor using TSAA-291 and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), an endogenous androgen. The androgen receptor agonistic activity of TSAA-291 was more obvious in reporter assays using skeletal muscle cells than in those using prostate cells. In castrated mice, TSAA-291 increased the weight of the levator ani muscle without increasing the weight of the prostate and seminal vesicle. Comprehensive cofactor recruitment analysis via mammalian two-hybrid methods revealed that among a total of 112 cofactors, 12 cofactors including the protein inhibitor of activated STAT 1 (PIAS1) were differently recruited to androgen receptor in the presence of TSAA-291 and DHT. Prostate displayed higher PIAS1 expression than skeletal muscle. Forced expression of the PIAS1 augmented the transcriptional activity of the androgen receptor, and silencing of PIAS1 by siRNAs suppressed the secretion of prostate-specific antigen, an androgen responsive marker. Our results demonstrate that TSAA-291 has SARM activity and suggest that TSAA-291 may induce different conformational changes of the androgen receptor and recruitment profiles of cofactors such as PIAS1, compared with DHT, to exert tissue-specific activity.

  16. Ras and GTPase-activating protein (GAP) drive GTP into a precatalytic state as revealed by combining FTIR and biomolecular simulations.

    PubMed

    Rudack, Till; Xia, Fei; Schlitter, Jürgen; Kötting, Carsten; Gerwert, Klaus

    2012-09-18

    Members of the Ras superfamily regulate many cellular processes. They are down-regulated by a GTPase reaction in which GTP is cleaved into GDP and P(i) by nucleophilic attack of a water molecule. Ras proteins accelerate GTP hydrolysis by a factor of 10(5) compared to GTP in water. GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) accelerate hydrolysis by another factor of 10(5) compared to Ras alone. Oncogenic mutations in Ras and GAPs slow GTP hydrolysis and are a factor in many cancers. Here, we elucidate in detail how this remarkable catalysis is brought about. We refined the protein-bound GTP structure and protein-induced charge shifts within GTP beyond the current resolution of X-ray structural models by combining quantum mechanics and molecular mechanics simulations with time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The simulations were validated by comparing experimental and theoretical IR difference spectra. The reactant structure of GTP is destabilized by Ras via a conformational change from a staggered to an eclipsed position of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of the γ- relative to the β-phosphates and the further rotation of the nonbridging oxygen atoms of α- relative to the β- and γ-phosphates by GAP. Further, the γ-phosphate becomes more positive although two of its oxygen atoms remain negative. This facilitates the nucleophilic attack by the water oxygen at the phosphate and proton transfer to the oxygen. Detailed changes in geometry and charge distribution in the ligand below the resolution of X-ray structure analysis are important for catalysis. Such high resolution appears crucial for the understanding of enzyme catalysis.

  17. Amitriptyline up-regulates connexin43-gap junction in rat cultured cortical astrocytes via activation of the p38 and c-Fos/AP-1 signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Morioka, N; Suekama, K; Zhang, F F; Kajitani, N; Hisaoka-Nakashima, K; Takebayashi, M; Nakata, Y

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Intercellular communication via gap junctions, comprised of connexin (Cx) proteins, allow for communication between astrocytes, which in turn is crucial for maintaining CNS homeostasis. The expression of Cx43 is decreased in post-mortem brains from patients with major depression. A potentially novel mechanism of tricyclic antidepressants is to increase the expression and functioning of gap junctions in astrocytes. Experimental Approach The effect of amitriptyline on the expression of Cx43 and gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in rat primary cultured cortical astrocytes was investigated. We also investigated the role of p38 MAPK intracellular signalling pathway in the amitriptyline-induced expression of Cx43 and GJIC. Key Results Treatment with amitriptyline for 48 h significantly up-regulated Cx43 mRNA, protein and GJIC. The up-regulation of Cx43 was not monoamine-related since noradrenaline, 5-HT and dopamine did not induce Cx43 expression and pretreatment with α- and β-adrenoceptor antagonists had no effect. Intracellular signalling involved p38 MAPK, as amitriptyline significantly increased p38 MAPK phosphorylation and Cx43 expression and GJIC were significantly blocked by the p38 inhibitor SB 202190. Furthermore, amitriptyline-induced Cx43 expression and GJIC were markedly reduced by transcription factor AP-1 inhibitors (curcumin and tanshinone IIA). The translocation of c-Fos from the cytosol and the nucleus of cortical astrocytes was increased by amitriptyline, and this response was dependent on p38 activity. Conclusion and Implication These findings indicate a novel mechanism of action of amitriptyline through cortical astrocytes, and further suggest that targeting this mechanism could lead to the development of a new class of antidepressants. PMID:24641259

  18. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption.

  19. Variability in HOMA-IR, lipoprotein profile and selected hormones in young active men.

    PubMed

    Keska, Anna; Lutoslawska, Grazyna; Czajkowska, Anna; Tkaczyk, Joanna; Mazurek, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to insulin actions is contributing to many metabolic disturbances. Such factors as age, sex, nutrition, body fat, and physical activity determine body insulin resistance. Present study attempted to asses insulin resistance and its metabolic effects with respect to energy intake in young, lean, and active men. A total of 87 men aged 18-23 participated in the study. Plasma levels of glucose, insulin, lipoproteins, cortisol, and TSH were determined. Insulin resistance was expressed as Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and calculated using homeostatic model. The median value of HOMA-IR (1.344) was used to divide subjects into two groups. Men did not differ in anthropometric parameters, daily physical activity, and plasma TSH and cortisol levels. However, in men with higher HOMA-IR significantly lower daily energy intake was observed concomitantly with higher TG, TC, and HDL-C concentrations in plasma versus their counterparts with lower HOMA-IR. Exclusively in subjects with higher HOMA-IR significant and positive correlation was noted between HOMA-IR and TC and LDL-C. We concluded that despite a normal body weight and physical activity, a subset of young men displayed unfavorable changes in insulin sensitivity and lipid profile, probably due to insufficient energy intake.

  20. Activity Profile of an FDA-Approved Compound Library against Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Panic, Gordana; Vargas, Mireille; Scandale, Ivan; Keiser, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background As plans to expand mass drug treatment campaigns to fight schistosomiasis form, worries about reliance on praziquantel as the sole available treatment motivate the investigation for novel antischistosomal compounds. Drug repurposing might be an inexpensive and effective source of novel antischistosomal leads. Methodology 1600 FDA approved compounds were first assayed against Schistosoma mansoni schistosomula at a concentration of 10 µM. Active compounds identified from this screen were advanced to the adult worm screen at 33.33 µM, followed by hit characterization. Leads with complementary pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles were then selected for in vivo studies. Principal Findings The in vitro screen identified 121 and 36 compounds active against the schistosomula and adult stage, respectively. Further, in vitro characterization and comparison with already available pharmacokinetic and toxicity data identified 11 in vivo candidates. Doramectin (10 mg/kg) and clofazimine (400 mg/kg) were found to be active in vivo with worm burden reductions of 60.1% and 82.7%, respectively. Conclusions/Significance The work presented here expands the knowledge of antischistosomal properties of already approved compounds and underscores variations observed between target-based and phenotypic approaches and among laboratories. The two in vivo-active drugs identified in this study, doramectin and clofazimine are widely available and present as novel drug classes as starting points for further investigation. PMID:26230921

  1. PHARMACOLOGICAL SIRT1 ACTIVATION IMPROVES MORTALITY AND MARKEDLY ALTERS TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILES THAT ACCOMPANY EXPERIMENTAL SEPSIS.

    PubMed

    Opal, Steven M; Ellis, James L; Suri, Vipin; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Vlasuk, George P; Li, Yong; Chahin, Abdullah B; Palardy, John E; Parejo, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Michelle; Chahin, Abdulrahman; Kessimian, Noubar

    2016-04-01

    The sirtuin family consists of seven NAD+-dependent enzymes affecting a broad array of regulatory protein networks by primarily catalyzing the deacetylation of key lysine residues in regulatory proteins. The enzymatic activity of SIRT1 can be enhanced by small molecule activators known as SIRT1 activator compounds (STACs). We tested the therapeutic potential of the STAC SRT3025 in two preclinical models of severe infection, the murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to induce peritonitis and intratracheal installation of Streptococcus pneumoniae to induce severe bacterial pneumonia. SRT3025 provided significant survival benefits over vehicle control in both the peritonitis and pneumococcal pneumonia models when administered with appropriate antimicrobial agents. The survival benefit of SRT3025 in the CLP model was absent in SIRT1 knockout showing the SIRT1 dependency of SRT3025's effects. SRT3025 administration promoted bacterial clearance and significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines from the lungs of animals challenged with S. pneumoniae. SRT3025 treatment was also accompanied by striking changes in the transcription profiles in multiple inflammatory and metabolic pathways in liver, spleen, small bowel, and lung tissue. Remarkably, these organ-specific changes in the transcriptome analyses were similar following CLP or pneumococcal challenge despite different sets of pathogens at disparate sites of infection. Pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 modulates the innate host response and could represent a novel treatment strategy for severe infection. PMID:26974318

  2. PHARMACOLOGICAL SIRT1 ACTIVATION IMPROVES MORTALITY AND MARKEDLY ALTERS TRANSCRIPTIONAL PROFILES THAT ACCOMPANY EXPERIMENTAL SEPSIS.

    PubMed

    Opal, Steven M; Ellis, James L; Suri, Vipin; Freudenberg, Johannes M; Vlasuk, George P; Li, Yong; Chahin, Abdullah B; Palardy, John E; Parejo, Nicholas; Yamamoto, Michelle; Chahin, Abdulrahman; Kessimian, Noubar

    2016-04-01

    The sirtuin family consists of seven NAD+-dependent enzymes affecting a broad array of regulatory protein networks by primarily catalyzing the deacetylation of key lysine residues in regulatory proteins. The enzymatic activity of SIRT1 can be enhanced by small molecule activators known as SIRT1 activator compounds (STACs). We tested the therapeutic potential of the STAC SRT3025 in two preclinical models of severe infection, the murine cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model to induce peritonitis and intratracheal installation of Streptococcus pneumoniae to induce severe bacterial pneumonia. SRT3025 provided significant survival benefits over vehicle control in both the peritonitis and pneumococcal pneumonia models when administered with appropriate antimicrobial agents. The survival benefit of SRT3025 in the CLP model was absent in SIRT1 knockout showing the SIRT1 dependency of SRT3025's effects. SRT3025 administration promoted bacterial clearance and significantly reduced inflammatory cytokines from the lungs of animals challenged with S. pneumoniae. SRT3025 treatment was also accompanied by striking changes in the transcription profiles in multiple inflammatory and metabolic pathways in liver, spleen, small bowel, and lung tissue. Remarkably, these organ-specific changes in the transcriptome analyses were similar following CLP or pneumococcal challenge despite different sets of pathogens at disparate sites of infection. Pharmacologic activation of SIRT1 modulates the innate host response and could represent a novel treatment strategy for severe infection.

  3. Changes of phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity in canaryseed (Phalaris canariensis L.) during germination.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhijie; Yu, Lilei; Wang, Xinkun; Gu, Zhenxin; Beta, Trust

    2016-03-01

    Canaryseed is an important cereal crop in western Canada. The changes of the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities, phenolic acid profiles (free and bound) of canaryseed during germination were investigated in the present study. The growth properties also were investigated. Fresh weight, shoot length and root length increased, whereas dry mass of canaryseed decreased during germination. A 22.3% loss of dry matter was observed at 120h of germination. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of free and bound extracts showed a general trend of germinated seeds>raw seeds>soaked seeds. Free, bound and total phenolic content significantly increased 1042%, 120% and 741% at the end of germination as compared to raw seeds (p<0.05). DPPH, ABTS and ORAC assays were employed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of canaryseed. There were high correlations between total phenolic content and antioxidant activities. TPC and ORAC values showed the highest correlation (r=0.9984). Six phenolic acids in free phenolic extracts and seven phenolic acids in bound phenolic extracts were detected, respectively. Bound ferulic acid, the dominant phenolic acid in canaryseed, significantly increased during germination (p<0.05). Study showed that germination provided a new approach to further develop canaryseed as a functional food for human consumption. PMID:26471599

  4. Phytochemical Profiles and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of the Leaves of Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ziwen; Wang, Dongmei; He, Fengyuan; Li, Dengwu

    2014-01-01

    The ethanol crude extracts (ECE) and their subfractions from Zanthoxylum bungeanum leaves were prepared and their phytochemical profiles and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were investigated. Moreover, the effective HPLC procedure for simultaneous quantification of twelve compounds in Z. bungeanum leaves was established. The correlation between the phytochemicals and antioxidant activity was also discussed. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) had the highest total phenolic (97.29 mmol GAE/100 g) and flavonoid content (67.93 mmol QE/100 g), while the greatest total alkaloid content (4.39 mmol GAE/100 g) was observed in the chloroform fraction (CF). Twelve compounds were quantified by RP-HPLC assay. EAF exhibited the highest content of quercitrin, kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, quercetin, sesamin, and nitidine chloride (125.21, 54.95, 24.36, 26.24, and 0.20 mg/g); acetone fraction (AF) contained the highest content of chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, and trifolin (5.87, 29.94, 98.33, and 31.24 mg/g), while kaempferol-3-rhamnoside, xanthyletin, and sesamin were rich in CF. EAF and AF exhibited significant DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging abilities and reducing power (FRAP), whereas CF exhibited significant antifungal activity. Moreover, EAF also showed stronger antibacterial activity. In conclusion, Z. bungeanum leaves have health benefits when consumed and could be served as an accessible source for production of functional food ingredients and medicinal exploration. PMID:25147836

  5. Expression profile of heat shock response factors during hookworm larval activation and parasitic development.

    PubMed

    Gelmedin, Verena; Delaney, Angela; Jennelle, Lucas; Hawdon, John M

    2015-07-01

    When organisms are exposed to an increase in temperature, they undergo a heat shock response (HSR) regulated by the transcription factor heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1). The heat shock response includes the rapid changes in gene expression initiated by binding of HSF-1 to response elements in the promoters of heat shock genes. Heat shock proteins function as molecular chaperones to protect proteins during periods of elevated temperature and other stress. During infection, hookworm infective third stage larvae (L3) undergo a temperature shift from ambient to host temperature. This increased temperature is required for the resumption of feeding and activation of L3, but whether this increase initiates a heat shock response is unknown. To investigate the role of the heat shock in hookworm L3 activation and parasitic development, we identified and characterized the expression profile of several components of the heat shock response in the hookworm Ancylostoma caninum. We cloned DNAs encoding an hsp70 family member (Aca-hsp-1) and an hsp90 family member (Aca-daf-21). Exposure to a heat shock of 42°C for one hour caused significant up-regulation of both genes, which slowly returned to near baseline levels following one hour attenuation at 22°C. Neither gene was up-regulated in response to host temperature (37°C). Conversely, levels of hsf-1 remained unchanged during heat shock, but increased in response to incubation at 37°C. During activation, both hsp-1 and daf-21 are down regulated early, although daf-21 levels increase significantly in non-activated control larvae after 12h, and slightly in activated larvae by 24h incubation. The heat shock response modulators celastrol and KNK437 were tested for their effects on gene expression during heat shock and activation. Pre-incubation with celastrol, an HSP90 inhibitor that promotes heat shock gene expression, slightly up-regulated expression of both hsp-1 and daf-21 during heat shock. KNK437, an inhibitor of heat shock

  6. Gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from children with active hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

    PubMed

    Sumegi, Janos; Barnes, Michael G; Nestheide, Shawnagay V; Molleran-Lee, Susan; Villanueva, Joyce; Zhang, Kejian; Risma, Kimberly A; Grom, Alexei A; Filipovich, Alexandra H

    2011-04-14

    Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare, genetically heterogeneous autosomal recessive immune disorder that results when the critical regulatory pathways that mediate immune defense mechanisms and the natural termination of immune/inflammatory responses are disrupted or overwhelmed. To advance the understanding of FHL, we performed gene expression profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 11 children with untreated FHL. Total RNA was isolated and gene expression levels were determined using microarray analysis. Comparisons between patients with FHL and normal pediatric controls (n = 30) identified 915 down-regulated and 550 up-regulated genes with more than or equal to 2.5-fold difference in expression (P ≤ .05). The expression of genes associated with natural killer cell functions, innate and adaptive immune responses, proapoptotic proteins, and B- and T-cell differentiation were down-regulated in patients with FHL. Genes associated with the canonical pathways of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-10 IL-1, IL-8, TREM1, LXR/RXR activation, and PPAR signaling and genes encoding of antiapoptotic proteins were overexpressed in patients with FHL. This first study of genome-wide expression profiling in children with FHL demonstrates the complexity of gene expression patterns, which underlie the immunobiology of FHL.

  7. Metabolic Profiles and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Cordyceps bassiana Fruiting Bodies According to Developmental Stage

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana. PMID:24058459

  8. Protein profiling and histone deacetylation activities in somaclonal variants of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Jamilah Syafawati; Loh, Hwei-San; Mat Taha, Rosna

    2013-01-01

    Mantled fruits as a result of somaclonal variation are often observed from the oil palm plantlets regenerated via tissue culture. The mantling of fruits with finger-like and thick outer coating phenotypes significantly reduces the seed size and oil content, posing a threat to oil palm planters, and may jeopardize the economic growth of countries that depend particularly on oil palm plantation. The molecular aspects of the occurrence of somaclonal variations are yet to be known, possibly due to gene repression such as DNA methylation, histone methylation and histone deacetylation. Histone deacetylases (HDACs), involved in eukaryotic gene regulation by catalyzing the acetyl groups are removal from lysine residues on histone, hence transcriptionally repress gene expression. This paper described the total protein polymorphism profiles of somaclonal variants of oil palm and the effects of histone deacetylation on this phenomenon. Parallel to the different phenotypes, the protein polymorphism profiles of the mantled samples (leaves, fruits, and florets) and the phenotypically normal samples were proven to be different. Higher HDAC activity was found in mantled leaf samples than in the phenotypically normal leaf samples, leading to a preliminary conclusion that histone deacetylation suppressed gene expression and contributed to the development of somaclonal variants. PMID:23844406

  9. Metabolic profiles and free radical scavenging activity of Cordyceps bassiana fruiting bodies according to developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Sun-Hee; Lee, Seok-Young; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2013-01-01

    The metabolic profiles of Cordyceps bassiana according to fruiting body developmental stage were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We were able to detect 62 metabolites, including 48 metabolites from 70% methanol extracts and 14 metabolites from 100% n-hexane extracts. These metabolites were classified as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, phosphoric acids, purine nucleosides and bases, sugars, saturated fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, or fatty amides. Significant changes in metabolite levels were found according to developmental stage. Relative levels of amino acids, purine nucleosides, and sugars were higher in development stage 3 than in the other stages. Among the amino acids, valine, isoleucine, lysine, histidine, glutamine, and aspartic acid, which are associated with ABC transporters and aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, also showed higher levels in stage 3 samples. The free radical scavenging activities, which were significantly higher in stage 3 than in the other stages, showed a positive correlation with purine nucleoside metabolites such as adenosine, guanosine, and inosine. These results not only show metabolic profiles, but also suggest the metabolic pathways associated with fruiting body development stages in cultivated C. bassiana.

  10. Crystal Structures of Human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 (AS160) RabGTPase-activating Protein (RabGAP) Domains Reveal Critical Elements for GLUT4 Translocation

    SciTech Connect

    S Park; W Jin; S Shoelson

    2011-12-31

    We have solved the x-ray crystal structures of the RabGAP domains of human TBC1D1 and human TBC1D4 (AS160), at 2.2 and 3.5 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Like the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP domain, whose structure was solved previously in complex with mouse Rab33B, the human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 domains both have 16 {alpha}-helices and no {beta}-sheet elements. We expected the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure to predict the corresponding interfaces between cognate mammalian RabGAPs and Rabs, but found that residues were poorly conserved. We further tested the relevance of this model by Ala-scanning mutagenesis, but only one of five substitutions within the inferred binding site of the TBC1D1 RabGAP significantly perturbed catalytic efficiency. In addition, substitution of TBC1D1 residues with corresponding residues from Gyp1p did not enhance catalytic efficiency. We hypothesized that biologically relevant RabGAP/Rab partners utilize additional contacts not described in the yeast Gyp1p/mouse Rab33B structure, which we predicted using our two new human TBC1D1 and TBC1D4 structures. Ala substitution of TBC1D1 Met{sup 930}, corresponding to a residue outside of the Gyp1p/Rab33B contact, substantially reduced catalytic activity. GLUT4 translocation assays confirmed the biological relevance of our findings. Substitutions with lowest RabGAP activity, including catalytically dead RK and Met{sup 930} and Leu{sup 1019} predicted to perturb Rab binding, confirmed that biological activity requires contacts between cognate RabGAPs and Rabs beyond those in the yeast Gyp1p RabGAP/mouse Rab33B structure.

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wyoming, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wyoming for 2010. Wyoming's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, Latino, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white,…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Vermont, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Vermont for 2010. Vermont's demographic profile is such that achievement trends could only be determined for white, male and female, and low-income student subgroups. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), the white, low-income,…

  13. Brain activation profiles in mTBI: Evidence from combined resting-state EEG and MEG activity.

    PubMed

    Lianyang Li; Pagnotta, Mattia F; Arakaki, Xianghong; Tran, Thao; Strickland, David; Harrington, Michael; Zouridakis, George

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we compared the brain activation profiles obtained from resting state Electroencephalographic (EEG) and Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) activity in six mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) patients and five orthopedic controls, using power spectral density (PSD) analysis. We first estimated intracranial dipolar EEG/MEG sources on a dense grid on the cortical surface and then projected these sources on a standardized atlas with 68 regions of interest (ROIs). Averaging the PSD values of all sources in each ROI across all control subjects resulted in a normative database that was used to convert the PSD values of mTBI patients into z-scores in eight distinct frequency bands. We found that mTBI patients exhibited statistically significant overactivation in the delta, theta, and low alpha bands. Additionally, the MEG modality seemed to better characterize the group of individual subjects. These findings suggest that resting-state EEG/MEG activation maps may be used as specific biomarkers that can help with the diagnosis of and assess the efficacy of intervention in mTBI patients. PMID:26737894

  14. A population-based profile of adult Canadians living with participation and activity limitations

    PubMed Central

    Goodridge, Donna; Lawson, Josh; Marciniuk, Darcy; Rennie, Donna

    2011-01-01

    Background: Currently, one out of every seven Canadians is affected by limitations to their participation and activity. This study describes the self-reported main causes of these limitations in a national sample. Methods: The 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey was a two-phase stratified survey based on filter questions posed in the 2006 Census of Population conducted by Statistics Canada. Respondents to the survey represent 5 185 980 Canadian adults with activity and participation limitations. We used these data to develop a profile of our population of interest: adult Canadians with activity and participation limitations. Associations between demographic variables and self-reported causes of activity and participation limitations were assessed using multiple logistic regression. Results: One quarter of participants did not attribute their disability to any medical cause. The most prevalent medical conditions to which disabilities were attributed were musculoskeletal (46.1%), cardio/cerebrovascular (12.3%), mental health (8.4%), neurologic (6.0%), endocrine (6.0%) and respiratory (4.5%) conditions. Significant associations were noted between sociodemographic variables and participants’ attributions of medical conditions as cause of disability. Multiple logistic regression with bootstrapping showed that people who reported a medical cause for their limitation were more likely (p < 0.05) to be female, widowed, 40 years of age or older, born in Canada or white and were less likely (p < 0.05) to be in the highest income category or to be employed (i.e., to work more than 0 h/w). Interpretation: Most people living with activity and participation limitations report having a musculoskeletal disorder. However, a significant proportion of respondants did not attribute their limitations to a medical cause. PMID:21825051

  15. FDTD simulation study of size/gap and substrate-dependent SERS activity study of Au@SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-Liang; Li, Ruo-Ping; Han, Jun-He; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2016-08-01

    We use Au@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to systematically and comprehensively study the relationship between nanostructure and activity for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Calculation simulation using the finite different time domain method verifies the experiment results and further reveals that the particle size and the distance between the NPs play vital roles in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Furthermore, in order to better simulate the real experiment, a Au@SiO2 nanosphere dimer is placed on the silicon substrate and Au substrate, separately. The simulation results show that the large EM field coupling is due to the “hot spots” transferred from the NP-NP gaps to NP-surface of metal gaps, meanwhile, more “hot spots” occur. We also find that the signal intensity strongly depends on the position of the probe molecule. This work provides a better understanding of EM field enhancement. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61177004).

  16. FDTD simulation study of size/gap and substrate-dependent SERS activity study of Au@SiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jing-Liang; Li, Ruo-Ping; Han, Jun-He; Huang, Ming-Ju

    2016-08-01

    We use Au@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) to systematically and comprehensively study the relationship between nanostructure and activity for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Calculation simulation using the finite different time domain method verifies the experiment results and further reveals that the particle size and the distance between the NPs play vital roles in the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Furthermore, in order to better simulate the real experiment, a Au@SiO2 nanosphere dimer is placed on the silicon substrate and Au substrate, separately. The simulation results show that the large EM field coupling is due to the “hot spots” transferred from the NP–NP gaps to NP–surface of metal gaps, meanwhile, more “hot spots” occur. We also find that the signal intensity strongly depends on the position of the probe molecule. This work provides a better understanding of EM field enhancement. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61177004).

  17. Morphological transformation and effect on gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells as screening tests for carcinogens devoid of mutagenic activity.

    PubMed

    Rivedal, E; Mikalsen, S O; Sanner, T

    2000-04-01

    A large fraction of chemicals observed to cause cancer in experimental animals is devoid of mutagenic activity. It is therefore of importance to develop methods that can be used to detect and study environmental carcinogenic agents that do not interact directly with DNA. Previous studies have indicated that induction of in vitro cell transformation and inhibition of gap junction intercellular communication are endpoints that could be useful for the detection of non-genotoxic carcinogens. In the present work, 13 compounds [chlordane, Arochlor 1260, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, 1,1,1-trichloro-2, 2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane, limonene, sodium fluoride, ethionine, o-anisidine, benzoyl peroxide, o-vanadate, phenobarbital, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate and clofibrate] have been tested for their ability to induce morphological transformation and affect intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells. The substances were selected on the basis of being proven or suspected non-genotoxic carcinogens, and thus difficult to detect in short-term tests. The data show that nine of the 13 compounds induced morphological transformation, and seven of the 13 inhibited intercellular communication in hamster embryo cells. Taken together, 12 of the 13 substances either induced transformation or caused inhibition of communication. The data suggest that the combined use of morphological transformation and gap junction intercellular communication in Syrian hamster embryo cells may be beneficial when screening for non-genotoxic carcinogens. PMID:10793297

  18. Advancing understanding of microbial bioenergy conversion processes by activity-based protein profiling

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yun; Fredrickson, James K.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-09-25

    Here, the development of renewable biofuels is a global priority, but success will require novel technologies that greatly improve our understanding of microbial systems biology. An approach with great promise in enabling functional characterization of microbes is activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which employs chemical probes to directly measure enzyme function in discrete enzyme classes in vivo and/or in vitro, thereby facilitating the rapid discovery of new biocatalysts and enabling much improved biofuel production platforms. We review general design strategies in ABPP, and highlight recent advances that are or could be pivotal to biofuels processes including applications of ABPP to cellulosic bioethanol, biodiesel, and phototrophic production of hydrocarbons. We also examine the key challenges and opportunities of ABPP in renewable biofuels research. The integration of ABPP with molecular and systems biology approaches will shed new insight on the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of functional enzymes and their synergistic effects in the field of biofuels production.

  19. Comprehensive profiling analysis of actively resorbing osteoclasts identifies critical signaling pathways regulated by bone substrate

    PubMed Central

    Purdue, P. Edward; Crotti, Tania N.; Shen, Zhenxin; Swantek, Jennifer; Li, Jun; Hill, Jonathan; Hanidu, Adedayo; Dimock, Janice; Nabozny, Gerald; Goldring, Steven R.; McHugh, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    As the only cells capable of efficiently resorbing bone, osteoclasts are central mediators of both normal bone remodeling and pathologies associates with excessive bone resorption. However, despite the clear evidence of interplay between osteoclasts and the bone surface in vivo, the role of the bone substrate in regulating osteoclast differentiation and activation at a molecular level has not been fully defined. Here, we present the first comprehensive expression profiles of osteoclasts differentiated on authentic resorbable bone substrates. This analysis has identified numerous critical pathways coordinately regulated by osteoclastogenic cytokines and bone substrate, including the transition from proliferation to differentiation, and sphingosine-1-phosphate signaling. Whilst, as expected, much of this program is dependent upon integrin beta 3, the pre-eminent mediator of osteoclast-bone interaction, a surprisingly significant portion of the bone substrate regulated expression signature is independent of this receptor. Together, these findings identify an important hitherto underappreciated role for bone substrate in osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25534583

  20. Phytochemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity and HPLC Fingerprinting Profiles of Three Pyrola Species from Different Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dongmei; He, Fengyuan; Lv, Zhenjiang; Li, Dengwu

    2014-01-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the variation of phytochemical composition, antioxidant activity and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprinting profiles of three Pyrola species. Thirteen samples (eight P. decorata, three P. calliantha and two P. renifolia) were collected from different regions in China. The tannin, hyperoside and quercetin contents of all samples were determined by reverse-phase HPLC and varied within the range 9.77–34.75, 0.34–2.16 and 0.062–0.147 mg/g dry weigh, respectively. Total flavonoid content was evaluated and varied within the range 16.22–37.82 mg/g dry weight. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH assay, with IC50 ranging from 7.96 to 50.33 µg/ml, ABTS•+ and FRAP assay, within the range 612.66–1021.05 and 219.64–398.12 µmol equiv. Trolox/g, respectively. These results revealed that there were significant variations in phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity among all samples. Due to the higher phytochemical content and significant antioxidant activity, P. calliantha was selected as the most valuable species, and the P. calliantha sample from Left banner of Alxa even possessed the strongest antioxidant activity among all the thirteen samples. Futhermore, Emei Mountain was proved to be the most suitable region for producing P. decorata. Moreover, in order to further evaluate the diversities and quality of Pyrola, HPLC fingerprint analysis coupled with hierarchical cluster and discrimination analyses were introduced to establish a simple, rapid and effective method for accurate identification, classification and quality assessment of Pyrola. Thirteen samples were divided into three groups consistent with their morphological classification. Two types of discriminant functions were generated and the ratio of discrimination was 100%. This method can identify different species of Pyrola and the same species from different regions of origin. Also, it can be used to compare and

  1. Impact of a distance estimation error inducing a visualized zone gap on the target illuminance in range-gated active imaging.

    PubMed

    Matwyschuk, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Some stand-alone airborne systems of target reconnaissance such as a missile seeker head use range-gated laser active imaging to visualize a target in the scene. To center the visualized zone on the target, it is important to know the distance between the active imaging system and the target. However, as this exact distance is not known before the detection of the target, it can be only estimated. This estimated distance can be erroneous (max≈500  m) with some technological drifts (gyrometric drift, accelerometric drift, missile position error, etc.). To be able to evaluate the impact of a distance estimation error on target illuminance in active imaging, the expressions of the illuminance attenuation ratio according to the decentered target position with regard to the visualized zone were determined. These different equations will be used to determine, in future stand-alone reconnaissance systems, the target signal-to-noise ratio as a function of the localization error. Generally speaking, two modes of visualization were used: first by using a fixed width of the visualized zone, and second by increasing the width of the visualized zone as a function of the distance. The defined different expressions allowed us to study the illuminance behavior of the target with regard to the value of the gap (difference between the estimated distance and the real distance) for each mode of visualization. The results showed that from a target distance of about 1 km, the visualization mode with variable zone width allowed us to decrease the target illuminance less during a gap caused by an estimation error of the target distance.

  2. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency, Active and Passive Microwave Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations and it is based on models that simulate high-resolution brightness temperatures as functions of observed reflectivity profiles and a parameter related to the rain drop-size-distribution. The modeled high-resolution brightness temperatures are used to determine normalized brightness temperature polarizations at the microwave radiometer resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is employed to minimize the differences between the simulated and observed normalized polarizations by adjusting the drop-size-distribution parameter. The impact of other unknowns that are not independent variables in the optimal estimation but affect the retrievals is minimized through statistical parameterizations derived from cloud model simulations. The retrieval technique is investigated using TRMM observations collected during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). These observations cover an area extending from 5 deg to deg N latitude and 166 deg to 172 deg E longitude from July to September 1999, and are coincident with various ground-based observations, facilitating a detailed analysis of the retrieved precipitation. Using the method developed in this study, precipitation estimates consistent with both the passive and active TRMM observations are obtained. Various parameters characterizing these estimates, i.e. the rain rate, the precipitation water content, the drop-size-distribution intercept, and the mass weighted mean drop diameter, are in good qualitative agreement with independent experimental and theoretical estimates. Combined rain estimates are in general higher than the official TRMM Precipitation Radar (PR) only estimates for the area and the period considered in the study. Ground-based precipitation estimates

  3. Retrieval of Precipitation Profiles from Multiresolution, Multifrequency Active and Passive Microwave Observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecu, Mircea; Olson, William S.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.

    2004-04-01

    In this study, a technique for estimating vertical profiles of precipitation from multifrequency, multiresolution active and passive microwave observations is investigated. The technique is applicable to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) observations, and it is based on models that simulate high-resolution brightness temperatures as functions of observed reflectivity profiles and a parameter related to the raindrop size distribution. The modeled high-resolution brightness temperatures are used to determine normalized brightness temperature polarizations at the microwave radiometer resolution. An optimal estimation procedure is employed to minimize the differences between the simulated and observed normalized polarizations by adjusting the drop size distribution parameter. The impact of other unknowns that are not independent variables in the optimal estimation, but affect the retrievals, is minimized through statistical parameterizations derived from cloud model simulations. The retrieval technique is investigated using TRMM observations collected during the Kwajalein Experiment (KWAJEX). These observations cover an area extending from 5° to 12°N latitude and from 166° to 172°E longitude from July to September 1999 and are coincident with various ground-based observations, facilitating a detailed analysis of the retrieved precipitation. Using the method developed in this study, precipitation estimates consistent with both the passive and active TRMM observations are obtained. Various parameters characterizing these estimates, that is, the rain rate, precipitation water content, drop size distribution intercept, and the mass- weighted mean drop diameter, are in good qualitative agreement with independent experimental and theoretical estimates. Combined rain estimates are, in general, higher than the official TRMM precipitation radar (PR)-only estimates for the area and the period considered in the study. Ground-based precipitation estimates, derived

  4. GAP Analysis Bulletin Number 15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maxwell, Jill; Gergely, Kevin; Aycrigg, Jocelyn; Canonico, Gabrielle; Davidson, Anne; Coffey, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    The Mission of the Gap Analysis Program (GAP) is to promote conservation by providing broad geographic information on biological diversity to resource managers, planners, and policy makers who can use the information to make informed decisions. As part of the National Biological Information Infrastructure (NBII) ?a collaborative program to provide increased access to data and information on the nation?s biological resources--GAP data and analytical tools have been used in hundreds of applications: from basic research to comprehensive state wildlife plans; from educational projects in schools to ecoregional assessments of biodiversity. The challenge: keeping common species common means protecting them BEFORE they become threatened. To do this on a state or regional basis requires key information such as land cover descriptions, predicted distribution maps for native animals, and an assessment of the level of protection currently given to those plants and animals. GAP works cooperatively with Federal, state, and local natural resource professionals and academics to provide this kind of information. GAP activities focus on the creation of state and regional databases and maps that depict patterns of land management, land cover, and biodiversity. These data can be used to identify ?gaps? in conservation--instances where an animal or plant community is not adequately represented on the existing network of conservation lands. GAP is administered through the U.S. Geological Survey. Through building partnerships among disparate groups, GAP hopes to foster the kind of collaboration that is needed to address conservation issues on a broad scale. For more information, contact: John Mosesso National GAP Director 703-648-4079 Kevin Gergely National GAP Operations Manager 208-885-3565

  5. Phenolic Profile and In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Endemic Bulgarian Carduus Species

    PubMed Central

    Dimitrova-Dyulgerova, Ivanka; Zhelev, Iliya; Mihaylova, Dasha

    2015-01-01

    Background: Plant species from genus Carduus are widely distributed in the world and represented in Bulgaria by 14 species. Previous investigations on this genus demonstrated a strong antioxidant potential of extract from some Bulgarian Carduus species. Objective: The present study investigates the phenolic profile and the antioxidant potential of different extracts obtained from four endemic Compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus Boiss and Heldr., Carduus candicans Waldst. et Kit ssp. globifer (Velen.) Kazmi., Carduus rhodopaeus Velen. and Carduus thracicus (Velen.) Hayek. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacity of the obtained extracts was estimated with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2’-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), and ferric reducing antioxidant power and copper reduction antioxidant assays. Phenolic profile was estimated by high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Eleven phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were quantified in the inflorescences. Sinapic (2760.72 ± 15.68 μg/g dry weight [dw]), chlorogenic (2564.50 ± 19.73 μg/g dw) and ferulic acids (1648.71 ± 19.57 μg/g dw), as well as luteolin (2345.45 ± 18.61 μg/g dw) and apigenin (1332.75 ± 12.05 μg/g dw) were found to be the predominant compounds. The above contents are the highest values found in C. candicans ssp. globifer. The highest established antioxidant activity (AOA) was in favor of the ethanolic extracts, and the extract of C. rhodopaeus affirmed with the highest AOA among the investigated plant species. Conclusion: All identified phenolic compounds were reported for the 1st time in the studied endemic Carduus species, as well as their antioxidant capacities. The present study revealed that these plant species could be used as sources of antioxidants with potential medicinal properties. SUMMARY Phenolic acids and flavonoid profiles of four endemic compositae herbs, growing wild in Bulgaria: Carduus armatus, Carduus candicans ssp

  6. Rho/RacGAPs: embarras de richesse?

    PubMed

    Csépányi-Kömi, Roland; Lévay, Magdolna; Ligeti, Erzsébet

    2012-01-01

    Regulatory proteins such as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) determine the activity of small GTPases. In the Rho/Rac family, the number of GEFs and GAPs largely exceeds the number of small GTPases, raising the question of specific or overlapping functions. In our recent study we investigated the first time ARHGAP25 at the protein level, determined its activity as RacGAP and showed its involvement in phagocytosis. With the discovery of ARHGAP25, the number of RacGAPs described in phagocytes is increased to six. We provide data that indicate the specific functions of selected Rho/RacGAPs and we show an example of differential regulation of a Rho/Rac family GAP by different kinases. We propose that the abundance of Rho/Rac family GAPs is an important element of the fine spatiotemporal regulation of diverse cellular functions.

  7. Differences in the chemical profiles and biological activities of Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia obovata.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jong Hee; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Paeonia lactiflora and P. obovata are perennial herbs, each root of which has been consumed as a major oriental medicine, Paeoniae Radix and a famous folk medicine, Mountain Paeony Root, respectively. Although morphological studies have been performed comparing these two plants, there is insufficient scientific evidence that characterizes the differences in their chemical profiles and biological activities. Hence, the present study was undertaken to compare these two medicinal foods using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and a gastric ulcer model in mice. HPLC analysis employed to assess the nine components revealed that P. lactiflora exhibited higher contents of phenolic compounds than P. obovata. Although a monoterpene glycoside, 6'-O-acetylpaeoniflorin was identified in P. obovata, it was not detected in P. lactiflora. Multivariate statistical analysis for HPLC data revealed that the orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis is more appropriate than principal component analysis for differentiating the two groups. Moreover, the 50% methanol P. lactiflora extract (PL) was more effective against experimental gastric ulcer than P. obovata extract (PO) in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In addition, PL displayed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and lower nitric oxide production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, than PO. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of PL was as high as that of the positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene, at a concentration of 25 μg/mL.

  8. Phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of different varieties of Adinandra Tea (Adinandra Jack).

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongsheng; Chen, Gu; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui-Hai

    2015-01-14

    Consumption of plant foods has been negatively associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases, which is partly attributed to their rich and diverse phytochemicals. To promote the rational and effective application of Adinandra tea (Adinandra Jack), a traditional Chinese tea (Shiyacha) widely consumed as a health beverage, the complete phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of four varieties of Adinandra tea were analyzed. They were rich in phenolics and flavonoids, ranging from 71.29 to 140.54 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g and from 19.13 to 88.72 mg of catechin equivalent/g, respectively. Their antioxidant capacities were high, as revealed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, and cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assays. An obvious antiproliferation effect was observed in HepG2 and MCF-7 cells, with EC50 ranging from 1.05 to 6.44 mg/mL and from 2.26 to 8.02 mg/mL, respectively. Among the four varieties compared, Nitida and Millettii had a higher CAA value and antiproliferation activity, while Latifolia contained considerable bound phenolics.

  9. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples. PMID:27386109

  10. Antimicrobial activity, phenolic profile and role in the inflammation of propolis.

    PubMed

    Silva, João Carlos; Rodrigues, Sandra; Feás, Xesús; Estevinho, Leticia M

    2012-05-01

    Nowadays a great amount of information regarding chemical and biological aspects of bee products is available in the literature, but few data on its therapeutic uses are found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the phenolic profile, the in vitro antimicrobial activity and effect in the hyaluronidase enzyme (widely related with the inflammation process) of propolis harvested in Portugal. The efficacy of three extracts (hydro-alcoholic, methanolic and aqueous) was also compared. It was chosen the hydro-alcoholic extract, because this was the most effective for extracting phenolic compounds. The antimicrobial activity was accessed in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts, isolated from different biological fluids and the results were then compared with the obtained for reference microorganisms. The propolis from Bragança was the one that possessed the highest polyphenols' content. The sample from Beja showed the less significant inhibition of the hyaluronidase enzyme. Concerning the antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans was the most resistant and Staphylococcus aureus the most sensitive. The reference microorganisms were more sensitive than the ones isolated from biological fluids.

  11. Placental profiling of UGT1A enzyme expression and activity and interactions with preeclampsia at term.

    PubMed

    Collier, Abby C; Thévenon, Audrey D; Goh, William; Hiraoka, Mark; Kendal-Wright, Claire E

    2015-12-01

    Placental UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes have critical roles in hormone, nutrient, chemical balance and fetal exposure during pregnancy. Placental UGT1A isoforms were profiled and differences between preeclamptic (PE) and non-PE placental UGT expression determined. In third trimester villous placenta, UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6 and 1A9 were expressed and active in all specimens (n = 10), but UGT1A3, 1A5, 1A7, 1A8 and 1A10 were absent. The UGT1A activities were comparable to human liver microsomes per milligram, but placental microsome yields were only 2 % of liver (1 mg/g of tissue vs. 45 mg/g of tissue). For successful PCR, placental collection and processing within 60 min from delivery, including DNAse and ≥300 ng of RNA in reverse transcription were essential and snap freezing in liquid nitrogen immediately was the best preservation method. Although UGT1A6 mRNA was lower in PE (P < 0.001), there were no other significant effects on UGT mRNA, protein or activities. A more comprehensive tissue sample set is required for confirmation of PE interactions with UGT. Placental UGT1A enzyme expression patterns are similar to the liver and a detoxicative role for placental UGT1A is inferred. PMID:25465229

  12. Profiling physical activity, diet, screen and sleep habits in Portuguese children.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Chaves, Raquel N; Champagne, Catherine M; Barreira, Tiago V; Maia, José A R

    2015-06-02

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children's lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/ socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74-10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98-4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43-0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05).

  13. Phenolics, aroma profile, and in vitro antioxidant activity of Italian dessert passito wine from Saracena (Italy).

    PubMed

    Loizzo, Monica R; Bonesi, Marco; Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Boselli, Emanuele; Tundis, Rosa; Pugliese, Alessandro; Menichini, Francesco; Frega, Natale Giuseppe

    2013-05-01

    A traditional sweet dessert wine from Saracena (Italy), made with nonmacerated local white grapes (Guarnaccia, Malvasia and Moscato), was analyzed for phenolics and aroma profile and antioxidant activities. The most abundant classes of phenols identified by high-performance liquid chromatography were hydroxybenzoic acids and flavan-3-ols, where gallic acid showed the highest content (376.5 mg/L). The analysis by solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of superior alcohols (from iso-butanol and iso-amyl alcohol up to 2-phenylethanol) and their ethyl esters, terpenes (such as linalool), furfuryl compounds, and free fatty acids (up to palmitic acid) as the key odorants of this wine. The antioxidant activity, evaluated by different in vitro assays 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS), and β-carotene bleaching test), showed that passito wine had a radical scavenging activity (IC50 value of 0.03 v/v against DPPH·) and inhibited linoleic acid oxidation with an IC50 value of 0.4 v/v after 30 min of incubation.

  14. Flavonoid profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity of different extracts from Algerian Rhamnus alaternus L. bark

    PubMed Central

    Boussahel, Soulef; Speciale, Antonio; Dahamna, Saliha; Amar, Yacine; Bonaccorsi, Irene; Cacciola, Francesco; Cimino, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Ferlazzo, Guido; Harzallah, Daoud; Cristani, Mariateresa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhamnus alaternus (Rhamnaceae) L. has been traditionally used for treatment of many diseases. Objective: In this study, we determined the antioxidant/free radical scavenger properties, the flavonoid profile and the cytotoxicity of aqueous and methanolic extracts obtained by maceration from Algerian R. alaternus bark, like also of aqueous extract prepared by decoction according to the traditional method. This to estimate the usefulness of the drug traditional preparation and compare it with those made in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of the extracts was evaluated using five different redox-based assays, all involving one redox reaction with the oxidant. High-performance liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify and quantify the flavonoids content. Cytotoxicity on human monocytic leukemia cells (U937) was also carried out. Results: All the extracts tested showed a good antioxidant/free radical scavenger activity and a similar flavonoid fingerprint. However, the methanolic one presented the best antioxidant activity that can be due to the highest flavonoid amount and significantly reduced the proliferation of leukemia cells. The results confirm that the extract prepared by decoction contains efficient antioxidant compounds and this justifies in part the therapeutic and preventive usefulness. Moreover, the methanolic extract exerted excellent cytotoxicity on U937 that could be attributed to kaempferol and rhamnocitrin glycosides. PMID:26109754

  15. Profiling Physical Activity, Diet, Screen and Sleep Habits in Portuguese Children

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sara; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Borges, Alessandra; Santos, Daniel; Souza, Michele; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Barreira, Tiago V.; Maia, José A.R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in children is partly due to unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, e.g., sedentary activity and poor dietary choices. This trend has been seen globally. To determine the extent of these behaviours in a Portuguese population of children, 686 children 9.5 to 10.5 years of age were studied. Our aims were to: (1) describe profiles of children’s lifestyle behaviours; (2) identify behaviour pattern classes; and (3) estimate combined effects of individual/socio-demographic characteristics in predicting class membership. Physical activity and sleep time were estimated by 24-h accelerometry. Nutritional habits, screen time and socio-demographics were obtained. Latent Class Analysis was used to determine unhealthy lifestyle behaviours. Logistic regression analysis predicted class membership. About 78% of children had three or more unhealthy lifestyle behaviours, while 0.2% presented no risk. Two classes were identified: Class 1-Sedentary, poorer diet quality; and Class 2-Insufficiently active, better diet quality, 35% and 65% of the population, respectively. More mature children (Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.75; 95%CI = 4.74–10.41), and boys (OR = 3.06; 95% CI = 1.98–4.72) were more likely to be overweight/obese. However, those belonging to Class 2 were less likely to be overweight/obese (OR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.43–0.84). Maternal education level and household income did not significantly predict weight status (p ≥ 0.05). PMID:26043034

  16. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation.

    PubMed

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B; Neme, Walter S; Gallarreta, Francisco M P; Gonçalves, Thissiane L

    2016-05-03

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage.

  17. Acetohydroxyacid synthase activity and transcripts profiling reveal tissue-specific regulation of ahas genes in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Ochogavía, Ana C; Breccia, Gabriela; Vega, Tatiana; Felitti, Silvina A; Picardi, Liliana A; Nestares, Graciela

    2014-07-01

    Acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) is the target site of several herbicides and catalyses the first step in the biosynthesis of branched chain amino acid. Three genes coding for AHAS catalytic subunit (ahas1, ahas2 and ahas3) have been reported for sunflower. The aim of this work was to study the expression pattern of ahas genes family and AHAS activity in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Different organs (leaves, hypocotyls, roots, flowers and embryos) were evaluated at several developmental stages. The transcriptional profile was studied through RT-qPCR. The highest expression for ahas1 was shown in leaves, where all the induced and natural gene mutations conferring herbicide resistance were found. The maximal expression of ahas2 and ahas3 occurred in immature flowers and embryos. The highest AHAS activity was found in leaves and immature embryos. Correlation analysis among ahas gene expression and AHAS activity was discussed. Our results show that differences in ahas genes expression are tissue-specific and temporally regulated. Moreover, the conservation of multiple AHAS isoforms in sunflower seems to result from different expression requirements controlled by tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms at different developmental stages. PMID:24908515

  18. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profiles of the wild currant Ribes magellanicum from Chilean and Argentinean Patagonia.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Aspee, Felipe; Thomas-Valdés, Samanta; Schulz, Ayla; Ladio, Ana; Theoduloz, Cristina; Schmeda-Hirschmann, Guillermo

    2016-07-01

    The Patagonian currant Ribes magellanicum is highly valued due to its pleasant flavor and sweet taste. The aim of this study was to characterize its constituents and to assess their antioxidant and cytoprotective properties. For the fruit phenolic-enriched extract (PEE), total phenolics (TP), total flavonoids (TF), and antioxidant activity (DPPH, Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and Trolox equivalent antioxidant activity (TEAC)) were determined. Argentinean samples presented better activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays. Best cytoprotection against oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in AGS cells was found in one Argentinean sample at 500 μg mL(-1) (65.7%). HPLC MS/MS analysis allowed the tentative identification of 59 constituents, including eight anthocyanins, 11 conjugates of caffeic-, ferulic-, and coumaric acid, and 38 flavonoids, most of them quercetin and kaempferol derivatives. Argentinean samples showed a more complex pattern of anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids (HCA), and flavonoids. Cyanidin rhamnoside hexoside and cyanidin hexoside were the main anthocyanins, accounting for 35 and 55% for the Argentinean and 60 and 27% for the ripe Chilean fruits. HCA content was about three times higher in Argentinean samples. The phenolic profiles of Chilean and Argentinean Ribes magellanicum show remarkable differences in chemical composition with higher HCA and flavonoid content in Argentinean samples.

  19. Effects of social stress on tumor development in dominant male mice with diverse behavioral activity profiles.

    PubMed

    Cacho Fernández, Raúl; Garmendia Rezola, Larraitz; Vegas Moreno, Oscar; Azpíroz Sánchez, Arantxa

    2008-11-01

    We examined the influence of individual psychological profile and social behavior on tumor development in dominant male mice. Male OF1 mice were subjected to an open field test (OFT) to observe their motor activity and latency. Subsequently, the animals were divided into three groups: Stress-Non-Inoculated (SNI), Stress-Inoculated (SI) and Control-Inoculated (CI). The SI and CI groups were inoculated with tumor cells and the SNI group with vehicle. SNI and SI were exposed to social stress with an anosmic intruder six (T1) and twenty one (T2) days after inoculation and their behavior was analyzed. After T2, subjects were put down and the pulmonary metastatic foci counted. SI developed greater pulmonary metastasis than CI, indicating an effect of stress despite the animal's dominant status. Active animals developed less pulmonary metastasis than their passive counterparts. No differences were found in social behavior at T1. Differences were found, however, in some behavioral categories at T2 between SI and SNI, and between active and passive animals. These differences indicate an effect of tumor development on social behavior that is more evident in passive subjects.

  20. Oxidative Profile and δ-Aminolevulinate Dehydratase Activity in Healthy Pregnant Women with Iron Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    De Lucca, Leidiane; Rodrigues, Fabiane; Jantsch, Letícia B.; Neme, Walter S.; Gallarreta, Francisco M. P.; Gonçalves, Thissiane L.

    2016-01-01

    An oxidative burst occurs during pregnancy due to the large consumption of oxygen in the tissues and an increase in metabolic demands in response to maternal physiological changes and fetal growth. This study aimed to determine the oxidative profile and activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (δ-ALA-D) in pregnant women who received iron supplementation. Oxidative stress parameters were evaluated in 25 pregnant women with iron supplementation, 25 pregnant women without supplementation and 25 non-pregnant women. The following oxidative stress parameters were evaluated: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein thiol groups (P-SH), non-protein thiol levels (NP-SH), vitamin C levels, catalase and δ-ALA-D activity. Markers of oxidative stress and cell damage, such as TBARS in plasma were significantly higher in pregnant women without supplementation. Levels of P-SH, NP-SH and δ-ALA-D activity were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation compared to non-pregnant and pregnant women with supplementation, while vitamin C levels were significantly lower in pregnant women without supplementation when compared to non-pregnant women. The increase in the generation of oxidative species and decrease of antioxidants suggest the loss of physiological oxidative balance during normal pregnancy, which was not observed in pregnant women with iron supplementation, suggesting a protective effect of iron against oxidative damage. PMID:27153075

  1. Differences in the chemical profiles and biological activities of Paeonia lactiflora and Paeonia obovata.

    PubMed

    Bae, Ji-Yeong; Kim, Chul Young; Kim, Hyun Jin; Park, Jong Hee; Ahn, Mi-Jeong

    2015-02-01

    Paeonia lactiflora and P. obovata are perennial herbs, each root of which has been consumed as a major oriental medicine, Paeoniae Radix and a famous folk medicine, Mountain Paeony Root, respectively. Although morphological studies have been performed comparing these two plants, there is insufficient scientific evidence that characterizes the differences in their chemical profiles and biological activities. Hence, the present study was undertaken to compare these two medicinal foods using a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) analysis and a gastric ulcer model in mice. HPLC analysis employed to assess the nine components revealed that P. lactiflora exhibited higher contents of phenolic compounds than P. obovata. Although a monoterpene glycoside, 6'-O-acetylpaeoniflorin was identified in P. obovata, it was not detected in P. lactiflora. Multivariate statistical analysis for HPLC data revealed that the orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis is more appropriate than principal component analysis for differentiating the two groups. Moreover, the 50% methanol P. lactiflora extract (PL) was more effective against experimental gastric ulcer than P. obovata extract (PO) in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model. In addition, PL displayed higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and lower nitric oxide production in a murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, than PO. The DPPH radical scavenging activity of PL was as high as that of the positive control, butylated hydroxytoluene, at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. PMID:25299493

  2. A Latent Profile Analysis of Neighborhood Recreation Environments in Relation to Adolescent Physical Activity, Sedentary Time, and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Marc A.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Ryan, Sherry; Frank, Lawrence D.; Roesch, Scott C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether multivariate profiles of the neighborhood recreation environment were associated with adolescent physical activity, sedentary time, and obesity. Design Residential addresses of 871 adolescents in San Diego County (53% female, mean age = 12.8 years) were geocoded to create 1-mile network buffers. Measures Geographic information systems (GIS) calculated neighborhood environmental variables. Accelerometers (worn 3 to 7 days) estimated daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time. Height and weight were directly measured. Results Latent profile analysis using seven environmental variables resulted in three neighborhood profiles characterized as ‘Open Space’ (OS), ‘Residential with Cul-de-Sacs’ (RWC), and ‘Housing & Facility Dense’ (HFD). These were named Adolescent Recreation Environment Accessibility (AREA) profiles. Multiple regression models stratified by gender tested associations between the AREA profiles and outcomes. Boys were less sedentary in the OS and RWC neighborhoods (7 hr/d) compared to the HFD neighborhoods (8 hr/d) (p < .01), and boys were more likely to be obese in the HFD neighborhoods (55%) compared to the OS group (24%) (p < .05). Girls in the RWC neighborhoods had lower MVPA levels (70 min/d) and were more likely to be obese (31%) than those in the OS neighborhoods (79 min/d MVPA, 21% obese) (ps < .05). No differences were found for boys’ MVPA or girls’ sedentary time by the AREA profiles. Conclusions These findings highlight the complex relationships among environmental factors, activity levels, and obesity. PMID:20689390

  3. Active Tectonics of off-Hokuriku, Central Japan, by two ships seismic reflection profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Naoko; Sato, Hiroshi; Ishiyama, Tatsuya; Abe, Susumu; Shiraishi, Kazuya

    2015-04-01

    Along the southern to eastern margin of the Sea of Japan, active faults are densely distributed. These submarine active faults produced tsunami disasters, such as 1983 Nihonkai-chubu earthquake (M7.7) and 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake (M7.8). To estimate tsunami hazards, we performed deep seismic reflection profiling to obtain the information of tsunami source faults, off-Hokuriku area in the central part of Honshu, Japan. The survey is carried out as a part of research project named "the integrated research project on seismic and tsunami hazards around the Sea of Japan" funded by MEXT. To obtain long offset data in busy marine activity area, we used two vessels; a gun-ship with 3020 cu. inch air-gun and a cable-ship with a 2-km-long, streamer cable with 156 channels and 480 cu. inch air-gun. Common-midpoint reflection data were acquired using two ships at 4 km offset. The survey area consists of stretched continental crust associated with rifting and opening of the Sea of Japan in early Miocene and is marked by densely distributed syn-rift normal faults. Fault reactivation of normal faults as reverse faults is common. Two phases of fault reactivation are identified from the seismic sections after termination of opening of the Sea of Japan. One is the late Miocene NS trending shortening deformation. This is produced by NS-trending convergence of the Shikoku basin (15 Ma), which belongs to the Philippine Sea plate (PHS) to SW Japan at Nankai trough (Kimura et al., 2005). After the initiation of the subduction of PHS at Nankai trough, the strong shortening deformation is terminated and the fold-and-thrust belt was unconformably covered by sub-horizontal Pliocene sediments. Some horizons of unconformities represent multiple events of shortening driven from the subduction interface. Some normal faults reactivated as active strike-slip and reverse faults in Quaternary. Well observed example is the 2007 Noto peninsula earthquake (M6.8). The 2007 Noto peninsula

  4. Enhanced Amphiphilic Profile of a Short β-Stranded Peptide Improves Its Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Manzo, Giorgia; Scorciapino, Mariano A.; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Bürck, Jochen; Montaldo, Nicola Pietro; Pintus, Manuela; Sanna, Roberta; Casu, Mariano; Giuliani, Andrea; Pirri, Giovanna; Luca, Vincenzo; Ulrich, Anne S.; Rinaldi, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    SB056 is a novel semi-synthetic antimicrobial peptide with a dimeric dendrimer scaffold. Active against both Gram-negative and -positive bacteria, its mechanism has been attributed to a disruption of bacterial membranes. The branched peptide was shown to assume a β-stranded conformation in a lipidic environment. Here, we report on a rational modification of the original, empirically derived linear peptide sequence [WKKIRVRLSA-NH2, SB056-lin]. We interchanged the first two residues [KWKIRVRLSA-NH2, β-SB056-lin] to enhance the amphipathic profile, in the hope that a more regular β-strand would lead to a better antimicrobial performance. MIC values confirmed that an enhanced amphiphilic profile indeed significantly increases activity against both Gram-positive and -negative strains. The membrane binding affinity of both peptides, measured by tryptophan fluorescence, increased with an increasing ratio of negatively charged/zwitterionic lipids. Remarkably, β-SB056-lin showed considerable binding even to purely zwitterionic membranes, unlike the original sequence, indicating that besides electrostatic attraction also the amphipathicity of the peptide structure plays a fundamental role in binding, by stabilizing the bound state. Synchrotron radiation circular dichroism and solid-state 19F-NMR were used to characterize and compare the conformation and mobility of the membrane bound peptides. Both SB056-lin and β-SB056-lin adopt a β-stranded conformation upon binding POPC vesicles, but the former maintains an intrinsic structural disorder that also affects its aggregation tendency. Upon introducing some anionic POPG into the POPC matrix, the sequence-optimized β-SB056-lin forms well-ordered β-strands once electro-neutrality is approached, and it aggregates into more extended β-sheets as the concentration of anionic lipids in the bilayer is raised. The enhanced antimicrobial activity of the analogue correlates with the formation of these extended β-sheets, which

  5. Activity and recovery profiles of state-of-origin and national rugby league match-play.

    PubMed

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-03-01

    State-of-Origin is the highest standard of rugby league competition played anywhere in the world. This study investigated the activity profiles of State-of-Origin and compared them against regular National Rugby League (NRL) fixture matches. Video footage from State-of-Origin and NRL matches were coded for activity and recovery cycles. Time when the ball was continuously in play was considered activity, whereas any stoppages during matches were considered recovery. Ball-in-play periods in matches of different playing standards were analyzed by comparing State-of-Origin matches, NRL matches (with representative players available), and NRL matches (with representative players unavailable). The mean, maximum, and total ball-in-play time of State-of-Origin matches were longer than NRL matches (effect size [ES] ≥ 0.75) with and without the availability of representative players. State-of-Origin matches were associated with a greater proportion (ES ≥ 1.54) of long duration (46-300 seconds) ball-in-play periods, and a smaller proportion (ES ≥ 1.69) of short duration (<45 seconds) ball-in-play periods than NRL matches when representative players were both available and unavailable for selection. When representative players were available for club selection, NRL matches were associated with a smaller proportion of short duration ball-in-play periods (ES = 1.14) and a larger proportion of long duration ball-in-play periods (ES = 0.89), compared with NRL matches when representative players were unavailable. The results of this study provide empirical support for the higher playing intensity of State-of-Origin matches in comparison with regular NRL fixture matches. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate the lower quality of NRL matches during the State-of-Origin period, when representative players are unavailable for selection for their club team. From a practical perspective, these results quantify the difference in activity profiles between State-of-Origin and NRL

  6. Widening the Gap: Pre-University Gap Years and the "Economy of Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Sue

    2007-01-01

    Embarking upon a pre-university gap year is an increasingly popular option among British students. Drawing on Brown et al.'s work on positional conflict theory and the increased importance of the "economy of experience", this paper seeks to explore this growing popularity and argues that the gap year's enhanced profile raises important questions…

  7. Characterization of the protease activity of detergents: laboratory practicals for studying the protease profile and activity of various commercial detergents.

    PubMed

    Valls, Cristina; Pujadas, Gerard; Garcia-Vallve, Santi; Mulero, Miquel

    2011-07-01

    Detergent enzymes account for about 30% of the total worldwide production of enzymes and are one of the largest and most successful applications of modern industrial biotechnology. Proteases can improve the wash performance of household, industrial, and institutional laundry detergents used to remove protein-based stains such as blood, grass, body fluids, and food soils. This article describes two easy and cheap laboratory exercises to study the presence, profile, and basic enzymology of detergent proteases. These laboratory practicals are based on the determination of the detergent protease activity of various commercial detergents using the N-succinyl-L-alanyl-L-alanyl-L-prolyl-L-phenylalanine p-nitroanilide method and the bovine serum albumin degradation capacity. Students are also required to elucidate the enzymatic subtype of detergent proteases by studying the inhibitory potential of several types of protease inhibitors revealed by the same experimental methodology. Additionally, the results of the exercises can be used to provide additional insights on elementary enzymology by studying the influence of several important parameters on protease activity such as temperature (in this article) and the influence of pH and effects of surfactants and oxidizers (proposed). Students also develop laboratory skills, problem-solving capacities, and the ability to write a laboratory report. The exercises are mainly designed for an advanced undergraduate project in the biochemistry and biotechnology sciences. Globally, these laboratory practicals show students the biotechnological applications of proteases in the detergent industry and also reinforce important enzymology concepts.

  8. Facile synthesis of large-scale Ag nanosheet-assembled films with sub-10 nm gaps as highly active and homogeneous SERS substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhongbo; Meng, Guowen; Liang, Ting; Zhang, Zhuo; Zhu, Xiaoguang

    2013-01-01

    We report a facile low-cost synthetic approach to large-scale Ag nanosheet-assembled films with a high density of uniformly distributed sub-10 nm gaps between the adjacent nanosheets on Si substrates via galvanic cell reactions. The distribution density of Ag nanosheets on substrates could be tailored by tuning the duration of the HF-etching and the concentration of citric acid in the solution. Furthermore, in conjunction with a conventional photolithography, highly uniform patterned Ag nanosheet-assembled structures with different morphologies can be achieved on Si substrates via galvanic-cell-induced growth. By using rhodamine 6G as a standard test molecule, the large-scale Ag nanosheet-assembled films exhibit highly active and homogenous surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect and also show promising potentials as reliable SERS substrates for rapid detection of trace polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs).

  9. Neuropeptide Y, substance P, and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 stimulate human osteoblast osteogenic activity by enhancing gap junction intercellular communication

    PubMed Central

    Ma, W.H.; Liu, Y.J.; Wang, W.; Zhang, Y.Z.

    2015-01-01

    Bone homeostasis seems to be controlled by delicate and subtle “cross talk” between the nervous system and “osteo-neuromediators” that control bone remodeling. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of interactions between neuropeptides and human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP2) on human osteoblasts. We also investigated the effects of neuropeptides and hBMP2 on gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC). Osteoblasts were treated with neuropeptide Y (NPY), substance P (SP), or hBMP2 at three concentrations. At various intervals after treatment, cell viability was measured by the MTT assay. In addition, cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and osteocalcin were determined by colorimetric assay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The effects of NPY, SP and hBMP on GJIC were determined by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The viability of cells treated with neuropeptides and hBMP2 increased significantly in a time-dependent manner, but was inversely associated with the concentration of the treatments. ALP activity and osteocalcin were both reduced in osteoblasts exposed to the combination of neuropeptides and hBMP2. The GJIC of osteoblasts was significantly increased by the neuropeptides and hBMP2. These results suggest that osteoblast activity is increased by neuropeptides and hBMP2 through increased GJIC. Identification of the GJIC-mediated signal transduction capable of modulating the cellular activities of bone cells represents a novel approach to studying the biology of skeletal innervation. PMID:25714881

  10. [Knowledge and gaps on the role of nutrition and physical activity on the onset of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Sangil-Monroy, Marta; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2004-12-01

    Childhood and adolescent obesity has increased at alarming rates over the last few years, due to the concurrence of a variety of genetic and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to conduct a review of published studies in the past ten years evaluating the development of childhood obesity in relation to energy and macronutrients intake, their distribution throughout the day and physical activity patterns. 31 articles dealing with this subject were selected. Results obtained appear to indicate that reducing dietary fat and increasing dietary carbohydrate intakes along with consuming an adequate breakfast and carrying out leisure time physical activity on a regular basis act as determining factors to prevent childhood and adolescent obesity, even though the strength of the evidence from these studies is low. It should be a priority to conduct follow-up studies with comparable methodologies in Mediterranean countries, in order to establish parameters for the prevention and control of childhood and adolescent obesity.

  11. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Kristen; Sadler, Natalie C.; Wright, Aaron T.; Yeager, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic nitrifying bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2−) through the sequential activities of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (HAO). Many alkynes are mechanism-based inactivators of AMO, and here we describe an activity-based protein profiling method for this enzyme using 1,7-octadiyne (17OD) as a probe. Inactivation of NH4+-dependent O2 uptake by N. europaea by 17OD was time- and concentration-dependent. The effects of 17OD were specific for ammonia-oxidizing activity, and de novo protein synthesis was required to reestablish this activity after cells were exposed to 17OD. Cells were reacted with Alexa Fluor 647 azide using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (click) reaction, solubilized, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) scanning. A fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was observed for cells previously exposed to 17OD but not for cells treated with either allylthiourea or acetylene prior to exposure to 17OD or for cells not previously exposed to 17OD. The fluorescent polypeptide was membrane associated and aggregated when heated with β-mercaptoethanol and SDS. The fluorescent polypeptide was also detected in cells pretreated with other diynes, but not in cells pretreated with structural homologs containing a single ethynyl functional group. The membrane fraction from 17OD-treated cells was conjugated with biotin-azide and solubilized in SDS. Streptavidin affinity-purified polypeptides were on-bead trypsin-digested, and amino acid sequences of the peptide fragments were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Peptide fragments from AmoA were the predominant peptides detected in 17OD-treated samples. In-gel digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses also confirmed that the fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was AmoA. PMID:26826234

  12. Comparison of Activity Profiles and Physiological Demands Between International Rugby Sevens Matches and Training.

    PubMed

    Higham, Dean G; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Hopkins, Will G; Eddy, Anthony

    2016-05-01

    The specificity of contemporary training practices of international rugby sevens players is unknown. We quantified the positional group-specific activity profiles and physiological demands of on-field training activities and compared these with match demands. Twenty-two international matches and 63 rugby-specific training drills were monitored in 25 backs and 17 forwards from a national squad of male rugby sevens players over a 21-month period. Drills were classified into 3 categories: low-intensity skill refining (n = 23 drills, 560 observations), moderate- to high-intensity skill refining (n = 28 drills, 600 observations), and game simulation (n = 12 drills, 365 observations). Movement patterns (via Global Positioning System devices) and physiological load (via heart rate monitors) were recorded for all activities, and the differences between training and matches were quantified using magnitude-based inferential statistics. Distance covered in total and at ≥3.5 m·s, maximal velocity, and frequency of accelerations and decelerations were lower for forwards during competition compared with those for backs by a small but practically important magnitude. No clear positional group differences were observed for physiological load during matches. Training demands exceeded match demands only for frequency of decelerations of forwards during moderate- to high-intensity skill-refining drills and only by a small amount. Accelerations and distance covered at ≥6 m·s were closer to match values for forwards than for backs during all training activities, but training drills consistently fell below the demands of international competition. Coaches could therefore improve physical and physiological specificity by increasing the movement demands and intensity of training drills. PMID:27100167

  13. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Ammonia Monooxygenase in Nitrosomonas europaea.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kristen; Sadler, Natalie C; Wright, Aaron T; Yeager, Chris; Hyman, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea is an aerobic nitrifying bacterium that oxidizes ammonia (NH3) to nitrite (NO2 (-)) through the sequential activities of ammonia monooxygenase (AMO) and hydroxylamine dehydrogenase (HAO). Many alkynes are mechanism-based inactivators of AMO, and here we describe an activity-based protein profiling method for this enzyme using 1,7-octadiyne (17OD) as a probe. Inactivation of NH4 (+)-dependent O2 uptake by N. europaea by 17OD was time- and concentration-dependent. The effects of 17OD were specific for ammonia-oxidizing activity, andde novoprotein synthesis was required to reestablish this activity after cells were exposed to 17OD. Cells were reacted with Alexa Fluor 647 azide using a copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) (click) reaction, solubilized, and analyzed by SDS-PAGE and infrared (IR) scanning. A fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was observed for cells previously exposed to 17OD but not for cells treated with either allylthiourea or acetylene prior to exposure to 17OD or for cells not previously exposed to 17OD. The fluorescent polypeptide was membrane associated and aggregated when heated with β-mercaptoethanol and SDS. The fluorescent polypeptide was also detected in cells pretreated with other diynes, but not in cells pretreated with structural homologs containing a single ethynyl functional group. The membrane fraction from 17OD-treated cells was conjugated with biotin-azide and solubilized in SDS. Streptavidin affinity-purified polypeptides were on-bead trypsin-digested, and amino acid sequences of the peptide fragments were determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. Peptide fragments from AmoA were the predominant peptides detected in 17OD-treated samples. In-gel digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-tandem time of flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses also confirmed that the fluorescent 28-kDa polypeptide was AmoA. PMID:26826234

  14. Antiradical activity, phenolics profile, and hydroxymethylfurfural in espresso coffee: influence of technological factors.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Jerez, María; Casal, Susana; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María J; Oliveira, Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    The influence of technological factors (decaffeination, brew volume, coffee species, and roast degree) on antiradical activity and phenolics content of espresso coffee is described. The screenings of phenolics profile and other compounds (caffeine and trigonelline), as well as the quantification of hydroxymethylfurfural, were performed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) scavenging activities and phenolics contents were found in decaffeinated espressos when compared with regular ones (32 vs 38% and 324 vs 410 mg/30 mL cup, respectively). A long espresso (70 mL) offers more than twice the phenolics amount of a short one (20 mL). Robusta brews showed higher (p < 0.05) antiradical activity and phenolic contents than arabica ones, for all roast degrees (light, medium, and dark). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for scavenging activities of differently roasted robusta brews, whereas an increase in medium-dark brews was observed for arabica samples. Total phenolics in robusta espressos decreased (p < 0.05) with the increase of roast degree, but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between arabica espressos from different roasts. By LC-DAD-ESI-MS, 23 hydroxycinnamic derivatives were found, including chlorogenic acids, lactones, and cinnamoyl-amino acid conjugates. The amount of each compound was differently affected by species and roast. Robusta brews presented superior levels of caffeine and chlorogenic acids, whereas arabica ones contained more trigonelline. Hydroxymethylfurfural contents in the brew (30 mL) varied from 2.60 to 0.84 mg for light- and dark-roasted arabicas and from 1.29 to 0.68 mg for light- and dark-roasted robustas, respectively.

  15. Pedometer-determined physical activity profile of healthcare professionals in a Nigerian tertiary hospital

    PubMed Central

    Owoeye, Oluwatoyosi; Tomori, Adetipe; Akinbo, Sunday

    2016-01-01

    Background: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are perceived as statutory advocates for healthy living and promotion of healthy behaviors such as regular participation in physical activity (PA). This study assessed and compared pedometer-determined PA of different urban HCPs in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 180 HCPs from a tertiary hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. PA was measured by daily walking steps using a pedometer. Results: The mean step count obtained was 7,396.94 ± 2,714.63 steps/day. Only 20% of the HCPs met a minimum PA of 10,000 steps/day. About one-third (34.4%) of the HCPs were low active and less than a quarter (23.9%) were somewhat active. Further, less than half (43.9%) of the HCPs were found to have PA levels ≥7,500 steps/day. Overall, nurses had the highest step counts (7,980 steps/day) followed by physiotherapists (7,332 steps/day), while pharmacists had the lowest step counts (6,201 steps/day). There was however no significant difference in the mean step counts of the various cadres of the HCPs (P > 0.05). Step counts of HCPs were found to significantly negatively correlate with their age (r = −0.53; P < 0.001), body mass index (r = −0.39; P < 0.001), and body fat percentage (r = −0.42; P < 0.001). Conclusion: PA profile of the HCPs was mostly characterized by a low active PA level and less than a quarter met the recommended minimum of 10,000 steps/day. PMID:27226683

  16. Antiradical activity, phenolics profile, and hydroxymethylfurfural in espresso coffee: influence of technological factors.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rita C; Costa, Anabela S G; Jerez, María; Casal, Susana; Sineiro, Jorge; Núñez, María J; Oliveira, Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    The influence of technological factors (decaffeination, brew volume, coffee species, and roast degree) on antiradical activity and phenolics content of espresso coffee is described. The screenings of phenolics profile and other compounds (caffeine and trigonelline), as well as the quantification of hydroxymethylfurfural, were performed by LC-DAD-ESI-MS. Significantly lower (p < 0.05) scavenging activities and phenolics contents were found in decaffeinated espressos when compared with regular ones (32 vs 38% and 324 vs 410 mg/30 mL cup, respectively). A long espresso (70 mL) offers more than twice the phenolics amount of a short one (20 mL). Robusta brews showed higher (p < 0.05) antiradical activity and phenolic contents than arabica ones, for all roast degrees (light, medium, and dark). No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed for scavenging activities of differently roasted robusta brews, whereas an increase in medium-dark brews was observed for arabica samples. Total phenolics in robusta espressos decreased (p < 0.05) with the increase of roast degree, but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between arabica espressos from different roasts. By LC-DAD-ESI-MS, 23 hydroxycinnamic derivatives were found, including chlorogenic acids, lactones, and cinnamoyl-amino acid conjugates. The amount of each compound was differently affected by species and roast. Robusta brews presented superior levels of caffeine and chlorogenic acids, whereas arabica ones contained more trigonelline. Hydroxymethylfurfural contents in the brew (30 mL) varied from 2.60 to 0.84 mg for light- and dark-roasted arabicas and from 1.29 to 0.68 mg for light- and dark-roasted robustas, respectively. PMID:21070017

  17. Multitaxon activity profiling reveals differential microbial response to reduced seawater pH and oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Costa, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Marina; Polónia, Ana R M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-09-01

    There is growing concern that predicted changes to global ocean chemistry will interact with anthropogenic pollution to significantly alter marine microbial composition and function. However, knowledge of the compounding effects of climate change stressors and anthropogenic pollution is limited. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA (cDNA)-based activity profiling to investigate the differential responses of selected microbial taxa to ocean acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that a lower relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade) due to an adverse effect of seawater acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination (reduced pH-oil treatment) may be coupled to changes in sediment archaeal communities. In particular, we observed a pronounced compositional shift and marked reduction in the prevalence of otherwise abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal Marine Benthic Group B and Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group (MHVG) in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Conversely, the abundance of several putative hydrocarbonoclastic fungal OTUs was higher in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Sediment hydrocarbon profiling, furthermore, revealed higher concentrations of several alkanes in the reduced pH-oil treatment, corroborating the functional implications of the structural changes to microbial community composition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of the response of a complex microbial community to the interaction between reduced pH and anthropogenic pollution. In future acidified marine environments, oil hydrocarbon contamination may alter the typical mixotrophic and k-/r-strategist composition of surface sediment microbiomes towards a more heterotrophic state with lower doubling rates, thereby impairing the ability of the ecosystem to recover from acute oil contamination events.

  18. Multitaxon activity profiling reveals differential microbial response to reduced seawater pH and oil pollution.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Francisco J R C; Cleary, Daniel F R; Costa, Rodrigo; Ferreira, Marina; Polónia, Ana R M; Silva, Artur M S; Simões, Mário M Q; Oliveira, Vanessa; Gomes, Newton C M

    2016-09-01

    There is growing concern that predicted changes to global ocean chemistry will interact with anthropogenic pollution to significantly alter marine microbial composition and function. However, knowledge of the compounding effects of climate change stressors and anthropogenic pollution is limited. Here, we used 16S and 18S rRNA (cDNA)-based activity profiling to investigate the differential responses of selected microbial taxa to ocean acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination under controlled laboratory conditions. Our results revealed that a lower relative abundance of sulphate-reducing bacteria (Desulfosarcina/Desulfococcus clade) due to an adverse effect of seawater acidification and oil hydrocarbon contamination (reduced pH-oil treatment) may be coupled to changes in sediment archaeal communities. In particular, we observed a pronounced compositional shift and marked reduction in the prevalence of otherwise abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to the archaeal Marine Benthic Group B and Marine Hydrothermal Vent Group (MHVG) in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Conversely, the abundance of several putative hydrocarbonoclastic fungal OTUs was higher in the reduced pH-oil treatment. Sediment hydrocarbon profiling, furthermore, revealed higher concentrations of several alkanes in the reduced pH-oil treatment, corroborating the functional implications of the structural changes to microbial community composition. Collectively, our results advance the understanding of the response of a complex microbial community to the interaction between reduced pH and anthropogenic pollution. In future acidified marine environments, oil hydrocarbon contamination may alter the typical mixotrophic and k-/r-strategist composition of surface sediment microbiomes towards a more heterotrophic state with lower doubling rates, thereby impairing the ability of the ecosystem to recover from acute oil contamination events. PMID:27480881

  19. Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides) and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

  20. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge-associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  1. Phenolic Profiles and Contribution of Individual Compounds to Antioxidant Activity of Apple Powders.

    PubMed

    Raudone, Lina; Raudonis, Raimondas; Liaudanskas, Mindaugas; Viskelis, Jonas; Pukalskas, Audrius; Janulis, Valdimaras

    2016-05-01

    Apples (Malus domestica L.) are the most common source of phenolic compounds in northern European diet. Besides pectins, dietary fibers, vitamins, and oligosaccharides they contain phenolic compounds of different classes. Apple powders are convenient functional forms retaining significant amounts of phenolic antioxidants. In this study reducing and radical scavenging profiles of freeze-dried powders of "Aldas,ˮ "Auksis,ˮ "Connel Red,ˮ "Ligol,ˮ "Lodel,ˮ and "Rajkaˮ were determined and phenolic constituents were identified using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole and time-of-flight mass spectrometers. A negative ionization mode was applied and seventeen compounds: phenolic acids (coumaroylquinic, chlorogenic), flavonoids (quercetin derivatives), and procyanidin derivatives (B1, B2, and C1) were identified in all tested apple samples. Total values of Trolox equivalents varied from 7.72 ± 0.32 up to 20.02 ± 0.52 and from 11.10 ± 0.57 up to 21.42 ± 0.75 μmol/g of dry weight of apple powder in FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) and ABTS (2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) postcolumn assays, respectively. The greatest Trolox equivalent values were determined for apples of "Aldasˮ cultivar. Chlorogenic acid and procyanidin C1 were the most significant contributors to total reducing and radical scavenging activity in all apple cultivars tested, therefore they could be considered as markers of antioxidant activity. PMID:27002313

  2. Comparative antioxidant activity and HPLC profiles of some selected Korean thistles.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Da Mi; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2008-01-01

    As yet, no comparative analyses have been conducted regarding the comparative antioxidant activities and HPLC profiles of thistles distributed in Korea. Thus, this study was performed in order to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of seven Korean thistles: Cirsium lineare, Cirsium chanroenicum, Cirsium setidens, Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense, Cirsium nipponicum, Cirslum pendulum and Carduus crispus, via peroxynitrite and DPPH free radical assays. Among seven Korean thistles, Carduus crispus exhibited the most significant antioxidant activity in both DPPH assay and peroxynitrite. In order to characterize the compounds contained in Korean thistles, we conducted HPLC analyses on the following ten flavonoids: luteolin-5-glucoside (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), apigenin-7-glucoside (3), hispidulin-7-neohesperidoside (4), apigenin-7-glucuronide (5), cirsimarin (6), pectolinarin (7), luteolin (8), apigenin (9) and acacetin (10). The results of our HPLC analyses indicated the presence of pectolinarin in the whole plants of C. setidens, C. lineare, C. nipponicum, C. pendulum, the aerial and underground parts of C. japonicum var. ussuriense, and the aerial parts of C. chanroenicum. Moreover, we were able to identify hispidulin-7-neohesperidoside and luteolin-7-glucoside in the whole plants of Carduus crispus, acacetin in the aerial parts of C. chanroenicum, cirsimarin in C. lineare.

  3. Enhancing the T-shaped learning profile when teaching hydrology using data, modeling, and visualization activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, C. A.; Ruddell, B. L.; Schiesser, R.; Merwade, V.

    2015-07-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.

  4. Enhancing the T-shaped learning profile when teaching hydrology using data, modeling, and visualization activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Christopher A.; Ruddell, Benjamin L.; Schiesser, Roy; Merwade, Venkatesh

    2016-03-01

    Previous research has suggested that the use of more authentic learning activities can produce more robust and durable knowledge gains. This is consistent with calls within civil engineering education, specifically hydrology, that suggest that curricula should more often include professional perspective and data analysis skills to better develop the "T-shaped" knowledge profile of a professional hydrologist (i.e., professional breadth combined with technical depth). It was expected that the inclusion of a data-driven simulation lab exercise that was contextualized within a real-world situation and more consistent with the job duties of a professional in the field, would provide enhanced learning and appreciation of job duties beyond more conventional paper-and-pencil exercises in a lower-division undergraduate course. Results indicate that while students learned in both conditions, learning was enhanced for the data-driven simulation group in nearly every content area. This pattern of results suggests that the use of data-driven modeling and visualization activities can have a significant positive impact on instruction. This increase in learning likely facilitates the development of student perspective and conceptual mastery, enabling students to make better choices about their studies, while also better preparing them for work as a professional in the field.

  5. Insights on the phytochemical profile (cyclopeptides) and biological activities of Calotropis procera latex organic fractions.

    PubMed

    Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9  μ g/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7  μ g/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

  6. Biodiversity, Anti-Trypanosomal Activity Screening, and Metabolomic Profiling of Actinomycetes Isolated from Mediterranean Sponges

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Cheng; MacIntyre, Lynsey; Abdelmohsen, Usama Ramadan; Horn, Hannes; Polymenakou, Paraskevi N.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie; Hentschel, Ute

    2015-01-01

    Marine sponge–associated actinomycetes are considered as promising sources for the discovery of novel biologically active compounds. In the present study, a total of 64 actinomycetes were isolated from 12 different marine sponge species that had been collected offshore the islands of Milos and Crete, Greece, eastern Mediterranean. The isolates were affiliated to 23 genera representing 8 different suborders based on nearly full length 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Four putatively novel species belonging to genera Geodermatophilus, Microlunatus, Rhodococcus and Actinomycetospora were identified based on a 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of < 98.5% to currently described strains. Eight actinomycete isolates showed bioactivities against Trypanosma brucei brucei TC221 with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values <20 μg/mL. Thirty four isolates from the Milos collection and 12 isolates from the Crete collection were subjected to metabolomic analysis using high resolution LC-MS and NMR for dereplication purposes. Two isolates belonging to the genera Streptomyces (SBT348) and Micromonospora (SBT687) were prioritized based on their distinct chemistry profiles as well as their anti-trypanosomal activities. These findings demonstrated the feasibility and efficacy of utilizing metabolomics tools to prioritize chemically unique strains from microorganism collections and further highlight sponges as rich source for novel and bioactive actinomycetes. PMID:26407167

  7. Isotope microscopy visualization of the adsorption profile of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Asuka; Nakao, Soichi; Taniguchi, Takuma; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-09-16

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon may enhance its equilibrium adsorption capacity for small molecules and micropollutants, such as 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, as well as for macromolecules and natural organic matter. Shell adsorption, in which adsorbates do not completely penetrate the adsorbent but instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the adsorbent, may explain this enhancement in equilibrium adsorption capacity. Here, we used isotope microscopy and deuterium-doped MIB and geosmin to directly visualize the solid-phase adsorbate concentration profiles of MIB and geosmin in carbon particles. The deuterium/hydrogen ratio, which we used as an index of the solid-phase concentration of MIB and geosmin, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of carbon particles. Solid-phase concentrations of MIB and geosmin obtained from the deuterium/hydrogen ratio roughly agreed with those predicted by shell adsorption model analyses of isotherm data. The direct visualization of the localization of micropollutant adsorbates in activated carbon particles provided direct evidence of shell adsorption. PMID:25162630

  8. Isotope microscopy visualization of the adsorption profile of 2-methylisoborneol and geosmin in powdered activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshihiko; Sakamoto, Asuka; Nakao, Soichi; Taniguchi, Takuma; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka; Sakamoto, Naoya; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2014-09-16

    Decreasing the particle size of powdered activated carbon may enhance its equilibrium adsorption capacity for small molecules and micropollutants, such as 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin, as well as for macromolecules and natural organic matter. Shell adsorption, in which adsorbates do not completely penetrate the adsorbent but instead preferentially adsorb near the outer surface of the adsorbent, may explain this enhancement in equilibrium adsorption capacity. Here, we used isotope microscopy and deuterium-doped MIB and geosmin to directly visualize the solid-phase adsorbate concentration profiles of MIB and geosmin in carbon particles. The deuterium/hydrogen ratio, which we used as an index of the solid-phase concentration of MIB and geosmin, was higher in the shell region than in the inner region of carbon particles. Solid-phase concentrations of MIB and geosmin obtained from the deuterium/hydrogen ratio roughly agreed with those predicted by shell adsorption model analyses of isotherm data. The direct visualization of the localization of micropollutant adsorbates in activated carbon particles provided direct evidence of shell adsorption.

  9. [Physical activity and eating behavior: strategies for improving the serum lipid profile of children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Halle, M; Bauer, S; Korsten-Reck, U; Keul, J

    1994-01-01

    Coronary risk factors such as obesity, dyslipoproteinaemia and low physical fitness are often prevalent in childhood. In contrast, regular physical activity and healthy nutrition have been shown to be effective in primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease. An increment in physical activity with concomitant weight loss has a profound influence on peripheral lipoprotein metabolism and has shown to improve the atherogenic lipoprotein profile. As risk factors often track from childhood into adulthood it seems inevitable to prevent or diminish risk factors as early as possible. Therefore, intervention programmes for prevention of coronary artery disease have to be conducted in childhood. Experience from an own intervention programme of obese children has shown that the combination of intensive dietary and physical education improves physical fitness, body composition as well as lipid metabolism. Whether short-term benefits will continue into adulthood and reduce coronary artery disease in midlife will have to be shown. Nonetheless, it seems out of question that children showing risk factors such as obesity or hypercholesterolaemia will benefit from early intervention programmes when changing dietary and exercise behaviours.

  10. Comparative antioxidant activity and HPLC profiles of some selected Korean thistles.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Da Mi; Jung, Hyun Ah; Choi, Jae Sue

    2008-01-01

    As yet, no comparative analyses have been conducted regarding the comparative antioxidant activities and HPLC profiles of thistles distributed in Korea. Thus, this study was performed in order to evaluate the antioxidant potentials of seven Korean thistles: Cirsium lineare, Cirsium chanroenicum, Cirsium setidens, Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense, Cirsium nipponicum, Cirslum pendulum and Carduus crispus, via peroxynitrite and DPPH free radical assays. Among seven Korean thistles, Carduus crispus exhibited the most significant antioxidant activity in both DPPH assay and peroxynitrite. In order to characterize the compounds contained in Korean thistles, we conducted HPLC analyses on the following ten flavonoids: luteolin-5-glucoside (1), luteolin-7-glucoside (2), apigenin-7-glucoside (3), hispidulin-7-neohesperidoside (4), apigenin-7-glucuronide (5), cirsimarin (6), pectolinarin (7), luteolin (8), apigenin (9) and acacetin (10). The results of our HPLC analyses indicated the presence of pectolinarin in the whole plants of C. setidens, C. lineare, C. nipponicum, C. pendulum, the aerial and underground parts of C. japonicum var. ussuriense, and the aerial parts of C. chanroenicum. Moreover, we were able to identify hispidulin-7-neohesperidoside and luteolin-7-glucoside in the whole plants of Carduus crispus, acacetin in the aerial parts of C. chanroenicum, cirsimarin in C. lineare. PMID:18277604

  11. Potent Antidiabetic Activity and Metabolite Profiling of Melicope Lunu-ankenda Leaves.

    PubMed

    Al-Zuaidy, Mizher Hezam; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mohamed, Suhaila; Abdul Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Salleh, Syafiq Zikri

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is normally characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances in the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. There is an increasing trend of using natural products instead of synthetic agents as alternative therapy for disorders due to their fewer side effects. In this study, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of different Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) ethanolic extracts were evaluated using inhibition of α-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, respectively; whereas, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) techniques were used for metabolite profiling of ML leaf extracts at different concentrations of ethanol and water. Sixty percent of ethanolic ML extract showed highest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 37 μg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 of 48 μg/mL). Antidiabetic effect of ML extracts was also evaluated in vivo and it was found that the high doses (400 mg/Kg BW) of ML extract exhibited high suppression in fasting blood glucose level by 62.75%. The metabolites responsible for variation among ML samples with variable ethanolic levels have been evaluated successfully using (1) H-NMR-based metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares(PLS) analysis scores depicted clear and distinct separations into 4 clusters representing the 4 ethanolic concentrations by PC1 and PC2, with an eigenvalue of 69.9%. Various (1) H-NMR chemical shifts related to the metabolites responsible for sample difference were also ascribed. The main bioactive compounds identified attributing toward the separation included: isorhamnetin, skimmianine, scopoletin, and melicarpinone. Hence, ML may be used as promising medicinal plant for the development of new functional foods, new generation antidiabetic drugs, as a single entity phytomedicine or in

  12. Potent Antidiabetic Activity and Metabolite Profiling of Melicope Lunu-ankenda Leaves.

    PubMed

    Al-Zuaidy, Mizher Hezam; Hamid, Azizah Abdul; Ismail, Amin; Mohamed, Suhaila; Abdul Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Salleh, Syafiq Zikri

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is normally characterized by chronic hyperglycemia associated with disturbances in the fat, carbohydrate, and protein metabolism. There is an increasing trend of using natural products instead of synthetic agents as alternative therapy for disorders due to their fewer side effects. In this study, antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of different Melicope lunu-ankenda (ML) ethanolic extracts were evaluated using inhibition of α-glucosidase and 2,2-diphenyl-l-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals scavenging activity, respectively; whereas, proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1) H NMR) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) techniques were used for metabolite profiling of ML leaf extracts at different concentrations of ethanol and water. Sixty percent of ethanolic ML extract showed highest inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme (IC50 of 37 μg/mL) and DPPH scavenging activity (IC50 of 48 μg/mL). Antidiabetic effect of ML extracts was also evaluated in vivo and it was found that the high doses (400 mg/Kg BW) of ML extract exhibited high suppression in fasting blood glucose level by 62.75%. The metabolites responsible for variation among ML samples with variable ethanolic levels have been evaluated successfully using (1) H-NMR-based metabolomics. The principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares(PLS) analysis scores depicted clear and distinct separations into 4 clusters representing the 4 ethanolic concentrations by PC1 and PC2, with an eigenvalue of 69.9%. Various (1) H-NMR chemical shifts related to the metabolites responsible for sample difference were also ascribed. The main bioactive compounds identified attributing toward the separation included: isorhamnetin, skimmianine, scopoletin, and melicarpinone. Hence, ML may be used as promising medicinal plant for the development of new functional foods, new generation antidiabetic drugs, as a single entity phytomedicine or in

  13. Integrated Modeling of Satellite Gravity data of Active Plate Margins - Bridging the Gap between Geodesy and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosse, M.; Pail, R.; Mahatsente, R.; Goetze, H.; Jahr, T.; Jentzsch, M.; Gutknecht, B. D.; Koether, N.; Lücke, O.; Sharma, R.; Zeumann, S.

    2011-12-01

    IMOSAGA (Integrated Modeling of Satellite and Airborne Gravity data of Active plate margins) is a joint research project of the Christian-Albrechts-Universität Kiel (Geophysics), Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena (Geophysics) and Technische Universität München (Geodesy). It aims to interpret the 3D density and dynamic structure of active convergent plate boundaries of the South and Central American subduction zones using satellite (GOCE, GRACE) and terrestrial gravity data. The density, dynamic and flexural rigidity models based on GOCE gravity, gravity gradients and invariants will add new dimension to the interpretation of lithospheric structure, localization of strain accumulation along plate interface and delineation of regions of high seismic moment release. These objectives shall be achieved using (1) robust data processing which makes GOCE gravity and gravity gradients suitable for geophysical modeling; and (2) well constrained geodynamic modeling of the interaction between the subducting and overriding plates. In this contribution, the impact of GOCE data in the test region of Central America shall be evaluated. GOCE (in combination with GRACE) shall be used on the one hand to validate available, but partly sparsely distributed terrestrial data, and on the other hand to be integrated in a regional combined gravity model for the test area using a collocation approach. By 3D static modeling applying the software IGMAS+, the gravity field will be used to constrain density models of the lithosphere and geodynamic processing in the test area. This provides a full closed-loop, including a source model, model gravity field functionals and actual measurements. By analyzing the results in detail, the sensitivity of GOCE observations to local density variations, and vice versa the impact of GOCE as new observation type for geophysical modeling purposes shall be quantified.

  14. Determinants of Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier 1 (SUMO1) Protein Specificity, E3 Ligase, and SUMO-RanGAP1 Binding Activities of Nucleoporin RanBP2

    SciTech Connect

    Gareau, Jaclyn R.; Reverter, David; Lima, Christopher D.

    2012-02-16

    The RanBP2 nucleoporin contains an internal repeat domain (IR1-M-IR2) that catalyzes E3 ligase activity and forms a stable complex with SUMO-modified RanGAP1 and UBC9 at the nuclear pore complex. RanBP2 exhibits specificity for SUMO1 as RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 forms a more stable complex with RanBP2 compared with RanGAP1-SUMO2 that results in greater protection of RanGAP-SUMO1 from proteases. The IR1-M-IR2 SUMO E3 ligase activity also shows a similar preference for SUMO1. We utilized deletions and domain swap constructs in protease protection assays and automodification assays to define RanBP2 domains responsible for RanGAP1-SUMO1 protection and SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. Our data suggest that elements in both IR1 and IR2 exhibit specificity for SUMO1. IR1 protects RanGAP1-SUMO1/UBC9 and functions as the primary E3 ligase of RanBP2, whereas IR2 retains the ability to interact with SUMO1 to promote SUMO1-specific E3 ligase activity. To determine the structural basis for SUMO1 specificity, a hybrid IR1 construct and IR1 were used to determine three new structures for complexes containing UBC9 with RanGAP1-SUMO1/2. These structures show more extensive contacts among SUMO, UBC9, and RanBP2 in complexes containing SUMO1 compared with SUMO2 and suggest that differences in SUMO specificity may be achieved through these subtle conformational differences.

  15. Solar energy in Australia: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Case, G.L.

    1980-08-01

    The following topics are included: country overview; energy summary; geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of Australia; the energy profile; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  16. Distinct BOLD Activation Profiles Following Central and Peripheral Oxytocin Administration in Awake Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferris, Craig F.; Yee, Jason R.; Kenkel, William M.; Dumais, Kelly Marie; Moore, Kelsey; Veenema, Alexa H.; Kulkarni, Praveen; Perkybile, Allison M.; Carter, C. Sue

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that intranasal oxytocin (OT) or other systemic routes of administration can alter prosocial behavior, presumably by directly activating OT sensitive neural circuits in the brain. Yet there is no clear evidence that OT given peripherally can cross the blood–brain barrier at levels sufficient to engage the OT receptor. To address this issue we examined changes in blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity in response to peripheral OT injections (0.1, 0.5, or 2.5 mg/kg) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake rats imaged at 7.0 T. These data were compared to OT (1 μg/5 μl) given directly to the brain via the lateral cerebroventricle. Using a 3D annotated MRI atlas of the rat brain segmented into 171 brain areas and computational analysis, we reconstructed the distributed integrated neural circuits identified with BOLD fMRI following central and peripheral OT. Both routes of administration caused significant changes in BOLD signal within the first 10 min of administration. As expected, central OT activated a majority of brain areas known to express a high density of OT receptors, e.g., lateral septum, subiculum, shell of the accumbens, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This profile of activation was not matched by peripheral OT. The change in BOLD signal to peripheral OT did not show any discernible dose–response. Interestingly, peripheral OT affected all subdivisions of the olfactory bulb, in addition to the cerebellum and several brainstem areas relevant to the autonomic nervous system, including the solitary tract nucleus. The results from this imaging study do not support a direct central action of peripheral OT on the brain. Instead, the patterns of brain activity suggest that peripheral OT may interact at the level of the olfactory bulb and through sensory afferents from the autonomic nervous system to influence brain activity. PMID:26441574

  17. Perceptual Gap Detection is Mediated by Gap Termination Responses in Auditory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Weible, Aldis P.; Moore, Alexandra K.; Liu, Christine; deBlander, Leah; Wu, Haiyan; Kentros, Clifford; Wehr, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding speech in the presence of background noise often becomes increasingly difficult with age. These age-related speech processing deficits reflect impairments in temporal acuity. Gap detection is a model for temporal acuity in speech processing, in which a gap inserted in white noise acts as a cue that attenuates subsequent startle responses. Lesion studies have shown that auditory cortex is necessary for the detection of brief gaps, and auditory cortical neurons respond to the end of the gap with a characteristic burst of spikes called the gap termination response (GTR). However, it remains unknown whether or how the GTR plays a causal role in gap detection. We tested this by optogenetically suppressing the activity of somatostatin- or parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory interneurons, or CaMKII-expressing excitatory neurons, in auditory cortex of behaving mice during specific epochs of a gap detection protocol. Results Suppressing interneuron activity during the post-gap interval enhanced gap detection. Suppressing excitatory cells during this interval attenuated gap detection. Suppressing activity preceding the gap had the opposite behavioral effects, whereas prolonged suppression across both intervals had no effect on gap detection. Conclusions In addition to confirming cortical involvement, here we demonstrate for the first time a causal relationship between post-gap neural activity and perceptual gap detection. Furthermore, our results suggest that gap detection involves an ongoing comparison of pre- and post-gap spiking activity. Finally, we propose a simple, yet biologically plausible neural circuit that reproduces each of these neural and behavioral results. PMID:24980499

  18. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Luke W; Burkett, Brendan J; McKean, Mark R

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03-1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69-1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43-0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions.

  19. Activity Profiles and Physiological Responses of Representative Tag Football Players in Relation to Playing Position and Physical Fitness

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This study determined the physical fitness, match-activity profiles and physiological responses of representative tag football players and examined the relationship between physical fitness and the match-activity profile. Microtechnology devices and heart rate (HR) chest straps were used to determine the match-activity profiles of sixteen tag football players for five matches during the 2014 Australian National Championships. The relationships between lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (Yo-Yo IR2) and the match-activity profile were examined using Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Outside players had greater lower body muscular power (ES = 0.98) and straight line running speed (ES = 1.03–1.18) than inside players, and also covered greater very high-speed running (VHSR) distance/min (ES = 0.67) and reached higher peak running speeds (ES = 0.95) during matches. Inside and outside players performed a similar number of repeated high-intensity effort (RHIE) bouts and reported similar mean and maximum efforts per RHIE bout. However, there were differences between playing positions for mean and maximal RHIE effort durations (ES = 0.69–1.15) and mean RHIE bout recovery (ES = 0.56). Inside and outside players also reported small to moderate differences (ES = 0.43–0.80) for times spent in each HR zone. There were a number of moderate to very large correlations between physical fitness measures and match-activity profile variables. This study found lower body muscular power, straight line running speed and Yo-Yo IR2 to be related to the match-activities of representative tag football players, although differences between inside and outside players suggest that athlete testing and training practices should be modified for different playing positions. PMID:26642320

  20. Kinetics of cytokine profile in response to Mycobacterium bovis BCG and Streptococcus pyogenes activated cells.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vivek; Kumar, Parveen; Dhanda, Rakesh Singh; Yadav, Manisha

    2016-06-01

    The infection of epithelial cells is a necessary step for Mycobacterium bovis BCG dissemination, but the mechanism of mycobacterial epithelial interactions is not completely understood. Similarly, Streptococcus pyogenes is a strictly human pathogen that favorably colonizes the skin and the pharynx. Effective cytokine secretion is essential in order to fabricate a suitable inflammatory response against an infection. In this data article, the cytokine profile in BCG and S. pyogenes activated THP-1 cell line in media after the acute phase of infection by ELISA is described. The interleukin-8 level was increased in response to both BCG and S. pyogenes, but was quite prominent after 24 h and further increased upto 72 h post infection. On the other hand, an increase in IL-6 response to S. pyogenes was observed while there was no response to BCG even after 48 h of infection. A low level of TNF-α was detected upon BCG and S. pyogenes infection.

  1. Glycan-binding profile and cell adhesion activity of American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oocyte galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Matsumoto, Ryo; Fujii, Yuki; Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Uchiyama, Hideho; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Kojima, Noriaki; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The glycan-binding profile of a beta-galactoside-binding 15 kDa lectin (Galectin-1) purified from the oocytes of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, was studied using 61 pyridyl-aminated oligosaccharides by frontal affinity chromatography. Human blood type-A-hexasaccharide (GalNAcalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta;1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4Galbeta1-4Glc) was found to exhibit the strongest ligand binding to the galectin while Forssman antigen (GalNAcalpha1-3GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha1-4Galbeta1-4Glc) and type-A-tetrasaccharide (GalNAcalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4Glc) were also extensively recognized. The kinetics of affinity of galectin-1 to type-A oligosaccharide was analysed by surface plasmon resonance using neoglycoprotein with type-A oligosaccharides. R. catesbeiana oocyte galectin adhered to human rhabdomyosarcoma cells dose dependently and the activity was specifically cancelled by the neoglycoprotein. It was concluded that galectin-1 from R. catesbeiana oocytes possesses different and rare glycan-binding properties from typical members in galectin family. PMID:19519529

  2. DOSE PROFILE MODELING OF IDAHO NATIONAL LABORATORY’S ACTIVE NEUTRON INTERROGATION TEST FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    D. L. Chichester; E. H. Seabury; J. M. Zabriskie; J. Wharton; A. J. Caffrey

    2009-06-01

    A new research and development laboratory has been commissioned at Idaho National Laboratory for performing active neutron interrogation research and development. The facility is designed to provide radiation shielding for DT fusion (14.1 MeV) neutron generators (2 x 108 neutrons per second), DD fusion (2.5 MeV) neutron generators (up to 2 x 106 neutrons per second), and 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron sources (6.7 x 107 neutrons per second, 30 micrograms). Shielding at the laboratory is comprised of modular concrete shield blocks 0.76 m thick with tongue-in-groove features to prevent radiation streaming, arranged into one small and one large test vault. The larger vault is designed to allow operation of the DT generator and has walls 3.8 m tall, an entrance maze, and a fully integrated electrical interlock system; the smaller test vault is designed for 252Cf and DD neutron sources and has walls 1.9 m tall and a simple entrance maze. Both analytical calculations and numerical simulations were used in the design process for the building to assess the performance of the shielding walls and to ensure external dose rates are within required facility limits. Dose rate contour plots have been generated for the facility to visualize the effectiveness of the shield wall and entrance maze and to illustrate the spatial profile of the radiation dose field above the facility and the effects of skyshine around the vaults.

  3. Glycan-binding profile and cell adhesion activity of American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) oocyte galectin-1.

    PubMed

    Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Matsumoto, Ryo; Fujii, Yuki; Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Uchiyama, Hideho; Hosono, Masahiro; Nitta, Kazuo; Hamako, Jiharu; Matsui, Taei; Kojima, Noriaki; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    The glycan-binding profile of a beta-galactoside-binding 15 kDa lectin (Galectin-1) purified from the oocytes of the American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, was studied using 61 pyridyl-aminated oligosaccharides by frontal affinity chromatography. Human blood type-A-hexasaccharide (GalNAcalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta;1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4Galbeta1-4Glc) was found to exhibit the strongest ligand binding to the galectin while Forssman antigen (GalNAcalpha1-3GalNAcbeta1-3Galalpha1-4Galbeta1-4Glc) and type-A-tetrasaccharide (GalNAcalpha1-3(Fucalpha1-2)Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-4Glc) were also extensively recognized. The kinetics of affinity of galectin-1 to type-A oligosaccharide was analysed by surface plasmon resonance using neoglycoprotein with type-A oligosaccharides. R. catesbeiana oocyte galectin adhered to human rhabdomyosarcoma cells dose dependently and the activity was specifically cancelled by the neoglycoprotein. It was concluded that galectin-1 from R. catesbeiana oocytes possesses different and rare glycan-binding properties from typical members in galectin family.

  4. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-01-01

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm). PMID:27347915

  5. Advancing understanding of microbial bioenergy conversion processes by activity-based protein profiling

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Yun; Fredrickson, James K.; Sadler, Natalie C.; Nandhikonda, Premchendar; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.

    2015-09-25

    Here, the development of renewable biofuels is a global priority, but success will require novel technologies that greatly improve our understanding of microbial systems biology. An approach with great promise in enabling functional characterization of microbes is activity-based protein profiling (ABPP), which employs chemical probes to directly measure enzyme function in discrete enzyme classes in vivo and/or in vitro, thereby facilitating the rapid discovery of new biocatalysts and enabling much improved biofuel production platforms. We review general design strategies in ABPP, and highlight recent advances that are or could be pivotal to biofuels processes including applications of ABPP to cellulosicmore » bioethanol, biodiesel, and phototrophic production of hydrocarbons. We also examine the key challenges and opportunities of ABPP in renewable biofuels research. The integration of ABPP with molecular and systems biology approaches will shed new insight on the catalytic and regulatory mechanisms of functional enzymes and their synergistic effects in the field of biofuels production.« less

  6. Analysis of PBase Binding Profile Indicates an Insertion Target Selection Mechanism Dependent on TTAA, But Not Transcriptional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dong; Liao, Ruiqi; Zheng, Yun; Sun, Ling; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Transposons and retroviruses are important pathogenic agents and tools for mutagenesis and transgenesis. Insertion target selection is a key feature for a given transposon or retrovirus. The piggyBac (PB) transposon is highly active in mice and human cells, which has a much better genome-wide distribution compared to the retrovirus and P-element. However, the underlying reason is not clear. Utilizing a tagged functional PB transposase (PBase), we were able to conduct genome-wide profiling for PBase binding sites in the mouse genome. We have shown that PBase binding mainly depends on the distribution of the tetranucleotide TTAA, which is not affected by the presence of PB DNA. Furthermore, PBase binding is negatively influenced by the methylation of CG sites in the genome. Analysis of a large collection of PB insertions in mice has revealed an insertion profile similar to the PBase binding profile. Interestingly, this profile is not correlated with transcriptional active genes in the genome or transcriptionally active regions within a transcriptional unit. This differs from what has been previously shown for P-element and retroviruses insertions. Our study provides an explanation for PB's genome-wide insertion distribution and also suggests that PB target selection relies on a new mechanism independent of active transcription and open chromatin structure. PMID:27570481

  7. Changes in Coronary Heart Disease Risk Profile of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities following a Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Regular physical activity is one of the modifiable risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). With an increasing age profile and similar patterns of morbidity to the general population, persons with intellectual disabilities (ID) and their caregivers would benefit from data that indicate CHD risk factors. Knowledge of the CHD risk…

  8. Analysis of PBase Binding Profile Indicates an Insertion Target Selection Mechanism Dependent on TTAA, But Not Transcriptional Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dong; Liao, Ruiqi; Zheng, Yun; Sun, Ling; Xu, Tian

    2016-01-01

    Transposons and retroviruses are important pathogenic agents and tools for mutagenesis and transgenesis. Insertion target selection is a key feature for a given transposon or retrovirus. The piggyBac (PB) transposon is highly active in mice and human cells, which has a much better genome-wide distribution compared to the retrovirus and P-element. However, the underlying reason is not clear. Utilizing a tagged functional PB transposase (PBase), we were able to conduct genome-wide profiling for PBase binding sites in the mouse genome. We have shown that PBase binding mainly depends on the distribution of the tetranucleotide TTAA, which is not affected by the presence of PB DNA. Furthermore, PBase binding is negatively influenced by the methylation of CG sites in the genome. Analysis of a large collection of PB insertions in mice has revealed an insertion profile similar to the PBase binding profile. Interestingly, this profile is not correlated with transcriptional active genes in the genome or transcriptionally active regions within a transcriptional unit. This differs from what has been previously shown for P-element and retroviruses insertions. Our study provides an explanation for PB's genome-wide insertion distribution and also suggests that PB target selection relies on a new mechanism independent of active transcription and open chromatin structure. PMID:27570481

  9. A Profile of Adults Needing Assistance with Activities of Daily Living, 1991-1992. Disability Statistics Report 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jae; LaPlante, Mitchell P.

    This report uses data from the 1990 and 1991 samples of the Survey of Income and Program Participation to construct a profile of the U.S. noninstitutionalized adult population needing assistance with activities of daily living (ADL) and to estimate the size of the population eligible for federal personal assistance services (PAS) under different…

  10. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Italian version of the Voice Activity Participation Profile.

    PubMed

    Fava, Gaetano; Paolillo, Nico Paolo; Oliveira, Gisele; Behlau, Mara

    2014-01-01

    The Vocal Activity Participation Profile (VAPP), originally developed in English, is a self-assessment tool used to measure individuals' voice activity limitation and participation restriction. Based on the fact that the cultural/linguistic adaptation is an essential step of validating a protocol in another language, the purpose was to linguistically and culturally adapt the VAPP into Italian. The adaptation was performed in accordance to the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Medical Outcomes Trust. The translation was performed by one bilingual speech-language pathologist and by one bilingual interpreter, who knew about the purpose of this project. A bilingual English teacher, who had not participated in the previous step, performed the back translation. A committee composed by three speech-language pathologists specialized in voice and one laryngologist compared the forward and backward translations, to assess for any discrepancies. A final version was produced and called Profilo di Attività e Partecipazione Vocale (PAPV). A "not applicable" option was included to each item and was administered to 17 individuals with voice problems, six males and 11 females, aged between 21 to 55 years. All items were relevant, as no patients chose the "not applicable" option. However, four individuals, who had a lower educational level, did not fully understand the instructions of the opening statement. Therefore, the questionnaire was further reviewed and adjusted to clarify the information. Otherwise, no items were changed and/or deleted. The PAPV kept the same structure as the original version. The cultural equivalence of the Italian VAPP was demonstrated and entitled PAPV, whose validation is currently in process. PMID:25118924

  11. Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus in Singapore: clinical phenotypes, disease activity, damage, and autoantibody profiles.

    PubMed

    Tan, J H T; Hoh, S F; Win, M T M; Chan, Y H; Das, L; Arkachaisri, T

    2015-08-01

    Childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) is a multisystem autoimmune disease characterized by immune dysregulation affecting patients less than 18 years old. One-fifth of SLE cases are diagnosed during childhood. cSLE presents differently from adults and has a more severe and aggressive course. We describe the clinical and antibody profiles in our cSLE Singapore cohort. All cSLE patients who satisfied the 1997 American College of Rheumatology diagnostic criteria were captured in our lupus registry from January 2009 to January 2014. Data including demographic, cumulative clinical, serologic data, and damage indices were collected. Adjusted mean SLEDAI-2K (AMS) was used to summarize disease activity over multiple visits. Cluster analysis using non-hierarchical K-means procedure was performed on eight selected antibodies. The 64 patients (female:male ratio 5:1; Chinese 45.3%, Malay 28.1%, Indian 9.4%, and other races 17.2%) had a mean onset age of 11.5 years (range 2.1-16.7) and mean age at diagnosis was 11.9 years (range 2.6-18.0). Our study demonstrated differences in clinical manifestations for which hematologic involvement was the most common manifestation with less renal disease and uncommon neurologic manifestation as compared to other cSLE cohorts reported in our region. Antibody clusters were identified in our cohort but their clinical association/discrimination and outcome prediction required further validation study. Outcomes of our cohort in regard to disease activity after therapy and organ damages were comparable if not better to other cSLE cohorts elsewhere. Steroid-related damage, including symptomatic multifocal avascular necrosis and cataract, were not uncommon locally. Infection remains the major cause of death for the continent. Nevertheless, the five year survival rate of our cohort (98.4%) was high.

  12. Achievement of Broad Acceleration Profile for Launching Active Transient Internal Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyundae; Jarboe, Thomas; Mattick, Arthur; Smith, Roger

    2003-10-01

    The Transient Internal Probe (TIP) is a diagnostic for the direct measurement of internal local magnetic or electric fields with high spatial and temporal resolution (1 cm, 1 MHz). A two-stage light-gas gun launches an optic probe at high velocity (1.5 km/s ˜ 1.8 km/s) so that the probe can transit the plasma before severe ablation occurs. The polarization change of a light, retroreflected after double-pass through the probe, provides one component of the field measurements along a chord of a plasma. A Faraday rotator glass or a Pockels cell has been used for the present passive optic probes. Active probes, currently in development, utilizing on-board sensor and electronics will allow measurements of multi-parameters including 3-D magnetic- and electric fields, plasma temperature, and density. The frequency-modulated sensor information will be transmitted to the remote detector using a LED or a laser diode. At issue is whether the on-board microelectronic components will survive the high acceleration during launch. A recent study emonstrated the survivability of a standard size electronic circuitry on ˜ 25 mm diameter circuit board, launched in a rail-gun at ˜ 1 × 10^6 m/s^2 (0.1 Mg¡¯s). [1] Considering the size of the TIP probes, ( ˜ 5 mm in diameter) it is believed the TIP active probes with surface-mount electronic components will survive much higher accelerations, up to 2 × 10^6 m/s^2 or more. Experimental and numerical studies of the TIP light gas gun have been performed to achieve a launch condition that lowers the peak acceleration and broadens the acceleration profile of the probe. [1] K. A. Schroder et al, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, 35(1), Jan. 1999

  13. Bridging the gap between research and practice: an assessment of external validity of community-based physical activity programs in Bogotá, Colombia, and Recife, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Paez, Diana C; Reis, Rodrigo S; Parra, Diana C; Hoehner, Christine M; Sarmiento, Olga L; Barros, Mauro; Brownson, Ross C

    2015-03-01

    For more than a decade, physical activity classes have been offered in public places at no cost to the participants in some Latin American cities, however, internal and external validity evidence of these programs is limited. The goals of this study were to assess, report, and compare the external validity of the Recreovia program (RCP) in Colombia, and the Academia da Cidade program (ACP) in Brazil. Interviews to assess external validity of the RCP and ACP were conducted in 2012. The interview guide was developed based on the RE-AIM framework. Seventeen key informants were selected to participate in the study. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative qualitative method and experts validated common themes. RCP and ACP key informants reported that both programs reach underserved population. There is no information available about effectiveness. Both programs take place in public spaces (e.g., parks and plazas), which are selected for adoption mainly based on community demand. RCP and ACP offer free physical activity classes with educational and cultural components, have a strong organizational structure for implementation, and differ on schedule and content of classes. Funding sources were reported to play an important role on long-term maintenance. Facilitators and barriers were identified. Programs are similar in the reach and adoption elements; the main differences were found on implementation and maintenance, whereas information on effectiveness was not found. Reporting external validity of these programs is useful to bridge the gap between research and practice.

  14. The connection between radio loudness and central surface brightness profiles in optically selected low-luminosity active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richings, A. J.; Uttley, P.; Körding, E.

    2011-08-01

    Recent results indicate a correlation between nuclear radio loudness of active galaxies and their central stellar surface-brightness profiles, in that 'core' galaxies (with inner logarithmic slope γ≤ 0.3) are significantly more radio loud than 'power-law' galaxies (γ≥ 0.5). This connection, which indicates possible links between radio loudness and galaxy formation history (e.g. through black hole spin), has so far only been confirmed for a radio-selected sample of galaxies. Furthermore, it has since been shown that the Nuker law, which was used to parametrize the brightness profiles in these studies, gives a poor description of the brightness profile, with its parameters varying systematically with the radial fitted extent of the profile. Here, we present an analysis of the central surface brightness profiles of the active galaxies of Hubble type T≤ 3, that were identified by the optically selected Palomar spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies. We fit the brightness profiles using Sérsic, Core-Sérsic and, where necessary, Double-Sérsic models, which we fit to the semimajor axis brightness profiles extracted from high-resolution images of the galaxies from the Hubble Space Telescope. We use these fits to classify the galaxies as 'Core', 'Sérsic' or 'Double-Sérsic'. We compare the properties of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) and their host galaxies with this classification, and we recover the already established trend for Core galaxies to be more luminous and contain a higher mass supermassive black hole. Defining the radio loudness of an AGN as the ratio of the nuclear radio luminosity to [O III] line luminosity, which allows us to include most of the AGN in our sample and prevents a bias against dim nuclei that are harder to extract from the brightness profiles, we find that AGN hosted in Core galaxies are generally more radio loud than those hosted in Sérsic galaxies, although there is a large overlap between the two subsamples. The correlation

  15. NMR parameters in gapped graphene systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisan, Mircea; Grosu, Ioan; Ţifrea, Ionel

    2016-06-01

    We calculate the nuclear spin-lattice relaxation time and the Knight shift for the case of gapped graphene systems. Our calculations consider both the massive and massless gap scenarios. Both the spin-lattice relaxation time and the Knight shift depend on temperature, chemical potential, and the value of the electronic energy gap. In particular, at the Dirac point, the electronic energy gap has stronger effects on the system nuclear magnetic resonance parameters in the case of the massless gap scenario. Differently, at large values of the chemical potential, both gap scenarios behave in a similar way and the gapped graphene system approaches a Fermi gas from the nuclear magnetic resonance parameters point of view. Our results are important for nuclear magnetic resonance measurements that target the 13C active nuclei in graphene samples.

  16. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  17. Metabolic Profiling of Chicken Embryos Exposed to Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA) and Agonists to Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    PubMed

    Mattsson, Anna; Kärrman, Anna; Pinto, Rui; Brunström, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Untargeted metabolic profiling of body fluids in experimental animals and humans exposed to chemicals may reveal early signs of toxicity and indicate toxicity pathways. Avian embryos develop separately from their mothers, which gives unique possibilities to study effects of chemicals during embryo development with minimal confounding factors from the mother. In this study we explored blood plasma and allantoic fluid from chicken embryos as matrices for revealing metabolic changes caused by exposure to chemicals during embryonic development. Embryos were exposed via egg injection on day 7 to the environmental pollutant perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and effects on the metabolic profile on day 12 were compared with those caused by GW7647 and rosiglitazone, which are selective agonists to peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα) and PPARγ, respectively. Analysis of the metabolite concentrations from allantoic fluid by Orthogonal Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) showed clear separation between the embryos exposed to GW7647, rosiglitazone, and vehicle control, respectively. In blood plasma only GW7647 caused a significant effect on the metabolic profile. PFOA induced embryo mortality and increased relative liver weight at the highest dose. Sublethal doses of PFOA did not significantly affect the metabolic profile in either matrix, although single metabolites appeared to be altered. Neonatal mortality by PFOA in the mouse has been suggested to be mediated via activation of PPARα. However, we found no similarity in the metabolite profile of chicken embryos exposed to PFOA with those of embryos exposed to PPAR agonists. This indicates that PFOA does not activate PPAR pathways in our model at concentrations in eggs and embryos well above those found in wild birds. The present study suggests that allantoic fluid and plasma from chicken embryos are useful and complementary matrices for exploring effects on the metabolic profile resulting

  18. Microscopic theory of the Andreev gap.

    SciTech Connect

    Micklitz, T.; Altland, A.; Materials Science Division; Univ. zu Koln

    2009-01-01

    We present a microscopic theory of the Andreev gap, i.e., the phenomenon that the density of states (DOS) of normal chaotic cavities attached to superconductors displays a hard gap centered around the Fermi energy. Our approach is based on a solution of the quantum Eilenberger equation in the regime t{sub D} << t{sub E} where t{sub D} and t{sub E} are the classical dwell time and Ehrenfest time, respectively. We show how quantum fluctuations eradicate the DOS at low energies and compute the profile of the gap to leading order in the parameter t{sub D}/t{sub E}.

  19. Microscopic theory of the Andreev gap.

    PubMed

    Micklitz, Tobias; Altland, Alexander

    2009-08-21

    We present a microscopic theory of the Andreev gap, i.e., the phenomenon that the density of states (DOS) of normal chaotic cavities attached to superconductors displays a hard gap centered around the Fermi energy. Our approach is based on a solution of the quantum Eilenberger equation in the regime tDprofile of the gap to leading order in the parameter tD/tE.

  20. FSH Modulates PKAI and GPR3 Activities in Mouse Oocyte of COC in a Gap Junctional Communication (GJC)-Dependent Manner to Initiate Meiotic Resumption

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Guoliang

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have shown that cyclic adenosine-5′-monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and G-protein-coupled receptor 3 (GPR3) are crucial for controlling meiotic arrest in oocytes. However, it is unclear how gonadotropins modulate these factors to regulate oocyte maturation, especially by gap junctional communication (GJC). Using an in vitro meiosis-arrested mouse cumulus-oocyte complex (COC) culture model, we showed that there is a close relationship between follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and the PKA type I (PKAI) and GPR3. The effect of FSH on oocyte maturation was biphasic, initially inhibitory and then stimulatory. During FSH-induced maturation, rapid cAMP surges were observed in both cumulus cells and oocyte. Most GJC between cumulus cells and oocyte ceased immediately after FSH stimulation and recommenced after the cAMP surge. FSH-induced maturation was blocked by PKAI activator 8-AHA-cAMP. Levels of PKAI regulatory subunits and GPR3 decreased and increased, respectively, after FSH stimulation. In the presence of the GJC inhibitor carbenoxolone (CBX), FSH failed to induce the meiotic resumption and the changes in PKAI, GPR3 and cAMP surge in oocyte were no longer detected. Furthermore, GPR3 was upregulated by high cAMP levels, but not by PKAI activation. When applied after FSH stimulation, the specific phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A) inhibitor cilostamide immediately blocked meiotic induction, regardless of when it was administered. PKAI activation inhibited mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation in the oocytes of COCs, which participated in the initiation of FSH-induced meiotic maturation in vitro. Just before FSH-induced meiotic maturation, cAMP, PKAI, and GPR3 returned to basal levels, and PDE3A activity and MAPK phosphorylation increased markedly. These experiments show that FSH induces a transient increase in cAMP levels and regulates GJC to control PKAI and GPR3 activities, thereby creating an inhibitory phase. After

  1. DS86 neutron dose: Monte Carlo analysis for depth profile of 152Eu activity in a large stone sample.

    PubMed

    Endo, S; Iwatani, K; Oka, T; Hoshi, M; Shizuma, K; Imanaka, T; Takada, J; Fujita, S; Hasai, H

    1999-06-01

    The depth profile of 152Eu activity induced in a large granite stone pillar by Hiroshima atomic bomb neutrons was calculated by a Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP). The pillar was on the Motoyasu Bridge, located at a distance of 132 m (WSW) from the hypocenter. It was a square column with a horizontal sectional size of 82.5 cm x 82.5 cm and height of 179 cm. Twenty-one cells from the north to south surface at the central height of the column were specified for the calculation and 152Eu activities for each cell were calculated. The incident neutron spectrum was assumed to be the angular fluence data of the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). The angular dependence of the spectrum was taken into account by dividing the whole solid angle into twenty-six directions. The calculated depth profile of specific activity did not agree with the measured profile. A discrepancy was found in the absolute values at each depth with a mean multiplication factor of 0.58 and also in the shape of the relative profile. The results indicated that a reassessment of the neutron energy spectrum in DS86 is required for correct dose estimation.

  2. Behind the Pay Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dey, Judy Goldberg; Hill, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Women have made remarkable gains in education during the past three decades, yet these achievements have resulted in only modest improvements in pay equity. The gender pay gap has become a fixture of the U.S. workplace and is so ubiquitous that many simply view it as normal. "Behind the Pay Gap" examines the gender pay gap for college graduates.…

  3. Practice Gaps in Pruritus.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Jonathan I

    2016-07-01

    There are several practice gaps in the evaluation and management of itch. These gaps include a dearth of objective measures of itch, infrequent use of validated patient-reported outcomes for itch, non-evidence-based treatment, and lack of consensus about the ideal workup for generalized itch. The present article reviews these gaps and presents potential solutions. PMID:27363881

  4. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC).

    PubMed

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health.

  5. Computational Method for the Systematic Identification of Analog Series and Key Compounds Representing Series and Their Biological Activity Profiles.

    PubMed

    Stumpfe, Dagmar; Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-08-25

    A computational methodology is introduced for detecting all unique series of analogs in large compound data sets, regardless of chemical relationships between analogs. No prior knowledge of core structures or R-groups is required, which are automatically determined. The approach is based upon the generation of retrosynthetic matched molecular pairs and analog networks from which distinct series are isolated. The methodology was applied to systematically extract more than 17 000 distinct series from the ChEMBL database. For comparison, analog series were also isolated from screening compounds and drugs. Known biological activities were mapped to series from ChEMBL, and in more than 13 000 of these series, key compounds were identified that represented substitution sites of all analogs within a series and its complete activity profile. The analog series, key compounds, and activity profiles are made freely available as a resource for medicinal chemistry applications.

  6. A conceptual framework for a sports knee injury performance profile (SKIPP) and return to activity criteria (RTAC)

    PubMed Central

    Logerstedt, David; Arundale, Amelia; Lynch, Andrew; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the knee, including intra-articular fractures, ligamentous ruptures, and meniscal and articular cartilage lesions, are commonplace within sports. Despite advancements in surgical techniques and enhanced rehabilitation, athletes returning to cutting, pivoting, and jumping sports after a knee injury are at greater risk of sustaining a second injury. The clinical utility of objective criteria presents a decision-making challenge to ensure athletes are fully rehabilitated and safe to return to sport. A system centered on specific indicators that can be used to develop a comprehensive profile to monitor rehabilitation progression and to establish return to activity criteria is recommended to clear athletes to begin a progressive and systematic approach to activities and sports. Integration of a sports knee injury performance profile with return to activity criteria can guide clinicians in facilitating an athlete's safe return to sport, prevention of subsequent injury, and life-long knee joint health. PMID:26537805

  7. In-gel activity-based protein profiling of a clickable covalent ERK1/2 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Lebraud, Honorine; Wright, David J; East, Charlotte E; Holding, Finn P; O'Reilly, Marc; Heightman, Tom D

    2016-08-16

    In-gel activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) offers rapid assessment of the proteome-wide selectivity and target engagement of a chemical tool. Here we demonstrate the use of the inverse electron demand Diels Alder (IEDDA) click reaction for in-gel ABPP by evaluating the selectivity profile and target engagement of a covalent ERK1/2 probe tagged with a trans-cyclooctene group. The chemical probe was shown to bind covalently to Cys166 of ERK2 using protein MS and X-ray crystallography, and displayed submicromolar GI50s in A375 and HCT116 cells. In both cell lines, the probe demonstrated target engagement and a good selectivity profile at low concentrations, which was lost at higher concentrations. The IEDDA cycloaddition enabled fast and quantitative fluorescent tagging for readout with a high background-to-noise ratio and thereby provides a promising alternative to the commonly used copper catalysed alkyne-azide cycloaddition. PMID:27385078

  8. Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting and Gene Expression Profiling of GFP-Positive Cells from Transgenic Zebrafish Lines.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Hideyuki; Seki, Masahide; Itoh, Mari; Deepak, Ailani; Lal, Pradeep; Horiuchi, Terumi; Suzuki, Yutaka; Kawakami, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiling is a useful approach for deeper understanding of the specificity of cells, tissues, and organs in the transcriptional level. Recent development of high-throughput next-generation sequence (NGS) allows the RNA-seq method for this profiling. This method provides precise information of transcripts about the quantitation and the structure such as the splicing variants. In this chapter, we describe a method for gene expression profiling of GFP-positive cells from transgenic zebrafish by RNA-seq. We labeled specific cells in the brain with GFP by crossing a Gal4 driver line with the UAS:GFP line, isolated those cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), and analyzed by RNA-seq. PMID:27464803

  9. INCLINATION-DEPENDENT ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FLUX PROFILES FROM STRONG LENSING OF THE KERR SPACETIME

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Bin; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, E.

    2013-01-10

    Recent quasar microlensing observations have constrained the X-ray emission sizes of quasars to be about 10 gravitational radii, one order of magnitude smaller than the optical emission sizes. Using a new ray-tracing code for the Kerr spacetime, we find that the observed X-ray flux is strongly influenced by the gravity field of the central black hole, even for observers at moderate inclination angles. We calculate inclination-dependent flux profiles of active galactic nuclei in the optical and X-ray bands by combining the Kerr lensing and projection effects for future reference. We further study the dependence of the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio on the inclination angle caused by differential lensing distortion of the X-ray and optical emission, assuming several corona geometries. The strong lensing X-ray-to-optical magnification ratio can change by a factor of {approx}10 for normal quasars in some cases, and a further factor of {approx}10 for broad absorption line (BAL) quasars and obscured quasars. Comparing our results with the observed distributions in normal and BAL quasars, we find that the inclination angle dependence of the magnification ratios can significantly change the X-ray-to-optical flux ratio distributions. In particular, the mean value of the spectrum slope parameter {alpha}{sub ox}, 0.3838log F {sub 2keV}/F {sub 2500A}, can differ by {approx}0.1-0.2 between normal and BAL quasars, depending on corona geometries, suggesting larger intrinsic absorptions in BAL quasars.

  10. Methane related changes in prokaryotic activity along geochemical profiles in sediments of Lake Kinneret (Israel)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar Or, I.; Ben-Dov, E.; Kushmaro, A.; Eckert, W.; Sivan, O.

    2014-06-01

    Microbial methane oxidation process (methanotrophy) is the primary control on the emission of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. In terrestrial environments, aerobic methanotrophic bacteria are mainly responsible for oxidizing the methane. In marine sediments the coupling of the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) with sulfate reduction, often by a consortium of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate reducing bacteria, was found to consume almost all the upward diffusing methane. Recently, we showed geochemical evidence for AOM driven by iron reduction in Lake Kinneret (LK) (Israel) deep sediments and suggested that this process can be an important global methane sink. The goal of the present study was to link the geochemical gradients found in the porewater (chemical and isotope profiles) with possible changes in microbial community structure. Specifically, we examined the possible shift in the microbial community in the deep iron-driven AOM zone and its similarity to known sulfate driven AOM populations. Screening of archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed Thaumarchaeota and Euryarchaeota as the dominant phyla in the sediment. Thaumarchaeota, which belongs to the family of copper containing membrane-bound monooxgenases, increased with depth while Euryarchaeota decreased. This may indicate the involvement of Thaumarchaeota, which were discovered to be ammonia oxidizers but whose activity could also be linked to methane, in AOM in the deep sediment. ANMEs sequences were not found in the clone libraries, suggesting that iron-driven AOM is not through sulfate. Bacterial 16S rRNA sequences displayed shifts in community diversity with depth. Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi increased with depth, which could be connected with their different dissimilatory anaerobic processes. The observed changes in microbial community structure suggest possible direct and indirect mechanisms for iron-driven AOM in deep sediments.

  11. Gene expression profiling in Ishikawa cells: A fingerprint for estrogen active compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Boehme, Kathleen; Simon, Stephanie

    2009-04-01

    Several anthropogenous and naturally occurring substances, referred to as estrogen active compounds (EACs), are able to interfere with hormone and in particular estrogen receptor signaling. EACs can either cause adverse health effects in humans and wildlife populations or have beneficial effects on estrogen-dependent diseases. The aim of this study was to examine global gene expression profiles in estrogen receptor (ER)-proficient Ishikawa plus and ER-deficient Ishikawa minus endometrial cancer cells treated with selected well-known EACs (Diethylstilbestrol, Genistein, Zearalenone, Resveratrol, Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT). We also investigated the effect of the pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 (ICI) on the expression patterns caused by these compounds. Transcript levels were quantified 24 h after compound treatment using Illumina BeadChip Arrays. We identified 87 genes with similar expression changes in response to all EAC treatments in Ishikawa plus. ICI lowered the magnitude or reversed the expression of these genes, indicating ER dependent regulation. Apart from estrogenic gene regulation, Bisphenol A, o,p'-DDT, Zearalenone, Genistein and Resveratrol displayed similarities to ICI in their expression patterns, suggesting mixed estrogenic/antiestrogenic properties. In particular, the predominant antiestrogenic expression response of Resveratrol could be clearly distinguished from the other test compounds, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Divergent gene expression patterns of the phytoestrogens, as well as weaker estrogenic gene expression regulation determined for the anthropogenous chemicals Bisphenol A and o,p'-DDT, warrants a careful assessment of potential detrimental and/or beneficial effects of EACs. The characteristic expression fingerprints and the identified subset of putative marker genes can be used for screening chemicals with an unknown mode of action and for predicting their potential to exert endocrine disrupting effects.

  12. Distribution of the Effect of Solar Proton Flux And Geomagnetic Activity on the Stratospheric Ozone Profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velinov, P. I. Y.; Tassev, Y.; Yanev, T.; Tomova, D.

    Two-way MANOVA was used to examine the impact of two factors: 1) the proton flux intensity and 2) the geomagnetic activity on the dependant variable "ozone mixing ratio" which characterizes the stratospheric ozone profiles. The examination was carried out with fixed levels of two other factors: a) the heights at which the "ozone mixing ratio" was recorded, i,e, 35 km, 30.2 km, 24.5 km, 18.4 km, 15.6 km and b) the energetic intervals within which the proton flux was measured, i.e. =0,6-4,2 MeV; 4,2-8,7 MeV; 8,7-14,5 MeV; 15-44 MeV; 39-82 MeV; 84-200 MeV; 110-500 MeV. The analysis was performed for all combinations of levels of the factors a) and b) for which data was available. It was aimed at revealing which of the factors 1) and 2) were dominating with different combinations of the factors a) and b) with fixed levels. For this purpose a post hoc analysis was performed as well. The main results are as follows: factors 1) and 2) exert statistically significant impact on the dependant variable at all of the heights examined, but not for all of energetic intervals; increase of the ozone mixing ratio was observed as a main effect of the proton flux intensity at heights 24.5 km, 18.4 km, 15.6 km, but the analysis of the simultaneous acting of factors 1) and 2) revealed a decrease of the dependant variable at these heights; these effects possibly indicate the existence of two different mechanisms of impact on the ozone mixing ratio; the afore- discussed effects decrease with the height and therefore their graphical image was named "Christmas tree".

  13. Applications of high throughput screening to identify profiles of biological activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry and bioactivity profiling to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources (www.epa.gov/toc...

  14. Solar energy in Argentina: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1981-01-01

    The following subjects are included: the country overview; the energy summary; the geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the Republic of Argentina; the energy profile; and international contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  15. Applications of high throughput screening to identify profiles of biological activity relevant to carcinogenesis

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry and bioactivity profiling to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources (www.epa.gov/toc...

  16. ToxCast: Using high throughput screening to identify profiles of biological activity

    EPA Science Inventory

    ToxCast, the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s chemical prioritization research program, is developing methods for utilizing computational chemistry and bioactivity profiling to predict potential for toxicity and prioritize limited testing resources (www.epa.gov/toc...

  17. Proteomic profiling of patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts identifies a subset with activated EGFR: implications for drug development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kristine E; Chagoya, Gustavo; Kwatra, Shawn G; Yen, Timothy; Keir, Stephen T; Cooter, Mary; Hoadley, Katherine A; Rasheed, Ahmed; Lipp, Eric S; Mclendon, Roger; Ali-Osman, Francis; Bigner, Darell D; Sampson, John H; Kwatra, Madan M

    2015-06-01

    The development of drugs to inhibit glioblastoma (GBM) growth requires reliable pre-clinical models. To date, proteomic level validation of widely used patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts (PDGX) has not been performed. In the present study, we characterized 20 PDGX models according to subtype classification based on The Cancer Genome Atlas criteria, TP53, PTEN, IDH 1/2, and TERT promoter genetic analysis, EGFR amplification status, and examined their proteomic profiles against those of their parent tumors. The 20 PDGXs belonged to three of four The Cancer Genome Atlas subtypes: eight classical, eight mesenchymal, and four proneural; none neural. Amplification of EGFR gene was observed in 9 of 20 xenografts, and of these, 3 harbored the EGFRvIII mutation. We then performed proteomic profiling of PDGX, analyzing expression/activity of several proteins including EGFR. Levels of EGFR phosphorylated at Y1068 vary considerably between PDGX samples, and this pattern was also seen in primary GBM. Partitioning of 20 PDGX into high (n = 5) and low (n = 15) groups identified a panel of proteins associated with high EGFR activity. Thus, PDGX with high EGFR activity represent an excellent pre-clinical model to develop therapies for a subset of GBM patients whose tumors are characterized by high EGFR activity. Further, the proteins found to be associated with high EGFR activity can be monitored to assess the effectiveness of targeting EGFR. The development of drugs to inhibit glioblastoma (GBM) growth requires reliable pre-clinical models. We validated proteomic profiles using patient-derived glioblastoma xenografts (PDGX), characterizing 20 PDGX models according to subtype classification based on The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) criteria, TP53, PTEN, IDH 1/2, and TERT promoter genetic analysis, EGFR amplification status, and examined their proteomic profiles against those of their parent tumors. Proteins found to be associated with high EGFR activity represent potential

  18. Effect of different between-match recovery times on the activity profiles and injury rates of national rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Murray, Nick B; Gabbett, Tim J; Chamari, Karim

    2014-12-01

    Professional rugby league competition does not coincide with a standardized amount of recovery between matches; matches can be separated by as many as 10 days and as few as 5 days. These variations in recovery time could influence the match activity profiles and injury rates of players. This study investigated the effect of different between-match recovery times on the activity profiles and injury rates of National Rugby League (NRL) players. Forty-three elite male rugby league players participated in this study. Between-match recovery cycles were defined as short (separated by 5 or 6 days), medium (separated by 7 or 8 days), and long (separated by 9 or 10 days) recovery. Movement was recorded using a commercially available microtechnology unit, which provided information on speed, distance, and repeated high-intensity effort activity. Injuries sustained in either training or match play, which resulted in a missed match, were recorded. Significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) relative total distance was covered after matches involving short recovery than those involving medium (effect size [ES] = 1.13) or long (ES = 1.08) recovery periods. This difference was because of greater low-speed activity. Injury rates for the adjustables positional group were the highest after short between-match recovery cycles, whereas the injury rates of hit-up forwards and outside backs positional groups were the highest after long between-match recovery cycles. These findings suggest that the activity profiles of NRL match play and the injury rates of specific playing positions are influenced by the amount of recovery between matches. The differences in the activity profiles and injury rates between short, medium, and long between-match recovery cycles should be considered when developing recovery strategies for professional rugby league players.

  19. Merging Active-Space and Renormalized Coupled-Cluster Methods via the CC(P;Q) Formalism, with Benchmark Calculations for Singlet-Triplet Gaps in Biradical Systems.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jun; Piecuch, Piotr

    2012-12-11

    We have recently developed a flexible form of the method of moments of coupled-cluster (CC) equations and the CC(P;Q) hierarchy, which enable one to correct the CC and equation-of-motion CC energies obtained with unconventional truncations in the cluster and excitation operators [Shen, J.; Piecuch, P. Chem. Phys.2012, 401, 180; J. Chem. Phys.2012, 136, 144104]. One of the CC(P;Q) methods is a novel hybrid scheme, abbreviated as CC(t;3), in which the results of CC calculations with singles, doubles, and active-space triples, termed CCSDt, are corrected for the triple excitations missing in CCSDt using the expressions that are reminiscent of the completely renormalized (CR) CC approach known as CR-CC(2,3). We demonstrate that the total electronic energies of the lowest singlet and triplet states, and the singlet-triplet gaps in biradical systems, including methylene, (HFH)(-), and trimethylenemethane, resulting from the CC(t;3) calculations agree with those obtained with the full CC approach with singles, doubles, and triples to within fractions of a millihartree, improving the results of the noniterative triples CCSD(T), CCSD(2)T, and CR-CC(2,3) and hybrid CCSD(T)-h calculations, and competing with the best multireference CC data.

  20. Effects of optical band gap energy, band tail energy and particle shape on photocatalytic activities of different ZnO nanostructures prepared by a hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klubnuan, Sarunya; Suwanboon, Sumetha; Amornpitoksuk, Pongsaton

    2016-03-01

    The dependence of the crystallite size and the band tail energy on the optical properties, particle shape and oxygen vacancy of different ZnO nanostructures to catalyse photocatalytic degradation was investigated. The ZnO nanoplatelets and mesh-like ZnO lamellae were synthesized from the PEO19-b-PPO3 modified zinc acetate dihydrate using aqueous KOH and CO(NH2)2 solutions, respectively via a hydrothermal method. The band tail energy of the ZnO nanostructures had more influence on the band gap energy than the crystallite size. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue increased as a function of the irradiation time, the amount of oxygen vacancy and the intensity of the (0 0 0 2) plane. The ZnO nanoplatelets exhibited a better photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue than the mesh-like ZnO lamellae due to the migration of the photoelectrons and holes to the (0 0 0 1) and (0 0 0 -1) planes, respectively under the internal electric field, that resulted in the enhancement of the photocatalytic activities.

  1. Motivational Profiles for Physical Activity Practice in Adults with Type 2 Diabetes: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective.

    PubMed

    Gourlan, Mathieu; Trouilloud, David; Boiché, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on Self-Determination Theory, this study explored the motivational profiles toward Physical Activity (PA) among adults with type 2 diabetes and the relationships between motivational profile, perceived competence and PA. Participants were 350 men and women (Mean age 62.77 years) who were interviewed on their motivations toward PA, perceived level of competence to practice, and PA practice. Cluster analyses reveal the existence of three distinct profiles: "High Combined" (ie, high scores on motivations ranging from intrinsic to external regulation, moderate level on amotivation), "Self-Determined" (ie, high scores on intrinsic, integrated, and identified regulations; low scores on other regulations), and "Moderate" (ie, moderate scores on all regulations). Participants with "High Combined" and "Self-Determined" profiles reported higher perceived competence and longer leisure-time PA practice in comparison to those with a "Moderate" profile. This study highlights the necessity of adopting a person-centered approach to better understand motivation toward PA among type 2 diabetics.

  2. EFFECTS OF AN ACCRETION DISK WIND ON THE PROFILE OF THE BALMER EMISSION LINES FROM ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Flohic, Helene M. L. G.; Eracleous, Michael; Bogdanovic, Tamara E-mail: mce@astro.psu.edu

    2012-07-10

    We explore the connection between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with single- and double-peaked broad Balmer emission lines by using models dealing with radiative transfer effects through a disk wind. Our primary goal is to assess the applicability of the Murray and Chiang model by making an extensive and systematic comparison of the model predictions with data. In the process, we also verify the original derivation and evaluate the importance of general relativistic effects. As the optical depth through the emission layer increases, the peaks of a double-peaked profile move closer and eventually merge, producing a single peak. The properties of the emission line profile depend as sensitively on the geometric parameters of the line-emitting portion of the disk as they do on the disk-wind parameters. Using a parameter range that encompasses the expected characteristics of the broad-line regions in AGNs, we construct a database of model profiles and measure a set of diagnostic properties. Comparisons of the model profiles with emission lines from a subset of Sloan digital Sky Survey quasars show that observed lines are consistent with moderately large optical depth in the disk wind and a range of disk inclinations i {approx}< 45 Degree-Sign . Including relativistic effects is necessary to produce the asymmetries of observed line profiles.

  3. Effect of Increased Yeast Alcohol Acetyltransferase Activity on Flavor Profiles of Wine and Distillates

    PubMed Central

    Lilly, M.; Lambrechts, M. G.; Pretorius, I. S.

    2000-01-01

    The distinctive flavor of wine, brandy, and other grape-derived alcoholic beverages is affected by many compounds, including esters produced during alcoholic fermentation. The characteristic fruity odors of the fermentation bouquet are primarily due to a mixture of hexyl acetate, ethyl caproate (apple-like aroma), iso-amyl acetate (banana-like aroma), ethyl caprylate (apple-like aroma), and 2-phenylethyl acetate (fruity, flowery flavor with a honey note). The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of improving the aroma of wine and distillates by overexpressing one of the endogenous yeast genes that controls acetate ester production during fermentation. The synthesis of acetate esters by the wine yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae during fermentation is ascribed to at least three acetyltransferase activities, namely, alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT), ethanol acetyltransferase, and iso-amyl AAT. To investigate the effect of increased AAT activity on the sensory quality of Chenin blanc wines and distillates from Colombar base wines, we have overexpressed the alcohol acetyltransferase gene (ATF1) of S. cerevisiae. The ATF1 gene, located on chromosome XV, was cloned from a widely used commercial wine yeast strain of S. cerevisiae, VIN13, and placed under the control of the constitutive yeast phosphoglycerate kinase gene (PGK1) promoter and terminator. Chromoblot analysis confirmed the integration of the modified copy of ATF1 into the genome of three commercial wine yeast strains (VIN7, VIN13, and WE228). Northern blot analysis indicated constitutive expression of ATF1 at high levels in these yeast transformants. The levels of ethyl acetate, iso-amyl acetate, and 2-phenylethyl acetate increased 3- to 10-fold, 3.8- to 12-fold, and 2- to 10-fold, respectively, depending on the fermentation temperature, cultivar, and yeast strain used. The concentrations of ethyl caprate, ethyl caprylate, and hexyl acetate only showed minor changes, whereas the acetic acid

  4. A comparison of the activity profile and physiological demands between advanced and recreational veteran tennis players.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Sanchez-Muñoz, Cristobal; Pluim, Babette M; Tiemessen, Ivo; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether differences in playing level influence the activity profile and physiological demands of advanced and recreational veteran men's tennis players during an hour of tennis match play. Ten advanced (International Tennis Number [ITN] 3-5, 45.3 +/- 5.1 years) and 10 recreational (ITN 7-9, 44.8 +/- 4.7 years) veteran men's tennis players participated in 4 experimental sessions: (1) an ITN on-court assessment, (2) a laboratory incremental treadmill test, (3) an hour of simulated tennis match play, and (4) 30 minutes of tennis match play using a portable gas analyzer. Subjects' VO2 and heart rate (HR) were recorded by portable analyzers. Moreover, energy expenditure was evaluated by indirect calorimetry. Temporal structure and distance covered were determined from video recordings. Subjects' VO2 (24.5 +/- 4.1 vs. 23.3 +/- 3 ml x kg x min), HR (148.3 +/- 11.5 vs. 149.8 +/- 8.4 bpm), duration of rallies (DR) (6.3 +/- 4.1 vs. 7.6 +/- 5.5 seconds), and effective playing time (EPT) (21.7 +/- 5.0 vs. 23.6 +/- 5.4%), HR (148.3 +/- 11.5 vs. 149.8 +/- 8.4 bpm), and energy expenditure (263.1 +/- 49.4 and 281.3 +/- 61.8 kcal x min) during play did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between advanced and recreational players. The advanced players covered significantly more meters than the recreational players during their 1-hour tennis matches (mean +/- SD: 3568.8 +/- 532.2 vs. 3173.8 +/- 226 m, p < 0.01) at lower running speeds. The results indicate that, independently of ability, tennis match play satisfies the American College of Sports Medicine recommendations for quantity and quality of exercise for the development and maintenance of cardiovascular fitness in healthy adults and seems to be a viable and highly popular mode of healthy activity.

  5. Development of a fluorescent microsphere-based multiplexed high-throughput assay system for profiling of transcription factor activation.

    PubMed

    Yaoi, Takuro; Jiang, Xin; Li, Xianqiang

    2006-06-01

    Transcription factors (TFs), which play crucial roles in the regulation of gene expression in the human genome, are highly regulated by a variety of mechanisms. A single extracellular stimulus can trigger multiple signaling pathways, and these in turn can activate multiple TFs to mediate the inducible expression of target genes. Alterations in the activities of TFs are often associated with human diseases, such as altered activating factor 1, estrogen receptor, and p53 function in cancer, nuclear factor kappaB in inflammatory diseases, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in obesity. A systematic assay for profiling the activation of TFs will aid in elucidating the mechanisms of TF activation, reveal altered TFs associated with human diseases, and aid in developing assays for drug discovery. Here, we developed a 24-plex fluorescent microsphere-based TF activation assay system with a 96-well plate format. The assay system enabled high-throughput profiling of the DNA binding activity of TFs in multiple samples with high sensitivity. PMID:16834534

  6. Discrimination of differentially inhibited cysteine proteases by activity-based profiling using cystatin variants with tailored specificities.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Rhéaume, Ann-Julie; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Vorster, Juan; Michaud, Dominique

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown the possibility of tailoring the inhibitory specificity of plant cystatins toward cysteine (Cys) proteases by single mutations at positively selected amino acid sites. Here we devised a cystatin activity-based profiling approach to assess the impact of such mutations at the proteome scale using single variants of tomato cystatin SlCYS8 and digestive Cys proteases of the herbivorous insect, Colorado potato beetle, as a model. Biotinylated forms of SlCYS8 and SlCYS8 variants were used to capture susceptible Cys proteases in insect midgut protein extracts by biotin immobilization on avidin-embedded beads. A quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of the captured proteins was performed to compare the inhibitory profile of different SlCYS8 variants. The approach confirmed the relevance of phylogenetic inferences categorizing the insect digestive Cys proteases into six functionally distinct families. It also revealed significant variation in protease family profiles captured with N-terminal variants of SlCYS8, in line with in silico structural models for Cys protease-SlCYS8 interactions suggesting a functional role for the N-terminal region. Our data confirm overall the usefulness of cystatin activity-based protease profiling for the monitoring of Cys protease-inhibitor interactions in complex biological systems. They also illustrate the potential of biotinylated cystatins to identify recombinant cystatin candidates for the inactivation of specific Cys protease targets. PMID:23082957

  7. Discrimination of differentially inhibited cysteine proteases by activity-based profiling using cystatin variants with tailored specificities.

    PubMed

    Sainsbury, Frank; Rhéaume, Ann-Julie; Goulet, Marie-Claire; Vorster, Juan; Michaud, Dominique

    2012-12-01

    Recent research has shown the possibility of tailoring the inhibitory specificity of plant cystatins toward cysteine (Cys) proteases by single mutations at positively selected amino acid sites. Here we devised a cystatin activity-based profiling approach to assess the impact of such mutations at the proteome scale using single variants of tomato cystatin SlCYS8 and digestive Cys proteases of the herbivorous insect, Colorado potato beetle, as a model. Biotinylated forms of SlCYS8 and SlCYS8 variants were used to capture susceptible Cys proteases in insect midgut protein extracts by biotin immobilization on avidin-embedded beads. A quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of the captured proteins was performed to compare the inhibitory profile of different SlCYS8 variants. The approach confirmed the relevance of phylogenetic inferences categorizing the insect digestive Cys proteases into six functionally distinct families. It also revealed significant variation in protease family profiles captured with N-terminal variants of SlCYS8, in line with in silico structural models for Cys protease-SlCYS8 interactions suggesting a functional role for the N-terminal region. Our data confirm overall the usefulness of cystatin activity-based protease profiling for the monitoring of Cys protease-inhibitor interactions in complex biological systems. They also illustrate the potential of biotinylated cystatins to identify recombinant cystatin candidates for the inactivation of specific Cys protease targets.

  8. Profile-QSAR: a novel meta-QSAR method that combines activities across the kinase family to accurately predict affinity, selectivity, and cellular activity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eric; Mukherjee, Prasenjit; Sullivan, David; Jansen, Johanna

    2011-08-22

    Profile-QSAR is a novel 2D predictive model building method for kinases. This "meta-QSAR" method models the activity of each compound against a new kinase target as a linear combination of its predicted activities against a large panel of 92 previously studied kinases comprised from 115 assays. Profile-QSAR starts with a sparse incomplete kinase by compound (KxC) activity matrix, used to generate Bayesian QSAR models for the 92 "basis-set" kinases. These Bayesian QSARs generate a complete "synthetic" KxC activity matrix of predictions. These synthetic activities are used as "chemical descriptors" to train partial-least squares (PLS) models, from modest amounts of medium-throughput screening data, for predicting activity against new kinases. The Profile-QSAR predictions for the 92 kinases (115 assays) gave a median external R²(ext) = 0.59 on 25% held-out test sets. The method has proven accurate enough to predict pairwise kinase selectivities with a median correlation of R²(ext) = 0.61 for 958 kinase pairs with at least 600 common compounds. It has been further expanded by adding a "C(k)XC" cellular activity matrix to the KxC matrix to predict cellular activity for 42 kinase driven cellular assays with median R²(ext) = 0.58 for 24 target modulation assays and R²(ext) = 0.41 for 18 cell proliferation assays. The 2D Profile-QSAR, along with the 3D Surrogate AutoShim, are the foundations of an internally developed iterative medium-throughput screening (IMTS) methodology for virtual screening (VS) of compound archives as an alternative to experimental high-throughput screening (HTS). The method has been applied to 20 actual prospective kinase projects. Biological results have so far been obtained in eight of them. Q² values ranged from 0.3 to 0.7. Hit-rates at 10 uM for experimentally tested compounds varied from 25% to 80%, except in K5, which was a special case aimed specifically at finding "type II" binders, where none of the compounds were predicted to be

  9. Mapping of active faults based on the analysis of high-resolution seismic reflection profiles in offshore Montenegro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vucic, Ljiljana; Glavatovic, Branislav

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data analysis is considered as important tool for mapping of active tectonic faults, since seismic exploration methods on varied scales can image subsurface structures of different depth ranges. Mapping of active faults for the offshore area of Montenegro is performed in Petrel software, using reflection database consist of 2D profiles in length of about 3.500 kilometers and 311 square kilometers of 3D seismics, acquired from 1979 to 2003. Montenegro offshore area is influenced by recent tectonic activity with numerous faults, folded faults and over trusts. Based on reflection profiles analysis, the trust fault system offshore Montenegro is reveled, parallel to the coast and extending up to 15 kilometers from the offshore line. Then, the system of normal top carbonate fault planes is mapped and characterized on the southern Adriatic, with NE trending. The tectonic interpretation of the seismic reflection profiles in Montenegro point toward the existence of principally reverse tectonic forms in the carbonate sediments, covered by young Quaternary sandy sediments of thickness 1-3 kilometers. Also, reflective seismic data indicate the active uplifting of evaporite dome on about 10 kilometers of coastline.

  10. Personalized Multilayer Daily Life Profiling Through Context Enabled Activity Classification and Motion Reconstruction: An Integrated System Approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Wang, Yan; Barrett, Mick; Dobkin, Bruce; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2016-01-01

    Profiling the daily activity of a physically disabled person in the community would enable healthcare professionals to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of their patients' compliance with recommendations for exercise, fitness, and practice of skilled movements, as well as enable feedback about performance in real-world situations. Based on our early research in in-community activity profiling, we present in this paper an end-to-end system capable of reporting a patient's daily activity at multiple levels of granularity: 1) at the highest level, information on the location categories a patient is able to visit; 2) within each location category, information on the activities a patient is able to perform; and 3) at the lowest level, motion trajectory, visualization, and metrics computation of each activity. Our methodology is built upon a physical activity prescription model coupled with MEMS inertial sensors and mobile device kits that can be sent to a patient at home. A novel context-guided activity-monitoring concept with categorical location context is used to achieve enhanced classification accuracy and throughput. The methodology is then seamlessly integrated with motion reconstruction and metrics computation to provide comprehensive layered reporting of a patient's daily life. We also present an implementation of the methodology featuring a novel location context detection algorithm using WiFi augmented GPS and overlays, with motion reconstruction and visualization algorithms for practical in-community deployment. Finally, we use a series of experimental field evaluations to confirm the accuracy of the system. PMID:25546868

  11. Personalized Multilayer Daily Life Profiling Through Context Enabled Activity Classification and Motion Reconstruction: An Integrated System Approach.

    PubMed

    Xu, James Y; Wang, Yan; Barrett, Mick; Dobkin, Bruce; Pottie, Greg J; Kaiser, William J

    2016-01-01

    Profiling the daily activity of a physically disabled person in the community would enable healthcare professionals to monitor the type, quantity, and quality of their patients' compliance with recommendations for exercise, fitness, and practice of skilled movements, as well as enable feedback about performance in real-world situations. Based on our early research in in-community activity profiling, we present in this paper an end-to-end system capable of reporting a patient's daily activity at multiple levels of granularity: 1) at the highest level, information on the location categories a patient is able to visit; 2) within each location category, information on the activities a patient is able to perform; and 3) at the lowest level, motion trajectory, visualization, and metrics computation of each activity. Our methodology is built upon a physical activity prescription model coupled with MEMS inertial sensors and mobile device kits that can be sent to a patient at home. A novel context-guided activity-monitoring concept with categorical location context is used to achieve enhanced classification accuracy and throughput. The methodology is then seamlessly integrated with motion reconstruction and metrics computation to provide comprehensive layered reporting of a patient's daily life. We also present an implementation of the methodology featuring a novel location context detection algorithm using WiFi augmented GPS and overlays, with motion reconstruction and visualization algorithms for practical in-community deployment. Finally, we use a series of experimental field evaluations to confirm the accuracy of the system.

  12. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  13. Evidence for Coupled Biogenesis of Yeast Gap1 Permease and Sphingolipids: Essential Role in Transport Activity and Normal Control by Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Lauwers, Elsa; Grossmann, Guido

    2007-01-01

    Current models for plasma membrane organization integrate the emerging concepts that membrane proteins tightly associate with surrounding lipids and that biogenesis of surface proteins and lipids may be coupled. We show here that the yeast general amino acid permease Gap1 synthesized in the absence of sphingolipid (SL) biosynthesis is delivered to the cell surface but undergoes rapid and unregulated down-regulation. Furthermore, the permease produced under these conditions but blocked at the cell surface is inactive, soluble in detergent, and more sensitive to proteases. We also show that SL biogenesis is crucial during Gap1 production and secretion but that it is dispensable once Gap1 has reached the plasma membrane. Moreover, the defects displayed by cell surface Gap1 neosynthesized in the absence of SL biosynthesis are not compensated by subsequent restoration of SL production. Finally, we show that down-regulation of Gap1 caused by lack of SL biogenesis involves the ubiquitination of the protein on lysines normally not accessible to ubiquitination and close to the membrane. We propose that coupled biogenesis of Gap1 and SLs would create an SL microenvironment essential to the normal conformation, function, and control of ubiquitination of the permease. PMID:17553927

  14. Soil CO2 constrain and distinction of root respiration and microbial activity by soil CO2 and CH4 profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, S.; Breecker, D.; Nie, J.

    2015-12-01

    Profiles of soil pore space CO2 and CH4 concentrations are rarely reported, especially from the same soils, yet are important for a number of applications. First, quantifying the component of respired CO2 in the soil pore spaces improves paleosol-based paleo-atmospheric CO2 estimates. Second, profiles can be used to estimate the average depth of biological activity (e.g. respiration and CH4 oxidation). Third, CH4 profiles, by identifying microbial activity, may help distinguish root/rhizosphere respiration from microbial decomposition. Here, we report soil CO2 and CH4 profiles measured at the Semi-Arid Climate Observatory and Laboratory (SACOL) on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP) at Lanzhou University, Gansu, China. Soil parent material on the site is mainly Quaternary aeolian loess and classifies as an Entisol. Soil respired CO2 (S(z) = soil CO2 - atmospheric CO2) is the most uncertain variable required to reconstruct ancient atmospheric CO2 concentrations from paleosol carbonates. Our direct soil pore space CO2 measurements show that S(z) values varied from ~100ppmV during the spring to ~2200ppmV during the summer. S(z) average 390 ± 30ppmV during May before the summer monsoon begins when soil temperature is increasing, soil water content is at a minimum and pedogenic carbonate may be forming. This value lies in the range of S(z) values previously estimated for surface Inceptisols (300 ± 100ppmV, Breecker 2013) and is lower than Pleistocene CLP paleosols (Da et al.,2015) in similar parent material. Our direct measurements of soil pore space CO2 thus support these previous independent S(z) estimates. We also investigate the average depth of CH4 oxidation and soil respiration, which range from 3-10cm and at least 20cm, respectively, using the shapes of soil gas profiles. Fitting observed soil CO2 and CH4 profiles with a production-diffusion model show that the average depth of CH4 oxidation was always at least 10 cm shallower than the average depth of respiration

  15. Sensory evaluation, physicochemical properties and aroma-active profiles in a diverse collection of Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Huan; Chen, Jianle; Chen, Shiguo; Xia, Qile; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to differentiate the flavor (taste and odor) profiles of 11 Chinese bayberry cultivars (Myrica rubra). The physicochemical analysis for taste indicated the bayberry cultivars were quite different in soluble sugars, organic acids, color, total phenolics and anthocyanin contents. Sucrose was the main soluble sugar in bayberry fruit. Principal component analysis (PCA) of physicochemical properties indicated bayberries could be divided into 5 groups, and the Bi qi cultivar contained the highest brix/acid ratio demonstrating the sweetest taste. PCA of aroma-active profile for odor (analyzed by SPME-GC-MS-O) indicated bayberries could be divided into 3 groups: α-pinene ("pine" odor) for group 1 (four cultivars), β-caryophyllene and isocaryophyllene ("woody" odor) for group 2 (six cultivars), and ethyl acetate ("overripe" odor) for group 3 (one cultivar). Our research on the physicochemical and active-aroma of 11 bayberry cultivars will help to select suitable cultivars to increase consumer satisfaction. PMID:27374545

  16. Optimization of physicochemical properties and safety profile of novel bacterial topoisomerase type II inhibitors (NBTIs) with activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Reck, Folkert; Ehmann, David E; Dougherty, Thomas J; Newman, Joseph V; Hopkins, Sussie; Stone, Gregory; Agrawal, Nikunj; Ciaccio, Paul; McNulty, John; Barthlow, Herbert; O'Donnell, Jennifer; Goteti, Kosalaram; Breen, John; Comita-Prevoir, Janelle; Cornebise, Mark; Cronin, Mark; Eyermann, Charles J; Geng, Bolin; Carr, Greg R; Pandarinathan, Lakshmipathi; Tang, Xuejun; Cottone, Andrew; Zhao, Liang; Bezdenejnih-Snyder, Natascha

    2014-10-01

    Type II bacterial topoisomerases are well validated targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy. Novel bacterial type II topoisomerase inhibitors (NBTIs) of these targets are of interest for the development of new antibacterial agents that are not impacted by target-mediated cross-resistance with fluoroquinolones. We now disclose the optimization of a class of NBTIs towards Gram-negative pathogens, especially against drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Physicochemical properties (pKa and logD) were optimized for activity against P. aeruginosa and for reduced inhibition of the hERG channel. The optimized analogs 9g and 9i displayed potent antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa, and a significantly improved hERG profile over previously reported analogs. Compound 9g showed an improved QT profile in in vivo models and lower clearance in rat over earlier compounds. The compounds show promise for the development of new antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  17. Hepatic messenger ribonucleic acid activity profiles in experimental azotemia in the rat. Relationship to food intake and thyroid function.

    PubMed Central

    Kinlaw, W B; Schwartz, H L; Mariash, C N; Bingham, C; Carr, F E; Oppenheimer, J H

    1984-01-01

    We have studied the hepatic messenger RNA (mRNA) activity profile in chronically azotemic rats and sought to determine whether the observed changes could be mediated either by reduced food intake or diminished thyroid function at the tissue level. mRNA activity profiles were produced by two-dimensional gel electrophoretic separation of radioactively labeled products of an in vitro reticulocyte lysate system which had been programmed by hepatic RNA. Of the approximately 240 translational products identified in this system, seven sequences were consistently altered in azotemia. In pair-fed animals six of these also decreased, but the alterations in three were depressed to a significantly lesser extent in the pair-fed group. Moreover, analysis of covariance suggested that food intake could account for the differences in only one sequence. The possibility that the mRNA activity profile in azotemia could represent the effects of diminished thyroid function was minimized by the finding that the reductions in plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels observed were due largely to reduced plasma protein binding, with maintenance of the mean free T4 and free T3 concentrations within the normal range. The changes in only one mRNA sequence could be related to free T3 levels alone. Our findings, therefore, indicate that although diminished food intake and reduced thyroid function may contribute to some of the observed changes in the mRNA activity profiles, the bulk of alterations in azotemia appear to be mediated by other mechanisms. The striking overlap between the sequences affected by azotemia and pair-feeding raises the speculation that altered gene expression in azotemia may reflect an impaired hepatic response at the pretranslational level to metabolic signals associated with food intake. Images PMID:6511910

  18. Prevalence of human cell material: DNA and RNA profiling of public and private objects and after activity scenarios.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, M; Ozcanhan, G; Zijlstra, S; Lindenbergh, A; Sijen, T

    2016-03-01

    Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments. Results show that high DNA yields do not necessarily relate to an increased number of contributors or to the detection of other cell types than skin. Background cellular material may be found on any type of public or private item. When a major contributor can be deduced in DNA profiles from private items, this can be a different person than the owner of the item. Also when a specific activity is performed and the areas of physical contact are analysed, the "perpetrator" does not necessarily represent the major contributor in the STR profile. Washing machine experiments show that transfer and persistence during laundry is limited for DNA and cell type dependent for RNA. Skin conditions such as the presence of sebum or sweat can promote DNA transfer. Results of this study, which encompasses 549 samples, increase our understanding regarding the prevalence of human cell material in background and activity scenarios.

  19. Assessing Sources of Stress to Aquatic Ecosystems: Using Biomarkers and Bioindicators to Characterize Exodure-Response Profiles of Anthropogenic Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M.

    1999-03-29

    Establishing causal relationships between sources of environmental stressors and aquatic ecosystem health if difficult because of the many biotic and abiotic factors which can influence or modify responses of biological systems to stress, the orders of magnitude involved in extrapolation over both spatial and temporal scales, and compensatory mechanisms such as density-dependent responses that operate in populations. To address the problem of establishing causality between stressors and effects on aquatic systems, a diagnostic approach, based on exposure-response profiles for various anthropogenic activities, was developed to help identify sources of stress responsible for effects on aquatic systems at ecological significant levels of biological organization (individual, population, community). To generate these exposure-effects profiles, biomarkers of exposure were plotted against bioindicators of corresponding effects for several major anthropogenic activities including petrochemical , pulp and paper, domestic sewage, mining operations, land-development activities, and agricultural activities. Biomarkers of exposure to environmental stressors varied depending on the type of anthropogenic activity involved. Bioindicator effects, however, including histopathological lesions, bioenergetic status, individual growth, reproductive impairment, and community-level responses were similar among many of the major anthropogenic activities. This approach is valuable to help identify and diagnose sources of stressors in environments impacted by multiple stressors. By identifying the types and sources of environmental stressors, aquatic ecosystems can be more effectively protected and managed to maintain acceptable levels of environmental quality and ecosystem fitness.

  20. TRK-A, HER-2/neu, and KIT Expression/Activation Profiles in Salivary Gland Carcinoma1,2

    PubMed Central

    Dagrada, Gian Paolo; Greco, Angela; Staurengo, Samantha; Guzzo, Marco; Locati, Laura D; Carbone, Antonino; Pierotti, Marco A

    2008-01-01

    Salivary duct carcinomas (SDCs) and adenoid cystic carcinomas (ACCs) are the most aggressive and the most frequent carcinomas of the salivary glands, respectively. Little is known about them in terms of molecular/biochemical characterization and conventional treatments are ineffective. On cryopreserved material, we analyzed the expression/activation status of TRK-A, HER-2/neu, and KIT receptors by means of immunoprecipitation and Western blot analysis experiments, and the presence of their cognate ligands by means of Western blot analysis and/or reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction in 9 SDCs, 12 ACCs, and 8 normal glands. The amplification status of HER-2/neu was also investigated by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis on fixed material. The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)-deregulated profile of the SDCs was characterized by the overexpression of activated TRK-A in the presence of its ligand, and the overexpression of HER-2/neu sustained by gene amplification. The RTK signature of the ACCs was represented by the overexpression of activated KIT and TRK-A and their cognate ligands, and the overexpression of activated HER-2/neu, in the absence of gene amplification, possibly sustained by epidermal growth factor receptor heterodimerization. In conclusion, SDCs and ACCs, although sharing TRK-A autocrine loop activation, have different pathologically activated RTK-deregulated profiles that may be potential targets for pharmacological RTK inhibitors. PMID:18795122

  1. Polypharmacology directed compound data mining: identification of promiscuous chemotypes with different activity profiles and comparison to approved drugs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ye; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2010-12-27

    Increasing evidence that many pharmaceutically relevant compounds elicit their effects through binding to multiple targets, so-called polypharmacology, is beginning to change conventional drug discovery and design strategies. In light of this paradigm shift, we have mined publicly available compound and bioactivity data for promiscuous chemotypes. For this purpose, a hierarchy of active compounds, atomic property based scaffolds, and unique molecular topologies were generated, and activity annotations were analyzed using this framework. Starting from ∼35 000 compounds active against human targets with at least 1 μM potency, 33 chemotypes with distinct topology were identified that represented molecules active against at least 3 different target families. Network representations were utilized to study scaffold-target family relationships and activity profiles of scaffolds corresponding to promiscuous chemotypes. A subset of promiscuous chemotypes displayed a significant enrichment in drugs over bioactive compounds. A total of 190 drugs were identified that had on average only 2 known target annotations but belonged to the 7 most promiscuous chemotypes that were active against 8-15 target families. These drugs should be attractive candidates for polypharmacological profiling.

  2. Institutional Profile: Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research: interdisciplinary research and educational activities in pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Mitropoulos, Konstantinos; Innocenti, Federico; van Schaik, Ron H; Lezhava, Alexander; Tzimas, Giannis; Kollia, Panagoula; Macek, Milan; Fortina, Paolo; Patrinos, George P

    2012-03-01

    The Golden Helix Institute of Biomedical Research is an international nonprofit scientific organization with interdisciplinary research and educational activities in the field of genome medicine in Europe, Asia and Latin America. These activities are supervised by an international scientific advisory council, consisting of world leaders in the field of genomics and translational medicine. Research activities include the regional coordination of the Pharmacogenomics for Every Nation Initiative in Europe, in an effort to integrate pharmacogenomics in developing countries, the development of several national/ethnic genetic databases and related web services and the critical assessment of the impact of genetics and genomic medicine on society in various countries. Educational activities also include the organization of the Golden Helix Symposia(®), which are high-profile scientific research symposia in the field of personalized medicine and the Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days, an international educational activity focused on pharmacogenomics, as part of its international pharmacogenomics education and outreach efforts.

  3. Immune gene expression profiling of Proliferative Kidney Disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reveals a dominance of anti-inflammatory, antibody and T helper cell-like activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The myxozoan Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae is the causative agent of Proliferative Kidney Disease (PKD) targeting primarily the kidney of infected fish where it causes a chronic lymphoid immunopathology. Although known to be associated with suppression of some cellular aspects of innate immunity and a prominent lymphocytic hyperplasia, there remains a considerable knowledge gap in our understanding of the underlying immune mechanisms driving PKD pathogenesis. To provide further insights, the expression profiles of a panel of innate / inflammatory and adaptive immune molecules were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss following a natural exposure to the parasite. Relative to controls, fish with early to advanced stages of kidney pathology exhibited up-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-11, although remaining refractory towards genes indicative of macrophage activity. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and anti-inflammatory markers, including cathelicidin (CATH) and IL-10 were markedly up-regulated during clinical disease. Up-regulation of adaptive immune molecules, including cell markers and antibody genes reflect the lymphocytic dominance of this disease and the likely importance of lymphocyte subsets in PKD pathogenesis. Up-regulation of T helper (TH) cell-like response genes and transcription factors implies that T. bryosalmonae may elicit a complex interplay between TH cell subsets. This work, for the first time in the study of fish-myxozoan interactions, suggests that PKD pathogenesis is shaped by an anti-inflammatory phenotype, a profound B cell / antibody response and dysregulated TH cell-like activities. A better understanding of the functional roles of fish immune cells and molecules in PKD pathogenesis may facilitate future development of control measures against this disease. PMID:23865616

  4. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Minnesota, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Minnesota for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Minnesota showed mostly gains in reading at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls. In math,…

  5. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Montana, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Montana for 2010. In grade 8 reading (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Montana showed across-the-board gains at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for the state's major racial/ethnic subgroups and…

  6. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Iowa, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Iowa for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Iowa had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. Trends at the proficient and advanced levels were…

  7. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Maryland, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Maryland for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Maryland had data for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls at the proficient and advanced levels. The percentage of students reaching the…

  8. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Virginia for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Virginia showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  9. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Tennessee, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Tennessee for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Tennessee showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  10. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Massachusetts, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Massachusetts for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Massachusetts showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low…

  11. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Wisconsin, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Wisconsin for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Wisconsin showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic…

  12. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Utah, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Utah for 2010. Utah implemented new standards and cut scores in math so trend data that include 2009 are not available. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Utah showed across-the-board gains in reading at the basic,…

  13. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kentucky, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kentucky for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kentucky showed mostly gains in both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and boys and girls.…

  14. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Oregon, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Oregon for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Oregon showed a clear trend of gains in reading and math at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels for all major racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income…

  15. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Washington, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Washington for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Washington showed across-the-board gains in math--improvements at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  16. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Nevada, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Nevada for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Nevada showed across-the-board gains--improvements in both reading and math at the basic, proficient and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low income…

  17. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Texas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Texas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Texas showed across-the-board gains--improvements in reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for all racial/ethnic subgroups, low-income students, and…

  18. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Kansas, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Kansas for 2010. In grade 8 (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Kansas students showed across-the-board gains--both reading and math at the basic, proficient, and advanced levels for racial/ethnic subgroups, low income students, and…

  19. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: Ohio, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in Ohio for 2010. In grade 8 math (the only grade in which subgroup trends were analyzed by achievement level), Ohio showed a clear trend of gains for all major subgroups at the basic-and-above, proficient-and-above, and advanced levels, with one exception. In grade 8 reading,…

  20. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J. M.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Segal-Rosenhaimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; LeBlanc, S. E.; Vaughan, M. A.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C. J.; Song, S.; Schmid, B.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  1. Aerosol-Radiation-Cloud Interactions in the South-East Atlantic: Future Suborbital Activities to Address Knowledge Gaps in Satellite and Model Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redemann, Jens; Wood, R.; Zuidema, P.; Haywood, J.; Piketh, S.; Formenti, P.; L'Ecuyer, T.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Segal-Rosenheimer, M.; Shinozuka, Y.; LeBlanc, S.; Vaughan, M.; Schmidt, S.; Flynn, C.; Schmid, B.; Luna, B.; Abel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Southern Africa produces almost a third of the Earth's biomass burning (BB) aerosol particles. Particles lofted into the mid-troposphere are transported westward over the South-East (SE) Atlantic, home to one of the three permanent subtropical stratocumulus (Sc) cloud decks in the world. The SE Atlantic stratocumulus deck interacts with the dense layers of BB aerosols that initially overlay the cloud deck, but later subside and may mix into the clouds. These interactions include adjustments to aerosol-induced solar heating and microphysical effects, and their global representation in climate models remains one of the largest uncertainties in estimates of future climate. Hence, new observations over the SE Atlantic have significant implications for global climate change scenarios. Our understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions in the SE Atlantic is hindered both by the lack of knowledge on aerosol and cloud properties, as well as the lack of knowledge about detailed physical processes involved. Most notably, we are missing knowledge on the absorptive and cloud nucleating properties of aerosols, including their vertical distribution relative to clouds, on the locations and degree of aerosol mixing into clouds, on the processes that govern cloud property adjustments, and on the importance of aerosol effects on clouds relative to co-varying synoptic scale meteorology. We discuss the current knowledge of aerosol and cloud property distributions based on satellite observations and sparse suborbital sampling. Recent efforts to make full use of A-Train aerosol sensor synergies will be highlighted. We describe planned field campaigns in the region to address the existing knowledge gaps. Specifically, we describe the scientific objectives and implementation of the five synergistic, international research activities aimed at providing some of the key aerosol and cloud properties and a process-level understanding of aerosol-cloud interactions over the SE Atlantic: NASA

  2. Energy in Mexico: a profile of solar energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, D.

    1980-04-01

    The geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects of the United States of Mexico are presented. Mexico's energy profile includes the following: energy policy objectives, government energy structure, organizations for implementation, indigeneous energy sources, imported energy sources, solar energy research and development, solar energy organizations and solar energy related legislation and administrative policies. International agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects are listed. (MRH)

  3. Solar energy in Italy: a profile of renewable energy activity in its national context

    SciTech Connect

    Shea, C.A.

    1980-12-01

    The following are included: country overview; energy summary; Italian Republic-geopolitical, economic, and cultural aspects; the energy profile; imported energy sources; solar energy research and development; solar energy organizations; solar energy related legislation and administration policies; and international agreements, contacts, manufacturers, and projects. (MHR)

  4. Distribution of Metabolically Active Prokaryotes (Archaea and Bacteria) throughout the Profiles of Chernozem and Brown Semidesert Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenov, M. V.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanov, A. L.

    2016-02-01

    The distribution of metabolically active cells of archaea and bacteria in the profiles of typical chernozems (Voronezh oblast) and brown semidesert soils (Astrakhan oblast) of natural and agricultural ecosystems was studied using the method of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). The studied soils differed sharply in the microbial biomass and in the numbers of metabolically active cells of archaea and bacteria. The number of active bacterial cells was 3.5-7.0 times greater than that of archaea. In the arable chernozem, the numbers of active cells of archaea and bacteria were 2.6 and 1.5 times, respectively, lower than those in the chernozem under the shelterbelt. The agricultural use of the brown semidesert soil had little effect on the abundances of bacteria and archaea. The soil organic carbon content was the major factor controlling the numbers of metabolically active cells of both domains. However, the dependence of the abundance of bacteria on the organic matter content was more pronounced. The decrease in the organic carbon and total nitrogen contents down the soil profiles was accompanied by the decrease in the bacteria: archaea ratio attesting to a better adaptation of archaea to the permanent deficiency of carbon and nitrogen. The bacteria: archaea ratio can serve as an ecotrophic indicator of the state of soil microbial communities.

  5. Phytochemical profile of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts and correlation to their antioxidant and anti-proliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Tomic, Goran; Nikolic, Ivana; Nerantzaki, Alexandra A; Sayyad, Nisar; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Stojanovic, Ivana; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to monitor the anti-proliferative activity of Rosmarinus officinalis and Salvia officinalis extracts against cancer cells and to correlate this activity with their phytochemical profiles using liquid chromatography/diode array detection/electrospray ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n)). For the quantitative estimation of triterpenic acids in the crude extracts an NMR based methodology was used and compared with the HPLC measurements, both applied for the first time, for the case of betulinic acid. Both extracts exerted cytotoxic activity through dose-dependent impairment of viability and mitochondrial activity of rat insulinoma m5F (RINm5F) cells. Decrease of RINm5F viability was mediated by nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Importantly, these extracts potentiated NO and TNF-α release from macrophages therefore enhancing their cytocidal action. The rosemary extract developed more pronounced antioxidant, cytotoxic and immunomodifying activities, probably due to the presence of betulinic acid and a higher concentration of carnosic acid in its phytochemical profile.

  6. Recurring Swarms of Deep Long Period Earthquakes in the Denali Volcanic Gap Suggest a Continuation of Volcanic Processes in the Absence of Active Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holtkamp, S. G.; Ruppert, N. A.; Silwal, V.; Christensen, D. H.; Nye, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Seismicity in the northern segment of the Denali Volcanic Gap clusters bimodally with depth, with dense clusters of earthquakes occurring in the subducting slab at >100 km depth beneath Denali, and within the crust north of the Denali fault at <20 km depth. On January 22, 2014, the Alaska Earthquake Center recorded a Deep Long Period earthquake (DLP), magnitude 1.7, at 40 km depth north of the Denali Fault. The epicenter for this event was <5 km of broadband station TRF, so the depth is well constrained. The DLP event is almost devoid of energy above 5 Hz. Receiver functions for stations TRF and SBL, both <10 km of the epicenter, show Moho depths of 36-40 km.We used waveforms of this DLP as a template event for network matched filtering, which identifies similar signals in continuous time series. We processed this template event from June 1999 to July 2014. We use several matches produced by this template as additional templates, iterating the process. Using this methodology, we identify over 300 DLP's. Events typically come in swarms lasting hours to days with no events exceeding magnitude 2. Swarms are separated by months to years of little detectable activity. A swarm of events on June 30, 2001 coincides with the Broadband Experiment Across the Alaska Range (BEAAR) seismic deployment, and was recorded by 15 broadband seismometers within 100 km of the epicenter. A preliminary waveform inversion for the focal mechanism of this event results in isotropic (implosive) and double couple components.We argue that these DLP's are evidence of magmatic or volatile movement through the sub-arc mantle wedge, even though there is no active volcanism at the surface. Relative relocations, utilizing cross correlated p- and s- waveforms, highlight a nest of seismicity with no structures such as planes or conduits. Lack of planar features, as well as the isotopic component and lack of strike slip to the focal mechanism, may argue against a deep extension of the Hines Creek or

  7. The GAPS programme with HARPS-N at TNG. VII. Putting exoplanets in the stellar context: magnetic activity and asteroseismology of τ Bootis A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsa, F.; Scandariato, G.; Rainer, M.; Bignamini, A.; Maggio, A.; Poretti, E.; Lanza, A. F.; Di Mauro, M. P.; Benatti, S.; Biazzo, K.; Bonomo, A. S.; Damasso, M.; Esposito, M.; Gratton, R.; Affer, L.; Barbieri, M.; Boccato, C.; Claudi, R. U.; Cosentino, R.; Covino, E.; Desidera, S.; Fiorenzano, A. F. M.; Gandolfi, D.; Harutyunyan, A.; Maldonado, J.; Micela, G.; Molaro, P.; Molinari, E.; Pagano, I.; Pillitteri, I.; Piotto, G.; Shkolnik, E.; Silvotti, R.; Smareglia, R.; Southworth, J.; Sozzetti, A.; Stelzer, B.

    2015-06-01

    Aims: We observed the τ Boo system with the HARPS-N spectrograph to test a new observational strategy aimed at jointly studying asteroseismology, the planetary orbit, and star-planet magnetic interaction. Methods: We collected high-cadence observations on 11 nearly consecutive nights and for each night averaged the raw FITS files using a dedicated software. In this way we obtained spectra with a high signal-to-noise ratio, used to study the variation of the Ca ii H&K lines and to have radial velocity values free from stellar oscillations, without losing the oscillations information. We developed a dedicated software to build a new custom mask that we used to refine the radial velocity determination with the HARPS-N pipeline and perform the spectroscopic analysis. Results: We updated the planetary ephemeris and showed the acceleration caused by the stellar binary companion. Our results on the stellar activity variation suggest the presence of a high-latitude plage during the time span of our observations. The correlation between the chromospheric activity and the planetary orbital phase remains unclear. Solar-like oscillations are detected in the radial velocity time series: we estimated asteroseismic quantities and found that they agree well with theoretical predictions. Our stellar model yields an age of 0.9 ± 0.5 Gyr for τ Boo and further constrains the value of the stellar mass to 1.38 ± 0.05 M⊙. Based on observations made with the Italian Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) operated on the island of La Palma by the Fundacion Galileo Galilei of the INAF at the Spanish Observatorio Roque de los Muchachos of the IAC in the frame of the program Global Architecture of the Planetary Systems (GAPS).Full Table 1 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A64

  8. X-ray Surface Brightness Profiles of Active Galactic Nuclei in the Extended Groth Strip: Implications for AGN Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchetana; Newman, Jeffrey A.; Jeltema, Tesla; Myers, Adam D.; Aird, James; Coil, Alison L.; Cooper, Michael; Finoguenov, Alexis; Laird, Elise; Montero-Dorta, Antonio; Nandra, Kirpal; Willmer, Christopher; Yan, Renbin

    2015-08-01

    Using data from the All Wavelength Extended Groth Strip International Survey (AEGIS) we statistically detect the extended X-ray emission in the interstellar medium (ISM)/intracluster medium (ICM) in both active and normal galaxies at 0.3 <= z <= 1.3. For both active galactic nuclei (AGN) host galaxy and normal galaxy samples that are matched in restframe color, luminosity, and redshift distribution, we tentatively detect excess X-ray emission at scales of 1-10'' at a few σ significance in the surface brightness profiles. The exact significance of this detection is sensitive to the true characterization of Chandra's point-spread function. The observed excess in the surface brightness profiles is suggestive of lower extended emission in AGN hosts compared to normal galaxies. This is qualitatively similar to theoretical predictions of the X-ray surface brightness profile from AGN feedback models, where feedback from AGN is likely to evacuate the gas from the center of the galaxy/cluster. We propose that AGN that are intrinsically underluminous in X-rays, but have equivalent bolometric luminosities to our sources will be the ideal sample to study more robustly the effect of AGN feedback on diffuse ISM/ICM gas.

  9. Activity-based protein profiling of hydrolytic enzymes induced by gibberellic acid in isolated aleurone layers of malting barley.

    PubMed

    Daneri-Castro, Sergio N; Chandrasekar, Balakumaran; Grosse-Holz, Friederike M; van der Hoorn, Renier A L; Roberts, Thomas H

    2016-09-01

    During barley germination, the aleurone layer secretes most of the enzymes required to degrade the endosperm, many of which are yet to be characterized. We used activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) to detect a range of active enzymes extracted from aleurone layers isolated from grains of a commercial malting barley variety incubated with or without gibberellic acid (GA). Enzymes found to be induced by GA were putative aleurains, cathepsin-B-like proteases and serine hydrolases. By using an inhibitory sugar panel, a specific active retaining β-glycosidase in the barley aleurone was identified as a putative xylanase. Our results show that ABPP can be used rapidly to identify a variety of active enzyme isoforms in cereal aleurone without the need for enzyme purification.

  10. Fluorescently Activated Cell Sorting Followed by Microarray Profiling of Helper T Cell Subtypes from Human Peripheral Blood

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Kasahara, Yoshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ishii, Naoto; Tomita, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    Background Peripheral blood samples have been subjected to comprehensive gene expression profiling to identify biomarkers for a wide range of diseases. However, blood samples include red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. White blood cells comprise polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, and various types of lymphocytes. Blood is not distinguishable, irrespective of whether the expression profiles reflect alterations in (a) gene expression patterns in each cell type or (b) the proportion of cell types in blood. CD4+ Th cells are classified into two functionally distinct subclasses, namely Th1 and Th2 cells, on the basis of the unique characteristics of their secreted cytokines and their roles in the immune system. Th1 and Th2 cells play an important role not only in the pathogenesis of human inflammatory, allergic, and autoimmune diseases, but also in diseases that are not considered to be immune or inflammatory disorders. However, analyses of minor cellular components such as CD4+ cell subpopulations have not been performed, partly because of the limited number of these cells in collected samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We describe fluorescently activated cell sorting followed by microarray (FACS–array) technology as a useful experimental strategy for characterizing the expression profiles of specific immune cells in the circulation. We performed reproducible gene expression profiling of Th1 and Th2, respectively. Our data suggest that this procedure provides reliable information on the gene expression profiles of certain small immune cell populations. Moreover, our data suggest that GZMK, GZMH, EOMES, IGFBP3, and STOM may be novel markers for distinguishing Th1 cells from Th2 cells, whereas IL17RB and CNTNAP1 can be Th2-specific markers. Conclusions/Significance Our approach may help in identifying aberrations and novel therapeutic or diagnostic targets for diseases that affect Th1 or Th2 responses and elucidating the involvement of a

  11. Deubiquitinating Enzyme Specificity for Ubiquitin Chain Topology Profiled by Di-Ubiquitin Activity Probes

    PubMed Central

    McGouran, Joanna F.; Gaertner, Selina R.; Altun, Mikael; Kramer, Holger B.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Posttranslational modification with ubiquitin (Ub) controls many cellular processes, and aberrant ubiquitination can contribute to cancer, immunopathology, and neurodegeneration. The versatility arises from the ability of Ub to form polymer chains with eight distinct linkages via lysine side chains and the N terminus. In this study, we engineered Di-Ub probes mimicking all eight different poly-Ub linkages and profiled the deubiquitinating enzyme (DUB) selectivity for recognizing Di-Ub moieties in cellular extracts. Mass spectrometric profiling revealed that most DUBs examined have broad selectivity, whereas a subset displays a clear preference for recognizing noncanonical over K48/K63 Ub linkages. Our results expand knowledge of Ub processing enzyme functions in cellular contexts that currently depends largely on using recombinant enzymes and substrates. PMID:24290882

  12. Microbial activity in the profiles of gray forest soil and chernozems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susyan, E. A.; Rybyanets, D. S.; Ananyeva, N. D.

    2006-08-01

    Soil samples were taken from the profiles of a gray forest soil (under a forest) and southern chernozems of different textures under meadow vegetation. The microbial biomass (MB) was determined by the method of substrate-induced respiration; the basal respiration (BR) and the population density of microorganisms on nutrient media of different composition were also determined in the samples. The microbial metabolic quotient ( qCO2 = BR/MB) and the portion of microbial carbon (C mic) in C org were calculated. The MB and BR values were shown to decrease down the soil profiles. About 57% of the total MB in the entire soil profile was concentrated in the layer of 0-24 cm of the gray forest soil. The MB in the C horizon of chernozems was approximately two times lower than the MB in the A horizon of these soils. The correlation was found between the MB and the C org ( r = 0.99) and between the MB and the clay content ( r = 0.89) in the profile of the gray forest soil. The C mic/C org ratio in the gray forest soil and in the chernozems comprised 2.3-6.6 and 1.2-9.6%, respectively. The qCO2 value increased with the depth. The microbial community in the lower layers of the gray forest soil was dominated (88-96%) by oligotrophic microorganisms (grown on soil agar); in the upper 5 cm, these microorganisms comprised only 50% of the total amount of microorganisms grown on three media.

  13. Optimization of HS-GC-FID-MS Method for Residual Solvent Profiling in Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients Using DoE.

    PubMed

    Poceva Panovska, Ana; Acevska, Jelena; Stefkov, Gjoshe; Brezovska, Katerina; Petkovska, Rumenka; Dimitrovska, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    Within this research, a headspace (HS) gas chromatography-flame ionization detector-mass spectrometry method was developed for profiling of residual solvents (RSs) in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Design of experiment was used for optimization of sample preparation, as well as for robustness testing of the method. HS equilibration temperature and dilution medium were detected as parameters with greater impact on the sensitivity, compared with the time used for equilibration of the samples. Regardless of the sample solubility, the use of water for sample preparation was found to be crucial for better sensitivity. The use of a well-designed strategy for method development and robustness testing, additional level of identification confidence, as well as use of internal standard provided a strong and reliable analytical tool for API fingerprinting, thus enabling the authentication of the substance based on the RS profile. PMID:26290585

  14. The National "Expertise Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Kendra

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation's report, "Diversity and the Ph.D.," released in May, which documents in troubling detail the exact dimensions of what the foundation's president, Dr. Robert Weisbuch, is calling the national "expertise gap." Weisbuch states that the expertise gap extends beyond the…

  15. Confronting the Achievement Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, David

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about the large achievement gap between children of color and their white peers. The reasons for the achievement gap are varied. First, many urban minorities come from a background of poverty. One of the detrimental effects of growing up in poverty is receiving inadequate nourishment at a time when bodies and brains are rapidly…

  16. California: Emigrant Gap

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Emigrant Gap Fire, California     View Larger ... The most prominent plume arises from the Emigrant Gap Fire, located about 40 kilometers west of Lake Tahoe. The animated panorama ... left is Mount Shasta. As of August 30, 2001, the US Forest Service reported the total year-to-date area burned in Northern ...

  17. Knowledge Gaps, Social Locators, and Media Schemata: Gaps, Reverse Gaps, and Gaps of Disaffection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredin, Eric S.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Studies a public school controversy and finds a knowledge gap--a gap of disaffection. Finds that, among women only, higher education leads to greater knowledge but does so partly through reduced trust of government and lower perceived fairness of the news media. Shows similar findings with other less powerful groups. (SR)

  18. The Parenting Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Richard V.; Howard, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    The parenting gap is a big factor in the opportunity gap. The chances of upward social mobility are lower for children with parents struggling to do a good job--in terms of creating a supportive and stimulating home environment. Children lucky enough to have strong parents are more likely to succeed at all the critical life stages, which means…

  19. Enzyme activity and gene expression profiles of Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 during aerobic biodegradation of 1,2-dichloroethane.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajit; Pillay, Balakrishna; Olaniran, Ademola O

    2015-08-01

    Xanthobacter autotrophicus GJ10 has been widely studied because of its ability to degrade halogenated compounds, especially 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), which is achieved through chromosomal as well as plasmid pAUX1 encoded 1,2-DCA degrading genes. This work described the gene expression and enzyme activity profiles as well as the intermediates formed during the 1,2-DCA degradation by this organism. A correlation between gene expression, enzyme activity and metabolic intermediates, after the induction of GJ10 grown culture with 1,2-DCA, was established at different time intervals. Haloalkane dehalogenase (dhlA) and haloacid dehalogenase (dhlB) were constitutively expressed while the expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (max) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ald) was found to be inducible. The DhlA and DhlB activities were relatively higher compared to that of the inducible enzymes, Max and Ald. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to correlate gene expression profiles with enzyme activity and metabolite formation during 1,2-DCA degradation process in GJ10. Findings from this study may assist in fully understanding the mechanism of 1,2-DCA degradation by GJ10. It could also assist in the design and implementation of appropriate bioaugmentation strategies for complete removal of 1,2-DCA from contaminated environment.

  20. Subgroup Achievement and Gap Trends: West Virginia, 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper profiles the student subgroup achievement and gap trends in West Virginia for 2010. West Virginia administered new assessments in 2009, so comparisons to earlier years could not be made for the sake of discerning trends in subgroup achievement and gaps. Data on student achievement from earlier years are presented. (Contains 9 tables.)…

  1. Differential Effects of B Cell Receptor and B Cell Receptor–FcγRIIB1 Engagement on Docking of Csk to GTPase-activating Protein (GAP)-associated p62

    PubMed Central

    Vuica, Milena; Desiderio, Stephen; Schneck, Jonathan P.

    1997-01-01

    The stimulatory and inhibitory pathways initiated by engagement of stimulatory receptors such as the B cell receptor for antigen (BCR) and inhibitory receptors such as Fcγ receptors of the IIB1 type (FcγRIIB1) intersect in ways that are poorly understood at the molecular level. Because the tyrosine kinase Csk is a potential negative regulator of lymphocyte activation, we examined the effects of BCR and FcγRIIB1 engagement on the binding of Csk to phosphotyrosine-containing proteins. Stimulation of a B lymphoma cell line, A20, with intact anti-IgG antibody induced a direct, SH2-mediated association between Csk and a 62-kD phosphotyrosine-containing protein that was identified as RasGTPase-activating protein–associated p62 (GAP-A.p62). In contrast, stimulation of A20 cells with anti-IgG F(ab′)2 resulted in little increase in the association of Csk with GAP-A.p62. The effect of FcγRIIB1 engagement on this association was abolished by blockade of FcγRIIB1 with the monoclonal antibody 2.4G2. Furthermore, the increased association between Csk and GAP-A.p62 seen upon stimulation with intact anti-Ig was abrogated in the FcγRIIB1-deficient cell line IIA1.6 and recovered when FcγRIIB1 expression was restored by transfection. The differential effects of BCR and BCR-FcγRIIB1–mediated signaling on the phosphorylation of GAP-A.p62 and its association with Csk suggest that docking of Csk to GAP-A.p62 may function in the negative regulation of antigen receptor–mediated signals in B cells. PMID:9221755

  2. Alterations in Activation, Cytotoxic Capacity and Trafficking Profile of Peripheral CD8 T Cells in Young Adult Binge Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Zaldivar Fujigaki, José Luis; Arroyo Valerio, América Guadalupe; López Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez Reyes, Esperanza Gabriela; Kershenobich, David; Hernández Ruiz, Joselin

    2015-01-01

    Background Excess of alcohol consumption is a public health problem and has documented effects on the immune system of humans and animals. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that alcohol abuse changes CD8 T cell (CD8) characteristics, however it remains unknown if the CD8 profile of binge drinkers is different in terms of activation, trafficking and cytotoxic capacity. Aim To analyze the peripheral CD8 cytotoxic capacity, activation and trafficking phenotypic profile of Mexican young adults with regard to alcohol consumption pattern. Methods 55 Mexican young adults were stratified as Light (20), Intermediate (18) or Binge drinkers (17) according to their reported alcohol consumption pattern. Blood samples were obtained and hematic biometry and liver enzyme analysis were performed. Peripheral CD8 profile was established by expression of Granzyme B (GB), CD137, CD127, CD69, TLR4, PD1, CCR2, CCR4, CCR5 and CXCR4 by FACS. Data was analyzed by ANOVA, posthoc DMS and Tamhane, and principal component analysis (PCA) with varimax rotation, p<0.05. Results The Binge drinking group showed increased γGT together with increased expression of CD69 and reduced expression of TLR4, PD1, CCR2 and CXCR4 in peripheral CD8 cells. Other parameters were also specific to Binge drinkers. PCA established 3 factors associated with alcohol consumption: “Early Activation” represented by CD69 and TLR4 expression in the CD8 population; “Effector Activation” by CD69 expression in CD8 CD127+CD137+ and CD8 CD25+ CD137+; and Trafficking by CXCR4 expression on total CD8 and CD8 GB+CXCR4+, and CCR2 expression on total CD8. Binge drinking pattern showed low expression of Early Activation and Trafficking factors while Light drinking pattern exhibited high expression of Effector Activation factor. Conclusions Alcohol consumption affects the immune phenotype of CD8 cells since binge drinking pattern was found to be associated with high CD69 and low TLR4, CXCR4 and CCR2 expression, which suggest

  3. Anomalous Flattening of the Fast-Ion Profile during Alfvén-Eigenmode Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Luo, Y.; van Zeeland, M. A.; White, R. B.; Austin, M. E.; Burrell, K. H.; Kramer, G. J.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.; Nazikian, R.

    2007-12-01

    Neutral-beam injection into plasmas with negative central shear produces a rich spectrum of toroidicity-induced and reversed-shear Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy to Alfvén-eigenmode physics shows that the central fast-ion profile is anomalously flat in the inner half of the discharge. Neutron and equilibrium measurements corroborate the FIDA data. The current density driven by fast ions is also strongly modified. Calculations based on the measured mode amplitudes do not explain the observed fast-ion transport.

  4. Anomalous flattening of the fast-ion profile during Alfvén-Eigenmode activity.

    PubMed

    Heidbrink, W W; Gorelenkov, N N; Luo, Y; Van Zeeland, M A; White, R B; Austin, M E; Burrell, K H; Kramer, G J; Makowski, M A; McKee, G R; Nazikian, R

    2007-12-14

    Neutral-beam injection into plasmas with negative central shear produces a rich spectrum of toroidicity-induced and reversed-shear Alfvén eigenmodes in the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of fast-ion D_{alpha} (FIDA) spectroscopy to Alfvén-eigenmode physics shows that the central fast-ion profile is anomalously flat in the inner half of the discharge. Neutron and equilibrium measurements corroborate the FIDA data. The current density driven by fast ions is also strongly modified. Calculations based on the measured mode amplitudes do not explain the observed fast-ion transport.

  5. Anomalous Flattening of the Fast-Ion Profile during Alfven-Eigenmode Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Luo, Y.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; White, R. B.; Kramer, G. J.; Nazikian, R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Burrell, K. H.; Austin, M. E.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.

    2007-12-14

    Neutral-beam injection into plasmas with negative central shear produces a rich spectrum of toroidicity-induced and reversed-shear Alfven eigenmodes in the DIII-D tokamak. The first application of fast-ion D{sub {alpha}} (FIDA) spectroscopy to Alfven-eigenmode physics shows that the central fast-ion profile is anomalously flat in the inner half of the discharge. Neutron and equilibrium measurements corroborate the FIDA data. The current density driven by fast ions is also strongly modified. Calculations based on the measured mode amplitudes do not explain the observed fast-ion transport.

  6. Toxicity Profiles In Vivo in Mice and Antitumour Activity in Tumour-Bearing Mice of Di- and Triorganotin Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Willem, R.; Dalil, H.; de Vos, D.; Kuiper, C. M.; Peters, G. J.

    1998-01-01

    The in vivo toxicity profiles in mice and the antitumour activity in tumour bearing mice were screened for four di-n-butyltin and five triorganotin carboxylates, di-n-butyltin diterebate (5), bis(phenylacetate) (6), bis(deoxycholate) (7), bis(lithocholate) (8), tri-n-butyltin terebate (9), cinnamate (10), and triphenyltin terebate (11). At their maximum tolerated dosis (MTD), no antitumour effect (T/C ~1) was observed for the compounds 5, 7, 9, 10 and 11. The compounds 6 (T/C = 0.51) and 8 (T/C = 0.42) showed clear antitumour activity after single dose administration and might therefore be of interest for further antitumour activity studies. PMID:18475827

  7. Soccer activity profile of altitude versus sea-level natives during acclimatisation to 3600 m (ISA3600)

    PubMed Central

    Aughey, Robert J; Hammond, Kristal; Varley, Matthew C; Schmidt, Walter F; Bourdon, Pitre C; Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Kley, Marlen; Soria, Rudy; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the effect of high altitude on the match activity profile of elite youth high altitude and sea level residents. Methods Twenty Sea Level (Australian) and 19 Altitude-resident (Bolivian) soccer players played five games, two near sea level (430 m) and three in La Paz (3600 m). Match activity profile was quantified via global positioning system with the peak 5 min period for distance ((D5peak)) and high velocity running (>4.17 m/s, HIVR5peak); as well as the 5 min period immediately subsequent to the peak for both distance (D5sub) and high-velocity running (HIVR5sub) identified using a rolling 5 min epoch. The games at 3600 m were compared with the average of the two near sea-level games. Results The total distance per minute was reduced by a small magnitude in the first match at altitude in both teams, without any change in low-velocity running. There were variable changes in HiVR, D5peak and HiVR5peak from match to match for each team. There were within-team reductions in D5peak in each game at altitude compared with those at near sea level, and this reduction was greater by a small magnitude in Australians than Bolivians in game 4. The effect of altitude on HiVR5peak was moderately lower in Australians compared with Bolivians in game 3. There was no clear difference in the effect of altitude on maximal accelerations between teams. Conclusions High altitude reduces the distance covered by elite youth soccer players during matches. Neither 13 days of acclimatisation nor lifelong residence at high altitude protects against detrimental effects of altitude on match activity profile. PMID:24282196

  8. Anion gap acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, K; Szerlip, H M

    1998-01-01

    Although an anion gap at less than 20 mEq/L rarely has a defined etiology, significant elevations in the anion gap almost always signify presence of an acidosis that can be easily identified. Anion gap acidoses can be divided into those caused by lactate accumulation, ketoacid production, toxin/drugs, and uremia. Lactic acidoses caused by decreased oxygen delivery or defective oxygen utilization are associated with high mortality. The treatment of lactic acidosis is controversial. The use of bicarbonate to increase pH is rarely successful and, by generating PCO2, may worsen outcome. Ketoacidosis is usually secondary to diabetes or alcohol. Treatment is aimed at turning off ketogenesis and repairing fluid and electrolyte abnormalities. Methanol, ethylene glycol, and salicylates are responsible for the majority of toxin-induced anion gap acidoses. Both methanol and ethylene glycol are associated with severe acidoses and elevated osmolar gaps. Treatment of both is alcohol infusion to decrease formation of toxic metabolites and dialyses to remove toxins. Salicylate toxicity usually is associated with a mild metabolic acidosis and a respiratory alkalosis. Uremia is associated with a mild acidosis secondary to decreased ammonia secretion and an anion gap caused by the retention of unmeasured anions. A decrease in anion gap is caused by numerous mechanisms and thus has little clinical utility.

  9. On the line profile changes observed during the X2.2 class flare in the active region NOAA 11158

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raja Bayanna, Ankala; Kumar, Brajesh; Venkatakrishnan, Parameswaran; Kunchandy Mathew, Shibu; Ravindra, Belur; Mathur, Savita; Garcia, Rafael A.

    2014-02-01

    The solar active region NOAA 11158 produced a series of flares during its passage through the solar disk. The first major flare (of class X2.2) of the current solar cycle occurred in this active region on 2011 February 15 around 01:50 UT. We have analyzed the Dopplergrams and magnetograms obtained by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory to examine the photospheric velocity and magnetic field changes associated with this flare. The HMI instrument provides high-quality Doppler and magnetic maps of the solar disk with 0.5″ spatial scale at a cadence of 45 s along with imaging spectroscopy. We have identified five locations of velocity transients in the active region during the flare. These transient velocity signals are located in and around the flare ribbons as observed by Hinode in the Ca II H wavelength and the footpoints of hard X-ray enhancement are in the energy range 12-25 keV from RHESSI. The changes in shape and width of two circular polarization states have been observed at the time of transients in three out of five locations. Forward modeling of the line profiles shows that the change in atmospheric parameters such as magnetic field strength, Doppler velocity and source function could explain the observed changes in the line profiles with respect to the pre-flare condition.

  10. Neon and [C II] 158 μm Emission Line Profiles in Dusty Starbursts and Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonyan, Anahit; Weedman, Daniel; Lebouteiller, Vianney; Barry, Donald; Sargsyan, Lusine

    2016-09-01

    A sample of 379 extragalactic sources is presented that has mid-infrared, high-resolution spectroscopy from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) and also spectroscopy of the [C ii] 158 μm line from the Herschel Photodetector Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS). The emission line profiles of [Ne ii] 12.81 μm, [Ne iii] 15.55 μm, and [C ii] 158 μm are presented, and intrinsic line widths are determined (full width half maximum of Gaussian profiles after instrumental correction). All line profiles, together with overlays comparing the positions of PACS and IRS observations, are made available in the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer IRS Sources. Sources are classified from active galactic nucleus (AGN) to starburst based on equivalent widths of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. It is found that intrinsic line widths do not change among classifications for [C ii], with median widths of 207 km s-1 for AGNs, 248 km s-1 for composites, and 233 km s-1 for starbursts. The [Ne ii] line widths also do not change with classification, but [Ne iii] lines are progressively broader from starburst to AGN. A few objects with unusually broad lines or unusual redshift differences in any feature are identified.

  11. Active core profile and transport modification by application of Ion Bernstein Wave power in PBX-M

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, B.; Bell, R.; Batha, S.

    1995-01-01

    Application of Ion Bernstein Wave Heating (IBWH) into the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M) tokamak stabilizes sawtooth oscillations and generates peaked density profiles. A transport barrier, spatially correlated with the IBWH power deposition profile, is observed in the core of IBWH assisted neutral beam injection (NBI) discharges. A precursor to the fully developed barrier is seen in the soft x-ray data during edge localized mode (ELM) activity. Sustained IBWH operation is conducive to a regime where the barrier supports large {triangledown}n{sub e}, {triangledown}T{sub e}, {triangledown}v{sub phi}, and {triangledown}T{sub i}, delimiting the confinement zone. This regime is reminiscent of the H(high)-mode but with a confinement zone moved inwards. The core region has better than H-mode confinement while the peripheral region is L(low)-mode-like. The peaked profile enhanced NBI core deposition and increases nuclear reactivity. An increase in central T{sub i} results from {chi}{sub i} reduction (compared to H-mode) and better beam penetration. Bootstrap current fractions of up to 0.32--0.35 locally and 0.28 overall were obtained when an additional NBI burst is applied to this plasma.

  12. Microbial and Carbohydrate Active Enzyme profile of buffalo rumen metagenome and their alteration in response to variation in the diet.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dishita D; Patel, Amrutlal K; Parmar, Nidhi R; Shah, Tejas M; Patel, Jethabhai B; Pandya, Paresh R; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2014-07-15

    Rumen microbiome represents rich source of enzymes degrading complex plant polysaccharides. We describe here analysis of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes (CAZymes) from 3.5 gigabase sequences of metagenomic data from rumen samples of Mehsani buffaloes fed on different proportions of green or dry roughages to concentrate ration. A total of 2597 contigs encoding putative CAZymes were identified by CAZyme Analysis Toolkit (CAT). The phylogenetic analysis of these contigs by MG-RAST revealed predominance of Bacteroidetes, followed by Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria phyla. Moreover, a higher abundance of oligosaccharide degrading and debranching enzymes in buffalo rumen metagenome and that of cellulases and hemicellulases in termite hindgut was observed when we compared glycoside hydrolase (GH) profile of buffalo rumen metagenome with cow rumen, termite hindgut and chicken caecum metagenome. Further, comparison of microbial profile of green or dry roughage fed animals showed significantly higher abundance (p-value<0.05) of various polysaccharide degrading bacterial genera like Fibrobacter, Prevotella, Bacteroides, Clostridium and Ruminococcus in green roughage fed animals. In addition, we found a significantly higher abundance (p-value<0.05) of enzymes associated with pectin digestion such as pectin lyase (PL) 1, PL10 and GH28 in green roughage fed animals. Our study outlines CAZyme profile of buffalo rumen metagenome and provides a scope to study the role of abundant enzyme families (oligosaccharide degrading and debranching enzymes) in digestion of coarse feed. PMID:24797613

  13. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-04-28

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products.

  14. Evaluation of antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic profile for Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys.

    PubMed

    Vlase, Laurian; Benedec, Daniela; Hanganu, Daniela; Damian, Grigore; Csillag, Ioan; Sevastre, Bogdan; Mot, Augustin C; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Radu; Tilea, Ioan

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and to characterize the polyphenolic composition of the ethanolic extracts of Hyssopus officinalis, Ocimum basilicum and Teucrium chamaedrys. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the major phenolic compounds were conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The total polyphenols, caffeic acid derivatives and flavonoids content was spectrophotometrically determined. The phenolic profile showed the presence of phenolic acid derivatives (caftaric, gentisic, caffeic, p-coumaric, chlorogenic and ferulic acids), flavonoid glycosides (rutin, isoquercitrin and quercitrin) and free flavonoid aglycons (luteolin, quercetin), in different concentrations. DPPH radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) method, hemoglobin ascorbate peroxidase activity inhibition (HAPX) assay, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) radicals detection were employed, revealing several aspects of the antioxidant activities of these species. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disk diffusion assay. These extracts contained a large amount of the polyphenolic compounds (77.72, 175.57, and 243.65 mg/g, respectively), and they showed a good antioxidant activity, as witnessed by a number of methods. T. chamaedrys had a high antimicrobial activity. Besides their antioxidant activity, the antimicrobial effect of these extracts confirms the biological activities of these herbal medicinal products. PMID:24786688

  15. Clustering Finnish Gambler Profiles Based on the Money and Time Consumed in Gambling Activities.

    PubMed

    Heiskanen, Maria; Toikka, Arho

    2016-06-01

    Gambling involves consumption of gamblers' money and time. Gamblers are a heterogeneous group, and in addition to grouping gamblers based on personality factors, it is also important to find different gambler profiles with respect to their gambling behavior. Using the nationally representative survey 'Finnish Gambling 2011' (N = 4484), this article studies the subtypes of Finnish gamblers based on the frequency of gambling and the amounts of money and time used in different gambling forms. Cluster analysis reveals six profiles of gamblers, from infrequent gamblers to omnivorous gamblers. In the further analysis of the clusters, it was found that the highest problem gambling prevalence was in the groups of sport betting + electronic gaming machine gamblers and omnivorous gamblers, which were also both dominated by men. Certain gambling consumption patterns and risk factors for problem gambling are related to both socio-demographic backgrounds of the gamblers as well as the structural and situational characteristics of the games. The results have implications for the prevention of problem gambling, as some consumption patterns may be connected with the probability of developing gambling problems.

  16. Metabolic profiling of the protozoan parasite Entamoeba invadens revealed activation of unpredicted pathway during encystation.

    PubMed

    Jeelani, Ghulam; Sato, Dan; Husain, Afzal; Escueta-de Cadiz, Aleyla; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Suematsu, Makoto; Nozaki, Tomoyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Encystation, which is cellular differentiation from the motile, proliferative, labile trophozoite form to the dormant, resistant cyst form, is a crucial process found in parasitic and free-living protozoa such as Entamoeba, Giardia, Acanthamoeba, and Balamuthia. Since encystation is an essential process to deal with the adverse external environmental changes during the life cycle, and often integral to the transmission of the diseases, biochemical understanding of the process potentially provides useful measures against the infections caused by this group of protozoa. In this study, we investigated metabolic and transcriptomic changes that occur during encystation in Entamoeba invadens, the reptilian sibling of mammal-infecting E. histolytica, using capillary electrophoresis-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling and DNA microarray-based expression profiling. As the encystation progressed, the levels of majority of metabolites involved in glycolysis and nucleotides drastically decreased, indicating energy generation is ceased. Furthermore, the flux of glycolysis was redirected toward chitin wall biosynthesis. We found remarkable temporal increases in biogenic amines such as isoamylamine, isobutylamine, and cadaverine, during the early period of encystation, when the trophozoites form large multicellular aggregates (precyst). We also found remarkable induction of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) during encystation. This study has unveiled for the first time the dynamics of the transcriptional and metabolic regulatory networks during encystation, and should help in better understanding of the process in pathogenic eukaryotes, and further development of measures controlling infections they cause.

  17. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOEpatents

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  18. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour extracts.

    PubMed

    Custódio, Luísa; Escapa, Ana Luísa; Fernandes, Eliana; Fajardo, Alba; Aligué, Rosa; Alberício, Fernando; Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Romano, Anabela

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to evaluate the phytochemical content and to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts of the carob tree (Ceratonia siliqua L.) germ flour. The extracts were rich in phenolic compounds, had considerable antioxidant activity, and reduced the viability of cervical (HeLa) cancer cells. The chemical content and the biological activities of the extracts were significantly affected by gender and cultivar. Female cultivar Galhosa had the highest levels of phenolic compounds, and the highest antioxidant activity. Extracts from the hermaphrodite trees and from the female cultivars Galhosa and Costela/Canela exhibited the highest cytotoxic activity. The most abundant compound was theophylline. The phenolic content was correlated to both antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Our findings provide new knowledge about the health implications of consuming food supplemented with carob germ flour.

  19. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  20. Proteolytic profiling and comparative analyses of active trypsin-like serine peptidases in preimaginal stages of Culex quinquefasciatus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mosquito Culex quinquefasciatu s, a widespread insect in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world, is a vector of multiple arboviruses and parasites, and is considered an important risk to human and veterinary health. Proteolytic enzymes play crucial roles in the insect physiology including the modulation of embryonic development and food digestion. Therefore, these enzymes represent important targets for the development of new control strategies. This study presents zymographic characterization and comparative analysis of the proteolytic activity found in eggs, larval instars and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus. Methods The proteolytic profiles of eggs, larvae and pupa of Cx. quinquefasciatus were characterized by SDS-PAGE co-polymerized with 0.1% gelatin, according to the pH, temperature and peptidase inhibitor sensitivity. In addition, the proteolytic activities were characterized in solution using 100 μM of the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC. Results Comparison of the proteolytic profiles by substrate-SDS-PAGE from all preimaginal stages of the insect revealed qualitative and quantitative differences in the peptidase expression among eggs, larvae and pupae. Use of specific inhibitors revealed that the proteolytic activity from preimaginal stages is mostly due to trypsin-like serine peptidases that display optimal activity at alkaline pH. In-solution, proteolytic assays of the four larval instars using the fluorogenic substrate Z-Phe-Arg-AMC in the presence or absence of a trypsin-like serine peptidase inhibitor confirmed the results obtained by substrate-SDS-PAGE analysis. The trypsin-like serine peptidases of the four larval instars were functional over a wide range of temperatures, showing activities at 25°C and 65°C, with an optimal activity between 37°C and 50°C. Conclusion The combined use of zymography and in-solution assays, as performed in this study, allowed for a more detailed analysis of the repertoire of proteolytic

  1. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J. P.; Costa, Tamara G. F.; Silva, Lilian N. D.; Renó, Cristiane O.; Oliveira, Eneida S.; Tilelli, Cristiane Q.; Santos, Luciana L.; Cortes, Vanessa F.; Santos, Herica L.; Barbosa, Leandro A.

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels. PMID:26197432

  2. Distinct activation profiles in microglia of different ages: a systematic study in isolated embryonic to aged microglial cultures.

    PubMed

    Lai, A Y; Dibal, C D; Armitage, G A; Winship, I R; Todd, K G

    2013-12-19

    Microglia have been implicated in disease progression for several age-related brain disorders. However, while microglia's contribution to the progression of these disorders is accepted, the effect of aging on their endogenous cellular characteristics has received limited attention. In fact, a comprehensive study of how the structure and function of microglia changes as a function of developmental age has yet to be performed. Here, we describe the functional response characteristics of primary microglial cultures prepared from embryonic, neonatal (Neo), 2-3month-old, 6-8month-old, 9-11month-old, and 13-15month-old rats. Microglial morphology, glutamate (GLU) uptake, and release of trophic and inflammatory factors were assessed under basal conditions and in microglia activated with adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) or lipopolysaccharide. We found that microglia from different age groups were both morphologically and functionally distinct. Upon activation by ATP, Neo microglia were the most reactive, upregulating nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor release as well as GLU uptake. This upregulation translated into neurotoxicity in microglia-neuron co-cultures that were not observed with microglia of different developmental ages. Interestingly, 13-15month-old microglia exhibited similar activation profiles to Neo microglia, whereas microglia from younger adults and embryos were activated less by ATP. Our data also identify age-dependent differences in purinergic receptor subtype expression that contribute to the regulation of neuronal survival. Combined, our data demonstrate that microglial activation and purinergic receptor profiles vary non-linearly with developmental age, a potentially important finding for studies examining the role of microglia in neurodegenerative disorders.

  3. Effects of Iron Overload on the Activity of Na,K-ATPase and Lipid Profile of the Human Erythrocyte Membrane.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Leilismara; Garcia, Israel J P; Costa, Tamara G F; Silva, Lilian N D; Renó, Cristiane O; Oliveira, Eneida S; Tilelli, Cristiane Q; Santos, Luciana L; Cortes, Vanessa F; Santos, Herica L; Barbosa, Leandro A

    2015-01-01

    Iron is an essential chemical element for human life. However, in some pathological conditions, such as hereditary hemochromatosis type 1 (HH1), iron overload induces the production of reactive oxygen species that may lead to lipid peroxidation and a change in the plasma-membrane lipid profile. In this study, we investigated whether iron overload interferes with the Na,K-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane by studying erythrocytes that were obtained from the whole blood of patients suffering from iron overload. Additionally, we treated erythrocytes of normal subjects with 0.8 mM H2O2 and 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h. We then analyzed the lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and Na,K-ATPase activity of plasma membranes derived from these cells. Iron overload was more frequent in men (87.5%) than in women and was associated with an increase (446%) in lipid peroxidation, as indicated by the amount of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and an increase (327%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity in the plasma membrane of erythrocytes. Erythrocytes treated with 1 μM FeCl3 for 24 h showed an increase (132%) in the Na,K-ATPase activity but no change in the TBARS levels. Iron treatment also decreased the cholesterol and phospholipid content of the erythrocyte membranes and similar decreases were observed in iron overload patients. In contrast, erythrocytes treated with 0.8 mM H2O2 for 24 h showed no change in the measured parameters. These results indicate that erythrocytes from patients with iron overload exhibit higher Na,K-ATPase activity compared with normal subjects and that this effect is specifically associated with altered iron levels.

  4. Profile of non-volatiles in whisky with regard to superoxide dismutase activity.

    PubMed

    Koga, Kunimasa; Tachihara, Satoshi; Shirasaka, Norifumi; Yamada, Yuri; Koshimizu, Sei-Ichi

    2011-08-01

    SOD (Superoxide dismutase)-like activities of 23 kinds of single malt whisky (Scotch and Japanese) were evaluated. There was a positive correlation between SOD-like activity and the maturation age of whisky that exceeded the difference resulting from the manufacturing region. The SOD-like activity of Yamazaki 18, a typical single malt whisky in Japan, was approximately 1333 U/ml and that of non-volatile components in the whisky was 388U/mg, indicating that single malt whisky generally has a very strong SOD-like activity. To elucidate their contribution to SOD-like activity, the non-volatile components of whisky (Yamazaki 18) were ultrafiltered and separated with a Diaion HP20/water-EtOH system. Elution of the fraction less than 5000 molecular weight (<5000 MW fraction) with 60% (v/v) EtOH contributed most to SOD-like activity of the whisky. As this elution contained a considerable amount of polyphenolics, the content and SOD-like specific activity of ellagic acid, gallic acid, and lyoniresinol--the main whisky polyphenolics--were evaluated. The contribution of these compounds to the SOD-like activity of whisky was approximately 15%. Polyphenolics in whisky were relatively distributed to a higher MW fraction compared to carbohydrates in whisky, and specific activity (SOD-like activity per weight) of the >10,000 MW fraction was greater than that of the <5000 MW fraction, although the content of this fraction was low. These results indicate that various polyphenolics with higher molecular weights also contribute to the SOD-like activity of whisky together with main whisky polyphenolics.

  5. Control of plasma transport by active tailoring of potential profile along open magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatematsu, Y.; Kiwamoto, Y.; Saito, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takahashi, T.; Katanuma, I.; Inutake, M.; Tamano, T.

    1995-04-01

    This paper studies modifications of convective heat transport in terms of electric and magnetic forces acting on electrons streaming along open field lines. The heat transport is greatly affected by the potential profile along the field lines. One important mechanism of the transport is associated with the exchange of impingig warm electrons with cold electrons produced near or on the surface of plasma-facing walls such as end plates and divertor plates. A recently developed potential model predicts that the end plate potential deepens associated with reduction of cold electron emission. In the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror a negatively biased mesh placed in front of the end plate has successfully suppressed secondary electron emission and leads to deepening of the end plate potential. In the thermal dike ECRH works to mirror reflect colder electrons back to the plate by increasing their pitch angles. The consequent potential depression enhances reflection of warm electrons reaching the plate.

  6. Gaps in Oncology

    Cancer.gov

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study Original Version provides background for the curriculum and identifies gaps in current and desired comprehensive cancer care.

  7. Fiber optic gap gauge

    DOEpatents

    Wood, Billy E.; Groves, Scott E.; Larsen, Greg J.; Sanchez, Roberto J.

    2006-11-14

    A lightweight, small size, high sensitivity gauge for indirectly measuring displacement or absolute gap width by measuring axial strain in an orthogonal direction to the displacement/gap width. The gap gauge includes a preferably titanium base having a central tension bar with springs connecting opposite ends of the tension bar to a pair of end connector bars, and an elongated bow spring connected to the end connector bars with a middle section bowed away from the base to define a gap. The bow spring is capable of producing an axial strain in the base proportional to a displacement of the middle section in a direction orthogonal to the base. And a strain sensor, such as a Fabry-Perot interferometer strain sensor, is connected to measure the axial strain in the base, so that the displacement of the middle section may be indirectly determined from the measurement of the axial strain in the base.

  8. Photonic band gap materials

    SciTech Connect

    Soukoulis, C.M. |

    1993-12-31

    An overview of the theoretical and experimental efforts in obtaining a photonic band gap, a frequency band in three-dimensional dielectric structures in which electromagnetic waves are forbidden, is presented.

  9. Pathway activation profiling reveals new insights into age-related macular degeneration and provides avenues for therapeutic interventions.

    PubMed

    Makarev, Evgeny; Cantor, Charles; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Buzdin, Anton; Aliper, Alexander; Csoka, Anotonei Benjamin

    2014-12-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older people and is caused by loss of the central region of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Conventional methods of gene expression analysis have yielded important insights into AMD pathogenesis, but the precise molecular pathway alterations are still poorly understood. Therefore we developed a new software program, "AMD Medicine", and discovered differential pathway activation profiles in samples of human RPE/choroid from AMD patients and controls. We identified 29 pathways in RPE-choroid AMD phenotypes: 27 pathways were activated in AMD compared to controls, and 2 pathways were activated in controls compared to AMD. In AMD, we identified a graded activation of pathways related to wound response, complement cascade, and cell survival. Also, there was downregulation of two pathways responsible for apoptosis. Furthermore, significant activation of pro-mitotic pathways is consistent with dedifferentiation and cell proliferation events, which occur early in the pathogenesis of AMD. Significantly, we discovered new global pathway activation signatures of AMD involved in the cell-based inflammatory response: IL-2, STAT3, and ERK. The ultimate aim of our research is to achieve a better understanding of signaling pathways involved in AMD pathology, which will eventually lead to better treatments. PMID:25543336

  10. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles.

    PubMed

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B; Fernandez, Eloy C; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer's disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙-) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. PMID:26263984

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Anticholinesterase Activities of Smallanthus sonchifolius Landraces and Correlation with Their Phytochemical Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Daniela; Valentão, Patrícia; Andrade, Paula B.; Fernandez, Eloy C.; Milella, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the phytochemical profile of leaf methanol extracts of fourteen Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon) landraces and their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antidiabetic activities that could lead to the finding of more effective agents for the treatment and management of Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes. For this purpose, antioxidant activity was assessed using different tests: ferric reducing ability power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (˙NO) and superoxide (O2˙−) scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays. Anticholinesterase activity was investigated by quantifying the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, whereas antidiabetic activity was investigated by α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition tests. To understand the contribution of metabolites, phytochemical screening was also performed by high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) system. Among all, methanol extract of PER09, PER04 and ECU44 landraces exhibited the highest relative antioxidant capacity index (RACI). ECU44 was found to be rich in 4,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA) and 3,5-di-O-CQA and displayed a good α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, showing the lowest IC50 values. Flavonoids, instead, seem to be involved in the AChE and BChE inhibition. The results of this study revealed that the bioactive compound content differences could be determinant for the medicinal properties of this plant especially for antioxidant and antidiabetic activities. PMID:26263984

  12. Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Kinase Kinase α Is Expressed by Monocytic Cells and Regulates the Activation Profile

    PubMed Central

    Guest, Christopher B.; Deszo, Eric L.; Hartman, Matthew E.; York, Jason M.; Kelley, Keith W.; Freund, Gregory G.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are capable of assuming numerous phenotypes in order to adapt to endogenous and exogenous challenges but many of the factors that regulate this process are still unknown. We report that Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase α (CaMKKα) is expressed in human monocytic cells and demonstrate that its inhibition blocks type-II monocytic cell activation and promotes classical activation. Affinity chromatography with paramagnetic beads isolated an approximately 50 kDa protein from nuclear lysates of U937 human monocytic cells activated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). This protein was identified as CaMKKα by mass spectrometry and Western analysis. The function of CaMKKα in monocyte activation was examined using the CaMKKα inhibitors (STO-609 and forskolin) and siRNA knockdown. Inhibition of CaMKKα, enhanced PMA-dependent CD86 expression and reduced CD11b expression. In addition, inhibition was associated with decreased translocation of CaMKKα to the nucleus. Finally, to further examine monocyte activation profiles, TNFα and IL-10 secretion were studied. CaMKKα inhibition attenuated PMA-dependent IL-10 production and enhanced TNFα production indicating a shift from type-II to classical monocyte activation. Taken together, these findings indicate an important new role for CaMKKα in the differentiation of monocytic cells. PMID:18270593

  13. Differing Profiles of Developmental Experiences across Types of Organized Youth Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen, Reed W.; Hansen, David M.; Moneta, Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    This study inventoried the types of developmental and negative experiences that youth encounter in different categories of extracurricular and community-based organized activities. A representative sample of 2,280 11th graders from 19 diverse high schools responded to a computer-administered protocol. Youth in faith-based activities reported…

  14. Stages of Concern Profiles for Active Learning Strategies of Agricultural Technical School Teachers in Egypt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Brian E.; Barrick, R. Kirby; Samy, Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to assess Egyptian Agricultural Technical School (ATS) teachers' implementation of active learning strategies in their classrooms. Methods: The Stages of Concern Questionnaire was administered to 230 participants in active learning workshops. After eliminating headmasters, supervisors and people no longer…

  15. Definition of an electronic profile of compounds with inhibitory activity against hematin aggregation in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Portela, César; Afonso, Carlos M M; Pinto, Madalena M M; Ramos, Maria João

    2004-06-15

    Malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases, affecting almost half of the world and posing a threat to the other half. Xanthone derivatives can behave as antimalarial drugs in the same mechanistic way as chloroquine and other related quinolines. This action is due to the inhibition of the detoxification pathway of the parasite, responsible for the production of hemozoin. We report a study of the electronic properties of the xanthonic and quinolinic compounds based on DFT calculations, in order to determine a pattern that could be applied to the development of new potentially active antimalarial molecules. As a result, a new interpretation of structure-activity relationship of the quinoline antimalarial drugs, and of the active hydroxylated xanthones is proposed here. We conclude that electronic features rather than steric factors control primarily the inhibitory activity of the studied compounds against hematin aggregation, concurring to a potential antimalarial activity.

  16. Synergistic activity profile of griffithsin in combination with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide against HIV-1 clade C

    SciTech Connect

    Ferir, Geoffrey; Palmer, Kenneth E.; Schols, Dominique

    2011-09-01

    Griffithsin (GRFT) is possibly the most potent anti-HIV peptide found in natural sources. Due to its potent and broad-spectrum antiviral activity and unique safety profile it has great potential as topical microbicide component. Here, we evaluated various combinations of GRFT against HIV-1 clade B and clade C isolates in primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and in CD4{sup +} MT-4 cells. In all combinations tested, GRFT showed synergistic activity profile with tenofovir, maraviroc and enfuvirtide based on the median effect principle with combination indices (CI) varying between 0.34 and 0.79 at the calculated EC{sub 95} level. Furthermore, the different glycosylation patterns on the viral envelope of clade B and clade C gp120 had no observable effect on the synergistic interactions. Overall, we can conclude that the evaluated two-drug combination increases their antiviral potency and supports further clinical investigations in pre-exposure prophylaxis for GRFT combinations in the context of HIV-1 clade C infection.

  17. Effects of different methods of DNA extraction for activated sludge on the subsequent analysis of bacterial community profiles.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lianpeng; Ouyang, Xiong; Tang, Yueheng; Yang, Ying; Luo, Ying

    2012-02-01

    The effect of different DNA extraction protocols on activated sludge DNA yield and bacterial community composition was evaluated by temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TGGE). Nine different procedures to extract DNA were compared-sonication (30s), sonication (40s), sonication (50s), freezing-thawing, bead milling, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-lysozyme, SDS-proteinase K, SDS-lysozyme-proteinase, and a commercial extraction kit. It was found that the TGGE profiles and the DNA band numbers made significant differences via various extraction methods. The yield and purity of DNA extracted by sonication and other physical methods were not satisfactory, while the DNA purity extracted by SDS and other chemical-biological methods were better. Crude DNA extracts isolated by sonication and other physical methods passed the polymerase chain reaction, despite the absence of purification and acquired affluent DNA bands in TGGE. The affluence of bands in TGGE was not consistent with the yield and purification of DNA, but was correlative with extraction protocols. To analyze the activated sludge bacterial community by TGGE fingerprint, it is necessary to make a synthesis of the TGGE fingerprint profiles of chemical and physical DNA extraction methods to overcome the representative bias.

  18. Toward Optimized Surface δ-Profiles of Nitrogen-Vacancy Centers Activated by Helium Irradiation in Diamond.

    PubMed

    Fávaro de Oliveira, Felipe; Momenzadeh, S Ali; Antonov, Denis; Scharpf, Jochen; Osterkamp, Christian; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor; Denisenko, Andrej; Wrachtrup, Jörg

    2016-04-13

    The negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond has been shown recently as an excellent sensor for external spins. Nevertheless, their optimum engineering in the near-surface region still requires quantitative knowledge in regard to their activation by vacancy capture during thermal annealing. To this aim, we report on the depth profiles of near-surface helium-induced NV centers (and related helium defects) by step-etching with nanometer resolution. This provides insights into the efficiency of vacancy diffusion and recombination paths concurrent to the formation of NV centers. It was found that the range of efficient formation of NV centers is limited only to approximately 10 to 15 nm (radius) around the initial ion track of irradiating helium atoms. Using this information we demonstrate the fabrication of nanometric-thin (δ) profiles of NV centers for sensing external spins at the diamond surface based on a three-step approach, which comprises (i) nitrogen-doped epitaxial CVD diamond overgrowth, (ii) activation of NV centers by low-energy helium irradiation and thermal annealing, and (iii) controlled layer thinning by low-damage plasma etching. Spin coherence times (Hahn echo) ranging up to 50 μs are demonstrated at depths of less than 5 nm in material with 1.1% of (13)C (depth estimated by spin relaxation (T1) measurements). At the end, the limits of the helium irradiation technique at high ion fluences are also experimentally investigated.

  19. Activity and Isoenzyme Profile of Peroxidase as Affected by Microgravity Stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarnatska, V. V.; Gladun, H. O.; Padalko, S. F.

    2008-06-01

    To investigate microgravity (clinorotation) effect on activity and isoenzyme pattern of peroxidase the culture of primary explants of potato tubers with normal activation of proliferation in vitro, explants inoculated with Agrobacterium tumefaciens(A.t.), where crown-gall tumors were formed and dormant potato tubers were used. Substantial decrease of total peroxidase activity after one day-clinorotation of potato explants, normal and inoculated with A.t., was revealed. Seven day- clinorotation resulted in the decreased peroxidase activity in normal clinorotated explants, while peroxidase activity in clinorotated explants, inoculated with A.t., returned to the level of its stationary control. When peroxidase of potato explants was analyzed by PAGE, the result obtained show the decrease in activity of one electrophoretic fractions with low migrating mobility and two fractions with moderate mobility in clinorotated explants, normal and with crown gall, as compared with the ones in stationary conditions. The decrease in activity of these fractions under microgravity was less pronounced in explants with crown-galls.

  20. Extracellular enzymatic activities and physiological profiles of yeasts colonizing fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Molnárová, Jana; Vadkertiová, Renáta; Stratilová, Eva

    2014-07-01

    Yeasts form a significant and diverse part of the phyllosphere microbiota. Some yeasts that inhabit plants have been found to exhibit extracellular enzymatic activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ability of yeasts isolated from leaves, fruits, and blossoms of fruit trees cultivated in Southwest Slovakia to produce extracellular enzymes, and to discover whether the yeasts originating from these plant organs differ from each other in their physiological properties. In total, 92 strains belonging to 29 different species were tested for: extracellular protease, β-glucosidase, lipase, and polygalacturonase activities; fermentation abilities; the assimilation of xylose, saccharose and alcohols (methanol, ethanol, glycerol); and for growth in a medium with 33% glucose. The black yeast Aureobasidium pullulans showed the largest spectrum of activities of all the species tested. Almost 70% of the strains tested demonstrated some enzymatic activity, and more than 90% utilized one of the carbon compounds tested. Intraspecies variations were found for the species of the genera Cryptococcus and Pseudozyma. Interspecies differences of strains exhibiting some enzymatic activities and utilizing alcohols were also noted. The largest proportion of the yeasts exhibited β-glucosidase activity and assimilated alcohols independently of their origin. The highest number of strains positive for all activities tested was found among the yeasts associated with leaves. Yeasts isolated from blossoms assimilated saccharose and D-xylose the most frequently of all the yeasts tested. The majority of the fruit-inhabiting yeasts grew in the medium with higher osmotic pressure.

  1. Transcriptional profiling of Vibrio parahaemolyticus exsA reveals a complex activation network for type III secretion

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Aaron C.; Thomas, Nikhil A.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) is a marine halophilic bacterium that is commonly associated with oysters and shrimp. Human consumption of contaminated shellfish can result in Vp mediated gastroenteritis and severe diarrheal disease. Vp encodes two type 3 secretion systems (T3SS-1 and T3SS2) that have been functionally implicated in cytotoxicity and enterotoxicity respectively. In this study, we profiled protein secretion and temporal promoter activities associated with exsA and exsB gene expression. exsA is an AraC-like transcriptional activator that is critical for activating multiple operons that encode T3SS-1 genes, whereas exsB is thought to encode an outer membrane pilotin component for T3SS-1. The exsBA genetic locus has two predicted promoter elements. The predicted exsB and exsA promoters were individually cloned upstream of luxCDABE genes in reporter plasmid constructs allowing for in situ, real-time quantitative light emission measurements under many growth conditions. Low calcium growth conditions supported maximal exsB and exsA promoter activation. exsB promoter activity exhibited high basal activity and resulted in an exsBA co-transcript. Furthermore, a separate proximal exsA promoter showed initial low basal activity yet eventually exceeded that of exsB and reached maximal levels after 2.5 h corresponding to an entry into early log phase. exsA promoter activity was significantly higher at 30°C than 37°C, which also coincided with increased secretion levels of specific T3SS-1 effector proteins. Lastly, bioinformatic analyses identified a putative expanded ExsA binding motif for multiple transcriptional operons. These findings suggest a two wave model of Vp T3SS-I induction that integrates two distinct promoter elements and environmental signals into a complex ExsA activation framework. PMID:26539165

  2. Variations in Tunisian borage essential oil profiles and their antioxidant activities during flowering.

    PubMed

    Salem, Nidhal; Msaada, Kamel; Hammami, Majdi; Jday, Ahmad; Salem, Sahar; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) of Borago officinalis stem during its flowering stage. The EO composition was characterised by high proportions of E,E-decadienal, the main compound of monoterpene hydrocarbon class, with values varying from 47.08% to 55.28% in two Tunisian regions. The region of Korba exhibited the highest scavenging activity (2.05 mg/mL) by comparison with Beja region. In all tests, the fructification stage showed the best antioxidant activity of all flowering stages. PMID:25105953

  3. Variations in Tunisian borage essential oil profiles and their antioxidant activities during flowering.

    PubMed

    Salem, Nidhal; Msaada, Kamel; Hammami, Majdi; Jday, Ahmad; Salem, Sahar; Limam, Ferid; Marzouk, Brahim

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the essential oils (EOs) of Borago officinalis stem during its flowering stage. The EO composition was characterised by high proportions of E,E-decadienal, the main compound of monoterpene hydrocarbon class, with values varying from 47.08% to 55.28% in two Tunisian regions. The region of Korba exhibited the highest scavenging activity (2.05 mg/mL) by comparison with Beja region. In all tests, the fructification stage showed the best antioxidant activity of all flowering stages.

  4. Robotic Tube-Gap Inspector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.; Maslakowski, John E.

    1993-01-01

    Robotic vision system measures small gaps between nearly parallel tubes. Robot-held video camera examines closely spaced tubes while computer determines gaps between tubes. Video monitor simultaneously displays data on gaps.